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Sample records for polarization-independent visible-frequency carpet

  1. Detailed optical characterization of three-dimensional visible-frequency polarization-independent carpet invisibility cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergin, Tolga; Fischer, Joachim; Wegener, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The invention of the three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal by Costas M. Soukoulis and coworkers in 1994 has stimulated much further research - excellent research stimulates further research. Here, we report on using spatially inhomogeneous polymer woodpile structures in the long-wavelength limit as artificial graded-index structures. After briefly reviewing previous work on carpet invisibility cloaks designed by transformation optics, we present new experiments for various focus planes of the inspecting microscope as well as for different inspection angles in three-dimensional space. Numerical ray-tracing modeling is also provided. These data confirm our previous assessment that three-dimensional cloaking is quite robust for these structures.

  2. Carpeting/Flooring: Revitalizing Carpets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Alison; Hill, Michael

    2003-01-01

    With properly specified fiber and a comprehensive maintenance program, school carpets can retain their appearance longer. Discusses carpet characteristics; proper carpet installation; effective preventive-maintenance programs (keep outside areas clean, use soil barriers, protect desk areas, maintain HVAC systems, and specify eating, drinking, and…

  3. Categorization of new fractal carpets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Mamta; Goel, Saurabh

    2009-01-01

    Sierpinski carpet is one of the very beautiful fractals from the historic gallery of classical fractals. Carpet designing is not only a fascinating activity in computer graphics, but it has real applications in carpet industry as well. One may find illusionary delighted carpets designed here, which are useful in real designing of carpets. In this paper, we attempt to systematize their generation and put them into categories. Each next category leads to a more generalized form of the fractal carpet.

  4. Polarization-Independent Wideband High-Index-Contrast Grating Mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekele, Dagmawi Alemayehu; Park, Gyeong Cheol; Malureanu, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Island-type two-dimensional high-index-contrast grating mirror based on a standard silicon-on-insulator wafer have been experimentally demonstrated. The measured spectra shows a bandwidth of ∼192 nm with a reflectivity over 99% as well as polarization independence. Numerical simulations show...

  5. Fabrication of the polarization independent spectral beam combining grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Jin, Yunxia; Wu, Jianhong; Guo, Peiliang

    2016-03-01

    Owing to damage, thermal issues, and nonlinear optical effects, the output power of fiber laser has been proven to be limited. Beam combining techniques are the attractive solutions to achieve high-power high-brightness fiber laser output. The spectral beam combining (SBC) is a promising method to achieve high average power output without influencing the beam quality. A polarization independent spectral beam combining grating is one of the key elements in the SBC. In this paper the diffraction efficiency of the grating is investigated by rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). The theoretical -1st order diffraction efficiency of the grating is more than 95% from 1010nm to 1080nm for both TE and TM polarizations. The fabrication tolerance is analyzed. The polarization independent spectral beam combining grating with the period of 1.04μm has been fabricated by holographic lithography - ion beam etching, which are within the fabrication tolerance.

  6. Polarization-independent transparency window induced by complementary graphene metasurfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wei Bing; Liu, Ji Long; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Jian; Liu, Zhen Guo

    2017-01-01

    A fourfold symmetric graphene-based complementary metasurface featuring a polarization-independent transparency window is proposed and numerically analysed in this paper. The unit cell of the metamaterial consists of a monolayer graphene perforated with a cross and four identical split-ring resonators deposited on a substrate. Our analysis shows that the transparency window can be interpreted as a plasmonic analogy of Autler–Townes splitting. The polarization independence is achieved due to the fourfold symmetry of graphene’s complementary structure. In addition, the frequency range of the transparency window can be dynamically tuned over a broad band by changing the chemical potential of graphene, and the width of the transparency window can also be controlled by changing the split-gap orientation. This work may lead to potential applications in many area, such as slow-light devices and optical sensing. (paper)

  7. Polarization-independent electromagnetically induced transparency-like metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiuli; Wang, Xiaoou

    2018-01-01

    A classical electromagnetically induced transparency-like (EIT-like) metasurface is numerically simulated. This metasurface is composed of two identical and orthogonal double-end semitoroidals (DESTs) metal resonators. Under the excitation of the normal incidence waves, each of the two DESTs structure exhibits electromagnetic dipole responses at different frequencies, which leads to the polarization-independent EIT-like effect. The features of the EIT-like effect are qualitatively analyzed based on the surface current and magnetic field distribution. In addition, the large index is extracted to verify the slow-light property within the transmission window. The EIT-like metasurface structure with the above-mentioned characteristics may have potential applications in some areas, such as sensing, slow light, and filtering devices.

  8. The Real Dirt on Carpets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Susan S.

    2001-01-01

    Argues that carpets do not contribute to student complaints of respiratory problems, allergies, and asthma as long as they are properly cleaned with high-efficiency microfiltration bags. Discusses contributions to mite problems made by smooth floor covering compared to carpeting. (GR)

  9. Polarization-independent high-index contrast grating and its fabrication tolerances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Kazuma; Takayose, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    also investigated the fabrication tolerances of the structure and found that, assuming careful optimizations of electron beam lithography for the precise grating width and dry-etching for the vertical sidewall, the suggested polarization-independent HCG can be fabricated using standard technologies.......A polarization-independent, high-index contrast grating (HCG) with a single layer of cross stripes allowing simple fabrication is proposed. Since the cross stripes structure can be suspended in air by selectively wet-etching the layer below, all the layers can be grown at once when implemented...

  10. thermally poled channel waveguides with polarization independent electro-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Yitao; Marckmann, Carl Johan; Arentoft, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the poling-induced electrooptic (EO) effect in germanium and nitrogen codoped channel waveguides. The channel waveguides show attractive properties: (1) almost polarization independent EO effect; (2) a flat frequency response with the modulation frequency up...... to 100 kHz; and (3) low linear loss and low polarization dependent loss, which demonstrate great technological potential...

  11. Information Concerning Preparation of Specifications for Carpeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, John W.

    This paper argues for detailed, written carpeting specifications to assure that schools obtain quality products at competitive prices. The advantages of and specifications for school carpeting are given. A sample written specification contains items on: scope, general features, materials, acoustic characteristics, identification and acoustic…

  12. Random Combinatorial Gradient Metasurface for Broadband, Wide-Angle and Polarization-Independent Diffusion Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yaqiang; Wang, Guangming; Liang, Jiangang; Cai, Tong; Tang, Xiao-Lan; Guo, Tongfeng; Zhang, Qingfeng

    2017-11-29

    This paper proposes an easy, efficient strategy for designing broadband, wide-angle and polarization-independent diffusion metasurface for radar cross section (RCS) reduction. A dual-resonance unit cell, composed of a cross wire and cross loop (CWCL), is employed to enhance the phase bandwidth covering the 2π range. Both oblique-gradient and horizontal-gradient phase supercells are designed for illustration. The numerical results agree well with the theoretical ones. To significantly reduce backward scattering, the random combinatorial gradient metasurface (RCGM) is subsequently constructed by collecting eight supercells with randomly distributed gradient directions. The proposed metasurface features an enhanced specular RCS reduction performance and less design complexity compared to other candidates. Both simulated and measured results show that the proposed RCGM can significantly suppress RCS and exhibits broadband, wide-angle and polarization independence features.

  13. An Ultra-wideband and Polarization-independent Metasurface for RCS Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pei; Zhao, Yongjiu; Jia, Shengli; Shi, Wenwen; Wang, Hongli

    2016-02-11

    In this paper, an ultra-wideband and polarization-independent metasurface for radar cross section (RCS) reduction is proposed. The unit cell of the metasurface operates in a linear cross-polarization scheme in a broad band. The phase and amplitude of cross-polarized reflection can be separately controlled by its geometry and rotation angle. Based on the diffuse reflection theory, a 3-bit coding metasurface is designed to reduce the RCS in an ultra-wide band. The wideband property of the metasurface benefits from the wideband cross polarization conversion and flexible phase modulation. In addition, the polarization-independent feature of the metasurface is achieved by tailoring the rotation angle of each element. Both the simulated and measured results demonstrate that the proposed metasurface can reduce the RCS significantly in an ultra-wide frequency band for both normal and oblique incidences, which makes it promising in the applications such as electromagnetic cloaking.

  14. Excellent polarization-independent reflector based on guided mode resonance effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cheng; Xu Lin-Min; Qiang Ying-Huai; Zhu Ya-Bo; Liu Jiong-Tian; Ma Jian-Yong

    2011-01-01

    A broad band polarization-independent reflector working in the telecommunication C+L band is proposed using the guided mode resonance effect of a periodic surface relief element deposited by a layer of silicon medium. It is shown that this structure can provide high reflection (R > 99.5%) and wide angular bandwidth (θ ≈ 20°, R > 98%) for both TE and TM polarizations over a wide spectrum band 1.5 μm∼1.6 μm. Furthermore, it is found by rigorous coupled wave analysis that the polarization-independent reflector proposed here is tolerant of a deviation of grating thickness, which makes it very easy to fabricate in experiments. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  15. A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Stanley P; de Waele, Rene; Polman, Albert; Atwater, Harry A

    2010-05-01

    Metamaterials are materials with artificial electromagnetic properties defined by their sub-wavelength structure rather than their chemical composition. Negative-index materials (NIMs) are a special class of metamaterials characterized by an effective negative index that gives rise to such unusual wave behaviour as backwards phase propagation and negative refraction. These extraordinary properties lead to many interesting functions such as sub-diffraction imaging and invisibility cloaking. So far, NIMs have been realized through layering of resonant structures, such as split-ring resonators, and have been demonstrated at microwave to infrared frequencies over a narrow range of angles-of-incidence and polarization. However, resonant-element NIM designs suffer from the limitations of not being scalable to operate at visible frequencies because of intrinsic fabrication limitations, require multiple functional layers to achieve strong scattering and have refractive indices that are highly dependent on angle of incidence and polarization. Here we report a metamaterial composed of a single layer of coupled plasmonic coaxial waveguides that exhibits an effective refractive index of -2 in the blue spectral region with a figure-of-merit larger than 8. The resulting NIM refractive index is insensitive to both polarization and angle-of-incidence over a +/-50 degree angular range, yielding a wide-angle NIM at visible frequencies.

  16. VB Platinum Tile & Carpet, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    VB Platinum Tile & Carpet, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bristow, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Washington, DC.

  17. Visible-Frequency Dielectric Metasurfaces for Multiwavelength Achromatic and Highly Dispersive Holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Dong, Fengliang; Li, Qi-Tong; Yang, Dong; Sun, Chengwei; Chen, Jianjun; Song, Zhiwei; Xu, Lihua; Chu, Weiguo; Xiao, Yun-Feng; Gong, Qihuang; Li, Yan

    2016-08-10

    Dielectric metasurfaces built up with nanostructures of high refractive index represent a powerful platform for highly efficient flat optical devices due to their easy-tuning electromagnetic scattering properties and relatively high transmission efficiencies. Here we show visible-frequency silicon metasurfaces formed by three kinds of nanoblocks multiplexed in a subwavelength unit to constitute a metamolecule, which are capable of wavefront manipulation for red, green, and blue light simultaneously. Full phase control is achieved for each wavelength by independently changing the in-plane orientations of the corresponding nanoblocks to induce the required geometric phases. Achromatic and highly dispersive meta-holograms are fabricated to demonstrate the wavefront manipulation with high resolution. This technique could be viable for various practical holographic applications and flat achromatic devices.

  18. Characterization of polarization-independent phase modulation method for practical plug and play quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Osung; Lee, Min-Soo; Woo, Min Ki; Park, Byung Kwon; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Yong-Su; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung

    2015-01-01

    We characterized a polarization-independent phase modulation method, called double phase modulation, for a practical plug and play quantum key distribution (QKD) system. Following investigation of theoretical backgrounds, we applied the method to the practical QKD system and characterized the performance through comparing single phase modulation (SPM) and double phase modulation. Consequently, we obtained repeatable and accurate phase modulation confirmed by high visibility single photon interference even for input signals with arbitrary polarization. Further, the results show that only 80% of the bias voltage required in the case of single phase modulation is needed to obtain the target amount of phase modulation. (paper)

  19. Polarization-independent broadband meta-holograms via polarization-dependent nanoholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohu; Li, Xiong; Jin, Jinjin; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Jun; Guo, Yinghui; Wang, Changtao; Luo, Xiangang

    2018-05-17

    Composed of ultrathin metal or dielectric nanostructures, metasurfaces can manipulate the phase, amplitude and polarization of electromagnetic waves at a subwavelength scale, which is promising for flat optical devices. In general, metasurfaces composed of space-variant anisotropic units are sensitive to the incident polarization due to the inherent polarization dependent geometric phase. Here, we implement polarization-independent broadband metasurface holograms constructed by polarization-dependent anisotropic elliptical nanoholes by elaborate design of complex amplitude holograms. The fabricated meta-hologram exhibits a polarization insensitive feature with an acceptable image quality. We verify the feasibility of the design algorithm for three-dimensional (3D) meta-holograms with simulation and the feasibility for two-dimensional (2D) meta-holograms is experimentally demonstrated at a broadband wavelength range from 405 nm to 632.8 nm. The effective polarization-independent broadband complex wavefront control with anisotropic elliptical nanoholes proposed in this paper greatly promotes the practical applications of the metasurface in technologies associated with wavefront manipulation, such as flat lens, colorful holographic displays and optical storage.

  20. Electromagnetic Detection of a Perfect Carpet Cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Baile

    2015-05-01

    It has been shown that a spherical invisibility cloak originally proposed by Pendry et al. can be electromagnetically detected by shooting a charged particle through it, whose underlying mechanism stems from the asymmetry of transformation optics applied to motions of photons and charges [PRL 103, 243901 (2009)]. However, the conceptual three-dimensional invisibility cloak that exactly follows specifications of transformation optics is formidably difficult to implement, while the simplified cylindrical cloak that has been experimentally realized is inherently visible. On the other hand, the recent carpet cloak model has acquired remarkable experimental development, including a recently demonstrated full-parameter carpet cloak without any approximation in the required constitutive parameters. In this paper, we numerically investigate the electromagnetic radiation from a charged particle passing through a perfect carpet cloak and propose an experimentally verifiable model to demonstrate symmetry breaking of transformation optics.

  1. Polarization-Independent Electrically Tunable Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals Grating Doped with Chiral Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui LI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a holographic grating made of polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC, with a small amount of chiral molecules doped into PDLC material. The major advantage of this grating is that it is independent of light polarization. This characteristic was verified by applying the interference beam intensity of a He-Cd laser at 150 mW/cm2, with an incidence angle between the two interference beams of 24°, for an irradiation curing duration of 120 s. The observed periodic structure of the grating is consistent with the theoretical value. As chiral molecules are doped, nematic-LC experiences a phase-change in the grating. However, the electro-optical features are only slightly affected. This proposed grating has greatly potential in 3D imaging because of its polarization-independent feature.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.16312

  2. Polarization-independent all-silicon dielectric metasurfaces in the terahertz regime

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Huifang; Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Quan; Wang, Qiu; Xu, Yuehong; Wei, Minggui; Li, Yanfeng; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Chunmei; Zhang, Xixiang; Hu, Cong; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2017-01-01

    Dielectric metasurfaces have achieved great success in realizing high-efficiency wavefront control in the optical and infrared ranges. Here, we experimentally demonstrate several efficient, polarization-independent, all-silicon dielectric metasurfaces in the terahertz regime. The metasurfaces are composed of cylindrical silicon pillars on a silicon substrate, which can be easily fabricated using etching technology for semiconductors. By locally tailoring the diameter of the pillars, full control over abrupt phase changes can be achieved. To show the controlling ability of the metasurfaces, an anomalous deflector, three Bessel beam generators, and three vortex beam generators are fabricated and characterized. We also show that the proposed metasurfaces can be easily combined to form composite devices with extended functionalities. The proposed controlling method has promising applications in developing low-loss, ultra-compact spatial terahertz modulation devices. (C) 2017 Chinese Laser Press

  3. Polarization-independent all-silicon dielectric metasurfaces in the terahertz regime

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Huifang

    2017-12-11

    Dielectric metasurfaces have achieved great success in realizing high-efficiency wavefront control in the optical and infrared ranges. Here, we experimentally demonstrate several efficient, polarization-independent, all-silicon dielectric metasurfaces in the terahertz regime. The metasurfaces are composed of cylindrical silicon pillars on a silicon substrate, which can be easily fabricated using etching technology for semiconductors. By locally tailoring the diameter of the pillars, full control over abrupt phase changes can be achieved. To show the controlling ability of the metasurfaces, an anomalous deflector, three Bessel beam generators, and three vortex beam generators are fabricated and characterized. We also show that the proposed metasurfaces can be easily combined to form composite devices with extended functionalities. The proposed controlling method has promising applications in developing low-loss, ultra-compact spatial terahertz modulation devices. (C) 2017 Chinese Laser Press

  4. Broadband and Broad-angle Polarization-independent Metasurface for Radar Cross Section Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hengyi; Gu, Changqing; Chen, Xinlei; Li, Zhuo; Liu, Liangliang; Xu, Bingzheng; Zhou, Zicheng

    2017-01-20

    In this work, a broadband and broad-angle polarization-independent random coding metasurface structure is proposed for radar cross section (RCS) reduction. An efficient genetic algorithm is utilized to obtain the optimal layout of the unit cells of the metasurface to get a uniform backscattering under normal incidence. Excellent agreement between the simulation and experimental results show that the proposed metasurface structure can significantly reduce the radar cross section more than 10 dB from 17 GHz to 42 GHz when the angle of incident waves varies from 10° to 50°. The proposed coding metasurface provides an efficient scheme to reduce the scattering of the electromagnetic waves.

  5. Design and fabrication of a polarization-independent two-port beam splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jijun; Zhou, Changhe; Zheng, Jiangjun; Cao, Hongchao; Lv, Peng

    2009-10-10

    We design and manufacture a fused-silica polarization-independent two-port beam splitter grating. The physical mechanism of this deeply etched grating can be shown clearly by using the simplified modal method with consideration of corresponding accumulated phase difference of two excited propagating grating modes, which illustrates that the binary-phase fused-silica grating structure depends little on the incident wavelength, but mainly on the ratio of groove depth to grating period and the ratio of incident wavelength to grating period. These analytic results would also be very helpful for wavelength bandwidth analysis. The exact grating profile is optimized by using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis. Holographic recording technology and inductively coupled plasma etching are used to manufacture the fused-silica grating. Experimental results agree well with the theoretical values.

  6. Simple and polarization-independent Dammann grating based on all-dielectric nanorod array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Li, Chuang; Liu, Tongming; Da, Haixia; Feng, Rui; Tang, Donghua; Sun, Fangkui; Ding, Weiqiang

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we comprehensively investigate a Dammann grating (DG) that can generate a 5 × 5 diffraction spot array with an extending angle of 18^\\circ × 18^\\circ around the fiber communication wavelength of 1550 {nm}. The DG is a simple metasurface structure composed of a silicon cuboid nanorod array on a silica substrate, and only two different sizes of nanorods with square cross-sections and uniform spatial orientations are used. These simple units and this configuration are favorable in practice, and the C4 symmetry cross section of the nanorods ensures the polarization-independent operation of the DG. The phase modulation of the nanorods is achieved by the guiding mode propagating in them rather than electric or magnetic Mie-type resonance, which makes the design of the cuboid nanorods easy and robust. More importantly, the two-dimensional nanorod array is generated from a one-dimensional array, which further decreases the design and fabrication complexity.

  7. Removal of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs) from Carpets Treated with Stain-protection Products by Using Carpet Cleaning Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    PFCAs are found in a variety of consumer products, including, but not limited to, treated clothing and textiles, floor care products, paper containers for food, and carpets. For example, carpet that has been treated with stain-protection, carpet-care solutions, either by the manu...

  8. Ulster Carpets - Cleaner Production option report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Mercer, David

    A survey on options for saving water and energy was conducted at Ulster Carpets on 14th November 2002 by Henrik Wenzel from the Institute for Product Development in Denmark, and David Mercer from Enviros, South Africa. This report details observations made during this site visit and makes...

  9. Two-port connecting-layer-based sandwiched grating by a polarization-independent design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongtao; Wang, Bo

    2017-05-02

    In this paper, a two-port connecting-layer-based sandwiched beam splitter grating with polarization-independent property is reported and designed. Such the grating can separate the transmission polarized light into two diffraction orders with equal energies, which can realize the nearly 50/50 output with good uniformity. For the given wavelength of 800 nm and period of 780 nm, a simplified modal method can design a optimal duty cycle and the estimation value of the grating depth can be calculated based on it. In order to obtain the precise grating parameters, a rigorous coupled-wave analysis can be employed to optimize grating parameters by seeking for the precise grating depth and the thickness of connecting layer. Based on the optimized design, a high-efficiency two-port output grating with the wideband performances can be gained. Even more important, diffraction efficiencies are calculated by using two analytical methods, which are proved to be coincided well with each other. Therefore, the grating is significant for practical optical photonic element in engineering.

  10. Polarization independent polymer waveguide tunable receivers incorporating a micro-optic circulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Park, Tae-Hyun; Park, Su-Hyun; Seo, Jun-Kyu; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2018-06-01

    In order to simplify the receiver configuration in a wavelength division multiplexed optical fiber network, compact wavelength tunable filters have long been expected to be used as channel selectors. Bragg reflector inherently has the most suitable reflection spectrum for filtering a single wavelength from the densely multiplexed wavelength signal. Polymer has high thermo-optic coefficient and good thermal insulation property compared to the other optical waveguide materials such as silicon and silica materials. This can be used to broadly tune the reflection spectrum of Bragg reflector using a simple micro-heater. In this work, a micro-optic circulator component and a polymeric Bragg reflector device are assembled to produce a small form factor tunable receiver. Compared to the integrated-optical versions, the micro-optics are based on well-developed manufacturing processes and can achieve competitive production yields. The device exhibits high reflectivity with a flat top passband, and a polarization dependence of 0.06 nm achieved by virtue of the low birefringence of LFR polymer, which make a significant contribution to the implementation of polarization independent tunable receiver. The wavelength tuning range of 40 nm is demonstrated by using a bottom located heater with a groove for heat isolation.

