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Sample records for polarized aperture-coupled microstrip

  1. DESIGN OF MULTILAYER APERTURE COUPLED STACKED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR WLAN APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jothilakshmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major drawbacks of microstrip patch antenna is its narrow bandwidth. The solution of this problem is to use aperture coupled stacked micro strip patch antenna. The antenna uses a combination of aperture coupled feeding technique and multi- layer radiating patch in order for the radiating elements are increase the gain bandwidth. The ‘I’ and ‘H’ shaped aperture slots are etched onto the ground plane. It is used to transfer the energy from feed line to stacked patch. A variation of the feed line length controls the selected aperture slots to be active. The waves from the selected activated aperture slots will radiate to particular radiating patch and achieve the desired resonant frequency. The air gap is used to avoid coupling loss between the aperture slots and stacked patches. The observed simulated and measured results show that the proposed antenna structure resonated at 2.51 GHz frequency with reduced return loss and optimum voltage standing wave ratio.

  2. Ultrahigh frequency tunability of aperture-coupled microstrip antenna via electric-field tunable BST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hong-Lei; Xue, Qian; Gao, Xiao-Yang; Yao, Feng-Rui; Lu, Shi-Yang; Wang, Ye-Long; Liu, Chun-Heng; Zhang, Yong-Cheng; Lü, Yue-Guang; Li, Shan-Dong

    2015-12-01

    A composite ceramic with nominal composition of 45.0 wt%(Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3-55.0 wt%MgO (acronym is BST-MgO) is sintered for fabricating a frequency reconfigurable aperture-coupled microstrip antenna. The calcined BST-MgO composite ceramic exhibits good microwave dielectric properties at X-band with appropriate dielectric constant ɛr around 85, lower dielectric loss tan δ about 0.01, and higher permittivity tunability 14.8% at 8.33 kV/cm. An ultrahigh E-field tunability of working frequency up to 11.0% (i.e., from 9.1 GHz to 10.1 GHz with a large frequency shift of 1000 MHz) at a DC bias field from 0 to 8.33 kV/cm and a considerably large center gain over 7.5 dB are obtained in the designed frequency reconfigurable microstrip antenna. These results demonstrate that BST materials are promising for the frequency reconfigurable antenna. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11074040) and the Key Project of Shandong Provincial Department of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. ZR2012FZ006).

  3. Effect of Feed Substrate Thickness on the Bandwidth and Radiation Characteristics of an Aperture-Coupled Microstrip Antenna with a High Permittivity Feed Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyun Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The impedance bandwidth and radiation characteristics of an aperture-coupled microstrip line-fed patch antenna (ACMPA with a high permittivity (ɛr = 10 feed substrate suitable for integration with a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC are investigated for various feed substrate thicknesses through an experiment and computer simulation. The impedance bandwidth of an ACMPA with a high permittivity feed substrate increases as the feed substrate thickness decreases. Furthermore, the front-to-back ratio of an ACMPA with a high permittivity feed substrate increases and the cross-polarization level decreases as the feed substrate thickness decreases. As the impedance bandwidth of an ACMPA with a high permittivity feed substrate increases and its radiation characteristics improve as the feed substrate thickness decreases, the ACMPA configuration becomes suitable for integration with an MMIC.

  4. High Performance Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondyopadhyay, Probir K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip antenna for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves comprising a cluster array of at least four microstrip radiator elements, each of which is provided with dual orthogonal coplanar feeds in phase quadrature relation achieved by connection to an asymmetric T-junction power divider impedance notched at resonance. The dual fed circularly polarized reference element is positioned with its axis at a 45 deg angle with respect to the unit cell axis. The other three dual fed elements in the unit cell are positioned and fed with a coplanar feed structure with sequential rotation and phasing to enhance the axial ratio and impedance matching performance over a wide bandwidth. The centers of the radiator elements are disposed at the corners of a square with each side of a length d in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 times the free space wavelength of the antenna radiation and the radiator elements reside in a square unit cell area of sides equal to 2d and thereby permit the array to be used as a phased array antenna for electronic scanning and is realizable in a high temperature superconducting thin film material for high efficiency.

  5. Slotted Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna for RFID Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A single layer coaxial fed rectangular microstrip slotted antenna for circular polarization (CP is proposed for radio frequency identification (RFID application. Two triangular shaped slots and one rectangular slot along the diagonal axis of a square patch have been embedded. Due to slotted structure along the diagonal axis and less surface area, good quality of circular polarization has been obtained with the reduction in the size of microstrip antenna by 4.04 %. Circular polarization radiation performance has been studied by size and angle variation of diagonally slotted structures. The experimental result found for 10-dB return loss is 44 MHz with 10MHz of 3dB Axial Ratio (AR bandwidth respectively at the resonant frequency 910 MHz. The overall proposed antenna size including the ground plane is 80 mm x 80 mm x 4.572 mm.

  6. Ultra-Wideband RCS Reduction and Gain Enhancement of Aperture-Coupled Antenna Based on Hybrid-FSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Cong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel design of aperture-coupled microstrip antenna with ultra-wideband low radar cross section (RCS is proposed. Hybrid frequency selective surface (FSS structures consisting of two kinds of polarization-dependent folded split ring resonators (PDFSRRs and square patches are utilized to replace the conventional metallic ground. By orthogonally arranging the PDFSRRs in a chessboard-like configuration, the band-stop characteristic contributes to the gain enhancement, while the zero degree points of reflection phase and wave-transmission characteristic are utilized to achieve RCS reduction both in-band and out-of-band. Furthermore, with square patches periodically etched on the bottom of FSS structure, a new zero degree reflection phase is introduced to enhance the effect of RCS reduction. Full wave simulations and measurements demonstrate that the proposed antenna achieves RCS reduction from 1 GHz to 18 GHz and gain enhancement compared with traditional microstrip antenna.

  7. Design of a C- Band Circular Polarization Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohandri; Jumiah, Yusna; Tetuko Sri Sumantyo, Josaphat

    2018-04-01

    The development of circularly polarized microstrip antenna is an interesting topic in current research, due to its superiority in various applications. In this work, the design of a circular polarization antenna that will be operated in the C-band range will be described. The developed antenna is intended to be used for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) applications. Through this application, various targets or areas on the surface of the earth, such as buildings, soil and land can be observed. To get the ideal antenna characteristic, in this research the various parameters in antenna design will be simulated. A software CST Studio will be operated in this simulation. Based on the simulation results, the optimum parameters are obtained in term of reflection coefficient, VSWR, axial ratio, and gain. The reflection coefficient of the antenna (S11) is obtained at -19.75 dB and VSWR of 1.23. Meanwhile, the axial ratio and gain of the antenna were obtained at 2.66 dB and 2.1 dBi, respectively. Based on this simulated results, antenna design is potential to be developed and fabricated for SAR sensor applications.

  8. Wideband Low Side Lobe Aperture Coupled Patch Phased Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduval, Dhruva

    Low profile printed antenna arrays with wide bandwidth, high gain, and low Side Lobe Level (SLL) are in great demand for current and future commercial and military communication systems and radar. Aperture coupled patch antennas have been proposed to obtain wide impedance bandwidths in the past. Aperture coupling is preferred particularly for phased arrays because of their advantage of integration to other active devices and circuits, e.g. phase shifters, power amplifiers, low noise amplifiers, mixers etc. However, when designing such arrays, the interplay between array performance characteristics, such as gain, side lobe level, back lobe level, mutual coupling etc. must be understood and optimized under multiple design constraints, e.g. substrate material properties and thicknesses, element to element spacing, and feed lines and their orientation and arrangements with respect to the antenna elements. The focus of this thesis is to investigate, design, and develop an aperture coupled patch array with wide operating bandwidth (30%), high gain (17.5 dBi), low side lobe level (20 dB), and high Forward to Backward (F/B) ratio (21.8 dB). The target frequency range is 2.4 to 3 GHz given its wide application in WLAN, LTE (Long Term Evolution) and other communication systems. Notwithstanding that the design concept can very well be adapted at other frequencies. Specifically, a 16 element, 4 by 4 planar microstrip patch array is designed using HFSS and experimentally developed and tested. Starting from mutual coupling minimization a corporate feeding scheme is designed to achieve the needed performance. To reduce the SLL the corporate feeding network is redesigned to obtain a specific amplitude taper. Studies are conducted to determine the optimum location for a metallic reflector under the feed line to improve the F/B. An experimental prototype of the antenna was built and tested validating and demonstrating the performance levels expected from simulation predictions

  9. Dual-polarization, wideband microstrip antenna array for airborne C-band SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, Niels

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a C-band, dual linear polarization wideband antenna array, for use in the next-generation of the Danish airborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. The array is made of probe-fed, stacked microstrip patches. The design and performance of the...... of the basic stacked patch element, operating from 4.9 GHz to 5.7 GHz, and a 2×2 element test array of these, are described.......The paper describes the development of a C-band, dual linear polarization wideband antenna array, for use in the next-generation of the Danish airborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. The array is made of probe-fed, stacked microstrip patches. The design and performance...

  10. Circularly Polarized Transparent Microstrip Patch Reflectarray Integrated with Solar Cell for Satellite Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zainud-Deen, S. H.; El-Shalaby, N. A.; Gaber, S. M.; Malhat, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Circularly polarized (CP) transparent microstrip reflectarray antenna is integrated with solar cell for small satellite applications at 10 GHz. The reflectarray unit cell consists of a perfect electric conductor (PEC) square patch printed on an optically transparent substrate with the PEC ground plane. A comparison between using transparent conducting polymers and using the PEC in unit-cell construction has been introduced. The waveguide simulator is used to calculate the required compensatio...

  11. Circularly Polarized Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna with Finite Ground Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyog Rawat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new geometry of circularly polarized patch antenna is proposed with improved bandwidth. The radiation performance of proposed patch antenna is investigated using IE3D simulation software and its performance is compared with that of conventional rectangular patch antenna. The simulated return loss, axial ratio and impedance with frequency for the proposed antenna are reported in this paper. It is shown that by selecting suitable ground-plane dimensions, air gap and location of the slots, the impedance bandwidth can be enhanced upto 10.15% as compared to conventional rectangular patch (4.24% with an axial ratio bandwidth of 4.05%.

  12. Parallel and series FED microstrip array with high efficiency and low cross polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, John (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A microstrip array antenna for vertically polarized fan beam (approximately 2 deg x 50 deg) for C-band SAR applications with a physical area of 1.7 m by 0.17 m comprises two rows of patch elements and employs a parallel feed to left- and right-half sections of the rows. Each section is divided into two segments that are fed in parallel with the elements in each segment fed in series through matched transmission lines for high efficiency. The inboard section has half the number of patch elements of the outboard section, and the outboard sections, which have tapered distribution with identical transmission line sections, terminated with half wavelength long open-circuit stubs so that the remaining energy is reflected and radiated in phase. The elements of the two inboard segments of the two left- and right-half sections are provided with tapered transmission lines from element to element for uniform power distribution over the central third of the entire array antenna. The two rows of array elements are excited at opposite patch feed locations with opposite (180 deg difference) phases for reduced cross-polarization.

  13. Cirlularly Polarized Proximity- Fed Microstrip Array Antenna for LAPAN TUBSAT Micro Satellite System

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    Endra Wijaya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The design microstrip of array antenna circular polarization characteristic developed for support LAPAN TUBSAT micro satellite system. The antenna on the micro satellite systems transmit data to ground stations operating at S band frequencies.The antenna is designed for impedance matching at frequencies of 2:25 GHz.The four elements of the square patch antenna array composed using linear methods, where the design of the transmission lines used by federal corporate structure model network consisting of three elements of the quarter wave transformer of a power divider. The feeding techniques for antenna designed using proximity coupling method, which for the type of substrate material used is similar. Circularly polarized antenna characteristics are influenced by the truncated corner pieces on the patch. To design the overall antenna used simulated method of moments in microwave office software applications. The results of measurements and simulations obtained antenna parameters, such as: bandwidth of return loss under 10 dB is 200 MHz (shifted 35%, bandwidth of axial ratio under 3dB is 1.7% and maximum gain directivity is 9 dB. Overall results obtained antenna parameters to meet the specifications of LAPAN TUBSAT micro satellite system.

  14. Dual-Frequency, Dual-Polarization Microstrip Antenna Development for High-Resolution, Airborne SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, N.

    2000-01-01

    synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. The dual-frequency array concept adopted relies on the use of probe-fed perforated, stacked patches for L-band (1.2-1.3 GHz). Inside these perforations probe-fed, wideband stacked microstrip patches for C-band (4.9-5.7 GHz) are placed. Measured impedance and radiation...

  15. A Dual Polarization, Active, Microstrip Antenna for an Orbital Imaging Radar System Operating at L-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kenneth C.; Huang, John

    2000-01-01

    A highly successful Earth orbiting synthetic antenna aperture radar (SAR) system, known as the SIR-C mission, was carried into orbit in 1994 on a U.S. Shuttle (Space Transportation System) mission. The radar system was mounted in the cargo bay with no need to fold, or in any other way reduce the size of the antennas for launch. Weight and size were not limited for the L-Band, C-Band, and X-Band radar systems of the SIR-C radar imaging mission; the set of antennas weighed 10,500 kg, the L-Band antenna having the major share of the weight. This paper treats designing an L-Band antenna functionally similar to that used for SIR-C, but at a fraction of the cost and at a weight in the order of 250 kg. Further, the antenna must be folded to fit into the small payload shroud of low cost booster rocket systems. Over 31 square meters of antenna area is required. This low weight, foldable, electronic scanning antenna is for the proposed LightSAR radar system which is to be placed in Earth orbit on a small, dedicated space craft at the lowest possible cost for an efficient L- Band radar imaging system. This LightSAR spacecraft radar is to be continuously available for at least five operational years, and have the ability to map or repeat-map any area on earth within a few days of any request. A microstrip patch array, with microstrip transmission lines heavily employed in the aperture and in the corporate feed network, was chosen as the low cost approach for this active dual-polarization, 80 MHz (6.4%) bandwidth antenna design.

  16. Dual-band linearly and circularly polarized microstrip patch antennas with meandering slot and metallic vias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jin; Lin, Xianqi; Yu, Jiawei

    2018-01-01

    performances. The characteristics are analyzed in detail where we find that the existence of the vias also improves the impedance matching. Four samples are designed, where dual-band with both linear polarization, dual-band with circular- and linear-polarization, and single band with linear polarization...

  17. Research on the Scattering Characteristics and the RCS Reduction of Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of the radiation and scattering of the circularly polarized (CP antenna, a novel radar cross-section (RCS reduction technique is proposed for CP antenna in this paper. Quasi-fractal slots are applied in the design of the antenna ground plane to reduce the RCS of the CP antenna. Both prototype antenna and array are designed, and their time-, frequency-, and space-domain characteristics are studied to authenticate the proposed technique. The simulated and measured results show that the RCS of the prototype antenna and array is reduced up to 7.85 dB and 6.95 dB in the band of 1 GHz–10 GHz. The proposed technique serves a candidate in the design of low RCS CP antennas and arrays.

  18. Single-Layer, Dual-Port, Dual-Band, and Orthogonal-Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna Array with Low Frequency Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-layer, dual-port, dual-band, and dual circularly polarized (CP microstrip array is designed for satellite communication in this paper. The operating frequencies are 8.2 and 8.6 GHz with a very low ratio of 1.05. First, a rectangular patch element is fed through microstrip lines at two orthogonal edges to excite two orthogonal dominant modes of TM01 and TM10. The very low frequency ratio can be realized with high polarization isolations. Then, a 2-by-2 dual-band dual-CP subarray is constructed by two independent sets of sequentially rotated (SR feed structures. An 8-by-8 array is designed on the single-layer thin substrate. Finally, by utilizing one-to-four power dividers and semirigid coaxial cables, a 16-by-16 array is developed to achieve higher gain. Measured results show that the 16-by-16 array has 15 dB return loss (RL bandwidths of 4.81% and 6.75% and 3 dB axial ratio (AR bandwidths of 2.84% and 1.57% in the lower and the upper bands, respectively. Isolations of 18.6 dB and 19.4 dB and peak gains of 25.1 dBic and 25.6 dBic are obtained at 8.2 and 8.6 GHz, respectively.

  19. Study of a 4 elements circularly polarized microstrip antenna array%一种四单元圆极化微带天线阵的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥伟; 丁卫平

    2012-01-01

    本文设计了一种新颖的四单元圆极化微带天线阵。通过去掉单元贴片周围的介质,使天线阵的重量减少了54%。文中采用电磁仿真软件HFSS10进行优化与仿真,讨论了阵元间距对天线阵的增益、半功率波束宽度、旁瓣电平以及后瓣电平的影响。最后加工制作了相应的微带天线阵,测试结果与仿真吻合较好。%A novel 4 elements microstrip antenna array for circular polarization is presented.By cutting out the dielectric substrate around the element,the weight of the array has been reduced by 54%.The array is designed and optimized by HFSS10 software.Effects of the element spacing on the gain,half power,sidelobe level,and backlobe level are investigated.The microstrip array is fabricated and measured and the measured results are in good agreement with the simulated results.

  20. ANN Synthesis Model of Single-Feed Corner-Truncated Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna with an Air Gap for Wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongbao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer-aided design model based on the artificial neural network (ANN is proposed to directly obtain patch physical dimensions of the single-feed corner-truncated circularly polarized microstrip antenna (CPMA with an air gap for wideband applications. To take account of the effect of the air gap, an equivalent relative permittivity is introduced and adopted to calculate the resonant frequency and Q-factor of square microstrip antennas for obtaining the training data sets. ANN architectures using multilayered perceptrons (MLPs and radial basis function networks (RBFNs are compared. Also, six learning algorithms are used to train the MLPs for comparison. It is found that MLPs trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM algorithm are better than RBFNs for the synthesis of the CPMA. An accurate model is achieved by using an MLP with three hidden layers. The model is validated by the electromagnetic simulation and measurements. It is enormously useful to antenna engineers for facilitating the design of the single-feed CPMA with an air gap.

  1. An excitation-term modification for a certain class of electromagnetic aperture-coupling problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D.J.; Bacon, L.D.

    1987-09-01

    A simple technique is presented for modifying electromagnetic aperture-coupling integral equations that are based on an infinite-ground-plane assumption, to partially account for excitation modifications which result from plane-wave interaction with a side of an actual three-dimensional scatterer. The technique is based on incorporating the solution for a conducting wedge into the integral equations. Results are presented for coupling to coaxial connectors which are more consistent with experimental observations. 5 refs., 13 figs

  2. Novel Microstrip Patch Antennas with Frequency Agility, Polarization Reconfigurability, Dual Null Steering Capability and Phased Array Antenna with Beam Steering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhani, Behrouz

    Nowadays the wireless communication technology is playing an important role in our daily life. People use wireless devices not only as a conventional communication device but also as tracking and navigation tool, web browsing tool, data storage and transfer tool and so for many other reasons. Based on the user demand, wireless communication engineers try to accommodate as many as possible wireless systems and applications in a single device and therefore, creates a multifunctional device. Antenna, as an integral part of any wireless communication systems, should also be evolved and adjusted with development of wireless transceiver systems. Therefore multifunctional antennas have been introduced to support and enhance the functionality on modern wireless systems. The main focus and contribution of this thesis is design of novel multifunctional microstrip antennas with frequency agility, polarization reconfigurablity, dual null steering capability and phased array antenna with beam steering performance. In this thesis, first, a wide bandwidth(1.10 GHz to 1.60 GHz) right-handed circularly polarized (RHCP) directional antenna for global positioning system (GPS) satellite receive application has been introduced which covers all the GPS bands starting from L1 to L5. This design consists of two crossed bow-tie dipole antennas fed with sequentially phase rotated feed network backed with an artificial high impedance surface (HIS) structure to generate high gain directional radiation patterns. This design shows good CP gain and axial ratio (AR) and wide beamwidth performance. Although this design has good radiation quality, the size and the weight can be reduced as future study. In the second design, a frequency agile antenna was developed which also covers the L-band (L1 to L5) satellite communication frequencies. This frequency agile antenna was designed and realized by new implementation of varactor diodes in the geometry of a circular patch antenna. Beside wide frequency

  3. A Design Of Feeding Network For A Dual-Linear Polarization, Stacked, Probe-Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, G.; Krozer, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    Components of multilayer feed network are presented for application in broad-band dual-linear polarized stacked C-band antenna. Measurement results of wide band matching circuits and different types of power divider networks constituting parts of BFN demonstrate wideband operation. Suitable...

  4. Some Recent Developments of Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microstrip antenna has been extensively studied in the past few decades as one of the standard planar antennas, it still has a huge potential for further developments. The paper suggests three areas for further research based on our previous works on microstrip antenna elements and arrays. One is exploring the variety of microstrip antenna topologies to meet the desired requirement such as ultrawide band (UWB, high gain, miniaturization, circular polarization, multipolarized, and so on. Another is to apply microstrip antenna to form composite antenna which is more potent than the individual antenna. The last is growing towards highly integration of antenna/array and feeding network or operating at relatively high frequencies, like sub-millimeter wave or terahertz (THz wave regime, by using the advanced machining techniques. To support our points of view, some examples of antennas developed in our group are presented and discussed.

  5. 5GHz LTCC-based aperture coupled wireless transmitter for system-on-package applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2012-01-01

    A novel System-on-Package (SoP) implementation is presented for a transmitter (TX) module which makes use of electromagnetic coupling between the TX chip and the package antenna. The TX chip is realized in 0.13μm CMOS process and comprises an on-chip antenna, which serves as the oscillator\\'s inductor as well. The TX chip is housed in a Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) package with a patch antenna. The on-chip antenna feeds the LTCC patch antenna through aperture coupling, thus negating the need for RF buffer amplifiers, matching elements, baluns, bond wires and package transmission lines. This is the first ever demonstration of wireless-interconnect between on-chip and package antennas which increases the gain and range of the TX module manyfold with respect to the on-chip antenna alone. Though the range of the TX SoP increases considerably, power consumption remains the same as that of the TX chip only. A simple analytical model for the new wireless-interconnect has been developed which helps determine the optimum position of the chip with respect to the aperture in the ground plane.

  6. 5GHz LTCC-based aperture coupled wireless transmitter for system-on-package applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif; Arsalan, Muhammad; Hojjat, Nasrin; Roy, Langis

    2012-01-01

    A novel System-on-Package (SoP) implementation is presented for a transmitter (TX) module which makes use of electromagnetic coupling between the TX chip and the package antenna. The TX chip is realized in 0.13μm CMOS process and comprises an on-chip antenna, which serves as the oscillator's inductor as well. The TX chip is housed in a Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) package with a patch antenna. The on-chip antenna feeds the LTCC patch antenna through aperture coupling, thus negating the need for RF buffer amplifiers, matching elements, baluns, bond wires and package transmission lines. This is the first ever demonstration of wireless-interconnect between on-chip and package antennas which increases the gain and range of the TX module manyfold with respect to the on-chip antenna alone. Though the range of the TX SoP increases considerably, power consumption remains the same as that of the TX chip only. A simple analytical model for the new wireless-interconnect has been developed which helps determine the optimum position of the chip with respect to the aperture in the ground plane.

  7. Gas microstrip chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.M.; Barasch, E.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Demroff, H.P.; Elliott, S.M.; Howe, M.R.; Lee, B.; Mazumdar, T.K.; Pang, Y.; Smith, D.D.; Wahl, J.; Wu, Y.; Yue, W.K.; Gaedke, R.M.; Vanstraelen, G.

    1992-01-01

    The gas microstrip chamber has been developed from concept to experimental system during the past three years. A pattern of anode and grid lines are microfabricated onto a dielectric substrate and configured as a high-resolution MWPC. Four recent developments are described: Suitable plastic substrates and lithography techniques for large-area chambers; non-planar silicon-based chambers for 20 μm resolution; integrated on-board synchronous front-end electronics and data buffering; and a porous silicon active cathode for enhanced efficiency and time response. The microstrip chamber appears to be a promising technology for applications in microvertex, tracking spectrometer, muon spectrometer, and transition radiation detection. (orig.)

  8. Perturbation approach to design of circularly polarised microstrip antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Y. T.; Richards, W. F.

    1981-05-01

    One of the most interesting applications of microstrip antennas is its use for transmitting or receiving circularly polarized (CP) waves. A description is given of a simple but accurate method to determine the critical dimensions needed to produce circular polarization for nearly square and nearly circular microstrip antennas. Shen (1981) in connection with the determination of the proper dimensions of an elliptical patch CP microstrip antenna first expressed the modal field in terms of Mathieu functions. To avoid the complicated numerical computation of the Mathieu functions, he approximated these functions in terms of Bessel functions. It is pointed out that the computation of Mathieu functions, or their approximate expressions can be avoided altogether if a perturbation method is applied to find the resonant frequencies of the two orthogonal modes. The implementation of this approach is demonstrated.

  9. Dual polarized, heat spreading rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Larry W. (Inventor); Khan, Abdur R. (Inventor); Smith, R. Peter (Inventor); Smith, Hugh K. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An aperture coupled patch splits energy from two different polarization components to different locations to spread heat. In addition, there is no physical electrical connection between the slot, patch and circuitry. The circuitry is located under a ground plane which shields against harmonic radiation back to the RF source.

  10. Wideband RCS Reduction of Microstrip Array Antenna Based on Absorptive Frequency Selective Surface and Microstrip Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Xue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach for wideband radar cross section (RCS reduction of a microstrip array antenna is presented and discussed. The scheme is based on the microstrip resonators and absorptive frequency selective surface (AFSS with a wideband absorptive property over the low band 1.9–7.5 GHz and a transmission characteristic at high frequency 11.05 GHz. The AFSS is designed to realize the out-of-band RCS reduction and preserve the radiation performance simultaneously, and it is placed above the antenna with the operating frequency of 11.05 GHz. Moreover, the microstrip resonators are loaded to obtain the in-band RCS reduction. As a result, a significant RCS reduction from 1.5 GHz to 13 GHz for both types of polarization has been accomplished. Compared with the reference antenna, the simulated results exhibit that the monostatic RCS of the proposed array antenna in x- and y-polarization can be reduced as much as 17.6 dB and 21.5 dB, respectively. And the measured results agree well with the simulated ones.

  11. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Haefner, Petra; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), made up from silicon micro-strip detectors is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shape: 99.3% of the SCT strips are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. TWEPP Summary In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton- proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signal from the strips is processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data i...

  12. Ultra-Wideband, Dual-Polarized, Beam-Steering P-Band Array Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    duToit, Cornelis

    2014-01-01

    pair of elements: three apertures coupling to the patch elements were placed along the two symmetry lines of the antenna element pair. Two apertures were used in tandem to excite two of the stacked patch elements for one polarization; the other was used to excite one element from one side and the other element from the other side, opposite in phase, taking care of the remaining polarization. The apertures narrow down to a small gap where they are excited by a crossing microstrip line to prevent any asymmetrical excitation of the two sides of the aperture gap, minimizing port-to-port coupling. Using patches that are non-planar leads to higher mechanical rigidity and smaller patch sizes to fit into the available space. Aperture coupling minimizes direct metal-to-metal connections. Using an aperture coupling feed mechanism results in a feed network for two antenna elements with a total of three feed points, plus one simple in-phase combiner to reduce it to two ports. It greatly reduces the complexity of the alternative, but more conventional, way of feeding a pair of two dual-polarized elements with high port isolation.

  13. Foundations for microstrip circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Building on the success of the previous three editions, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design offers extensive new, updated and revised material based upon the latest research. Strongly design-oriented, this fourth edition provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of this fast expanding field making it a definitive source for professional engineers and researchers and an indispensable reference for senior students in electronic engineering. Topics new to this edition: microwave substrates, multilayer transmission line structures, modern EM tools and techniques, microstrip and planar transmision line design, transmission line theory, substrates for planar transmission lines, Vias, wirebonds, 3D integrated interposer structures, computer-aided design, microstrip and power-dependent effects, circuit models, microwave network analysis, microstrip passive elements, and slotline design fundamentals.

  14. Frequency scanning microstrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus; Jørgensen, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    The principles of using radiating microstrip resonators as elements in a frequency scanning antenna array are described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. This gives a scan of the main lobe due to the phase-shift in the resonator in addition to that created by the transmission line phase......-shift. Experimental results inX-band, in good agreement with the theory, show that it is possible to scan the main lobe an angle ofpm30degby a variation of the frequencypm300MHz, and where the 3 dB beamwidth is less than10deg. The directivity was 14.7 dB, while the gain was 8.1 dB. The efficiency might be improved...

  15. Microstrip microwave band gap structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The periodic lattice of PTFE–air combination has the dielectric contrast (defined as the ratio between the dielectric constant of the substrate to that of the background, air) of 2.08. At both ends of the microstrip. MBG, two sub-miniature adapter (SMA) coaxial connectors were placed. The measurements as well as theoretical ...

  16. Aleph silicon microstrip vertex detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This microstrip vertex locator was located at the heart of the ALEPH experiment, one of the four experiments at the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. In the experiments at CERN's LEP, which ran from 1989 to 2000, modern silicon microvertex detectors, such as those used at ALEPH, monitored the production of short-lived particles close to the beam pipe.

  17. Microstrip detector for the ALICE experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows a close up of one of the silicon microstrip detectors that will be installed on the ALICE experiment at the LHC. 1698 double-sided modules of these silicon microstrips will be installed in the two outermost layers of the ALICE inner tracking system. The microstrips have to be specially designed to withstand the high resolution levels at the heart of the detector.

  18. A counting silicon microstrip detector for precision compton polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Doll, D W; Hillert, W; Krüger, H; Stammschroer, K; Wermes, N

    2002-01-01

    A detector for the detection of laser photons backscattered off an incident high-energy electron beam for precision Compton polarimetry in the 3.5 GeV electron stretcher ring ELSA at Bonn University has been developed using individual photon counting. The photon counting detector is based on a silicon microstrip detector system using dedicated ASIC chips. The produced hits by the pair converted Compton photons are accumulated rather than individually read out. A transverse profile displacement can be measured with mu m accuracy rendering a polarization measurement of the order of 1% on the time scale of 10-15 min possible.

  19. Microstrip monopulse antenna for land mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Q.; Martin, C.; Delvalle, J. C.; Jongejans, A.; Rinous, P.; Travers, M. N.

    1993-01-01

    Low cost is one of the main requirements in a communication system suitable for mass production, as it is the case for satellite land mobile communications. Microstrip technology fulfills this requirement which must be supported by a low cost tracking system design. The tradeoff led us to a prototype antenna composed of microstrip patches based on electromechanical closed-loop principle; the design and the results obtained are described.

  20. The ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Haefner, Petra

    2010-01-01

    In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV. This was followed by collisions at the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is a precision tracking device in ATLAS made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signal from the strips is processed in the front-end ASICs working in binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibers. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experiment. Since then the detector was operated for two years under realistic conditions. Calibration data has been taken and analysed to determine the performance of the system. In addition, extensive commissioning with cosmic ray events has been performed both with and without magnetic field. The sensor behaviour in magnetic field was studied by measurements of the Lorentz angle. After ...

  1. Performance of irradiated silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catacchini, E.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, M.; Meschini, M.; Parrini, G.; Pieri, M.

    1999-01-01

    Silicon microstrip devices to be installed in Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tracking detectors will have to operate in a high radiation environment. We report on performance studies of silicon microstrip detectors irradiated with neutrons or protons, up to fluences comparable to the first ten years of running at LHC. Obtained results show that irradiated detectors can still be operated with satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio,and in the case of inhomogeneously type inverted detector a very good position resolution is achieved regardless of the zone crossed by the particle

  2. Signal integrity analysis on discontinuous microstrip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Qingyang; Dai, Yawen; Chen, Zipeng

    2013-01-01

    In high speed PCB design, microstirp lines were used to control the impedance, however, the discontinuous microstrip line can cause signal integrity problems. In this paper, we use the transmission line theory to study the characteristics of microstrip lines. Research results indicate that the discontinuity such as truncation, gap and size change result in the problems such as radiation, reflection, delay and ground bounce. We change the discontinuities to distributed parameter circuits, analysed the steady-state response and transient response and the phase delay. The transient response cause radiation and voltage jump.

  3. Development of ALICE microstrip detectors at IRST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Gregori, P.; Rachevskaia, I.; Zorzi, N.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the development of double-sided, AC-coupled, microstrip detectors oriented to the A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE). The main design and processing issues are presented, together with some selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and related test structures

  4. Silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS SCT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Robinson, D.; Allport, P.; Andricek, L.; Böhm, Jan; Buttar, C.; Carter, J. R.; Chilingarov, A.; Clark, A. G.; Feriere, D.; Fuster, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 485, 1-2 (2002), s. 84-88 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO RP-4210/69 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : ATLAS SCT * silicon microstrip detectors * irradiation * quality control Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2002

  5. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Rosendahl, P L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon microstrip detector part of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Together with the rest for the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) it provides vital precision tracking information of charged particles. In this paper the performance and operational status of the SCT in the last two years of ATLAS data taking are reviewed.

  6. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  7. 5G MIMO Conformal Microstrip Antenna Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless communication technology, 5G will develop into a new generation of wireless mobile communication systems. MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output technology is expected to be one of the key technologies in the field of 5G wireless communications. In this paper, 4 pairs of microstrip MIMO conformal antennas of 35 GHz have been designed. Eight-element microstrip Taylor antenna array with series-feeding not only achieves the deviation of the main lobe of the pattern but also increases the bandwidth of the antenna array and reduces sidelobe. MIMO antennas have been fabricated and measured. Measurement results match the simulation results well. The return loss of the antenna at 35 GHz is better than 20 dB, the first sidelobe level is −16 dB, and the angle between the main lobe and the plane of array is 60°.

  8. Integrated double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perevertailo V. L.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of design, technology and manufacturing double-sided silicon microstrip detectors using standard equipment production line in mass production of silicon integrated circuits are considered. The design of prototype high-energy particles detector for experiment ALICE (CERN is presented. The parameters of fabricated detectors are comparable with those of similar foreign detectors, but they are distinguished by lesser cost.

  9. Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perea-Solano, B

    2004-01-01

    CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3 1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient, however, for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers, in particular after the possible luminosity upgrade of the LHC. By operating the detectors at cryogenic temperatures the radiation hardness can be improved by a factor 10. This work proposes a cryogenic microstrip detector module concept which has the features required for the microstrip trackers of the upgraded LHC experiments at CERN. The module can hold an edgeless sensor, being a good candidate for improved luminosity and total cross-section measurements in the ATLAS, CMS and TOTEM experiments. The design o...

  10. Quality assurance of the silicon microstrip sensors for the CBM experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasenko, Iaroslav [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (Ukraine); Larionov, Pavel [University of Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The CBM experiment at FAIR will investigate the properties of nuclear matter at extreme conditions created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Its core detector - the Silicon Tracking System (STS) - will determine the momentum of charged particles from beam-target interactions. The track multiplicity will reach up to 700 within the detector aperture covering the polar angle 2.5 and 25 . High track density as well as stringent requirements to the momentum resolution (∝1%) require a system with high channel granularity and low material budget. The STS will be constructed of about 1200 double-sided silicon microstrip sensors with 58 μm pitch and a total area of ∝4 m{sup 2} with all together 2.1 million channels will be read out. In this talk the quality assurance of double-sided silicon microstrip sensors is discussed. This includes both visual and electrical characterization. For this purpose dedicated equipment has been set up in the clean rooms of the GSI Detector Laboratory and at Tuebingen University. Results of the electrical characterization of prototype microstrip sensors CBM06 are presented.

  11. Signal of microstrip scanning near-field optical microscope in far- and near-field zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Yevhenii M; Lapchuk, Anatoliy S

    2016-05-01

    An analytical model of interference between an electromagnetic field of fundamental quasi-TM(EH)00-mode and an electromagnetic field of background radiation at the apex of a near-field probe based on an optical plasmon microstrip line (microstrip probe) has been proposed. The condition of the occurrence of electromagnetic energy reverse flux at the apex of the microstrip probe was obtained. It has been shown that the nature of the interference depends on the length of the probe. Numerical simulation of the sample scanning process was conducted in illumination-reflection and illumination-collection modes. Results of numerical simulation have shown that interference affects the scanning signal in both modes. However, in illumination-collection mode (pure near-field mode), the signal shape and its polarity are practically insensible to probe length change; only signal amplitude (contrast) is slightly changed. However, changing the probe length strongly affects the signal amplitude and shape in the illumination-reflection mode (the signal formed in the far-field zone). Thus, we can conclude that even small background radiation can significantly influence the signal in the far-field zone and has practically no influence on a pure near-field signal.

  12. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2000-10-11

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  13. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zoeller, M M

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  14. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation

  15. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    2000-10-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  16. Fabrication and impact performance of three-dimensionally integrated microstrip antennas with microstrip and coaxial feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Lan; Wang, Xin; Xu, Fujun; Zhao, Da; Jiang, Muwen; Qiu, Yiping

    2009-01-01

    A conformal load-bearing antenna structure (CLAS) combines the antenna into a composite structure such that it can carry the designed load while functioning as an antenna. In this paper, two types of new 3D integrated microstrip antennas (3DIMAs) with different feeding methods are designed to work at the radar L-band. Different from the conventional CLAS, the radiating patch and the ground plane of the 3DIMA are both composed of woven conductive wires and are bonded into the 3D composite physically by Z-yarns, greatly improving the damage tolerance of the antenna. The return loss of the coaxial-fed antenna is −13.15 dB with a resonant frequency of 1.872 GHz, while that of the microstrip-fed antenna is −31.50 dB with a resonant frequency of 1.33 GHz. Both of the 3DIMAs have similar radiation patterns to that of the traditionally designed microstrip antenna. In addition, an experimental investigation of the impact response of the coaxial-fed 3DIMA was carried out and the results showed the radiation pattern had almost no change even when the antenna received an impact energy of 15 J, exhibiting superior impact resistance to that of a conventional microstrip antenna

  17. Study of micro-strip gas ionisation chambers substrates for CMS experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallares, A.

    1996-01-01

    High luminosity, expected interaction and dose rates of the future LHC collider require the development of micro-strips gas chambers. In addition to optimization of this new detector, this work is concerned with understanding of gain loss phenomena. Influence of the gas substrate is carefully analysed, as well as theoretical concepts concerning glasses and their behaviour under polarization and irradiation, and the consequence on detection operations.Electron spin resonance is used to study, in standard glass, creation of radiation induced defects which may be charged. (D.L.)

  18. Beam tests with microstrip gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, M.R.; Birchall, J.; Crow, K.; Davis, C.A.; Faszer, W.; Gan, L.; Lee, L.; van Oers, W.T.H.; Page, S.A.; Ramsay, W.D.; Salomon, M.

    1994-10-01

    We have measured the efficiency, timing and pulse heights in several types of microstrip Gas Chambers with plastic substrates passivated with a thin Nickel layer. We used as active gas mixtures Argon/Isobutane and CF 4 /Isobutane. We placed the detectors in a secondary beam at TRIUMF tuned to a momentum of 100 MeV/c of pions, muons and electrons. Preliminary results indicate good efficiency for minimum ionizing particles in Argon/Isobutane mixtures but lesser efficiency in CF 4 based gases indicating the importance of high quality preamplifiers to increase the signal to noise ratio. (author). 20 refs., 6 figs

  19. Microstrip Antenna Design for Femtocell Coverage Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaz Uddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mircostrip antenna is designed for multielement antenna coverage optimization in femtocell network. Interference is the foremost concern for the cellular operator in vast commercial deployments of femtocell. Many techniques in physical, data link and network-layer are analysed and developed to settle down the interference issues. A multielement technique with self-configuration features is analyzed here for coverage optimization of femtocell. It also focuses on the execution of microstrip antenna for multielement configuration. The antenna is designed for LTE Band 7 by using standard FR4 dielectric substrate. The performance of the proposed antenna in the femtocell application is discussed along with results.

  20. ATLAS silicon microstrip detector system (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unno, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The S CT together with the pixel and the transition radiation tracker systems and with a central solenoid forms the central tracking system of the ATLAS detector at LHC. Series production of SCT Silicon microstrip sensors is near completion. The sensors have been shown to be robust against high voltage operation to the 500 V required after fluences of 3x10 14 protons/cm 2 . SCT barrel modules are in series production. A low-noise CCD camera has been used to debug the onset of leakage currents

  1. Gas microstrip detectors on resistive plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, M.S.; Oakham, F.G.; Armitage, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Plastics are desirable as substrates for gas microstrip detectors (GMDs) because of their flexibility, low density and long radiation length. GMDs have been fabricated on white Tedlar which has bulk electrical conductivity and ion-implanted Upilex which has a thin electrically conductive layer on the surface of an insulator. The effect of back plane voltage on the gain of such GMDs is investigated. Three 200 μm pitch, ion-implanted Upilex GMDs were recently tested in a high intensity beam at CERN. The anode signals were read out using fast, low noise, high gain amplifiers. Preliminary results of the test are presented

  2. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance.

  3. A Compact Annular Ring Microstrip Antenna for WSN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihua Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna’s performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and –2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels.

  4. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strip...

  5. A Truncated Waveguide Fed by a Microstrip as a Radiating Element for High-Performance Automotive Anticollision Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Andrea Casula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A small truncated waveguide fed by a microstrip line through a transverse coupling slot is proposed and assessed as a high-performance antenna and array element in the K band and above. This antenna allows to obtain a high radiated power, with a very low cross-polar component in the radiated field. It is therefore particularly suitable for application in automotive anticollision radars. The proposed radiating element has been analyzed by a numerical code based on an in-house method of moments, and the microstrip feeding line has been modeled by its equivalent magnetic-wall waveguide. A linear array of such elements has been designed and matched with a BPF-inspired matching network allowing an in-band behavior suitable for anti-collision radar use, with an out-of-band rejection large enough to avoid the first receiving BPF.

  6. Analysis of Microstrip Line Fed Patch Antenna for Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ashish

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, theoretical analysis of microstrip line fed rectangular patch antenna loaded with parasitic element and split-ring resonator is presented. The proposed antenna shows that the dualband operation depends on gap between parasitic element, split-ring resonator, length and width of microstrip line. It is found that antenna resonates at two distinct resonating modes i.e., 0.9 GHz and 1.8 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The antenna shows dual frequency nature with frequency ratio 2.0. The characteristics of microstrip line fed rectangular patch antenna loaded with parasitic element and split-ring resonator antenna is compared with other prototype microstrip line fed antennas. Further, the theoretical results are compared with simulated and reported experimental results, they are in close agreement.

  7. Superconducting microstrip antennas: An experimental comparison of two feeding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, M.A.; Claspy, P.C.; Bhasin, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTS's) has generated a substantial amount of interest in microstrip antenna applications. However, the high permittivity of substrates compatible with HTS causes difficulty in feeding such antennas because of the high patch edge impedance. In this paper, two methods for feeding HTS microstrip antennas at K and Ka-band are examined. Superconducting microstrip antennas that are directly coupled and gap-coupled to a microstrip transmission line have been designed and fabricated on lanthanum aluminate substrates using Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting thin films. Measurements from these antennas, including input impedance, bandwidth, efficiency, and patterns, are presented and compared with published models. The measured results demonstrate that usable antennas can be constructed using either of these architectures, although the antennas suffer from narrow bandwidths. In each case, the HTS antenna shows a substantial improvement over an identical antenna made with normal metals

  8. ATLAS silicon microstrip Semiconductor Tracker (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unno, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon microstrip semiconductor tracking system (SCT) will be in operation in the ATLAS detector in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Challenging issues in the SCT are the radiation tolerance to the fluence of 2x10 14 1-MeV-neutron-equivalent particles/cm 2 at the designed luminosity of 1x10 34 cm -2 /s of the proton-proton collisions and the speed of the electronics to identify the crossing bunches at 25 ns. The developments and the status of the SCT are presented from the point of view of these issues. Series production of the SCT will start in the year 2001 and the SCT will be installed into the ATLAS detector during 2003-2004

  9. Metamaterial Embedded Wearable Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indigenous low-cost metamaterial embedded wearable rectangular microstrip patch antenna using polyester substrate for IEEE 802.11a WLAN applications. The proposed antenna resonates at 5.10 GHz with a bandwidth and gain of 97 MHz and 4.92 dBi, respectively. The electrical size of this antenna is 0.254λ×0.5λ. The slots are cut in rectangular patch to reduce the bending effect. This leads to mismatch the impedance at WLAN frequency band; hence, a metamaterial square SRR is embedded inside the slot. A prototype antenna has been fabricated and tested, and the measured results are presented in this paper. The simulated and measured results of the proposed antenna are found to be in good agreement. The bending effect on the performance of this antenna is experimentally verified.

  10. A data acquisition system for silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriani, O.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Meschini, M.; Pieri, M.; Castellini, G.

    1998-01-01

    Following initial work on the readout of the L3 silicon microvertex detector, the authors have developed a complete data acquisition system for silicon microstrip detectors for use both in their home institute and at the various test beam facilities at the CERN laboratory. The system uses extensive decoupling schemes allowing a fully floating connection to the detector. This feature has many advantages especially in the readout of the latest double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

  11. Gas microstrip detectors based on flexible printed circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; Crowe, K.; Faszer, W.; Lindsay, P.; Curran Maier, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    Microstrip Gas Detectors (MSGC's) were introduced some years ago as position sensitive detectors capable of operating at very high rates. The authors have studied the properties of a new type of Gas Microstrip Counter built using flexible printed circuit technology. They describe the manufacturing procedures, the assembly of the device, as well as its operation under a variety of conditions, gases and types of radiation. They also describe two new passivation materials, tantalum and niobium, which produce effective surfaces

  12. Microstrip natural wave spectrum mathematical model using partial inversion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogarsky, S.A.; Litvinenko, L.N.; Prosvirnin, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    It is generally agreed that both microstrip lines itself and different discontinuities based on microstrips are the most difficult problem for accurate electrodynamic analysis. Over the last years much has been published about principles and accurate (or full wave) methods of microstrip lines investigations. The growing interest for this problem may be explained by the microstrip application in the millimeter-wave range for purpose of realizing interconnects and a variety of passive components. At these higher operating rating frequencies accurate component modeling becomes more critical. A creation, examination and experimental verification of the accurate method for planar electrodynamical structures natural wave spectrum investigations are the objects of this manuscript. The moment method with partial inversion operator method using may be considered as a basical way for solving this problem. This method is outlook for accurate analysis of different planar discontinuities in microstrip: such as step discontinuities, microstrip turns, Y- and X-junctions and etc., substrate space steps dielectric constants and other anisotropy types

  13. Circularly Polarized Microwave Antenna Element with Very Low Off-Axis Cross-Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greem. David; DuToit, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to improve off-axis cross-polarization performance and ease of assembly of a circularly polarized microwave antenna element. To ease assembly, the initial design requirement of Hexweb support for the internal circuit part, as well as the radiating disks, was eliminated. There is a need for different plating techniques to improve soldering. It was also desirable to change the design to eliminate soldering as well as the need to use the Hexweb support. Thus, a technique was developed to build the feed without using solder, solving the lathing and soldering issue. Internal parts were strengthened by adding curvature to eliminate Hexweb support, and in the process, the new geometries of the internal parts opened the way for improving the off-axis cross-polarization performance as well. The radiating disks curvatures were increased for increased strength, but it was found that this also improved crosspolarization. Optimization of the curvatures leads to very low off-axis cross-polarization. The feed circuit was curved into a cylinder for improved strength, eliminating Hexweb support. An aperture coupling feed mechanism eliminated the need for feed pins to the disks, which would have required soldering. The aperture coupling technique also improves cross-polarization performance by effectively exciting the radiating disks very close to the antenna s central axis of symmetry. Because of the shape of the parts, it allowed for an all-aluminum design bolted together and assembled with no solder needed. The advantage of a solderless design is that the reliability is higher, with no single-point failure (solder), and no need for special plating techniques in order to solder the unit together. The shapes (curved or round) make for a more robust build without extra support materials, as well as improved offaxis cross-polarization.

  14. A New Defected Ground Structure for Different Microstrip Circuit Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a microstrip transmission line combined with a new U-headed dumb-bell defected ground structure (DGS is investigated. The proposed DGS of two U-shape slots connected by a thin transverse slot is placed in the ground plane of a microstrip line. A finite cutoff frequency and attenuation pole is observed and thus, the equivalent circuit of the DGS unit can be represented by a parallel LC resonant circuit in series with the transmission line. A two-cell DGS microstrip line yields a better lowpass filtering characteristics. The simulation is carried out by the MoM based IE3D software and in the experimental measurements a vector network analyzer is used. The effects of the transverse slot width and the distance between arms of the U-slot on the filter response curve are studied. This DGS is utilized for different microstrip circuit applications. The DGS is placed in the ground of a capacitive loaded microstrip line and a very low cutoff frequency is obtained. The DGS is adopted under the coupled lines of a parallel line coupler and an improvement in coupling coefficient is noticed. The proposed DGS is also incorporated in the ground plane under the feed lines and the coupled lines of a bandpass filter to improve separately the stopband and passband performances.

  15. Ultra-compact microwave filters using kinetic inductance microstrip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pond, J.M.; Carroll, K.R.; Cukauskas, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on multi-pole microwave filters designed and fabricated using microstrip transmission line sections which consist of two very thin films of sputtered niobium nitride (NbN) separated by another very thin film of sputtered Si. Since the thicknesses of all three films are much less than the superconducting penetration depth, the kinetic inductance is significantly greater than the magnetic inductance. As a result, the phase velocity of a microstrip transmission line is much less than the free space speed of light. Since resonant structures are reduced in size proportionately, the size and weight of microstrip circuits can be greatly reduced. Prototype filters consisting of four open circuit half-wavelength microstrip stubs separated by full-wavelength microstrip sections have been measured. The circuits are connected to 34 mil diameter coaxial cable via an intermediate coplanar waveguide section. Passbands of 4 GHz separated by 3 GHz reject bands have been measured in a structure which occupies less than 0.5 cm 2 including the coplanar waveguide transitions. Higher-order passbands, although possessing an increased insertion loss, maintain filter passband characteristics through 20.0 GHz

  16. Voltage-carrying states in superconducting microstrips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuivinga, M.E.C.

    1983-01-01

    When the critical current is exceeded in a superconducting microstrip, voltage-carrying states with a resistance significantly below the normal state resistance can occur. Phase-slip centers (PSC) appear at about the critical temperature. These are successive local voltage units which manifest themselves as strip-like increments in voltage in the I-V characteristic. For temperatures off the critical temperature the PSC regime degenerates into a region of normal material, a so-called hot spot. These two phenomena, PSC and hot spots, form the subject of this thesis. To gain a better understanding of the phase-slip center process, an experiment was designed to measure local values of the quasi-particle and pair potential. The results of local potential and gap measurements at a PSC in aluminium are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to pair-breaking interactions which can shorten the relaxation time. A non-linear differential equation is derived which describes the development of a PSC into a normal hot spot under the influence of Joule heating. It incorporates the temperature rise due to the dissipative processes occurring in the charge imbalance tails. Numerical solutions are presented for a set of parameters, including those for aluminium and tin. Subsequently, they are compared with experiments. (Auth.)

  17. Microstrip resonators for electron paramagnetic resonance experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrezan, A. C.; Mayer Alegre, T. P.; Medeiros-Ribeiro, G.

    2009-07-01

    In this article we evaluate the performance of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) setup using a microstrip resonator (MR). The design and characterization of the resonator are described and parameters of importance to EPR and spin manipulation are examined, including cavity quality factor, filling factor, and microwave magnetic field in the sample region. Simulated microwave electric and magnetic field distributions in the resonator are also presented and compared with qualitative measurements of the field distribution obtained by a perturbation technique. Based on EPR experiments carried out with a standard marker at room temperature and a MR resonating at 8.17 GHz, the minimum detectable number of spins was found to be 5×1010 spins/GHz1/2 despite the low MR unloaded quality factor Q0=60. The functionality of the EPR setup was further evaluated at low temperature, where the spin resonance of Cr dopants present in a GaAs wafer was detected at 2.3 K. The design and characterization of a more versatile MR targeting an improved EPR sensitivity and featuring an integrated biasing circuit for the study of samples that require an electrical contact are also discussed.

  18. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Chalupkova, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibers. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental cavern since 2007 and has been operational since then. Calibration data has been taken regularly and analyzed to determine the noise performance of the ...

  19. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    NAGAI, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental cavern since 2007 and has been operational since then. Calibration data has been taken regularly and analysed to determine the noise performance of the ...

  20. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Chalupkova, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector (ID) of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules with a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each side of the barrel). The SCT silicon microstrip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICs ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental cavern since 2007 and has been operational ever since. Calibration data has been taken regularly and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system. ...

  1. Microstrip resonators for electron paramagnetic resonance experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrezan, A C; Mayer Alegre, T P; Medeiros-Ribeiro, G

    2009-07-01

    In this article we evaluate the performance of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) setup using a microstrip resonator (MR). The design and characterization of the resonator are described and parameters of importance to EPR and spin manipulation are examined, including cavity quality factor, filling factor, and microwave magnetic field in the sample region. Simulated microwave electric and magnetic field distributions in the resonator are also presented and compared with qualitative measurements of the field distribution obtained by a perturbation technique. Based on EPR experiments carried out with a standard marker at room temperature and a MR resonating at 8.17 GHz, the minimum detectable number of spins was found to be 5 x 10(10) spins/GHz(1/2) despite the low MR unloaded quality factor Q0=60. The functionality of the EPR setup was further evaluated at low temperature, where the spin resonance of Cr dopants present in a GaAs wafer was detected at 2.3 K. The design and characterization of a more versatile MR targeting an improved EPR sensitivity and featuring an integrated biasing circuit for the study of samples that require an electrical contact are also discussed.

  2. Operation of high rate microstrip gas chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, A J; Bouclier, Roger; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Manzin, G; Million, Gilbert; Hoch, M; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1996-01-01

    We describe recent measurements carried out in well controlled and reproducible conditions to help understanding the factors affecting the short and long term behaviour of Microstrip Gas Chambers. Special care has been taken concerning the gas purity and choice of materials used in the system and for the detectors construction. Detectors built on glasses with surface resistivity in the range $10^{13}-10^{15} \\Omega/\\Box$ have shown satisfactory performance as they do not show charging-up process at high rate and stand the large doses required for the future high luminosity experiments (~10 mC·cm-1·yr-1). Concerning the lifetime measurements, it has been observed that chambers manufactured on high-resistivity glass are far more susceptible of suffering ageing than detectors made on low resistivity, electron-conducting supports, independently of the metal used for the artwork (chromium or gold) at least in clean gas conditions. The successfully operation in the laboratory of detectors manufactured on diamond-...

  3. Silicon microstrip detectors on 6'' technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bölla, G; Günther, M; Martignon, G; Bacchetta, N; Bisello, D; Leonardi, G L; Lucas, T; Wilburn, C

    1999-01-01

    The fabrication of microstrip detectors on 4'' high-resistivity wafers that allow for a maximum workable area of about 42 cm sup 2 has been well established. Using 6'' wafers the workable area increases up to 100 cm sup 2 (more than twice the area of a 4'' wafer) allowing a larger number of detectors to be processed at the same time on the same wafer resulting in a sizable reduction of cost. After a prototyping stage, the CDF silicon tracker upgrade is now receiving final production sensors from Micron Semiconductor Ltd. The performance of double-sided single-metal small stereo angle sensors for the CDF SVXII and ISL detectors has been studied. Results include probe station measurements and test beam results. The problems encountered from prototyping to the final devices are described. A brief overview of the response of the sensors to irradiation with gamma-rays and p sup + up to a dose of 0.5 Mrad (well above the doses expected during Run II of the Tevatron) is included. (author)

  4. The design and simulation of UHF RFID microstrip antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; Liu, Liping; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Renheng, Xu

    2018-02-01

    At present, China has delineated UHF RFID communicating frequency range which is 840 ∼ 845 MHz and 920 ∼ 925 MHz, but most UHF microstrip antenna don’t carry out this standard, that leads to radio frequency pollution. In order to solve the problems above, a method combining theory and simulation is adopted. Combining with a new ceramic material, a 925.5 MHz RFID microstrip antenna is designed, which is optimized and simulated by HFSS software. The results show that the VSWR of this RFID microstrip antenna is relatively small in the vicinity of 922.5 MHz, the gain is 2.1 dBi, which can be widely used in China’s UHF RFID communicating equipments.

  5. Wireless OAM transmission system based on elliptical microstrip patch antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia Jia; Lu, Qian Nan; Dong, Fei Fei; Yang, Jing Jing; Huang, Ming

    2016-05-30

    The multiplexing transmission has always been a focus of attention for communication technology. In this paper, the radiation characteristics of circular microstrip patch antenna was firstly analyzed based on cavity model theory, and then spiral beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) were generated, using elliptical microstrip patch antenna, with a single feed probe instead of a standard circular patch with two feedpoints. Moreover, by combining the proposed elliptic microstrip patch antenna with Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP), a wireless OAM transmission system was established and the real-time transmission of text, image and video in a real channel environment was realized. Since the wireless OAM transmission has the advantage of good safety and high spectrum utilization efficiency, this work has theoretical significance and potential application.

  6. Excitation of propagating magnetization waves by microstrip antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, V. F.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    1988-11-01

    We discuss the self-consistent theory of excitation of dipole-exchange magnetization waves by microstrip antennas in a metal-dielectric-ferrite-dielectric-metal stratified structure, magnetized under an arbitrary angle to the surface. Spin-wave Green's functions are derived, describing the response of the spin-system to a spatially inhomogeneous varying magnetic field. The radiative resistance of microstrip antenna is calculated. In this case the distribution of surface current density in the antenna is found on the basis of the analytic solution of a singular integral equation. The nature of the effect of metallic screens and redistributed surface current densities in the antenna on the frequency dependence of the resistive radiation is investigated. Approximate relations are obtained, convenient for practical calculations of radiative resistance of microstrip antennas both in a free and in a screened ferromagnetic film. The theoretical calculations are verified by data of experiments carried out on monocrystalline films of iron-yttrium garnet.

  7. Analysis of superconducting microstrip resonator at various microwave power levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, G.P.; Jacob, M.V.; Jayakumar, M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Kataria, N.D.

    1997-01-01

    The real and imaginary parts of the surface impedance of YBCO superconductors have been studied at different microwave power levels. Using the relations for the critical current density and the grain boundary resistance, a relation for calculating the power dependence of the surface resistance has been obtained. Also, a relation to find the resonant frequency of a superconducting microstrip resonator at various input power levels has been derived. Measurements have been carried out on various microstrip resonators to study the variation of surface resistance and resonant frequency at different rf power levels. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical results. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibae; Hassan, Arshad; Lee, Chong Hyun; Bae, Jinho

    2017-12-18

    In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS), and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under -20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of -35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF) tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  9. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibae Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS, and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under −20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of −35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  10. Analysis of Rectangular Microstrip Antennas with Air Substrates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an analysis of rectangular microstrip antennas with air substrates. The effect of the substrate thickness on the bandwidth and the efficiency are examined. An additional thin layer supporting the dielectric material is added to the air substrate in order to make the antenna mechanically rigid and easy to ...

  11. Gas microstrip detectors based on flexible printed circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; Crowe, K.; Faszer, W.; Lindsay, P.; Curran Maier, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    We have studied the properties of a new type of Gas Microstrip Counter built using flexible printed circuit technology. We describe the manufacturing procedures, the assembly of the device, as well as its operation under a variety of conditions, gases and types of radiation. We also describe two new passivation materials, Tantalum and Niobium, which produce effective surfaces. (author)

  12. Wearable Inset-Fed FR4 Microstrip Patch Antenna Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, S. R. Mohd; Rani, K. N. Abdul

    2018-03-01

    This project proposes the design of a wireless body area network (WBAN) microstrip patch antenna covered by the jeans fabric as the outer layer operating at the center frequency, fc of 2.40 GHz. Precisely, the microstrip patch antenna with the inset-fed edge technique is designed and simulated systematically by using the Keysight Advanced Design System (ADS) software where the FR4 board with the dielectric constant, ɛr of 4.70, dissipation factor or loss tangent, tan δ of 0.02 and height, h of 1.60 mm is the chosen dielectric substrate. The wearable microstrip patch antenna design is then fabricated using the FR4 printed circuit board (PCB) material, hidden inside the jeans fabric, and attached to clothing, such as a jacket accordingly. Simulation and fabrication measurement results show that the designed microstrip patch antenna characteristics can be applied significantly within the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) radio band, which is at fc = 2.40 GHz.

  13. An Uncoventional Approach for a Straw Tube-Microstrip Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported on as well.

  14. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahmad, A.; Albrechtskirchinger, Z.; Allport, P.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 578, - (2007), s. 98-118 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * SCT * silicon * microstrip * module * LHC Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2007

  15. Simply folded band chaos in a VHF microstrip oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, Jonathan N. [US Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command, AMSRD-AMR-WS-ST, Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898 (United States)]. E-mail: jonathan.blakely@us.army.mil; Holder, J. Darryl [US Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command, AMSRD-AMR-WS-ST, Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898 (United States); Corron, Ned J. [US Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command, AMSRD-AMR-WS-ST, Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898 (United States); Pethel, Shawn D. [US Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command, AMSRD-AMR-WS-ST, Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898 (United States)

    2005-10-10

    We present experimental observations of a microstrip circuit that produces Roessler-like chaos with center frequency of 175 MHz. A simply folded band chaotic attractor is created through a period doubling route. The circuit provides an experimental realization of a chaotic neutral delay differential equation, a largely unexplored type of nonlinear dynamical system.

  16. A time projection chamber with microstrip read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bootsma, T.M.V.; Van den Brink, A.; De Haas, A.P.; Kamermans, R.; Kuijer, P.G.; De Laat, C.T.A.M.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.J.; Ostendorf, R.; Snellings, R.J.M.; Twenhoefel, C.J.W.; Peghaire, A.

    1994-01-01

    The design and testing of a novel detector for heavy-ion physics in the intermediate-energy regime is described. This detector consists of a large drift chamber with microstrip read-out in combination with thick plastic scintillators. With this system particle identification and energy determination with high spatial resolution and multiple hit capacity is achieved. ((orig.))

  17. Dismantling the silicon microstrip detector on L3

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    The silicon microstrip detector is located at the heart of the detector and must be kept cool to prevent thermal noise. The work shown here is the removal of the cooling system. L3 was dismantled as part of the closure of the entire LEP accelerator in 2000 to make way for the new LHC.

  18. Geometrical optimization of microstripe arrays for microbead magnetophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rozlosnik, Noemi; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of magnetic beads plays an increasingly important role in molecular diagnostics. Magnetophoresis is a promising technique for selective transportation of magnetic beads in lab-on-a-chip systems. We investigate periodic arrays of exchange-biased permalloy microstripes fabricated using...

  19. BI-ground microstrip array coil vs. conventional microstrip array coil for mouse imaging at 7 tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ricardo; Terrones, M. A. López; Jakob, P. M.

    2012-10-01

    At high field strengths, the need for more efficient high frequency coils has grown. Since the radiation losses and the interaction between coil and sample increase proportionally to field strength, the quality factor (Q) and the sensitivity of the coil decrease as consequence of these negative effects. Since Zhang et al proposed in 2001 a new surface coil based on the microstrip transmission line for high frequency, different Tx-Rx phased arrays based on this concept have been already introduced in animal and whole body systems at high field strengths, each of them with different modifications in order to get better field homogeneity, SNR or isolation between coil elements in the array. All these arrays for animals systems have been built for rat imaging. One of these modifications is called BI-Ground Microstrip Array Coil (BIGMAC). The implementation of a smaller two-channel BIGMAC design for mouse imaging is studied and its performance compared to a two-channel conventional Microstrip array at 7 Tesla, the higher isolation by using BIGMAC elements in comparison with conventional Microstrip elements is shown in this work.

  20. Design of a dual linear polarization antenna using split ring resonators at X-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sadiq; Chandra, Madhukar

    2017-11-01

    Dual linear polarization microstrip antenna configurations are very suitable for high-performance satellites, wireless communication and radar applications. This paper presents a new method to improve the co-cross polarization discrimination (XPD) for dual linear polarized microstrip antennas at 10 GHz. For this, three various configurations of a dual linear polarization antenna utilizing metamaterial unit cells are shown. In the first layout, the microstrip patch antenna is loaded with two pairs of spiral ring resonators, in the second model, a split ring resonator is placed between two microstrip feed lines, and in the third design, a complementary split ring resonators are etched in the ground plane. This work has two primary goals: the first is related to the addition of metamaterial unit cells to the antenna structure which permits compensation for an asymmetric current distribution flow on the microstrip antenna and thus yields a symmetrical current distribution on it. This compensation leads to an important enhancement in the XPD in comparison to a conventional dual linear polarized microstrip patch antenna. The simulation reveals an improvement of 7.9, 8.8, and 4 dB in the E and H planes for the three designs, respectively, in the XPD as compared to the conventional dual linear polarized patch antenna. The second objective of this paper is to present the characteristics and performances of the designs of the spiral ring resonator (S-RR), split ring resonator (SRR), and complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) metamaterial unit cells. The simulations are evaluated using the commercial full-wave simulator, Ansoft High-Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS).

  1. Resonance of Superconducting Microstrip Antenna with Aperture in the Ground Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benkouda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rigorous full-wave analysis of a high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip antenna with a rectangular aperture in the ground plane. To include the effect of the superconductivity of the microstrip patch in the full-wave analysis, a complex surface impedance is considered. The proposed approach is validated by comparing the computed results with previously published data. Results showing the effect of the aperture on the resonance of the superconducting microstrip antenna are given.

  2. Design of microstrip patch antennas using knowledge insertion through retraining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, T. V. S.; Sudhakar, A.

    2018-04-01

    The traditional way of analyzing/designing neural network is to collect experimental data and train neural network. Then, the trained neural network acts as global approximate function. The network is then used to calculate parameters for unknown configurations. The main drawback of this method is one does not have enough experimental data, cost of prototypes being a major factor [1-4]. Therefore, in this method the author collected training data from available approximate formulas with in full design range and trained the network with it. After successful training, the network is retrained with available measured results. This simple way inserts experimental knowledge into the network [5]. This method is tested for rectangular microstrip antenna and circular microstrip antenna.

  3. A microstrip gas avalanche chamber with two-dimensional readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Massai, M.M.; Spandre, G.; Torquati, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    A microstrip gas avalanche chamber with a 200 μm anode pitch has been built and successfully tested in our laboratory. A gas gain of 10 4 and an energy resolution of 18% (FWHM) at 6 keV have been measured using a gas mixture of argon-CO 2 at atmospheric pressure. A preliminary measurement of the positional sensitivity indicates that a spatial resolution of 50 μm can be obtained. (orig.)

  4. Production of ALICE microstrip detectors at ITC-irst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, Paolo; Bellutti, Pierluigi; Boscardin, Maurizio; Collini, Amos; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Pucker, Georg; Zorzi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    We report on the results from the production of 600 double-sided silicon microstrip detectors for the ALICE experiment. We present the fabrication process and some selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures. The large amount of experimental data allowed a statistically relevant analysis to be performed. The main technological aspects related to production yield optimization will also be addressed

  5. Characterization procedures for double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruner, N.L. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Center for Particle Phys.; Frautschi, M.A. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Center for Particle Phys.; Hoeferkamp, M.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Center for Particle Phys.; Seidel, S.C. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Center for Particle Phys.

    1995-08-15

    Since double-sided silicon microstrip detectors are still evolving technologically and are not yet commercially available, they require extensive electrical evaluation by the user to ensure they were manufactured to specifications. In addition, measurements must be performed to determine detector operating conditions. Procedures for measuring the following quantities are described: - Leakage current, - Depletion voltage, - Bias resistance, - Interstrip resistance, - Coupling capacitance, - Coupling capacitor breakdown voltage. (orig.).

  6. Characterization procedures for double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, N.L.; Frautschi, M.A.; Hoeferkamp, M.R.; Seidel, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Since double-sided silicon microstrip detectors are still evolving technologically and are not yet commercially available, they require extensive electrical evaluation by the user to ensure they were manufactured to specifications. In addition, measurements must be performed to determine detector operating conditions. Procedures for measuring the following quantities are described: - Leakage current, - Depletion voltage, - Bias resistance, - Interstrip resistance, - Coupling capacitance, - Coupling capacitor breakdown voltage. (orig.)

  7. Spatial resolution of wedge shaped silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anticic, T.; Barnett, B.; Blumenfeld, B.; Chien, C.Y.; Fisher, P.; Gougas, A.; Krizmanic, J.; Madansky, L.; Newman, D.; Orndorff, J.; Pevsner, A.; Spangler, J.

    1995-01-01

    Several wedge-shaped silicon microstrip detectors with pitches from 30 to 100 μm have been designed by our group and beam tested at the CERN SPS. We find the spatial resolution σ becomes larger at the rate of 0.21 μm per 1 μm increase in pitch, but the number of strips per cluster remains about the same as the pitch varies from 30 to 100 μm. (orig.)

  8. Substrate-induced instability in gas microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.

    1992-12-01

    The results of a programme of research into substrate-induced gain instability in gas microstrip detectors are reported. Information has been collected on a wide range of substrates including many commonly available glasses and ceramics. A theoretical model of the gain instability is proposed. While we have not yet found an acceptable substrate for the construction of high flux detectors our experience points to electronically conductive glasses as the most promising source of a stable substrate. (Author)

  9. Factors influencing the performances of micro-strips gas chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, V.; Brom, J.M.; Fang, R.; Fontaine, J.C.; Huss, D.; Kachelhoffer, T.; Kettunen, H.; Levy, J.M.; Pallares, A.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Cailleret, J.; Christophel, E.; Coffin, J.; Eberle, H.; Osswald, F.; Sigward, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    Damages to MSGCs (Micro-Strips Gas Chambers) induced by discharges have been investigated. Optimization of electrode shapes and/or deposition of a protective coating allows the potential difference between anode and cathode, thus increasing the gain. For prototypes of MSGCs made at the Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, each step of the manufacturing processes was carefully controlled. Results are presented on the influence of cleaning processes on the surface resistance of glass substrates. (author). 21 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Radial microstrip slotline feed network for circular mobile communications array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Kelly, Eron S.; Lee, Richard Q.; Taub, Susan R.

    1994-01-01

    In mobile and satellite communications there is a need for low cost and low profile antennas which have a toroidal pattern. Antennas that have been developed for mobile communications include a L-Band electronically steered stripline phased array, a Ka-Band mechanically steered elliptical reflector antenna and a Ka-Band printed dipole. In addition, a L-Band mechanically steered microstrip array, a L-Band microstrip phased array tracking antenna for mounting on a car roof and an X-Band radial line slotted waveguide antenna have been demonstrated. In the above electronically scanned printed arrays, the individual element radiates normally to the plane of the array and hence require a phase shifter to scan the beam towards the horizon. Scanning in the azimuth is by mechanical or electronic steering. An alternate approach is to mount microstrip patch radiators on the surface of a cone to achieve the required elevation angle. The array then scans in the azimuth by beam switching.

  11. Optically controlled photonic bandgap structures for microstrip circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadman, Darren Arthur

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the optical control of microwave photonic bandgap circuits using high resistivity silicon. Photoconducting processes that occur within silicon are investigated. The influence of excess carrier density on carrier mobility and lifetime is examined. In addition, electron-hole pair recombination mechanisms (Shockley-Read-Hall, Auger, radiative and surface) are investigated. The microwave properties of silicon are examined, in particular the variation of silicon reflectivity with excess carrier density. Filtering properties of microstrip photonic bandgap structures and how they may be controlled optically are studied. A proof-of-concept microstrip photonic bandgap structure with optical control is designed, simulated and measured. With no optical illumination incident upon the silicon, the microstrip photonic bandgap structure's filtering properties are well-defined; a 3dB stopband width of 2.6GHz, a 6dB bandwidth of 2GHz and stopband depth of -11.6dB at the centre frequency of 9.9GHz. When the silicon is illuminated, the structure's filtering properties are suppressed. Under illumination the experimental results display an increase in S 21 of 6.5dB and a reduction in S 11 of more than 10dB at 9.9GHz. A comparison of measured and simulated results reveal that the photogenerated excess carrier density is between 4 x 10 15 cm -3 and 1.1 x 10 16 cm -3 . (author)

  12. A portable readout system for silicon microstrip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco-Hernandez, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This system can measure the collected charge in one or two microstrip silicon sensors by reading out all the channels of the sensor(s), up to 256. The system is able to operate with different types (p- and n-type) and different sizes (up to 3 cm 2 ) of microstrip silicon sensors, both irradiated and non-irradiated. Heavily irradiated sensors will be used at the Super Large Hadron Collider, so this system can be used to research the performance of microstrip silicon sensors in conditions as similar as possible to the Super Large Hadron Collider operating conditions. The system has two main parts: a hardware part and a software part. The hardware part acquires the sensor signals either from external trigger inputs, in case of a radioactive source setup is used, or from a synchronised trigger output generated by the system, if a laser setup is used. The software controls the system and processes the data acquired from the sensors in order to store it in an adequate format. The main characteristics of the system are described. Results of measurements acquired with n- and p-type detectors using both the laser and the radioactive source setup are also presented and discussed.

  13. Gas microstrip detectors on polymer, silicon and glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barasch, E.F.; Demroff, H.P.; Drew, M.M.; Elliott, T.S.; Gaedke, R.M.; Goss, L.T.; Kasprowicz, T.B.; Lee, B.; Mazumdar, T.K.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Smith, D.D.; Trost, H.J.; Vanstraelen, G.; Wahl, J.

    1993-01-01

    We present results on the performance of Gas Microstrip Detectors on various substrates. These include a 300 μm anode-anode pitch pattern on Tempax borosilicate glass and ABS/copolyether, a 200 μm pattern on Upilex ''S'' polyimide, Texin 4215, Tedlar, ion-implanted Kapton, orientation-dependent etched flat-topped silicon (''knife-edge chamber''), and iron-vanadium glass, and a 100 μm pitch pattern on Upilex ''S'' and ion-implanted Kapton. (orig.)

  14. Coherent quantum cascade laser micro-stripe arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. de Naurois

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated InP-based coherent quantum cascade laser micro-stripe arrays. Phase-locking is provided by evanescent coupling between adjacent stripes. Stripes are buried into semi-insulating iron doped InP. Lasing at room temperature is obtained at 8.4μm for stripe arrays comprising up to 16 emitters. Pure supermode emission is demonstrated via farfield measurements and simulations. The farfield pattern shows a dual-lobe emission, corroborating the predicted phase-locked antisymmetric supermode emission.

  15. Modelado de secciones curvas con tecnología microstrip

    OpenAIRE

    Aires Casas, Fco. Manuel

    2008-01-01

    El fin de algunos dispositivos electrónicos es ocupar el menor espacio posible, sin que la calidad de su función se devalúe apreciablemente, y para conseguirlo es necesario utilizar técnicas de miniaturización. Así, el objetivo principal del proyecto es analizar el efecto que tienen diferentes tipos de curvas en estructuras microstrip (líneas de transmisión constituidas por una franja conductora y un plano de tierra separados por un medio dieléctrico). El proceso se ha efectuado m...

  16. Gas microstrip detectors for X-ray tomographic flow imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Key, M J; Luggar, R D; Kundu, A

    2003-01-01

    A investigation into the suitability of gas microstrip detector technology for a high-speed industrial X-ray tomography system is reported. X-ray energies in the region 20-30 keV are well suited to the application, which involves imaging two-dimensional slices through gas/liquid multiphase pipeline flows for quantitative component fraction measurement. Stable operation over a period representing several hundred individual tomographic scans at gas gains of 500 is demonstrated using a Penning gas mixture of krypton/propylene.

  17. Snaps to Connect Coaxial and Microstrip Lines in Wearable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiti Kellomäki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial snaps (clothing fasteners can be used to connect a coaxial cable to a microstrip line. This is useful in the context of wearable antennas, especially in consumer applications and disposable connections. The measured S-parameters of the transition are presented, and an equivalent circuit and approximate equations are derived for system design purposes. The proposed connection is usable up to 1.5 GHz (10 dB return loss condition, and the frequency range can be extended to 2 GHz if a thinner, more flexible coaxial cable is used.

  18. Microstripes for transport and separation of magnetic particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple technique for creating an on-chip magnetic particle conveyor based on exchange-biased permalloy microstripes. The particle transportation relies on an array of stripes with a spacing smaller than their width in conjunction with a periodic sequence of four different externally...... applied magnetic fields. We demonstrate the controlled transportation of a large population of particles over several millimeters of distance as well as the spatial separation of two populations of magnetic particles with different magnetophoretic mobilities. The technique can be used for the controlled...... selective manipulation and separation of magnetically labelled species. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics....

  19. MULTIOBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS APPLIED TO MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS DESIGN ALGORITMOS EVOLUTIVOS MULTIOBJETIVO APLICADOS A LOS PROYECTOS DE ANTENAS MICROSTRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Rodrigues Brianeze

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents three of the main evolutionary algorithms: Genetic Algorithm, Evolution Strategy and Evolutionary Programming, applied to microstrip antennas design. Efficiency tests were performed, considering the analysis of key physical and geometrical parameters, evolution type, numerical random generators effects, evolution operators and selection criteria. These algorithms were validated through design of microstrip antennas based on the Resonant Cavity Method, and allow multiobjective optimizations, considering bandwidth, standing wave ratio and relative material permittivity. The optimal results obtained with these optimization processes, were confirmed by CST Microwave Studio commercial package.Este trabajo presenta tres de los principales algoritmos evolutivos: Algoritmo Genético, Estrategia Evolutiva y Programación Evolutiva, aplicados al diseño de antenas de microlíneas (microstrip. Se realizaron pruebas de eficiencia de los algoritmos, considerando el análisis de los parámetros físicos y geométricos, tipo de evolución, efecto de generación de números aleatorios, operadores evolutivos y los criterios de selección. Estos algoritmos fueron validados a través del diseño de antenas de microlíneas basado en el Método de Cavidades Resonantes y permiten optimizaciones multiobjetivo, considerando ancho de banda, razón de onda estacionaria y permitividad relativa del dieléctrico. Los resultados óptimos obtenidos fueron confirmados a través del software comercial CST Microwave Studio.

  20. Reduction of the In-Band RCS of Microstrip Patch Antenna by Using Offset Feeding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for implementing a low in-band scattering design for microstrip patch antennas based on the analysis of structural mode scattering and radiation characteristics. The antenna structure is first designed to have the lowest structural mode scattering in a desired frequency band. The operating frequency band of the antenna is then changed to coincide with that of the lowest structural mode scattering by adjusting the feed position on the antenna (offset feeding to achieve an antenna with low in-band radar cross section (RCS. In order to reduce the level of cross polarization of the antenna caused by offset feeding, symmetry feeding structures for both single patch antennas and two-patch arrays are proposed. Examples that show the efficiency of the method are given, and the results illustrate that the in-band RCS of the proposed antennas can be reduced by as much as 17 dBsm for plane waves impinging from the normal direction compared to patch antennas fed by conventional methods.

  1. High resistivity ZnSe coated substrates for microstrip gas chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudharsanan, R.; Greenwald, A.C.; Vakerlis, G.; Yoganathan, M.; Cho, H.S.; Kadyk, J.; Dubeau, J.; Dixit, M.

    1998-01-01

    Microstrip gas chambers (MSGCs) require substrates with sheet resistance in the range of 10 13 --10 16 ohms/square to eliminate polarization and surface charging effects between the electrodes. Thin films of II-VI semiconductors deposited on glass or plastic substrates are attractive for this application since bulk resistivity of these semiconductors vary in the range 10 9 --10 12 ohm-cm and films with good uniformity can be deposited over large-areas using inexpensive deposition techniques. In this paper, deposition, characterization, and fabrication of MSGCs using ZnSe thin films are reported for the first time. ZnSe thin films were deposited on glass and plastic substrates by thermal evaporation. Sheet resistance of ZnSe varied in the range of 10 15 to 10 16 ohms/square depending on the deposition conditions. A MSGC detector fabricated using a 0.5 microm thick ZnSe layer on glass substrate exhibited best values; gas gain of 25,000 and an energy resolution of about 16.7% FWHM at a gain of 1,080 for a 55 Fe source

  2. Performance of microstrip and microgap gas detectors at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraga, F.A.F.; Fraga, M.M.F.R.; Marques, R.F.; Margato, L.M.S.; Goncalo, J.R.; Policarpo, A.J.P.L.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the operation of microstrip and microgap detectors at various gas pressures up to 6 bar with Kr-CO 2 , Xe-CO 2 and Xe-CH 4 is presented. The data were collected with a microstrip (1000 μm pitch) and a microgap (200 μm pitch) detector using a clean chamber and gas system. It is shown that maximum gain is strongly dependent on pressure and gains as high as 9 x 10 3 were obtained with Kr-CO 2 at 6 bar with a MSGC. With the smaller-pitch MGC we could get a gain of 180 with Xe-CH 4 at 6 bar; the typical energy resolution at 22 keV being about 15%. From the present work one can conclude that microstructures can operate at high pressure and that their application in high-efficiency, low-granularity X-ray detectors with an energy range up to a few tens of keV can be seriously considered. (orig.)

  3. Full Ka Band Waveguide-to-Microstrip Inline Transition Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianxing; Li, Lei; Qiao, Yu; Chen, Juan; Chen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Anxue

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a compact and broadband inline waveguide-to-microstrip transition is proposed to cover the full Ka band. The transition can be segmented from the electric point of view into three building blocks, comprising a microstrip line to rectangular coaxial line, a wedged rectangular coaxial line to ridged waveguide, and a final tapered ridged waveguide impedance transformer to standard waveguide. Both good electrical performance and simple modular assembly without any soldering have been simultaneously obtained. The validation of the design concept has been conducted by numerical simulations and experimental measurements. The experimental results of a fabricated back-to-back transition prototype coincide with the simulated results. It shows that the proposed transition achieves good return loss of lower than 15.5 dB and low insertion loss with a fluctuation between 0.23 to 0.60 dB across the entire Ka band. Details of design considerations and operation mechanism as well as simulation and measurement results are presented.

  4. Strip defect recognition in electrical tests of silicon microstrip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentan, Manfred, E-mail: valentan@mpp.mpg.de

    2017-02-11

    This contribution describes the measurement procedure and data analysis of AC-coupled double-sided silicon microstrip sensors with polysilicon resistor biasing. The most thorough test of a strip sensor is an electrical measurement of all strips of the sensor; the measured observables include e.g. the strip's current and the coupling capacitance. These measurements are performed to find defective strips, e.g. broken capacitors (pinholes) or implant shorts between two adjacent strips. When a strip has a defect, its observables will show a deviation from the “typical value”. To recognize and quantify certain defects, it is necessary to determine these typical values, i.e. the values the observables would have without the defect. As a novel approach, local least-median-of-squares linear fits are applied to determine these “would-be” values of the observables. A least-median-of-squares fit is robust against outliers, i.e. it ignores the observable values of defective strips. Knowing the typical values allows to recognize, distinguish and quantify a whole range of strip defects. This contribution explains how the various defects appear in the data and in which order the defects can be recognized. The method has been used to find strip defects on 30 double-sided trapezoidal microstrip sensors for the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, which have been measured at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna (Austria).

  5. Theoretical and experimental study of microstrip-to-slot line uniplanar transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Jong-Gwan; Dib, Nihad I.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Simons, Rainee N.; Taub, Susan R.

    1994-05-01

    Recent advances in MMCI technology make it possible to construct transitions from CPW-to-microstrip with via hole, microstrip-to-slot line and microshield line-to-CPW all of which have potential applications in the feed network of antennas. In this study we investigate the characteristics of the microstrip-to-slot line uniplanar transition using the finite element methods (FEM) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) techniques, and compared the theoretical results with the measurements. In both cases, the results agree with the measurements within a few percent.

  6. Accelerated life test of an ONO stacked insulator film for a silicon micro-strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Shoji; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Saitoh, Yutaka

    1996-01-01

    We have used to acquire the signal through an integrated capacitor for a silicon micro-strip detector. When we have been using a double-sided silicon micro-strip detector, we have required a long-term stability and a high feasibility for the integrated capacitor. An oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) insulator film was theoretically expected to have a superior nature in terms of long term reliability. In order to test long term reliability for integrated capacitor of a silicon micro-strip detector, we made a multi-channel measuring system for capacitors

  7. New results on silicon microstrip detectors of CMS tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaria, N.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bolla, G.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bortoletto, D.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Marina, R. Della; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Favro, G.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; Focardi, E.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammerstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Skog, K.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Li Yahong; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    2000-01-01

    Interstrip and backplane capacitances on silicon microstrip detectors with p + strip on n substrate of 320 μm thickness were measured for pitches between 60 and 240 μm and width over pitch ratios between 0.13 and 0.5. Parametrisations of capacitance w.r.t. pitch and width were compared with data. The detectors were measured before and after being irradiated to a fluence of 4x10 14 protons/cm 2 of 24 GeV/c momentum. The effect of the crystal orientation of the silicon has been found to have a relevant influence on the surface radiation damage, favouring the choice of a substrate. Working at high bias (up to 500 V in CMS) might be critical for the stability of detector, for a small width over pitch ratio. The influence found to enhance the stability

  8. A Quarter Ellipse Microstrip Resonator for Filters in Microwave Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Á. Jaramillo-Flórez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the results of computational simulations and construction of quadrant elliptical resonators excited by coplanar slot line waveguide for designing microwave filters in RF communications systems. By means of the equation of optics, are explained the fundamentals of these geometry of resonators proposed. Are described the construction of quadrant elliptical resonators, one of microstrip and other two of cavity, of size different, and an array of four quadrant elliptical resonators in cascade. The results of the measures and the computational calculus of scattering S11 and S21 of elliptical resonators is made for to identify the resonant frequencies of the resonators studied, proving that these have performance in frequency as complete ellipses by the image effect due to their two mirror in both semiaxis, occupying less area, and the possible applications are discussed.

  9. Frequency selective surfaces based high performance microstrip antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Shiv; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on performance enhancement of printed antennas using frequency selective surfaces (FSS) technology. The growing demand of stealth technology in strategic areas requires high-performance low-RCS (radar cross section) antennas. Such requirements may be accomplished by incorporating FSS into the antenna structure either in its ground plane or as the superstrate, due to the filter characteristics of FSS structure. In view of this, a novel approach based on FSS technology is presented in this book to enhance the performance of printed antennas including out-of-band structural RCS reduction. In this endeavor, the EM design of microstrip patch antennas (MPA) loaded with FSS-based (i) high impedance surface (HIS) ground plane, and (ii) the superstrates are discussed in detail. The EM analysis of proposed FSS-based antenna structures have been carried out using transmission line analogy, in combination with the reciprocity theorem. Further, various types of novel FSS structures are considered in desi...

  10. The construction of a microstrip gas tracker for Hermes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, J. van den

    1994-01-01

    To measure the spin structure of the nucleon, the HERMES experiment is planned at the HERA electron beam using a polarised internal gas target. A tracker is being built to reconstruct the vertex of the exciting particles. It consists of two drift chambers and two microstrip gas counter (MSGC) systems. The MSGC systems are housed into two gas gatight containers surrounding the beam pipe and located immediately after the exit flange of the target housing. The active area of the upper MSGC system covers an angular range of 40 mrad≤θ v ≤ 140 mrad by -170 mrad≤θ h ≤170 mrad. Below the beam pipe a second system is situated with the same acceptance. Each track within the acceptance is measured by two stations of three MSCGs having a strip orientation, of 0 , and +30 and -30 respectively with respect to the vertical axis. (HSI)

  11. The charge collection in single side silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, V V; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Weilhammer, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The transient current technique has been used to investigate signal formation in unirradiated silicon microstrip detectors, which are similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Nanosecond pulsed infrared and red lasers were used to induce the signals under study. Two peculiarities in the detector performance were observed: an unexpectedly slow rise to the signal induced in a given strip when signals are injected opposite to the strip, and a long duration of the induced signal in comparison with the calculated drift time of charge carriers through the detector thickness - with a significant fraction of the charge being induced after charge carrier arrival. These major effects and details of the detector response for different positions of charge injection are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem and compared with predictions arising from the more commonly studied phenomenon of signal formation in planar pad detectors.

  12. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS

  13. Thermal Properties of the Silicon Microstrip Endcap Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Feld, Lutz; Hammarström, R

    1998-01-01

    Irradiated silicon detectors must be cooled in order to guarantee stable short and long term operation. Using the SiF1 milestone prototype we have performed a detailed analysis of the thermal properties of the silicon microstrip endcap detector. The strongest constraint on the cooling system is shown to be set by the need to avoid thermal runaway of the silicon detectors. We show that, taking into account the radiation damage to the silicon after 10 years of LHC operation and including some safety margin, the detector will need a cooling fluid temperature of around -20 C. The highest temperature on the silicon will then be in the range -15 C to -10 C. This sets an upper limit on the ambient temperature in the tracker volume.

  14. Development of Microstrip Silicon Detectors for Star and ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Guthneck, L; Higueret, S; Hundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Tarchini, A; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Erazmus, B; Germain, M; Giliberto, S; Martin, L; Le Moal, C; Roy, C; Colledani, C; Dulinski, W; Turchetta, R

    1998-01-01

    The physics program of STAR and ALICE at ultra-relativistic heavy ion colliders, RHIC and LHC respectively, requires very good tracking capabilities. Some specific quark gluon plasma signatures, based on strange matter measurements implies quite a good secondary vertex reconstruction.For this purpose, the inner trackers of both experiments are composed of high-granularity silicon detectors. The current status of the development of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors is presented in this work.The global performance for tracking purpose adn particle identification are first reviewed. Then tests of the detectors and of the associated readout electronics are described. In-beam measurements of noise, spatial resolution, efficiency and charge matching capability, as well as radiation hardness, are examined.