  11. Fungi in carpeting and furniture dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, G

    1991-11-01

    The qualitative and quantitative species composition of fungi in carpets and upholstered furniture dust found in the living-rooms of nine Dutch dwellings was examined in a pilot study. Numbers of spores of xerophilic fungi did not differ in dust removed from carpeting and upholstery. Spores of hydrophilic species were found to be more predominant on floors (P less than 0.05), whereas meso-hygrophilic spores, largely dominated by allergologically relevant Penicillium species, were significantly more abundant in dust taken from regularly used furniture (P less than 0.05). Our results indicate that growth conditions for fungi in the micro-habitats of furniture differ from those in carpeting. No statistically significant differences in number of viable spores have been found in samples taken from ground-floor level compared with those taken from 1st to 3rd floor level of dwellings. From this study, the need for a micro-topographic analysis of the fungal flora in the human environment has become apparent. Efficient allergological home sanitation in dwellings of allergic patients requires detailed data about the colonization of the various micro-habitats by allergenic fungi.

  12. Impact of home carpets on childhood lead intervention study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiin, L.-M.; Lioy, P.J.; Rhoads, G.G.

    2003-01-01

    Blood lead data for a childhood lead exposure study have been reanalyzed to examine the impact of carpets on the effectiveness of a cleaning intervention in 39 New Jersey urban houses. All eligible houses in the study were classified as carpeted and uncarpeted depending on the number of rooms that were carpeted. The cleaning protocol was associated with a significant reduction in the blood lead concentrations for the uncarpeted homes (P=0.004), whereas no significant change was found for the carpeted homes (P=0.566). We also completed correlation analyses between the number of cleaning visits and the percentage reduction in blood lead for the carpeted/uncarpeted houses. There was a significant correlation (r=0.67) between the number of cleanings and blood lead reduction for the uncarpeted homes, but no correlation (r=0.04) for the carpeted homes. In a multiple regression model that took confounding variables into account, the carpet status (carpeted or uncarpeted) remained a factor of the effect of cleaning on blood lead (P=0.05). We conclude that the presence of contaminated carpets inhibits the effectiveness of home cleaning despite a high-efficiency particulate air filtered vacuum protocol that removes a substantial amount of lead dust

  13. Simple and robust generation of ultrafast laser pulse trains using polarization-independent parallel-aligned thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andong; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xiaowei; Wang, Zhi; Du, Kun; Lu, Yongfeng

    2018-05-01

    Ultrafast laser pulse temporal shaping has been widely applied in various important applications such as laser materials processing, coherent control of chemical reactions, and ultrafast imaging. However, temporal pulse shaping has been limited to only-in-lab technique due to the high cost, low damage threshold, and polarization dependence. Herein we propose a novel design of ultrafast laser pulse train generation device, which consists of multiple polarization-independent parallel-aligned thin films. Various pulse trains with controllable temporal profile can be generated flexibly by multi-reflections within the splitting films. Compared with other pulse train generation techniques, this method has advantages of compact structure, low cost, high damage threshold and polarization independence. These advantages endow it with high potential for broad utilization in ultrafast applications.

  14. Silicon-on-insulator-based polarization-independent 1×3 broadband beam splitter with adiabatic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuanhao; Liu, Lei; Chang, Limin; Li, Zhiyong; Tan, Manqing; Yu, Yude

    2017-10-01

    We propose and numerically simulate a polarization-independent 1×3 broadband beam splitter based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology with adiabatic coupling. The designed structure is simulated by beam-propagation-method (BPM) and gets simulated transmission uniformity of three outputs better than 0.3dB for TE-polarization and 0.8dB for TM-polarization in a broadband of 180nm.

  15. Revisit the carpet cloak from optical conformal mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui; Xu, Yadong; Wu, Qiannan; Chen, Huanyang

    2013-01-01

    The original carpet cloak [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008)] was designed by a numerical method, the quasi-conformal mapping. Therefore its refractive index profile was obtained numerically. In this letter, we propose a new carpet cloak based on the optical conformal mapping, with an analytical form of a refractive index profile, thereby facilitating future experimental designs.

  16. a geometric property of the sierpiński carpet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this paper is to find formulae for the computation of the geodesic metric on the Sierpiński carpet. This is accomplished by introducing carpet coordinates. Subsequently we show the equivalence of the Euclidean and the geodesic metric on this fractal. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 28A80, 54E35 ...

  17. 7 CFR 2902.34 - Carpet and upholstery cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... procurement applies are: (i) General purpose cleaners. Carpet and upholstery cleaners formulated for use in... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.34 Carpet and upholstery cleaners. (a) Definition. (1) Cleaning products... upholstery cleaners shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of...

  18. Indian Carpet Industry after Trade Liberalization. Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rashid Malik, Rekha Prasad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the constraints and opportunities emerged for the Micro, small and medium enterprises in carpet industry after trade liberalization. The survey method was selected for this study. A structured questionnaire, containing both close and open ended questions was used for data collection. 65 carpet firms of Bhadohi District of Uttar Pradesh registered with All India Carpet Manufacture Association (AICMA were surveyed. Liberalization has brought many opportunities for carpet industry apart from challenges. Findings of the present study show that liberalization gave access to new markets and increased demand of products. Increased cost of raw material, difficulty in ‘export facilitation’ and ‘legal-regulatory framework and difficulty in procuring funds from local financial institutions were identified as the major constraints for the carpet industry.

  19. Free-space entangled quantum carpets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Mariana R.; Ketterer, Andreas; Farías, Osvaldo Jiménez; Walborn, Stephen P.

    2017-04-01

    The Talbot effect in quantum physics is known to produce intricate patterns in the probability distribution of a particle, known as "quantum carpets," corresponding to the revival and replication of the initial wave function. Recently, it was shown that one can encode a D -level qudit in such a way that the Talbot effect can be used to process the D -dimensional quantum information [Farías et al., Phys. Rev. A 91, 062328 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.062328]. Here we introduce a scheme to produce free-propagating "entangled quantum carpets" with pairs of photons produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. First we introduce an optical device that can be used to synthesize arbitrary superposition states of Talbot qudits. Sending spatially entangled photon pairs through a pair of these devices produces an entangled pair of qudits. As an application, we show how the Talbot effect can be used to test a D -dimensional Bell inequality. Numerical simulations show that violation of the Bell inequality depends strongly on the amount of spatial correlation in the initial two-photon state. We briefly discuss how our optical scheme might be adapted to matter wave experiments.

  20. Soil reinforcement with recycled carpet wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiassian, Hossein; Poorebrahim, Gholamreza; Gray, Donald H

    2004-04-01

    A root or fibre-reinforced soil behaves as a composite material in which fibres of relatively high tensile strength are embedded in a matrix of relatively plastic soil. Shear stresses in the soil mobilize tensile resistance in the fibres, which in turn impart greater strength to the soil. A research project has been undertaken to study the influence of synthetic fibrous materials for improving the strength characteristics of a fine sandy soil. One of the main objectives of the project is to explore the conversion of fibrous carpet waste into a value-added product for soil reinforcement. Drained triaxial tests were conducted on specimens, which were prepared in a cylindrical mould and compacted at their optimum water contents. The main test variables included the aspect ratio and the weight percentage of the fibrous strips. The results clearly show that fibrous inclusions derived from carpet wastes improve the shear strength of silty sands. A model developed to simulate the effect of the fibrous inclusions accurately predicts the influence of strip content, aspect ratio and confining pressure on the shear strength of reinforced sand.

  1. Spectroscopy and visible frequency upconversion in Er3+-Yb3+: TeO2-ZnO glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Deepak Kumar; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The UV-Vis-NIR absorption studies of the Er(3+)/Er(3+)-Yb(3+) doped/codoped TeO2-ZnO (TZO) glasses fabricated by the melting and quenching method has been performed. The spectroscopic radiative parameters viz. radiative transition probabilities, branching ratios and lifetimes have been determined from the absorption spectrum by using Judd-Ofelt theory. The near infrared (NIR) to visible frequency upconversion (UC) have been monitored by using an excitation of 976 nm wavelength radiation from a CW diode laser. The effect of codoping with Yb(3+) ions on the intensity of the UC emission bands from the Er(3+) ions throughout visible region has been studied. The mechanism responsible for the observed upconversion emissions in the prepared samples have been explained on the basis of excited state absorption and efficient energy transfer processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimized fan-shaped chiral metamaterial as an ultrathin narrow-band circular polarizer at visible frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yizhuo; Wang, Xinghai; Ingram, Whitney; Ai, Bin; Zhao, Yiping

    2018-04-01

    Chiral metamaterials have the great ability to manipulate the circular polarizations of light, which can be utilized to build ultrathin circular polarizers. Here we build a narrow-band circular polarizer at visible frequencies based on plasmonic fan-shaped chiral nanostructures. In order to achieve the best optical performance, we systematically investigate how different fabrication factors affect the chiral optical response of the fan-shaped chiral nanostructures, including incident angle of vapor depositions, nanostructure thickness, and post-deposition annealing. The optimized fan-shaped nanostructures show two narrow bands for different circular polarizations with the maximum extinction ratios 7.5 and 6.9 located at wavelength 687 nm and 774 nm, respectively.

  3. Use of e-Commerce in Carpet Industry

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rashid Malik; Rekha Prasad

    2014-01-01

    This research study is motivated by the growing use of e-commerce in Indian Industries. ECommerce encompasses all business conducted by the use of Information and communication technology. Many business houses have started implementing the use of e-commerce solutions to conduct their businesses. But carpet industry is lagging behind in the use of this very critical tool as we found in our study only 18% carpet exporters are using e-commerce solutions to sell their products across the borders....

  4. A large-area, wide-incident-angle, and polarization-independent plasmonic color filter for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Wenjun

    2018-01-01

    We develop an effective method for glucose sensing by using a plasmonic color filter (PCF) integrated with a microfluidic chip. The morphology of PCF is composed of hybrid nanopillars fabricated with SiO2 and Au thin-films on silicon substrate. It exhibits angle-independence, polarization-independence and wafer-level fabrication, which are the most important factors for color filters for industrial applications. The shift of resonant wavelength is 56 nm with a stable bandwidth (∼30 nm) by varying concentration of glucose solution. The sensitivity is 157.61 nm/RIU and the corresponding figure-of-merit is 5.25. Such strategy can be exploited to further increase the detection and potentially enter the ultra-strong coupling regime in chemical solution sensors.

  5. Impact of carpet construction on fluid penetration: The case of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chengcheng; Michielsen, Stephen; Attinger, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Bloodstains and bloodstain patterns are often observed at crime scenes and their analysis through bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) can assist in reconstructing crime scenes. However, most published work related to BPA only deals with hard, non-porous surfaces and none of the studies have carefully characterized carpets. Soft and porous carpets are often encountered at crime scenes since they are common in American homes accounting for 51% of total U.S. flooring market; this has motivated the research described herein. To assess fluid penetration into tufted carpers, a new method for determining porosity and pore size distribution in tufted carpets has been developed for bloodstains on carpet. In this study, three kinds of nylon carpet were used: a low, a medium and a high face-weight carpet. Each carpet had an antistain treatment, which was removed from half of each carpet by steam-cleaning with a pH 12 NaOH solution. This resulted in six carpet samples. Yarn twist, carpet weight, pile height, water contact angles on carpets, water contact angles on individual fibers, and fiber cross-sectional shapes were characterized. Porosity and pore size distribution were analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Porcine blood was used as a human blood substitute at three liquid volumes (30μL, 10μL, and 2μL). Analysis showed that porous carpet construction and antistain finishing both affected penetration. The depth of blood penetration decreased with the increase of carpet face-weight but increased with increased drop height. The removal of antistain treatment increased blood penetration into the carpets and changed the pore size distribution. Effects of antistain treatment, porosity and pore size distribution of tufted carpet, and blood wicking behaviors on carpets were found to strongly affect blood penetration into the carpets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of One Carpet Weaving Workstation on Upper Trapezius Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Mahdavi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the effect of carpet weaving at a proposed workstation on Upper Trapezius (UTr fatigue during a task cycle. Fatigue in the shoulder is one of the most important precursors for upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. One of the most prevalent musculoskeletal disorders between carpet weavers is disorder of the shoulder region. Methods: This cross-sectional study, included eight females and three males. During an 80-minute cycle of carpet weaving, Electromyography (EMG signals of right and left UTr were recorded by the surface EMG, continuously. After raw signals were processed, MPF and RMS were considered as EMG amplitude and frequency parameters. Time series model and JASA methods were used to assess and classify the EMG parameter changes during the working time. Results: According to the JASA method, 58%, 16%, 8% and 8% of the participants experienced fatigue, force increase, force decrease and recovery, respectively in the right UTr. Also, 50%, 25%, 8% and 16% of the participants experienced fatigue, force increase, force decrease and recovery, respectively in the left UTr. Conclusions: For the major portion of the weavers, dominant status in Left and right UTr was fatigue, at the proposed workstation during a carpet weaving task cycle. The results of the study provide detailed information for optimal design of workstations. Further studies should focus on fatigue in various muscles and time periods for designing an appropriate and ergonomics carpet weaving workstation

  7. Ergonomic Interventions in Manual Handling of Carpets to the retail sellers in a textile company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Darvishi

    2015-04-01

    .Conclusion: By implementing ergonomics interventions in carpet delivery sites, the risk factors of MSDs, induced by manual carpet handling, were reduced and safety and ergonomic conditions of the retailers were improved, compared to the previous conditions.

  8. Splitting of a vertical multiwalled carbon nanotube carpet to a graphene nanoribbon carpet and its use in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenguang; Peng, Zhiwei; Lin, Jian; Zhu, Yu; Ruan, Gedeng; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Lu, Wei; Hauge, Robert H; Tour, James M

    2013-06-25

    Potassium vapor was used to longitudinally split vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes carpets (VA-CNTs). The resulting structures have a carpet of partially split MWCNTs and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). The split structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. When compared to the original VA-CNTs carpet, the split VA-CNTs carpet has enhanced electrochemical performance with better specific capacitance in a supercapacitor. Furthermore, the split VA-CNTs carpet has excellent cyclability as a supercapacitor electrode material. There is a measured maximum power density of 103 kW/kg at an energy density of 5.2 Wh/kg and a maximum energy density of 9.4 Wh/kg. The superior electrochemical performances of the split VA-CNTs can be attributed to the increased surface area for ion accessibility after splitting, and the lasting conductivity of the structure with their vertical conductive paths based on the preserved GNR alignment.

  9. Compressibility and resiliency properties of wilton type woven carpets produced with different fiber blend ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, B.; Esin, S.; Sıdıka Ziba, O.

    2017-10-01

    Carpet is a textile structure that composed of three components: warp (stuffer and chain warp), weft and pile yarns. These textile products are used for areas which will stand up to the use of home, hotel, work place etc. Furthermore, the capable of carpets are related to it’s especially pile performance during use in various areas. During usage, carpets made from various type of raw materials of pile yarn also acts differently that these differentiate determines carpet performance, as well.This study was focused on the compression and resilience behaviour of carpet composed of 100% viscose and 100% acrylic pile yarns and blended pile yarns of blend ratios, 80%/20%, 50%/50% and 20%/80% viscose/acrylic. During the yarn production process, all spinning conditions were kept constant in order to eliminate the yarn production parameters. Five different types of wilton face to face carpet samples were produced from these yarns at the same pile height and pile density on Van de Wiele carpet weaving machine at 110 picks/min machine speed and 1/1 V carpet construction. Compressibility properties of carpets were examined whether blend ratio was statistically significant on carpet resilience or not. The behaviour of pile yarns under pressure is important that leads to understand the growth characteristic which is exposed to decrease and increase loadings during usage of carpet made from these yarns. Results indicated that blend ratio of pile yarns have significance effect on compression behaviour of carpet samples.

  10. A dc carpet cloak based on resistor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zhong Lei; Liu, Yu Sha; Yang, Fan; Cui, Tie Jun

    2012-11-05

    We propose, design, and implement a two-dimensional dc carpet cloak for steady electric field using the transformation optics (TO) method. Based on the circuit theory, we introduce a resistor network to mimic the resulting anisotropic conducting medium. The experimental prototype is fabricated using metal film resistors, and the measured results agree perfectly well with theoretical predictions. This study gives the first experimental verification of a dc carpet cloak, which expands the application of TO theory, and has potential applications in related areas.

  11. Wideband metamaterial array with polarization-independent and wide incident angle for harvesting ambient electromagnetic energy and wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hui-Teng; Yang, Xue-Xia; Song, Xing-Tang; Guo, Zhen-Yue; Yu, Fan

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we introduced the design, demonstration, and discussion of a wideband metamaterial array with polarization-independent and wide-angle for harvesting ambient electromagnetic (EM) energy and wireless power transfer. The array consists of unit cells with one square ring and four metal bars. In comparison to the published metamaterial arrays for harvesting EM energy or wireless transfer, this design had the wide operation bandwidth with the HPBW (Half Power Band Width) of 110% (6.2 GHz-21.4 GHz), which overcomes the narrow-band operation induced by the resonance characteristic of the metamaterial. On the normal incidence, the simulated maximum harvesting efficiency was 96% and the HPBW was 110% for the random polarization wave. As the incident angle increases to 45°, the maximum efficiency remained higher than 88% and the HPBW remained higher than 83% for the random polarization wave. Furthermore, the experimental verification of the designed metamaterial array was conducted, and the measured results were in reasonable agreement with the simulated ones.

  12. A Wideband and Polarization-Independent Metasurface Based on Phase Optimization for Monostatic and Bistatic Radar Cross Section Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxun Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A broadband and polarization-independent metasurface is analyzed and designed for both monostatic and bistatic radar cross section (RCS reduction in this paper. Metasurfaces are composed of two types of electromagnetic band-gap (EBG lattice, which is a subarray with “0” or “π” phase responses, arranged in periodic and aperiodic fashions. A new mechanism is proposed for manipulating electromagnetic (EM scattering and realizing the best reduction of monostatic and bistatic RCS by redirecting EM energy to more directions through controlling the wavefront of EM wave reflected from the metasurface. Scattering characteristics of two kinds of metasurfaces, periodic arrangement and optimized phase layout, are studied in detail. Optimizing phase layout through particle swarm optimization (PSO together with far field pattern prediction can produce a lot of scattering lobes, leading to a great reduction of bistatic RCS. For the designed metasurface based on optimal phase layout, a bandwidth of more than 80% is achieved at the normal incidence for the −9.5 dB RCS reduction for both monostatic and bistatic. Bistatic RCS reduction at frequency points with exactly 180° phase difference reaches 17.6 dB. Both TE and TM polarizations for oblique incidence are considered. The measured results are in good agreement with the corresponding simulations.

  13. Do Carpets Impair Indoor Air Quality and Cause Adverse Health Outcomes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Becher

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several earlier studies have shown the presence of more dust and allergens in carpets compared with non-carpeted floors. At the same time, adverse effects of carpeted floors on perceived indoor air quality as well as worsening of symptoms in individuals with asthma and allergies were reported. Avoiding extensive carpet use in offices, schools, kindergartens and bedrooms has therefore been recommended by several health authorities. More recently, carpet producers have argued that former assessments were obsolete and that modern rugs are unproblematic, even for those with asthma and allergies. To investigate whether the recommendation to be cautious with the use of carpets is still valid, or whether there are new data supporting that carpet flooring do not present a problem for indoor air quality and health, we have reviewed the literature on this matter. We have not found updated peer reviewed evidence that carpeted floor is unproblematic for the indoor environment. On the contrary, also more recent data support that carpets may act as a repository for pollutants which may become resuspended upon activity in the carpeted area. Also, the use of carpets is still linked to perception of reduced indoor air quality as well as adverse health effects as previously reported. To our knowledge, there are no publications that report on deposition of pollutants and adverse health outcomes associated with modern rugs. However, due to the three-dimensional structure of carpets, any carpet will to some extent act like a sink. Thus, continued caution should still be exercised when considering the use of wall-to-wall carpeted floors in schools, kindergartens and offices, as well as in children’s bedrooms unless special needs indicate that carpets are preferable.

  14. Do Carpets Impair Indoor Air Quality and Cause Adverse Health Outcomes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Rune; Øvrevik, Johan; Schwarze, Per E; Nilsen, Steinar; Hongslo, Jan K; Bakke, Jan Vilhelm

    2018-01-23

    Several earlier studies have shown the presence of more dust and allergens in carpets compared with non-carpeted floors. At the same time, adverse effects of carpeted floors on perceived indoor air quality as well as worsening of symptoms in individuals with asthma and allergies were reported. Avoiding extensive carpet use in offices, schools, kindergartens and bedrooms has therefore been recommended by several health authorities. More recently, carpet producers have argued that former assessments were obsolete and that modern rugs are unproblematic, even for those with asthma and allergies. To investigate whether the recommendation to be cautious with the use of carpets is still valid, or whether there are new data supporting that carpet flooring do not present a problem for indoor air quality and health, we have reviewed the literature on this matter. We have not found updated peer reviewed evidence that carpeted floor is unproblematic for the indoor environment. On the contrary, also more recent data support that carpets may act as a repository for pollutants which may become resuspended upon activity in the carpeted area. Also, the use of carpets is still linked to perception of reduced indoor air quality as well as adverse health effects as previously reported. To our knowledge, there are no publications that report on deposition of pollutants and adverse health outcomes associated with modern rugs. However, due to the three-dimensional structure of carpets, any carpet will to some extent act like a sink. Thus, continued caution should still be exercised when considering the use of wall-to-wall carpeted floors in schools, kindergartens and offices, as well as in children's bedrooms unless special needs indicate that carpets are preferable.

  15. Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurs in the International Carpet Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Dana, Leo-Paul; Light, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the pre-modern bazaar and the authors (Shahamak Rezaei Roskilde University, Ivan Light UCLA, Léo-Paul Dana Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier Business School - Montpellier Research in Management) observe changes in the sector as Persian carpets can now be sourced from new entrants...

  16. Effect of fiber material on ozone removal and carbonyl production from carpets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbass, Omed A.; Sailor, David J.; Gall, Elliott T.