  15. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-04-13

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  16. Microstrip Cross-coupled Interdigital SIR Based Bandpass Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Maharjan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and compact 4.9 GHz bandpass filter for C-band applications is proposed. This paper presents a novel microstrip cross-coupled interdigital half-wavelength stepped impedance resonator (SIR based bandpass filter (BPF.The designed structure is similar to that of a combination of two parallel interdigital capacitors. The scattering parameters of the structure are measured using vector network analyzer (VNA. The self generated capacitive and inductive reactances within the interdigital resonators exhibited in a resonance frequency of 4.9 GHz. The resonant frequency and bandwidth of the capacitive cross-coupled resonator is directly optimized from the physical arrangement of the resonators. The measured insertion loss (S21 and return loss (S11 were 0.3 dB and 28 dB, respectively, at resonance frequency which were almost close to the simulation results.

  17. A gas microstrip X-ray detector for soft energy fluorescence EXAFS

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, A D; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Lipp, J; Spill, E J; Stephenson, R

    2001-01-01

    Gas microstrip detectors have been previously developed by the particle physics community, where their robustness, compactness and high counting speed have been recognised. These features are particularly attractive to synchrotron radiation use. In this paper, we describe a gas microstrip detector employing multi-element readout and specifically developed for high count rate fluorescence EXAFS at soft X-ray energies below 4 keV.

  18. X-BAND CIRCULARLY POLARIZED RECTENNAS FOR MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xuexia; Xu Junshu; Xu Deming; Xu Changlong

    2008-01-01

    Circularly polarized rectennas operating at X-band are studied in this paper. The quasi-square patches fed by aperture coupling are used as the circularly polarized receiving antennas,which are easily matched and integrated with the circuits of rectennas. The double-layer structure not only minimizes the size of the rectennas but also decreases the effects of the circuits on the antenna. The receiving elements have broader bandwidth and higher gain than the single-layer patches.Two rectennas operating at 10GHz are designed, fabricated and measured. The voltage of 3.86V on a load of 200Ωis measured and a high RF-DC conversion efficiency of 75% is obtained at 9.98GHz. It is convenient for this kind of rectennas to form large arrays for high power applications.

  19. Polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The book on 'polarized neutrons' is intended to inform researchers in condensed matter physics and chemistry of the diversity of scientific problems that can be investigated using polarized neutron beams. The contents include chapters on:- neutron polarizers and instrumentation, polarized neutron scattering, neutron polarization analysis experiments and precessing neutron polarization. (U.K.)

  20. Circularly polarized microwaves for magnetic resonance study in the GHz range: Application to nitrogen-vacancy in diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrózek, M.; Rudnicki, D. S.; Gawlik, W.; Mlynarczyk, J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to create time-dependent magnetic fields of controlled polarization is essential for many experiments with magnetic resonance. We describe a microstrip circuit that allows us to generate strong magnetic field at microwave frequencies with arbitrary adjusted polarization. The circuit performance is demonstrated by applying it to an optically detected magnetic resonance and Rabi nutation experiments in nitrogen-vacancy color centers in diamond. Thanks to high efficiency of the proposed microstrip circuit and degree of circular polarization of 85%; it is possible to address the specific spin states of a diamond sample using a low power microwave generator. The circuit may be applied to a wide range of magnetic resonance experiments with a well-controlled polarization of microwaves

  1. A SPICE model of double-sided Si microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelori, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Bonin, F.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a SPICE model for the ohmic side of AC-coupled Si microstrip detectors with interstrip isolation via field plates. The interstrip isolation has been measured in various conditions by varying the field plate voltage. Simulations have been compared with experimental data in order to determine the values of the model parameters for different voltages applied to the field plates. The model is able to predict correctly the frequency dependence of the coupling between adjacent strips. Furthermore, we have used such model for the study of the signal propagation along the detector when a current signal is injected in a strip. Only electrical coupling is considered here, without any contribution due to charge sharing derived from carrier diffusion. For this purpose, the AC pads of the strips have been connected to a read-out electronics and the current signal has been injected into a DC pad. Good agreement between measurements and simulations has been reached for the central strip and the first neighbors. Experimental tests and computer simulations have been performed for four different strip and field plate layouts, in order to investigate how the detector geometry affects the parameters of the SPICE model and the signal propagation

  2. A DOUBLE E SHAPED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR MULTIBAND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pristin K Mathew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dual band Compact double E shaped Microstrip Patch antenna with enhanced gain for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WI-MAX, Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS and Satellite applications. The modified E shaped patch antenna is designed using CADFEKO and the results of return loss, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR, gain of the proposed antenna are compared with a conventional E shaped patch antenna. The results show that the double E shaped wideband patch antenna has an impedance bandwidth of 10.7 % with a return loss of -13.6dB, -12.4 dB, -12.1dB and -14.2dB at resonant frequencies of 1.96 GHz, 3.62 GHz, 5.76 GHz and 6.82 GHz, whereas a conventional E shaped patch antenna operates at 2.5 GHz, 3.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz with a return loss of -16 dB each and impedance bandwidth of 10.6 %. Both the antennas uses Coaxial Probe feeding technique and Flame Retardant 4 (FR-4 as the substrate material with a thickness of 2.87 mm. A parametric study has been done so as to understand the effect of each parameter to obtain a better performance and optimised results.

  3. Novel trimming technique for tunable HTS microstrip filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yamanashi University, Nakagawa-Sekiya Laboratory, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan)], E-mail: nsekiya@yamanashi.ac.jp; Nakagawa, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yamanashi University, Nakagawa-Sekiya Laboratory, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Saito, A.; Ohshima, S. [Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Johnan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    We have developed a method using additional electric pads for trimming tunable high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip filters. These filters are generally tuned by adjusting the gap between a dielectric floating plate above the filter. When the floating plate approached the filter, the center frequency was shifted to a lower frequency. However, the insertion loss increases due to variation in the external quality factors varying from the design parameter. The external quality factors are usually controlled by adjusting the length of the input/output (I/O) coupled-line elements and the gap between the elements and the resonator. In our method, additional electric pads are distributed at the open-end of the I/O coupled-line elements of a 3-pole hairpin bandpass filter to enable adjustment of the external quality factors so as to reduce insertion loss. The electric pads consist of line-and-space patterns. They are eclectically connected to the coupled-line elements to adjust the line length and gap width and thereby control the external quality factors. An electromagnetic simulator was used for the design and analysis. The simulation results showed that the additional electric pads are effective in improving the insertion loss of the HTS bandpass filter after tuning.

  4. Novel trimming technique for tunable HTS microstrip filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, N.; Nakagawa, Y.; Saito, A.; Ohshima, S.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a method using additional electric pads for trimming tunable high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip filters. These filters are generally tuned by adjusting the gap between a dielectric floating plate above the filter. When the floating plate approached the filter, the center frequency was shifted to a lower frequency. However, the insertion loss increases due to variation in the external quality factors varying from the design parameter. The external quality factors are usually controlled by adjusting the length of the input/output (I/O) coupled-line elements and the gap between the elements and the resonator. In our method, additional electric pads are distributed at the open-end of the I/O coupled-line elements of a 3-pole hairpin bandpass filter to enable adjustment of the external quality factors so as to reduce insertion loss. The electric pads consist of line-and-space patterns. They are eclectically connected to the coupled-line elements to adjust the line length and gap width and thereby control the external quality factors. An electromagnetic simulator was used for the design and analysis. The simulation results showed that the additional electric pads are effective in improving the insertion loss of the HTS bandpass filter after tuning

  5. Commissioning and first data with the ATLAS silicon microstrip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohne, Ole Myren

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN large hadron collider (LHC) has started taking data this autumn with the inauguration of the LHC. The semiconductor tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The completed SCT has recently been installed inside the ATLAS experimental hall. Quick tests were performed last year to verify the connectivity of the electrical and optical services. Problems observed with the heaters for the evaporative cooling system have been resolved. This has enabled extended operation of the full detector under realistic conditions. Calibration data has been taken and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system. In addition, extensive commissioning with cosmic ray events has been performed. The cosmic muon data has been used to align the detector, to check the timing of the front-end electronics as well as to measure the hit efficiency of modules. The current status of the SCT will be reviewed, including results from the latest data-taking periods in autumn 2008, and from the detector alignment. We will report on the commissioning of the detector, including overviews on services, connectivity and observed problems. Particular emphasis will also be placed on the SCT data taken in the latest running period with the entire ATLAS detector participating. The SCT commissioning and running experience will then be used to extract valuable lessons for future silicon strip detector projects.

  6. Operation of sealed microstrip gas chambers at the ILL

    CERN Document Server

    Clergeau, J F; Feltin, D; Fischer, H E; Guérard, B; Hansen, T; Manzin, G; Oed, A; Palleau, P

    2001-01-01

    Microstrip Gas Counters (MSGCs) were introduced at the ILL as a response to the problem of fabricating the large area neutron detector of the D20 neutron powder diffractometer. This banana-like detector consists of 48 MSGCs, each comprising 32 counting cells. It was in operation during 18 months before being stopped due to the progressive deterioration of the anode strips. In order to increase its lifetime, significant modifications were introduced in the recently assembled new version. Another instrument, D4C, was recently equipped with a modular detector made of nine MSGCs, each of them in an individual gas vessel. Besides the unidimensional individual readout MSGC of D20 and D4C, the ILL has developed bidimensional MSGCs with a charge division readout. All these detectors employ sealed vessels containing a gas mixture at a pressure which can be as high as 15 bar, necessitating very clean conditions. This paper describes the experience acquired at the ILL in the fabrication and operation of these detectors.

  7. Microstrip Butler matrix design and realization for 7 T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Pedram; Solbach, Klaus

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the design and realization of 8 × 8 and 16 × 16 Butler matrices for 7 T MRI systems. With the focus on low insertion loss and high amplitude/phase accuracy, the microstrip line integration technology (microwave-integrated circuit) was chosen for the realization. Laminate material of high permittivity (ε(r) = 11) and large thickness (h = 3.2 mm) is shown to allow the best trade-off of circuit board size versus insertion loss, saving circuit area by extensive folding of branch-line coupler topology and meandering phase shifter and connecting strip lines and reducing mutual coupling of neighboring strip lines by shield structures between strip lines. With this approach, 8 × 8 Butler matrices were produced in single boards of 310 mm × 530 mm, whereas the 16 × 16 Butler matrices combined two submatrices of 8 × 8 with two smaller boards. Insertion loss was found at 0.73 and 1.1 dB for an 8 × 8 matrix and 16 × 16 matrix, respectively. Measured amplitude and phase errors are shown to represent highly pure mode excitation with unwanted modes suppressed by 40 and 35 dB, respectively. Both types of matrices were implemented with a 7 T MRI system and 8- and 16-element coil arrays for RF mode shimming experiments and operated successfully with 8 kW of RF power. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Breakdown of coupling dielectrics for Si microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelori, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Padova Univ.; Saglimbeni, G.

    1999-01-01

    Double-layer coupling dielectrics for AC-coupled Si microstrip detectors have been electrically characterized in order to determine their performance in a radiation-harsh environment, with a focus on the dielectric breakdown. Two different dielectric technologies have been investigated: SiO 2 /TEOS and SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 . Dielectrics have been tested by using a negative gate voltage ramp of 0.2 MV/(cm·s). The metal/insulator/Si I-V characteristics show different behaviours depending on the technology. The extrapolated values of the breakdown field for unirradiated devices are significantly higher for SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 dielectrics, but the data dispersion is lower for SiO 2 /TEOS devices. No significant variation of the breakdown field has been measured after a 10 Mrad (Si) γ irradiation for SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 dielectrics. Finally, the SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 DC conduction is enhanced if a positive gate voltage ramp is applied with respect to the negative one, due to the asymmetric conduction of the double-layer dielectric

  9. An improved broadband E patch microstrip antenna for wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzeih, Amer; Chahine, Soubhi Abou; Kabalan, Karim Y.; El-Hajj, Ali; Chehab, Ali

    2007-12-01

    A broadband probe-fed microstrip antenna with E-shaped patch on a single-layer air substrate is investigated. Bandwidth enhancement of the antenna is achieved by inserting two parallel slots into its radiating patch. The effects of the antenna parameters are analyzed, and their optimal values for broadband operation are obtained. The design parameters are formulated as a function of the center frequency, and the empirical equations are validated by simulation. A 51.5% enhanced E patch antenna for modern wireless communications (Personal Communications Service, Digital Cellular System, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, Wireless Local Area Network 802.11 b/g, and Bluetooth) is designed, simulated, fabricated, and measured. A comparison between simulated and measured results is presented, and it showed satisfactory agreement. Moreover, the effect of incorporating more parallel slots into the radiating patch is investigated. The antenna is designed and simulated for different scenarios (four slots, six slots, and eight slots), where a bandwidth of 57% is achieved in the eight-slot design.

  10. Towards long lived tunable transmon qubit in microstrip geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braumueller, Jochen; Radtke, Lucas; Rotzinger, Hannes; Weides, Martin; Ustinov, Alexey V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Physikalisches Institut, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Qubits constitute the main building blocks of a prospective quantum computer. One main challenge is given by short decoherence times. In this work we investigate a transmon qubit based on a superconducting charge qubit with reduced sensitivity to charge noise. This is achieved by operating the qubit at a Josephson to charging energy ratio of about 100. At the same time, a sufficiently large anharmonicity of the energy levels is preserved. The qubit is realized in a 2D geometry based on large capacitor pads being connected by two Josephson junctions in parallel. This split Josephson junction allows the qubit to be tunable in Josephson energy and therefore in resonance frequency. The large area capacitor pads mainly coupled through the substrate and a backside metalization reduce the surface loss contribution. Manipulation and readout of the qubit is mediated by a microstrip resonator coupled to a feedline. We present resonator and qubit designs together with respective microwave simulations. Preliminary results on circuit fabrication and low temperature measurements are also discussed.

  11. Electrodynamic modeling applied to micro-strip gas chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, R.

    1998-01-01

    Gas gain variations as functions of time, counting rate and substrate resistivity have been observed with Micro-Strip Gas Chambers (MSGC). Such a chamber is here treated as a system of 2 dielectrics, gas and substrate, with finite resistivities. Electric charging between their interface results in variations of the electric field and the gas gain. The electrodynamic equations (including time dependence) for such a system are proposed. A Rule of Charge Accumulation (RCA) is then derived which allows to determine the quantity and sign of charges accumulated on the surface at equilibrium. In order to apply the equations and the rule to MSGCs, a model of gas conductance induced by ionizing radiation is proposed, and a differential equation and some formulae are derived to calculate the rms dispersion and the spatial distribution of electrons (ions) in inhomogeneous electric fields. RCA coupled with a precise simulation of the electric fields gives the first quantitative explanation of gas gain variations of MSGCs. Finally an electrodynamic simulation program is made to reproduce the dynamic process of gain variation due to surface charging with an uncertainty of at most 15% relative to experimental data. As a consequence, the methods for stabilizing operation of MSGCs are proposed. (author)

  12. Study of silicon microstrips detector quantum efficiency using mathematical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva Pernia, Diana; Cabal Rodriguez, Ana Ester; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Fabelo, Antonio Leyva; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Cruz Inclan, Carlos M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows the results from the application of mathematical simulation to study the quantum efficiency of a microstrips crystalline silicon detector, intended for medical imaging and the development of other applications such as authentication and dating of cultural heritage. The effects on the quantum efficiency of some parameters of the system, such as the detector-source geometry, X rays energy and detector dead zone thickness, were evaluated. The simulation results were compared with the theoretical prediction and experimental available data, resulting in a proper correspondence. It was concluded that the use of frontal configuration for incident energies lower than 17 keV is more efficient, however the use of the edge-on configuration for applications requiring the detection of energy above this value is recommended. It was also found that the reduction of the detector dead zone led to a considerable increase in quantum efficiency for any energy value in the interval from 5 to 100 keV.(author)

  13. Development of microstrip gas chambers on substrata with electronic conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouclier, R.; Garabatos, C.; Manzin, G.; Sauli, F.; Shekhtman, L.; Temmel, T.; Della Mea, G.; Maggioni, G.; Rigato, V.; Logachenko, I.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes several recent developments on Microstrip Gas Chambers (MSGCs). The authors have studied the operating behavior of the detectors in different gas mixtures; maximum stable gains have been achieved in mixtures of argon and dimethyl-ether (DME) in almost equal proportions. Using detectors manufactured on semi-conducting glass substrates, capable of withstanding very high rates (above 10 6 mm -2 s -1 ), they have demonstrated extended lifetime without gain modifications up to a collected charge of 130 mC cm -1 in clean laboratory operating conditions. They have also verified that relaxing the requirements on cleanness conditions, either in the gas mixing system or in the detector construction, may result in fast aging of the devices under irradiation. As an alternative to the semi-conducting glass, they have developed a novel technique to coat regular glass with a thin lead silicate layer having electron conductivity; a new development consisting in coating already manufactured MSGCs with the thin semi-conducting layer is also described. The preliminary results show an excellent rate capability of this kind of devices, intrinsically simpler to manufacture

  14. Bandwidth enhancement of a microstrip patch antenna for ultra-wideband applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anum, Khanda; Singh, Milind Saurabh; Mishra, Rajan; Tripathi, G. S.

    2018-04-01

    The microstrip antennas are used where size, weight, cost, and performance are constraints. Microstrip antennas (MSA) are being used in many government and commercial applications among which it is mostly used in wireless communication. The proposed antenna is designed for Ultra-wideband (UWB), it is designed on FR4 substrate material with ɛr = 4.3 and 0.0025 loss tangent. The shape and size of patch in microstrip patch antenna plays an important role in its performance. In the proposed antenna design the respective changes have been introduced which includes slotting the feedline,adding a curved slot in patch and change in patch shape itself to improve the bandwidth of the conventional antenna. The simulated results of proposed antenna shows impedance bandwidth (defined by 10 dB return loss) of 2-11.1GHz, VSWRcommunication at 7.25-8.395 GHz.

  15. Design and Analysis of a Triple Stop-band Filter Using Ratioed Periodical Defected Microstrip Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yanyan; Li, Yingsong

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a triple stop-band filter with a ratioed periodical defected microstrip structure is proposed for wireless communication applications. The proposed ratioed periodical defected microstrip structures are spiral slots, which are embedded into a 50 Ω microstrip line to obtain multiple stop-bands. The performance of the proposed triple stop-band filter is investigated numerically and experimentally. Moreover, the equivalent circuit model of the proposed filter is also established and discussed. The results are given to verify that the proposed triple stop-band filter has three stop bands at 3.3 GHz, 5.2 GHz, 6.8 GHz to reject the unwanted signals, which is promising for integrating into UWB communication systems to efficiently prevent the potential interferences from unexpected narrowband signals such as WiMAX, WLAN and RFID communication systems.

  16. Study of micro-strip gas ionisation chambers substrates for CMS experiment at LHC; Etude de substrats pour chambres gazeuses a micropistes dans le cadre de l`experience CMS au LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallares, A.

    1996-06-14

    High luminosity, expected interaction and dose rates of the future LHC collider require the development of micro-strips gas chambers. In addition to optimization of this new detector, this work is concerned with understanding of gain loss phenomena. Influence of the gas substrate is carefully analysed, as well as theoretical concepts concerning glasses and their behaviour under polarization and irradiation, and the consequence on detection operations.Electron spin resonance is used to study, in standard glass, creation of radiation induced defects which may be charged. (D.L.). 14 refs.

  17. Noise and signal processing in a microstrip detector with a time variant readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaneo, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper treats the noise and signal processing by a time variant filter in a microstrip detector. In particular, the noise sources in the detector-electronics chain and the signal losses that cause a substantial decrease of the original signal are thoroughly analyzed. This work has been motivated by the analysis of the data of the microstrip detectors designed for the ALEPH minivertex detector. Hence, even if the discussion will be kept as general as possible, concrete examples will be presented referring to the specific ALEPH design. (orig.)

  18. Note: Electrical detection and quantification of spin rectification effect enabled by shorted microstrip transmission line technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Peng, Bin; Chai, Guozhi

    2014-01-01

    We describe a shorted microstrip method for the sensitive quantification of Spin Rectification Effect (SRE). SRE for a Permalloy (Ni 80 Fe 20 ) thin film strip sputtered onto SiO 2 substrate is demonstrated. Our method obviates the need for simultaneous lithographic patterning of the sample and transmission line, therefore greatly simplifying the SRE measurement process. Such a shorted microstrip method can allow different contributions to SRE (anisotropic magnetoresistance, Hall effect, and anomalous Hall effect) to be simultaneously determined. Furthermore, SRE signals from unpatterned 50 nm thick Permalloy films of area dimensions 5 mm × 10 mm can even be detected

  19. P-spray implant optimization for the fabrication of n-in-p microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleta, Celeste; Lozano, Manuel; Pellegrini, Giulio; Campabadal, Francesca; Rafi, Joan Marc; Ullan, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    This work reports on an optimization study of the p-spray profile for the fabrication of n-in-p microstrip silicon detectors. A thorough simulation process of the expected electrical performance of different p-spray technologies was carried out. The best technological options for the p-spray implantation were chosen for the fabrication of miniature n-in-p microstrip detectors on high resistivity FZ wafers at the IMB-CNM clean room. The main conclusions derived from the simulations, and the electrical performance of a sample of the fabricated devices is presented

  20. Design, simulation and analysis a microstrip antenna using PU-EFB substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, S. N. S.; Jusoh, M. A.; Jasim, S. E.; Zamani, A. H.; Abdullah, M. H.

    2018-04-01

    A low cost, light weight and easy to fabricate are the most important factor for future antennas. Microstrip patch antennas offer these advantages and suitable for communication and sensor application. This paper presents a design of simple microstrip patch antenna working on operating frequency of 2.4 GHz. The designed process has been carried out using MATLAB and HFSS software by entering 2.3 for the dielectric constant of PU-EFB. The results showed that high return loss, low bandwidth and good antenna radiation efficiency of which are -21.98 dB, 0.28 dB and 97.33%, respectively.

  1. Selective area epitaxy of monolithic white-light InGaN/GaN quantum well microstripes with dual color emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuejing; Tong, Yuying; Yang, Guofeng; Yao, Chujun; Sun, Rui; Cai, Lesheng; Xu, Guiting; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Qing; Ye, Xuanchao; Wu, Mengting; Wen, Zhiqin

    2015-01-01

    Monolithic color synthesis is demonstrated using InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (QWs) grown on GaN microstripes formed by selective area epitaxy on SiO 2 mask patterns. The striped microfacet structure is composed of (0001) and (11-22) planes, attributed to favorable surface polarity and surface energy. InGaN/GaN QWs on different microfacets contain spatially inhomogeneous compositions owing to the diffusion of adatoms among the facets. This unique property allows the microfacet QWs to emit blue light from the (11-22) plane and yellow light from the top (0001) plane, the mixing of which leads to the perception of white light emission

  2. Selective area epitaxy of monolithic white-light InGaN/GaN quantum well microstripes with dual color emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuejing; Tong, Yuying; Yang, Guofeng, E-mail: gfyang@jiangnan.edu.cn; Yao, Chujun; Sun, Rui; Cai, Lesheng; Xu, Guiting; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Qing; Ye, Xuanchao; Wu, Mengting; Wen, Zhiqin [School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Monolithic color synthesis is demonstrated using InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (QWs) grown on GaN microstripes formed by selective area epitaxy on SiO{sub 2} mask patterns. The striped microfacet structure is composed of (0001) and (11-22) planes, attributed to favorable surface polarity and surface energy. InGaN/GaN QWs on different microfacets contain spatially inhomogeneous compositions owing to the diffusion of adatoms among the facets. This unique property allows the microfacet QWs to emit blue light from the (11-22) plane and yellow light from the top (0001) plane, the mixing of which leads to the perception of white light emission.

  3. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for Tevatron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korjenevski, Sergey

    2004-01-01

    The Silicon Microstrip Tracking detectors at the CDF and D0 experiments have now been operating for almost three years at Fermilab. These detectors were designed originally for an integrated luminosity of 2fb -1 . As the expected luminosity for Run IIb at the Tevatron collider was initially envisioned to reach 15fb -1 , radiation tolerances of both devices were revisited, culminating in proposals for new systems. With reduced expectations for total luminosity at ∼6fb -1 , the full detector-replacement projects were terminated. The CDF detector is expected nevertheless to cope efficiently with the lower anticipated dose, however, the D0 experiment is planning a smaller-scale project: a Layer-0 (L0) upgrade of the silicon tracker (D0SMT). The new device will fit between the beam line and the inner layer of the current Tracker. Built of single-sided sensors, this upgrade is expected to perform well in the harsh radiation environment, and be able to withstand an integrated luminosity of 15fb -1 . Prototypes of Run IIb sensors were irradiated using 10MeV protons at the tandem Van de Graaff at the James R. McDonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. A fit to the 10MeV proton data yields a damage parameter αp=11x10-17Acm. This is consistent with results from RD48 (αp=9.9x10-17Acm). The scaling of damage to 1MeV neutron fluence uses a hardness factor (κ) derived from the non-ionizing components of the energy loss (NEIL). NEIL predicts a hardness factor of 3.87 for 10MeV protons. We obtained an experimental value of this factor of 2.54, or 34% smaller than scaling predictions from NEIL

  4. Cross-talk studies on FPCB of double-sided silicon micro-strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lei; Li, Zhankui; Li, Haixia; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhusheng; Chen, Cuihong; Liu, Fengqiong; Li, Ronghua; Wang, Xiuhua; Li, Chunyan; Zu, Kailing

    2014-01-01

    Double-sided silicon micro-strip detector's parameters and a test method and the results of cross-talk of FPCB are given in this abstract. In addition, the value of our detector's readout signal has little relation to FPCB's cross-talk.

  5. Performance of a silicon microstrip detector in a high radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, C.S.; Brown, C.N.; Kapustinsky, J.; Leitch, M.J.; McGaughey, P.L.; Peng, J.C.; Sailor, W.; Holzscheiter, K.; Sadler, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the performance of a silicon microstrip detector that has been studied in a high rate environment using electron, pion, and proton beams. The pulse height, time response, and leakage current have been studied as a function of particle fluence up to a total integrated flus of about 4 x 10 14 protons/cm 2

  6. Observation of electron multiplication in liquid xenon with a microstrip plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policarpo, A.P.L.; Geltenbort, P.; Ferreira Marques, R.; Araujo, H.; Fraga, F.; Alves, M.A.; Fonte, P.; Lima, E.P.; Fraga, M.M.; Salete Leite, M.; Silander, K.; Onofre, A.; Pinhao, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    We report here on the observation of electron multiplication in liquid xenon in a microstrip chamber with an amplification factor of the order of 10. The measurements were carried out at a temperature between 208 and 215 K (liquid density of about 2.7 g/cm 3 ). (orig.)

  7. Automated testing of microstrip detectors readout system for dual x-ray dual energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos, L.; Cabal, A. E.; Diaz, A.; Swientek, K.; Giubellino, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Prino, F.; Ramello, L.

    2008-01-01

    Circuits that carry out the signal acquisition and processing by multiple channels are required in digital radiography. These circuits should be tested in order to characterize their performance. This paper describes an automated system to control (by a software, from a personal computer) the characterization of a system based on RX64DTH specific integrated circuits with microstrip detectors. The results are shown. (Author)

  8. Open-Circuit End Effect of Microstrip Line Configuration in Plasma Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Bhushan Mital

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension in length for open microstrip configuration in plasma media is determined using spectral domain technique under quasi static approach [1, 2]. The results were verified by modifying Hammerstad equation for plasma media. Good agreement is found between the two results.

  9. Performance of microstrip proportional counters for x-ray astronomy on spectrum-roentgen-gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; BAHNSEN, A; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1991-01-01

    DSRI will provide a set of four imaging proportional counters for the Danish-Soviet X-ray telescopes XSPECT/SODART. The sensor principle is based on the novel micro-strip proportional counter (MSPC), where the strip electrodes are deposited by photolithography onto a rigid substrate. The MSPC off...

  10. A Novel Approach for an Integrated Straw Tube-Microstrip Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.; Paolozzi, A.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Pucci, C.; Russo, A.; Saviano, G.; Casali, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Bianconi, D.; Baruffaldi, F.; Perilli, E.; Massa, F.

    2006-06-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell/spl reg/ lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported as well.

  11. A Novel Approach for an Integrated Straw tube-Microstrip Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell $^{\\circledR}$ lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported on as well.

  12. Development of a fabrication technology for double-sided AC-coupled silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Rachevskaia, I.; Zen, M.; Zorzi, N.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the development of a fabrication technology for double-sided, AC-coupled silicon microstrip detectors for tracking applications. Two batches of detectors with good electrical figures and a low defect rate were successfully manufactured at IRST Laboratory. The processing techniques and the experimental results obtained from these detector prototypes are presented and discussed

  13. Modelling of bow-tie microstrip antennas using modified locally conformal FDTD method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, J.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of bow-tie microstrip antennas is presented based on the use of the modified locally conformal finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. This approach enables the number of cells along the antenna length and width to be chosen independently of the antenna central width, which helps to

  14. Temperature dependence of dynamical permeability characterization of magnetic thin films using shorted microstrip line probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiling; Li, Chengyi; Chai, Guozhi

    2017-01-01

    A temperature dependence microwave permeability characterization system of magnetic thin film up to 10 GHz is designed and fabricated. This system can be used at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 200 °C, and is based on a shorted microstrip probe, which is made by microwave printed circuit board. Without contacting the magnetic thin films to the probe, the microwave permeability of the film can be detected without any limitations of sample size and with almost the same accuracy, as shown by comparison with the results obtained from a shorted microstrip transmission-line fixture. The complex permeability can be deduced by an analytical approach from the measured reflection coefficient of a strip line ( S 11 ) with and without a ferromagnetic film material on it. The procedures are the same with the shorted microstrip transmission-line method. The microwave permeability of an oblique deposited CoZr thin film was investigated with this probe. The results show that the room temperature dynamic permeability of the CoZr film is in good agreement with the results obtained from the established short-circuited microstrip perturbation method. The temperature dependence permeability results fit well with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Development of the temperature-dependent measurement of the magnetic properties of magnetic thin film may be useful for the high-frequency application of magnetic devices at high temperatures. (paper)

  15. Problem-Matched Basis Functions for Microstrip Coupled Slot Antennas based on Transmission Line Greens Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruni, S.; Llombart Juan, N.; Neto, A.; Gerini, G.; Maci, S.

    2004-01-01

    A general algorithm for the analysis of microstrip coupled leaky wave slot antennas was discussed. The method was based on the construction of physically appealing entire domain Methods of Moments (MoM) basis function that allowed a consistent reduction of the number of unknowns and of total

  16. Linearity discontinuities in Xe-filled X-ray microstrip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zavattini, G.; Feroci, M.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    1997-01-01

    A prototype Xe + 10% CH4 microstrip detector was used to study the K-edge discontinuity in the pulse-height distribution as a function of the energy of incident X-rays. The electronics used was such that a pulse-shape rejection could be made of K-fluorescence reabsorption in the detector. The mea...

  17. Analysis and design of broadband U-slot cut rectangular microstrip ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT A DESHMUKH

    2017-07-15

    Jul 15, 2017 ... Abstract. Broadband microstrip antenna using variations of U-slot has been widely reported. However, in most of the reported work, an in-depth explanation about the mode introduced by U-slot and procedure to design. U-slot cut antennas at any given frequency is not explained. In this paper, first an ...

  18. Assembly and validation of the SSD silicon microstrip detector of ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A.P.; Kuijer, P.G.; Nooren, G.J.L.; Oskamp, C.J.; Sokolov, A.N.; van den Brink, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) forms the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of ALICE. The SSD detector consists of 1698 double-sided silicon microstrip modules. The electrical connection between silicon sensor and front-end electronics is made via TAB-bonded

  19. Microstrip Resonator for High Field MRI with Capacitor-Segmented Strip and Ground Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Boer, Vincent; Petersen, Esben Thade

    2017-01-01

    ) segmenting stripe and ground plane of the resonator with series capacitors. The design equations for capacitors providing symmetric current distribution are derived. The performance of two types of segmented resonators are investigated experimentally. To authors’ knowledge, a microstrip resonator, where both......, strip and ground plane are capacitor-segmented, is shown here for the first time....

  20. Performance of microstrip gas chambers passivated by thin semiconducting glass and plastic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishai, M.R.; Gerndt, E.K.E.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Wang, P.N.; Bagulya, A.V.; Grishin, V.M.; Negodaev, M.A.; Geltenbort, P.

    1995-01-01

    Patterned microstrip gas chamber substrates have been covered with ion-beam sputtered glass with electronic conductivity or a polymer which was subsequently irradiated with an ion-beam. The sputtering procedure is described in detail. The performance of several detectors is reported. (orig.)

  1. Computer-Aided Design of Microstrip GaAs Mesfet Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Ole

    1976-01-01

    Results on computer-aided design of broadband GaAs MESFET amplifiers in microstrip is presented. The analysis of an amplifier is based on measured scattering parameters and a model of the microstrip structure, which includes parasitics and junction effects. The optimized performance of one stage...... amplifiers with lossless distributed matching elements is presented. Realized amplifiers are in good agreement with the theory. One stage amplifiers with a 1 ¿m FET in chip form exhibit 5.8 dB of gain in the range 8-12 GHz, while a gain of 4.5 dB from 4-8 GHz has been obtained with a packaged 1 ¿m FET....

  2. The application of a microstrip gas counter to energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Conde, C.A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Performance characteristics of a microstrip gas counter operated as a x-ray fluorescence spectrometer are reported. Gas amplification as a function of microstrip anode-cathode voltage was measured, and the breakdown threshold voltage was determined in pure xenon. The detector temporal stability and the effect of gas purity were assessed. Energy resolution and linearity, detection efficiency, and uniformity of spatial response in the 2- to 60-keV x-ray energy range were determined from the pulse-height distributions of the fluorescence x-ray spectra induced in a variety of single- and multi-element sample materials. Energy resolution similar to conventional proportional counters was achieved at 6 keV

  3. Quality Factor Effect on the Wireless Range of Microstrip Patch Antenna Strain Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliri, Ali; Galehdar, Amir; Rowe, Wayne S. T.; John, Sabu; Wang, Chun H.; Ghorbani, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA) design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection. PMID:24451457

  4. The bipolar silicon microstrip detector: A proposal for a novel precision tracking device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, R.

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed to combine the technology of fully depleted microstrip detectors fabricated on n doped high resistivity silicon with the concept of the bipolar transistor. This is done by adding a n ++ doped region inside the normal p + implanted region of the reverse biased p + n diode. The resulting structure has amplifying properties and is referred to as bipaolar pixel transistor. The simplest readout scheme of a bipolar pixel array by an aluminium strip bus leads to the bipolar microstrip detector. The bipolar pixel structure is expected to give a better signal-to-noise performance for the detection of minimum ionizing charged particle tracks than the normal silicon diode strip detector and therefore should allow in future the fabrication of thinner silicon detectors for precision tracking. (orig.)

  5. Microstrip linear phase low pass filter based on defected ground structures for partial response modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimoli, Bruno; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Olmos, Juan Jose Vegas

    2018-01-01

    We report a high performance linear phase low pass filter (LPF) designed for partial response (PR) modulations. For the implementation, we adopted microstrip technology and a variant of the standard stepped‐impedance technique. Defected ground structures (DGS) are used for increasing the characte......We report a high performance linear phase low pass filter (LPF) designed for partial response (PR) modulations. For the implementation, we adopted microstrip technology and a variant of the standard stepped‐impedance technique. Defected ground structures (DGS) are used for increasing...... the characteristic impedance of transmission lines. Experimental results prove that the proposed filter can successfully modulate a non‐return‐to‐zero (NRZ) signal into a five levels PR one....

  6. Use of silicon microstrip detectors in medical diagnostic x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabal Rodriguez, Ana Ester

    2004-11-01

    This work presents the development and characterization of a single photon counting system based on silicon microstrip detectors, used in High Energy Physics experiments, and on low noise multichannel readout electronics. The thesis evaluates the feasibility of dual energy X-ray imaging with silicon microstrip detectors to be applied on medical diagnosis. Dual energy mammographic and angiographic experimental tests have been performed using the developed counting systems proto types, properly phantoms and quasi-monochromatic X ray beams, obtained on a compact dichromatic source based on a conventional X-ray tube and a mosaic crystal. A Monte Carlo simulation of the performance of the experimental setup for dual X-ray imaging has also been carried out using MCNP-4C transport code. We obtained good agreement between MCNP results and the experimental data. (Author)

  7. Degradation of silicon AC-coupled microstrip detectors induced by radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Canali, C.; Fuochi, P. G.; Gotra, Y.; Paccagnella, A.; Verzellesi, G.

    1993-12-01

    Results are presented showing the radiation response of AC-coupled FOXFET biased microstrip detectors and related test patterns to be used in the microvertex detector of the CDF experiment at Fermi National Laboratory. Radiation tolerance of detectors to gamma and proton irradiation has been tested, and the radiation-induced variations of the DC electrical parameters have been analyzed. The long-term postirradiation behavior of detector characteristics has been studied, and the relevant room-temperature annealing phenomena have been examined. The main radiation damage effects after gamma or proton irradiation of FOXFET biased microstrip detectors consist of an increase in the total leakage current, while both the detector dynamic resistance and FOXFET switching voltage decrease.

  8. Analysis and optimal design of Si microstrip detector with overhanging metal electrode

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Kirti; Chatterji, S; Srivastava-Ajay, K; Shivpuri, R K

    2001-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment to be encountered at LHC (large hadron collider) and RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider) poses a challenging task for the fabrication of Si microstrip detectors. Due to high luminosities, detectors are required to sustain very high voltage operation well exceeding the bias voltage needed to fully deplete them. The "overhanging" metal contact is now a well established technique for improving the breakdown performance of the Si microstrip detector. Based on computer simulation, the influence of various physical and geometrical parameters on the electrical breakdown of the Si detectors equipped with metal overhangs is extensively analysed. Furthermore, optimization of design parameters is performed to achieve breakdown voltages close to maximum realizable values. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. (17 refs).

  9. Full-Wave Analysis of Microstrip Antennas in Three-Layered Spherical Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of three-layered spherical microstrip antenna has been analyzed based on Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG triangular basis functions using mixed potential integral equation (MPIE. Firstly, the model of antenna and the dyadic Green’s function in spherical microstrip antennas are given at the beginning of this paper. Then, due to the infinite series convergence problem, asymptotic extraction approach is presented to accelerate the Green’s functions convergence speed when source and field points are located in the same layer and different layers. The convergence speed can be accelerated observably by using this method. Finally, in order to simplify impedance matrix elements calculation at the junction of the probe and patch, a novel division fashion of pair of triangles is adopted in this paper. The input impedance result obtained shows the validity and effectiveness of the analysis method comparing with published data.

  10. Quality Factor Effect on the Wireless Range of Microstrip Patch Antenna Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Daliri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection.

  11. Singularity Processing Method of Microstrip Line Edge Based on LOD-FDTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of the accuracy and efficiency for analyzing the microstrip structure, a singularity processing method is proposed theoretically and experimentally based on the fundamental locally one-dimensional finite difference time domain (LOD-FDTD with second-order temporal accuracy (denoted as FLOD2-FDTD. The proposed method can highly improve the performance of the FLOD2-FDTD even when the conductor is embedded into more than half of the cell by the coordinate transformation. The experimental results showed that the proposed method can achieve higher accuracy when the time step size is less than or equal to 5 times of that the Courant-Friedrich-Levy (CFL condition allowed. In comparison with the previously reported methods, the proposed method for calculating electromagnetic field near microstrip line edge not only improves the efficiency, but also can provide a higher accuracy.

  12. Simplified microstrip discontinuity modeling using the transmission line matrix method interfaced to microwave CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James H.; Apel, Thomas R.

    1990-07-01

    A technique for modeling microstrip discontinuities is presented which is derived from the transmission line matrix method of solving three-dimensional electromagnetic problems. In this technique the microstrip patch under investigation is divided into an integer number of square and half-square (triangle) subsections. An equivalent lumped-element model is calculated for each subsection. These individual models are then interconnected as dictated by the geometry of the patch. The matrix of lumped elements is then solved using either of two microwave CAD software interfaces with each port properly defined. Closed-form expressions for the lumped-element representation of the individual subsections is presented and experimentally verified through the X-band frequency range. A model demonstrating the use of symmetry and block construction of a circuit element is discussed, along with computer program development and CAD software interface.

  13. Development of gas micro-strip chambers for high rate radiation detection and tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Bouclier, Roger; Gaudaen, J; Florent, J J; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Bondar, A E; Groshev, V R; Minakov, G D; Onuchin, A P; Pestov, Yu N; Shekhtman, L I; Sidorov, V A; Dixit, M S; Oakham, G K; Møller, S; Sørensen, G; Uggerhøj, Erik; Brons, S; Brückner, W; Godbersen, M; Heidrich, M; Paul, S; Trombini, A; Werding, R; Armitage, J A; Karlen, D A; Stewart, G; Barasch, E F; McIntyre, P; Pang, Y; Trost, H J; Salomon, M; Breskin, Amos; Chechik, R; Pansky, A; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1992-01-01

    Gas Micro-Strip Chambers (GMSC) are a promising high-rate, high resolution position detector suited for use in high luminosity hadron collider experiments, as general purpose tracker or to improve the performances of pre-shower counters, transition radiation and inner muon detectors. Large GMSC arrays have been included in proposed LHC and SSC experimental setups. The operating characteristics of GMSC make their use very attractive also for detectors at tau/charm/beauty factories, as well as for synchrotron radiation facilities and for medical applications. At the present state of the art, some problems limiting the usefulness of microstrip chambers are the observed gain changes due to charging up of the support, possible long-term degradation due to ageing, limited sizes imposed by fabrication technologies and unavailability of dedicated high-speed, high-density readout electronics. Limited experience exists of operation of GMSC in real experimental conditions, and little if anything is known about performan...

  14. Development of Gas Micro-Strip Chambers for Radiation Detection and Tracking at High Rates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD28 \\\\ \\\\ Micro-Strip Gas Chambers (GMSC) are a promising high rate, high resolution position detector suited for use in high luminosity hadron collider experiments, as general purpose tracker or to improve the performances of preshower counters, transition radiation and inner muon detectors. Large GMSC arrays have been included in proposed LHC and SSC experimental setups. The operating characteristics of GMSC make their use very attractive also for detectors at tau/beauty/charm factories, as well as for synchrotron radiation facilities and medical applications. At the present state of the art, some problems limiting the usefulness of microstrip chambers are the observed gain changes due to charging up of the support, possible long-term degradation due to ageing, limited sizes imposed by fabrication technologies and unavailability of dedicated high-speed, high-density readout electronics. Limited experience exists of operation of GMSC in real experimental conditions, and little if anything is known about p...

  15. Performance characteristics and radiation damage results from the Fermilab E706 silicon microstrip detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E Jr; Mani, S; Orris, D; Shepard, P F; Weerasundara, P D; Choudhary, B C; Joshi, U; Kapoor, V; Shivpuri, R; Baker, W

    1989-07-01

    A charged particle spectrometer containing a 7120-channel silicon microstrip detector system, one component of Fermilab experiment E706 to study direct photon production in hadron-hadron collisions, was utilized in a run in which 6 million events were recorded. We describe the silicon system, provide early results of track and vertex reconstruction, and present data on the radiation damage to the silicon wafers resulting from the narrow high intensity beam. (orig.).

  16. Energy resolution in X-ray detecting micro-strip gas counters

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Mir, J A; Spill, E J; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    Systematic measurements of the energy resolution available from a Micro-Strip Gas Counter (MSGC) are presented. The effect of factors such as bias potential, gas filling and strip geometry on the energy resolution are examined in detail and related to a simple model. The geometry of the MSGC is adapted to permit 'wall-less' detection of X-rays and this results in useful improvements in the pulse height spectra.

  17. High flux operation of microstrip gas chambers on glass and plastic supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouclier, R.; Florent, J.J.; Gaudaen, J.; Millon, G.; Pasta, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Sauli, F.; Shekhtman, L.I.

    1992-01-01

    Recent observations on microstrip gas chambers realized on various glass and plastic supports are presented in this paper. Short term measurements indicate a rate capability up to and above 5x10 5 counts/s mm 2 . A long term exposure to radiation shows however gain modifications, dependent on the resistivity of the chamber substrate; a choice of low resistivity supports minimizes this effect. (orig.)

  18. Passivation of gas microstrip detectors and stability of long-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; Armitage, J.; Chapman, G.; Dixit, M.; Dubeau, J.; Faszer, W.; Hamel, L.A.; Oakham, G.

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the long-term operation of gas microstrip detectors which have been passivated with a layer of nickel oxide. We have used as the active gas CF 4 /isobutane (80 : 20) and three different types of substrates: Tedlar, glass and Upilex. In all three cases we found that the detectors are stable after passivation and can operate for a month without changes in gain at rates of MHz. The total accumulated charge was approximately 100 mC. ((orig.))

  19. A micro-strip gas counter test with the RD20 front-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clergeau, J.F.; Contardo, D.; Haroutunian, R.; Smadja, G.

    1994-05-01

    A Micro-Strip Gas Counter equipped with the VLSI preamplifier of the RD20 chip has been tested with minimum ionizing particles. The measured pulse shape and the signal to noise ratio are presented. The time resolution of the detector is compared for the Ar/DME and DME/CO 2 gas mixtures. Three methods for the bunch crossing identification at LHC are discussed. (authors). 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  20. High gain gas microstrip detectors for soft x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.; Barlow, R.; Derbyshire, G.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes development work in which systematic changes in the pitch of the electrode pattern of a Gas Microstrip Detector are explored in the search for higher avalanche gains and enhanced stability. With the cathode width set to half of the pitch, gas gains of >50 000 are comfortably attainable with low detector noise so that x-rays can potentially be detected down to the limit of a single x-ray-produced photoelectron. (author)

  1. A Study on the RF-DC Conversion Efficiency of Microstrip Patch Rectenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yang Ha; Youn, Dong Gi; Kim, Kwan Ho [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea); Rhee, Young Chul [Kyungnam University (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    We designed and manufactured microstrip patch antenna mainly used in the rectenna and then analysed RF-DC conversion efficiency of wireless power transmission system. We analyse conversion efficiency of load, direction of linear and dual polization rectenna. We found that the maximum efficiency would be about 70% of load and direction in patch type. In conclusion, we found that total conversion efficiency is 64% - 71% in patch Rectenna. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Design, fabrication and characterization of the first AC-coupled silicon microstrip sensors in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, T; Chendvankar, S R; Mohanty, G B; Patil, M R; Rao, K K; Rani, Y R; Rao, Y P P; Behnamian, H; Mersi, S; Naseri, M

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication and characterization of single-sided silicon microstrip sensors with integrated biasing resistors and coupling capacitors, produced for the first time in India. We have first developed a prototype sensor on a four-inch wafer. After finding suitable test procedures for characterizing these AC coupled sensors, we fine-tuned various process parameters in order to produce sensors of the desired specifications

  3. Design and characterization of integrated front-end transistors in a micro-strip detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simi, G.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Dittongo, S.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Gregori, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Morganti, M.; U. Pignatel, G.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Rizzo, G.; Speziali, V.; Zorzi, N.

    2002-01-01

    We present the developments in a research program aimed at the realization of silicon micro-strip detectors with front-end electronics integrated in a high resistivity substrate to be used in high-energy physics, space and medical/industrial imaging applications. We report on the fabrication process developed at IRST (Trento, Italy), the characterization of the basic wafer parameters and measurements of the relevant working characteristics of the integrated transistors and related test structures

  4. Radiation tolerance of the FOXFET biasing scheme for AC-coupled Si microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchetta, N.; Gotra, Yu.; Bisello, D.; Da Ros, R.; Giraldo, A.; Fusaro, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Univ. di Cagliari; Verzellesi, G.; Univ. di Padova

    1993-01-01

    The radiation response of FOXFETs has been studied for proton, gamma and neutron exposures. The punch-through behavior, which represents the normal FET operating conditions in Si microstrip detectors, has been found to be much less sensitive to radiation damage than threshold voltage. The device performance has been elucidated by means of two-dimensional simulations. The main radiation effects have been also taken into account in the numerical analysis and separately examined

  5. An UWB LNA Design with PSO Using Support Vector Microstrip Line Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Demirel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous and novel design procedure is constituted for an ultra-wideband (UWB low noise amplifier (LNA by exploiting the 3D electromagnetic simulator based support vector regression machine (SVRM microstrip line model. First of all, in order to design input and output matching circuits (IMC-OMC, source ZS and load ZL termination impedance of matching circuit, which are necessary to obtain required input VSWR (Vireq, noise (Freq, and gain (GTreq, are determined using performance characterisation of employed transistor, NE3512S02, between 3 and 8 GHz frequencies. After the determination of the termination impedance, to provide this impedance with IMC and OMC, dimensions of microstrip lines are obtained with simple, derivative-free, easily implemented algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. In the optimization of matching circuits, highly accurate and fast SVRM model of microstrip line is used instead of analytical formulations. ADCH-80a is used to provide ultra-wideband RF choking in DC bias. During the design process, it is aimed that Vireq = 1.85, Freq = Fmin, and GTreq = GTmax all over operating frequency band. Measurements taken from the realized LNA demonstrate the success of this approximation over the band.

  6. A Design of a Terahertz Microstrip Bandstop Filter with Defected Ground Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A planar microstrip terahertz (THz bandstop filter has been proposed with defected ground structure with high insertion loss (S21 in a stopband of −25.8 dB at 1.436 THz. The parameters of the circuit model have been extracted from the EM simulation results. A dielectric substrate of Benzocyclobutene (BCB is used to realize a compact bandstop filter using modified hexagonal dumbbell-shape defected ground structure (DB-DGS. In this paper, a defected ground structure topology is used in a λ/4, 50 Ω microstrip line at THz frequency range for compactness. No article has been reported on the microstrip line at terahertz frequency regime using DGS topology. The proposed filter can be used for sensing and detection in biomedical instruments in DNA testing. All the simulations/cosimulations are carried out using a full-wave EM simulator CST V.9 Microwave Studio, HFSS V.10, and Agilent Design Suite (ADS.

  7. Ka-Band Slot-Microstrip-Covered and Waveguide-Cavity-Backed Monopulse Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ming Si

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A slot-microstrip-covered and waveguide-cavity-backed monopulse antenna array is proposed for high-resolution tracking applications at Ka-band. The monopulse antenna array is designed with a microstrip with 2×32 slots, a waveguide cavity, and a waveguide monopulse comparator, to make the structure simple, reduce the feeding network loss, and increase the frequency bandwidth. The 2×32 slot-microstrip elements are formed by a metal clad dielectric substrate and slots etched in the metal using the standard printed circuit board (PCB process with dimensions of 230 mm  ×  10 mm. The proposed monopulse antenna array not only maintains the advantages of the traditional waveguide slot antenna array, but also has the characteristics of wide bandwidth, high consistence, easy of fabrication, and low cost. From the measured results, it exhibits good monopulse characteristics, including the following: the maximum gains of sum pattern are greater than 24 dB, the 3 dB beamwidth of sum pattern is about 2.2 degrees, the sidelobe levels of the sum pattern are less than −18 dB, and the null depths of the difference pattern are less than −25 dB within the operating bandwidth between 33.65 GHz and 34.35 GHz for VSWR ≤ 2.

  8. Design of Miniaturized Dual-Band Microstrip Antenna for WLAN Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachen; Wang, Huanling; Lv, Zhihan; Wang, Huihui

    2016-01-01

    Wireless local area network (WLAN) is a technology that combines computer network with wireless communication technology. The 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands in the Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band can be used in the WLAN environment. Because of the development of wireless communication technology and the use of the frequency bands without the need for authorization, the application of WLAN is becoming more and more extensive. As the key part of the WLAN system, the antenna must also be adapted to the development of WLAN communication technology. This paper designs two new dual-frequency microstrip antennas with the use of electromagnetic simulation software—High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS). The two antennas adopt ordinary FR4 material as a dielectric substrate, with the advantages of low cost and small size. The first antenna adopts microstrip line feeding, and the antenna radiation patch is composed of a folded T-shaped radiating dipole which reduces the antenna size, and two symmetrical rectangular patches located on both sides of the T-shaped radiating patch. The second antenna is a microstrip patch antenna fed by coaxial line, and the size of the antenna is diminished by opening a stepped groove on the two edges of the patch and a folded slot inside the patch. Simulation experiments prove that the two designed antennas have a higher gain and a favourable transmission characteristic in the working frequency range, which is in accordance with the requirements of WLAN communication. PMID:27355954

  9. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  10. Neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firk, F.W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Some recent experiments involving polarized neutrons are discussed; they demonstrate how polarization studies provide information on fundamental aspects of nuclear structure that cannot be obtained from more traditional neutron studies. Until recently, neutron polarization studies tended to be limited either to very low energies or to restricted regions at higher energies, determined by the kinematics of favorable (p, vector n) and (d, vector n) reactions. With the advent of high intensity pulsed electron and proton accelerators and of beams of vector polarized deuterons, this is no longer the case. One has entered an era in which neutron polarization experiments are now being carried out, in a routine way, throughout the entire range from thermal energies to tens-of-MeV. The significance of neutron polarization studies is illustrated in discussions of a wide variety of experiments that include the measurement of T-invariance in the β-decay of polarized neutrons, a search for the effects of meson exchange currents in the photo-disintegration of the deuteron, the determination of quantum numbers of states in the fission of aligned 235 U and 237 Np induced by polarized neutrons, and the double- and triple-scattering of fast neutrons by light nuclei

  11. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  12. Leakage current-induced effects in the silicon microstrip and gas electron multiplier readout chain and their compensation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycka, W.; Kasinski, K.

    2018-04-01

    Leakage current flowing into the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) is a common issue in many radiation detection systems as it can increase overall system noise, shift a DC baseline or even lead a recording channel to instability. The commonly known leakage current contributor is a detector, however other system components like wires or an input protection circuit may become a serious problem. Compensation of the leakage current resulting from the electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection circuit by properly sizing its components is possible only for a narrow temperature range. Moreover, the leakage current from external sources can be significantly larger. Many applications, especially High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments, require a fast baseline restoration for high input hit rates by applying either a low-value feedback resistor or a high feedback resistance combined with a pulsed reset circuit. Leakage current flowing in the feedback in conjunction with a large feedback resistance supplied with a pulsed reset results in a significant voltage offset between the CSA input and output which can cause problems (e.g. fake hits or instability). This paper shows an issue referred to the leakage current of the ESD protection circuit flowing into the input amplifier. The following analysis and proposed solution is a result of the time and energy readout ASIC project realization for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) in Darmstadt, Germany. This chip is purposed to work with microstrip and gaseous detectors, with high average input pulses frequencies (250 kHit/s per channel) and the possibility to process input charge of both polarities. We present measurements of the test structure fabricated in UMC 180 nm technology and propose a solution addressing leakage current related issues. This work combines the leakage current compensation capabilities at the CSA level with high, controllable value of the amplifier

  13. Millimeter-Wave Microstrip Antenna Array Design and an Adaptive Algorithm for Future 5G Wireless Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Nan Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high gain millimeter-wave (mmW low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC microstrip antenna array with a compact, simple, and low-profile structure. Incorporating minimum mean square error (MMSE adaptive algorithms with the proposed 64-element microstrip antenna array, the numerical investigation reveals substantial improvements in interference reduction. A prototype is presented with a simple design for mass production. As an experiment, HFSS was used to simulate an antenna with a width of 1 mm and a length of 1.23 mm, resonating at 38 GHz. Two identical mmW LTCC microstrip antenna arrays were built for measurement, and the center element was excited. The results demonstrated a return loss better than 15 dB and a peak gain higher than 6.5 dBi at frequencies of interest, which verified the feasibility of the design concept.

  14. Systematic characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip sensors for the Silicon Tracking System of the CBM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is the central detector of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt. The task of the STS is to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles originating at relatively high multiplicities from the high rate beam-target interactions. The tracker comprises of 300 μm thick silicon double-sided micro-strip sensors. These sensors should be radiation hard in order to reconstruct charged particles up to a maximum radiation dose of 1 × 1014neqcm-2. Systematic characterization allows us to investigate the sensor response and perform quality assurance (QA) tests. In this paper, systematic characterization of prototype double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors will be discussed. This procedure includes visual, passive electrical, and radiation hardness test. Presented results include tests on three different prototypes of silicon micro-strip sensors.

  15. Systematic characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip sensors for the Silicon Tracking System of the CBM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P

    2014-01-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is the central detector of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt. The task of the STS is to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles originating at relatively high multiplicities from the high rate beam-target interactions. The tracker comprises of 300 μm thick silicon double-sided micro-strip sensors. These sensors should be radiation hard in order to reconstruct charged particles up to a maximum radiation dose of 1 × 10 14 n eq cm −2 . Systematic characterization allows us to investigate the sensor response and perform quality assurance (QA) tests. In this paper, systematic characterization of prototype double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors will be discussed. This procedure includes visual, passive electrical, and radiation hardness test. Presented results include tests on three different prototypes of silicon micro-strip sensors

  16. CBC2: A CMS microstrip readout ASIC with logic for track-trigger modules at HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G., E-mail: g.hall@imperial.ac.uk [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Braga, D.; Jones, L.; Murray, P.; Prydderch, M. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Abbaneo, D.; Blanchot, G.; Honma, A.; Kovacs, M.; Vasey, F. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-11-21

    The CBC2 is the latest version of the CMS Binary Chip ASIC for readout of the upgraded CMS Tracker at the High Luminosity LHC. It is designed in 130 nm CMOS with 254 input channels and will be bump-bonded to a substrate to which sensors will be wire-bonded. The CBC2 is designed to instrument double layer modules, consisting of two overlaid silicon microstrip sensors with aligned microstrips, in the outer tracker. It incorporates logic to identify L1 trigger primitives in the form of “stubs”: high transverse-momentum track candidates which are identified within the low momentum background by selecting correlated hits between two closely separated microstrip sensors. The first prototype modules have been assembled. The performance of the chip in recent laboratory tests is briefly reported and the status of module construction described.

  17. Ionic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ferroelectricity occurs in many different kinds of materials. Many of the technologically important solids, which are ferroelectric, can be classified as ionic. Any microscopic theory of ferroelectricity must contain a description of local polarization forces. We have collaborated in the development of a theory of ionic polarization which is quite successful. Its basic assumption is that the polarization is derived from the properties of the individual ions. We have applied this theory successfully to diverse subjects as linear and nonlinear optical response, phonon dispersion, and piezoelectricity. We have developed numerical methods using the local Density approximation to calculate the multipole polarizabilities of ions when subject to various fields. We have also developed methods of calculating the nonlinear hyperpolarizability, and showed that it can be used to explain light scattering experiments. This paper elaborates on this polarization theory

  18. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  19. Polarization measurement for internal polarized gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhenyu; Ye Yunxiu; Lv Haijiang; Mao Yajun

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an introduction to internal polarized gaseous targets, polarization method, polarization measurement method and procedure. To get the total nuclear polarization of hydrogen atoms (including the polarization of the recombined hydrogen molecules) in the target cell, authors have measured the parameters relating to atomic polarization and polarized hydrogen atoms and molecules. The total polarization of the target during our measurement is P T =0.853 ± 0.036. (authors)

  20. A Multibeam Dual-Band Orthogonal Linearly Polarized Antenna Array for Satellite Communication on the Move

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and simulation of a 10 × 8 multibeam dual-band orthogonal linearly polarized antenna array operating at Ku-band are presented for transmit-receive applications. By using patches with different coupling methods as elements, both perpendicular polarization in 12.25–12.75 GHz band and horizontal polarization in 14.0–14.5 GHz band are realized in a shared antenna aperture. A microstrip Rotman lens is employed as the beamforming network with 7 input ports, which can generate a corresponding number of beams to cover −30°–30° with 5 dB beamwidth along one dimension. This type of multibeam orthogonal linearly polarized planar antenna is a good candidate for satellite communication (SatCom.

  1. A Thick Film Microstrip Butler Matrix for the Frequency Range 1.5-1.7 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    The 1800 hybrid coupler II 4.1.5 The broadside coupler 11 4.1.6 The Podell coupler 12 4.2 Phase shifters 12 4.2.1 The dielectrically loaded line phase...The Podell coupler The Podell coupler8 of Fig 9b overcomes even and odd mode velocity disper- sion by using a sawtooth design on the inner edge. This...8 A. Podell A high directivity microstrip coupler technique. IEEE G-MTT International Microwave Symposium, 33-36 (1970) 9 B. Easter The equivalent

  2. Spiral Slotted Microstrip Antenna Design for 700 MHz Band Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Meneses González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and implementation of spiral slotted microstrip antenna. Recently, just like other countries, in Mexico, terrestrial digital television has been implemented (analogic shutdown; as a consequence, the 700 MHz UFH Band (698–806 MHz has been opened to new telecommunications services, particularly wireless mobile communication. This technological advance represents a radio mobile antenna design challenge because it is necessary to design an antenna whose dimensions must be small enough, which satisfies gain, resonance frequency, and bandwidth requirements and is of low cost.

  3. Electrical production testing of the D0 Silicon microstrip tracker detector modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D0, SMT Production Testing Group; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    The D0 Silicon Microstrip Tracker (SMT) is the innermost system of the D0 detector in Run 2. It consists of 912 detector units, corresponding to 5 different types of assemblies, which add up to a system with 792,576 readout channels. The task entrusted to the Production Testing group was to thoroughly debug, test and grade each detector module before its installation in the tracker. This note describes the production testing sequence and the procedures by which the detector modules were electrically tested and characterized at the various stages of their assembly.

  4. Prototype Si microstrip sensors for the CDF-II ISL detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; Kanao, K; Kim, S; Ogasawara, M; Ohsugi, T; Shimojima, M; Takikawa, K

    1999-01-01

    Prototype Si microstrip sensors for the CDF-II ISL were fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics and SEIKO Instruments using 4'' technology. The sensor is AC coupled and double-sided forming a stereo angle of 1.207 degree sign . The strip pitch is 112 mu m on both sides. The main differences between the two manufacturers lie on the technologies of passivation and the structure of coupling capacitors. We describe the design of the sensor and evaluation results of the performance. The evaluations include the total and individual strip currents and interstrip capacitance measured before and after sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma irradiation. (author)

  5. Optimising the design of gas microstrip detectors for soft x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.; Barlow, R.; Derbyshire, G.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes development work in which systematic changes in the electrode pattern of a Gas Microstrip Detector are explored in the search for higher avalanche gains and enhanced stability. It is found that the width of the cathode structure is the main determinant of the detector stability. With the correct cathode width, gas gains of >50 000 are comfortably attainable with low detector noise so that x-rays can potentially be detected down to the limit of a single x-ray-produced photoelectron. (author)

  6. Performance of the ALIBAVA portable readout system with irradiated and non-irradiated microstrip silicon sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco-Hernadez, R.

    2009-01-01

    A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors has been developed as a result of collaboration among the University of Liverpool, the CNM of Barcelona and the IFIC of Valencia. The name of this collaboration is ALIBAVA and it is integrated in the RD50 Collaboration. This system is able to measure the collected charge in one or two microstrip silicon sensors by reading out all the channels of the sensor(s), up to 256, as an analogue measurement. The system uses two Beetle chips to read out the detector(s). The Beetle chip is an analogue pipelined readout chip used in the LHCb experiment. The system can operate either with non-irradiated and irradiated sensors as well as with n-type and p-type microstrip silicon sensors. Heavily irradiated sensors will be used at the SLHC, so this system is being to research the performance of microstrip silicon sensors in conditions as similar as possible to the SLHC operating conditions. The system has two main parts: a hardware part and a software part. The hardware part acquires the sensor signals either from external trigger inputs, in case of a radioactive source setup is used, or from a synchronised trigger output generated by the system, if a laser setup is used. This acquired data is sent by USB to be stored in a PC for a further processing. The hardware is a dual board based system. The daughterboard is a small board intended for containing two Beetle readout chips as well as fan-ins and detector support to interface the sensors. The motherboard is intended to process the data, to control the whole hardware and to communicate with the software by USB. The software controls the system and processes the data acquired from the sensors in order to store it in an adequate format file. The main characteristics of the system will be described. Results of measurements acquired with n-type and p-type irradiated and non-irradiated detectors using both the laser and the radioactive source setup will be also presented and discussed

  7. Neutron beam test of multi-grid-type microstrip gas chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, K.; Takahashi, H.; Siritiprussamee, P.; Niko, H.; Kai, M.; Nakazawa, M.; Ino, T.; Sato, S.; Yokoo, T.; Furusaka, M.; Kanazawa, M.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-grid-type microstrip gas chambers (M-MSGCs) are being developed for the next-generation pulsed neutron source. Two new concepts, a global-local-grouping (GLG) method and a graded cathode pattern readout method, were applied to the M-MSGC design for realizing higher counting rate than traditional 3 He proportional counters. One-dimensional detectors with 700 mm-long test plates were fabricated and tested with X-ray and neutron beams, which demonstrated position detection capability based on these concepts

  8. Microstrip silicon detectors of the monitoring and triggering systems in the E-161 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolyubskij, M.Yu.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Moiseev, A.M.; Semenov, P.A.; Leflat, A.K.; Sekhniaidze, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    A monitoring and triggering system based on microstrip silicon detectors (MSD) and fast-response low-noise electronics with the number of the readout channels equal to 896, is described. The PMS noise is ENC=25x10 3 e - with the signal integration time of 50 ns. The probability of registering a noise pulse by one channel during data readout cycle is not more than 2.5x10 -6 . The time resolution (FWHM) is (16±3) ns. 17 refs.; 7 figs

  9. Fine-Tuning on the Effective Patch Radius Expression of the Circular Microstrip Patch Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Yilmaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effective patch radius expression for the circular microstrip antennas is improved by means of several manipulations. Departing from previously proposed equations in the literature, one of the most accurate equations is picked up, and this equation is fine-tuned by means of Particle Swarm Optimization technique. Throughout the study, impacts of other parameters (such as the definition of the fitness/objective function, the degree-of-freedom in the proposed effective patch radius expression, the number of measured resonant frequency values are observed in a controlled manner. Finally, about 3% additional improvement is achieved over a very accurate formula, which was proposed earlier.

  10. Design, fabrication and characterization of the first AC-coupled silicon microstrip sensors in India

    CERN Document Server

    Aziz, T; Mohanty, G.B.; Patil, M.R.; Rao, K.K.; Rani, Y.R.; Rao, Y.P.P.; Behnamian, H.; Mersi, S.; Naseri, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication and characterization of single-sided silicon microstrip sensors with integrated biasing resistors and coupling capacitors, produced for the first time in India. We have first developed a prototype sensor with different width and pitch combinations on a single 4-inch wafer. After finding test procedures for characterizing these AC coupled sensors, we have chosen an optimal width-pitch combination and also fine-tuned various process parameters in order to produce sensors with the desired specifications.

  11. Mechanically Reconfigurable Microstrip Lines Loaded with Stepped Impedance Resonators and Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Naqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on exploring the possibilities and potential applications of microstrip transmission lines loaded with stepped impedance resonators (SIRs etched on top of the signal strip, in a separated substrate. It is shown that if the symmetry plane of the line (a magnetic wall is perfectly aligned with the electric wall of the SIR at the fundamental resonance, the line is transparent. However, if symmetry is somehow ruptured, a notch in the transmission coefficient appears. The notch frequency and depth can thus be mechanically controlled, and this property can be of interest for the implementation of sensors and barcodes, as it is discussed.

  12. A design concept for an MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) microstrip phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Smetana, Jerry; Acosta, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design for a microstrip phased array with monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplitude and phase controls is described. The MMIC devices used are 20 GHz variable power amplifiers and variable phase shifters recently developed by NASA contractors for applications in future Ka proposed design, which concept is for a general NxN element array of rectangular lattice geometry. Subarray excitation is incorporated in the MMIC phased array design to reduce the complexity of the beam forming network and the number of MMIC components required.

  13. Rapid X-ray crystal structure analysis in few second measurements using microstrip gas chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ochi, A; Tanimori, T; Ohashi, Y; Toyokawa, H; Nishi, Y; Nishi, Y; Nagayoshi, T; Koishi, S

    2001-01-01

    X-ray crystal structure analysis using microstrip gas chamber was successfully carried out in a measurement time within a few seconds. The continuous rotation photograph method, in which most of the diffraction peaks can be obtained within one continuous rotation of the sample crystal (without stopping or oscillation), was applied for this measurement. As an example, the structure of a single crystal of ammonium bitartrate (r=1 mm, spherical) was measured. Diffraction spots from the sample, which were sufficient to obtain crystal structure, were successfully obtained by taking only 2 s measurements with a commercially available laboratory X-ray source.

  14. Computer simulation and implementation of defected ground structure on a microstrip antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, H.; Rambe, A. H.; Suherman

    2018-03-01

    Defected Ground Structure (DGS) is a method reducing etching area on antenna ground to form desirable antenna’s ground field. This paper reports the method impact on microstrip antennas working on 1800 and 2400 MHz. These frequencies are important as many radio network applications such mobile phones and wireless devices working on these channels. The assessments were performed by simulating and fabricating the evaluated antennas. Both simulation data and implementation measurements show that DGS successfully improves antenna performances by increasing bandwidth up to 19%, reducing return loss up to 109% and increasing gain up to 33%.

  15. Performance of a beam telescope using double sided silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.; Menke, S.; Wermes, N.

    1995-04-01

    A beam telescope consisting of four double sided, DC coupled microstrip detectors with VLSI readout electronics has been built and tested in a 70 GeV μ - beam at CERN. A signal to noise ratio of 53:1 and a spatial resolution of 2.7 μm (junction side) and 4.8 μm (ohmic side) have been observed on the best detectors. A telescope performance for a particle track of σ xy =2-3 μm and σ slope =2-3 μrad on the front face of a test object was achieved. (orig.)

  16. Beam-Steerable Microstrip-Fed Bow-Tie Antenna Array for Fifth Generation Cellular Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of mm-wave phased array antenna for 5G mobile broadband communication systems has been provided in this manuscript. The antenna is designed on a N9000 PTFE substrate with 0.787 mm thickness and 2.2 dielectric constant and 65×130 mm2 overall dimension. Eight elements...... of bow-tie antennas have been used at the top-edge region of mobile phone PCB. The antenna elements fed by microstrip lines are designed to operate at 17 GHz. The simulated results give good performances in terms of different antenna parameters. In addition, an investigation on the distance between...

  17. Design optimization of a breast imaging system based on silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stres, S.; Mikuz, M.

    2000-01-01

    A mammographic imaging set-up using silicon microstrip detectors in edge-on geometry was simulated using the GEANT package. Deposited energy in tissue of various thicknesses was evaluated and shown to agree to within 10% with reference calculations. Optimal energies as well as spectra for mammography with silicon detectors were determined by maximizing the figure of merit of a realistic imaging set-up. The scattered to primary radiation ratio was studied for various detector geometries. It was found that fan-shaped detectors are needed to maintain the image quality for divergent photon beams. (author)

  18. Performance of a micro-strip gas chamber in solution X-ray scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Toyokawa, H; Inoko, Y; Nagayoshi, T; Nishi, Y; Nishikawa, Y; Ochi, A; Suzuki, M; Tanimori, T

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber in solution X-ray scattering was studied at the RIKEN structural biology beamline I of the SPring-8 facility. The practical dynamic range was confirmed to be approx 1,000,000 : 1 by measuring S sup - sup 4 decay from a polystyrene latex solution. Steep troughs of scattering profile from an apoferritin solution were clearly obtained without smearing. An unfolding process of a pH jump of cytochrome c was measured. A time resolution of 500 mu s was achieved.

  19. FILTRES: a 128 channels VLSI mixed front-end readout electronic development for microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anstotz, F.; Hu, Y.; Michel, J.; Sohler, J.L.; Lachartre, D.

    1998-01-01

    We present a VLSI digital-analog readout electronic chain for silicon microstrip detectors. The characteristics of this circuit have been optimized for the high resolution tracker of the CERN CMS experiment. This chip consists of 128 channels at 50 μm pitch. Each channel is composed by a charge amplifier, a CR-RC shaper, an analog memory, an analog processor, an output FIFO read out serially by a multiplexer. This chip has been processed in the radiation hard technology DMILL. This paper describes the architecture of the circuit and presents test results of the 128 channel full chain chip. (orig.)

  20. Sources of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.

    1983-01-01

    Various sources of polarized neutrons are reviewed. Monoenergetic source produced with unpolarized or polarized beams, white sources of polarized neutrons, production by transmissions through polarized hydrogen targets and polarized thermal neutronsare discussed, with appropriate applications included. (U.K.)

  1. A Microstrip Patch-Fed Short Backfire Antenna for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System-Continuation (TDRSS-C) Multiple Access (MA) Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A.; Kory, Carol L.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Acosta, Roberto J.

    2006-01-01

    Short Backfire Antennas (SBAs) are widely utilized for mobile satellite communications, tracking, telemetry, and wireless local area network (WLAN) applications due to their compact structure and excellent radiation characteristics [1-3]. Typically, these SBA s consist of an excitation element (i.e., a half-wavelength dipole), a reflective bottom plane, a planar sub-reflector located above the "exciter", and an outer circular rim. This configuration is capable of achieving gains on the order of 13-15 dBi, but with relatively narrow bandwidths (approx.3%-5%), making it incompatible with the requirements of the next generation enhanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System-Continuation (TDRSS-C) Multiple Access (MA) array [1]. Several attempts have been made to enhance the bandwidth performance of the common dipole-fed SBA by employing various other feeding mechanisms (e.g., waveguide, slot) with moderate success [4-5]. In this paper, a novel method of using a microstrip patch is employed for the first time to excite an SBA. The patch element is fed via two H-shaped slots electromagnetically coupled to a broadband hybrid coupler to maintain a wide bandwidth, as well as provide for dual circular polarization capabilities.

  2. Study of lead free ferroelectrics using overlay technique on thick film microstrip ring resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shridhar N. Mathad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The lead free ferroelectrics, strontium barium niobates, were synthesized via the low cost solid state reaction method and their fritless thick films were fabricated by screen printing technique on alumina substrate. The X band response (complex permittivity at very high frequencies of Ag thick film microstrip ring resonator perturbed with strontium barium niobates (SrxBa1-xNb2O6 in form of bulk and thick film was measured. A new approach for determination of complex permittivity (ε′ and ε′′ in the frequency range 8–12 GHz, using perturbation of Ag thick film microstrip ring resonator (MSRR, was applied for both bulk and thick film of strontium barium niobates (SrxBa1-xNb2O6. The microwave conductivity of the bulk and thick film lie in the range from 1.779 S/cm to 2.874 S/cm and 1.364 S/cm to 2.296 S/cm, respectively. The penetration depth of microwave in strontium barium niobates is also reported.

  3. Design of a Microstrip Bowtie Antenna for Indoor Radio-Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraga-Rosales Hector

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a microstrip bowtie patch antenna (MBPA for wireless indoor communications is carried out. Here, a microstrip transmission-line feed network was designed in order to match the MBPA. The proposed antenna uses a ground plane with the aim of narrowing down the back lobes in comparison with bowtie sheet antennas, which radiation pattern is omni-directional. The far-field pattern of the antenna was simulated using a finite-element numerical algorithm and obtained by interpolation employing near-field equipment. The experimental results are described in detail intending to agree well with the simulated predictions. The antenna was designed, measured and built and its far field performance was evaluated with a 2.11 GHz resonant frequency. The azimuth and elevation antenna patterns, antenna gain and, the matching frequency were the main parameters obtained to analyze the antenna behaviour. The antenna has a gain approximately equal to 8.77 dBi and its beam-widths are higher than 100° in E plane.

  4. Conduction noise absorption by ITO thin films attached to microstrip line utilizing Ohmic loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun-Hong; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    For the aim of wide-band noise absorbers with a special design for low frequency performance, this study proposes conductive indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films as the absorbent materials in microstrip line. ITO thin films were deposited on the polyimide film substrates by rf magnetron cosputtering of In 2 O 3 and Sn targets. The deposited ITO films show a typical value of electrical resistivity (∼10 -4 Ω m) and sheet resistance can be controlled in the range of 20-230 Ω by variation in film thickness. Microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω was used for determining their noise absorbing properties. It is found that there is an optimum sheet resistance of ITO films for the maximum power absorption. Reflection parameter (S 11 ) is increased with decrease in sheet resistance due to impedance mismatch. On the while, transmission parameter (S 21 ) is decreased with decrease in sheet resistance due to larger Ohmic loss of the ITO films. Experimental results and computational prediction show that the optimum sheet resistance is about 100 Ω. For this film, greater power absorption is predicted in the lower frequency region than ferrite thin films of high magnetic loss, which indicates that Ohmic loss is the predominant loss parameter for power absorption in the low frequency range.

  5. PENGEMBANGAN VARIATIF RANCANGAN ANTENA PANEL MICROSTRIP TAPERED PATCH DALAM SISTEM KOMUNIKASI WI-FI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Artawan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pengembangan rancangan antena microstrip tapered patch untuk dilakukan pengukuran parameternya sebagai karakteristik dari antena Microstrip. Penelitian ini sebagai pengembangan variatif rancangan untuk memperoleh hasil yang lebih optimal. Metode eksperiment dilakukan dalam penelitian ini. Tahap pengerjaanya yaitu membuat desain rancangan antena sesuai persamaan yang ada yang kemudian dirancang dengan metode UV Photoresist laminate. Hasil rancangan antena diukur untuk mendapatkan karakteristik sebagai parameter antena meliputi frekuensi (bandwidth, SWR, VSWR, koofesien refleksi, pola radiasi dan penguatan (gain serta nilai HPBW. Nilai-nilai tersebut mencerminkan karakter dari sebuah antena sebagai parameter antena yang layak diimplementasikan dalam sistem komunikasi internet dengan sistem wi-fi. Hasil penelitian ini meliputi: nilai lebar pita (bandwidth = 0.21 GHz, VSWR = 1,23, SWR = 1,79,  return loss = -20,00 dB, koofesien refleksi = 0,10 dan grafik pola radiasi dengan penguatan (gain = 17 dB (polarisasi vertikal, 20 dB (polarisasi horizontal. Nilai Half Power Beamwidth (HPBW 820 untuk pola radiasi vertikal dan pola radiasi horizontal. Kesalahan (error hasil pengukuran 0,12% dengan keseksamaan 99,88%. Hasil ini memberikan indikasi sebagai rancangan antena yang layak untuk sistem komunikasi wi-fi. Penelitian ini sebagai salah satu aplikasi ilmu Fisika dalam dunia teknologi informasi dan diharapkan dapat bermanfaat sebagai dinamika wahana salah satu produk penerapan ilmu Fisika dalam bidang Teknologi Informasi.

  6. Investigation of DC current injection effect on the microwave characteristics of HTS YBCO microstrip resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurgaliev, T., E-mail: timur@ie.bas.bg [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Blagoev, B.; Mateev, E.; Neshkov, L. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Strbik, V. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Uspenskaya, L. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nedkov, I. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Chromik, Š. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Current (spin) injection effect in LSMO/YBCO was studied by impedance measurements. • Complex impedance of YBCO increases at current injection from LSMO to YBCO at 77 K. • This increase is due to an increase of the quasiparticle conductivity of YBCO. • Injection does not significantly affect the relaxation time of the quasiparticles. - Abstract: The DC current injection effect from a ferromagnetic (FM) La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) to a high temperature superconducting (HTS) Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−x} (YBCO) thin film was investigated by the microwave surface impedance measurements in a FM/HTS structure, formed as a microstrip resonator for improving the sensitivity of the experiments. The quality factor and the resonance frequency of this structure were found to strongly depend on the current strength, injected from the LSMO electrode into the HTS microstrip electrode. The magnetic penetration depth and the quasiparticle conductivity of the HTS component were determined to increase under DC current injection process, which in all probability stimulated breaking of Cooper pairs and led to a decrease of the superfluid concentration and an increase of the normal fluid concentration without significantly affecting the relaxation time of the quasiparticles.

  7. A radiographic imaging system based upon a 2-D silicon microstrip sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Papanestis, A; Corrin, E; Raymond, M; Hall, G; Triantis, F A; Manthos, N; Evagelou, I; Van den Stelt, P; Tarrant, T; Speller, R D; Royle, G F

    2000-01-01

    A high resolution, direct-digital detector system based upon a 2-D silicon microstrip sensor has been designed, built and is undergoing evaluation for applications in dentistry and mammography. The sensor parameters and image requirements were selected using Monte Carlo simulations. Sensors selected for evaluation have a strip pitch of 50mum on the p-side and 80mum on the n-side. Front-end electronics and data acquisition are based on the APV6 chip and were adapted from systems used at CERN for high-energy physics experiments. The APV6 chip is not self-triggering so data acquisition is done at a fixed trigger rate. This paper describes the mammographic evaluation of the double sided microstrip sensor. Raw data correction procedures were implemented to remove the effects of dead strips and non-uniform response. Standard test objects (TORMAX) were used to determine limiting spatial resolution and detectability. MTFs were determined using the edge response. The results indicate that the spatial resolution of the...

  8. An X-ray imager based on silicon microstrip detector and coded mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Monte, E.; Costa, E.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Frutti, M.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Mastropietro, M.; Morelli, E.; Pacciani, L.; Porrovecchio, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rubini, A.; Soffitta, P.; Tavani, M.; Argan, A.

    2007-01-01

    SuperAGILE is the X-ray monitor of AGILE, a satellite mission for gamma-ray astronomy, and it is the first X-ray imaging instrument based on the technology of the silicon microstrip detectors combined with a coded aperture imaging technique. The SuperAGILE detection plane is composed of four 1-D silicon microstrip detector modules, mechanically coupled to tungsten coded mask units. The detector strips are separately and individually connected to the input analogue channels of the front-end electronics, composed of low-noise and low-power consumption VLSI ASIC chips. SuperAGILE can produce 1-D images with 6 arcmin angular resolution and ∼2-3 arcmin localisation capability, for intense sources, in a field of view composed of two orthogonal areas of 107 deg. x 68 deg. The time resolution is 2 μs, the overall dead time is ∼5 μs and the electronic noise is ∼7.5 keV full-width at half-maximum. The resulting instrument is very compact (40x40x14 cm 3 ), light (10 kg) and has low power consumption (12 W). AGILE is a mission of the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and its launch is planned in 2007 in a low equatorial Earth orbit. In this contribution we present SuperAGILE and discuss its performance and scientific objectives

  9. Gain Enhancement of a Microstrip Patch Antenna Using a Reflecting Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Sabah Mekki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A low profile, unidirectional, dual layer, and narrow bandwidth microstrip patch antenna is designed to resonate at 2.45 GHz. The proposed antenna is suitable for specific applications, such as security and military systems, which require a narrow bandwidth and a small antenna size. This work is mainly focused on increasing the gain as well as reducing the size of the unidirectional patch antenna. The proposed antenna is simulated and measured. According to the simulated and measured results, it is shown that the unidirectional antenna has a higher gain and a higher front to back ratio (F/B than the bidirectional one. This is achieved by using a second flame retardant layer (FR-4, coated with an annealed copper of 0.035 mm at both sides, with an air gap of 0.04λ0 as a reflector. A gain of 5.2 dB with directivity of 7.6 dBi, F/B of 9.5 dB, and −18 dB return losses (S11 are achieved through the use of a dual substrate layer of FR-4 with a relative permittivity of 4.3 and a thickness of 1.6 mm. The proposed dual layer microstrip patch antenna has an impedance bandwidth of 2% and the designed antenna shows very low complexity during fabrication.

  10. A Multiband Proximity-Coupled-Fed Flexible Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Andrea Casula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiband printed microstrip antenna for wireless communications is presented. The antenna is fed by a proximity-coupled microstrip line, and it is printed on a flexible substrate. The antenna has been designed using a general-purpose 3D computer-aided design software (CAD, CST Microwave Studio, and then realized. The comparison between simulated and measured results shows that the proposed antenna can be used for wireless communications for WLAN systems, covering both the WLAN S-band (2.45 GHz and C-band (5.2 GHz, and the Wi-Max 3.5 GHz band, with satisfactory input matching and broadside radiation pattern. Moreover, it has a compact size, is very easy to realize, and presents a discrete out-of-band rejection, without requiring the use of stop-band filters. The proposed structure can be used also as a conformal antenna, and its frequency response and radiated field are satisfactory for curvatures up to 65°.

  11. Technology development of p-type microstrip detectors with radiation hard p-spray isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, G.; Fleta, C.; Campabadal, F.; Diez, S.; Lozano, M.; Rafi, J.M.; Ullan, M.

    2006-01-01

    A technology for the fabrication of p-type microstrip silicon radiation detectors using p-spray implant isolation has been developed at CNM-IMB. The p-spray isolation has been optimized in order to withstand a gamma irradiation dose up to 50 Mrad (Si), which represents the ionization radiation dose expected in the middle region of the SCT-Atlas detector of the future Super-LHC during 10 years of operation. The best technological options for the p-spray implant were found by using a simulation software package and dedicated calibration runs. Using the optimized technology, detectors have been fabricated in the Clean Room facility of CNM-IMB, and characterized by reverse current and capacitance measurements before and after irradiation. The average full depletion voltage measured on the non-irradiated detectors was V FD =41±3 V, while the leakage current density for the microstrip devices at V FD +20 V was 400 nA/cm 2

  12. Signal generation in highly irradiated silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2003-01-01

    Silicon detectors are the most diffused tracking devices in High Energy Physics (HEP). The reason of such success can be found in the characteristics of the material together with the existing advanced technology for the fabrication of these devices. Nevertheless in many modem HEP experiments the observation of vary rare events require data taking at high luminosity with a consequent extremely intense hadron radiation field that damages the silicon and degrades the performance of these devices. In this thesis work a detailed study of the signal generation in microstrip detectors has been produced with a special care for the ATLAS semiconductor tracker geometry. This has required a development of an appropriate setup to perform measurements with Transient Current/ Charge Technique. This has allowed studying the evolution of the signal in several microstrips detector samples irradiated at fluences covering the range expected in the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker. For a better understanding of these measurements a powerful software package that simulates the signal generation in these devices has been developed. Moreover in this thesis it has been also shown that the degradation due to radiation in silicon detectors can be strongly reduced if the data taking is done with detectors operated at 130 K. This makes low temperature operation that benefits of the recovery of the charge collection efficiency in highly irradiated silicon detectors (also known as Lazarus effect) an optimal option for future high luminosity experiments. (author)

  13. A new design of a miniature filter on microstrip resonators with an interdigital structure of conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, B. A.; Serzhantov, A. M.; Bal'va, Ya. F.; Leksikov, An. A.; Galeev, R. G.

    2015-05-01

    A microstrip bandpass filter of new design based on original resonators with an interdigital structure of conductors has been studied. The proposed filters of third to sixth order are distinguished for their high frequency-selective properties and much smaller size than analogs. It is established that a broad stop band, extending up to a sixfold central bandpass frequency, is determined by low unloaded Q of higher resonance mode and weak coupling of resonators in the pass band. It is shown for the first time that, as the spacing of interdigital stripe conductors decreases, the Q of higher resonance mode monotonically drops, while the Q value for the first operating mode remains high. A prototype fourth-order filter with a central frequency of 0.9 GHz manufactured on a ceramic substrate with dielectric permittivity ɛ = 80 has microstrip topology dimensions of 9.5 × 4.6 × 1 mm3. The electrodynamic 3D model simulations of the filter characteristics agree well with the results of measurements.

  14. Method and apparatus for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy using microstrip transmission line coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2006-04-04

    Apparatus and method for MRI imaging using a coil constructed of microstrip transmission line (MTL coil) are disclosed. In one method, a target is positioned to be imaged within the field of a main magnetic field of a magnet resonance imaging (MRI) system, a MTL coil is positioned proximate the target, and a MRI image is obtained using the main magnet and the MTL coil. In another embodiment, the MRI coil is used for spectroscopy. MRI imaging and spectroscopy coils are formed using microstrip transmission line. These MTL coils have the advantageous property of good performance while occupying a relatively small space, thus allowing MTL coils to be used inside restricted areas more easily than some other prior art coils. In addition, the MTL coils are relatively simple to construct of inexpensive components and thus relatively inexpensive compared to other designs. Further, the MTL coils of the present invention can be readily formed in a wide variety of coil configurations, and used in a wide variety of ways. Further, while the MTL coils of the present invention work well at high field strengths and frequencies, they also work at low frequencies and in low field strengths as well.

  15. Design and development of a unit element microstrip antenna for aircraft collision avoidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Debajit; Sahu, Prasanna Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Aircraft/traffic alert and collision avoidance system (ACAS/TCAS) is an airborne system which is designed to provide the service as a last defense equipment for avoiding mid-air collisions between the aircraft. In the existing system, four monopole stub-elements are used as ACAS directional antenna and one blade type element is used as ACAS omnidirectional antenna. The existing ACAS antenna has some drawbacks such as low gain, large beamwidth, frequency and beam tuning/scanning issues etc. Antenna issues like unwanted signals reception may create difficulties to identify the possible threats. In this paper, the focus is on the design and development of a unit element microstrip antenna which can be used for ACAS application and to overcome the possible limitations associated with the existing techniques. Two proposed antenna models are presented here, which are single feed and dual feed microstrip dual patch slotted antenna. These are designed and simulated in CST Microwave Studio tool. The performance and other antenna characteristics have been explored from the simulation results followed by the antenna fabrication and measurement. A good reflection coefficient, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR), narrow beamwidth, perfect directional radiation pattern, high gain and directivity make this proposed antenna a good candidate for this application.

  16. Study of Silicon Microstrip Detector Properties for the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Lois-Gómez, C; Vázquez-Regueiro, P

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb experiment, at present under construction at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, has been designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violating phenomena and rare decays in the B meson systems. The need of a good tracking performance and the high density of particles close to the beam pipe lead to the use of silicon microstrip detectors in a significant part of the LHCb tracking system. The Silicon Tracker (ST) will be built using p-on-n silicon detectors with strip pitches of approximately 200 $\\mu$m and readout strips up to 38 cm in length. This thesis describes the tests carried out on silicon microstrip detectors for the ST, starting from the characterization of different prototypes up to the final tests on the detectors that are being installed at CERN. The results can be divided in three main blocks. The first part comprises an exhaustive characterization of several prototype sensors selected as suitable candidates for the detector and was performed in order to decide some design param...