    2017-01-01

    Indoor air quality is affected by indoor materials such as carpets that may act as sources and/or sinks of gas-phase air pollutants. Heterogeneous reactions of ozone with carpets may result in potentially harmful products. In this study, indoor residential carpets of varying fiber types were tested to evaluate their ability to remove ozone, and to assess their role in the production of carbonyls when exposed to elevated levels of ozone. Tests were conducted with six types of new unused carpets. Two sets of experiments were conducted, the first measured ozone removal and ozone deposition velocities, and the second measured primary carbonyl production and secondary production as a result of exposure to ozone. The tests were conducted using glass chambers with volume of 52 L each. Air exchange rates for all tests were 3 h-1. The ozone removal tests show that, for the conditions tested, the polyester carpet sample had the lowest ozone removal (40%), while wool carpet had the greatest ozone removal (65%). Most carpet samples showed higher secondary than primary carbonyl emissions, with carpets containing polypropylene fibers being a notable exception. Carpets with polyester fibers had both the highest primary and secondary emissions of formaldehyde among all samples tested. While it is difficult to make blanket conclusions about the relative air quality merits of various carpet fiber options, it is clear that ozone removal percentages and emissions of volatile organic compounds can vary drastically as a function of fiber type.

  17. Ultra-broadband carpet cloak for transverse-electric polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Ye; Xu, Su; Zhang, Runren; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Hongsheng; Chen, Hua; Yu, Faxin; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    Magnetism is a necessity in constructing macroscopic metamaterial invisibility cloaks that are theoretically designed by transformation optics, but will generally limit the cloaking bandwidth to an impractically narrow range. To meet the broad bandwidth demand, magnetism has been fully abandoned in previous demonstrations of macroscopic carpet cloaking, whose approach, however, cannot apply to a transverse-electric (TE) polarization. To fill this gap, here we experimentally demonstrate an ultra-broadband magnetic carpet cloak for the TE polarization. The cloak is made of non-resonant closed-ring metamaterials with little dispersion and the cloaking performance is confirmed with both time-domain simulation and frequency scanning measurement over a broad bandwidth corresponding to a pulse signal illumination. (paper)

  18. Ultra-broadband carpet cloak for transverse-electric polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ye; Xu, Su; Zhang, Runren; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Hua; Gao, Fei; Yu, Faxin; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Magnetism is a necessity in constructing macroscopic metamaterial invisibility cloaks that are theoretically designed by transformation optics, but will generally limit the cloaking bandwidth to an impractically narrow range. To meet the broad bandwidth demand, magnetism has been fully abandoned in previous demonstrations of macroscopic carpet cloaking, whose approach, however, cannot apply to a transverse-electric (TE) polarization. To fill this gap, here we experimentally demonstrate an ultra-broadband magnetic carpet cloak for the TE polarization. The cloak is made of non-resonant closed-ring metamaterials with little dispersion and the cloaking performance is confirmed with both time-domain simulation and frequency scanning measurement over a broad bandwidth corresponding to a pulse signal illumination.

  19. Intersection of the Sierpinski carpet with its rational translate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Meifeng; Tian Lixin

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by Mandelbrot's idea of referring to lacunarity of Cantor sets in terms of departure from translation invariance, Nekka and Li studied the properties of these translation sets and showed how they can be used for a classification purpose. In this paper, we pursue this study on the Sierpinski carpet with its rational translate. We also get the fractal structure of intersection I(x, y) of the Sierpinski carpet with its translate. We find that the packing measure of these sets forms a discrete spectrum whose non-zero values come only from shifting numbers with a finite triadic expansion. Concretely, when x and y have a finite triadic expansion, a very brief calculation formula of the measure is given

  20. A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Faxin; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-29

    We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the reflection waves as if the incident waves impinge onto a flat mirror. The finite element simulation results demonstrate that an object can be hidden under these three kinds of waves with a single metasurface cloak.

  1. TECHNOLOGY OF REPAIRING OPERATIONAL SUITABILITY BITUMEN-RUBEROID CARPET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISHUK K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In the article is presented the analysis of the existing technologies for the restoration of the operational usability of bitumen-polymeric carpet, which allowed to identify their disadvantages, suggested ways to solve problems and highlighted the results of the studies. Firstly, existing bitumen-ruberoid carpet has a residual hydro insulating capacity that can be effectively used. Secondly, the physical condition of the repaired carpet has different types of defects and damage without the proper removal of which is difficult to ensure the desired outcome. The applying of additional layers in conditions of moistening of the lower layers and other defects contributes to their conservation and accelerated loss of operational integrity.Removal of these impacts can be up to 40-50% of all work, can not provide the required effectiveness outcomes in terms of durability, reliability and cost. Therefore the problem is to find ways to achieve a longer after repairing operation with simultaneous reduction of consumables indicators. Purpose of the study is to develop technological solutions serviceability restoration of roofing using unrolling technologies on the principles to minimize the impact of negative factors and the maximum possible use and strengthen the remaining hydro potential of the insulating coating through the use of special impregnating - saturating compositions. Features such compositions are based on the ability to deeply penetrate the thick bitumen-ruberoid carpet and restore his lost components and provide increased water resistance. Conclusion. The article can be introduced in practice of repair-refurbishable works of soft roofing covering of buildings and constructions.

  2. PRODUCTION OF AN INSULATION MATERIAL FROM CARPET AND BORON WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    Yasin ERDOĞAN

    2016-01-01

    Buildings are large consumers of energy in all countries. In regions with harsh climatic conditions, a substantial share of energy goes to heat and cool buildings. This paper reports an investigation of the insulation materials made from mixing carpet wastes with a solution with added crude colemanite ore, one of boron minerals, and a solution with added colemanite wastes from a barrage. A new building insulation material was produced which is name, Halibor. Optimum mixing ratios were determi...

  3. Wet felting tradition in Bulgaria. Ornamented woolen wedding carpets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsvetkova, Elitsa; Frangova, Krassimira; Peneva, Tereza

    2017-01-01

    -Bulgarians’ cosmogonic concepts about World and the Universe. They symbolize the union of the divine, human and nature; and wish fertility and harmonic co-existence. In most regions, the decoration of old carpets combines the natural colours of undyed wool. Elements intentionally dyed in other colours are rare before 19...... technique. Special attention is drawn to the carpets’ technological structure, composed of multiple layers distinguished by thickness, function, quality and processing of the wool used. To a body consisting of back, middle and front layers, a decoration layer comprised of single dyed woolen wicks is added...

  4. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment.

  5. 24 CFR 200.948 - Building product standards and certification program for carpet cushion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Minimum Property Standards § 200.948 Building product standards and certification program for carpet... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Building product standards and certification program for carpet cushion. 200.948 Section 200.948 Housing and Urban Development Regulations...

  6. Evaluation of Related Risk Factors in Number of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Carpet Weavers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Karimi

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that occupational factors are associated with the number of MSDs developing among carpet weavers. Thus, using standard tools and decreasing hours of work per day can reduce frequency of MSDs among carpet weavers.

  7. 2-D Fractal Carpet Antenna Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C. C.; Tebbens, S. F.; Ewing, J. J.; Peterman, D. J.; Rizki, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    A 2-D fractal carpet antenna uses a fractal (self-similar) pattern to increase its perimeter by iteration and can receive or transmit electromagnetic radiation within its perimeter-bounded surface area. 2-D fractals are shapes that, at their mathematical limit (infinite iterations) have an infinite perimeter bounding a finite surface area. The fractal dimension describes the degree of space filling and lacunarity which quantifies the size and spatial distribution of open space bounded by a fractal shape. A key aspect of fractal antennas lies in iteration (repetition) of a fractal pattern over a range of length scales. Iteration produces fractal antennas that are very compact, wideband and multiband. As the number of iterations increases, the antenna operates at higher and higher frequencies. Manifestly different from traditional antenna designs, a fractal antenna can operate at multiple frequencies simultaneously. We have created a MATLAB code to generate deterministic and stochastic modes of Sierpinski carpet fractal antennas with a range of fractal dimensions between 1 and 2. Variation in fractal dimension, stochasticity, number of iterations, and lacunarities have been computationally tested using COMSOL Multiphysics software to determine their effect on antenna performance

  8. Talbot Carpet Simulation for X-ray grating interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngju; Oh, Ohsung; Jeong, Hanseong; Kim, Jeongho; Lee, Seung Wook [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongyul; Moon, Myungkook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, Talbot carpet simulator has been developed to visualize the X-ray grating interference patterns in grating interferometer. We have simulated X-ray interference for a variety of simulations and demonstrated a few examples in this summary. Grating interferometer produces interference of X-ray called Talbot pattern with gratings manufactured in micro scale. Talbot pattern is self-images of phase grating which develops interference as beam splitter that is one of gratings consisted of interferometer. As the other gratings, there are source grating makes coherence and analyze grating is used to analyze interference onto detector. Talbot carpet has been studied as the beam behavior which is distinguished with common X-ray imaging systems. It is helpful to understand grating interferometer and possible to expect beams' oscillation for designing theoretically. We confirm pattern has periodicity produced by interference after pi and pi/2 phase grating and changes in the perpendicular direction to entrance face according to phase objects.

  9. Polarization-independent characteristics of the metasurfaces with the symmetrical axis’s orientation angle of 45° or 135°

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Guo, Zhongyi; Li, Yan; Mao, Xiaoqin; Wang, Benyang; Fan, Guanghua; Qu, Shiliang; Ran, Lingling; Sun, Yongxuan; Shen, Fei

    2016-01-01

    A series of symmetrical nanoantennas with a symmetrical axis orientation angle of 45° or 135°, which are suitable for both X/Y linear and circular polarizations incidences simultaneously, have been designed and investigated in detail. We have deduced the transmitted matrix of the metasurface structure by rigorous mathematical theory, and found that the essential reason for the polarization-independence characteristics is that there are the same transmitted amplitudes and phases under the incidences of X/Y linear and circular polarization lights due to metasurface structure with the symmetrical axis’s orientation angles of 45° or 135°. Based on the V-shaped, C-shaped, U-shaped and elliptical slit nanoantennas, we have verified the proposed theory fully by numerical simulations. The independence of the incident polarizations is very important for the practical applications and developments of the metasurfaces. (paper)

  10. Polarization-independent rapidly tunable optical add-drop multiplexer utilizing non-polarizing beam splitters in Ti:LiNbO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Wook; Sung, Won Ju; Eknoyan, O.; Madsen, C. K.; Taylor, H. F.

    2012-04-01

    A polarization-independent four-port wavelength-tunable optical add drop multiplexer (OADM) that utilizes non-polarizing relaxed beam splitters has been analyzed and demonstrated in Ti:LiNbO3 at the 1530 nm wavelength regime. The design utilizes an asymmetric interferometer configuration with strain induced index grating for polarization coupling along its arms that are shifted in position relative to each other. Experimental results of the filter response agree with theoretical predictions. Electrooptic tuning over a range of 15.7 nm at a rate of 0.08 nm/V has been measured. A temporal response < 46 ns to a 20 V step change in tuning voltage has been demonstrated. Fiber-to-fiber insertion loss is ~ 6.5 dB.

  11. New procedure to design low radar cross section near perfect isotropic and homogeneous triangular carpet cloaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Zohreh; Atlasbaf, Zahra

    2016-10-01

    A new design procedure for near perfect triangular carpet cloaks, fabricated based on only isotropic homogeneous materials, is proposed. This procedure enables us to fabricate a cloak with simple metamaterials or even without employing metamaterials. The proposed procedure together with an invasive weed optimization algorithm is used to design carpet cloaks based on quasi-isotropic metamaterial structures, Teflon and AN-73. According to the simulation results, the proposed cloaks have good invisibility properties against radar, especially monostatic radar. The procedure is a new method to derive isotropic and homogeneous parameters from transformation optics formulas so we do not need to use complicated structures to fabricate the carpet cloaks.

  12. PRODUCTION OF AN INSULATION MATERIAL FROM CARPET AND BORON WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin ERDOĞAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are large consumers of energy in all countries. In regions with harsh climatic conditions, a substantial share of energy goes to heat and cool buildings. This paper reports an investigation of the insulation materials made from mixing carpet wastes with a solution with added crude colemanite ore, one of boron minerals, and a solution with added colemanite wastes from a barrage. A new building insulation material was produced which is name, Halibor. Optimum mixing ratios were determined for mass production and the physical properties of the product were established. In addition, the material produced was compared with similar products used in buildings in terms of physical properties. As a result of the investigations, it was established that the product provides high heat and sound insulation and can be used easily in building and construction industry.

  13. Solar Magnetic Carpet III: Coronal Modelling of Synthetic Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K. A.; Mackay, D. H.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Parnell, C. E.

    2013-09-01

    This article is the third in a series working towards the construction of a realistic, evolving, non-linear force-free coronal-field model for the solar magnetic carpet. Here, we present preliminary results of 3D time-dependent simulations of the small-scale coronal field of the magnetic carpet. Four simulations are considered, each with the same evolving photospheric boundary condition: a 48-hour time series of synthetic magnetograms produced from the model of Meyer et al. ( Solar Phys. 272, 29, 2011). Three simulations include a uniform, overlying coronal magnetic field of differing strength, the fourth simulation includes no overlying field. The build-up, storage, and dissipation of magnetic energy within the simulations is studied. In particular, we study their dependence upon the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field and the strength of the overlying coronal field. We also consider where energy is stored and dissipated within the coronal field. The free magnetic energy built up is found to be more than sufficient to power small-scale, transient phenomena such as nanoflares and X-ray bright points, with the bulk of the free energy found to be stored low down, between 0.5 - 0.8 Mm. The energy dissipated is currently found to be too small to account for the heating of the entire quiet-Sun corona. However, the form and location of energy-dissipation regions qualitatively agree with what is observed on small scales on the Sun. Future MHD modelling using the same synthetic magnetograms may lead to a higher energy release.

  14. The impact of ergonomics intervention on trunk posture and cumulative compression load among carpet weavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Davood; Motamedzade, Majid; Salehi, Reza; Soltanian, Alir Raze

    2015-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders of back among weavers are prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between poor working postures and back disorders among carpet weavers. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the impact of the traditional (A) and ergonomically designed (B) workstations on trunk posture and cumulative compression load in carpet weavers. In this study, subtasks were identified in terms of stressful postures and carpet weaving process. Postural data were collected during knotting and compacting subtasks using inclinometer during four hours for each workstation. Postural data, weight and height of the weavers were entered into the University of Michigan three-dimensional static biomechanical model for estimation of the compression load and cumulative load were estimated from the resultant load and exposure time. Thirteen healthy carpet weavers (four males and nine females) participated in the study. Median trunk flexion angle was reduced with workstation B during knotting subtask (18° versus 8.5°, pergonomically designed workstation.

  15. Role of Magnetic Carpet in Coronal Heating S. R. Verma & Diksha ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is likely that different heating mechanisms are at work in the solar corona. ... ity, termed magnetic carpet contributing to solar activity on a short time .... migrates to the boundaries of supergranule cells and moves along them, fragmenting,.

  16. Research and development of ion surfing RF carpets for the cyclotron gas stopper at the NSCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, A.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Brodeur, M. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States); Bollen, G.; Morrissey, D.J.; Schwarz, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 640 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A model device to transport thermal ions in the cyclotron gas stopper, a next-generation beam thermalization device under construction at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, is presented. Radioactive ions produced by projectile fragmentation will come to rest at distances as large as 45 cm from the extraction orifice of the cyclotron gas stopper. The thermalized ions will be transported to the exit by RF carpets employing the recently developed “ion surfing” method. A quarter-circle prototype RF carpet was tested with potassium ions, and ion transport velocities as high as 60 m/s were observed over distances greater than 10 cm at a helium buffer gas pressure of 80 mbar. The transport of rubidium ions from an RF carpet to an electrode below was also demonstrated. The results of this study formed the basis of the design of the RF carpets for use in the cyclotron gas stopper.

  17. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie Lucero Konopa; James A. Mulholland; Matthew J. Realff; Paul M. Lemieux [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-08-15

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particleboard combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. S{sub 2} emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Devil's carpet of topological entropy and complexity of global dynamical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, K.-F.; Zhang, X.-S.; Zhou Zhong; Peng, S.-L.

    2003-01-01

    For bimodal maps the concept of an equal topological entropy class (ETEC) is established by the dual star products. All the infinitely many ETEC plateaus and single points are harmonically organized in the kneading parameter plane, they construct a multifractal devil's carpet, which possesses a perfect subregion similarity and a dual central symmetry. The entropy devil's carpet reveals the complexity of global dynamical behavior in the whole parameter plane of bimodal systems

  19. Assessment of Interior General and Local Lighting in Carpet Weaving Workshops in Bijar City

    OpenAIRE

    Rostam Golmohamadi; Homeira Alizadeh; Motamedzade Majid; Soltanian Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives : The comfort lighting in the workplace provides employees visual health which can improve safety, visual comfort and enhance performance and product quality. The present study was conducted to evaluate general and local lighting in carpet weaving workshops in Bijar city . Methods : In this descriptive analytical study, 101 carpet weaving workshops were randomly selected. The illuminance were measured based on the models and formulas presented in Illuminating Engin...

  20. The Pathology of Weaving and Production of the Hand-woven Carpets: Heriz Region Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Taravati Mahjoubi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The carpet, as one of the most precious achievement of people, is a culture. The world’s recognition of Iranian carpet and its glorification originates from endeavor of people who have integrated artistic verve with mysterious attractions of national culture and arts. This study is descriptive-analytic. The data were collected through field research method and direct communication with people and workshops of drawing, weaving, and dyeing. In fact, the assessment tools were taken to the field, and data collection was completed by questioning, interview, observation, and shooting. Then, they were used for derivation, classification, and analysis. SPSS software also used to analyze collected data. . According to the result of this study, regarding the latest forecasts for Iranian hand-woven carpet industry, carpet exports will increase in the future. Therefore, it is better to consider the weaving and marketing of the carpet as a luxury product in order to achieve the profits maintaining the incentive of production in all units involved in the hand-woven carpet’s production and also to reduce poor quality carpets available in the market.

  1. The influence of commercial-grade carpet on postural sway and balance strategy among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Joan I; Shroyer, JoAnn L; Elias, Jeffrey W

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the effect of a selected commercial-grade carpet on the static balance of healthy, older adults who had not fallen more than twice in the last 6 months. We tested a total of 45 participants. Each participant stood on a computerized balance machine and was subjected to a carpeted versus a noncarpeted condition while exposed to various sensory limitations. We measured both postural sway and balance strategy. The selected commercial-grade carpet did not affect postural sway. The participants were able to adapt to the sensory limitations regardless of whether they were standing on the carpet. Although balance strategy scores were significantly lower during the carpeted conditions, the clinical significance was questionable as the difference between the means was small for practical purposes. Healthy, older adults did not have difficulty maintaining static balance on the carpeted surface; however, the results could be different if participants who had a history of falling had been included. The results from this study are important and provide a basis of comparison for those individuals who have experienced more than two falls in the last 6 months or who have a history of falling.

  2. Bacterial amplification and in-place carpet drying: implications for category 1 water intrusion restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jim; Banta, John; Passmore, Boni; Ayers, Mark; Abbott, Sean P; Cole, Eugene C

    2012-05-01

    The study described in this article investigated whether in-place carpet drying processes resulted in bacterial amplification following water intrusion from a clean water source (category 1) in a residential indoor environment. Bacterial amplification was examined after wetting a 10-year-old carpet and pad that had no history of water intrusion. Three test areas were extracted and dried using industry-recommended procedures for in-place drying and compared to a control area that was not extracted or dried. Results from carpet, pad, and subsurface dust demonstrated that bacterial amplification occurred in all test areas. CFUs of bacteria per gram of carpet surface dust and subsurface dust prior to water intrusion were lower than levels in subsurface dust after in-place drying. The authors' study contributes to information regarding the restoration of water-based carpet damage by professional water damage restoration companies, building maintenance personnel, and housekeeping managers. Results suggest that the appropriate response time for carpet pad salvage is considerably shorter than the current industry recommendation of 72 hours.

  3. Evaluation of Related Risk Factors in Number of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Carpet Weavers in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Nasim; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Motamedzade, Majid; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2016-12-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a common problem among carpet weavers. This study was undertaken to introduce affecting personal and occupational factors in developing the number of MSDs among carpet weavers. A cross-sectional study was performed among 862 weavers in seven towns with regard to workhouse location in urban or rural regions. Data were collected by using questionnaires that contain personal, workplace, and information tools and the modified Nordic MSDs questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by applying Poisson and negative binomial mixed models using a full Bayesian hierarchical approach. The deviance information criterion was used for comparison between models and model selection. The majority of weavers (72%) were female and carpet weaving was the main job of 85.2% of workers. The negative binomial mixed model with lowest deviance information criterion was selected as the best model. The criteria showed the convergence of chains. Based on 95% Bayesian credible interval, the main job and weaving type variables statistically affected the number of MSDs, but variables age, sex, weaving comb, work experience, and carpet weaving looms were not significant. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that occupational factors are associated with the number of MSDs developing among carpet weavers. Thus, using standard tools and decreasing hours of work per day can reduce frequency of MSDs among carpet weavers.

  4. Carpet cloak with graded dielectric metasurface (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, LiYi; Lepetit, Thomas; Kante, Boubacar

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a method to hide a Gaussian-shaped bump on a ground plane from an incoming plane wave. In essence, we use a graded metasurface to shape the wavefronts like those of a flat ground plane[1,2].The metasurface provides additional phase to the electromagnetic field to control the reflection angle. To mimic a flat ground plane, the reflection angle is chosen to be equal to the incident angle. The desired phase distribution is calculated based on generalized Snell's laws[3]. We design our metasurface in the microwave range using sub-wavelength dielectric resonators. We verify the design by full-wave time-domain simulations and show that the result matches our theory well. This approach can be applied to hide any object on a ground plane not only at microwave frequencies but also at higher frequencies up to the infrared. 1. Jensen Li and J. B. Pendry, Hiding under the Carpet: A New Strategy for Cloaking. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008) 2. Andrea Alu, Mantle cloak: Invisibility induced by a surface. Phys. Rev. B 80, 245115 (2009) 3. Yu N, et al. Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction. Science 334(6054):333-337 (2011)

  5. Cost-Benefit and Performance of Handmade Carpets Produced with Wool, Untreated and Chemical Treated Jute Pile Yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shravan Kumar; Goswami, Kamal Kanti

    2018-03-01

    Jute is a natural fibre which is used to make different type of products due to low cost, easy availability and eco-friendliness. However, the stiffness and harshness of jute fibre affect the use of jute in many products like pile yarns in hand knotted carpets. In this research, a study has been done on the application of jute pile yarns in Persian hand knotted carpet. Three types of commercial yarns (wool, untreated jute and woollenized jute) as well as three types of chemical treated jute yarns (hydrogen peroxide bleached, softened bleached and woollenized yarns) have been applied as pile yarns in Persian hand knotted carpets. Cost-benefit analysis of hand knotted carpets shows that manufacturing cost of wool carpet is lower than others. The contribution of manpower charges is higher than material cost during carpet manufacturing. Hand knotted carpet shows the lowest pile abrasion loss and highest compression recovery when wool is used as pile. Wool hand knotted carpet shows higher compression than untreated and treated jute carpets.

  6. Design of Nonwoven Carpets to Upgrade Sound Isolation Features in Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan Raziye

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increases of the expected properties of textile products, better and advanced new designs are being created. Textiles used in vehicles are increasing, and the current performance of the expectations bar is determined by automobile manufacturers. While meeting the expectations of users in the vehicle mechanically, but also disturbing the user during operation of the mechanical properties of this ratio should be minimized. This study was intended to minimize sound transmission of nonwoven textile components, which are used in cars as silencer parts. For that purpose, four different models were developed in this study. First model consists of three designs for baggage carpets. Second model has six designs for floor coverings. Third model comprises two designs inner dash felt and finally fourth model includes two designs of hood liners. The acoustical absorption coefficients and transmission loss of these carpets were tested and evaluated in the frequency range of 16-6300 Hz. The measurements demonstrated that nonwoven layer is a very significant and effective part of a carpet due to its contribution in the sound isolation. With this study, it has been determined which layer has better performance on sound absorption and transmission loss among different carpet types. A combination of heavy layer and nonwoven layer carpets is found to be benefit for noise and sound insulation.

  7. Fluctuation behaviors of financial time series by a stochastic Ising system on a Sierpinski carpet lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen; Wang, Jun

    2013-09-01

    We develop a financial market model using an Ising spin system on a Sierpinski carpet lattice that breaks the equal status of each spin. To study the fluctuation behavior of the financial model, we present numerical research based on Monte Carlo simulation in conjunction with the statistical analysis and multifractal analysis of the financial time series. We extract the multifractal spectra by selecting various lattice size values of the Sierpinski carpet, and the inverse temperature of the Ising dynamic system. We also investigate the statistical fluctuation behavior, the time-varying volatility clustering, and the multifractality of returns for the indices SSE, SZSE, DJIA, IXIC, S&P500, HSI, N225, and for the simulation data derived from the Ising model on the Sierpinski carpet lattice. A numerical study of the model’s dynamical properties reveals that this financial model reproduces important features of the empirical data.

  8. Volatility Behaviors of Financial Time Series by Percolation System on Sierpinski Carpet Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Anqi; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The financial time series is simulated and investigated by the percolation system on the Sierpinski carpet lattice, where percolation is usually employed to describe the behavior of connected clusters in a random graph, and the Sierpinski carpet lattice is a graph which corresponds the fractal — Sierpinski carpet. To study the fluctuation behavior of returns for the financial model and the Shanghai Composite Index, we establish a daily volatility measure — multifractal volatility (MFV) measure to obtain MFV series, which have long-range cross-correlations with squared daily return series. The autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model is used to analyze the MFV series, which performs better when compared to other volatility series. By a comparative study of the multifractality and volatility analysis of the data, the simulation data of the proposed model exhibits very similar behaviors to those of the real stock index, which indicates somewhat rationality of the model to the market application.

  9. Hiding objects and creating illusions above a carpet filter using a Fourier optics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kedi; Wang, Guo Ping

    2010-09-13

    Invisibility carpet cloaks are usually used to hide an object beneath carpet. In this paper we propose and demonstrate a carpet filter to hide objects and create illusions above the filter by using a Fourier optics method. Instead of using transformation optics, we get electromagnetic parameters of the filter by optical transfer functions, which play the role of modulating the propagation of the scattering angular spectrum directly from an object above the filter. By further adding a functional layer onto the filter, we can even camouflage the object so that it appears to be a different object. The analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations. Our method is completely different from the current coordinate transfer method and may provide another point of view to more clearly understand the mechanism of invisibility cloaks.

  10. Carpet-dust chemicals as measures of exposure: Implications of variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead Todd P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in using chemicals measured in carpet dust as indicators of chemical exposures. However, investigators have rarely sampled dust repeatedly from the same households and therefore little is known about the variability of chemical levels that exist within and between households in dust samples. Results We analyzed 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 6 polychlorinated biphenyls, and nicotine in 68 carpet-dust samples from 21 households in agricultural communities of Fresno County, California collected from 2003-2005. Chemical concentrations (ng per g dust ranged from Conclusions Our findings suggest that attenuation bias should be relatively modest when using these semi-volatile carpet-dust chemicals as exposure surrogates in epidemiologic studies.

  11. 31 CFR 560.534 - Importation into the United States of, and dealings in, certain foodstuffs and carpets authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Policy § 560.534 Importation into the United States of, and dealings in, certain foodstuffs and carpets... under chapters 2-23 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States; (2) Carpets and other... 9706.00.0060 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States. (b) United States persons...

  12. Asymmetry in Lotto carpets and its implication for Hockney's optical projection theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, David G.

    2005-03-01

    Recently the artist David Hockney theorized that some European painters as early as 1420 used concave mirrors and, later, converging lenses, to project real inverted images onto their canvases or other supports which they then traced and painted over. We consider a specific painting adduced as the primary evidence for this bold theory by Hockney and his collaborator, thin-film physicist Charles Falco: Lorenzo Lotto"s Husband and wife (c. 1543). These projection theorists attribute perspective anomalies in the painting to Lotto repositioning a concave mirror, specifically to overcome its limitations in depth of field. Their analysis lies thoroughly and crucially upon the assumption that the physical carpet pattern was symmetric. We point to a study of "Lotto carpets" surviving in museum collections that shows that these comparison carpets are significantly asymmetric. There seems to be no persuasive independent evidence to support the projection proponents" assumption that these carpets, hand-knotted by children in 16th-century Turkey, were symmetric. Moreover, the angular asymmetries in these surviving carpets are nearly the same as those corresponding to the anomalies in the painting, strongly suggesting that these "anomalies" are in fact due to inherent carpet asymmetries, not to changes in configuration of an optical projector. We show that a non-optical explanation can fit the visual evidence with a precision roughly equal to that of the projection theory, but without the need to invoke a complicated, undocumented optical system. Finally, had Lotto used such an optical projector, we would expect both the general historical documentary record and Lotto"s own writings to indicate as much; however no such corroboratory evidence exists. We conclude by rejecting the numerous claims of "proof" that Lotto used optical projections when executing this painting.

  13. Destroy The Castle: A 3D Magic Carpet-like Game

    OpenAIRE

    Ondrčková, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Title: Destroy the Castle: A 3D Magic Carpet-like Game Author: Simona Ondrčková Department: Department of Distributed and Dependable Systems Supervisor: Mgr. Pavel Ježek, Ph.D., Department of Distributed and Dependable Systems Abstract: The goal of the thesis is to create a computer game based on a game called Magic Carpet. The game has two main interesting aspects from the programming point of view: artificial intelligence and an editor. The artificial intelligence uses different approaches ...

  14. Full three-dimensional isotropic carpet cloak designed by quasi-conformal transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Daniely G; Teixeira, Poliane A; Gabrielli, Lucas H; Junqueira, Mateus A F C; Spadoti, Danilo H

    2017-09-18

    A fully three-dimensional carpet cloak presenting invisibility in all viewing angles is theoretically demonstrated. The design is developed using transformation optics and three-dimensional quasi-conformal mapping. Parametrization strategy and numerical optimization of the coordinate transformation deploying a quasi-Newton method is applied. A discussion about the minimum achievable anisotropy in the 3D transformation optics is presented. The method allows to reduce the anisotropy in the cloak and an isotropic medium could be considered. Numerical simulations confirm the strategy employed enabling the design of an isotropic reflectionless broadband carpet cloak independently of the incident light direction and polarization.

  15. Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Pain Among Rural Hand-woven Carpet Weavers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Chaman

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: In home-based workshops of carpet weaving, psychosocial factors and physical loading were associated with MSP. This finding is consistent with studies conducted among other jobs. Considering the preventive programs, the same amount of attention should be paid to psychosocial risk factors and physical loading. Also, further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the relationship of psychological factors.

  16. A Summary--The Economics of Carpeting and Resilient Flooring. An Evaluation and Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, George M.

    Of use to those concerned with the economics of flooring selection and maintenance, this comparison may prove useful as an estimating guide in the preparation of cost estimates for any flooring area where economics is a factor in the choice of materials. All costs attributed to carpet or resilient flooring have been obtained either by survey or…

  17. An intelligent and interactive carpet role of design in a textile innovation project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, E.J.L.; Stouw, van der B.; Peutz, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing innovation project on the development of an intelligent and interactive carpet called PeR+, short for Perception Rug Plus. This design-research project is a collaboration between an international flooring company, DESSO, and the Department of Industrial Design at the

  18. Integration of value stream map and strategic layout planning into DMAIC approach to improve carpeting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Nagi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents an implementation of the Six Sigma DMAIC approach implementing lean tools and facilities layout techniques to reduce the occurrence of different types of nonconformities in the carpeting process. Such carpeting process can be found in several industries such as construction, aviation, and automotive. Design/methodology/approach: The improvement process was built through a sequential implementation of appropriate interconnected tools at each phase of the DMAIC approach. Utilized tools included: Pareto analysis, control charts, Ishikawa chart, 5-whys, failure mode and effect analysis, process capability ratio, value stream mapping, and strategic layout planning. Findings: The carpeting process capability, quality of the product, customer satisfaction, and cost of poor quality were significantly improved. Explicitly, the sigma level was improved from 2.297 to 2.886 and the defects per million opportunities (DPMO was reduced from 21615 to 3905. Originality/value: This paper has approved the capability of the Six Sigma DMAIC approach to analyze, investigate, and remove the root causes of the carpeting (preparation-installation process nonconformities .

  19. Integration of value stream map and strategic layout planning into DMAIC approach to improve carpeting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagi, A.; Altarazi, S.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an implementation of the Six Sigma DMAIC approach implementing lean tools and facilities layout techniques to reduce the occurrence of different types of nonconformities in the carpeting process. Such carpeting process can be found in several industries such as construction, aviation, and automotive. Design/methodology/approach: The improvement process was built through a sequential implementation of appropriate interconnected tools at each phase of the DMAIC approach. Utilized tools included: Pareto analysis, control charts, Ishikawa chart, 5-whys, failure mode and effect analysis, process capability ratio, value stream mapping, and strategic layout planning. Findings: The carpeting process capability, quality of the product, customer satisfaction, and cost of poor quality were significantly improved. Explicitly, the sigma level was improved from 2.297 to 2.886 and the defects per million opportunities (DPMO) was reduced from 21615 to 3905. Originality/value: This paper has approved the capability of the Six Sigma DMAIC approach to analyze, investigate, and remove the root causes of the carpeting (preparation-installation) process nonconformities.

  20. Working Conditions in Carpet Weaving Workshops and Muscu-loskeletal Complaints among Workers in Tabriz - Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Nazari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: Carpet weaving operations usualy involve poor working conditions that can lead to the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. This study investigated MSDs among car-pet weavers in relation to working conditions from workers' view in Tabriz City, Northwest Iran.Method: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in city of Tabriz, Iran. Data were col-lected using interviews and questionnaires. The study population consisted of 200 randomly selected healthy weavers from twenty five active carpet weaving workshops.Results: The results showed a high prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among the study population. The most commonly affected body areas were neck, lower back, ankles/feet, hands/wrists, upper back, shoulders and knees, respectively. More than half of the weavers were not satisfied with the thermal con-dition, noise level and cleanliness of the air in the workshops. The result indicated a significant relation-ship between upper back symptoms and daily working time and between lower back symptoms and the numbers of rows of knots woven in a day. Weavers' satisfaction with hand tools shape and thermal condi-tion of the workshops were associated with lower back symptoms, whereas satisfaction with weaving looms were associated with upper back complaints.Conclusion: The poor working condition of hand-woven carpet workshops such as environmental conditionsand work station design and tools should be the subject of ergonomics interventions.

  1. Characteristics Of Virgin And Pulled Wool Fibres Used In Tunisian Handmade Carpets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Harizi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors such as production methods fibre quality and structural parameters have distinctive influence on the quality and performance of a hand woven carpet. Because the most common fiber used for producing handmade carpet is wool this experiment was aimed to identify virgin and pulled wool characteristics of Tunisian sheep breeds. A total of 84 sheep and 15 samples of commercial pulled wool were used in this study. Samples of fiber were analyzed using standard objective measurements for staple length SL mean fiber diameter MFD coefficient of variation of fiber diameter FDCV fine fiber contain FC Breaking strength and Elongation. Results showed that Tunisian wool can be considered as medium wool. By conducting well-planned sorting Fine Queue of west sheep breed can supply the wool needed for textile industries. The wool of other sheep breeds can be used in handmade carpets. Also staple strength as one of the important wool characteristic affected significantly by alkali treatment during chemical unhairing process compared with wool collected by shearing process. Great attention must be paid to know the real characteristics of pulled wool before using it in handmade carpet industry.

  2. 77 FR 48505 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Flammability Standards for Carpets and Rugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... passing test results, then only one test per year is required. For purposes of estimating burden, we have... mail/hand delivery/courier (for paper, disk, or CD-ROM submissions), preferably in five copies, to... to perform each year varies, depending upon the number of carpet styles and the annual volume of...

  3. A rapid assessment of bonded labour in the carpet industry of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mueen Nasir, Zafar

    2004-01-01

    Based on field work in four provinces of Pakistan. Examines labour arrangements and working conditions in the carpet weaving industry and identifies the main characteristics of employers and workers. Investigates the prevalence of debt bondage in the industry and makes recommendations for action and research.

  4. 16 CFR 1631.61 - Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... normally used for that type of carpet or rug in service. (b) On February 10, 1972 (37 FR 3010) the Federal... 2″ in diameter and 9″ long composed of nonabsorbent material such as glass or plastic. (4) Select... remove all excess water and wrap around the operating applicator. (7) Immediately, with light pressure...

  5. 16 CFR 1630.61 - Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... normally used for that type of carpet or rug in service. (b) On February 10, 1972 (37 FR 3010) the Federal... 2″ in diameter and 9″ long composed of nonabsorbant material such as glass or plastic. (4) Select... remove all excess water and wrap around the operating applicator. (7) Immediately with light pressure...

  6. Integration of value stream map and strategic layout planning into DMAIC approach to improve carpeting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagi, A.; Altarazi, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an implementation of the Six Sigma DMAIC approach implementing lean tools and facilities layout techniques to reduce the occurrence of different types of nonconformities in the carpeting process. Such carpeting process can be found in several industries such as construction, aviation, and automotive. Design/methodology/approach: The improvement process was built through a sequential implementation of appropriate interconnected tools at each phase of the DMAIC approach. Utilized tools included: Pareto analysis, control charts, Ishikawa chart, 5-whys, failure mode and effect analysis, process capability ratio, value stream mapping, and strategic layout planning. Findings: The carpeting process capability, quality of the product, customer satisfaction, and cost of poor quality were significantly improved. Explicitly, the sigma level was improved from 2.297 to 2.886 and the defects per million opportunities (DPMO) was reduced from 21615 to 3905. Originality/value: This paper has approved the capability of the Six Sigma DMAIC approach to analyze, investigate, and remove the root causes of the carpeting (preparation-installation) process nonconformities.

  7. RAPID MONITORING BY QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR PATHOGENIC ASPERGILLUS DURING CARPET REMOVAL FROM A HOSPITAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring for pathogenic Aspergillus species using a rapid, highly sensitive, quantitative polumerase chain reaction technique during carpet removal in a burn unit provided data which allowed the patients to be safely returned to the re-floored area sooner than if only conventio...

  8. RAPID MONITORING BY QPCR FOR PATHOGENIC ASPERGILLUS DURING CARPET REMOVAL FROM A HOSPITAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring for pathogenic Aspergillus species using a rapid, highly sensitive, quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique during carpet removal in a burn unit provided data which allowed the patients to be safely returned to the re-floored area sooner than if only conventi...

  9. A study on effect of world trade organization on Iran's membership on export of Iranian handmade carpet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Golmeymi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available World Trade Organization (WTO has been established to facilitate fringe trade in the world and there are many studies associated with the effect of WTO membership on export of various countries. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effect of WTO membership on export of Iranian handmade carpet. The survey uses insights from 80 experts who have at least ten years of related job experiences in carpet industry by performing an expletory and using descriptive and quantitative method for analyzing the data. The results of the survey indicate that Iran's membership in WTO will most likely reduce the sales price of handmade carpet. In addition, Iran's membership in WTO will increase scientific and professional power in handmade carpet. It will also help industry get more exposure into international market.

  10. Female carpet weavers' visual acuity and effective factors: Fordu rural area of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khajenasiri F.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy vision of workers is one of the important elements in carpet weaving industry which has essential role in improving of the job quality and efficiency. Visual acuity is the primary outcome measure in most studies involving eye diseases. Ihe aim of this study was determination of visual acuity and its effective factors in women carpet weaver in fordu rural area of Qom has been investigated.  Methods: In a cross-sectional (descriptive-analytical study visual acuity of 177 women carpet weaver has been determined. Job hours per day, job history, age, literacy, trauma history, diabetes history, family history of eye diseases, eye diseases history and family size  of subjects were determined .Results: The results of study indicated that the right eyes visual acuity of 72.4 % of women were desirable (0 - 0.8 and 27.6 % were undesirable (0.9-1.2. These results for the left eyes were 69.5 % and 30.5 % respectively. In addition, the result showed that with increasing the job hours and history and age, percent of women with undesirable both eyes visual acuity were increased. With higher literacy levels, percent of women with undesirable both eyes visual acuity decreased. In subjects with truma history, the undesirable visual acuity was higher. In this study the relation between visual acuity and job history, age, literacy, truma history and eye diseases history were statistically significant (in all cases P<0.05.Conclusions: High percentage of women carpet weaver were in undesirable  visual acuity and in this study the relation between visual acuity and job history, age, literacy, trauma history and eye diseases history were statistically significant (in all cases P<0.05.

  11. Noise Induced Hearing Loss Among Cotton Textile and Carpet Mill Workers

    OpenAIRE

    ERTEM, Melikşah

    1998-01-01

    In industry increased mechanisation results in increased noise levels. Operation of textile machines carries a high risk of hearing loss. In this study the evaluation of textile worker's noise induced hearing loss was reviewed cross sectionally. The hearing of 260 textile workers exposed to noise levels between 85-95 dB(A) in carpet and cotton textile factories was assessed by means of air and bone conductance audiograms obtained. The subjects were grouped into five hearin...

  12. Shoulder girdle muscle activity and fatigue in traditional and improved design carpet weaving workstations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyari, Teimour; Mortazavi, Narges; Khalkhali, Hamid Reza; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulder regions are common among carpet weavers. Working for prolonged hours in a static and awkward posture could result in an increased muscle activity and may lead to musculoskeletal disorders. Ergonomic workstation improvements can reduce muscle fatigue and the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study is to assess and to compare upper trapezius and middle deltoid muscle activity in 2 traditional and improved design carpet weaving workstations. These 2 workstations were simulated in a laboratory and 12 women carpet weavers worked for 3 h. Electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded during work in bilateral upper trapezius and bilateral middle deltoid. The root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MF) values were calculated and used to assess muscle load and fatigue. Repeated measure ANOVA was performed to assess the effect of independent variables on muscular activity and fatigue. The participants were asked to report shoulder region fatigue on the Borg's Category-Ratio scale (Borg CR-10). Root mean square values in workstation A are significantly higher than in workstation B. Furthermore, EMG amplitude was higher in bilateral trapezius than in bilateral deltoid. However, muscle fatigue was not observed in any of the workstations. The results of the study revealed that muscle load in a traditional workstation was high, but fatigue was not observed. Further studies investigating other muscles involved in carpet weaving tasks are recommended. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY AND SECONDARY CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN A MCDOWELL'S CARPET PYTHON (MORELIA SPILOTA MCDOWELLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilliger, Lionel; Chetboul, Valérie; Damoiseaux, Cécile; Nicolier, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    Echocardiography is an established and noninvasive diagnostic tool used in herpetologic cardiology. Various cardiac lesions have been previously described in reptiles with the exception of restrictive cardiomyopathy. In this case report, restrictive cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure associated with left atrial and sinus venosus dilation were diagnosed in a 2-yr-old captive lethargic McDowell's carpet python ( Morelia spilota mcdowelli), based on echocardiographic, Doppler, and histopathologic examinations. This cardiomyopathy was also associated with thrombosis within the sinus venosus.

  14. Stories with and about wall carpets. An anthropological account on the inhabitation of Ursari Romanian Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Racleş

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the ways in which objects assist us in telling small stories about our positions in relation to our inhabited space, but also in relation to perceived dichotomised categories like us-others, the modern-the outmoded, civilized-backward. Acknowledging that narratives emerge from interactions between people, this paper is an attempt to show that an important role in the emergence of stories is played by interactions between people and objects. The wall carpets hung by Ursari Roma from a north-eastern Romanian town and the stories developed with and about these items constitute the main focus of this analysis. From an anthropological and material culture perspective, wall carpets are discussed as material presences in storytelling events and as objects of experience-centred stories that assist Roma people in negotiating and enacting their identities and belongings. Taking a cue from Georgakopoulou, who argues that narratives count on both discourses and activities (2007, home making practices and domestic activities (such as those related to the maintenance of the wall carpets are essential to this paper, as they enable an understanding of the “performative narrative of daily life” (Langellier 2004. The analysis is based on ethnographic material collected in 2014 in the aforementioned community, while the unit of analysis consists of excerpts from discussions with two Roma families, which became storytelling episodes.

  15. Assessment of Interior General and Local Lighting in Carpet Weaving Workshops in Bijar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Golmohamadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : The comfort lighting in the workplace provides employees visual health which can improve safety, visual comfort and enhance performance and product quality. The present study was conducted to evaluate general and local lighting in carpet weaving workshops in Bijar city . Methods : In this descriptive analytical study, 101 carpet weaving workshops were randomly selected. The illuminance were measured based on the models and formulas presented in Illuminating Engineering Society (IES using luxmeter model Hagner EC1 in height 76 cm from the ground surface. The local illuminances were measured in horizontal and vertical weaving level. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 16. Results : Research findings revealed the average of total and artificial illuminance level were 484.5±458.9 and 80.0±49.9 Lx respectively. Mean total, natural and artificial illuminance 39.6, 57.4 and 100 percent were lower the recommended 300 Lx levels. The average of minimum of local illuminance was less than 500 Lx in all workshops. Conclusion : About 60% of workrooms had the acceptable general illuminance levels in middle day. However, due to the insufficient lighting sources in workshops, the artificial illuminance levels are unsuitable. Therefore, it is necessary to improve general illuminance levels by reform and repair artificial lighting systems or redesign them in carpet weaving workrooms.