  17. Investigation of New Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Patch Resonator with Geometrical Fractal Slot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqeen S Mezaal

    Full Text Available A compact dual-mode microstrip bandpass filter using geometrical slot is presented in this paper. The adopted geometrical slot is based on first iteration of Cantor square fractal curve. This filter has the benefits of possessing narrower and sharper frequency responses as compared to microstrip filters that use single mode resonators and traditional dual-mode square patch resonators. The filter has been modeled and demonstrated by Microwave Office EM simulator designed at a resonant frequency of 2 GHz using a substrate of εr = 10.8 and thickness of h = 1.27 mm. The output simulated results of the proposed filter exhibit 22 dB return loss, 0.1678 dB insertion loss and 12 MHz bandwidth in the passband region. In addition to the narrow band gained, miniaturization properties as well as weakened spurious frequency responses and blocked second harmonic frequency in out of band regions have been acquired. Filter parameters including insertion loss, return loss, bandwidth, coupling coefficient and external quality factor have been compared with different values of perturbation dimension (d. Also, a full comparative study of this filter as compared with traditional square patch filter has been considered.

  18. Bandwidth enhancement of a dual band planar monopole antenna using meandered microstrip feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, M R; Islam, M T; Habib Ullah, M; Misran, N

    2014-01-01

    A meandered-microstrip fed circular shaped monopole antenna loaded with vertical slots on a high dielectric material substrate (ε r = 15) is proposed in this paper. The performance criteria of the proposed antenna have been experimentally verified by fabricating a printed prototype. The experimental results show that the proposed antenna has achieved wider bandwidth with satisfactory gain by introducing meandered-microstrip feeding in assistant of partial ground plane. It is observed that, the -10 dB impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower band is 44.4% (600 MHz-1 GHz) and at upper band is 28% (2.25 GHz-2.95 GHz). The measured maximum gains of -1.18 dBi and 4.87 dBi with maximum radiation efficiencies have been observed at lower band and upper band, respectively. The antenna configuration and parametric study have been carried out with the help of commercially available computer-aided EM simulator, and a good accordance is perceived in between the simulated and measured results. The analysis of performance criteria and almost consistent radiation pattern make the proposed antenna a suitable candidate for UHF RFID, WiMAX, and WLAN applications.

  19. Build-up of the silicon micro-strip detector array in ETF of HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengfei; Li Zhankui; Li Haixia

    2014-01-01

    Silicon micro-strip detectors have been widely used in the world-famous nuclear physics laboratories due to their better position resolution and energy resolution. Double-sided silicon micro-strip detectors with a position resolution of 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm, have been fabricated in the IMP (Institute of Modern Physics, CAS) by using microelectronics technology. These detectors have been used in the ETF (External Target Facility) of HIRFL-CSR, as ΔE detectors of the ΔE-E telescope system and the track detectors. With the help of flexibility printed circuit board (FPCB) and the integrated ASIC chips, a compact multi-channel front-end electronic board has been designed to fulfill the acquisition of the energy and position information of the Silicon micro-strip detectors. It is described in this paper that the build-up of the Silicon micro-strip detector array in ETF of HIRFL-CSR, the determination of the energy resolution of the detector units, and the energy resolution of approximately 1% obtained for 5∼9 MeV α particles in vacuum. (authors)

  20. Test beam results of a low-pressure micro-strip gas chamber with a secondary-electron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, S.; Anderson, D.F.; Zimmerman, J.; Sbarra, C.; Salomon, M.

    1994-10-01

    We present recent results, from a beam test, on the angular dependence of the efficiency and the distribution of the signals on the anode strips of a low-pressure microstrip gas chamber with a thick CsI layer as a secondary-electron emitter. New results of CVD diamond films as secondary-electron emitters are discussed

  1. Initial investigations of the performance of a microstrip gas-avalanche chamber fabricated on a thin silicon-dioxide substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, S.F.; Jackson, J.N.; Jones, T.J.; Taylor, S.

    1992-01-01

    We report on the construction of a micro-strip gas-avalanche chamber, designed such that the effective thickness of the insulating dielectric is ≅ 3 μm. Experimental results are presented on the initial observation of pulses from the chamber originating from the energy depositions of X-rays from an Fe 55 source. (orig.)

  2. A silicon microstrip detector in a magnetic spectrometer for high-resolution electron scattering experiments at the S-DALINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenhardt, A.W.; Bonnes, U.; Burda, O.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Platz, M.; Richter, A.; Watzlawik, S.

    2006-01-01

    A silicon microstrip detector was developed as focal plane detector of the 169.7 deg. magic angle double-focussing spectrometer at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator (S-DALINAC). It allows experiments with minimum ionizing electrons at data rates up to 100 kHz, utilizing the maximum resolution of the spectrometer achievable in dispersion-matching mode

  3. Polarization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Brief review is presented of the high energy polarization study including experimental data and the theoretical descriptions. The mostimportant proposals at the biggest accelerators and the crucial technical developments are also listed which may become a main-line of spin physics. 35 refs.; 10 figs.; 4 tabs

  4. Polar Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These three images were taken on three different orbits over the north polar cap in April 1999. Each shows a different part of the same ice-free trough. The left and right images are separated by a distance of more than 100 kilometers (62 miles). Note the similar layers in each image.

  5. Wideband Dual-Polarization Patch Antenna Array With Parallel Strip Line Balun Feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jin; Lin, Xianqi; Nie, Liying

    2016-01-01

    A wideband dual-polarization patch antenna array is proposed in this letter. The array is fed by a parallel strip line balun, which is adopted to generate 180° phase shift in a wide frequency range. In addition, this balun has simple structure, very small phase shift error, and good ports isolati...... is higher than 30 dB. The simulation and measurement turns out to be similar. This antenna array can be used in TD-LTE base stations, and the design methods are also useful to other wideband microstrip antennas....

  6. Size optimization for complex permeability measurement of magnetic thin films using a short-circuited microstrip line up to 30 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shigeru; Naoe, Masayuki

    2018-03-01

    High-frequency permeability spectra of magnetic films were measured over a wideband frequency range of 0.1-30 GHz using a shielded and short-circuited microstrip line jig. In this measurement, spurious resonances had to be suppressed up to the highest frequency. To suppress these resonances, characteristic impedance of the microstrip line should approach 50 Ω at the junction between connector and microstrip line. The main factors dominating these resonances were structures of the jig and the sample. The dimensions were optimized in various experiments, and results demonstrated that the frequency could be raised to at least 20 GHz. For the transverse electromagnetic mode to transmit stably along the microstrip line, the preferred sample was rectangular, with the shorter side parallel to the line and the longer side perpendicular to it, and characteristic impedance strongly depended on the signal line width of the jig. However, too small a jig and sample led to a lower S/N ratio.

  7. A gas microstrip wide angle X-ray detector for application in synchrotron radiation experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Lipp, J; Mir, J A; Simmons, J E; Spill, E J; Stephenson, R; Dobson, B R; Farrow, R C; Helsby, W I; Mutikainen, R; Suni, I

    2002-01-01

    The Gas Microstrip Detector has counting rate capabilities several orders of magnitude higher than conventional wire proportional counters while providing the same (or better) energy resolution for X-rays. In addition the geometric flexibility provided by the lithographic process combined with the self-supporting properties of the substrate offers many exciting possibilities for X-ray detectors, particularly for the demanding experiments carried out on Synchrotron Radiation Sources. Using experience obtained in designing detectors for Particle Physics we have developed a detector for Wide Angle X-ray Scattering studies. The detector has a fan geometry which makes possible a gas detector with high detection efficiency, sub-millimetre spatial resolution and good energy resolution over a wide range of X-ray energy. The detector is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source.

  8. HTS microstrip disk resonator with an upper dielectric layer for 4GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Kazunori; Kai, Manabu; Akasegawa, Akihiko; Nakanishi, Teru

    2006-01-01

    We propose HTS microstrip disk resonator with an upper dielectric layer as a candidate resonator structure of HTS compact power filter for 4GHz band. The electromagnetic simulations on the upper dielectric layer examined the current distributions of the HTS resonators that had TM 11 mode resonance of about 4 GHz. By the simulations, it is evaluated that of the maximum current density near the end portion of the disk-shape pattern of the resonator with the thick upper-layered structure decreases by roughly 30-50 percent, as compared with that of the resonator without it. Then, we designed and fabricated the resonator samples with and without the upper dielectrics. The RF power measurement results indicated that the upper dielectric layer leads to an increase in handling power

  9. Design, characterization and beam test performance of different silicon microstrip detector geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catacchini, E.; Ciampolini, L.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, M.; Meschini, M.; Parrini, G.; Pieri, M.

    1998-01-01

    During the last few years a large number of silicon microstrip detectors has been especially designed and tested in order to study and optimize the performances of the tracking devices to be used in the forward-backward part of the CMS (technical proposal, CERN/LHCC 94-38 LHCC/Pl, 15 December 1994) experiment. Both single and double sided silicon detectors of a trapezoidal ('wedge') shape and with different strip configurations, including prototypes produced with double metal technology, were characterized in the laboratory and tested using high-energy beams. Furthermore, due to the high-radiation environment where the detectors should operate, particular care was devoted to the study of the characteristics of heavily irradiated detectors. The main results of detector performances (charge response, signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution etc.) will be reviewed and discussed. (author)

  10. Efficient analysis for nonlinear microwave characteristics of high-power HTS thin film microstrip resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedar, Ashutosh; Kataria, N D

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear effects of high-T c superconducting (HTS) thin film in high-power applications. A nonlinear model for complex surface impedance has been proposed for the efficient analysis of the nonlinearity of HTS thin films. Further, using the developed model, analysis of HTS-MSR has been done using the spectral domain method (SDM). The SDM formulation has been modified to account for finite conductivity and thickness of HTS films by incorporating a complex resistive boundary condition. The results have been validated with the experiments performed with microstrip resonators (MSRs) based on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) thin films made by a laser ablation technique on LaAlO 3 substrates, characterized for their characteristics, namely, resonant frequency and quality factor measured as a function of temperature and input RF power. A close agreement between the theoretical and measured results has been achieved validating the analysis

  11. Development of Technique for Testing the Long-Term Stability of Silicon Microstrip Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosinov, A.V.; Maslov, N.I.; Naumov, S.V.; Ovchinnik, V.D.; Starodubtsev, A.F.; Vasiliev, G.P.; Yalovenko, V.I.; Bosisio, L.

    2006-01-01

    An automatic multi-channel set-up prototype for simultaneous testing of the Long-Term Stability (LTS) of more than ten detectors is described. The Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment will include about two thousand Double-sided Microstrip Detectors (DSMD). Efficient automatic measurement techniques are crucial for the LTS test, because the corresponding test procedure should be performed on each detector and requires long time, at least two days. By using special adapters for supporting and connecting the bare DSMDs, failing detectors can be screened out before module assembly, thus minimizing the cost. Automated probe stations developed for a special purpose or for microelectronics industry are used for measuring physical static DSMD characteristics and check good-to-bad elements ratio for DSMD. However, automated (or semi-automatic)test benches for studying LTS or testing DSMD long-term stability before developing a detecting module are absent

  12. Design of Small CRPA Arrays with Circular Microstrip Loops for Electromagnetically Coupled Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hur

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a design of small controlled reception pattern antenna (CRPA arrays using circular microstrip loops with frequencyinsensitive characteristics. The proposed array consists of seven identical upper and lower circular loops that are electromagnetically coupled, which results in a frequency-insensitive behavior. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed feeding mechanism, the proposed array is fabricated, and its antenna characteristics are measured in a full-anechoic chamber. The operating principle of the proposed feeding mechanism is then interpreted using an equivalent circuit model, and the effectiveness of the circular loop shape is demonstrated by calculating near electromagnetic fields in proximity to the radiator. The results confirm that the proposed feeding mechanism is suitable to have frequency-insensitive behavior and induces strong electric and magnetic field strengths for higher radiation gain in extremely small antenna arrays.

  13. Effect of radiation-induced substrate defects on microstrip gas chamber gain behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallares, A.; Brom, J.M.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Coffin, J.; Eberle, H.; Sigward, M.H.; Fontaine, J.C.; Barthe, S.; Schunck, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify the influence of radiation-induced substrate defects on microstrip gas chamber (MSGC) gain behaviour. The first part of this paper focuses on radiation effects on a typical MSGC substrate: Desag D263 glass. Defect generation was studied for Desag D263 with pure silica (Suprasil 1) as a reference. We studied the evolution of defect concentration with respect to accumulated doses up to 480 kGy. Annealing studies of defects in Desag D263 were also performed. In the second part, the radiation sensitivity of Desag D263 glass has been linked to the behaviour of the detector under irradiation. Comparative gain measurements were taken before and after substrate irradiation at 10 and 80 kGy the minimal dose received during LHC operation and the dose for which defect density is maximum (respectively). (orig.)

  14. Effect of radiation-induced substrate defects on microstrip gas chamber gain behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallares, A.; Brom, J.M.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Coffin, J.; Eberle, H.; Sigward, M.H. [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Fontaine, J.C. [Universite de Haute Alsace, GRPHE, 61 rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Barthe, S.; Schunck, J.P. [Laboratoire PHASE (UPR 292 du CNRS), 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify the influence of radiation-induced substrate defects on microstrip gas chamber (MSGC) gain behaviour. The first part of this paper focuses on radiation effects on a typical MSGC substrate: Desag D263 glass. Defect generation was studied for Desag D263 with pure silica (Suprasil 1) as a reference. We studied the evolution of defect concentration with respect to accumulated doses up to 480 kGy. Annealing studies of defects in Desag D263 were also performed. In the second part, the radiation sensitivity of Desag D263 glass has been linked to the behaviour of the detector under irradiation. Comparative gain measurements were taken before and after substrate irradiation at 10 and 80 kGy the minimal dose received during LHC operation and the dose for which defect density is maximum (respectively). (orig.) 26 refs.

  15. ATLAS irradiation studies of n-in-n and p-in-n silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P P; Buttar, C M; Carter, J; Drage, L M; Ferrère, D; Morgan, D; Riedler, P; Robinson, D

    1999-01-01

    Prior to the module production of the ATLAS silicon microstrip tracker for the barrel and the forward wheels, the characterisation of full-size prototype silicon detectors after radiation to fluences corresponding to 10 years of ATLAS operation is required. The behaviour of p-in-n and n-in-n detectors produced by several manufacturers before and after irradiation to a fluence of 3*10/sup 14/ protons/cm/sup 2/ at the CERN PS facility is discussed. This article summarises some recent results from the ATLAS SCT collaboration. The measurements of leakage current, full depletion voltage, signal-to-noise ratio and charge collection efficiency are presented. Despite the better efficiency performance of n-in-n detectors below depletion, the collaboration chose the p-in-n technology due to its simpler and less costly production since good charge collection efficiencies were achieved at the desired maximum bias voltage. (14 refs).

  16. Scientific performances of the XAA1.2 front-end chip for silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Monte, Ettore; Soffitta, Paolo; Morelli, Ennio; Pacciani, Luigi; Porrovecchio, Geiland; Rubini, Alda; Uberti, Olga; Costa, Enrico; Di Persio, Giuseppe; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Mastropietro, Marcello; Rapisarda, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    The XAA1.2 is a custom ASIC chip for silicon microstrip detectors adapted by Ideas for the SuperAGILE instrument on board the AGILE space mission. The chip is equipped with 128 input channels, each one containing a charge preamplifier, shaper, peak detector and stretcher. The most important features of the ASIC are the extended linearity, low noise and low power consumption. The XAA1.2 underwent extensive laboratory testing in order to study its commandability and functionality and evaluate its scientific performances. In this paper we describe the XAA1.2 features, report the laboratory measurements and discuss the results emphasizing the scientific performances in the context of the SuperAGILE front-end electronics

  17. Stroke Diagnosis using Microstrip Patch Antennas Based on Microwave Tomography Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthisudhan K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microwave tomography (MT based on stroke diagnosis is one of the alternative methods for determinations of the haemorrhagic, ischemic and stroke in brain nervous systems. It is focusing on the brain imaging, continuous monitoring, and preclinical applications. It provides cost effective system and able to use the rural and urban medical clinics that lack the necessary resources in effective stroke diagnosis during emerging applications in road accident and pre-ambulance clinical treatment. In the early works, the design of microstrip patch antennas (MPAs involved the implementation of MT system. Consequently, the MT system presented a few limitations since it required an efficient MPA design with appropriate parameters. Moreover, there were no specific diagnosis modules and body centric features in it. The present research proposes the MPA designs in the forms of diagnosis modules and implements it on the MT system.

  18. Beam splash effects on ATLAS silicon microstrip detectors evaluated using 1-w Nd YAG laser

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; Kohriki, T; Kuwano, T; Moorhead, G F; Terada, S; Unno, Y

    2005-01-01

    On an incident of accelerator beam loss, the tracking detector located close to the beam line is subjected to receive intensive radiation in a short period. We used a 1-W focused Nd: YAG laser and simulated the effects on the ATLAS microstrip detector. The laser corresponds to intensity of up to 1 multiplied by 109mips/pulse with a pulse width of about 10 ns. We observed breaks on Al strips on extreme conditions, depending on the laser intensity and bias voltage applied to the silicon sensor. The break can be interpreted as the oxide breakdown due to a large voltage locally created across the oxide by the intensive signal charges. The robustness of the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) module including readout ASICs is also evaluated.

  19. Design and Development of Compact Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nagendra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel dual band microstrip patch antenna based on composite patch antenna and radiating part. By selecting a suitable offset feed position, it is feasible to provide 50Ω characteristic impedance and thus making better impedance matching. The proposed antenna has been improved broader bandwidth by using RT Duroid substrate. The radiating part is plays a important role in creating a lower operating band (2.45 GHz in addition to achieve miniaturization. The proposed antenna has to be fabricated with RT / Duroid substrate and dimensions of 19 × 22 × 0.8 mm. The measured -10 dB bandwidth of 200 MHz at 2.45 GHz and 990 MHz at 5.45 GHz, which is quite useful for Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM and WLAN applications.

  20. Circular patch microstrip array antenna on NiCoAl ferrite substrate in C-band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Dheeraj; Pourush, P.K.S.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of a 4x4 circular disc array antenna (CDAA) printed on a uniaxially anisotropic ferrite (NiCoAl) substrate is treated. The effect of anisotropy on the resonant frequency of the antenna is investigated. Radiation and scattering characteristics of the antenna with normal magnetic bias field to the direction of wave propagation in the plane of ferrite are described. Calculated result for the radar cross section (RCS) of antenna presented, and it is shown that the peaks in the RCS can be moved with respect to angle of incidence by changing the magnetic bias field. This effect offers a way of minimizing the radar visibility of microstrip antennas and arrays. Results are obtained from cavity modal solutions for a circular patch antenna at its TM 11 mode.

  1. A proposal to use microstrip gas counters in a LHC tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geijsberts, M.; Hartjes, F.G.; Pannekoek, J.G.; Schmitz, J.; Udo, F.

    1991-06-01

    The paper presents an LHC tracker constructed from microstrip gas counters, occupying a cylinder around the beam r=400 mm and r=900 mm. The instrument measures 12 points on track with an accuracy of 30μm. Due to fine granularity and the short charge collection time, the occupancy is below 1 percent at a luminosity of L=10 34 cm -2 . Operating at high magnetic fields and a fast charge collection process are possible using Xe/DME/CO 2 mixtures and reducing the gap width between substrate and drift cathode to 1.6 mm. Hits from low energetic tracks are largely suppressed and hard tracks stand out, which greatly facilitates pattern recognition. By introducing a small stereo angle, the (r,z) coordinate can be measured with an accuracy of 1 mm. A calculation of the collected charge per strip shows that the tracker can withstand the LHC radiation for many years. (author). 9 refs.; 7 figs

  2. 2×1 Microstrip Patch Array Antenna with Harmonic Suppression Capability for Rectenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aisyah Amir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of work originally presented in 2016 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics (APACE. A 2×1 microstrip patch array antenna integrated with photonic bandgap (PBG and stubs is designed and analyzed. The performance of the PBG and stubs structure are explained and analyzed in terms of the elimination of the resonance at the harmonic frequencies of the antenna. The proposed antenna is designed on FR-4 substrate with thickness of 1.6 mm and operated at 2.45 GHz frequency suitable for rectenna design application. From the simulated result, the first harmonic frequency (5.4 GHz, the second harmonic frequency (6.6 GHz and the third harmonic frequency (7.8 GHz are successfully suppressed. For instance, the radiation to the forward of the stubs-PBG antenna is suppressed at more than 15 dB at the second and third harmonic frequencies.

  3. The study of microstrip electromagnetic properties and method of measuring {epsilon} sub r

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Ali, Wan Khairuddin [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    1994-12-31

    Equivalent circuits have been derived for microstrip ring resonator using transmission lines theory. From the analysis, two equations were derived. The first equation relates all the parameters of a ring into a single equation. This equation has been used in the design process to determine the ring dimensions. The second equation was used to calculate S sub 21 and was given as a function of relative permittivity, {epsilon} sub r, and angular frequency, {omega}. A procedure has been suggested on how these equations can be used to determine the value of {epsilon} sub r for an unknown substrate. The calculations using the data from experiment were compared with the values given by the manufacturer and was found to be within 8% different.

  4. ΔOSI: a prototype microstrip dosimeter for characterization of medical radiotherapy and radiosurgery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo-Fernandez, I.; Buttar, C.; Walsh, S.; Manolopoulos, S.; Homer, J.M.; Young, S.; Conway, J.

    2006-01-01

    As the technology for medical radiotherapy and radiosurgery evolves, there is a growing need for dosimeters capable of measuring dose distributions on-line with submillimeter spatial resolution, both for facility commissioning and patient-related quality assurance. We have designed and built a high spatial resolution dosimeter based on silicon micro-strip technology for characterization of small radiotherapy and radiosurgery fields. The aim is to provide relative dosimetry measurement with film-like spatial resolution and to be able to resolve the temporal evolution. Following the description of the prototypes, first beam test results of a 250 μm pitch, 128 channels prototype with X-rays in a clinical 6 MV accelerator are presented. The device demonstrated good dosimetric capabilities when compared to reference measurements made with ionization chambers and agrees with radiographic film in the steep dose gradient region produced by the collimator edge

  5. The Silicon Microstrip Sensors of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, A; Allport, P P; Alonso, J; Andricek, L; Apsimon, R J; Barr, A J; Bates, R L; Beck, G A; Bell, P J; Belymam, A; Benes, J; Berg, C M; Bernabeu, J; Bethke, S; Bingefors, N; Bizzell, J P; Bohm, J; Brenner, R; Brodbeck, T J; Bruckman De Renstrom, P; Buttar, C M; Campbell, D; Carpentieri, C; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Charlton, D G; Casse, G-L; Chilingarov, A; Cindro, V; Ciocio, A; Civera, J V; Clark, A G; Colijn, A-P; Costa, M J; Dabrowski, W; Danielsen, K M; Dawson, I; Demirkoz, B; Dervan, P; Dolezal, Z; Dorholt, O; Duerdoth, I P; Dwuznik, M; Eckert, S; Ekelöf, T; Eklund, L; Escobar, C; Fasching, D; Feld, L; Ferguson, D P S; Ferrere, D; Fortin, R; Foster, J M; Fox, H; French, R; Fromant, B P; Fujita, K; Fuster, J; Gadomski, S; Gallop, B J; Garcia, C; Garcia-Navarro, J E; Gibson, M D; Gonzalez, S; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gornicki, E; Green, C; Greenall, A; Grigson, C; Grillo, A A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Haber, C; Handa, T; Hara, K; Harper, R S; Hartjes, F G; Hashizaki, T; Hauff, D; Hessey, N P; Hill, J C; Hollins, T I; Holt, S; Horazdovsky, T; Hornung, M; Hovland, K M; Hughes, G; Huse, T; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Jackson, J N; Jakobs, K; Jared, R C; Johansen, L G; Jones, R W L; Jones, T J; de Jong, P; Joseph, J; Jovanovic, P; Kaplon, J; Kato, Y; Ketterer, C; Kindervaag, I M; Kodys, P; Koffeman, E; Kohriki, T; Kohout, Z; Kondo, T; Koperny, S; van der Kraaij, E; Kral, V; Kramberger, G; Kudlaty, J; Lacasta, C; Limper, M; Linhart, V; Llosa, G; Lozano, M; Ludwig, I; Ludwig, J; Lutz, G; Macpherson, A; McMahon, S J; Macina, D; Magrath, C A; Malecki, P; Mandic, I; Marti-Garcia, S; Matsuo, T; Meinhardt, J; Mellado, B; Mercer, I J; Mikestikova, M; Mikuz, M; Minano, M; Mistry, J; Mitsou, V; Modesto, P; Mohn, B; Molloy, S D; Moorhead, G; Moraes, A; Morgan, D; Morone, M C; Morris, J; Moser, H-G; Moszczynski, A; Muijs, A J M; Nagai, K; Nakamura, Y; Nakano, I; Nicholson, R; Niinikoski, T; Nisius, R; Ohsugi, T; O'Shea, V; Oye, O K; Parzefall, U; Pater, J R; Pernegger, H; Phillips, P W; Posisil, S; Ratoff, P N; Reznicek, P; Richardson, J D; Richter, R H; Robinson, D; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Runge, K; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sandaker, H; Schieck, J; Seiden, A; Shinma, S; Siegrist, J; Sloan, T; Smith, N A; Snow, S W; Solar, M; Solberg, A; Sopko, B; Sospedra, L; Spieler, H; Stanecka, E; Stapnes, S; Stastny, J; Stelzer, F; Stradling, A; Stugu, B; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Taylor, G; Terada, S; Thompson, R J; Titov, M; Tomeda, Y; Tovey, D R; Turala, M; Turner, P R; Tyndel, M; Ullan, M; Unno, Y; Vickey, T; Vos, M; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Wells, P S; Wilson, J A; Wolter, M; Wormald, M; Wu, S L; Yamashita, T; Zontar, D; Zsenei, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd supplied 92.2% of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  6. High rate operation of micro-strip gas chambers on diamond-coated glass

    CERN Document Server

    Bouclier, Roger; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Temmel, T; Cooke, R A; Donnel, S; Sastri, S A; Sonderer, N

    1996-01-01

    Very high rate operation of micro­strip gas chambers can be achieved using slightly conducting substrates. We describe preliminary measurements realized with detectors manufactured on boro-silicate glass coated, before the photo-lithographic processing, with a diamond layer having a surface resistivity of around 1014 ‡/o. Stable medium-term operation, and a rate capability largely exceeding the one obtained with identical plates manufactured on uncoated glass are demonstrated. If these results are confirmed by long-term measurements the diamond coating technology appears very attractive since it allows, with a moderate cost overhead, to use thin, commercially available glass with the required surface quality for the large-scale production of gas micro-strip detectors.

  7. The results of the irradiations of microstrip detectors for the ATLAS tracker (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervan, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of ATLAS will operate in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will reach luminosities of 10 34 cm 2 s -1 . Silicon single-sided microstrip detectors will be used for particle tracking. Due to the proximity to the beam, the silicon detectors need to withstand damage from ionising radiation (10 Mrad total dose) and from non-ionising radiation such as neutrons (2x10 14 1 MeV equivalent neutrons/cm 2 total fluence). The final characteristics of the silicon SCT detectors which are needed to operate under LHC conditions and the conclusions reached after various years of test irradiation studies will be reported. The integration and performance of these detectors in complete SCT modules is also discussed

  8. A VLSI front-end circuit for microstrip silicon detectors for medical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccherle, R.; Cisternino, A.; Guerra, A. Del; Folli, M.; Marchesini, R.; Bisogni, M.G.; Ceccopieri, A.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.; Tripiccione, R.; Kipnis, I.

    1999-01-01

    An analog CMOS-Integrated Circuit has been developed as Front-End for a double-sided microstrip silicon detector. The IC processes and discriminates signals in the 5-30 keV energy range. Main features are low noise and precise timing information. Low noise is achieved by optimizing the cascoded integrator with the 8 pF detector capacitance and by using an inherently low noise 1.2 μm CMOS technology. Timing information is provided by a double discriminator architecture. The output of the circuit is a digital pulse. The leading edge is determined by a fixed threshold discriminator, while the trailing edge is provided by a zero crossing discriminator. In this paper we first describe the architecture of the Front-End chip. We then present the performance of the chip prototype in terms of noise, minimum discrimination threshold and time resolution

  9. Computing resonant frequency of C-shaped compact microstrip antennas by using ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdagli, Ali; Kayabasi, Ahmet; Develi, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the resonant frequency of C-shaped compact microstrip antennas (CCMAs) operating at UHF band is computed by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). For this purpose, 144 CCMAs with various relative dielectric constants and different physical dimensions were simulated by the XFDTD software package based on the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. One hundred and twenty-nine CCMAs were employed for training, while the remaining 15 CCMAs were used for testing of the ANFIS model. Average percentage error (APE) values were obtained as 0.8413% and 1.259% for training and testing, respectively. In order to demonstrate its validity and accuracy, the proposed ANFIS model was also tested over the simulation data given in the literature, and APE was obtained as 0.916%. These results show that ANFIS can be successfully used to compute the resonant frequency of CCMAs.

  10. SPICE evaluation of the S/N ratio for Si microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelori, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Padova Univ.; Nardi, F.

    1999-01-01

    SPICE simulations of AC-coupled single-sided Si microstrip detectors connected to the Pre-Shape 32 read-out chip have been performed in order to determine the geometrical characteristics which maximize the signal-to-noise ratio at room temperature. All the resistive and capacitive elements of the detector have been determined as a function of the ω/ρ ratio, by considering experimental and simulated data available in the literature. The SPICE model takes into account all the main noise source in the detector and read-out electronics. The minimum ionizing particle current signal shape characteristics have been introduced in the simulations. Two read-out configurations have been investigated for 6.4 cm and 12.8 cm long detectors. Finally, general guidelines in the detector design have been proposed starting from the simulation results

  11. Multiband Bandstop Filter using an I-Stub-Loaded Meandered Defected Microstrip Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Koirala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compact multiband bandstop filter (BSF that utilizes an I-stub embedded within a meandered defected microstrip structure (MDMS. The proposed design for obtaining a single stopband is analyzed by using a transmission line network model. On the basis of the single stopband structure, we designed and fabricated a dual- and tri-band bandstop filters operating at 2.5/6.78 GHz and 1.98/5.60/7.78 GHz, respectively, thereby exploring the concept of generating as many stopbands by simply adding the same number of I-stubs. The proposed filter also features the possibility of tuning the resonant frequencies by varying the width of the I-stubs.

  12. A Compact Narrow-Band Bandstop Filter Using Spiral-Shaped Defected Microstrip Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel compact narrow-band bandstop filter is implemented by using the proposed spiral-shaped defected microstrip structure (SDMS in this paper. Compared with other DMSs, the presented SDMS exhibits the advantage of compact size and narrow stopband. Meanwhile, an approximate design rule of the SDMS is achieved and the effects of the dimensions on the resonant frequency and 3 dB fractional bandwidth (FBW are analyzed in detail. Both the simulation and measurement results of the fabricated bandstop filter show that it has a 10 dB stopband from 3.4 GHz to 3.6 GHz with more than 45 dB rejection at the center frequency.

  13. A multi-channel integrated circuit for the readout of a microstrip gas chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummenacher, F.; Enz, C. (Smart Silicon Systems S.A., Lausanne (Switzerland)); Bellazzini, R. (Dipt. di Fisica, Pisa (Italy) INFN, Pisa (Italy))

    1992-03-15

    The design and test of an 8 channel integrated circuit for the readout of the microstrip gas chamber and other multielectrode detectors are described. The circuit is composed of 8 identical channels, each providing the amplification and the shaping of the signal delivered by the detector. The peaking time of the shaper is 25 ns and the overall amplifier gain is 8 mV/1000 e{sup -}. In addition to the analog output, each channel provides a TTL compatible digital output. The equivalent input noise is less than 700 e{sup -} rms and the total dc power consumption is about 5 mW/channel. To avoid a baseline shift due to the tail of the current issued from the detector, an adjustable pole-zero cancellation circuit has been included. (orig.).

  14. A possible role for silicon microstrip detectors in nuclear medicine Compton imaging of positron emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Scannavini, M G; Royle, G J; Cullum, I; Raymond, M; Hall, G; Iles, G

    2002-01-01

    Collimation of gamma-rays based on Compton scatter could provide in principle high resolution and high sensitivity, thus becoming an advantageous method for the imaging of radioisotopes of clinical interest. A small laboratory prototype of a Compton camera is being constructed in order to initiate studies aimed at assessing the feasibility of Compton imaging of positron emitters. The design of the camera is based on the use of a silicon collimator consisting of a stack of double-sided, AC-coupled microstrip detectors (area 6x6 cm sup 2 , 500 mu m thickness, 128 channels/side). Two APV6 chips are employed for signal readout on opposite planes of each detector. This work presents the first results on the noise performance of the silicon strip detectors. Measurements of the electrical characteristics of the detector are also reported. On the basis of the measured noise, an angular resolution of approximately 5 deg. is predicted for the Compton collimator.

  15. "Diamond" over-coated Microstrip Gas Chambers for high rate operation

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, A J; Bouclier, Roger; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Manzin, G; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1997-01-01

    We describe the recent developments on the diamond-like carbon (DLC) over-coated Microstrip Gas Chambers made on drawn glass substrates. MSGC surface coating with thin DLC layer of stable and controlled resistivity was proposed to overcome the limitation of detector operation due to surface charging-up under avalanches. This brings also advantages for the detector manufacturing technology. The thin layer, deposited on top of a manufactured MSGC (over-coating), demonstrates excellent mechanical properties and very good stability. We report on recent measurements with DLC over-coated MSGCs of various surface resistivities (ranging from 1013W/r to 1016W/r) on D-263 and AF45 glass substrates. Over-coated MSGCs exhibit good rate capability for the resistivity of the surface around 1015W/r. Stable operation up to 50 mC/cm of accumulated charge from avalanches has been demonstrated.

  16. Microstrip electrode readout noise for load-dominated long shaping-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Kelsey; Cunnington, Taylor; Crosby, Sean; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Martinez-McKinney, Forest; Mistry, Khilesh; Schumm, Bruce A.; Spencer, Edwin; Taylor, Aaron; Wilder, Max

    2013-01-01

    In cases such as that of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), for which the beam-delivery and detector-occupancy characteristics permit a long shaping-time readout of the microstrip sensors, it is possible to envision long (∼1 meter) daisy-chained ‘ladders’ of fine-pitch sensors read out by a single front-end amplifier. In this study, a long shaping-time (∼2μsec) front-end amplifier has been used to measure readout noise as a function of detector load. Comparing measured noise to that expected from lumped and distributed models of the load network, it is seen that network effects significantly mitigate the amount of readout noise contributed by the detector load. Further reduction in noise is demonstrated for the case that the sensor load is read out from its center rather than its end

  17. Microstrip electrode readout noise for load-dominated long shaping-time systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, Kelsey; Cunnington, Taylor; Crosby, Sean; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Martinez-McKinney, Forest; Mistry, Khilesh; Schumm, Bruce A., E-mail: baschumm@ucsc.edu; Spencer, Edwin; Taylor, Aaron; Wilder, Max

    2013-11-21

    In cases such as that of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), for which the beam-delivery and detector-occupancy characteristics permit a long shaping-time readout of the microstrip sensors, it is possible to envision long (∼1 meter) daisy-chained ‘ladders’ of fine-pitch sensors read out by a single front-end amplifier. In this study, a long shaping-time (∼2μsec) front-end amplifier has been used to measure readout noise as a function of detector load. Comparing measured noise to that expected from lumped and distributed models of the load network, it is seen that network effects significantly mitigate the amount of readout noise contributed by the detector load. Further reduction in noise is demonstrated for the case that the sensor load is read out from its center rather than its end.

  18. Test of the CMS microstrip silicon tracker readout and control system

    CERN Document Server

    Zghiche, A

    2001-01-01

    The Microstrip Silicon tracker of the CMS detector is designed to provide robust particle tracking and vertex reconstruction within a strong magnetic field in the high luminosity environment of the LHC. The Tracker readout system employs Front-End Driver cards to digitize and buffer the analogue data arriving via optical links from on detector pipeline chips. The control chain of the front-end electronic is built to operate via optical fibers in order to shield the communications from the outside noise. Components close to the final design have been assembled to be tested in the X5 beam area at CERN where a dedicated 25 ns temporal structure beam has been made available by the SPS. This paper describes the hardware and the software developed for readout and control of data acquired by the front-end electronics operating at 40 MHz, Some preliminary results of the tests performed in the 25 ns beam are also given. (8 refs).

  19. Design of a power amplifier for wireless communications using microstrip technology and Microwave Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Tipantuña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed description and all the procedures involved in designing a power amplifier using microstrip technology and the design software Microwave OfficeTM. Specifically, the design is oriented to build an amplifier with central frequency at 14 GHz, but the same fundamentals and principles could be applied in the whole range of radio frequency. For the design, a MESFET transistor and simultaneous input and output matching networks are considered. The values of the parameters and the simulation for every stage are computed and performed using AWR Microwave OfficeTM. At the end of the document, a fully functional circuit layout represented in 2D and 3D is shown with all their complementary elements

  20. Dual band multi frequency rectangular patch microstrip antenna with flyswatter shaped slot for wireless systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, Dheeraj; Saraswat, Shriti; Gulati, Gitansh; Shekhar, Snehanshu; Joshi, Kanika; Sharma, Komal

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a dual band planar antenna has been proposed for IEEE 802.16 Wi-MAX /IEEE 802.11 WLAN/4.9 GHz public safety applications. The antenna comprises a frequency bandwidth of 560MHz (3.37GHz-3.93GHz) for WLAN and WiMAX and 372MHz (4.82GHz-5.192GHz) for 4.9 GHz public safety applications and Radio astronomy services (4.8-4.94 GHz). The proposed antenna constitutes of a single microstrip patch reactively loaded with three identical steps positioned in a zig-zag manner towards the radiating edges of the patch. The coaxially fed patch antenna characteristics (radiation pattern, antenna gain, antenna directivity, current distribution, S_1_1) have been investigated. The antenna design is primarily focused on achieving a dual band operation.

  1. Dual band multi frequency rectangular patch microstrip antenna with flyswatter shaped slot for wireless systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Dheeraj, E-mail: dbhardwaj.bit@gmail.com [Department of Physics, BIT-Mesra-Jaipur Campus, Jaipur 302017 (India); Saraswat, Shriti, E-mail: saraswat.srishti@gmail.com; Gulati, Gitansh, E-mail: gitanshgulati@gmail.com; Shekhar, Snehanshu, E-mail: snehanshushekhar.bit@gmail.com; Joshi, Kanika, E-mail: kanika.karesh@gmail.com [Department of Electronics & Communication, BIT-Mesra-Jaipur Campus, Jaipur 302017 (India); Sharma, Komal, E-mail: kbhardwaj18@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Swami Keshvanand Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India)

    2016-03-09

    In this paper a dual band planar antenna has been proposed for IEEE 802.16 Wi-MAX /IEEE 802.11 WLAN/4.9 GHz public safety applications. The antenna comprises a frequency bandwidth of 560MHz (3.37GHz-3.93GHz) for WLAN and WiMAX and 372MHz (4.82GHz-5.192GHz) for 4.9 GHz public safety applications and Radio astronomy services (4.8-4.94 GHz). The proposed antenna constitutes of a single microstrip patch reactively loaded with three identical steps positioned in a zig-zag manner towards the radiating edges of the patch. The coaxially fed patch antenna characteristics (radiation pattern, antenna gain, antenna directivity, current distribution, S{sub 11}) have been investigated. The antenna design is primarily focused on achieving a dual band operation.

  2. Dual band multi frequency rectangular patch microstrip antenna with flyswatter shaped slot for wireless systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Dheeraj; Saraswat, Shriti; Gulati, Gitansh; Shekhar, Snehanshu; Joshi, Kanika; Sharma, Komal

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a dual band planar antenna has been proposed for IEEE 802.16 Wi-MAX /IEEE 802.11 WLAN/4.9 GHz public safety applications. The antenna comprises a frequency bandwidth of 560MHz (3.37GHz-3.93GHz) for WLAN and WiMAX and 372MHz (4.82GHz-5.192GHz) for 4.9 GHz public safety applications and Radio astronomy services (4.8-4.94 GHz). The proposed antenna constitutes of a single microstrip patch reactively loaded with three identical steps positioned in a zig-zag manner towards the radiating edges of the patch. The coaxially fed patch antenna characteristics (radiation pattern, antenna gain, antenna directivity, current distribution, S11) have been investigated. The antenna design is primarily focused on achieving a dual band operation.

  3. Compact Microstrip Triple-Mode Bandpass Filters Using Dual-Stub-Loaded Spiral Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new microstrip triple-mode resonators loaded with T-shaped open stubs using axially and centrally symmetric spiral structures, respectively, are presented. Spiraled for circuit size reduction, these two half-wavelength resonators can both generate three resonant modes over a wide frequency band by loading two T-stubs with different lengths. Due to the structural symmetry, they can be analyzed by odd- and even-mode method. To validate the design concept, two compact bandpass filters (BPFs using these two novel resonators with center frequencies of 1.76 GHz and 2.44 GHz for the GSM1800 and WLAN/Zigbee applications, respectively, have been designed, fabricated and tested. The center frequencies and bandwidths can be tunable through the analysis of resonant frequency responses, fractional bandwidths and external quality factor versus the resonator parameters. The final measured results have achieved good consistence with the simulations of these two BPFs.

  4. Nonuniform Overlapping Method in Designing Microstrip Patch Antennas Using Genetic Algorithm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Jeevani W. Jayasinghe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithm (GA has been a popular optimization technique used for performance improvement of microstrip patch antennas (MPAs. When using GA, the patch geometry is optimized by dividing the patch area into small rectangular cells. This has an inherent problem of adjacent cells being connected to each other with infinitesimal connections, which may not be achievable in practice due to fabrication tolerances in chemical etching. As a solution, this paper presents a novel method of dividing the patch area into cells with nonuniform overlaps. The optimized design, which is obtained by using fixed overlap sizes, shows a quad-band performance covering GSM1800, GSM1900, LTE2300, and Bluetooth bands. In contrast, use of nonuniform overlap sizes leads to obtaining a pentaband design covering GSM1800, GSM1900, UMTS, LTE2300, and Bluetooth bandswith fractional bands with of 38% due to the extra design flexibility.

  5. Finite Element Analysis of Simple Rectangular Microstrip Sensor for Determination Moisture Content of Hevea Rubber Latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, NZ; Ramli, MR; Razak, NNANA; Abbas, Z.

    2018-04-01

    The Finite Element Method, FEM has been successfully used to model a simple rectangular microstrip sensor to determine the moisture content of Hevea rubber latex. The FEM simulation of sensor and samples was implemented by using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The simulation includes the calculation of magnitude and phase of reflection coefficient and was compared to analytical method. The results show a good agreement in finding the magnitude and phase of reflection coefficient when compared with analytical results. Field distributions of both the unloaded sensor as well as the sensor loaded with different percentages of moisture content were visualized using FEM in conjunction with COMSOL software. The higher the amount of moisture content in the sample the more the electric loops were observed.

  6. A Butterfly-Shaped Wideband Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liling Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel butterfly-shaped patch antenna for wireless communication is introduced in this paper. The antenna is designed for wideband wireless communications and radio-frequency identification (RFID systems. Two symmetrical quasi-circular arms and two symmetrical round holes are incorporated into the patch of a microstrip antenna to expand its bandwidth. The diameter and position of the circular slots are optimized to achieve a wide bandwidth. The validity of the design concept is demonstrated by means of a prototype having a bandwidth of about 40.1%. The return loss of the butterfly-shaped antenna is greater than 10 dB between 4.15 and 6.36 GHz. The antenna can serve simultaneously most of the modern wireless communication standards.

  7. Microstrip gas chamber on thin-film Pestov glass and micro gap chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, W.G.; Harris, J.W.; Wieman, H.

    1994-07-01

    The authors report developments of the Microstrip Gas Chamber on thin-film Pestov glass and the Micro Gap Chamber. By coating a thin-layer of low-resistive, electronically-conductive glass on various substrates (including quartz and ceramics), they built MSGCs of high gain stability and low leakage current. They were tested in Ar-CH 4 (10%) and He-C 2 H 6 (50%) gas mixtures. Energy resolutions of 17-20% were measured for 6keV x-rays. This design can make the choice of substrate less important, save the cost of ion-implantation, and use less glass material. Micro Gap Chamber was successfully tested in He-C 2 H 6 (50%) and Ar-C 2 H 6 (50%) gas mixtures. Energy resolutions of about 20% were obtained. Both detectors are expected to have high rate capability

  8. Micro-discharge noise and radiation damage of silicon microstrip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsugi, T.; Iwata, Y.; Ohyama, H.; Ohmoto, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Handa, T.; Kurino, K.; Fujita, K.; Kitabayashi, H.; Tamura, N.; Hatakenaka, T.; Maeohmichi, M.; Takahata, M.; Nakao, M.; Iwasaki, H.; Kohriki, T.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamura, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined experimentally some existing ideas for improving the radiation hardness of silicon microstrip sensors. We confirm that the extended electrode and the deep implant-strip proposed on the basis of simulation studies works effectively to suppress micro-discharge as well as junction breakdown of the bias or guard ring. For an integrated coupling capacitor a double layer structure of SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 provides better radiation hardness than that of single SiO 2 coupling in our design conditions. The onset voltage of the micro-discharge on the bias/guard ring has been studied for an extended electrode and a floating guard ring. (orig.)

  9. Development of Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in the Perspective of Microstrip Antenna Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahidul Alam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic band gap (EBG technology has become a significant breakthrough in the radio frequency (RF and microwave applications due to their unique band gap characteristics at certain frequency ranges. Since 1999, the EBG structures have been investigated for improving performances of numerous RF and microwave devices utilizing the surface wave suppression and the artificial magnetic conductor (AMC properties of these special type metamaterial. Issues such as compactness, wide bandwidth with low attenuation level, tunability, and suitability with planar circuitry all play an important role in the design of EBG structures. Remarkable efforts have been undertaken for the development of EBG structures to be compatible with a wide range of wireless communication systems. This paper provides a comprehensive review on various EBG structures such as three-, two-, and one-dimensional (3D, 2D, and 1D EBG, mushroom and uniplanar EBG, and their successive advancement. Considering the related fabrication complexities, implementation of vialess EBG is an attractive topic for microwave engineers. For microstrip antennas, EBG structures are used in diversified ways, which of course found to be effective except in some cases. The EBG structures are also successfully utilized in antenna arrays for reducing the mutual coupling between elements of the array. Current challenges and limitations of the typical microstrip antennas and different EBG structures are discussed in details with some possible suggestions. Hopefully, this survey will guide to increasing efforts towards the development of more compact, wideband, and high-efficient uniplanar EBG structures for performance enhancement of antenna and other microwave devices.

  10. Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    18 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-outlined polygons on a frost-covered surface in the south polar region of Mars. In summer, this surface would not be bright and the polygons would not have dark outlines--these are a product of the presence of seasonal frost. Location near: 77.2oS, 204.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  11. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. Performance of microstrip gas chambers in BNL-E885: a search for LAMBDA LAMBDA-hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Landry, M; Davis, C A; Faszer, W; Gan, L; Lee, L; Page, S A; Ramsay, W D; Salomon, M; Oers, W T H

    1999-01-01

    The performance of MicroStrip Gas Chambers (MSGC) in BNL Experiment 885, a search for LAMBDA LAMBDA-hypernuclei, is detailed. Chambers with an active area of 80x50 mm sup 2 were instrumented and operated as a vertex detector in the experiment. Furthermore, two distinct types of microstrip prints were utilized in these chambers. Prints manufactured with Integrated Circuit (IC) photolithographic technology have fine tolerances and thin minimum trace widths, but can suffer from a high rate of defects per print and are more costly. Prints constructed with Printed Circuit (PC) photolithographic technology have coarser tolerances but relatively few defects per print, and are extremely cost-effective. Results of bench and beam tests of both IC and PC based MSGCs are presented and their performance in BNL-E885 is discussed. E885 marks the first use of PC based MSGCs in an experiment.

  13. Design and fabrication of a microstrip patch antenna with a low radar cross section in the X-band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Won-Jun; Kim, Chun-Gon

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed a radar absorbing method to reduce the antenna radar cross section (RCS) without any loss of antenna performance. The new method was based upon an electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) absorber using conducting polymer (CP). First, a microstrip patch antenna was made by using a copper film and glass/epoxy composite materials, which are typically used for load-bearing structures, such as aircraft and other vehicles. Then, CP EBG patterns were also designed that had a 90% electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbing performance within the X-band (8.2–12.4 GHz). Finally, the CP EBG patterns were printed on the top surface of the microstrip patch antenna. The measured radar absorbing performance of the fabricated patch antenna showed that the frontal RCS of the antenna declined by nearly 95% at 10 GHz frequency while the CP EBG patterns had almost no effect on the antenna's performance

  14. CBC3: a CMS microstrip readout ASIC with logic for track-trigger modules at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Prydderch, Mark Lyndon; Bell, Stephen Jean-marc; Key-Charriere, M; Jones, Lawrence; Auzinger, Georg; Borg, Johan; Hall, Geoffrey; Pesaresi, Mark Franco; Raymond, David Mark; Uchida, Kirika; Goldstein, Joel; Seif El Nasr, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    The CBC3 is the latest version of the CMS Binary Chip ASIC for readout of the outer radial region of the upgraded CMS Tracker at HL-LHC. This 254-channel, 130nm CMOS ASIC is designed to be bump-bonded to a substrate to which sensors will be wire-bonded. It will instrument double-layer 2S-modules, consisting of two overlaid silicon microstrip sensors with aligned microstrips. On-chip logic identifies first level trigger primitives from high transverse-momentum tracks by selecting correlated hits in the two sensors. Delivered in late 2016, the CBC3 has been under test for several months, including X-ray irradiations and SEU testing. Results and performance are reported.

  15. Flexible microstrip antenna based on carbon nanotubes/(ethylene-octene copolymer) thin composite layer deposited on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, J.; Olejnik, R.; Slobodian, P.

    2017-12-01

    A most of portable devices, such as mobile phones, tablets, uses antennas made of cupper. In this paper we demonstrate possible use of electrically conductive polymer composite material for such antenna application. Here we describe the method of preparation and properties of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/(ethylene-octene copolymer) as flexible microstrip antenna. Carbon nanotubes dispersion in (ethylene-octene copolymer) toluene solution was prepared by ultrasound finally coating PET substrate by method of dip-coating. Main advantages of PET substrate are low weight and also flexibility. The final size of flexible microstrip antenna was 5 x 50 mm with thickness of 0.48 mm (PET substrate 0.25 mm) with the weight of only 0.402 g. Antenna operates at three frequencies 1.66 GHz (-6.51 dB), 2.3 GHz (-13 dB) and 2.98 GHz (-33.59 dB).

  16. Development of a High-Stability Microstrip-based L-band Radiometer for Ocean Salinity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerano, Fernando A.; Horgan, Kevin A.; Wilson, William J.; Tanner, Alan B.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a microstrip-based L-band Dicke radiometer with the long-term stability required for future ocean salinity measurements to an accuracy of 0.1 psu is presented. This measurement requires the L-band radiometers to have calibration stabilities of less than or equal to 0.05 K over 2 days. This research has focused on determining the optimum radiometer requirements and configuration to achieve this objective. System configuration and component performance have been evaluated with radiometer test beds at both JPL and GSFC. The GSFC testbed uses a cryogenic chamber that allows long-term characterization at radiometric temperatures in the range of 70 - 120 K. The research has addressed several areas including component characterization as a function of temperature and DC bias, system linearity, optimum noise diode injection calibration, and precision temperature control of components. A breadboard radiometer, utilizing microstrip-based technologies, has been built to demonstrate this long-term stability.

  17. Analysis of High Tc Superconducting Rectangular Microstrip Patches over Ground Planes with Rectangular Apertures in Substrates Containing Anisotropic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderraouf Messai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous full-wave analysis of high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch over ground plane with rectangular aperture in the case where the patch is printed on a uniaxially anisotropic substrate material is presented. The dyadic Green’s functions of the considered structure are efficiently determined in the vector Fourier transform domain. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with measurements and previously published data for several anisotropic substrate materials. Numerical results showing variation of the resonant frequency and the quality factor of the superconducting antenna with regard to operating temperature are given. Finally, the effects of uniaxial anisotropy in the substrate on the resonant frequencies of different TM modes of the superconducting microstrip antenna with rectangular aperture in the ground plane are presented.

  18. 2D position sensitive microstrip sensors with charge division along the strip Studies on the position measurement error

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, D; Fernandez, M; Jaramillo, R; Lozano, M; Munoz, F.J; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Vila, I; Vitorero, F

    2013-01-01

    Position sensitivity in semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation is usually achieved by the segmentation of the sensing diode junction in many small sensing elements read out separately as in the case of conventional microstrips and pixel detectors. Alternatively, position sensitivity can be obtained by splitting the ionization signal collected by one single electrode amongst more than one readout channel with the ratio of the collected charges depending on the position where the signal was primary generated. Following this later approach, we implemented the charge division method in a conventional microstrip detector to obtain position sensitivity along the strip. We manufactured a proofof-concept demonstrator where the conventional aluminum electrodes were replaced by slightly resistive electrodes made of strongly doped poly-crystalline silicon and being readout at both strip ends. Here, we partially summarize the laser characterization of this first proof-of-concept demonstrator with special emphasis ...

  19. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  20. The 40x40cm2 gaseous microstrip detector Micromegas for the high-luminosity COMPASS experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernet, C.; Abbon, P.; Ball, J.; Bedfer, Y.; Delagnes, E.; Giganon, A.; Kunne, F.; Le Goff, J.-M.; Magnon, A.; Marchand, C.; Neyret, D.; Panebianco, S.; Pereira, H.; Platchkov, S.; Procureur, S.; Rebourgeard, P.; Tarte, G.; Thers, D.

    2005-01-01

    The measurements in the COMPASS experiment at CERN require high-resolution tracking detectors, with low radiation length and high-rate capability. For this purpose we have developed and optimized a gaseous microstrip detector 'Micromegas'. Twelve planes with 1024 strips each, assembled in 3 stations of 4 views XYUV, are now being operated with success in the COMPASS environment. We describe here the performances and results obtained

  1. Polar crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makosinski, S.

    1981-01-01

    In many applications polar cranes have to be repeatedly positioned with high accuracy. A guidance system is disclosed which has two pairs of guides. Each guide consists of two rollers carried by a sheave rotatable mounted on the crane bridge, the rollers being locatable one on each side of a guideway, e.g. the circular track on which the bridge runs. The pairs of guides are interconnected by respective rope loops which pass around and are locked to the respective pairs of sheaves in such a manner that movement of one guide results in equal movement of the other guide in a sense to maintain the repeatability of positioning of the centre of the bridge. A hydraulically-linked guide system is also described. (author)

  2. Adaptive Forming of the Beam Pattern of Microstrip Antenna with the Use of an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Dudczyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstrip antenna has been recently one of the most innovative fields of antenna techniques. The main advantage of such an antenna is the simplicity of its production, little weight, a narrow profile, and easiness of integration of the radiating elements with the net of generators power systems. As a result of using arrays consisting of microstrip antennas; it is possible to decrease the size and weight and also to reduce the costs of components production as well as whole application systems. This paper presents possibilities of using artificial neural networks (ANNs in the process of forming a beam from radiating complex microstrip antenna. Algorithms which base on artificial neural networks use high parallelism of actions which results in considerable acceleration of the process of forming the antenna pattern. The appropriate selection of learning constants makes it possible to get theoretically a solution which will be close to the real time. This paper presents the training neural network algorithm with the selection of optimal network structure. The analysis above was made in case of following the emission source, setting to zero the pattern of direction of expecting interference, and following emission source compared with two constant interferences. Computer simulation was made in MATLAB environment on the basis of Flex Tool, a programme which creates artificial neural networks.

  3. Prediction of matching condition for a microstrip subsystem using artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mohammad Reza; Noori, Leila; Abiri, Ebrahim

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a subsystem consisting of a microstrip bandpass filter and a microstrip low noise amplifier (LNA) is designed for WLAN applications. The proposed filter has a small implementation area (49 mm2), small insertion loss (0.08 dB) and wide fractional bandwidth (FBW) (61%). To design the proposed LNA, the compact microstrip cells, an field effect transistor, and only a lumped capacitor are used. It has a low supply voltage and a low return loss (-40 dB) at the operation frequency. The matching condition of the proposed subsystem is predicted using subsystem analysis, artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). To design the proposed filter, the transmission matrix of the proposed resonator is obtained and analysed. The performance of the proposed ANN and ANFIS models is tested using the numerical data by four performance measures, namely the correlation coefficient (CC), the mean absolute error (MAE), the average percentage error (APE) and the root mean square error (RMSE). The obtained results show that these models are in good agreement with the numerical data, and a small error between the predicted values and numerical solution is obtained.

  4. The silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment at FAIR. Development of microstrip sensors and signal transmission lines for a low-mass, low-noise system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singla, Minni

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, different physical and electrical aspects of silicon microstrip sensors and low-mass multi-line readout cables have been investigated. These silicon microstrip sensors and readout cables will be used in the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the fixed-target heavy-ion Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment which is under development at the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. The highly segmented low-mass tracking system is a central CBM detector system to resolve the high tracking densities of charged particles originating from beam-target interactions. Considering the low material budget requirement the double-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been used in several planar tracking stations. The readout electronics is planned to be installed at the periphery of the tracking stations along with the cooling system. Low-mass multi-line readout cables shall bridge the distance between the microstrip sensors and the readout electronics. The CBM running operational scenario suggests that some parts of the tracking stations are expected to be exposed to a total integrated particle fluence of the order of 1 x 10 14 n eq /cm 2 . After 1 x 10 14 n eq /cm 2 the damaged modules in the tracking stations will be replaced. Thus radiation hard sensor is an important requirement for the sensors. Moreover, to cope with the high reaction rates, free-streaming (triggerless) readout electronics with online event reconstruction must be used which require high signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio (i.e., high signal efficiency, low noise contributions). Therefore, reduction in noise is a major goal of the sensor and cable development. For better insight into the different aspects of the silicon microstrip sensors and multi-line readout cables, the simulation study has been performed using SYNOPSYS TCAD tools. 3D models of the silicon microstrip sensors and the readout cables were implemented which is motivated by the stereoscopic

  5. Nuclear polarization and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaettli, H.

    1985-01-01

    Different possibilities for the use of polarized nuclei in thermal neutron scattering on condensed matter are reviewed. Highly polarized nuclei are the starting point for studying dipolar magnetic order. Systematic measurement of spin-dependent scattering lengths is possible on samples with polarized nuclei. Highly polarized hydrogen should help to unravel complicated structures in chemistry and biology. The use of polarized proton targets as an energy-independent neutron polarizer in the thermal and epithermal region should be considered afresh. (author)

  6. Circularly Polarized Antenna Array Fed by Air-Bridge Free CPW-Slotline Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel design of 1×2 and 2×2 circularly polarized (CP microstrip patch antenna arrays is presented in this paper. The two CP antenna arrays are fed by sequentially rotated coplanar waveguide (CPW to slotline networks and are processed on 1 mm thick single-layer FR4 substrates. Both of the two arrays are low-profile and lightweight. An air-bridge free CPW-slotline power splitter is appropriately designed to form the feeding networks and realize the two CP antenna arrays. The mechanism of circular polarization in this design is explained. The simulated and measured impedance bandwidths as well as the 3 dB axial ratio bandwidths and the radiation patterns of the two proposed antenna arrays are presented. This proposed design can be easily extended to form a larger plane array with good performance owing to its simple structure.

  7. Efficient analysis for nonlinear microwave characteristics of high-power HTS thin film microstrip resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedar, Ashutosh [RADL Division, Electronics and Radar Development Establishment, C V Raman Nagar, Bangalore-560093 (India); Kataria, N D [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (India)

    2005-08-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear effects of high-T{sub c} superconducting (HTS) thin film in high-power applications. A nonlinear model for complex surface impedance has been proposed for the efficient analysis of the nonlinearity of HTS thin films. Further, using the developed model, analysis of HTS-MSR has been done using the spectral domain method (SDM). The SDM formulation has been modified to account for finite conductivity and thickness of HTS films by incorporating a complex resistive boundary condition. The results have been validated with the experiments performed with microstrip resonators (MSRs) based on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) thin films made by a laser ablation technique on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates, characterized for their characteristics, namely, resonant frequency and quality factor measured as a function of temperature and input RF power. A close agreement between the theoretical and measured results has been achieved validating the analysis.

  8. A new micro-strip tracker for the new generation of experiments at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinardo, Mauro E.; Milan U.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis concerns the development and characterization of a prototype Silicon micro-strip detector that can be used in the forward (high rapidity) region of a hadron collider. These detectors must operate in a high radiation environment without any important degradation of their performance. The innovative feature of these detectors is the readout electronics, which, being completely data-driven, allows for the direct use of the detector information at the lowest level of the trigger. All the particle hits on the detector can be readout in real-time without any external trigger and any particular limitation due to dead-time. In this way, all the detector information is available to elaborate a very selective trigger decision based on a fast reconstruction of tracks and vertex topology. These detectors, together with the new approach to the trigger, have been developed in the context of the BTeV RandD program; our aim was to define the features and the design parameters of an optimal experiment for heavy flavour physics at hadron colliders

  9. Characterisation of an inhomogeneously irradiated microstrip detector using a fine spot infrared laser

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, G; Bowcock, T J V; Greenall, A; Phillips, JP; Turner, PR; Wright, V

    2001-01-01

    A prototype silicon microstrip detector for the LHCb vertex locator (VELO) has been partially irradiated using a 24 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN-PS accelerator. The detector possesses a radial strip geometry designed to measure the azimuthal coordinate (Phi) of tracks within the VELO. The peak fluence received by the detector was measured to be 4.6×10 14 p/cm 2 though the non-uniform nature of the exposure left part of the detector unirradiated. The inhomogeneous irradiation introduced a damage profile in the detector approximating to that expected in the VELO. High irradiation gradients are important to study as they can modify the electric field within the silicon. Of special interest are changes in the component of the electric field parallel to the strip plane but perpendicular to the strips which lead to systematic shifts in the reconstructed cluster position. If these (flux and position dependent) shifts are sufficiently large they could contribute to a degraded spatial resolution of the detector. In ...

  10. Enabling technologies for silicon microstrip tracking detectors at the HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.

    2016-04-01

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative ''Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC'' (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance ''Physics at the Terascale'' during the years 2013 and 2014. The aim of the project was to share experience and to work together on key areas of mutual interest during the R and D phase of these upgrades. The project concentrated on five areas, namely exchange of experience, radiation hardness of silicon sensors, low mass system design, automated precision assembly procedures, and irradiations. This report summarizes the main achievements.

  11. Wide Bandpass and Narrow Bandstop Microstrip Filters based on Hilbert fractal geometry: design and simulation results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqeen S Mezaal

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Wide Bandpass Filter (WBPF and Narrow Bandstop Filter (NBSF incorporating two microstrip resonators, each resonator is based on 2nd iteration of Hilbert fractal geometry. The type of filter as pass or reject band has been adjusted by coupling gap parameter (d between Hilbert resonators using a substrate with a dielectric constant of 10.8 and a thickness of 1.27 mm. Numerical simulation results as well as a parametric study of d parameter on filter type and frequency responses are presented and studied. WBPF has designed at resonant frequencies of 2 and 2.2 GHz with a bandwidth of 0.52 GHz, -28 dB return loss and -0.125 dB insertion loss while NBSF has designed for electrical specifications of 2.37 GHz center frequency, 20 MHz rejection bandwidth, -0.1873 dB return loss and 13.746 dB insertion loss. The proposed technique offers a new alternative to construct low-cost high-performance filter devices, suitable for a wide range of wireless communication systems.

  12. Construction of the new silicon microstrips tracker for the Phase-II ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Zhijun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The inner detector of the present ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the particle densities and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new detectors must be faster, they need to be more highly segmented, and covering more area. They also need to be more resistant to radiation, and they require much greater power delivery to the front-end systems. For those reasons, the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector must be redesigned and rebuilt completely. The design of the ATLAS Upgrade inner tracker (ITk) has already been defined. It consists of several layers of silicon particle detectors. The innermost layers will be composed of silicon pixel sensors, and the outer layers will consist of silicon microstrip sensors. This paper will focus on the latest research and development act...

  13. Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, C; Bloch, I.; Bögelspacher, F.; de Boer, W.; Daniels, M.; Dierlamm, A.; Eber, R.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Erfle, J.; Feld, L.; Garutti, E.; Gregor, I. -M.; Guthoff, M.; Hartmann, F.; Hauser, M.; Husemann, U.; Jakobs, K.; Junkes, A.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Kuehn, S.; Lacker, H.; Mahboubi, K.; Müller, Th.; Mussgiller, A.; Nürnberg, A.; Parzefall, U.; Poehlsen, T.; Poley, L.; Preuten, M.; Rehnisch, L.; Sammet, J.; Schleper, P.; Schuwalow, S.; Sperlich, D.; Stanitzki, M.; Steinbrück, G.; Wlochal, M.

    2016-01-01

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative "Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC" (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance "Phys...

  14. Battery-less wireless interrogation of microstrip patch antenna for strain sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X; Huang, H

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a battery-less wireless interrogation system that can measure the resonant frequency of a microstrip patch antenna with a fine resolution. Since the antenna resonant frequency is sensitive to strain-induced deformations, wireless interrogation of the antenna sensor for strain measurement was demonstrated. By implementing a microwatt impedance switching circuit at the sensor node, the antenna backscattering is amplitude modulated at the sensor node so that it can be separated from the structural backscattering at the interrogator. The sensor node can be powered by a small photocell and thus achieve battery-less operation. The operating principle of the wireless interrogation system is first described, followed by the implementation and characterization of the wireless interrogation system. The antenna resonant frequency shifts were correlated to the applied strains through a static tensile experiment. An excellent agreement between the experimental results and the analytical prediction was obtained. A power transmission model was established and validated with experimental measurements. Based on this power transmission model, we estimated that the maximum interrogation distance of the wireless strain measurement system is 26 m. (paper)

  15. A time digitizer for the microstrip detectors of the PANDA MVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Alberto; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Di Pietro, Valentino [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Garbolino, Sara; Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel [INFN Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    In nuclear detectors the information on the energy of the particle is usually obtained by measuring the amplitude of the signal delivered by the sensor. The low voltage power supply used in modern deep submicron technologies constrain the maximum dynamic range of the ADC. Still, the energy information can be obtained with time-based techniques, in which the energy is associated with the duration of the signal through the Time over Threshold method. This work is focused on the PANDA Micro Vertex Detector and explores the possibility of applying a time-based readout approach for the microstrip sensors. In PANDA, the strip system must cope with hit rates up to 50 kHz per channel. Therefore, the front-end output must be relatively short, this implies that the clock resolution is not enough to measure the signal duration, so it is necessary to use a Time to Digital Converter. The front-end and the TDC structure are designed in a 0.11μm CMOS process. The TDC chosen is based on an analog clock interpolator because it combines good time resolution with a fairly simple implementation and low power consumption. In the presentation an overview of the analog part of the PASTA (PANDA strip ASIC) is presented.

  16. Design Studies of Ultra-Wideband Microstrip Antennas with a Small Capacitive Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeresh G. Kasabegoudar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of an ultra-wideband microstrip patch antenna with a small coplanar capacitive feed strip is presented. The proposed rectangular patch antenna provides an impedance bandwidth of nearly 50%, and has stable radiation patterns for almost all frequencies in the operational band. Results presented here show that such wide bandwidths are also possible for triangular and semiellipse geometries with a similar feed arrangement. The proposed feed is a very small strip placed very close to the radiator on a substrate above the ground plane. Shape of the feed strip can also be different, so long as the area is not changed. Experimental results agree with the simulated results. Effects of key design parameters such as the air gap between the substrate and the ground plane, the distance between radiator patch and feed strip, and the dimensions of the feed strip on the input characteristics of the antenna have been investigated and discussed. As demonstrated here, the proposed antenna can be redesigned for any frequency in the L-, S-, C-, or X-band. A design criterion for the air gap has been empirically obtained to enable maximum antenna bandwidth for all these operational frequencies.

  17. Enabling technologies for silicon microstrip tracking detectors at the HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Institut B; Collaboration: The PETTL Collaboration; and others

    2016-04-15

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative ''Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC'' (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance ''Physics at the Terascale'' during the years 2013 and 2014. The aim of the project was to share experience and to work together on key areas of mutual interest during the R and D phase of these upgrades. The project concentrated on five areas, namely exchange of experience, radiation hardness of silicon sensors, low mass system design, automated precision assembly procedures, and irradiations. This report summarizes the main achievements.

  18. Development of radiation hard microstrip detectors for the CBM silicon tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterji, Sudeep [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Radiation damage in Silicon microstrip detectors is of the one main concerns for the development of the Silicon Tracking System (STS) in the planned Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR. The STS will consist of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSD) having pitch around 60 {mu}m, width 20 {mu}m, stereo angle of {+-}7.5{sup 0} on n and p sides with double metallization on either side making it challenging to fabricate.We are using 3-dimensional TCAD simulation tools from SYNOPSYS to carry out process (using Sentaurus Process) and device (using Sentaurus Device) simulations.We have simulated the impact of radiation damage in DSSDs by changing the effective carrier concentration (N{sub eff}) with fluence using the Hamburg model. The change in minority carrier life time has been taken into account using the Kraners model and the Perugia trap model has been used to simulate the traps. We have also extracted macroscopic parameters like Coupling Capacitance, Interstrip Capacitance (both DC and AC), Interstrip Resistance of DSSDs using Mixed Mode simulation (using SPICE with Sentaurus Device) and studied the variation of these parameters with fluence. The simulation results have been compared to the experimental results. We also simulated transients by passing a Heavy Ion through a DSSD and studied the charge collection performance.

  19. Model analysis and experimental characterization of a microstrip vertex detector for a e+e- collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.P.

    1989-09-01

    This thesis is constituted by several topics, apparently weakly correlated, but that are all addressed to improve the performances of the ALEPH microvertex detector both in the present version and in the upgraded one with JFET-CMOS electronics. A wide program of computer simulations about the upgraded JFET-CMOS version of the read-out electronics have been carried out to test its working principle and radiation hardness measurements have been performed on the prototypes of the same electronics to test its capability to stand the radiation environment foreseen in ALEPH. Extensive calculations of the capacitances in a microstrip detector are presented and their influence on the detector, both from the point of view of its noise performances and of the capacitive charge division method, has been analyzed theoretically, both through analytic calculations and numerical simulations; experimental measurements on the same relevant capacitances are discussed. Strictly connected to this point a computer code simulating the interaction of a minimum ionizing particle with the detector has been written and algorithms to determine the interaction point have been studied. This code has been later inserted in the Monte Carlo program of ALEPH. A point not strictly connected to ALEPH and still treated here is the analysis of the noise of two JFET devices, that is however interesting not as much for the results themselves, as for the analysis technique used that brought to identify noise sources that are usually difficult to detect and neglected. (orig.)

  20. Microstrip silicon detectors in a bent crystal based collimation system: The UA9 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognini, D.

    2010-01-01

    In a hadron accelerator like Lhc, a collimation system needs to be developed to protect the accelerator itself from the beam loss damage, increasing the beam luminosity. At present, a classical robust multi-stage collimation system (based on amorphous jaws) allows to protect Lhc, but limits the luminosity to the 40% of the nominal value. In order to solve this problem, a series of low-impedance collimation systems is being developed for the second Lhc collimation phase: among these, a key role could be played by bent crystals. In a bent crystal, in fact, charged particles can be deviated in a given direction with a high efficiency, reducing the impedance and increasing the luminosity. After the satisfactory results on extracted beams, it was decided to test bent crystals on a circular accelerator (the Super Proton Synchrotron Sps at CERN): the UA9 experiment was born. In order to qualify the crystal behavior, a tracking system has been developed: the system is based on microstrip silicon detectors readout by self-triggering ASICs with a spatial resolution of the order of 5 μm; the system, completely remotely controlled and based on the optical fiber transmission, would be able to measure the beam halo phase space x - x 1 . This paper, after a brief introduction of the UA9 experiment, will describe the tracking system and the first results obtained in the commissioning phase and data takings with a detector prototype.

  1. SPICE evaluation of the S/N ratio for Si microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelori, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Nardi, F.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.

    1999-01-01

    SPICE simulations of ac-coupled single-sided Si microstrip detectors connected to the PreShape 32 read-out chip have been performed in order to determine the geometrical characteristics (i.e., the strip pitch p and width w) which maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. All of the resistive and capacitive elements of the detector have been determined as a function of the w/p ratio by considering experimental and simulated data available in literature. The SPICE model the authors propose in this work takes into account all the main noise sources in the detector and read-out electronics. The minimum ionizing particle current signal shape has been introduced in the simulations. Two read-out configurations (every strip or every second strip) have been investigated for 6.4- and 12.8-cm-long detectors. The equivalent noise charge as determined by the simulations has been compared with analytical calculations, in order to determine the limits and the corrections to a simplified analytical noise model. Finally, general guidelines for the detector design have been proposed, based on the simulation results

  2. Signals from fluorescent materials on the surface of silicon micro-strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    For the High-Luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a new, all-silicon tracker. In order to minimise the amount of material in the detector, circuit boards with readout electronics will be glued on to the active area of the sensor. Several adhesives investigated to be used for the construction of detector modules were found to become fluorescent when exposed to UV light. These adhesives could become a light source in the high-radiation environment of the ATLAS detector. The effect of fluorescent material covering the sensor surface in a high- radiation environment has been studied for a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam. By pointing the beam both inside the sensor and parallel to the sensor surface, the sensor responses from direct hits and fluorescence can be compared with high precision. This contribution presents a setup to study the susceptibility of silicon strip sensors to light contamination from fluorescent mate...

  3. Signals from fluorescent materials on the surface of silicon micro-strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    For the High-Luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a new, all-silicon tracker (ITk). In order to minimise the amount of material in the ITk, circuit boards with readout electronics will be glued onto the active area of the sensor. Several adhesives, investigated to be used for the construction of detector modules, were found to become fluorescent when exposed to UV light. These adhesives could become a light source in the high-radiation environment of the ATLAS detector. The effect of fluorescent material covering the sensor surface in a high-radiation environment has been studied for a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam. By positioning the beam parallel to the sensor surfave and pointing it both inside the sensor and above the sensor surface inside the deposited glue, the sensor responses from direct hits and fluorescence can be compared with high precision. This contribution presents a setup to study the susceptibilit...

  4. "Cul-de-sac" microstrip resonators for high-speed integrated optical commutator switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Nicolas A.; Chen, Mingche

    1993-04-01

    A novel microstrip resonator structure for use with integrated Y-branch optical modulators fabricated in Ti:LiNbO3 is proposed. The legs of the structure are intended to act as the electrodes of the modulator, with light being directed into each of the output waveguides of the Y-branch on alternate half-cycles of the standing wave excited in the resonator; forming an optical commutator switch. Such resonators having Al2O3 substrates were designed, fabricated, and tested. Measurements on one such resonator, operating at 7.12 GHz and having an unloaded quality factor of 123, indicating that 50 V should develop across the ends of its legs for 35 mW dissipated power; the corresponding values, from the model used to design the resonator, were 179, 50 V,and 24 mW, respectively. Using the model it is shown that a similar resonator fabricated on LiNbO3 should be able to develop about 50 V for 100 mW dissipated power at 15 GHz.

  5. Design of a Balun Bandpass Filter with Asymmetrical Coupled Microstrip Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuedao; Wang, Jianpeng; Zhang, Gang; Huang, Feng

    2017-07-01

    A new microstrip coupled-line balun topology and its application to the balun bandpass filter (BPF) with a triple mode response are proposed in this paper. The involved balun structure is composed of two back-to-back quarter-wavelength (λ/4) asymmetrical coupled-line sections. Detailed design formulas based on the asymmetrical coupled-line theory are given to validate the feasibility of the balun. Besides, to obtain filtering performance simultaneously, the balun is then effectively integrated with a pair of triple mode resonators. To demonstrate the design concept of the balun BPF, a prototype operating at 2.4 GHz with the fractional bandwidth (FBW) of about 19.2 % is designed, fabricated, and measured. Results indicate that between the two balanced outputs, the amplitude imbalance is less than 0.3 dB and the phase difference is within 180°±5° inside the whole passband. Both simulated and experimental results are in good agreement.

  6. Bistability and hysteresis in the emergence of pulses in microstrip Gunn-diode circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurchenko, V. B., E-mail: v.yurchenko@nuim.ie [O. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 12 Proskura St., Kharkiv 61085 (Ukraine); Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Gazi University, Celal Bayar Bulvari, Ankara 06570 (Turkey); Yurchenko, L. V. [O. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 12 Proskura St., Kharkiv 61085 (Ukraine)

    2014-12-15

    We develop time-domain simulations of microwave and THz radiation sources built as arrays of active devices when the radiation wavelength is small as compared to spacing between electronic components. We pursue an approach when the system is represented by equations with time-delay feedback that could generate chaos and other forms of complicated dynamics. The approach simplifies simulations of ultra-wideband effects and exceeds capabilities of frequency-domain methods. As a model case, we simulated a microstrip circuit with Gunn diode and a remote resonator emitting the radiation towards infinity. We observed the emergence of either the continuous waves or the trains of high-frequency pulses depending on the bias conditions. We found bistability and hysteresis in the onset of different oscillation modes that depends on the way of driving the bias voltage into the domain of instability of the given system. The results would allow one to improve the design of THz radiation sources with time-delay coupling between components.

  7. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  8. Laminated NbTi-on-Kapton Microstrip Cables for Flexible Sub-Kelvin RF Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Alex B.; Bockstiegel, Clinton; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Daal, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    Large arrays of superconducting devices such as microwave kinetic inductance detectors require high density interconnects from higher temperatures with minimal heat load, low loss, and negligible crosstalk capable of carrying large and overlapping bandwidth signals. We report the fabrication of superconducting 53 wt% Nb-47 wt% Ti (Nb-47Ti) microstrip transmission lines laminated onto flexible polyimide substrates with lengths up to 40 cm and up to ten traces. The 50 Ω traces terminate in G3PO coaxial push-on connectors. We found transmission losses of 2.5 dB and a nearest-neighbor forward crosstalk of -25 dB at 8 GHz on a typical 5 trace, 1.8-cm-wide, 0.198-mm-thick, 22-cm-long flex cable at 30 mK. A simple two-port analytical model and subsequent Sonnet simulations indicate that this loss is mainly due to a complex impedance mismatch from wirebonds at the end connector without which the insertion loss would be data show that the 0.198-mm-thick flex cables tested have roughly equivalent thermal conductance per trace below 4 K compared to the 0.86 mm Nb-47Ti coaxial cables.

  9. The depletion properties of silicon microstrip detectors with variable strip pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizmanic, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the depletion properties of trapezoidal shaped silicon microstrip detectors which have variable strip pitch. Four types of detectors were examined: three detectors have constant strip width and a fourth has a varying strip width. The detectors are single sided with readout performed via p + strips. The depletion properties of the devices were measured using two different methods. The first used capacitance versus voltage measurements, while the second used a 1060 nm wavelength laser coupled to a single mode fiber with a mode field diameter less than 10 μm. The small laser spot size allowed for the depletion depth to be measured in a localized area of the detector. The laser induced charge on an electrode was measured as a function of reverse bias voltage using a sensitive charge preamplifier. The depletion voltages of the detectors demonstrate a strong dependence upon the ratio of strip width to strip pitch. Moreover, these measurements show that a large value of this ratio yields a lower depletion voltage and vice versa. (orig.)

  10. An improved microstrip plasma for optical emission spectrometry of gaseous species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schermer, Susanne; Bings, Nicolas H.; Bilgic, Attila M.; Stonies, Robert; Voges, Edgar; Broekaert, Jose A.C. E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de

    2003-09-26

    A modified compact 2.45 GHz microstrip plasma (MSP) operated with Ar as working gas at atmospheric pressure has been characterized and examined for its suitability for the determination of Hg as gaseous species by optical emission spectrometry. As a formerly described MSP the new device is provided on a sapphire substrate. The areas of plasma stability in terms of gas flow rates and microwave power for both MSPs with respect to plasma form and reflected power were investigated. Power levels of 5-40 W and Ar flow rates of 15-60 l/h were used. The modified MSP, which extends out of the channel in the sapphire substrate, was used for the recording of emission spectra for Hg vapor at different working conditions. Using optimized parameters a detection limit for Hg of less than 10 ng Hg/l Ar is obtained. The attainable excitation temperatures in the modified MSP at different microwave power were determined under the use of Fe as thermometric species and introducing ferrocene into the plasma. They were found to be at the order of 6000-7000 K for a power of 10-40 W and a gas flow of 15 l/h. It was shown that the modified MSP source can be combined with both a conventional monochromator with photomultiplier detection and a miniaturized spectrometer with CCD detection, whereby space-angle limitations are not stringent.

  11. Development of microstrip gas chamber and application to imaging gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimori, T.; Minami, S.; Nagae, T.; Takahashi, T.; Miyagi, T.

    1992-07-01

    We have developed Microstrip Gas Chamber (MSGC) by using Multi-Chip technology which enables high-density assembly of bare LSI chips on a silicon board. Our MSGC was operated steadily with ∼ 10 3 gain more than one week. An energy resolution of 15% (FWHM) for 5.9 keV X-ray of 55 Fe was obtained. With very thin polyimide substrate of 16 μm thickness, two interesting phenomena were observed; one is a strong dependence of gains on the back plane potential, and the other is little time variation of gains. New type of MSGC with a guarding mask of a thin polyimide layer on the cathode edges has been examined to reduce incidental electrical discharges between anode and cathode strips. Furthermore, new approach to reduce the resistivity of the substrate has been examined. By these approaches, the stability of the high gain operation of ∼ 10 4 has been drastically improved. In addition, we discuss the possibility of the application of MSGC to the coded mask X-ray imaging detector for astrophysics. (author)

  12. Photon counting microstrip X-ray detectors with GaAs sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruat, M.; Andrä, M.; Bergamaschi, A.; Barten, R.; Brückner, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Fröjdh, E.; Greiffenberg, D.; Lopez-Cuenca, C.; Lozinskaya, A. D.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Novikov, V. A.; Ramilli, M.; Redford, S.; Ruder, C.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Thattil, D.; Tinti, G.; Tolbanov, O. P.; Tyazhev, A.; Vetter, S.; Zarubin, A. N.; Zhang, J.

    2018-01-01

    High-Z sensors are increasingly used to overcome the poor efficiency of Si sensors above 15 keV, and further extend the energy range of synchrotron and FEL experiments. Detector-grade GaAs sensors of 500 μm thickness offer 98% absorption efficiency at 30 keV and 50% at 50 keV . In this work we assess the usability of GaAs sensors in combination with the MYTHEN photon-counting microstrip readout chip developed at PSI. Different strip length and pitch are compared, and the detector performance is evaluated in regard of the sensor material properties. Despite increased leakage current and noise, photon-counting strips mounted with GaAs sensors can be used with photons of energy as low as 5 keV, and exhibit excellent linearity with energy. The charge sharing is doubled as compared to silicon strips, due to the high diffusion coefficient of electrons in GaAs.

  13. A suitable material for the substrate of micro-strip gas chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Minglong; Xia Yiben; Wang Linjun; Zhang Weili

    2004-01-01

    Micro-strip Gas Chamber (MSGC) used as a position sensitive detector has perfect performances in the detection of nuclear irradiations. However, it encounters a severe problem, that is, positive charge accumulation which can be avoided by reducing the surface resistivity of insulating substrate. So, diamond-like carbon (DLC) film is coated on D263 glass to modify its electrical properties as substrate for MSGC. Raman spectroscopy demonstrates that DLC film is of sp 3 (σ bounding) and sp 2 bonding (π bonding), and therefore it is a type of electronically conducting material. It also reveals that the film deposited on D263 glass possesses very large of sp 3 content and consequently is a high quality DLC film. I-V plots indicate that samples with DLC film enjoy very steady and suitable resistivities in the range of 10 9 -10 12 Ω·cm. C-F characteristics also show that samples coated by DLC film have low and stable capacitance with frequency. These excellent performances of the new material, DLC film/D263 glass, meet the optimum requirements of MSGC. DLC film/D263 glass used as the substrate of MSGC should effectively avoid the charge pile-up effect and substrate instability and then improve its performances

  14. Micro-strip Metal Foil Detectors for the Beam Profile Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Pugatch, V M; Fedorovitch, O A; Mikhailenko, A V; Prystupa, S V; Pylypchenko, Y

    2005-01-01

    The Micro-strip Metal Foil Detectors (MMFD) designed and used for the Beam Profile Monitoring (BPM) are discussed. Fast particles hitting a metal strip initiate Secondary Electron Emission (SEE) which occurs at 10 - 50 nm surface layers of a strip. The SEE yield is measured by a sensitive Charge Integrator with built-in current-to-frequency converter (1 Hz per 1 fA). The MMFD (deposited onto the 20 μm thick Si-wafer) with 32 Al strips (10 μm wide, 32 μm pitch) has been used for the BPM of the 32 MeV alpha-particle beam at the MPIfK (Heidelberg) Tandem generator for Single-Event-Upset studies of the BEETLE micro-chip. Similar MMFD (0.5 μm thick Ni-strips) with totally removed Si-wafer (by plasma-chemistry, at the working area of 8 x 10 mm2) has been applied for the on-line X-ray BPM at the HASYLAB (DESY). The number of photons (11.3 GeV, mean X-ray energy 18 keV) producing out of a strip a single SEE was evaluated as (1.5 ±0.5)* 104. MMFD has demonstrated stable...

  15. The front-end amplifier for the silicon microstrip sensors of the PANDA MVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pietro, Valentino; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Riccardi, Alberto [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU Giessen (Germany); Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    The most common readout systems designed for the nuclear physics detectors are based on amplitude measurements. The information that needs to be preserved is the charge delivered by a particle hitting the sensor. The electronic chain employed in these cases is made from two main building blocks: front-end amplifier and ADC. One of the issues associated with the implementation of such an architecture in scaled CMOS technologies is the dynamic range, because the charge information is extrapolated through the sampling of the peak of the front-end output signal. It is therefore interesting to explore the possibility of using time-based architectures offering better performances from that point of view. In fact, in these topologies the linearity between the charge and the signal duration can be maintained even if some building blocks in the chain saturate. The main drawback is the loss in resolution since a duration measurement involves the difference between two time measurements. This work will present the design of a front-end optimized for fast Time-over-Threshold applications. The circuit has been developed for the microstrip detectors of the PANDA experiment. The key features of the front-end amplifier are illustrated and both schematic level, and post-layout simulations are discussed.

  16. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-06-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  17. Circular Microstrip Patch Array Antenna for C-Band Altimeter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Keshtkar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss the practical and experimental results obtained from the design, construction, and test of an array of circular microstrip elements. The aim of this antenna construction was to obtain a gain of 12 dB, an acceptable pattern, and a reasonable value of SWR for altimeter system application. In this paper, the cavity model was applied to analyze the patch and a proper combination of ordinary formulas; HPHFSS software and Microwave Office software were used. The array includes four circular elements with equal sizes and equal spacing and was planed on a substrate. The method of analysis, design, and development of this antenna array is explained completely here. The antenna is simulated and is completely analyzed by commercial HPHFSS software. Microwave Office 2006 software has been used to initially simulate and find the optimum design and results. Comparison between practical results and the results obtained from the simulation shows that we reached our goals by a great degree of validity.

  18. Silicon microstrip detector development in the Institute for High Energy Physics Zeuthen, GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Nowak, W.D.; Truetzschler, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that in regard of the growing interest to study short living particles demanding for high resolution vertex detectors the authors started to build Si microstrip detectors. The first detector generation was characterized by a small area of silicon and a readout via printed circuit board fan out. Now they can assemble detectors with larger areas and VLSI readout. A special cleanroom has been built. Equipment and tools necessary are available. Silicon wafers and thick film hybrid circuits are fabricated under collaboration by the GDR industry. Applications of their detectors were several test-runs at CERN to calibrate the L3 time expansion chamber (TEC) and the L3 muon chambers. A 10-layer telescope is designed now and it is planned to calibrate a high resolution scintillation fiber target. Future applications will be high resolution vertex detectors, e.g. L3 upgrading (LEP, CERN) or KEDR (VEPP-5, Novosibirsk). Further investigations will concern AC coupled strip detectors (single and double sided) and pixel and/or pad detectors

  19. An improved ultra-wideband bandpass filter design using split ring resonator with coupled microstrip line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeshkumar, Dubey Suhmita; Kumar, Manish

    2018-04-01

    This paper incorporates an improved design of Ultra Wideband Bandpass filter by using split ring resonators (SRR) along with the coupled microstrip lines. The use of split ring resonators and shunt step impedance open circuit stub enhances the stability due to transmission zeroes at the ends. The designing of filter and simulation of parameters is carried out using Ansoft's HFSS 13.0 software on RT/Duroid 6002 as a substrate with dielectric constant of 2.94. The design utilizes a frequency band from 22GHz to 29GHz. This band is reserved for Automotive Radar system and sensors as per FCC specifications. The proposed design demonstrates insertion loss less than 0.6dB and return loss better than 12dB at mid frequency i.e. 24.4GHz. The reflection coefficient shows high stability of about 12.47dB at mid frequency. The fractional bandwidth of the proposed filter is about 28.7% and size of filter design is small due to thickness of 0.127mm.

  20. Complementary Split Ring Resonator Based Triple Band Microstrip Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new simple design of a triple-band microstrip antenna using metamaterial concept is presented in this paper. Multi-unit cell was the key of the multi resonance response that was obtained by etching two circular and one rectangular split ring resonator (SRR unit cells in the ground plane of a conventional patch operating at 3.56 GHz .The circular unit cells are resonating at 5.6 GHz for the upper band of Wi-MAX, while the rectangular cell is designed to produce a resonance at 2.45 GHz for the lower band of WLAN. WiMAX's/WLAN's operating bands are covered by the triple resonances which are achieved by the proposed antenna with quite enhanced performance. A detailed parametric study of the placement for the metamaterial unit cells is introduced and the most suitable positions are chosen to be the place of the unit cells for enhanced performance. A good consistency between simulation and measurement confirms the ability of the proposed antenna to achieve an improved gain at the three different frequencies.