  16. Application of Geospatial Information System for the Study of Illuminance in Carpet Weaving Workshops in Bokan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Madjidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpet weaving is an occupation that requires sufficient and appropriate lighting. The lighting in carpet weaving workshops affects the productivity and the physical and mental health of workers. Therefore, the evaluation of the illumination and the identification of work stations requiring lighting modifications will be helpful in promotion of the health and safety of workers in carpet weaving workshops. Methods: This study was carried out for the evaluation of illumination on the basis of Geospatial Information System (GIS technology in two carpet weaving workshops of Bokan city. As per the norms of Illumination Engineering Society, the sensors of the photometer Testo 545 were placed at lowest and highest of 35 and 163 cm in workshop I, and at 40 and 245 cm in workshop II, which correspond to the lowest and highest work surfaces in the respective workshops. Total, natural, and artificial illuminance was measured in the center of each measurement station using the photometer, and data was analyzed using the Arc GIS software. The maximum and minimum illuminances as well as isolux curves were obtained for each workshop. Results: The illuminance in workshops I and II were found to be lower and higher, respectively, than 200 lux, which is considered the standard for carpet weaving workshops. Thus, improving the artificial lighting system or redesigning it is essential for ensuring that the standard conditions of illuminance (200–300 lux are provided. Discussion: This study showed that the application of GIS technology renders the assessment of illumination in carpet weaving workshops possible. This assessment method could also prove useful for determining the exact stations in the carpet weaving workshops that need modifications, thereby leading to cost reduction.

  17. Control of immature stages of the flea Ctenocephalides felis(Bouché in carpets exposed to cats treated with imidacloprid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Fleas cause allergic dermatitis in cats and dogs and therefore warrant control. It has been demonstrated previously that there is marked inhibition of the development of the immature stages of the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis on fleece blankets exposed to cats treated with imidacloprid. This study reports on the efficacy of imidacloprid in suppressing adult flea emergence in carpet exposed to treated cats. Circular discs of carpet pre-seeded with flea eggs and larvae were exposed to 6 untreated control and 6 topically treated (imidacloprid 10 % m/v cats 1 to 2 days after treatment and subsequently fortnightly for 6 weeks. Exposure times on alternate days were either 1 or 6 hours. Adult flea yield from carpets was determined 35 days after exposure. Differences between flea yield on control carpets and those exposed for 1 hour were significant only for days +1 and +14. For the 6-hour exposure, differences were significant at all times except on Day +43. The ability of imidacloprid to suppress the yield of adult fleas on carpets (6-hour exposure steadily declined from 82 % (Day +2 to 12 %(Day +43. For the 1-hour exposure it varied inconsistently between 0 and 83 % over the 6-week study period.

  18. Distribution pattern of 137Cs in carpets of the forest-moss Pleurozium schreiberi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, S.; Liden, K.

    1974-11-01

    The accumulation, retention and internal cycling of the fallout radionuclide 137 Cs (physical half-life = 30.2 a) has been studied in forest moss (Pleurozium schreberi) collected in southern Sweden (56.4 deg N, 14.3 deg E) during the period 1961-1973. The highest 137 Cs-concentrations have been found in the green top parts of the living plants. The study shows that a dominating part of the deposited 137 Cs is available for transport from dying to growing parts of the plants. The elimination of 137 Cs from living moss-plants as well as from dead modd during the period 1968-1973 can be characterized by the same mean residence time, (4 +- 1)a. The radionuclide 137 Cs and the naturally occurring stable element potassium show different behaviour in the moss vegetation, so that the 137 Cs/K-ratio is higher by a factor of approximately 2 in the dead parts of the moss than in the living parts. The vertical distribution of 137 Cs in the moss-covered ground has been studied down to a dry-mass depth of about 100 kg m -2 and can theoretically be described by a model which was earlier empirically deduced for lichen-covered ground (Mattsson, 1972). The relative penetration of 137 Cs is around five times higher in the ground covered by moss-carpets than in the ground covered by lichen-carpets. During the period 1969-1973, the total amount of 137 Cs retained in the moss-carpet was found to be 64.2 +- 2.2 nCi m -2 . (author)

  19. Rigorous spin-spin correlation function of Ising model on a special kind of Sierpinski Carpets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.R.

    1993-10-01

    We have exactly calculated the rigorous spin-spin correlation function of Ising model on a special kind of Sierpinski Carpets (SC's) by means of graph expansion and a combinatorial approach and investigated the asymptotic behaviour in the limit of long distance. The result show there is no long range correlation between spins at any finite temperature which indicates no existence of phase transition and thus finally confirms the conclusion produced by the renormalization group method and other physical arguments. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs

  20. An empirical study on the effect of WTO membership on Iranian Handicraft industry: A case study of Persian carpet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shirzour Aliabadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The world Trade Organization (WTO is one of the few organizations, which could significantly influence on foreign trade and consequently on the economic structure of the countries. There are literally different people in Iran who either encourage or discourage WTO membership. Therefore, it is important to analyze Iran’s WTO membership to empower Iranian handmade carpet in international trades and to help improvement in quality of production. The purpose of this research is to study the effects of Iran’s membership in WTO to empower this industry by performing an empirical survey among 100 experts in this industry. Findings demonstrate that access to WTO plays an important role on increasing production of handmade carpet and developing this industry. In addition, the industry needs to incorporate the recent advances on technology to ensure cost efficient production materials. The industry also needs more creative and innovative ideas due to an increase competition in handmade carpet producers from other countries.

  1. Automatic grading of appearance retention of carpets using intensity and range images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela Vargas, Sergio Alejandro; Ortiz-Jaramillo, Benhur; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Rooms, Filip; De Meulemeester, Simon; de Keyser, Robain; Van Langenhove, Lieva; Philips, Wilfried

    2012-04-01

    Textiles are mainly used for decoration and protection. In both cases, their original appearance and its retention are important factors for customers. Therefore, evaluation of appearance parameters are critical for quality assurance purposes, during and after manufacturing, to determine the lifetime and/or beauty of textile products. In particular, appearance retention of textile products is commonly certified with grades, which are currently assigned by human experts. However, manufacturers would prefer a more objective system. We present an objective system for grading appearance retention, particularly, for textile floor coverings. Changes in appearance are quantified by using linear regression models on texture features extracted from intensity and range images. Range images are obtained by our own laser scanner, reconstructing the carpet surface using two methods that have been previously presented. We extract texture features using a variant of the local binary pattern technique based on detecting those patterns whose frequencies are related to the appearance retention grades. We test models for eight types of carpets. Results show that the proposed approach describes the degree of wear with a precision within the range allowed to human inspectors by international standards. The methodology followed in this experiment has been designed to be general for evaluating global deviation of texture in other types of textiles, as well as other surface materials.

  2. Graphene Carbon Nanotube Carpets Grown Using Binary Catalysts for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra, Rodrigo Villegas; Zakhidov, Dante; Sha, Junwei; Kim, Nam Dong; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Zhao, Naiqin; Tour, James M

    2017-03-28

    Here we show that a versatile binary catalyst solution of Fe 3 O 4 /AlO x nanoparticles enables homogeneous growth of single to few-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) carpets from three-dimensional carbon-based substrates, moving past existing two-dimensional limited growth methods. The binary catalyst is composed of amorphous AlO x nanoclusters over Fe 3 O 4 crystalline nanoparticles, facilitating the creation of seamless junctions between the CNTs and the underlying carbon platform. The resulting graphene-CNT (GCNT) structure is a high-density CNT carpet ohmically connected to the carbon substrate, an important feature for advanced carbon electronics. As a demonstration of the utility of this approach, we use GCNTs as anodes and cathodes in binder-free lithium-ion capacitors, producing stable devices with high-energy densities (∼120 Wh kg -1 ), high-power density capabilities (∼20,500 W kg -1 at 29 Wh kg -1 ), and a large operating voltage window (4.3 to 0.01 V).

  3. Prediction of short-term and long-term VOC emissions from SBR bitumen-backed carpet under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Chen, Q.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents two models for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carpet. One is a numerical model using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tech-nique for short-term predictions, the other an analytical model for long-term predictions. The numerical model can (1) deal with

  4. The influence of temperature on the emission of volatile organic compounds from PVC flooring, carpet, and paint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, J.F. van der; Hoogeveen, A.W.; Wouda, P.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from four indoor materials was investigated in a small dynamic test chamber. The materials investigated were two carpets, a PVC flooring and a paint; the temperature range investigated was 23-50°C. The general

  5. An Inquiry-Oriented Approach to Span and Linear Independence: The Case of the Magic Carpet Ride Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawro, Megan; Rasmussen, Chris; Zandieh, Michelle; Sweeney, George Franklin; Larson, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an innovative instructional sequence for an introductory linear algebra course that supports students' reinvention of the concepts of span, linear dependence, and linear independence. Referred to as the Magic Carpet Ride sequence, the problems begin with an imaginary scenario that allows students to build rich imagery and…

  6. Production of activated carbons from waste carpets and its application in methylene blue adsorption: Kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hassan, A F.; Elhadidy, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2017), s. 955-963 ISSN 2213-3437 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Waste carpets * Activated carbons * Adsorption * Kinetic Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.)

  7. Exploitation of very small particles to enhance the probative value of carpet fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, David A; Neumann, Cedric; Mooney, Kim E; Wyatt, J Matney; Stoney, Paul L

    2015-07-01

    Environmentally acquired very small particles (VSP), present on the surfaces of carpet fibers, have shown potential for the association of fibers with their carpet source. To unlock this potential, research is required addressing a number of areas, including the application of methods under realistic casework conditions and the utilization of computational methods for the refinement and testing of the approach. In this work field collections of carpet fibers were conducted by crime scene practitioners under realistic casework conditions. VSP were isolated using previously developed methods, and analyses were conducted using SEM/EDS analytical protocols in an operational crime laboratory setting. Computational methods were designed, allowing sets of hundreds to thousands of VSP to be characterized. Classifiers were designed to associate and discriminate among specimens. These classifiers were applied to the VSP data for specimens collected by crime scene practitioners, as well as to a previously collected research dataset. Quantitative measures of correspondence and probative value were designed based on the classification measures and successfully applied to both sets of VSP data. Particle sets larger than 500 showed strong promise for quantitative associations with their sources. The use of larger numbers of target particle types (TPTs) showed strong promise to improve the performance of classification and association. Overall, the usefulness of VSP to provide objective, quantitative associations has been established. Because VSP are acquired post-manufacture, these methods can address fundamental limitations to probative value that arise when class characteristics, determined by manufacture, are shared among mass produced commodities. These findings are of broad significance for the future of trace evidence analysis. The results of this research are likely extendable, with minor modifications, to other trace evidence types (such as glass, tape and human hair

  8. Photonic crystal carpet: Manipulating wave fronts in the near field at 1.55 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, G.; Hofman, M.; Śmigaj, W.; Kadic, M.; Chang, T.-M.; Mélique, X.; Lippens, D.; Vanbésien, O.; Cluzel, B.; de Fornel, F.; Guenneau, S.; Gralak, B.

    2013-09-01

    Ground-plane cloaks, which transform a curved mirror into a flat one, and recently reported at wavelengths ranging from the optical to the visible spectrum, bring the realm of optical illusion a step closer to reality. However, all carpet-cloaking experiments have thus far been carried out in the far field. Here, we demonstrate numerically and experimentally that a dielectric photonic crystal (PC) of an irregular shape made of a honeycomb array of air holes can scatter waves in the near field like a PC with a flat boundary at stop band frequencies. This mirage effect relies upon a specific arrangement of dielectric pillars placed at the nodes of a quasiconformal grid dressing the PC. Our carpet is experimentally shown to flatten the scattered wave fronts of a PC with a bump throughout the range of wavelengths from 1520 to 1580 nm within the stop band extending from 1280 to 1940 nm. The device has been fabricated using a single-mask advanced nanoelectronics technique on III-V semiconductors and the near field measurements have been carried out in order to image the wave fronts’ curvatures around the telecommunication wavelength 1550 nm. Interestingly, comparisons of our near-field experimental results with full-wave simulations suggest the relatively low aspect ratio of the fabricated carpet (pillars have 200 nm diameter and 2 μm height) makes it inherently three dimensional. Moreover, this carpet is constrained to normal incidence. We therefore propose an elaborated design of the carpet (with pillars of varying radii) which should work at different angles of incidence.

  9. Acoustic carpet invisibility cloak with two open windows using multilayered homogeneous isotropic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Chun-Yu; Xiang Zhi-Hai; Cen Zhang-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    We present a method for designing an open acoustic cloak that can conceal a perturbation on flat ground and simultaneously meet the requirement of communication and matter interchange between the inside and the outside of the cloak. This cloak can be constructed with a multilayered structure and each layer is an isotropic and homogeneous medium. The design scheme consists of two steps: firstly, we apply a conformal coordinate transformation to obtain a quasi-perfect cloak with heterogeneous isotropic material; then, according to the profile of the material distribution, we degenerate this cloak into a multilayered-homogeneous isotropic cloak, which has two open windows with negligible disturbance on its invisibility performance. This may greatly facilitate the fabrication and enhance the applicability of such a carpet-type cloak. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. Spray-coated carbon nanotube carpets for creeping reduction of conducting polymer based artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simaite, Aiva; Delagarde, Aude; Tondu, Bertrand; Souères, Philippe; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Bergaud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    During cyclic actuation, conducting polymer based artificial muscles are often creeping from the initial movement range. One of the likely reasons of such behaviour is unbalanced charging during conducting polymer oxidation and reduction. To improve the actuation reversibility and subsequently the long time performance of ionic actuators, we suggest using spray-coated carbon nanotube (CNT) carpets on the surface of the conducting polymer electrodes. We show that carbon nanotubes facilitate a conducting polymer redox reaction and improve its reversibility. Consequently, in the long term, charge accumulation in the polymer film is avoided leading to a significantly improved lifetime performance during cycling actuation. To our knowledge, it is the first time a simple solution to an actuator creeping problem has been suggested.

  11. Magnetic Carpet Probe for Large Area Instant Crack/Corrosion Detection and Health Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yushi; Ouyang Tianhe; Yang Xinle; Zhu Haiou

    2007-01-01

    Recently a new NDE tool, Magnet Carpet Probe (MCP), has been developed by Innovative Materials Testing Technologies, Inc. supported by FAA to meet the demands of large area crack/corrosion detection and health monitoring. MCP is a two-dimensional coil array built on a piece of very thin flexible printed circuit board. A two-dimensional electromagnetic scan is going on within the MCP placed on top of a metallic surface under inspection. Therefore, one can finish the inspection, without moving anything, and see the crack/corrosion identification image on the instrument screen in a few second. Recent test results show that it can detect 0.030 x 0.016'' EDM notches on a Titanium standard; 0.024'' ∼ 0.036: real cracks on titanium standards, as well as penetrate through a 0.040'' aluminum layer for corrosion detection

  12. AHP 45: REVIEW: EARLY CARPETS AND TAPESTRIES ON THE EASTERN SILK ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Komppa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gloria Gonick’s book is the result of a series of detailed studies of some of the surviving Chinese Manichaean textiles, both in Japan and China.1 It has an ambitious composition and offers much more than the title announces. Less glamorous and more tribal than the many more studied luxury textiles, a mysterious group of thirty-six early painted tapestries and twenty-one carpets - all woolen - forms the focus of this study. They have been kept in Kyoto since the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, as part of the local Gion Festival floats' decorations and have until recently been understood as ink-painted tapestries from Korea and regional wool-pile carpets from western China. Indeed, the Japanese notion of the tapestries as Korean made perfect sense in so far as the Japanese having acquired them largely from Korea in centuries past.2 In this context, it is worthwhile to mention Thomas Cole, who argues for a change in focus on Tibetan rugs from the conventional references to both Chinese and Buddhist influence. Instead, he suggests that the Tibetan weaving tradition should be viewed in a Central Asian tribal context.1 Similarly, Gonick looks for the provenance beyond Korea and successfully traces all of these textiles back to Gansu in China. This new provenance is a significant contribution of her study. Another is contextualizing the textiles within the Manichaean religion and the material culture it gave rise to. It is these textiles, seen and understood at long last as Manichaean relics, and preserved in China and Japan, that are the subject of her book. ...

  13. In-plant demonstration of energy optimization in beck dyeing of carpet. Final report, June 1, 1979-January 1, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tincher, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Several energy-conservative technologies have been successfully combined and transferred to a commercial carpet finishing plant to optimize beck dyeing. The technology of bump-and-run, in which the dyebath temperature was allowed to drift for the last 85% of the hold time instead of being maintained by active steam sparging, reduced the energy consumption by 38% with negligible capital investment required. Merging of dyebath reuse with bump-and-run only marginally increased the energy consumption (to 39%), but substantially lowered the plant's finishing costs further by directly recycling dyes, auxiliary chemicals, and water. Final optimization, which merged a technique whereby the carpet was pulled directly from the hot bath with bump-and-run and dyebath reuse, further improved the economics by drastically reducing water/sewer requirements by 90% and eliminating the holding tank/pumping assembly as a reuse requirement. From a carpet industry viewpoint, the demonstrated modifications have a direct energy conservation potential of 2.4 x 10/sup 5/ barrels of oil equivalent per year assuming the technology is directly transferable to similar atmospheric dyeing processes, e.g., beck dyeing of nylon and polyester fabrics, the potential to the entire textile industry is 2.6 x 10/sup 6/ BOE/year. Economically, total potential savings for the carpet industry on reuse incorporation was $1.2 x 10/sup 7//year, based on a 2.3 cents/lb. savings figure. When the allied fabric industry was included, the national potential was raised to $1.0 x 10/sup 8//year. These figures include cost savings due to materials recycled (water, auxiliary chemicals and dyes) as well as energy conservation.

  14. OzPythonPlex: An optimised forensic STR multiplex assay set for the Australasian carpet python (Morelia spilota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavaglia, Sherryn; Linacre, Adrian

    2018-05-01

    Reptile species, and in particular snakes, are protected by national and international agreements yet are commonly handled illegally. To aid in the enforcement of such legislation, we report on the development of three 11-plex assays from the genome of the carpet python to type 24 loci of tetra-nucleotide and penta-nucleotide repeat motifs (pure, compound and complex included). The loci range in size between 70 and 550 bp. Seventeen of the loci are newly characterised with the inclusion of seven previously developed loci to facilitate cross-comparison with previous carpet python genotyping studies. Assays were optimised in accordance with human forensic profiling kits using one nanogram template DNA. Three loci are included in all three of the multiplex reactions as quality assurance markers, to ensure sample identity and genotyping accuracy is maintained across the three profiling assays. Allelic ladders have been developed for the three assays to ensure consistent and precise allele designation. A DNA reference database of allele frequencies is presented based on 249 samples collected from throughout the species native range. A small number of validation tests are conducted to demonstrate the utility of these multiplex assays. We suggest further appropriate validation tests that should be conducted prior to the application of the multiplex assays in criminal investigations involving carpet pythons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye through fungal co-culture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Simpal; Naraian, Ram

    2016-09-15

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of fungal co-culture for the decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye. For this purpose two lignocellulolytic fungi Pleurotus florida (PF) and Rhizoctonia solani (RS) were employed. The study includes determination of enzyme profiles (laccase and peroxidase), dye decolorization efficiency of co-culture and crude enzyme extracts. Both fungi produced laccase and Mn peroxidase and successfully decolorized solutions of different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, & 8.0(w/v) of dye. The co-culture resulted highest 98.54% dye decolorization at 2% (w/v) of dye as compared to monocultures (82.12% with PF and 68.89% with RS) during 12 days of submerged fermentation. The lower levels of dyes were rapidly decolorized, while higher levels in slow order as 87.67% decolorization of 8% dye. The promising achievement of the study was remarkable decolorizing efficiency of co-culture over monocultures. The direct treatment of the mono and co-culture enzyme extracts to dye also influenced remarkable. The highest enzymatic decolorization was through combined (PF and RS) extracts, while lesser by monoculture extracts. Based on the observations and potentiality of co-culture technology; further it can be exploited for the bioremediation of areas contaminated with hazardous environmental pollutants including textile and other industry effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated AHP and network DEA for assessing the efficiency of Iranian handmade carpet industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Omid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA is a method for measuring the efficiency of peer decision making units (DMUs. Traditional DEA models deal with measurements of relative efficiency of DMUs regarding multiple-inputs vs. multiple-outputs. One of the drawbacks of these models is the neglect of intermediate products or linking activities. Recently, DEA has been extended to examine the efficiency of network structures, where there are lots of sub-processes that are linked with intermediate parameters. These intermediate parameters can be considered as the outputs of the first stage and simultaneously as the inputs for the second stage. In contrast to the traditional DEA analysis, network DEA analysis aims to measure different sub-processes’ efficiencies in addition to the total efficiency. Lots of network DEA technique has been used recently, but none of them uses Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP in network DEA for assessing a network’s efficiency. In this paper, AHP methodology is used for considering the importance of each sub-process and network DEA is used for measuring total and partial efficiencies based on the importance of each department measured from AHP methodology. In this regard, the case of Iranian Handmade Carpet Industry (IHCI is used.

  17. The Geometry-Induced Superhydrophobic Property of Carpet-like Zinc Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Li-Xing; Deng Yuan; Wang Yao

    2013-01-01

    Carpet-like zinc films with unique nanowires are fabricated by using a simple physical evaporation method. The definite morphologies of the films endow the superhydrophobic material with a contact angle of about 157.9°, and by additional modification of CF 3 (CF 2 ) 7 CH 2 CH 2 Si(OCH 3 ) 3 the water adhesive force could be tuned from 58.3 μN to 14.6 μN. In order to analyze the controllable adhesion of superhydrophobic Zn films, we study the microstructure and chemical compositions of the films by x-ray diffraction SEM, TEM, HRTEM and EDAX. Furthermore, a model based on the balance of micro-surface energy is proposed to illustrate the relationship of the geometry and wettability properties of the films. The model provides new insights into how to design-oriented microchannels and micro-protuberance on material surfaces, which is of benefit for controlling their ability of caught-collection in air bubbles and water-pinning collection

  18. Space-Filling Supercapacitor Carpets: Highly scalable fractal architecture for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiliakos, Athanasios; Trefilov, Alexandra M. I.; Tanasǎ, Eugenia; Balan, Adriana; Stamatin, Ioan

    2018-04-01

    Revamping ground-breaking ideas from fractal geometry, we propose an alternative micro-supercapacitor configuration realized by laser-induced graphene (LIG) foams produced via laser pyrolysis of inexpensive commercial polymers. The Space-Filling Supercapacitor Carpet (SFSC) architecture introduces the concept of nested electrodes based on the pre-fractal Peano space-filling curve, arranged in a symmetrical equilateral setup that incorporates multiple parallel capacitor cells sharing common electrodes for maximum efficiency and optimal length-to-area distribution. We elucidate on the theoretical foundations of the SFSC architecture, and we introduce innovations (high-resolution vector-mode printing) in the LIG method that allow for the realization of flexible and scalable devices based on low iterations of the Peano algorithm. SFSCs exhibit distributed capacitance properties, leading to capacitance, energy, and power ratings proportional to the number of nested electrodes (up to 4.3 mF, 0.4 μWh, and 0.2 mW for the largest tested model of low iteration using aqueous electrolytes), with competitively high energy and power densities. This can pave the road for full scalability in energy storage, reaching beyond the scale of micro-supercapacitors for incorporating into larger and more demanding applications.

  19. µ-XRF Studies on the Colour Brilliance in Ancient Wool Carpets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Meyer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many handmade ancient and recent oriental wool carpets show outstanding brilliance and persistence of colour that is not achieved by common industrial dyeing procedures. Anthropologists have suggested the influence of wool fermentation prior to dyeing as key technique to achieve the high dyeing quality. By means of μ-XRF elemental mapping of mordant metals we corroborate this view and show a deep and homogenous penetration of colourants into fermented wool fibres. Furthermore we are able to apply this technique and prove that the fermentation process for ancient specimens cannot be investigated by standard methods due to the lack of intact cuticle layers. This finding suggests a broad range of further investigations that will contribute to a deeper understanding of the development of traditional dyeing techniques. Spectroscopic studies add information on the oxidation states of the metal ions within the respective mordant-dye-complexes and suggest a partial charge transfer as basis for a significant colour change when Fe mordants are used.

  20. Revision of Eocene Antarctic carpet sharks (Elasmobranchii, Orectolobiformes) from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, was once called the 'Rosetta Stone' of Southern Hemisphere palaeobiology, because this small island provides the most complete and richly fossiliferous Palaeogene sequence in Antarctica. Among fossil marine vertebrate remains, chondrichthyans seemingly were dominant elements in the Eocene Antarctic fish fauna. The fossiliferous sediments on Seymour Island are from the La Meseta Formation, which was originally divided into seven stratigraphical levels, TELMs 1-7 (acronym for Tertiary Eocene La Meseta) ranging from the upper Ypresian (early Eocene) to the late Priabonian (late Eocene). Bulk sampling of unconsolidated sediments from TELMs 5 and 6, which are Ypresian (early Eocene) and Lutetian (middle Eocene) in age, respectively, yielded very rich and diverse chondrichthyan assemblages including over 40 teeth of carpet sharks representing two new taxa, Notoramphoscyllium woodwardi gen. et sp. nov. and Ceolometlaouia pannucae gen. et sp. nov. Two additional teeth from TELM 5 represent two different taxa that cannot be assigned to any specific taxon and thus are left in open nomenclature. The new material not only increases the diversity of Eocene Antarctic selachian faunas but also allows two previous orectolobiform records to be re-evaluated. Accordingly, Stegostoma cf. faciatum is synonymized with Notoramphoscyllium woodwardi gen. et sp. nov., whereas Pseudoginglymostoma cf. brevicaudatum represents a nomen dubium . The two new taxa, and probably the additional two unidentified taxa, are interpreted as permanent residents, which most likely were endemic to Antarctic waters during the Eocene and adapted to shallow and estuarine environments.

  1. Efficacy of silver dihydrogen citrate and steam vapor against a human norovirus surrogate, feline calicivirus, in suspension, on glass, and carpet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David; Dharmasena, Muthu; Fraser, Angela; Pettigrew, Charles; Anderson, Jeffery; Jiang, Xiuping

    2018-04-06

    Carpets and other soft surfaces have been associated with prolonged and reoccurring human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks. Environmental hygiene programs are important to prevent and control HuNoV outbreaks. Despite our knowledge of HuNoV transmission via soft surfaces, no commercially available disinfectants have been evaluated on carpets. Our aim was to adapt a current standardized method for virucidal testing by assessing two disinfection technologies, silver dihydrogen citrate (SDC) and steam vapor, against one HuNoV surrogate, feline calicivirus (FCV), on wool and nylon carpets. First, we evaluated the effect of both technologies on appearance of carpet. Next, we evaluated the efficacy of SDC in suspension and the efficacy of SDC and steam vapor against FCV on a glass surface, each with and without serum. Lastly, we tested both technologies on two types of carpet, wool and nylon. Both carpets exhibited no obvious color changes; however, SDC treatments left a residue while steam vapor left minor abrasions to fibers. SDC in suspension and on glass reduced FCV by 4.65 and >4.66 log 10 pfu, respectively, but demonstrated reduced efficacy in the presence of serum. However, SDC was only efficacious against FCV on nylon (3.62 log 10 pfu reduction) and not wool (1.82 log 10 pfu reduction). Steam vapor reduced FCV by >4.93 log 10 pfu on glass in 10 sec and >3.68 log 10 pfu reduction on wool and nylon carpet carriers in 90 sec. There was limited reduction to FCV RNA under both treatments compared to infectivity assays but RNA reductions were higher in samples that contained serum. IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses (HuNoV) account for ca. 20% of all diarrheal cases worldwide. Disease symptoms may include diarrhea and vomit with both known to contribute to transmission. Prevention and control of HuNoV are difficult because they are environmentally resilient and resistant to many disinfectants. Several field studies have linked both hard and soft surfaces to HuNoV outbreaks

  2. Detecting cryptic speciation in the widespread and morphologically conservative carpet chameleon (Furcifer lateralis) of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, A M; Ingram, C M; Rakotondravony, H A; Louis, E E; Raxworthy, C J

    2012-07-01

    Species delimitation within recently evolved groups can be challenging because species may be difficult to distinguish morphologically. Following the General Lineage Concept, we apply a multiple evidence approach to assess species limits within the carpet chameleon Furcifer lateralis, which is endemic to Madagascar and exported in large numbers for the pet trade. Cryptic speciation within F. lateralis was considered likely because this species (1) has a vast distribution, (2) occupies exceptionally diverse habitats and (3) exhibits subtle regional differences in morphology. Phylogenetic trees reconstructed using nuclear and mitochondrial genes recovered three well-supported clades corresponding with geography. Morphological results based on canonical variates analysis show that these clades exhibit subtle differences in head casque morphology. Ecological niche modelling results found that these phylogenetic groups also occupy unique environmental space and exhibit patterns of regional endemism typical of other endemic reptiles. Combined, our findings provide diverse yet consistent evidence for the existence of three species. Consequently, we elevate the subspecies F. lateralis major to species rank and name a new species distributed in northern and western Madagascar. Initial ecological divergence, associated with speciation of F. lateralis in humid eastern habitat, fits the Ecographic Constraint model for species diversification in Madagascar. By contrast, the second speciation event provides some support for the Riverine Barrier model, with the Mangoky River possibly causing initial isolation between species. These findings thus support two contrasting models of speciation within closely related species and demonstrate the utility of applying a combined-evidence approach for detecting cryptic speciation. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. The environmental impact of the carpet chain in Belgium; De milieu-impact van de Belgische tapijtketen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijleveld, M.N.; Sevenster, M.N.

    2010-03-15

    Under the Belgian project 'Cooperation in the carpet chain around sustainable use of materials' is a comprehensive LCA study in which insight is obtained on three areas: (1) Impact of various polar materials, (2) Impact of various scenarios of disposal of the entire carpet, and (3) Relative impact of the links in the chain of the entire carpet. The chain is modeled in the LCA software programme SimaPro for which use is made of the Ecoinvent database and existing LCA studies, supplemented with data from literature. For the extraction / production of various polar materials the environmental impacts are identified. For other areas, the climate impact as the cumulative energy demand is a measure of the burden on the environment. [Dutch] In het kader van het Belgische project 'Samenwerking in de tapijtketen rond duurzaam materiaalgebruik' is een globale LCA studie uitgevoerd waarbij inzicht is verkregen op drie gebieden: (1) Impact van verscheidene poolmaterialen; (2) Impact van verscheidene scenario's van afvalverwerking van het volledige tapijt; en (3) Relatieve impact van de schakels in de keten van het volledige tapijt. De keten is gemodelleerd in het LCA softwareprogramma Simapro, waarbij gebruik is gemaakt van de EcoInvent database en bestaande LCA-studies, aangevuld met data uit literatuur. Voor de winning/productie van poolmaterialen zijn verscheidene milieu-effecten in kaart gebracht; voor de overige gebieden vormen klimaatimpact als de cumulatieve energievraag ('cumulative energy demand' CED) de maat voor de milieubelasting.

  4. The Carpets and Karma: The Resilient Story of the Tibetan Community in Two Settlements in India and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat Rao Pulla

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the Tibetan people in two settlements, mainly in Nepal and India. Tibetan ref- ugees started crossing the Himalayan range in April 1959, in the wake of the Dalai Lama’s flight into exile and landed mostly in Nepal and India. Tibetans around the world do not know their fu- ture nor do they appear unduly worried. Most of them appear resilient and hopeful to see a ‘free Tibet’ a dream closer to their hearts, someday in the future. In this paper, we delve at their deep association between their philosophy of life based on the principles of ‘karma’ and their everyday economic avocation of weaving ‘carpets’. We find that these people weave their lives around kar- ma and the carpets. Karma embodies their philosophical and spiritual outlook while carpets, mats and paintings symbolise their day-to-day struggles, enterprises to cope, survive, thrive and flour- ish. The ‘karma carpet’ symbolises their journey into the future. The Tibetans although a refugee group do not have the same rights and privileges comparable to other refugees living in the world decreed under the United Nations Conventions. In this paper, we present the socio-economic situ- ation of these refugees, their enterprise and their work ethic that makes them who they are in the Nepalese and in Indian societies. For this research, we have triangulated both desk studies and personal narratives from focus groups and interviews to present a discussion centred on the Ti- betan struggle for human rights and their entrepreneurship through the carpet industry mainly in Nepal and India.

  5. Long-term and transient time variation of cosmic ray fluxes detected in Argentina by CARPET cosmic ray detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mendonça, R. R. S.; Raulin, J.-P.; Bertoni, F. C. P.; Echer, E.; Makhmutov, V. S.; Fernandez, G.

    2011-07-01

    We present results obtained at El Leoncito (CASLEO, San Juan, Argentina) with the CARPET charged particles detector installed in April 2006. The observed modulation of the cosmic ray flux is discussed as a function of its time variability and it is related to longer solar activity variations and to shorter variations during solar and geomagnetic transient activity. Short period (few minutes, few hours) cosmic ray modulation events are observed during rain time (precipitation) and significant variations of the atmospheric electric field. Complementary observations of the atmospheric electric field indicate that its time variations play an important role in the detected cosmic ray event.

  6. Preliminary study on the gamma radiation on the furniture carpet beetle Anthrenus flavipes LeConte (Coleoptera : Dermestidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, B.Sh.; Khalaf, M.Z.; Jumaa, H.M.; Yasseen, N.H.; Al-Taweel, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary study on the possibility of using gamma radiation to induce sexual sterility in males of the furniture carpet beetle A. Flavipes was carried out as a part of programme aiming to use SIT in controlling this pest. Results indicated that the induction of complete sterility in males was occurred by irradiated them as adults (24 hours old) by 100, 130 and 150 Gy. Furthermore, Results also showed that there was reducing in average number eggs laid by female that mated with irradiated male in comparison with females that matted with normal males

  7. Evaluation of occupational exposure of carpet weavers in northern province of Madhya Pradesh (India) during different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Khursheed Ahmad; Khan, Rejvan; Mamta

    2015-01-01

    We investigated general working conditions in the carpet manufacturing industry and assessed the health risk factors of weavers working in this industry. Noise level, light intensity, temperature and humidity were measured with the help of sound level meter, lux meter and thermohygrometer, respectively at the workplace and the result were subjected to One Way Analysis of Variance. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among different weavers working in the carpet industry. Results indicated that the weavers in these units were exposed to extreme environmental conditions. The majority of these weavers were suffering from eye irritation, back pain, allergies, general weakness, hearing loss, with most workers having three to five of these health problems. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among weavers, during different season. A large variation during different seasons is an indication that environmental conditions play an important role in determining the health of weavers at the workplace. Results clearly demonstrate that working conditions were not suitable for the type of work carried out by the weavers.

  8. Innovative Basis of Research of Technologic Features of Some Craftsmanship Traditions of Ganja (On the Sample of Carpets of XIX Century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanov, Elnur L.

    2016-01-01

    The carpet production in Ganja took one of the leading handicraft activities since ancient times and still impresses with its high skill and the variety of colors, but there have been no widely studied the question of the creation technology of such representatives of cultural heritage. Scientific paper deals with the research of the basic…

  9. Follow-up study of workers in a nylon carpet yarn plant after remedial actions taken against a contaminated humidification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, TM; Groothoff, JW; Post, D; de Monchy, JGR

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of remedial actions taken against a contaminated humidification system, after an outbreak of humidifier disease in a nylon carpet yam plant. Methods: Two and 6 years after modification, a follow-up investigation of a strati tied (age, smoking habits)

  10. Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Identification and Recognition of Natural Dyes, Uncommon Dyestuff Components, and Mordants: Case Study of a 16th Century Carpet with Chintamani Motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Otłowska; Marek Ślebioda; Agata Kot-Wasik; Jakub Karczewski; Magdalena Śliwka-Kaszyńska

    2018-01-01

    A multi-tool analytical practice was used for the characterisation of a 16th century carpet manufactured in Cairo. A mild extraction method with hydrofluoric acid has been evaluated in order to isolate intact flavonoids and their glycosides, anthraquinones, tannins, and indigoids from fibre samples. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to spectroscopic and mass spectrometric detectors was used for the identification of possible marker compounds with special attention paid to natural...

  11. The Analysis Of Environmental Effects On The Design And Production Of Arts In Use, Based On Principles Of Human Geography (Case Study: Iranian Carpet)

    OpenAIRE

    Moghanipoor, Majidreza; Marasy, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The main topic of this article is recognition and analysis of influences of "Arts in use", as a human phenomenon (from a geographical viewpoint) and one of physical manifestations of culture ( from the environmental viewpoint). Accordingly, opinions and concepts related to this issue have been analyzed in the field of human geography science by an interdisciplinary approach and a descriptive-analytical methodology. Therefore, an "Iranian carpet" as a centerpiece of these studies d...

  12. Effect of repeated mowing to reduce graminoid plant cover on the moss carpet at a Sphagnum farm in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guêné-Nanchen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sphagnum farming is defined as the sustainable production of non-decomposed Sphagnum biomass on a cyclical and renewable basis. In this article, the influence and necessity of mowing graminoid plants to optimise Sphagnum growth in Sphagnum farming basins are examined. Repeated mowing was applied to reduce graminoid plant cover at two different stages of the production cycle (one-year-old and seven-year-old Sphagnum moss carpet at the beginning of the experiment at an experimental Sphagnum farm in eastern Canada. Sphagnum growth (cover, biomass, moss layer thickness was measured after three years of mowing. In addition, a greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine whether there is a threshold for graminoid plant cover beyond which mowing becomes necessary. Sphagnum cover and biomass were not affected by repeated mowing, even if mowing reduced the cover of graminoid plants. Thus, it appears that mowing is unnecessary if the dominant vascular species is a graminoid plant such as Eriophorum angustifolium, which accumulates minimal amounts of litter. Furthermore, high cover of Eriophorum angustifolium (up to 85 % did not affect Sphagnum cover in a density-controlled greenhouse experiment. When the specific goal is Sphagnum fibre production, decisions about control of graminoid plants should be made after considering the cover, life form and litter accumulation potentials of the dominant graminoid species involved.

  13. The Applicability of the Risk Analysis System in Tax Audit Effectiveness (A Sample Application on Gaziantep Carpet Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Ahmet UĞUR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tax audit which is an undeniable part of the correct collection of taxes covering a significant portion of public expenditure is increasingly important in our tax where the basis of the declaration is valid. The necessity of tax audit to be effective is accepted by everyone without a doubt, but the issue of efficiency in tax audit has always been a problem. The effectiveness of tax audit is increasingly important in terms of the fiscal policy of the country and therefore of general economic policy. Various options have been put forward on ways to improve the efficiency of tax audit. One of these options is the risk analysis method. Risk analysis is an activity in which taxpayer's activities are analyzed in terms of groups and sectors through the risk analysis system which is formed by collecting all kind of information data and statistics and it is the activity to identify risk areas in this way. In this sense this study addresses a sample application of the risk analysis system for the Gaziantep Carpet Sector.

  14. Broad electrical tuning of plasmonic nanoantennas at visible frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Thang B. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Mikkelsen, Maiken H., E-mail: m.mikkelsen@duke.edu [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2016-05-02

    We report an experimental demonstration of electrical tuning of plasmon resonances of optical nanopatch antennas over a wide wavelength range. The antennas consist of silver nanocubes separated from a gold film by a thin 8 nm polyelectrolyte spacer layer. By using ionic liquid and indium tin oxide coated glass as a top electrode, we demonstrate dynamic and reversible tuning of the plasmon resonance over 100 nm in the visible wavelength range using low applied voltages between −3.0 V and 2.8 V. The electrical potential is applied across the nanoscale gap causing changes in the gap thickness and dielectric environment which, in turn, modifies the plasmon resonance. The observed tuning range is greater than the full-width-at-half-maximum of the plasmon resonance, resulting in a tuning figure of merit of 1.05 and a tuning contrast greater than 50%. Our results provide an avenue to create active and reconfigurable integrated nanophotonic components for applications in optoelectronics and sensing.

  15. Navigation strategies as revealed by error patterns on the Magic Carpet test in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio eBelmonti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionShort-term memory develops differently in navigation vs. manual space. The Magic Carpet (MC is a novel navigation test derived from the Walking Corsi Test and the manual Corsi Block-tapping Task (CBT. The MC requires mental rotations and executive function. In Cerebral Palsy (CP, CBT and MC scores relate differently to clinical and lesional factors. Hypotheses of this study are: that frontal lesions specifically affect navigation in CP; that brain lesions affect MC cognitive strategies.Material and methodsTwenty-two children with spastic CP, aged 5 to 14 years, 14 with a unilateral and 8 with a bilateral form, underwent the CBT and the MC. Errors were classified into 7 patterns by a recently described algorithm. Brain lesions were quantified according to a novel semi-quantitative MRI scale. Control data were partially drawn from a previous study on 91 typically developing children.ResultsChildren with CP performed worse than controls on both tests. Right hemispheric impairment correlated with spatial memory. MC span was reduced less than CBT span and was more selectively related to right middle white-matter and frontal lesions. Error patterns were differently distributed in CP than in typical development and depended on right brain impairment: children with more extensive right lesions made more positional than sequential errors.DiscussionIn CP, navigation is affected only by extensive lesions involving the right frontal lobe. In addition, these are associated with abnormal cognitive strategies. Whereas in typical development positional errors, preserving serial order, increase with age and performance, in CP they are associated with poorer performance and more extensive right-brain lesions. The explanation may lie in lesion side: right brain is crucial for mental rotations, necessary for spatial updating. Left-lateralized spatial memory strategies, relying on serial order, are not efficient if not accompanied by right-brain spatial

  16. Towards all-dielectric, polarization-independent optical cloaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Mortensen, N. Asger; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Fully enclosing, all-dielectric cloaks working for both E-z and H-z polarizations simultaneously are presented in this letter. The cloaks are effective for two antiparallel angles of incidence, and the layout of standard dielectric material in the cloak is determined by topology optimization. Sca...... effectively when distributing a material with lower permittivity than the background material....

  17. Highly stable polarization independent Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mičuda, Michal, E-mail: micuda@optics.upol.cz; Doláková, Ester; Straka, Ivo; Miková, Martina; Dušek, Miloslav; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Ježek, Miroslav, E-mail: jezek@optics.upol.cz [Department of Optics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    We experimentally demonstrate optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer utilizing displaced Sagnac configuration to enhance its phase stability. The interferometer with footprint of 27×40 cm offers individually accessible paths and shows phase deviation less than 0.4° during a 250 s long measurement. The phase drift, evaluated by means of Allan deviation, stays below 3° or 7 nm for 1.5 h without any active stabilization. The polarization insensitive design is verified by measuring interference visibility as a function of input polarization. For both interferometer's output ports and all tested polarization states the visibility stays above 93%. The discrepancy in visibility for horizontal and vertical polarization about 3.5% is caused mainly by undesired polarization dependence of splitting ratio of the beam splitter used. The presented interferometer device is suitable for quantum-information and other sensitive applications where active stabilization is complicated and common-mode interferometer is not an option as both the interferometer arms have to be accessible individually.

  18. Polarization-independent nematic liquid crystal waveguides for optofluidic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Alessandro, A.; Martini, L.; Gilardi, G.; Beccherelli, R.; Asquini, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present the fabrication and the characterization of waveguides made of a nematic liquid crystal infiltrated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) channels. They are made by means of cast and molding technique and patterned using soft photolithography. The orientation of the nematic liquid crystal molecules

  19. The “Carpet-3” air shower array to search for diffuse gamma rays with energy Eγ>100TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhappuev, D. D.; I, V. B. Petkov V.; Kudzhaev, A. U.; Lidvansky, A. S.; Volchenko, V. I.; Volchenko, G. V.; Gorbacheva, E. A.; Dzaparova, I. M.; Klimenko, N. F.; Kurenya, A. N.; Mikhilova, O. I.; Khadzhiev, M. M.; Yanin, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    At present an experiment for measuring the flux of cosmic diffuse gamma rays with energy higher than 100 TeV (experiment “Carpet-3”) is being prepared at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences. The preparation of the experiment implies considerable enlargement of the area of both muon detector and surface part of the shower array. At the moment the plastic scintillation counters with a total continuous area of 410 m2 are installed in the muon detector (MD) underground tunnels, and they are totally equipped with electronics. Adjusting of the counters and their electronic circuits is in progress. Six modules of shower detectors (out of twenty planned to be installed) have already been placed on the surface of the MD absorber. A new liquid scintillation detector is developed for modules of the ground -surface part of the array, whose characteristics are presented. It is shown that the “Carpet-3” air shower array will have the best sensitivity to the flux of primary gamma rays with energies in the range 100TeV - 1PeV, being quite competitive in gamma-ray astronomy at such energies.