  1. Hybrid method to predict the resonant frequencies and to characterise dual band proximity coupled microstrip antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Ruchi; Ghosh, Jayanta

    2018-06-01

    A new hybrid technique, which is a combination of neural network (NN) and support vector machine, is proposed for designing of different slotted dual band proximity coupled microstrip antennas. Slots on the patch are employed to produce the second resonance along with size reduction. The proposed hybrid model provides flexibility to design the dual band antennas in the frequency range from 1 to 6 GHz. This includes DCS (1.71-1.88 GHz), PCS (1.88-1.99 GHz), UMTS (1.92-2.17 GHz), LTE2300 (2.3-2.4 GHz), Bluetooth (2.4-2.485 GHz), WiMAX (3.3-3.7 GHz), and WLAN (5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.725-5.825 GHz) bands applications. Also, the comparative study of this proposed technique is done with the existing methods like knowledge based NN and support vector machine. The proposed method is found to be more accurate in terms of % error and root mean square % error and the results are in good accord with the measured values.

  2. Operation of microstrip gas chambers manufactured on glass coated with high resistivity diamond-like layers

    CERN Document Server

    Boimska, B; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1997-01-01

    We describe recent observations and measurements realized with micro-strip gas chambers (MSGCs) manufactured on boro-silicate glass coated with a thin layer of diamond-like carbon (DLC) having a surface resistivity around 4.10$^{16}\\Omega/\\Box$. The role of the back-pla electrode configuration and potential in the detector performance has been studied. Even for this very high resistivity of the coatings, MSGCs operate differently from those manufactured on bare boro-silicate glass; the charge gain increases with the radiation flux for counting rates above 103 Hz/mm2, reaching a value 60% higher for 105 Hz/mm2. This behavior does not depend on the presence and potential of the back plane electrode; however, both maximum gain and rate capability are influenced by the drift field. From this study, compared with measurements realized previously with other detectors, we deduce that for stable high rate operation of MSGCs the resistivity of the coating should not exceed ~10$^{15}\\Omega/\\Box$.

  3. Neutron polarization in polarized 3He targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Payne, G.L.; Bernstein, A.M.; Chupp, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    Simple formulas for the neutron and proton polarizations in polarized 3 He targets are derived assuming (1) quasielastic final states; (2) no final-state interactions; (3) no meson-exchange currents; (4) large momentum transfers; (5) factorizability of 3 He SU(4) response-function components. Numerical results from a wide variety of bound-state solutions of the Faddeev equations are presented. It is found that this simple model predicts the polarization of neutrons in a fully polarized 3 He target to be 87%, while protons should have a slight residual polarization of -2.7%. Numerical studies show that this model works very well for quasielastic electron scattering

  4. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepost, R.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented

  5. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  6. Non-invasive characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip detectors using pulsed infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of roughly 1300 double sided silicon micro-strip detectors of 3 different dimensions. For the quality assurance of prototype micro-strip detectors a non-invasive detector charaterization is developed. The test system is using a pulsed infrared laser for charge injection and characterization, called Laser Test System (LTS). The system is aimed to develop a set of characterization procedures which are non-invasive (non-destructive) in nature and could be used for quality assurances of several silicon micro-strip detectors in an efficient, reliable and reproducible way. The procedures developed (as reported here) uses the LTS to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype detector modules which are tested with the LTS so far have 1024 strips with a pitch of 58 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with a duration of ≈ 10 ns and power ≈ 5 mW of the laser pulse is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensor produces ≈ 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. The laser scans different prototype sensors and various non-invasive techniques to determine characteristics of the detector modules for the quality assurance is reported.

  7. Improved Microstrip Antenna with HIS Elements and FSS Superstrate for 2.4 GHz Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praphat Arnmanee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a microstrip antenna integrated with the high-impedance surface (HIS elements and the modified frequency selective surface (FSS superstrate for 2.4 GHz band applications. The electromagnetic band gap (EBG structure was utilized in the fabrication of both the HIS and FSS structures. An FR-4 substrate with 120 mm × 120 mm × 0.8 mm in dimension (W × L × T and a dielectric constant of 4.3 was used in the antenna design. In the antenna development, the HIS elemental structure was mounted onto the antenna substrate around the radiation patch to suppress the surface wave, and the modified FSS superstrate was suspended 20 mm above the radiating patch to improve the directivity. Simulations were carried out to determine the optimal dimensions of the components and the antenna prototype subsequently fabricated and tested. The simulation and measured results were agreeable. The experimental results revealed that the proposed integrated antenna (i.e., the microstrip antenna with the HIS and FSS structures outperformed the conventional microstrip antenna with regard to reflection coefficient, the radiation pattern, gain, and radiation efficiency. Specifically, the proposed antenna could achieve the measured antenna gain of 10.14 dBi at 2.45 GHz and the reflection coefficient of less than −10 dB and was operable in the 2.39–2.51 GHz frequency range.

  8. Polarized neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Novitskij, V.V.; Alfimenkov, V.P.; Galinskij, E.M.; Mareev, Yu.D.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason', L.; Tsulaya, V.M.; Tsulaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The polarized neutron spectrometer, intended for studying the interaction of polarized neutrons with nuclei and condensed media in the area of energies from thermal up to several electron-volt, is developed at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna). Diffraction on the Co(92%)-Fe(8%) magnetized monocrystals is used for the neutron polarization and polarization analysis. The neutron polarization within the whole energy range equals ∼ 95% [ru

  9. A gas microstrip detector for X-ray imaging with readout of the anode by resistive division

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Lodge, A B; Stephenson, R; Mutikainen, R; Suni, I; Morse, J

    2002-01-01

    The results are presented of a development programme aimed at the validation of the key concepts and technologies for the construction of a two-dimensional X-ray detector based on gas microstrip detector technology using resistive division along the anode to achieve the second dimension. A prototype detector and its associated electronic readout system have been developed which demonstrate the capability of a spatial resolution (standard deviation) of approximately ((1)/(1000)) of the working aperture combined with readout rates of up to 400 kHz per anode. Test results and a description of the position sensing circuitry are given.

  10. Matlab/Simulink Implementation of Wave-based Models for Microstrip Structures utilizing Short-circuited and Opened Stubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana P. Stošić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes modeling and analyzing procedures for microstrip filters based on use of one-dimensional wave digital approach. Different filter structures are observed. One filter is based on quarter-wave length short-circuited stubs and connecting transmission lines. The other one is based on cross-junction opened stubs. Frequency responses are obtained by direct analysis of the block-based networks formed in Simulink toolbox of MATLAB environment. This wave-based method allows an accurate and efficient analysis of different microwave structures.

  11. Planar Microstrip Ring Resonators for Microwave-Based Gas Sensing: Design Aspects and Initial Transducers for Humidity and Ammonia Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Andreas; Steiner, Carsten; Walter, Stefanie; Kita, Jaroslaw; Hagen, Gunter; Moos, Ralf

    2017-10-24

    A planar microstrip ring resonator structure on alumina was developed using the commercial FEM software COMSOL. Design parameters were evaluated, eventually leading to an optimized design of a miniaturized microwave gas sensor. The sensor was covered with a zeolite film. The device was successfully operated at around 8.5 GHz at room temperature as a humidity sensor. In the next step, an additional planar heater will be included on the reverse side of the resonator structure to allow for testing of gas-sensitive materials under sensor conditions.

  12. Study of microstrip gas chambers for CMS experiment and measurement of the W boson mass in the DELPHI experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripp-Baudot, I.

    2004-06-01

    In this document the author describes 3 fields of his research activities: first, the development and validation tests of micro-strip gas chambers for the CMS experiment; secondly, the measurements of the W boson mass and width by analysing the events: e + e - → W + W - → qq-bar qq-bar whose data have been collected in the DELPHI experiment (at the LEP-2 accelerator); and thirdly, the tagging of b-jets that is an essential tool for the study of the top quark. The last chapter is dedicated to what is expected from LHC experiments concerning the properties of the quark top: mass, spin, production and decay channels

  13. 600 GHz resonant mode in a parallel array of Josephson tunnel junctions connected by superconducting microstrip lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplunenko, V. K.; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Mygind, Jesper

    1994-01-01

    on experimental and numerical investigations of a resonant step observed at a voltage corresponding to 600 GHz in the dc current-voltage characteristic of a parallel array of 20 identical small NbAl2O3Nb Josephson junctions interconnected by short sections of superconducting microstrip line. The junctions...... are mutually phase locked due to collective interaction with the line sections excited close to the half wavelength resonance. The phase locking range can be adjusted by means of an external dc magnetic field and the step size varies periodically with the magnetic field. The largest step corresponds...

  14. Study of a microstrip gas detector for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clergeau, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    The micro-strip gas chambers (MSGC) were realized due to the technological advances in the field of micro-electronics. The wire of usual gas counters is replaced in these detectors by metallic stripes as a periodic sequence of electrodes (anodes and cathodes) spaced by around 200 μm. At a distance of 3 mm above the strip containing substrate, a metallic plane is placed, thus defining the gaseous room where the passage of a charged particle produces by ionization a primary electron signal collected by the detector anodes. Due to its granularity a MSGC can operate under very high particle fluxes since charge can be collected very rapidly. Also, the impact parameters can be determined with high accuracy due to the high space and time resolutions. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) or the MSGC detectors planned to equip one of the experiments proposed for LHC should detect, in extreme operational conditions, the particle impacts in a 4 Tesla magnetic field, for around ten years and for a particle flux of around 10 4 Hz/mm 2 . The CMS detector is described in chapter 2. The operation principle and the problems encountered in the development of MSGC detectors are summarized in chapter 3. The chapter 4 is dedicated to the study of the performances of MSGCs in magnetic fields. In the chapters 5 to 7 the processing of the signal from detectors of this type is described, particularly, the performances of various ways of treat the signal in terms of detection efficiency and counting loads are presented.The chapter 8 presents the results obtained with the prototype obtained at IPNL while the chapter 9 gives the conclusions of the performed works. (author)

  15. Elevated CPW-Fed Slotted Microstrip Antenna for Ultra-Wideband Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated-coplanar-waveguide- (ECPW- fed microstrip antenna with inverted “G” slots in the back conductor is presented. It is modeled and analyzed for the application of multiple frequency bands. The changes in radiation and the transmission characteristics are investigated by the introduction of the slots in two different positions at the ground plane (back conductor. The proposed antenna without slots exhibits a stop band from 2.55 GHz to 4.25 GHz while introducing two slots on the back conductor, two adjacent poles appear at central frequencies of 3.0 GHz and 3.9 GHz, respectively, and the antenna shows the ultra-wideband (UWB characteristics. The first pole appears at the central frequency of 3.0 GHz and covers the band width of 950 MHz, and the second pole exists at a central frequency of 3.90 GHz covering a bandwidth of 750 MHz. Experimental result shows that impedance bandwidth of 129% (S11<-10 dB is well achieved when the antenna is excited with both slots. Compared to most of the previously reported ECPW structures, the impedance bandwidth of this antenna is increased and also the size of the antenna becomes smaller and more suitable for many wireless applications like PCS (1850–1990 MHz, WLAN (2.4–2.484 GHz, WiMAX (2.5–2.69 GHz and 5.15–5.85 GHz, and also X-band communication.

  16. Metasurface Reflector (MSR) Loading for High Performance Small Microstrip Antenna Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Md Rezwanul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ullah, Mohammad Habib; Singh, Mandeep Jit; Ali, Mohd Tarmizi

    2015-01-01

    A meander stripline feed multiband microstrip antenna loaded with metasurface reflector (MSR) structure has been designed, analyzed and constructed that offers the wireless communication services for UHF/microwave RFID and WLAN/WiMAX applications. The proposed MSR assimilated antenna comprises planar straight forward design of circular shaped radiator with horizontal slots on it and 2D metasurface formed by the periodic square metallic element that resembles the behavior of metamaterials. A custom made high dielectric bio-plastic substrate (εr = 15) is used for fabricating the prototype of the MSR embedded planar monopole antenna. The details of the design progress through numerical simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed accordingly. The measured impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns and gain of the proposed MSR integrated antenna are compared with the obtained results from numerical simulation, and a good compliance can be observed between them. The investigation shows that utilization of MSR structure has significantly broadened the -10 dB impedance bandwidth than the conventional patch antenna: from 540 to 632 MHz (17%), 467 to 606 MHz (29%) and 758 MHz to 1062 MHz (40%) for three distinct operating bands centered at 0.9, 3.5 and 5.5 GHz. Additionally, due to the assimilation of MSR, the overall realized gains have been upgraded to a higher value of 3.62 dBi, 6.09 dBi and 8.6 dBi for lower, middle and upper frequency band respectively. The measured radiation patterns, impedance bandwidths (S11WLAN (5.2/5.8 GHz) applications.

  17. Development of the microstrip silicon detector for imaging of fast processes at a synchrotron radiation beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulchenko, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russian Federtion (Russian Federation); Pruuel, E. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russian Federtion (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russian Federtion (Russian Federation); Shekhtman, L. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russian Federtion (Russian Federation); Ten, K. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russian Federtion (Russian Federation); Tolochko, B. [Institute of Solid State chemistry and Mechanochemistry, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russian Federtion (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russian Federtion (Russian Federation); Zhulanov, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russian Federtion (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-11

    In situ imaging of explosions allows to study material properties under very high pressures and temperatures. Synchrotron radiation (SR) is a powerful tool for such studies because of its unique time structure. Flashes of X-rays from individual bunches in a storage ring are so short that an object under study does not move more than 1–10 μm during exposure. If a detector is able to store images synchronously with bunches of an SR source the time resolution of such method will be determined by the duration of SR flash from individual bunch. New beam line at the VEPP-4M storage ring will allow to get X-Ray flux from each bunch close to 10{sup 6} photons/channel where channel area is 0.05×0.5 mm{sup 2} and average beam energy is about 30 keV. Bunches in the machine can be grouped into trains with 20 ns time gap. In order to meet these requirements a new detector development was started based on Si microstrip technology. The detector with a new dedicated front-end chip will be able to record images with maximum signal equivalent to 10{sup 6} photons/channel, with signal to noise ratio of ∼10{sup 3}, spatial resolution of 50 μm and maximum frame rate of 50 MHz. The detector has to drive very high peak and average currents without affecting the front-end chip, therefore a specific design of Si sensor should be developed. The front-end chip has to provide signal measurements with the dynamic range of about 10{sup 4} or more and recording of the signal to an analogue memory with the rate of 50 MHz. The concept of such detector is discussed in the paper. The results of the simulations of the main detector parameters and the results of the first measurements with the prototype sensors are presented.

  18. Metasurface Reflector (MSR Loading for High Performance Small Microstrip Antenna Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanul Ahsan

    Full Text Available A meander stripline feed multiband microstrip antenna loaded with metasurface reflector (MSR structure has been designed, analyzed and constructed that offers the wireless communication services for UHF/microwave RFID and WLAN/WiMAX applications. The proposed MSR assimilated antenna comprises planar straight forward design of circular shaped radiator with horizontal slots on it and 2D metasurface formed by the periodic square metallic element that resembles the behavior of metamaterials. A custom made high dielectric bio-plastic substrate (εr = 15 is used for fabricating the prototype of the MSR embedded planar monopole antenna. The details of the design progress through numerical simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed accordingly. The measured impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns and gain of the proposed MSR integrated antenna are compared with the obtained results from numerical simulation, and a good compliance can be observed between them. The investigation shows that utilization of MSR structure has significantly broadened the -10 dB impedance bandwidth than the conventional patch antenna: from 540 to 632 MHz (17%, 467 to 606 MHz (29% and 758 MHz to 1062 MHz (40% for three distinct operating bands centered at 0.9, 3.5 and 5.5 GHz. Additionally, due to the assimilation of MSR, the overall realized gains have been upgraded to a higher value of 3.62 dBi, 6.09 dBi and 8.6 dBi for lower, middle and upper frequency band respectively. The measured radiation patterns, impedance bandwidths (S11<-10 dB and gains from the MSR loaded antenna prototype exhibit reasonable characteristics that can satisfy the requirements of UHF/microwave (5.8 GHz RFID, WiMAX (3.5/5.5 GHz and WLAN (5.2/5.8 GHz applications.

  19. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1985-01-01

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  20. Wideband, Low-Profile, Dual-Polarized Slot Antenna with an AMC Surface for Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wideband dual-polarized slot antenna loaded with artificial magnetic conductor (AMC is proposed for WLAN/WIMAX and LTE applications. The slot antenna mainly consists of two pairs of arrow-shaped slots along the diagonals of the square patch. Stepped microstrip feedlines are placed orthogonally to excite the horizontal and vertical polarizations of the antenna. To realize unidirectional radiation and low profile, an AMC surface composed of 7 × 7 unit cells is designed underneath a distance of 0.09λ0 (λ0 being the wavelength in free space at 2.25 GHz from the slot antenna. Both the dual-polarized slot antenna and the AMC surface are fabricated and measured. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed antenna achieves for both polarizations a wide impedance bandwidth (return loss 10 dB of 36.7%, operating from 1.96 to 2.84 GHz. The isolation between the two input ports keeps higher than 29 dB whereas the cross-polarization levels basically maintain lower than −30 dB across the entire frequency band. High front-to-back ratios better than 22 dB and a stable gain higher than 8 dBi are obtained over the whole band.

  1. Fabrication of Feedhorn-Coupled Transition Edge Sensor Arrays for Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Kevin L.; Aamir, A.; Bennett, C. L.; Chang, M. P.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F. A.; Costen, N.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Hu, R.; Marriage, T.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of the minute cosmic microwave background polarization signature requires multi-frequency high-throughput precision instrument systems. We have previously described the detector fabrication of a 40 GHz focal plane and now describe the fabrication of the detector modules for measurement of the CMB at 90GHz. The 74-TES based bolometers in each module are coupled to a niobium based planar orthomode transducer with integrated band defining filters implemented in microstrip transmission line. A single crystal silicon dielectric substrate serves as microstrip dielectric and as a thermal link between the membrane isolated MoAu TES operating at 150mK and the heat bath. A short silicon leg between the heat bath and the TES bolometer is designed for ballistic phonon transport and provides improved process control and uniformity of thermal conductance in the presence of phonon scattering on roughened surfaces. Micro-machined structures are used to realize the orthomode transducer backshort, provide out of band signal rejection, and a silicon photonic choke for feedhorn coupling are described. The backshort, choke wafer, and detector wafer are indium bump bonded to create a single 37-element dual-polarization detector module. Fourteen such hexagonally shaped modules each 90 mm in size comprise two focal planes. These, along with the recently delivered 40GHz focal plane, will survey a large fraction of the sky as part of the Johns Hopkins University led ground based CLASS (Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor) telescope.

  2. Performance of a single photon counting microstrip detector for strip pitches down to 10 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamaschi, A.; Broennimann, Ch.; Dinapoli, R.; Eikenberry, E.; Gozzo, F.; Henrich, B.; Kobas, M.; Kraft, P.; Patterson, B.; Schmitt, B.

    2008-01-01

    The MYTHEN detector is a one-dimensional microstrip detector with single photon counting readout optimized for time resolved powder diffraction experiments at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). The system has been successfully tested for many different synchrotron radiation applications including phase contrast and tomographic imaging, small angle scattering, diffraction and time resolved pump and probe experiments for X-ray energies down to 5 keV and counting rate up to 3 MHz. The frontend electronics is designed in order to be coupled to 50 μm pitch microstrip sensors but some interest in enhancing the spatial resolution is arising for imaging and powder diffraction experiments. A test structure with strip pitches in the range 10-50 μm has been tested and the gain and noise on the readout electronics have been measured for the different strip pitches, observing no large difference down to 25 μm. Moreover, the effect of the charge sharing between neighboring strips on the spatial resolution has been quantified by measuring the Point Spread Function (PSF) of the system for the different pitches

  3. Towards Gotthard-II: development of a silicon microstrip detector for the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Andrä, M.; Barten, R.; Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Fröjdh, E.; Greiffenberg, D.; Lopez-Cuenca, C.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Ramilli, M.; Redford, S.; Ruat, M.; Ruder, C.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Thattil, D.; Tinti, G.; Turcato, M.; Vetter, S.

    2018-01-01

    Gotthard-II is a 1-D microstrip detector specifically developed for the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser. It will not only be used in energy dispersive experiments but also as a beam diagnostic tool with additional logic to generate veto signals for the other 2-D detectors. Gotthard-II makes use of a silicon microstrip sensor with a pitch of either 50 μm or 25 μm and with 1280 or 2560 channels wire-bonded to adaptive gain switching readout chips. Built-in analog-to-digital converters and digital memories will be implemented in the readout chip for a continuous conversion and storage of frames for all bunches in the bunch train. The performance of analogue front-end prototypes of Gotthard has been investigated in this work. The results in terms of noise, conversion gain, dynamic range, obtained by means of infrared laser and X-rays, will be shown. In particular, the effects of the strip-to-strip coupling are studied in detail and it is found that the reduction of the coupling effects is one of the key factors for the development of the analogue front-end of Gotthard-II.

  4. Highly Sensitive Reentrant Cavity-Microstrip Patch Antenna Integrated Wireless Passive Pressure Sensor for High Temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel reentrant cavity-microstrip patch antenna integrated wireless passive pressure sensor was proposed in this paper for high temperature applications. The reentrant cavity was analyzed from aspects of distributed model and equivalent lumped circuit model, on the basis of which an optimal sensor structure integrated with a rectangular microstrip patch antenna was proposed to better transmit/receive wireless signals. In this paper, the proposed sensor was fabricated with high temperature resistant alumina ceramic and silver metalization with weld sealing, and it was measured in a hermetic metal tank with nitrogen pressure loading. It was verified that the sensor was highly sensitive, keeping stable performance up to 300 kPa with an average sensitivity of 981.8 kHz/kPa at temperature 25°C, while, for high temperature measurement, the sensor can operate properly under pressure of 60–120 kPa in the temperature range of 25–300°C with maximum pressure sensitivity of 179.2 kHz/kPa. In practical application, the proposed sensor is used in a method called table lookup with a maximum error of 5.78%.

  5. Performance of a single photon counting microstrip detector for strip pitches down to 10 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, A.; Broennimann, Ch.; Dinapoli, R.; Eikenberry, E.; Gozzo, F.; Henrich, B.; Kobas, M.; Kraft, P.; Patterson, B.; Schmitt, B.

    2008-06-01

    The MYTHEN detector is a one-dimensional microstrip detector with single photon counting readout optimized for time resolved powder diffraction experiments at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). The system has been successfully tested for many different synchrotron radiation applications including phase contrast and tomographic imaging, small angle scattering, diffraction and time resolved pump and probe experiments for X-ray energies down to 5 keV and counting rate up to 3 MHz. The frontend electronics is designed in order to be coupled to 50 μm pitch microstrip sensors but some interest in enhancing the spatial resolution is arising for imaging and powder diffraction experiments. A test structure with strip pitches in the range 10-50 μm has been tested and the gain and noise on the readout electronics have been measured for the different strip pitches, observing no large difference down to 25 μm. Moreover, the effect of the charge sharing between neighboring strips on the spatial resolution has been quantified by measuring the Point Spread Function (PSF) of the system for the different pitches.

  6. Charge-partitioning study of a wide-pitch silicon micro-strip detector with a 64-channel CMOS preamplifier array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, H.; Tsuboyama, T.; Okuno, S.; Saitoh, Y.; Akamine, T.; Satoh, K.; Inoue, M.; Yamanaka, J.; Mandai, M.; Takeuchi, H.; Kitta, T.; Miyahara, S.; Kamiya, M.

    1996-01-01

    The wider pitch readout operation of a 50 μm-pitch double-sided silicon micro-strip detector has been studied specifically concerning its ohmic side. Every second readout and ganged configuration was examined by employing a newly developed 64-channel preamplifier array. The observed charge responses for collimated IR light were compared with a numerical model. (orig.)

  7. Scattering with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the history of neutron scattering, it was shown very soon that the use of polarized neutron beams brings much more information than usual scattering with unpolarized neutrons. We shall develop here the different scattering methods that imply polarized neutrons: 1) polarized beams without polarization analysis, the flipping ratio method; 2) polarized beams with a uniaxial polarization analysis; 3) polarized beams with a spherical polarization analysis. For all these scattering methods, we shall give examples of the physical problems which can been solved by these methods, particularly in the field of magnetism: investigation of complex magnetic structures, investigation of spin or magnetization densities in metals, insulators and molecular compounds, separation of magnetic and nuclear scattering, investigation of magnetic properties of liquids and amorphous materials and even, for non magnetic material, separation between coherent and incoherent scattering. (author)

  8. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  9. Techniques in polarization physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausnitzer, G.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the current status of the technical tools necessary to perform different kinds of polarization experiments is presented, and the absolute and relative accuracy with which data can be obtained is discussed. A description of polarized targets and sources of polarized fast neutrons is included. Applications of polarization techniques to other fields is mentioned briefly. (14 figures, 3 tables, 110 references) (U.S.)

  10. Polarized Moessbauer transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the emission, absorption and scattering of polarized gamma rays are reviewed for a general case of combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions; various possibilities of obtaining polarized gamma sources are described and examples are given of the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with polarized gamma rays in solving problems of solid state physics. (A.K.)

  11. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  12. Calculation of polarization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-09-01

    Basically there are two areas of accelerator applications that involve beam polarization. One is the acceleration of a polarized beam (most likely a proton beam) in a synchrotron. Another concerns polarized beams in an electron storage ring. In both areas, numerical techniques have been very useful

  13. Acceleration of polarized particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1992-05-01

    The spin kinetics of polarized beams in circular accelerators is reviewed in the case of spin-1/2 particles (electrons and protons) with emphasis on the depolarization phenomena. The acceleration of polarized proton beams in synchrotrons is described together with the cures applied to reduce depolarization, including the use of 'Siberian Snakes'. The in-situ polarization of electrons in storage rings due to synchrotron radiation is studied as well as depolarization in presence of ring imperfections. The applications of electron polarization to accurately calibrate the rings in energy and to use polarized beams in colliding-beam experiments are reviewed. (author) 76 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  14. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  15. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  16. 77 GHz MEMS antennas on high-resistivity silicon for linear and circular polarization

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Two new MEMS antennas operating at 77 GHz are presented in this paper. The first antenna is linearly polarized. It possesses a vertical silicon wall that carries a dipole on top of it. The wall is located on top of silicon substrate covered with a ground plane. The other side of the substrate carries a microstrip feeding network in the form of U-turn that causes 180 phase shift. This phase-shifter feeds the arms of the dipole antenna via two vertical Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) that go through the entire wafer. The second antenna is circularly polarized and formed using two linearly polarized antennas spatially rotated with respect to each other by 90 and excited with 90 phase shift. Both antennas are fabricated using novel process flow on a single high-resistivity silicon wafer via bulk micromachining. Only three processing steps are required to fabricate these antennas. The proposed antennas have appealing characteristics, such as high polarization purity, high gain, and high radiation efficiency. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Dual Polarized Monopole Patch Antennas for UWB Applications with Elimination of WLAN Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, fabrication and measurement of dual polarized microstrip patch antennas for ultra wideband (UWB applications with notch at 5-6 GHz band. The proposed antenna rejects the wireless local area network (WLAN signals and work properly in the entire remaining ultra-wideband. Two antennas are designed for two different frequency bands of ultra wideband and both antennas together produce the entire ultra wideband with notch at 5-6 GHz band. The antennas are fed by a 50 coaxial probe and the entire design is optimized using CST Microwave Studio. The bandwidth of 3.1-5 GHz is achieved by the optimized design of Antenna-1 and the bandwidth of 6 -10.6 GHz is achieved by the optimized design of Antenna-2. The bandwidth of the optimized combined antenna is 3.1-10.6 GHz with elimination of the 5-6 GHz band. Both antennas are simulated, developed and measured. The simulated and measured results are presented. The two designed dual polarized antennas i.e. Antenna-1 and Antenna-2 can be used for 3.1-5 GHz band and 6-10.6 GHz band dual polarized applications, respectively, and the combined antenna structure can be used for UWB dual polarized applications with elimination of 5-6 GHz band signals.

  18. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED APERTURE ANTENNA WITH COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE FED FOR BROADBAND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. P. MADHAV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coplanar waveguide fed circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna performance evaluation is presented in this paper. The broadband characteristics are attained by placing open end slot at the lower side of the antenna. The proposed design has the return loss of less than -10dB and VSWR<2 in the desired band of operation. A gain of 3dB to 4dB is attained in the desired band with good radiation characteristics and a suitable axial ratio of less than 3 dB is attained in the prescribed band of operation. Proposed antenna is fabricated on the FR4 substrate with dielectric constant of 4.4. Parametric analysis with change in substrate permittivity also performed and the optimized dimensions are presented in this work.

  19. CPW-Fed Wideband Circular Polarized Antenna for UHF RFID Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Woong Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a wide bandwidth antenna with a circular polarization for universal Ultra High Frequency (UHF radio-frequency identification (RFID reader applications. To achieve a wide 3 dB axial ratio (AR bandwidth, three T-shaped microstrip lines are inserted into the ground plane. The measured impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 480 MHz and extends from 660 to 1080 MHz, and the 3 dB AR bandwidth is 350 MHz and extends from 800 to 1155 MHz. The radiation pattern is a bidirectional pattern with a maximum antenna gain of 3.67 dBi. The overall size of the proposed antenna is 114 × 114 × 0.8 mm3.

  20. Workshop on polarized neutron filters and polarized pulsed neutron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi

    2004-07-01

    The workshop was held in KEK by thirty-three participants on April 26, 2004. The polarized neutron filter method was only discussed. It consists of three parts; the first part was discussed on the polarized neutron methods, the second part on the polarized neutron experiments and the third on the pulse neutron spectrometer and polarized neutron experiments. The six papers were presented such as the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, neutron polarization by proton polarized filter, soft master and neutron scattering, polarized neutron in solid physics, polarization experiments by chopper spectroscope and neutron polarization system in superHRPD. (S.Y.)

  1. Instrumentation with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Muenzer, W.; Ostermann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering with polarization analysis is an indispensable tool for the investigation of novel materials exhibiting electronic, magnetic, and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition, polarized neutrons are necessary for neutron spin precession techniques that path the way to obtain extremely high resolution in space and time. Last but not least, polarized neutrons are being used for fundamental studies as well as very recently for neutron imaging. Many years ago, neutron beam lines were simply adapted for polarized beam applications by adding polarizing elements leading usually to unacceptable losses in neutron intensity. Recently, an increasing number of beam lines are designed such that an optimum use of polarized neutrons is facilitated. In addition, marked progress has been obtained in the technology of 3 He polarizers and the reflectivity of large-m supermirrors. Therefore, if properly designed, only factors of approximately 2-3 in neutron intensity are lost. It is shown that S-benders provide neutron beams with an almost wavelength independent polarization. Using twin cavities, polarized beams with a homogeneous phase space and P>0.99 can be produced without significantly sacrificing intensity. It is argued that elliptic guides, which are coated with large m polarizing supermirrors, provide the highest flux.

  2. Intercomparison of Methods for Determination of Resonant Frequency Shift of a Microstrip Patch Antenna Loaded with Hevea Rubber Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Zakiah Yahaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intercomparison between the finite element method, method of moment, and the variational method to determine the effect of moisture content on the resonant frequency shift of a microstrip patch loaded with wet material. The samples selected for this study were Hevea rubber latex with different percentages of moisture content from 35% to 85%. The results were compared with the measurement data in the frequency range between 1 GHz and 4 GHz. It was found that the finite element method is the most accurate among all the three computational techniques with 0.1 mean error when compared to the measured resonant frequency shift. A calibration equation was obtained to predict moisture content from the measured frequency shift with an accuracy of 2%.

  3. Quality assurance of double-sided silicon microstrip sensors for the silicon tracking system in the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larionov, Pavel [Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is the core tracking detector of the CBM experiment at FAIR. The system's task is to reconstruct the trajectories of the charged particles produced in the beam-target interactions, provide their momentum determination, and enable the detection of decay topologies. The STS will comprise 1220 double-sided silicon microstrip sensors. After production each sensor will go through a number of Quality Assurance procedures to verify their validity for performance in the STS and also to confirm the manufacturer's data. In this talk, results of the quality assurance procedures that are being applied to the latest STS prototype sensors, including detailed tests of the quality of each single strip, long-term stability and preparations for volume tests during series production, are presented.

  4. Evaluation of the x-ray response of a position-sensitive microstrip detector with an integrated readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossington, C.; Jaklevic, J.; Haber, C.; Spieler, H.; Reid, J.

    1990-08-01

    The performance of an SVX silicon microstrip detector and its compatible integrated readout chip have been evaluated in response to Rh Kα x-rays (average energy 20.5 keV). The energy and spatial discrimination capabilities, efficient data management and fast readout rates make it an attractive alternative to the CCD and PDA detectors now being offered for x-ray position sensitive diffraction and EXAFS work. The SVX system was designed for high energy physics applications and thus further development of the existing system is required to optimize it for use in practical x-ray experiments. For optimum energy resolution the system noise must be decreased to its previously demonstrated low levels of 2 keV FWHM at 60 keV or less, and the data handling rate of the computer must be increased. New readout chips are now available that offer the potential of better performance. 15 refs., 7 figs

  5. Attenuation characteristics of monolayer graphene by Pi-and T-networks modeling of multilayer microstrip line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pulkit Sharma; Sumit Pratap Singh; Kamlesh Patel

    2017-01-01

    The impedances of Pi-and T-networks are obtained from the measured S-parameters of the multilayer microstrip line by modeling as an attenuator.The changes in impedances have been analyzed for the properties of various superstrates at the microwave ranges.With graphene on glass and graphene on quartz loadings,the impedances have increased and shifted towards lower frequency more in Pi-network than T-network modeling.This shift has become more prominent at higher frequency for the graphene on glass than graphene on quartz.A little increase in attenuation is found for graphene on glass or quartz than bare glass and quartz.The present study can be extended to obtain attenuation characteristic of any thin film by simple experimental method in the microwave frequencies.

  6. Multiphoton polarization Bremsstrahlung effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovinskij, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    A general approach to induced polarization effects was formulated on the basis of theory of many particles in a strong periodic field. Correlation with the perturbation theory is shown and the types of effective polarization potentials both for isolated atoms and ions, and for ions in plasma, are provided. State of art in the theory of forced polarization Bremsstrahlung effect is analyzed and some outlooks for further experimental and theoretical studies are outlined [ru

  7. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  8. Polarization of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    Linear polarization of starlight may be produced by electron scattering in the extended atmospheres of early type stars. Techniques are investigated for the measurement and interpretation of this polarization. Polarimetric observations were made of twelve visual double star systems in which at least one member was a B type star as a means of separating the intrinsic stellar polarization from the polarization produced in the interstellar medium. Four of the double stars contained a Be star. Evidence for intrinsic polarization was found in five systems including two of the Be systems, one double star with a short period eclipsing binary, and two systems containing only normal early type stars for which emission lines have not been previously reported. The interpretation of these observations in terms of individual stellar polarizations and their wavelength dependence is discussed. The theoretical basis for the intrinsic polarization of early type stars is explored with a model for the disk-like extended atmospheres of Be stars. Details of a polarimeter for the measurement of the linear polarization of astronomical point sources are also presented with narrow band (Δ lambda = 100A) measurements of the polarization of γ Cas from lambda 4000 to lambda 5800

  9. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  10. Development of a Test System for the Quality Assurance of Silicon Microstrip Detectors for the Inner Tracking System of the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, Markus

    2003-01-01

    The inner tracking system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is being built at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will be equipped with two different technologies of silicon detectors. While the innermost tracker will be composed of silicon pixel detectors, silicon microstrip detectors are envisaged for the outer tracker architecture. The silicon microstrip tracker will house about 15,000 single detector modules each composed of a set of silicon sensors, the readout electronics (front end hybrid), and a support frame. It will provide a total active area of 198 m2 and ten million analogue channels read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. This large number of modules to be produced and integrated into the tracking system is an unprecedented challenge involving industrial companies and various research institutes from many different countries. This thesis deals with the physics of silicon sensors and the preparation of ...

  11. Using graphene/styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer composite thin film as a flexible microstrip antenna for the detection of heptane vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnik, Robert; Matyas, Jiri; Slobodian, Petr; Riha, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    Most portable devices, such as mobile phones or tablets, use antennas made of copper. This paper demonstrates the possible use of antenna constructed from electrically conductive polymer composite materials for use in those applications. The method of preparation and the properties of the graphene/styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer as flexible microstrip antenna are described in this contribution. Graphene/styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer toluene solution was prepared by means of ultrasound and the PET substrate was dip coated to reach a fine thin film. The main advantages of using PET as a substrate are low weight and flexibility. The final size of the flexible microstrip antenna was 10 × 25 mm with thickness of 0.48 mm (PET substrate 0.25 mm) with a weight of 0.110 g. The resulting antenna operates at a frequency of 1.8 GHz and gain ‑40.02 dB.

  12. TRANSVERSELY POLARIZED Λ PRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BORER, D.

    2000-01-01

    Transversely polarized Λ production in hard scattering processes is discussed in terms of a leading twist T-odd fragmentation function which describes the fragmentation of an unpolarized quark into a transversely polarized Λ. We focus on the properties of this function and its relevance for the RHIC and HERMES experiments

  13. Our Polar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2009-01-01

    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  14. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  15. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  16. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Damask, Jay N

    2005-01-01

    The strong investments into optical telecommunications in the late 1990s resulted in a wealth of new research, techniques, component designs, and understanding of polarization effects in fiber. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications brings together recent advances in the field to create a standard, practical reference for component designers and optical fiber communication engineers. Beginning with a sound foundation in electromagnetism, the author offers a dissertation of the spin-vector formalism of polarization and the interaction of light with media. Applications discussed include optical isolators, optical circulators, fiber collimators, and a variety of applied waveplate and prism combinations. Also included in an extended discussion of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent loss (PDL), their representation, behavior, statistical properties, and measurement. This book draws extensively from the technical and patent literature and is an up-to-date reference for researchers and c...

  17. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  18. Characterization and spice simulation of a single-sided, p+ on n silicon microstrip detector before and after low-energy photon irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiaguo; Klanner, Robert; Fretwurst, Eckhart [Institute for Experimental Physics, Detector Laboratory, University of Hamburg, Hamburg 22761 (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    As preparation for the development of silicon detectors for the harsh radiation environment at the European XFEL (up to 1 GGY 12 keV X-rays) p{sup +} on n silicon microstrip detectors were characterized as function of dose. The measurements, which include dark current, coupling capacitance, interstrip capacitance and interstrip resistance, are compared to a detailed SPICE model, so that the performance for particle detection can be estimated.

  19. A low-noise X-band microstrip VCO with 2.5 GHz tuning range using a GaN-on-SiC p-HEMT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.M.P.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2005-01-01

    A low-noise X-band microstrip hybrid VCO has been designed and realised using a 2 × 50 μm GaN-on-SiC pseudo-morphic HEMT as the active device. The transistor has been manufactured by TIGER and features a gate-length of 0.15 μm, an fT of 22 GHz, a break-down voltage of 42 Volts and an Idss, close to

  20. Design of a Front– End Amplifier for the Maximum Power Delivery and Required Noise by HBMO with Support Vector Microstrip Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guneş

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO is a recent swarm-based optimization algorithm to solve highly nonlinear problems, whose based approach combines the powers of simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, and an effective local search heuristic to search for the best possible solution to the problem under investigation within a reasonable computing time. In this work, the HBMO- based design is carried out for a front-end amplifier subject to be a subunit of a radar system in conjunction with a cost effective 3-D SONNET-based Support Vector Regression Machine (SVRM microstrip model. All the matching microstrip widths, lengths are obtained on a chosen substrate to satisfy the maximum power delivery and the required noise over the required bandwidth of a selected transistor. The proposed HBMO- based design is applied to the design of a typical ultra-wide-band low noise amplifier with NE3512S02 on a substrate of Rogers 4350 for the maximum output power and the noise figure F(f=1dB within the 5-12 GHz using the T- type of microstrip matching circuits. Furthermore, the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed HBMO based design are manifested by comparing it with the Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and the simple HBMO based designs.

  1. Design and development of a vertex reconstruction for the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) data. Study of gaseous and silicon micro-strips detectors (MSGC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, St.

    2002-12-01

    The work presented in this thesis has contributed to the development of the Compact Muon Solenoid detector (CMS) that will be installed at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will start running in summer 2007. This report is organised in three parts: the study of gaseous detectors and silicon micro-strips detectors, and a development of a software for the reconstruction and analysis of CMS data in the framework of ORCA. First, the micro-strips gaseous detectors (MSGC) study was on the ultimate critical irradiation test before their substitution in the CMS tracker. This test showed a really small number of lost anodes and a stable signal to noise ratio. This test proved that the described MSGC fulfill all the requirements to be integrated in the CMS tracker. The following contribution described a study of silicon micro-strips detectors and its electronics exposed to a 40 MHz bunched LHC like beam. These tests indicated a good behaviour of the data acquisition and control system. The signal to noise ratio, the bunch crossing identification and the cluster finding efficiency had also be analysed. The last study concern the design and the development of an ORCA algorithm dedicates to secondary vertex reconstruction. This iterative algorithm aims to be use for b tagging. This part analyse also primary vertex reconstruction in events without and with pile up. (author)

  2. Polar bears at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, S.; Rosentrater, L.; Eid, P.M. [WWF International Arctic Programme, Oslo (Norway)

    2002-05-01

    Polar bears, the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, spend much of their lives on the arctic sea ice. This is where they hunt and move between feeding, denning, and resting areas. The world population, estimated at 22,000 bears, is made up of 20 relatively distinct populations varying in size from a few hundred to a few thousand animals. About 60 per cent of all polar bears are found in Canada. In general, the status of this species is stable, although there are pronounced differences between populations. Reductions in the extent and thickness of sea ice has lead the IUCN Polar Bear Specialist Group to describe climate change as one of the major threats facing polar bears today. Though the long-term effects of climate change will vary in different areas of the Arctic, impacts on the condition and reproductive success of polar bears and their prey are likely to be negative. Longer ice-free periods resulting from earlier break-up of sea ice in the spring and later formation in the fall is already impacting polar bears in the southern portions of their range. In Canada's Hudson Bay, for example, bears hunt on the ice through the winter and into early summer, after which the ice melts completely, forcing bears ashore to fast on stored fat until freeze-up in the fall. The time bears have on the ice to hunt and build up their body condition is cut short when the ice melts early. Studies from Hudson Bay show that for every week earlier that ice break-up occurs, bears will come ashore 10 kg lighter and in poorer condition. It is likely that populations of polar bears dividing their time between land and sea will be severely reduced and local extinctions may occur as greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise and sea ice melts. Expected changes in regional weather patterns will also impact polar bears. Rain in the late winter can cause maternity dens to collapse before females and cubs have departed, thus exposing occupants to the elements and to predators. Such

  3. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  4. GUIDE FOR POLARIZED NEUTRONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, V.L.; Aichroth, R.W.

    1962-12-01

    The plane of polarization of a beam of polarized neutrons is changed by this invention, and the plane can be flipped back and forth quicitly in two directions in a trouble-free manner. The invention comprises a guide having a plurality of oppositely directed magnets forming a gap for the neutron beam and the gaps are spaced longitudinally in a spiral along the beam at small stepped angles. When it is desired to flip the plane of polarization the magnets are suitably rotated to change the direction of the spiral of the gaps. (AEC)

  5. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  6. A Wideband High-Gain Dual-Polarized Slot Array Patch Antenna for WiMAX Applications in 5.8 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Dastkhosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost, easy-to-fabricate, wideband and high-gain dual-polarized array antenna employing an innovative microstrip slot patch antenna element is designed and fabricated. The design parameters of the antenna are optimized using commercial softwares (Microwave Office and Zeland IE3D to get the suitable -parameters and radiation patterns. Finally, the simulation results are compared to the experimental ones and a good agreement is demonstrated. The antenna has an approximately bandwidth of 14% (5.15–5.9 GHz which covers Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access (WiMAX/5.8. It also has the peak gain of 26 dBi for both polarizations and high isolation between two ports over a wide bandwidth.