  20. Household vacuum cleaners vs. the high-volume surface sampler for collection of carpet dust samples in epidemiologic studies of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buffler Patricia A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of pesticides and other compounds in carpet dust can be useful indicators of exposure in epidemiologic studies, particularly for young children who are in frequent contact with carpets. The high-volume surface sampler (HVS3 is often used to collect dust samples in the room in which the child had spent the most time. This method can be expensive and cumbersome, and it has been suggested that an easier method would be to remove dust that had already been collected with the household vacuum cleaner. However, the household vacuum integrates exposures over multiple rooms, some of which are not relevant to the child's exposure, and differences in vacuuming equipment and practices could affect the chemical concentration data. Here, we compare levels of pesticides and other compounds in dust from household vacuums to that collected using the HVS3. Methods Both methods were used in 45 homes in California. HVS3 samples were collected in one room, while the household vacuum had typically been used throughout the home. The samples were analyzed for 64 organic compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, using GC/MS in multiple ion monitoring mode; and for nine metals using conventional microwave-assisted acid digestion combined with ICP/MS. Results The methods agreed in detecting the presence of the compounds 77% to 100% of the time (median 95%. For compounds with less than 100% agreement, neither method was consistently more sensitive than the other. Median concentrations were similar for most analytes, and Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.60 or higher except for allethrin (0.15 and malathion (0.24, which were detected infrequently, and benzo(kfluoranthene (0.55, benzo(apyrene (0.55, PCB 105 (0.54, PCB 118 (0.54, and PCB 138 (0.58. Assuming that the HVS3 method is the "gold standard," the extent to which the household vacuum cleaner method yields relative risk

  1. Effectiveness of house dust mite acaricide tri-n-butyl tin maleate on carpets, fabrics and mattress foam: a standardization of methodology Eficácia do acaricida maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico contra ácaros de poeira em carpetes, tecidos e espuma de colchão: padronização de metodologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satiko Uehara

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the acaricide tri-n-butyl tin maleate, industrially applied to samples of carpets, mattress foam, and fabrics used for furniture upholstery, soft toys and shoe uppers. Approximately 100 adult house dust mites of the species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were inoculated into a Petri dish containing the sample (a piece of carpet, mattress foam, or fabric, treated with the acaricide, randomly collected. Mite-maintenance culture medium was added on top of each sample. After one, two, three, seven and 30 days of incubation at 25 ºC and 75% relative humidity, each dish was examined using a 40X stereoscopic microscope (40X. One hundred percent acaricide effectiveness was obtained in treated materials by the end of the 30th-day postinoculation period, under optimal conditions for mite maintenance.O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a eficácia do acaricida maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico, aplicado industrialmente em amostras de carpetes, tecidos de revestimentos de móveis e de calçados, assim como de espumas de colchão. Aproximadamente 100 ácaros adultos da espécie Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus foram inoculados em placa de Petri contendo a amostra (pedaço de colchão, tecido ou carpete, tratada com o produto acaricida, coletados aleatoriamente. Foi acrescentado sobre a amostra, meio de cultivo para a manutenção dos ácaros. Cada placa foi examinada após 1, 2, 3, 7 e 30 dias de incubação a 25 ºC e 75% de U.R.A. (umidade relativa do ar, sob microscópio estereoscópico com 40X de aumento. O acaricida maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico apresentou 100% de eficácia acaricida após 30 dias da aplicação, em condições ótimas para a manutenção dos ácaros.

  2. Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Identification and Recognition of Natural Dyes, Uncommon Dyestuff Components, and Mordants: Case Study of a 16th Century Carpet with Chintamani Motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otłowska, Olga; Ślebioda, Marek; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Karczewski, Jakub; Śliwka-Kaszyńska, Magdalena

    2018-02-06

    A multi-tool analytical practice was used for the characterisation of a 16th century carpet manufactured in Cairo. A mild extraction method with hydrofluoric acid has been evaluated in order to isolate intact flavonoids and their glycosides, anthraquinones, tannins, and indigoids from fibre samples. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to spectroscopic and mass spectrometric detectors was used for the identification of possible marker compounds with special attention paid to natural dyes present in the historical samples. Weld, young fustic, and soluble redwood dye were identified as the dye sources in yellow thread samples. Based on the developed method, it was possible to establish that red fibres were coloured with lac dye, whereas green fibre shades were obtained with indigo and weld. Tannin-containing plant material in combination with indigo and weld were used to obtain the brown hue of the thread. Hyphenation of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) and triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ MS) enabled us to recognise four uncommon and thus-far unknown dye components that were also found in the historical samples. These compounds probably represent a unique fingerprint of dyed threads manufactured in a Turkish workshop. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used for the identification and characterisation of substrates and mordants present in the historical carpet. Carbon and oxygen were detected in large quantities as a part of the wool protein. The presence of aluminium, iron, and calcium indicated their usage as mordants. Trace amounts of copper, silica, and magnesium might originate from the contaminants. FT-IR analysis showed bands characteristic for woollen fibres and SEM micrographs defined the structure of the wool.

  3. Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Identification and Recognition of Natural Dyes, Uncommon Dyestuff Components, and Mordants: Case Study of a 16th Century Carpet with Chintamani Motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Otłowska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A multi-tool analytical practice was used for the characterisation of a 16th century carpet manufactured in Cairo. A mild extraction method with hydrofluoric acid has been evaluated in order to isolate intact flavonoids and their glycosides, anthraquinones, tannins, and indigoids from fibre samples. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to spectroscopic and mass spectrometric detectors was used for the identification of possible marker compounds with special attention paid to natural dyes present in the historical samples. Weld, young fustic, and soluble redwood dye were identified as the dye sources in yellow thread samples. Based on the developed method, it was possible to establish that red fibres were coloured with lac dye, whereas green fibre shades were obtained with indigo and weld. Tannin-containing plant material in combination with indigo and weld were used to obtain the brown hue of the thread. Hyphenation of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS and triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ MS enabled us to recognise four uncommon and thus-far unknown dye components that were also found in the historical samples. These compounds probably represent a unique fingerprint of dyed threads manufactured in a Turkish workshop. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR were used for the identification and characterisation of substrates and mordants present in the historical carpet. Carbon and oxygen were detected in large quantities as a part of the wool protein. The presence of aluminium, iron, and calcium indicated their usage as mordants. Trace amounts of copper, silica, and magnesium might originate from the contaminants. FT-IR analysis showed bands characteristic for woollen fibres and SEM micrographs defined the structure of the wool.

  4. Randomised controlled double-blind non-inferiority trial of two antivenoms for saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus envenoming in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa S Abubakar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom (ISRCTN01257358. METHODS: In a randomised, double-blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial, "EchiTAb Plus-ICP" (ET-Plus equine antivenom made by Instituto Clodomiro Picado was compared to "EchiTAb G" (ET-G ovine antivenom made by MicroPharm, which is the standard of care in Nigeria and was developed from the original EchiTAb-Fab introduced in 1998. Both are caprylic acid purified whole IgG antivenoms. ET-G is monospecific for Echis ocellatus antivenom (initial dose 1 vial and ET-Plus is polyspecific for E. ocellatus, Naja nigricollis and Bitis arietans (initial dose 3 vials. Both had been screened by pre-clinical and preliminary clinical dose-finding and safety studies. Patients who presented with incoagulable blood, indicative of systemic envenoming by E. ocellatus, were recruited in Kaltungo, north-eastern Nigeria. Those eligible and consenting were randomly allocated with equal probability to receive ET-Plus or ET-G. The primary outcome was permanent restoration of blood coagulability 6 hours after the start of treatment, assessed by a simple whole blood clotting test repeated 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 hr after treatment. Secondary (safety outcomes were the incidences of anaphylactic, pyrogenic and late serum sickness-type antivenom reactions. FINDINGS: Initial doses permanently restored blood coagulability at 6 hours in 161/194 (83.0% of ET-Plus and 156/206 (75.7% of ET-G treated patients (Relative Risk [RR] 1.10 one-sided 95% CI lower limit 1.01; P = 0.05. ET-Plus caused early reactions on more occasions than did ET-G [50/194 (25.8% and 39/206 (18.9% respectively RR (1.36 one-sided 95% CI 1.86 upper limit; P = 0.06. These reactions were classified as severe in 21 (10.8% and 11 (5.3% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: At these doses, ET-Plus was

  5. Visible-Frequency Metasurface for Structuring and Spatially Multiplexing Optical Vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, M Q; Mei, Shengtao; Hussain, Sajid; Huang, Kun; Siew, S Y; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Tianhang; Ling, Xiaohui; Liu, Hong; Teng, Jinghua; Danner, Aaron; Zhang, Shuang; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2016-04-06

    A multifocus optical vortex metalens, with enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, is presented, which focuses three longitudinal vortices with distinct topological charges at different focal planes. The design largely extends the flexibility of tuning the number of vortices and their focal positions for circularly polarized light in a compact device, which provides the convenience for the nanomanipulation of optical vortices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Broadband polarization-independent and low-profile optically transparent metamaterial absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Xi, Rui; Liu, Haixia; Lv, Zhiyong

    2018-05-01

    A transparent metamaterial absorber with simultaneously high optical transparency and broadband microwave absorption is presented in this paper. Consisting of a two-layer soda-lime glass substrate and three-layer patch-shaped indium tin oxide (ITO) films, the proposed absorber has advantages of broadband absorption with an absorptivity higher than 85% in the range from 6.1 to 22.1 GHz, good polarization insensitiveness, a high transparency, a low profile, and wide-incident-angle stability. A prototype of the proposed absorber is fabricated and experimentally measured to demonstrate its excellent performance. The measured results agree well with the theoretical design and numerical simulations.

  7. Thermally tunable broadband omnidirectional and polarization-independent super absorber using phase change material VO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhejun Liu

    Full Text Available In this letter, we numerically demonstrate a thermally tunable super absorber by using phase change material VO2 as absorbing layer in metal-insulator-metal structure. An omnidirectional super absorption at λ=2.56μm can be realized by heating the patterned grating VO2 film due to magnetic resonance mechanism. Furthermore, a broadband super absorption higher than 0.8 in the entire 1.6μm–4μm region is achieved when VO2 film is patterned chessboard structure and transformed to metal phase beyond transition temperature. This broadband super absorption can be fulfilled in a wide range of incident angle (0°–70° and under all polarization conditions. Keywords: Phase change material, Metal-insulator-metal, Super absorption, Magnetic resonance

  8. Design, simulation, and optimization of an RGB polarization independent transmission volume hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Adoum Hassan

    Volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings have been designed for use in many areas of science and technology such as optical communication, medical imaging, spectroscopy and astronomy. The goal of this dissertation is to design a volume phase holographic grating that provides diffraction efficiencies of at least 70% for the entire visible wavelengths and higher than 90% for red, green, and blue light when the incident light is unpolarized. First, the complete design, simulation and optimization of the volume hologram are presented. The optimization is done using a Monte Carlo analysis to solve for the index modulation needed to provide higher diffraction efficiencies. The solutions are determined by solving the diffraction efficiency equations determined by Kogelnik's two wave coupled-wave theory. The hologram is further optimized using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis to correct for effects of absorption omitted by Kogelnik's method. Second, the fabrication or recording process of the volume hologram is described in detail. The active region of the volume hologram is created by interference of two coherent beams within the thin film. Third, the experimental set up and measurement of some properties including the diffraction efficiencies of the volume hologram, and the thickness of the active region are conducted. Fourth, the polarimetric response of the volume hologram is investigated. The polarization study is developed to provide insight into the effect of the refractive index modulation onto the polarization state and diffraction efficiency of incident light.

  9. Red carpet for CERN's 50th

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Scientists, heads of state, and representatives from many countries came to CERN's Official 50th Anniversary Ceremony 19 October to celebrate the Organization's 50th anniversary, and to praise its contributions to human knowledge while also fostering cooperation between scientists and their countries, across Europe and beyond.

  10. Carpet Aids Learning in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The Healthy and High Performance Schools Act of 2002 has set specific federal guidelines for school design, and developed a federal/state partnership program to assist local districts in their school planning. According to the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), high-performance schools are, among other things, healthy, comfortable,…

  11. A Magic Carpet Trip to Learning Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Billie M.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a series of hands-on activities for teaching about continents and oceans. Includes projects on (1) why earth is the blue planet; (2) continent names, shapes, and locations; and (3) continental drift. Discusses use of poetry, music games, mathematics, and science to interest students. Suggests ending with using maps in following directions…

  12. Role of Magnetic Carpet in Coronal Heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... One of the fundamental questions in solar physics is how the solar corona maintains its high temperature of several million Kelvin above photosphere with a temperature of 6000 K. Observations show that solar coronal heating problem is highly complex with many different facts. It is likely that different ...

  13. NIR to visible frequency upconversion in Er3+ and Yb3+ codoped ZrO2 phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vijay; Kim, Sang Hwan; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Al-Shamery, Katharina; Haase, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The ZrO 2 :Er 3+ codoped with Yb 3+ phosphor powders have been prepared by the urea combustion route. Formation of the compounds ZrO 2 :Er 3+ and ZrO 2 :Er 3+ , Yb 3+ was confirmed by XRD. The frequency upconversion emissions in the green and red regions upon excitation with a CW diode laser at ∝978 nm are reported. Codoping with Yb 3+ enhances the emission intensities of the triply ionized erbium in the green and red spectral regions by about ∝130 and ∝820 times respectively. The emission properties of the ZrO 2 :Er 3+ phosphor powders are discussed on the basis of excited state absorption, energy transfer, and cross-relaxation energy transfer mechanisms. (orig.)

  14. A polarization independent electromagnetically induced transparency-like metamaterial with large group delay and delay-bandwidth product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Fulya; Akaoglu, Baris

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) that is completely independent of the polarization direction of the incident waves is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The unit cell of the employed planar symmetric metamaterial structure consists of one square ring resonator and four split ring resonators (SRRs). Two different designs are implemented in order to achieve a narrow-band and wide-band EIT-like response. In the unit cell design, a square ring resonator is shown to serve as a bright resonator, whereas the SRRs behave as a quasi-dark resonator, for the narrow-band (0.55 GHz full-width at half-maximum bandwidth around 5 GHz) and wide-band (1.35 GHz full-width at half-maximum bandwidth around 5.7 GHz) EIT-like metamaterials. The observed EIT-like transmission phenomenon is theoretically explained by a coupled-oscillator model. Within the transmission window, steep changes of the phase result in high group delays and the delay-bandwidth products reach 0.45 for the wide-band EIT-like metamaterial. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the bandwidth and group delay of the EIT-like band can be controlled by changing the incidence angle of electromagnetic waves. These features enable the proposed metamaterials to achieve potential applications in filtering, switching, data storing, and sensing.

  15. Exogenous Attentional Capture by Subliminal Abrupt-Onset Cues: Evidence from Contrast-Polarity Independent Cueing Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, I.; Theeuwes, J.; Ansorge, U.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we tested whether subliminal abrupt-onset cues capture attention in a bottom-up or top-down controlled manner. For our tests, we varied the searched-for target-contrast polarity (i.e., dark or light targets against a gray background) over four experiments. In line with the

  16. NIR to visible frequency upconversion in Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} codoped ZrO{sub 2} phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Vijay; Kim, Sang Hwan [Konkuk University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rai, Vineet Kumar [Indian School of Mines, Department of Applied Physics, Dhanbad (India); Al-Shamery, Katharina [University of Oldenburg, Physical Chemistry, Institute for Pure and Applied Chemistry and Center of Interface Science, Oldenburg (Germany); Haase, Markus [University of Osnabrueck, Department of Inorganic Chemistry I-Materials Research, Institute of Chemistry, Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    The ZrO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+} codoped with Yb{sup 3+} phosphor powders have been prepared by the urea combustion route. Formation of the compounds ZrO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+} and ZrO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+} was confirmed by XRD. The frequency upconversion emissions in the green and red regions upon excitation with a CW diode laser at {proportional_to}978 nm are reported. Codoping with Yb{sup 3+} enhances the emission intensities of the triply ionized erbium in the green and red spectral regions by about {proportional_to}130 and {proportional_to}820 times respectively. The emission properties of the ZrO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+} phosphor powders are discussed on the basis of excited state absorption, energy transfer, and cross-relaxation energy transfer mechanisms. (orig.)

  17. Floating Carpets and the Delamination of Elastic Sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Vella, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    determine the initial blister size and the evolution of blister size with continuing compression before verifying our theoretical results with experiments at a macroscopic scale. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  18. modified edge fed sierpinski carpet miniaturized microstrip patch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-07-03

    Jul 3, 2016 ... growth recorded by wireless communication is the antenna. Antenna ... transmission cannot be carried out without the use of an antenna. Low cost and ..... for electromagnetic. EM energy scavenging,” Proceedings of the 34th.

  19. Floating Carpets and the Delamination of Elastic Sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J. W.

    2011-07-22

    We investigate the deformation of a thin elastic sheet floating on a liquid surface and subject to a uniaxial compression. We show that at a critical compression the sheet delaminates from the liquid over a finite region forming a delamination "blister." This blistering regime adds to the wrinkling and localized folding regimes that have been studied previously. The transition from wrinkled to blistered states occurs when delamination becomes energetically favorable compared with wrinkling. We determine the initial blister size and the evolution of blister size with continuing compression before verifying our theoretical results with experiments at a macroscopic scale. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  20. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbeld, A.; Klemm, O.; Grießbaum, F.; Sträter, E.; Larrain, H.; Osses, P.; Cereceda, P.

    2009-09-01

    In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m-2 of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m-2. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i) deposition of water to the desert, and (ii) intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog.

  1. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbeld, A.; Klemm, O.; Griessbaum, F.; Straeter, E. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Landscape Ecology; Larrain, H. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile (Chile). Atacama Desert Center ADC; Univ. Bolivariana, Iquique (Chile); Osses, P.; Cereceda, P. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago de Chile (Chile). Inst. of Geography

    2009-07-01

    In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m{sup -2} of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m{sup -2}. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i) deposition of water to the desert, and (ii) intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog. (orig.)

  2. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Osses

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m−2 of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m−2. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i deposition of water to the desert, and (ii intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog.

  3. Wide Angle of Incidence-Insensitive Polarization-Independent THz Metamaterial Absorber for Both TE and TM Mode Based on Plasmon Hybridizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Tao Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-wide-angle THz metamaterial absorber (MA utilizing sixteen-circular-sector (SCR resonator for both transverse electric (TE and transverse magnetic (TM mode is designed and investigated numerically. At normal incidence, the absorptivity of the proposed MA is higher than 93.7% at 9.05 THz for different polarization angles, due to the rotational symmetry structure of the unit cell. Under oblique incidence, the absorptivity can still exceed 90%, even when the incident angle is up to 70° for both TE and TM mode. Especially, the frequency variation in TE mode is less than 0.25% for different incident angles from 0° to 70°. The electric field (Ez distributions are used to explain the absorption mechanism. Numerical simulation results show that the high absorption with wide-angle independence stems from fundamental dipole resonance and gap surface plasmons. The broadband deep-infrared MA is also obtained by stacking three metal-dielectric layers. The designed MA has great potential in bolometric pixel elements, biomedical sensors, THz imaging, and solar cells.

  4. Carpet or Carcel: The Effect of Age of Acquisition and Language Mode on Bilingual Lexical Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta; Brehm, Laurel; Brick, Cameron A.; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Fischer, Kara; Wagner, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Lexical access was examined in English-Spanish bilinguals by monitoring eye fixations on target and lexical competitors as participants followed spoken instructions in English to click on one of the objects presented on a computer (e.g., "Click on the beans"). Within-language lexical competitors had a phoneme onset in English that was shared with…

  5. Economic instruments for environmental protection: Can we trust the 'magic carpet'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Huitema, D.

    1999-01-01

    Economic instruments appear at first to be a promising alternative to regulations as instruments of environmental policy. Because they put market forces to work for the goal of a sustainable society, they are often portrayed as achieving goals at much lower costs. In this sense, economic instruments

  6. Economic instruments for environmental protection : Can we trust the "magic carpet"?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Hans Th A.; Huitema, Dave

    Economic instruments appear at first to be a promising alternative to regulations as instruments of environmental policy. Because they put market forces to work for the goal of a sustainable society, they are often portrayed as achieving goals at much lower costs. In this sense, economic instruments

  7. Full-Carpet Design of a Low-Boom Demonstrator Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz, Irian; Wintzer, Mathias; Rallabhandi, Sriram K.

    2015-01-01

    The Cart3D adjoint-based design framework is used to mitigate the undesirable o -track sonic boom properties of a demonstrator concept designed for low-boom directly under the flight path. First, the requirements of a Cart3D design mesh are determined using a high-fidelity mesh adapted to minimize the discretization error of the CFD analysis. Low-boom equivalent area targets are then generated at the under-track and one off-track azimuthal position for the baseline configuration. The under-track target is generated using a trim- feasible low-boom target generation process, ensuring that the final design is not only low-boom, but also trimmed at the specified flight condition. The o -track equivalent area target is generated by minimizing the A-weighted loudness using an efficient adjoint-based approach. The configuration outer mold line is then parameterized and optimized to match the off-body pressure distributions prescribed by the low-boom targets. The numerical optimizer uses design gradients which are calculated using the Cart3D adjoint- based design capability. Optimization constraints are placed on the geometry to satisfy structural feasibility. The low-boom properties of the final design are verified using the adaptive meshing approach. This analysis quantifies the error associated with the CFD mesh that is used for design. Finally, an alternate mesh construction and target positioning approach offering greater computational efficiency is demonstrated and verified.

  8. Embedded arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotube carpets and methods for making them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Jong; Nicholas, Nolan Walker; Kittrell, W. Carter; Schmidt, Howard K.