  7. The representation of neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron beam polarization representation is discussed under the headings; transfer matrices, coherent parity violation for neutrons, neutron spin rotation in helical magnetic fields, polarization and interference. (UK)

  8. Interferometric polarization control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Novak, Giles

    2006-01-01

    We develop the Jones and Mueller matrices for structures that allow control of the path length difference between two linear orthogonal polarizations and consider the effect of placing multiple devices in series. Specifically, we find that full polarization modulation (measurement of Stokes Q, U, and V) can be achieved by placing two such modulators in series if the relative angles of the beam-splitting grids with respect to the analyzer orientation are appropriately chosen. Such a device has several potential advantages over a spinning wave plate modulator for measuring astronomical polarization in the far infrared through millimeter: (i) The use of small, linear motions eliminates the need for cryogenic rotational bearings; (ii) the phase flexibility allows measurement of circular as well as linear polarization; and (iii) this architecture allows for both multiwavelength and broadband modulation. We also present initial laboratory results

  9. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H B [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  10. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  11. High Density Interconnect Microstrip Patch Antenna for 5G Base Stations with Integrated Filtering Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Salucci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The elementary radiator of a planar array for next generation millimeter-wave (mm-wave 5G base stations is described. The antenna is designed for high density interconnect (HDI manufacturing for yielding a compact, densely-interconnected, and highly-integrable stacked structure. The layout of the single element is determined by directly optimizing key radiation features of the whole planar arrangement according to specific application-driven requirements. In addition, thanks to the exploitation of a spline-shaped modelling of the radiator, suitable performance in terms of impedance matching, realized gain, half-power beamwidth (HPBW, polarization purity, and inter-element isolation are achieved within the 28-GHz pass-band. Moreover, integrated out-of-band filtering capabilities are obtained in selected and wide non-contiguous stop-bands without additional circuitry.

  12. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  13. No More Polarization, Please!

    OpenAIRE

    Reinholt, Mia

    2006-01-01

    The organizational science literature on motivation has for long been polarized into two main positions; the organizational economic position focusing on extrinsic motivation and the organizational behavior position emphasizing intrinsic motivation. With the rise of the knowledge economy and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on mot...

  14. Inertial polarization of dielectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Zavodovsky, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    It was proved that accelerated motion of a linear dielectric causes its polarization. Accelerated translational motion of a dielectric's plate leads to the positive charge of the surface facing the direction of motion. Metal plates of a capacitor were used to register polarized charges on a dielectric's surface. Potential difference between the capacitor plates is proportional to acceleration, when acceleration is constant potential difference grows with the increase of a dielectric's area, o...

  15. The Polarization of Achernar

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, D.

    2005-11-01

    Recent near-infrared measurements of the angular diameter of Achernar (the bright Be star alpha Eridani) with the ESO VLT interferometer have been interpreted as the detection of an extremely oblate photosphere, with a ratio of equatorial to polar radius of at least 1.56 ± 0.05 and a minor axis orientation of 39° ± 1° (from North to East). The optical linear polarization of this star during an emission phase in 1995 September was 0.12 ± 0.02% at position angle 37° ± 8° (in equatorial coordinates), which is the direction of the projection of the rotation axis on the plane of the sky according to the theory of polarization by electron scattering in an equatorially flattened circumstellar disk. These two independent determinations of the orientation of the rotation axis are therefore in agreement. The observational history of correlations between Hα emission and polarization as found in the literature is that of a typical Be star, with the exception of an interesting question raised by the contrast between Schröder's measurement of a small polarization perpendicular to the projected rotation axis in 1969--70 and Tinbergen's measurement of zero polarization in 1974.5, both at times when emission was reportedly absent.

  16. Fusion of a polarized projectile with a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christley, J.A.; Johnson, R.C.; Thompson, I.J.

    1995-01-01

    The fusion cross sections for a polarized target with both unpolarized and polarized projectiles are studied. Expressions for the observables are given for the case when both nuclei are polarized. Calculations for fusion of an aligned 165 Ho target with 16 O and polarized 7 Li beams are presented

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of the X-ray response of a germanium microstrip detector with energy and position resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, G; Fajardo, P; Morse, J

    1999-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo computer simulations of the X-ray response of a micro-strip germanium detector over the energy range 30-100 keV. The detector consists of a linear array of lithographically defined 150 mu m wide strips on a high purity monolithic germanium crystal of 6 mm thickness. The simulation code is divided into two parts. We first consider a 10 mu m wide X-ray beam striking the detector surface at normal incidence and compute the interaction processes possible for each photon. Photon scattering and absorption inside the detector crystal are simulated using the EGS4 code with the LSCAT extension for low energies. A history of events is created of the deposited energies which is read by the second part of the code which computes the energy histogram for each detector strip. Appropriate algorithms are introduced to account for lateral charge spreading occurring during charge carrier drift to the detector surface, and Fano and preamplifier electronic noise contributions. Computed spectra for differen...

  18. Effect of photonic crystal and frequency selective surface implementation on gain enhancement in the microstrip patch antenna at terahertz frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejati, Ameneh, E-mail: ameneh.nejati@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghzadeh, Ramezan Ali [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K.N Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Geran, Fatemeh [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, microstrip patch antenna with frequency selective surface (FSS) and photonic band gap (PBG) structures in the frequency range of 0.5–0.7 THz is presented for wireless communications. Proposed patch antenna is designed on a substrate with uniform and non-uniform PBG structures. Here, the effects of substrate thickness, various radii and arrangement of holes on antenna resonance in both PBG forms are studied. Near zero characteristic on uniform and non-uniform PBG substrate is compared and the results show that along with increase in hole radius, antenna operating frequency and bandwidth are increased. Also, the FSS structure is designed as a perfect absorber. Finally, by using FSS and PBG structures simultaneously, gain enhancement, increase in directivity and pattern shaping are studied at THz field. The antenna gain in final structure is increased by 2 dBi (32%) in comparison to simple form and Half-Power beam width is reduced from 100°×80° in simple form to 72°×48° by using FSS and PBG. All simulations and designs are done by Ansoft HFSS and CST Microwave Studio simulation tools with different full wave methods.

  19. Radiography imaging by 64 and 128 micro-strips crystalline detectors at different X-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva, A.; Cabal, A.; Montano, L. M.; Fontaine, M.; Mora, R. de la; Padilla, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes some results obtained in the evaluation of the performance of position sensitive detectors in track reconstruction in particle physics experiments. Crystalline silicon micro-strips detectors with 64 and 128 channels and 100 μm pitch were used to obtain radiographic digital images of different objects. The more relevant figures for spectrometry applications were measured and reported. Two-dimensional images were obtained by scanning the object with a collimated beam using different source-target-detector positioning and three sources of X-rays (8.04, 18.55 and 22.16 keV). The counts acquired by each strip correspond to a particular collimator position during the scan, thus serving to reconstruct the image of the exposed to X-ray object and to reveal its internal structure. The use of some techniques for image processing allow the further improvement of the radiography quality. The preliminary results obtained using in-house made and accreditation mammography phantoms allow to infer that such detectors can be successfully introduced in the digital mammography practice. (Author)

  20. Charge collection efficiency and resolution of an irradiated double-sided silicon microstrip detector operated at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, K.; Janos, S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Buytaert, J.; Chabaud, V.; Chochula, P.; Collins, P.; Dijkstra, H.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Lourenco, C.; Parkes, C.; Saladino, S.; Ruf, T.; Granata, V.; Pagano, S.; Vitobello, F.; Bell, W.; Bartalini, P.; Dormond, O.; Frei, R.; Casagrande, L.; Bowcock, T.; Barnett, I.B.M.; Da Via, C.; Konorov, I.; Paul, S.; Schmitt, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Stavitski, I.; Esposito, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results on the measurement of the cluster shapes, resolution and charge collection efficiency of a double-sided silicon microstrip detector after irradiation with 24 GeV protons to a fluence of 3.5x10 14 p/cm 2 and operated at cryogenic temperatures. An empirical model is presented which describes the expected cluster shapes as a function of depletion depth, and is shown to agree with the data. It is observed that the clusters on the p-side broaden if the detector is under-depleted, leading to a degradation of resolution and efficiency. The model is used to make predictions for detector types envisaged for the LHC experiments. The results also show that at cryogenic temperature the charge collection efficiency varies depending on the operating conditions of the detector and can reach values of 100% at unexpectedly low bias voltage. By analysing the cluster shapes it is shown that these variations are due to changes in depletion depth. This phenomenon, known as the 'Lazarus effect', can be related to similar recent observations on diode behaviour

  1. Construction, test and operation in a high intensity beam of a small system of micro-strip gas chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, A.; Bachmann, S.; Boimska, B.; Bouclier, R.; Braem, A.; Camps, C.; Capeáns, M.; Commichau, V.; Dominik, W.; Flügge, G.; Gómez, F.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hangarter, K.; Hoch, M.; Labbé, J. C.; Macke, D.; Manzin, G.; Meijers, F.; Million, G.; Muhlemann, K.; Nagaslaev, V.; Peisert, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Runolfsson, O.; Sauli, F.; Schulte, R.; Schulz, M.; Sharma, A.; Shekhtman, L.; Wolff, C.

    1998-02-01

    We describe the construction, test and installation procedures, and the experience gained with the operation of a small but complete system of high-rate Micro-Strip Gas Chambers, made on thin borosilicate glass with a diamond-like coating with chromium or gold strips. A set of detectors, fully equipped with read-out electronics and each with an active area of 100 × 100 mm 2, was exposed during six months to a high-intensity muon beam at CERN with a peak intensity of ˜ 10 4 mm -2s -1. Continuous monitoring of the performance of the chambers during the beam runs allowed the evaluation of detection efficiency and the monitoring of accidental rates, as well as the study of ambient induced variations and aging in realistic beam conditions. No significant difference has been found in the operation of under-and over-coated plates. Efficiencies could reach ˜ 98% in best operating conditions, although local lower values were often observed due to missing channels (open strips, broken bonds and dead electronic channels). The long-term operation of the chambers has been more difficult than expected, with the appearance of break-downs and loss of efficiency in some detectors, possibly induced by the presence of small gas leaks, to water permeation or to residual reactivity of the quencher gas (dimethylether).

  2. Characterization of silicon microstrip sensors with a pulsed infrared laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pradeep [Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany); GSI (Germany); Eschke, Juergen [GSI (Germany); FAIR (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will comprise more than 1200 double-sided silicon microstrip sensors. For the quality assurance of the prototype sensors a laser test system has been built up. The aim of the sensor scans with the pulsed infrared laser system is to determine the charge sharing between strips and to measure the uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The laser system measures the sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infrared laser light (σ∼15 μm, λ=1060 nm). The duration (5 ns) and power (few mW) of the laser pulses are selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24k electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles in these sensors. Results from the characterization of monolithic active pixel sensors, to understand the spot-size of the laser, and laser scans for different sensors are presented.

  3. Construction, test and operation in a high intensity beam of a small system of microstrip gas chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, A J; Boimska, B; Bouclier, Roger; Braem, André; Camps, C; Capéans-Garrido, M; Commichau, V; Dominik, Wojciech; Flügge, G; Gómez, F; Hammarström, R; Hangarter, K; Hoch, M; Labbé, J C; Macke, D; Manzin, G; Meijers, F; Million, Gilbert; Mühlemann, K; Nagaslaev, V P; Peisert, Anna; Ropelewski, Leszek; Runólfsson, O; Sauli, Fabio; Schulte, R; Schulz, M; Sharma, A; Shekhtman, L I; Wolff, C

    1998-01-01

    We describe the construction, test and installation procedures, and the experience gained with the operation of a small but complete system of high rate Micro-Strip Gas Chambers, made on thin boro-silicate glass with a diamond-like coating with chromium or gold strips. A set of detectors, fully equipped with readout electronics and each with an active area of 100x100 mm2, was exposed during six months to a high intensity muon beam at CERN with a peak intensity of ~104 mm-2s-1. Continuous monitoring of the performance of the chambers during the beam runs allowed the evaluation of detection efficiency and the monitoring of accidental rates, as well as the study of ambient induced variations and aging in realistic beam conditions. No significant difference has been found in the operation of under- and over-coated plates. Efficiencies could reach ~98% in best operating conditions, although local lower values were often observed due to missing channels (open strips, broken bonds and dead electronic channels). The ...

  4. A low-power front-end amplifier for the microstrip sensors of the PANDA microvertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pietro, Valentino; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Riccardi, Alberto [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel; Garbolino, Sara [INFN Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The most common readout systems designed for nuclear physics detectors are based on amplitude measurements. The information that needs to be preserved is the charge delivered by a particle hitting the sensor. The electronic chain employed in these cases is made of two main building blocks: front-end amplifier and ADC. An issue in the implementation of such an architecture in scaled CMOS technologies is the dynamic range, because the charge information is extrapolated through the sampling of the peak of the front-end output signal. It is therefore interesting to explore the use of time-based architectures that offer better performances. In fact, in these topologies the linearity between the charge and the signal duration can be maintained even if some building blocks in the chain saturate. The main drawback is the loss in resolution since a duration measurement involves the difference between two time measurements. This work presents the design of a front-end optimized for fast Time-over-Threshold applications. The circuit has been developed for the microstrip detectors of the PANDA experiment. The architecture of the front-end amplifier is presented, and simulations in a 110 nm CMOS technology are discussed.

  5. Fabrication of Compact Microstrip Line-Based Balun-Bandpass Filter with High Common-Mode Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Mao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of balun-bandpass filter was proposed based on the traditional coupled-line theory and folded open-loop ring resonators (OLRRs configuration. For that, a new device with both filter-type and balun-type characteristics was investigated and fabricated. Both magnetic and electric coupling structures were implemented to provide high performance balun-bandpass responses. The fabricated balun-bandpass filters had a wide bandwidth more than 200 MHz and a low insertion loss less than 2.51 dB at a center frequency of 2.6 GHz. The differences between the two outputs were below 0.4 dB in magnitude and within 180 ± 7° in phase. Also, the balun-bandpass filter presented an excellent common-mode rejection ratio over 25 dB in the passband. An advanced design methodology had been adopted based on EM simulation for making these designed parameters of OLRRs, microstrip lines, and open stubs. The measured frequency responses agreed well with simulated ones.

  6. Study of the physical processes involved in the operating mode of the micro-strips gas detector Micromegas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barouch, G.

    2001-04-01

    Micromegas is a micro-strip gaseous detector invented in 1996. It consists of two volumes of gas separated by a micro-mesh. The first volume of gas, 3 mm thick, is used to liberate ionization electrons from the incident charged particle. In the second volume, only 100 μm thick, an avalanche phenomenon amplifies the electrons produced in the first volume. Strips printed on an insulating substrate collect the electrons from the avalanche. The geometrical configuration of Micromegas showed many advantages. The short anode-cathode distance combined with a high granularity provide high rate capabilities due to a fast collection of ions produced during the avalanche development. Moreover, the possibility to localize the avalanche with strips printed about every hundreds of micrometers allows to measure the position of the incident particle with a good resolution. In this work, experimental tests of Micromegas are presented along with detailed Monte Carlo simulations used to understand and optimize the detector's performances. The prototypes were tested several times at the PS accelerator at CERN. The analysis of the date showed a stable and efficient behavior of Micromegas combined with an excellent space resolution. In fact, spatial resolutions of less than 15 μm were obtained. In parallel with the in-beam tests, several simulations have been developed in order to gain a better understanding of the detector's response. (author)

  7. A novel method of support vector machine to compute the resonant frequency of annular ring compact microstrip antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kayabasi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An application of support vector machine (SVM to compute the resonant frequency at dominant mode TM11 of annular ring compact microstrip antennas (ARCMAs is presented in this paper. ARCMAs have some useful features; resonant modes can be adjusted by controlling the ratio of the outer radius to the inner radius. The resonant frequencies of 100 ARCMAs with varied dimensions and electrical parameters in accordance with UHF band covering GSM, LTE, WLAN, and WiMAX applications were simulated with IE3D™ which is a robust numerical electromagnetic computational tool. Then, the SVM model was built with simulation data and 88 simulated ARCMAs were operated for training and the remaining 12 ARCMAs were used for testing this model. The proposed model has been confirmed by comparing with the suggestions reported elsewhere via measurement data published earlier in the literature, and it has further validated on an ARCMA operating at 3 GHz fabricated in this study. The obtained results show that this technique can be successfully used to compute the resonant frequency of ARCMAs without involving any sophisticated methods. The novelty of the approach described here is to offer ease of designing the process using this method.

  8. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  9. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowben, P A; Wu Ning; Binek, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO 2 and Cr 2 O 3 illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values. (viewpoint)

  10. The evolution of tensor polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Lee, S.Y.; Ratner, L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the equation of motion for the vector polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization is derived. The evolution equation for the tensor polarization is studied in the presence of an isolate spin resonance and in the presence of a spin rotor, or snake

  11. The polarization of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The present work is the review of polarization of fast neutrons and methods of polarization analysis. This also includes information about polarization of fast neutrons from first papers, which described polarization in the D(d,n) 3 He, 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be, and T(p,n) 3 He reactions. (authors)

  12. Determination of electron beam polarization using electron detector in Compton polarimeter with less than 1% statistical and systematic uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Amrendra [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Q-weak experiment aims to measure the weak charge of proton with a precision of 4.2%. The proposed precision on weak charge required a 2.5% measurement of the parity violating asymmetry in elastic electron - proton scattering. Polarimetry was the largest experimental contribution to this uncertainty and a new Compton polarimeter was installed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab to make the goal achievable. In this polarimeter the electron beam collides with green laser light in a low gain Fabry-Perot Cavity; the scattered electrons are detected in 4 planes of a novel diamond micro strip detector while the back scattered photons are detected in lead tungstate crystals. This diamond micro-strip detector is the first such device to be used as a tracking detector in a nuclear and particle physics experiment. The diamond detectors are read out using custom built electronic modules that include a preamplifier, a pulse shaping amplifier and a discriminator for each detector micro-strip. We use field programmable gate array based general purpose logic modules for event selection and histogramming. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations and data acquisition simulations were performed to estimate the systematic uncertainties. Additionally, the Moller and Compton polarimeters were cross calibrated at low electron beam currents using a series of interleaved measurements. In this dissertation, we describe all the subsystems of the Compton polarimeter with emphasis on the electron detector. We focus on the FPGA based data acquisition system built by the author and the data analysis methods implemented by the author. The simulations of the data acquisition and the polarimeter that helped rigorously establish the systematic uncertainties of the polarimeter are also elaborated, resulting in the first sub 1% measurement of low energy (?1 GeV) electron beam polarization with a Compton electron detector. We have demonstrated that diamond based micro-strip detectors can be used for tracking in a

  13. Polarized particles in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Kondratenko, A.M.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Skrinskij, A.N.; Tumajkin, G.M.; Shatunov, Yu.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams on the VEPP-2M and SPEAK storage rings are described. Possible methods of producing polarized particle beams in storage rings as well as method of polarization monitoring are counted. Considered are the processes of radiation polarization of electrons and positrons. It is shown, that to preserve radiation polarization the introduction of regions with a strong sign-variable magnetic field is recommended. Methods of polarization measurement are counted. It is suggested for high energies to use dependence of synchrotron radiation power on transverse polarization of electrons and positrons. Examples of using polarizability of colliding beams in storage rings are presented

  14. Polarized electrons at Jefferson laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously. Initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  15. Polarized Electrons at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously.initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented.

  16. Polarization: A Must for Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidal M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent realistic simulations confirm that the polarization of the fuel would improve significantly the DT fusion efficiency. We have proposed an experiment to test the persistence of the polarization in a fusion process, using a terawatt laser hitting a polarized HD target. The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse producing a 3He and a neutron in the final state. The angular distribution of the neutrons and the change in the corresponding total cross section are related to the polarization persistence. The experimental polarization of DT fuel is a technological challenge. Possible paths for Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF and for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF are reviewed. For MCF, polarized gas can be used. For ICF, cryogenic targets are required. We consider both, the polarization of gas and the polarization of solid DT, emphasizing the Dynamic Nuclear polarization (DNP of HD and DT molecules.

  17. Study by polarized muon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Experiments by using polarized muon beam are reported. The experiments were performed at Berkeley, U.S.A., and at Vancouver, Canada. The muon spin rotation is a useful method for the study of the spin polarization of conductive electrons in paramagnetic Pd metal. The muon Larmor frequency and the relaxation time can be obtained by measuring the time distribution of decay electrons of muon-electron process. The anomalous depolarization of negative muon spin rotation in the transitional metal was seen. The circular polarization of the negative muon X-ray was measured to make clear this phenomena. The experimental results show that the anomalous depolarization is caused at the 1-S-1/2 state. For the purpose to obtain the strong polarization of negative muon, a method of artificial polarization is proposed, and the test experiments are in progress. The study of the hyperfine structure of mu-mesic atoms is proposed. The muon capture rate was studied systematically. (Kato, T.)

  18. Polarized protons at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    The Physics case is presented for the use of polarized protons at RHIC for one or two months each year. This would provide a facility with polarizations of approx-gt 50% high luminosity ∼2.0 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , the possibility of both longitudinal and transverse polarization at the interaction regions, and frequent polarization reversal for control of systematic errors. The annual integrated luminosity for such running (∼10 6 sec per year) would be ∫ Ldt = 2 x 10 38 cm -2 -- roughly 20 times the total luminosity integrated in ∼ 10 years of operation of the CERN Collider (∼10 inverse picobarns, 10 37 cm -2 ). This facility would be unique in the ability to perform parity-violating measurements and polarization test of QCD. Also, the existence of p-p collisions in a new energy range would permit the study of ''classical'' reactions like the total cross section and elastic scattering, etc., and serve as a complement to measurements from p-bar p colliders. 11 refs

  19. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  20. Polarized source upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, T.B.; Rummel, R.L.; Carter, E.P.; Westerfeldt, C.R.; Lovette, A.W.; Edwards, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The decision was made this past year to move the Lamb-shift polarized ion source which was first installed in the laboratory in 1970. The motivation was the need to improve the flexibility of spin-axis orientation by installing the ion source with a new Wien-filter spin precessor which is capable of rotating physically about the beam axis. The move of the polarized source was accomplished in approximately two months, with the accelerator being turned off for experiments during approximately four weeks of this time. The occasion of the move provided the opportunity to rewire completely the entire polarized ion source frame and to rebuild approximately half of the electronic chassis on the source. The result is an ion source which is now logically wired and carefully documented. Beams obtained from the source are much more stable than those previously available

  1. Spin polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyde, H.R.; Hernadi, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    Several ground state properties of (electron) spin-polarized deuterium (D) such as the energy, single quasiparticle energies and lifetimes, Landau parameters and sound velocities are evaluated. The calculations begin with the Kolos-Wolneiwicz potential and use the Galitskii-FeynmanHartree-Fock (GFHF) approximation. The deuteron nucleas has spin I = 1, and spin states I/sub z/ = 1,0,-1. We explore D 1 , D 2 and D 3 in which, respectively, one spin state only is populated, two states are equally populated, and three states are equally populated. We find the GFHF describes D 1 well, but D 2 and D 3 less well. The Landau parameters, F/sub L/, are small compared to liquid 3 He and very small for doubly polarized D 1 (i.e. the F/sub L/ decrease with nuclear polarization)

  2. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Polarized electron sources for high energy accelerators took a significant step forward with the introduction of a new laser-driven photocathode source for the SLC in 1992. With an electron beam polarization of >80% and with ∼99% uptime during continuous operation, this source is a key factor in the success of the current SLC high-energy physics program. The SLC source performance is used to illustrate both the capabilities and the limitations of solid-state sources. The beam requirements for future colliders are similar to that of the SLC with the addition in most cases of multiple-bunch operation. A design for the next generation accelerator source that can improve the operational characteristics and at least minimize some of the inherent limitations of present sources is presented. Finally, the possibilities for producing highly polarized electron beams for high-duty-factor accelerators are discussed

  3. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......, to reconstruct the distribution of the Cole-Cole parameters of the earth. The accurate modeling of the transmitter waveform had a strong influence on the forward response, and we showed that the difference between a solution using a step response and a solution using the accurate modeling often is above 100...

  4. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  5. Modelling Polar Self Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Sayar, Mehmet; Solis, Francisco J.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2001-03-01

    Recent experimental studies in our group have shown that self assembled thin films of noncentrosymmetric supramolecular objects composed of triblock rodcoil molecules exhibit finite polar order. These aggregates have both long range dipolar and short range Ising-like interactions. We study the ground state of a simple model with these competing interactions. We find that the competition between Ising-like and dipolar forces yield a periodic domain structure, which can be controlled by adjusting the force constants and film thickness. When the surface forces are included in the potential, the system exhibits a finite macroscopic polar order.

  6. AGS polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Sluyters, T.

    1985-01-01

    The AGS polarized H - source is now operational. During a month-long experimental physics run in July 1984, pulses equivalent to 15 μA x 300 μs (approx. 3 x 10 10 protons) were injected into the RFQ preaccelerator. Beam polarization, measured at 200 MeV, was approx. 75%. After the run, a program to increase the H - yield of the source was begun and significant progress has been made. The H - current is now frequently 20 to 30 μA. A description of the source and some details of our operating experience are given. We also briefly describe the improvement program

  7. The polar mesosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Ray; Murphy, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The mesosphere region, which lies at the edge of space, contains the coldest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, with summer temperatures as low as minus 130 °C. In this extreme environment ice aerosol layers have appeared since the dawn of industrialization—whose existence may arguably be linked to human influence—on yet another layer of the Earth's fragile atmosphere. Ground-based and space-based experiments conducted in the Arctic and Antarctic during the International Polar Year (IPY) aim to address limitations in our knowledge and to advance our understanding of thermal and dynamical processes at play in the polar mesosphere

  8. Imaging with Polarized Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kardjilov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their zero charge, neutrons are able to pass through thick layers of matter (typically several centimeters while being sensitive to magnetic fields due to their intrinsic magnetic moment. Therefore, in addition to the conventional attenuation contrast image, the magnetic field inside and around a sample can be visualized by detecting changes of polarization in a transmitted beam. The method is based on the spatially resolved measurement of the cumulative precession angles of a collimated, polarized, monochromatic neutron beam that traverses a magnetic field or sample.

  9. Polarization splitter and polarization rotator designs based on transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Do-Hoon; Werner, Douglas H

    2008-11-10

    The transformation optics technique is employed in this paper to design two optical devices - a two-dimensional polarization splitter and a three-dimensional polarization rotator for propagating beams. The polarization splitter translates the TM- and the TE-polarized components of an incident beam in opposite directions (i.e., shifted up or shifted down). The polarization rotator rotates the polarization state of an incoming beam by an arbitrary angle. Both optical devices are reflectionless at the entry and exit interfaces. Design details and full-wave simulation results are provided.

  10. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  11. Development and evaluation of test stations for the quality assurance of the silicon micro-strip detector modules for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poettgens, M.

    2007-01-01

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of four large-scale detectors which will be operated at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). For the search for new physics the reconstruction of the collision products and their properties is essential. In the innermost part of the CMS detector the traces of ionizing particles are measured utilizing a silicon tracker. A large fraction of this detector is equipped with silicon micro-strip modules which provide a precise space resolution in 1-dimension. A module consists of a sensor for detection of particles, the corresponding read-out electronics (hybrid) and a mechanical support structure. Since the 15,148 modules, which will be installed in the silicon micro-strip detector, have a total sensitive surface area of about 198 m 2 , the inner tracker of CMS is the largest silicon tracking detector, which has ever been built. While the sensors and hybrids are produced in industry, the construction of the modules and the control of the quality is done by the members of the 21 participating institutes. Since the access to the silicon micro-strip tracker will be very limited after the installation in the CMS detector the installed modules must be of high quality. For this reason the modules are thoroughly tested and the test results are uploaded to a central database. By the development of a read-out system and the corresponding software the III. Physikalisches Institut made an important contribution for the electrical and functional quality control of hybrids and modules. The read-out system provides all features for the operation and test of hybrids and modules and stands out due to high reliability and simple handling. Because a very user-friedly and highly automated software it became the official test tool and was integrated in various test stands. The test stands, in which the read-out system is integrated in, are described and the tests which are implemented in the corresponding

  12. Development of a silicon microstrip detector with single photon sensitivity for fast dynamic diffraction experiments at a synchrotron radiation beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakcheev, A.; Aulchenko, V.; Kudashkin, D.; Shekhtman, L.; Tolochko, B.; Zhulanov, V.

    2017-06-01

    Time-resolved experiments on the diffraction of synchrotron radiation (SR) from crystalline materials provide information on the evolution of a material structure after a heat, electron beam or plasma interaction with a sample under study. Changes in the material structure happen within a microsecond scale and a detector with corresponding parameters is needed. The SR channel 8 of the VEPP-4M storage ring provides radiation from the 7-pole wiggler that allows to reach several tens photons within one μs from a tungsten crystal for the most intensive diffraction peak. In order to perform experiments that allow to measure the evolution of tungsten crystalline structure under the impact of powerful laser beam, a new detector is developed, that can provide information about the distribution of a scattered SR flux in space and its evolution in time at a microsecond scale. The detector is based on the silicon p-in-n microstrip sensor with DC-coupled metal strips. The sensor contains 1024 30 mm long strips with a 50 μm pitch. 64 strips are bonded to the front-end electronics based on APC128 ASICs. The APC128 ASIC contains 128 channels that consist of a low noise integrator with 32 analogue memory cells each. The integrator equivalent noise charge is about 2000 electrons and thus the signal from individual photons with energy above 40 keV can be observed. The signal can be stored at the analogue memory with 10 MHz rate. The first measurements with the beam scattered from a tungsten crystal with energy near 60 keV demonstrated the capability of this prototype to observe the spatial distribution of the photon flux with the intensity from below one photon per channel up to 0~10 photons per channel with a frame rate from 10 kHz up to 1 MHz.

  13. Time-domain analysis of planar microstrip devices using a generalized Yee-algorithm based on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedney, Stephen D.; Lansing, Faiza

    1993-01-01

    The generalized Yee-algorithm is presented for the temporal full-wave analysis of planar microstrip devices. This algorithm has the significant advantage over the traditional Yee-algorithm in that it is based on unstructured and irregular grids. The robustness of the generalized Yee-algorithm is that structures that contain curved conductors or complex three-dimensional geometries can be more accurately, and much more conveniently modeled using standard automatic grid generation techniques. This generalized Yee-algorithm is based on the the time-marching solution of the discrete form of Maxwell's equations in their integral form. To this end, the electric and magnetic fields are discretized over a dual, irregular, and unstructured grid. The primary grid is assumed to be composed of general fitted polyhedra distributed throughout the volume. The secondary grid (or dual grid) is built up of the closed polyhedra whose edges connect the centroid's of adjacent primary cells, penetrating shared faces. Faraday's law and Ampere's law are used to update the fields normal to the primary and secondary grid faces, respectively. Subsequently, a correction scheme is introduced to project the normal fields onto the grid edges. It is shown that this scheme is stable, maintains second-order accuracy, and preserves the divergenceless nature of the flux densities. Finally, for computational efficiency the algorithm is structured as a series of sparse matrix-vector multiplications. Based on this scheme, the generalized Yee-algorithm has been implemented on vector and parallel high performance computers in a highly efficient manner.

  14. Dual-Mode Dual-Band Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Fourth Iteration T-Square Fractal and Shorting Pin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new class of dual mode microstrip fractal resonator is proposed and developed for miniaturization of the dual band bandpass filter. The perimeter of the proposed resonator is increased by employing fourth iteration T-square fractal shape. Consequently the lower resonant frequency of the filter is decreased without increasing the usable space. The self similarity of the usable structure enables it to produce the two degenerate modes which are coupled using the proper perturbation technique. The shorting pin is placed at the null in the surface current distribution at the center of the resonator. This shorting pin is coactively coupled to the resonant circuit of the resonator, effectively coupled to the lower degenerate mode and reduces the lower edge band resonant frequency. By adjusting the resonator dimensions and the size of the shorting pin, the resonant frequency and the out-of-band rejection around the transmission bands can be controlled to meet the design requirements. The simulated response of the designed filter has two transmission bands, the first band is from 2.34-3.65 GHz with resonant frequencies at 2.47GHz and 3.55GHz, the second band is from 4.37-5.324GHz with resonant frequencies at 4.5GHz and 5.13GHz. In the pass bands, the group delay is less than 0.65 ns. The proposed filter can be applied to WLAN (2.4 GHz and 5.2 GHz and WiMAX (3.5 GHz and Bluetooth and ZigBee (4.9 GHz.

  15. Polarized coincidence electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimann, R.L.

    1975-03-01

    A study is made of the inclusive electroproduction of single hadrons off a polarized target. Bjorken scaling laws and the hadron azimuthal distribution are derived from the quark parton model. The polarization asymmetries scale when the target spin is along the direction of the virtual photon, and (apart from significant exception) vanish for transverse spin. These results have a simple explanation; emphasis is given both to the general mathematical formalism and to intuitive physical reasoning. Through this framework other cases are considered: quarks with anomalous magnetic moment; renormalization group effects and asymptotic freedom; production of vector mesons (whose spin state is analysed by their decay); relation to large transverse momentum hadron production; and a covariant parton model calculation. Spin 0 partons and Regge singularities are also considered. All of these cases (apart from the last two) modify the pattern of conclusions. Vector meson production shows polarization enhancements in the density matrix element rhosub(0+); the renormalization group approach does not lead to any significant suppressions. They are also less severe in parton models for large Psub(T) hadrons, and are not supported by the covariantly formulated calculation. The origins of these differences are isolated and used to exemplify the sensitivity polarized hadron electroproduction has to delicate detail that is otherwise concealed. (author)

  16. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of the modern understanding of orientational order in liquid crystals (LCs) is based on polarizing microscopy (PM). A PM image bears only two-dimensional (2D) information, integrating the 3D pattern of optical birefringence over the path of light. Recently, we proposed a technique to image 3D director patterns by ...

  17. Optical neutron polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    A neutron wave will be refracted by an appropriately varying potential. Optical neutron polarizers use spatially varying, spin- dependent potentials to refract neutrons of opposite spin states into different directions, so that an unpolarized beam will be split into two beams of complementary polarization by such a device. This paper will concentrate on two methods of producing spin-dependent potentials which are particularly well-suited to polarizing cold neutron beams, namely thin-film structures and field-gradient techniques. Thin-film optical devices, such as supermirror multilayer structures, are usually designed to deviate only one spin-state, so that they offer the possibility of making insertion (transmission) polarizers. Very good supermirrors may now be designed and fabricated, but it is not always straightforward to design mirror-based devices which are useful in real (divergent beam) applications, and some practical configurations will be discussed. Field-gradient devices, which are usually based on multipolar magnets, have tended to be too expensive for general use, but this may change with new developments in superconductivity. Dipolar and hexapolar configurations will be considered, with emphasis on the focusing characteristics of the latter. 21 refs., 7 figs

  18. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  19. The polarized EMC effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Bentz; I. C. Cloet; A. W. Thomas

    2007-02-01

    We calculate both the spin independent and spin dependent nuclear structure functions in an effective quark theory. The nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state, and the nucleus is treated in the mean field approximation. We predict a sizable polarized EMC effect, which could be confirmed in future experiments.

  20. Polarizer reflectivity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarski, R.G.; Prior, J.

    1980-01-01

    On Shiva the beam energy along the chain is monitored using available reflections and/or transmission through beam steering, splitting, and polarizing optics without the intrusion of any additional glass for diagnostics. On the preamp table the diagnostic signal is obtained from the signal transmitted through turning mirrors. At the input of each chain the signal is obtained from the transmission through one of the mirrors used for the chain input alignment sensor (CHIP). At the chain output the transmission through the final turning mirror is used. These diagnostics have proved stable and reliable. However, one of the prime diagnostic locations is at the output of the beta rod. The energy at this location is measured by collecting small reflections from the last polarizer surface of the beta Pockels cell polarizer package. Unfortunately, calibration of this diagnostic has varied randomly, seldom remaining stable for a week or more. The cause of this fluctuation has been investigated for the past year and'it has been discovered that polarizer reflectivity varies with humidity. This report will deal with the possible causes that were investigated, the evidence that humidity is causing the variation, and the associated mechanism

  1. Spin-polarized photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Peter D.

    1997-01-01

    Spin-polarized photoemission has developed into a versatile tool for the study of surface and thin film magnetism. In this review, we examine the methodology of the technique and its application to a number of different problems, including both valence band and core level studies. After a detailed review of spin-polarization measurement techniques and the related experimental requirements we consider in detail studies of the bulk properties both above and below the Curie temperature. This section also includes a discussion of observations relating to unique metastable phases obtained via epitaxial growth. The application of the technique to the study of surfaces, both clean and adsorbate covered, is reviewed. The report then examines, in detail, studies of the spin-polarized electronic structure of thin films and the related interfacial magnetism. Finally, observations of spin-polarized quantum well states in non-magnetic thin films are discussed with particular reference to their mediation of the oscillatory exchange coupling in related magnetic multilayers. (author)

  2. Polarization of Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.

    1957-01-01

    The numerical results for the polarization of Bremsstrahlung are presented. The multiple scattering of electrons in the target is taken into account. The angular-and photon energy dependences are seen on the curves for an incident 25 MeV electron energy. (Author) [fr

  3. No More Polarization, Please!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mia Reinholt

    and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on motivation, acknowledging the co-existence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, the possible interaction...

  4. DESY: HERA polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The new HERA electron-proton collider at DESY in Hamburg achieved the first luminosity for electron-proton collisions on 19 October last year. Only one month later, on 20 November, HERA passed another important milestone with the observation of transverse electron polarization

  5. Polarized Neutron Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Roessli, B.; Böni, P.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of polarized neutron scattering is reviewed with emphasis on applications. Many examples of the usefulness of the method in various fields of physics are given like the determination of spin density maps, measurement of complex magnetic structures with spherical neutron polarimetry, inelastic neutron scattering and separation of coherent and incoherent scattering with help of the generalized XYZ method.

  6. DESY: HERA polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-03-15

    The new HERA electron-proton collider at DESY in Hamburg achieved the first luminosity for electron-proton collisions on 19 October last year. Only one month later, on 20 November, HERA passed another important milestone with the observation of transverse electron polarization.

  7. Graphics of polar figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  8. Polarized light and optical measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, D N; Ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Polarized Light and Optical Measurement is a five-chapter book that begins with a self-consistent conceptual picture of the phenomenon of polarization. Chapter 2 describes a number of interactions of light and matter used in devising optical elements in polarization studies. Specific optical elements are given in Chapter 3. The last two chapters explore the measurement of the state of polarization and the various roles played in optical instrumentation by polarization and polarization-sensitive elements. This book will provide useful information in this field of interest for research workers,

  9. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Budker, D.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Appelt, S.; Bouchard, L. S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ($\\sim$100 Hz) polarization reversal, and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  10. Experiments with Fermilab polarized proton and polarized antiproton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize activities concerning the Fermilab polarized beams. They include a brief description of the polarized-beam facility, measurements of beam polarization by polarimeters, asymmetry measurements in the π degree production at high p perpendicular and in the Λ (Σ degree), π ± , π degree production at large x F , and Δσ L (pp, bar pp) measurements. 18 refs

  11. NUCLEON POLARIZATION IN 3-BODY MODELS OF POLARIZED LI-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHELLINGERHOUT, NW; KOK, LP; COON, SA; ADAM, RM

    1993-01-01

    Just as He-3 --> can be approximately characterized as a polarized neutron target, polarized Li-6D has been advocated as a good isoscalar nuclear target for the extraction of the polarized gluon content of the nucleon. The original argument rests upon a presumed ''alpha + deuteron'' picture of Li-6,

  12. Source of spin polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.T.; Meier, F.A.; Siegmann, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described of producing intense beams of polarized free electrons in which a semiconductor with a spin orbit split valence band and negative electron affinity is used as a photocathode and irradiated with circularly polarized light

  13. Linearly polarized photons at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, Holger [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the nucleon resonance regime in meson photoproduction, double polarization experiments are currently performed at the electron accelerator ELSA in Bonn. The experiments make use of a polarized target and circularly or linearly polarized photon beams. Linearly polarized photons are produced by coherent bremsstrahlung from an accurately aligned diamond crystal. The orientation of the crystal with respect to the electron beam is measured using the Stonehenge-Technique. Both, the energy of maximum polarization and the plane of polarization, can be deliberately chosen for the experiment. The linearly polarized beam provides the basis for the measurement of azimuthal beam asymmetries, such as {sigma} (unpolarized target) and G (polarized target). These observables are extracted in various single and multiple meson photoproduction channels.

  14. North Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour. In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime. The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  15. Stanford polarized atomic beam target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavis, D.G.; Dunham, J.S.; Hugg, J.W.; Glavish, H.F.

    1976-01-01

    A polarized atomic beam source was used to produce an atomic hydrogen beam which was in turn used as a polarized proton target. A target density of 2 x 10'' atoms/cm 3 and a target polarization of 0.37 without the use of rf transitions were measured. These measurements indicate that a number of experiments are currently feasible with a variety of polarized target beams

  16. Three-photon polarization ququarts: polarization, entanglement and Schmidt decompositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, M V; Miklin, N I

    2015-01-01

    We consider polarization states of three photons, propagating collinearly and having equal given frequencies but with arbitrary distributed horizontal or vertical polarizations of photons. A general form of such states is a superposition of four basic three-photon polarization modes, to be referred to as the three-photon polarization ququarts (TPPQ). All such states can be considered as consisting of one- and two-photon parts, which can be entangled with each other. The degrees of entanglement and polarization, as well as the Schmidt decomposition and Stokes vectors of TPPQ are found and discussed. (paper)

  17. Mechanical studies towards a silicon micro-strip super module for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade at the high luminosity LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, G; Cadoux, F; Clark, A; Favre, Y; Ferrere, D; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Iacobucci, G; Marra, D La; Perrin, E; Seez, W; Endo, M; Hanagaki, K; Hara, K; Ikegami, Y; Nakamura, K; Takubo, Y; Terada, S; Jinnouchi, O; Nishimura, R; Takashima, R

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that after several years of data-taking, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) physics programme will be extended to the so-called High-Luminosity LHC, where the instantaneous luminosity will be increased up to 5 × 10 34  cm −2  s −1 . For the general-purpose ATLAS experiment at the LHC, a complete replacement of its internal tracking detector will be necessary, as the existing detector will not provide the required performance due to the cumulated radiation damage and the increase in the detector occupancy. The baseline layout for the new ATLAS tracker is an all-silicon-based detector, with pixel sensors in the inner layers and silicon micro-strip detectors at intermediate and outer radii. The super-module (SM) is an integration concept proposed for the barrel strip region of the future ATLAS tracker, where double-sided stereo silicon micro-strip modules (DSM) are assembled into a low-mass local support (LS) structure. Mechanical aspects of the proposed LS structure are described

  18. Compact MIMO Microstrip Antennas for USB Dongle Operating in 2.5–2.7 GHz Frequency Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ssorin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers design of microstrip MIMO antennas for an LTE/WiMAX USB dongle operating in the 2.5–2.7 GHz frequency band. The MIMO system includes two antenna elements with an additional requirement of high isolation between them that is especially difficult to realize due to size limitations of a USB dongle. Three approaches to achieve the needed system characteristics using microstrip PCB antennas are proposed. For the first design, high port-to-port isolation is achieved by using a decoupling techniques based on a direct connection of the antenna elements. For the second approach, high port-to-port isolation of the MIMO antenna system is realized by a lumped decorrelation capacitance between antenna elements feeding points. The third proposed antenna system does not use any special techniques, and high port-to-port isolation is achieved by using only the properties of a developed printed inverted-F antenna element. The designed MIMO antenna systems have the return loss S11 and the insertion loss S21 bandwidths of more than 200 MHz at the −8 dB level with the correlation coefficient lower than 0.1 and exhibit pattern diversity when different antenna elements are excited. Experimental measurements of the fabricated antenna systems proved the characteristics obtained from electromagnetic simulation.

  19. Development and Evaluation of Test Stations for the Quality Assurance of the Silicon Micro-Strip Detector Modules for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pöttgens, Michael

    2007-01-01

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of four large-scale detectors which will be operated at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). For the search for new physics the reconstruction of the collision products and their properties is essential. In the innermost part of the CMS detector the traces of ionizing particles are measured utilizing a silicon tracker. A large fraction of this detector is equipped with silicon micro-strip modules which provide a precise space resolution in 1-dimension. A module consists of a sensor for detection of particles, the corresponding read-out electronics (hybrid) and a mechanical support structure. Since the 15,148 modules, which will be installed in the silicon micro-strip detector, have a total sensitive surface area of about 198 m2, the inner tracker of CMS is the largest silicon tracking detector, which has ever been built. While the sensors and hybrids are produced in industry, the construction of the modules and the control o...

  20. Development and operation of a novel PC-based high speed beam telescope for particle tracking using double sided silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treis, J.

    2002-08-01

    A PC based high speed silicon microstrip beam telescope consisting of several independent modules is presented. Every module contains an AC-coupled double sided silicon microstrip sensor and a complete set of analog and digital signal processing electronics. A digital bus connects the modules with the DAQ PC. A trigger logic unit coordinates the operation of all modules of the telescope. The system architecture allows easy integration of any kind of device under test into the data acquisition chain. Signal digitization, pedestal correction, hit detection and zero suppression are done by hardware inside the modules, so that the amount of data per event is reduced by a factor of 80 compared to conventional readout systems. In combination with a two level data acquisition scheme, this allows event rates up to 7.6 kHz. This is a factor of 40 faster than conventional VME based beam telescopes while comparable analog performance is maintained achieving signal to noise ratios of up to 70:1. The telescope has been tested in the SPS testbeam at CERN. It has been adopted as the reference instrument for testbeam studies for the ATLAS pixel detector development. (orig.)