    2015-06-30

    According to some embodiments, the present invention provides a system and method for supporting a carbon nanotube array that involve an entangled carbon nanotube mat integral with the array, where the mat is embedded in an embedding material. The embedding material may be depositable on a carbon nanotube. A depositable material may be metallic or nonmetallic. The embedding material may be an adhesive material. The adhesive material may optionally be mixed with a metal powder. The embedding material may be supported by a substrate or self-supportive. The embedding material may be conductive or nonconductive. The system and method provide superior mechanical and, when applicable, electrical, contact between the carbon nanotubes in the array and the embedding material. The optional use of a conductive material for the embedding material provides a mechanism useful for integration of carbon nanotube arrays into electronic devices.

  9. Aligned Carbon Nanotube Carpets on Carbon Substrates for High Power Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    phase flow, flow visualization, electric capacitance tomography 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 134... electrical ) interface resistance . Therefore, in the beginning, one approach used to create a low contact resistance is to grow the CNTs directly on...electronic devices. Electrical and thermal transport properties of device materials at micrometer and nanometer scales become very important in such

  10. A Walk Down the Red Carpet: Students as Producers of Digital Video-Based Knowledge.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Disengaged and apathetic students are common in many undergraduate classrooms. Learning to these students is a passive process, typified by a consumer-like attitude. One approach to engage students, and enhance the learning experience, is to integrate active learning into the curriculum. The purpose of the pedagogical evaluative study described here was to investigate if student researched, designed and created digital video could act as a viable reusable peer learning resource. Although the ...

  11. The Impact of Ergonomically Designed Workstations on Shoulder EMG Activity during Carpet Weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motamedzade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the biomechanical exposure to the trapezius muscle activity in female weavers for a prolonged period in the workstation A (suggested by previous studies and workstation B (proposed by the present study. Methods: Electromyography data were collected from nine females during four hours for each ergonomically designed workstation at the Ergonomics Laboratory, Hamadan, Iran. The design criteria for ergonomically designed workstations were: 1 weaving height (20 and 3 cm above elbow height for workstations A and B, respectively, and 2 seat type (10° and 0° forwardsloping seat for workstations A and B, respectively. Results: The amplitude probability distribution function (APDF analysis showed that the left and right upper trapezius muscle activity was almost similar at each workstation. Trapezius muscle activity in the workstation A was significantly greater than workstations B (P<0.001. Conclusion: In general, use of workstation B leads to significantly reduced muscle activity levels in the upper trapezius as compared to workstation A in weavers. Despite the positive impact of workstation B in reducing trapezius muscle activity, it seems that constrained postures of the upper arm during weaving may be associated with musculoskeletal symptoms.

  12. Evaluation of Carpet Steam and Heat Cleaners as Biological Sampling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) U U U UU 34 (410) 436-7545 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18...performed in the BD laboratories. The BD biosafety level (BSL) 1 and 2 facilities are fully equipped to handle a broad range of work that requires the...average density and standard deviation from five CR coupons was calculated: Area per coupon = 10 cm2 (or 1.55 in.2) Area per

  13. Can we always sweep the details of RNA-processing under the carpet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klironomos, Filippos D; Berg, Johannes; De Meaux, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    RNA molecules follow a succession of enzyme-mediated processing steps from transcription to maturation. The participating enzymes, for example the spliceosome for mRNAs and Drosha and Dicer for microRNAs, are also produced in the cell and their copy-numbers fluctuate over time. Enzyme copy-number changes affect the processing rate of the substrate molecules; high enzyme numbers increase the processing rate, while low enzyme numbers decrease it. We study different RNA-processing cascades where enzyme copy-numbers are either fixed or fluctuate. We find that for the fixed enzyme copy-numbers, the substrates at steady-state are Poisson-distributed, and the whole RNA cascade dynamics can be understood as a single birth–death process of the mature RNA product. In this case, solely fluctuations in the timing of RNA processing lead to variation in the number of RNA molecules. However, we show analytically and numerically that when enzyme copy-numbers fluctuate, the strength of RNA fluctuations increases linearly with the RNA transcription rate. This linear effect becomes stronger as the speed of enzyme dynamics decreases relative to the speed of RNA dynamics. Interestingly, we find that under certain conditions, the RNA cascade can reduce the strength of fluctuations in the expression level of the mature RNA product. Finally, by investigating the effects of processing polymorphisms, we show that it is possible for the effects of transcriptional polymorphisms to be enhanced, reduced or even reversed. Our results provide a framework to understand the dynamics of RNA processing. (paper)

  14. 75 FR 42315 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Carpets and Rugs: Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... (ISO)/International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 17025:2005, ``General Requirements for... and of the requirements of the ISO/IEC 17025:2005 laboratory accreditation standard is provided in the....org/membersbycategory.html . The accreditation must be to ISO Standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ``General...

  15. The World's Best Carpets: Erastus Bigelow and the Financing of Antebellum Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regele, Lindsay Schakenbach

    2018-01-01

    The business records of textile entrepreneur and inventor Erastus Bigelow offer extraordinary detail about how financing innovation worked on the ground in the antebellum United States. For the first decades of the nineteenth century, increasing numbers of Americans sought patent protection, even as patents often brought little monetary benefit or status to their holders. Historians have tended to look to the court system to account for why this was the case, even though only a small percentage of patent holders ever litigated. This article, by contrast, examines the securitization of patents, which many inventors increasingly saw as supple tools to secure research funds and monetize intellectual property. As individuals and firms bought and sold patents for cash, labor contracts, and funding for further research and development, they shaped an evolving market for intellectual property. Throughout the nineteenth century, this market offered inventors increasing opportunities to offload the risks, and sometimes the rewards, of invention.

  16. Hardwood? Carpet? or Tile? A comparison of flooring costs under residential conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David G. Martens; David G. Martens

    1971-01-01

    Initial installation cost, annual maintenance cost, and total long-term cost are important in the purchase of flooring products. Before deciding on a flooring material, the prudent buyer will consider each of these in relation to his personal desires. From these evaluations, he will then be able to select the flooring material that is best suited to his individual...

  17. Energy conservation in buildings: a subject not to be swept under the carpet anymore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunde, W

    1977-04-01

    Energy shortages and price increases make the consumer conscious of having to show more concern for appropriate behavior, but conservation measures which are technically feasible and economically necessary cannot be obtained without legal regulations. Measures not only the gas supply companies have to deal with, but also the sanitary, heating and building industry are pointed out.

  18. Factors affecting hematology and plasma biochemistry in the southwest carpet python (Morelia spilota imbricata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gillian L; Fleming, Patricia A; Twomey, Leanne; Warren, Kristin A

    2012-04-01

    Despite increased worldwide popularity of keeping reptiles as pets, we know little about hematologic and biochemical parameters of most reptile species, or how these measures may be influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Blood samples from 43 wild-caught pythons (Morelia spilota imbricata) were collected at various stages of a 3-yr ecological study in Western Australia. Reference intervals are reported for 35 individuals sampled at the commencement of the study. As pythons were radiotracked for varying lengths of time (radiotransmitters were surgically implanted), repeated sampling was undertaken from some individuals. However, because of our ad hoc sampling design we cannot be definitive about temporal factors that were most important or that exclusively influenced blood parameters. There was no significant effect of sex or the presence of a hemogregarine parasite on blood parameters. Erythrocyte measures were highest for pythons captured in the jarrah forest and at the stage of radiotransmitter implantation, which was also linked with shorter time in captivity. Basophil count, the only leukocyte influenced by the factors tested, was highest when the python was anesthetized, as was globulin concentration. Albumin and the albumin:globulin ratio were more concentrated in summer (as was phosphorous) and at the initial stage of radiotransmitter placement (as was calcium). No intrinsic or extrinsic factors influenced creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, uric acid, or total protein. This study demonstrates that factors including season, location, surgical radiotransmitter placement, and anesthetic state can influence blood parameters of M. s. imbricata. For accurate diagnosis, veterinarians should be aware that the current reference intervals used to identify the health status of individuals for this species are outdated and the interpretation and an understanding of the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors are limited.

  19. Feasibility study: Flying Carpet. Connection between P+R facility Glimmen and Groningen Airport Eelde by autonomous vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, Hans; Bruinsma, Jarick; van Steenis, Niels; ten Have, Rutger; Wilkens, Jarno

    2014-01-01

    Green Sustainable Airport (GSA), an Interreg IVB project that is part of the North Sea Region Program, is an initiative of Groningen Airport Eelde (GAE). One of the goals of the GSA project is: The development and testing of sustainable and innovative applications that contribute to a more

  20. Mercury health effects among the workers extracting gold from carpets and dusted clays through amalgamation and roasting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Nayab; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Abbas; Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed

    2015-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic metal which can cause serious health effects. The aim of this research was to determine the concentrations of total Hg (T-Hg), methyl Hg (Me-Hg), and inorganic Hg (I-Hg) in the biological samples (plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), urine, hair, and nails) of the exposed goldsmith workers. This is the first study that determines the detailed Hg concentrations in the biological samples (plasma, RBCs, urine, hair, and nails) of the exposed goldsmith workers and correlates them with the diseases noted among the workers in a single paper. Biological samples were collected from goldsmith workers (n = 40) and analyzed for T-Hg, Me-Hg, and I-Hg using atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with mercury hydride system. The mean T-Hg concentration in RBCs (33 μg L(-1)), plasma (11.8 μg L(-1)), urine (167 μg L(-1)), hair (4.21 μg g(-1)), and nails (5.91 μg g(-1)) were higher than the control RBCs (1.64 μg L(-1)), plasma (0.55 μg L(-1)), urine (2.72 μg L(-1)), hair (0.35 μg g(-1)), and nails (0.51 μg g(-1)). All workers participated in this study were suffering from physical and mental diseases. The concentration of Hg was found higher among the workers suffering from mental diseases as compared to those suffering from physical diseases. Among the physical diseases, the most serious diseases were sexual dysfunction, skin diseases, and fatigue because the workers suffering from these diseases had higher concentration of Hg than the workers with other diseases. The occurrence of physical diseases (88%) was greater than the mental diseases (53%) among the workers. The correlations of physical and mental diseases with experience (years of work) and exposure time were significant (p  0.05) correlation was observed between demographic parameters and Hg concentrations in the biological samples of the workers. The burning process of amalgamated gold is a significant source of Hg exposure to goldsmith workers; therefore, awareness and precautionary measures are needed to provide protection to them.

  1. Reproductive activity and biochemical composition of the pullet carpet shell Venerupis senegalensis (Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca: Bivalvia from Ria de Aveiro (northwestern coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Joaquim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study characterizes the reproductive cycle of Venerupis senegalensis (=V. pullastra from Ria de Aveiro (Portugal as well as its nutrient storage and exploitation strategy. The reproductive cycle followed a seasonal cycle that correlated negatively with sea surface temperature, and comprised a ripe stage in winter followed by a spawning period that began in late winter and ended in the early summer. This extended spawning may be an advantageous strategy for the species because it ensures a continuous supply of settlers. Gametogenesis began in late summer/early autumn and intensified with the decrease in temperature during autumn. The condition index increased even during the spawning period, which indicates that there is rapid recovery and that reserves are accumulated during late summer and used later in the gametogenic process. Proteins did not contribute significantly to gametogenesis and the glycogen pattern is typical of conservative species, since gametogenesis depends largely on the amount of glycogen stored. The lipid storage and utilization cycle showed that gametogenesis took place in autumn/winter and that energy reserves were accumulated in summer.

  2. A Microarray Study of Carpet-Shell Clam (Ruditapes decussatus Shows Common and Organ-Specific Growth-Related Gene Expression Differences in Gills and Digestive Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Saavedra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate is one of the most important traits from the point of view of individual fitness and commercial production in mollusks, but its molecular and physiological basis is poorly known. We have studied differential gene expression related to differences in growth rate in adult individuals of the commercial marine clam Ruditapes decussatus. Gene expression in the gills and the digestive gland was analyzed in 5 fast-growing and five slow-growing animals by means of an oligonucleotide microarray containing 14,003 probes. A total of 356 differentially expressed genes (DEG were found. We tested the hypothesis that differential expression might be concentrated at the growth control gene core (GCGC, i.e., the set of genes that underlie the molecular mechanisms of genetic control of tissue and organ growth and body size, as demonstrated in model organisms. The GCGC includes the genes coding for enzymes of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway (IIS, enzymes of four additional signaling pathways (Raf/Ras/Mapk, Jnk, TOR, and Hippo, and transcription factors acting at the end of those pathways. Only two out of 97 GCGC genes present in the microarray showed differential expression, indicating a very little contribution of GCGC genes to growth-related differential gene expression. Forty eight DEGs were shared by both organs, with gene ontology (GO annotations corresponding to transcription regulation, RNA splicing, sugar metabolism, protein catabolism, immunity, defense against pathogens, and fatty acid biosynthesis. GO term enrichment tests indicated that genes related to growth regulation, development and morphogenesis, extracellular matrix proteins, and proteolysis were overrepresented in the gills. In the digestive gland overrepresented GO terms referred to gene expression control through chromatin rearrangement, RAS-related small GTPases, glucolysis, and energy metabolism. These analyses suggest a relevant role of, among others, some genes related to the IIS, such as the ParaHox gene Xlox, CCAR and the CCN family of secreted proteins, in the regulation of growth in bivalves.

  3. Carpet Layer (ret. tr.) 7-59.220; Linoleum Layer (const.; ret. tr.) 5-32.732--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  4. Search for the truth about the NATO use of depleted uranium in the war against Yugoslavia - truth under the DU carpet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdacic, V.; Jaksic, P.

    2002-01-01

    Having produced thousands atomic, hydrogen and neutron bombs USA and other members of NATO possess large amount of nuclear waste, which also includes depleted uranium. Depleted uranium is natural uranium out of which 0.5% of Uranium-235 isotope is removed to be used for atomic bombs and nuclear fuel. Produced in this way, 'depleted uranium' is still highly radioactive. In one kilogram of such uranium 25 million radioactive decays take place in one second. During the NATO war against Yugoslavia in 1999 their planes A-10 fired the shells containing 272 grams of depleted uranium as they did previously in the Gulf war with Iraq and in 1995 against the Serbs in former Bosnia and Herzegovina. The effects of this 'dirty weapon', forbidden by international conventions, have been already known as disastrous, causing not only human but ecological consequences as well. That is why depleted uranium got the name: metal of dishonor. After long denial, on May the 3 rd American General Chuck Weld has confessed that NATO aviation is using ammunition with depleted uranium in the war against Yugoslavia in Kosovo and Metohija. Number of the locations under the fire of depleted uranium after the war was rising with time. At the beginning NATO information contained small number of such 'targets', 20-30. When the soldiers of the UN peacekeeping forces at Kosovo became ill, NATO was forced to reveal the new data of the used depleted uranium. In their report from January 24, 2001 (Updated on February 8 same year) they claim that 112 locations in Kosovo and Montenegro were exposed to depleted uranium rounds fired from the guns GAU-8 of A-10 planes. According to this report one can estimate the use of about 9 tons of depleted uranium. Our careful analysis points to many mistakes, lack of data, misleading conclusions and contradictions. At least 115 locations were contaminated by depleted uranium. The minimal number of rounds could be close to 43,300, e.g. minimum 12 tons of depleted uranium has been used. Our analysis of published NATO's map of locations - targets of depleted uranium - shows that besides Yugoslavia, two other independent countries: Albania and Former Yugoslav Republic Macedonia, got their share of radioactive depleted uranium material. Definitely, new data have to be made public by NATO or independent scientific survey of Balkan territory should be made. Search for the truth must continue. (author)

  5. CATALOG OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. INSULATION, WALLCOVERINGS, RESI- LIENT FLOOR COVERINGS, CARPET, ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND CAULKS, AND PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses and presents data on constituents and emissions from products that have the potential to impact the indoor air environment. t is a tool to be used by researchers to help organize the study of materials as potential sources of indoor air emissions. ncluded are...

  6. Vertically Aligned Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube Carpet Electrodes: Highly Sensitive Interfaces for the Analysis of Serum from Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Subramanian, Palaniappan; Schechter, Alex; Teblum, Eti; Yemini, Reut; Nessim, Gilbert Daniel; Vasilescu, Alina; Li, Musen; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2016-04-20

    The number of patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The development of noninvasive tests that are rapid, sensitive, specific, and simple would allow preventing patient discomfort, delay in diagnosis, and the follow-up of the status of the disease. Herein, we show the interest of vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (VA-NCNT) electrodes for the required sensitive electrochemical detection of lysozyme in serum, a protein that is up-regulated in IBD. To achieve selective lysozyme detection, biotinylated lysozyme aptamers were covalently immobilized onto the VA-NCNTs. Detection of lysozyme in serum was achieved by measuring the decrease in the peak current of the Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) redox couple by differential pulse voltammetry upon addition of the analyte. We achieved a detection limit as low as 100 fM with a linear range up to 7 pM, in line with the required demands for the determination of lysozyme level in patients suffering from IBD. We attained the sensitive detection of biomarkers in clinical samples of healthy patients and individuals suffering from IBD and compared the results to a classical turbidimetric assay. The results clearly indicate that the newly developed sensor allows for a reliable and efficient analysis of lysozyme in serum.

  7. Tropomyosin and Actin Identified as Major Allergens of the Carpet Clam (Paphia textile and the Effect of Cooking on Their Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailatul Hani Mohamad Yadzir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins. Methods. Clam protein extracts were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE reactive proteins were then analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT to the raw clam extract. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the major allergenic proteins of this clam. Results. Raw extract showed 12 protein bands (18–150 kDa. In contrast, fewer protein bands were seen in the boiled extract; those ranging from 40 to 150 kDa were denatured. The protein profiles were similarly altered by frying or roasting. The immunoblots of raw and boiled extracts yielded 10 and 2 IgE-binding proteins, respectively. The fried and roasted extracts showed only a single IgE-binding protein at 37 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 37 and 42 kDa major allergens indicated that these spots were tropomyosin and actin, respectively. Conclusion. The two major allergens of Paphia textile were identified as the thermostable tropomyosin and a new thermolabile allergen actin.

  8. MEASUREMENTS OF TRANSFERRABLE RESIDUE FROM CERAMIC TILE, VINYL TILE, HARDWOOD FLOORING, AND CARPET USING A PRESS SAMPLER AND C18, PUF, AND COTTON SAMPLING DISKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unintentional and avoidable human exposure is a consequence of pesticide use indoors. Pesticides on household surfaces are a source of exposure to children. Therefore, concern has been raised regarding the potential for contamination of foods in homes where pesticides have been...

  9. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2003 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 award winner, Shaw Industries, developed EcoWorx carpet tiles with a backing that uses less toxic materials. The carpet tile fiber and backing are readily separated for recycling.

  10. The Marginalization of Globally-Born Businesses: Ethnically Divided Trade in Hamburg and the World Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Persian carpets have long been a major commodity in the world. Persian carpets have long been a major commodity in the world market, controlled by the Tehran Carpet Bazaar and the Hamburg Free Harbor. Today about 200 private traders in the Hamburg Free Harbor area export...

  11. The role of the substrate surface morphology and water in growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pint, Cary; Pheasant, Sean; Nicholas, Nolan; Horton, Charles; Hauge, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Growth of high quality, vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (carpets) is achieved using a rapid insertion hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) technique. The effect of the substrate morphology on growth is explored by comparing carpets grown on epitaxially polished MgO substrates to those grown on "as-cut", macroscopically rough MgO substrates. Depending on the substrate morphology, we observe differences in both the overall carpet morphology as well as the diameter distribution of nanotubes grown in the carpet based on optical measurements. In addition, we explore the role of water in the growth of carpets on MgO and the conventional Al2O3 coated Si substrates. We find that the addition of a small amount of water is beneficial to the growth rates of the SWNT carpets, enhancing the growth rates by up to eight times.

  12. Bryophytes as indicators of radiocesium deposition in northeastern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovani, C.; Nimis, P.L.; Bolognini, G.; Padovani, R.; Usco, A.

    1994-01-01

    Samples of moss carpets growing in forest vegetation have been used to map radioactive fallout in northeastern Italy. The main factors affecting data variability are the inclination of the carpets, water absorbing power, and their thickness. The best suited bioindicator proved to be Ctenidium molluscum. The results indicate that these carpets were able to intercept most of the radiocesium deposited after the Chernobyl accident, and that the removal half-time in the survey area is of circa 46 months

  13. The Marginalization of Globally-Born Businesses:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak

    Persian carpets have long been a major commodity in the world market, controlled by the Tehran Carpet Bazaar and the Hamburg Free Harbour. Today about 200 private traders in the Hamburg Free Harbour area export their carpets to about 10,000 private carpet traders throughout the world , these being...... group of traders stick together in order to remain in control of this world-wide billion dollars trade while they, on the other hand, compete strongly amongst each other in their private businesses....

  14. 76 FR 12873 - Potassium Benzoate; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ...., textiles (clothing and diapers), carpets, swimming pools, and hard surface disinfection on walls, floors... Executive Order 13211, entitled Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply...

  15. 76 FR 8895 - Polymerized Fatty Acid Esters With Aminoalcohol Alkoxylates; Exemption From the Requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... diapers), carpets, swimming pools, and hard surface disinfection on walls, floors, tables). The proposed... Executive Order 13211, entitled Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply...

  16. 76 FR 6347 - (S,S)-Ethylenediamine Disuccinic Acid Trisodium Salt; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ...., textiles (clothing and diapers), carpets, swimming pools, and hard surface disinfection on walls, floors..., entitled Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (66...

  17. Monolithic InP-based fast optical switch module for optical networks of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xi, Chen; Regan, James; Durrant, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We summarized the development of Venture Photonics’ sub-10 ns fast optical switch which demonstrates low insertion loss, excellent crosstalk level and polarization independent switching performance.......We summarized the development of Venture Photonics’ sub-10 ns fast optical switch which demonstrates low insertion loss, excellent crosstalk level and polarization independent switching performance....

  18. 77 FR 34027 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Management and Budget (OMB), of information collection requirements for manufacturers and importers of... each year varies, depending upon the number of carpet styles and the annual volume of production. CPSC... one to 200, depending upon the number of carpet styles and the annual production volume. For example...

  19. 24 CFR 200.945 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for carpet. 200.945 Section 200.945... requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for carpet. (a) Applicable.... (b) Labeling. Under the procedures set forth in § 200.935(d)(6) concerning labeling of a product, the...

  20. Technology in Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazner, Steve, Comp.

    2012-01-01

    Technology touches people's lives virtually every second of the day. The work world is especially rich with changing technologies, new innovations, and continually revised processes for greater effectiveness and efficiency. One could easily say that a boiler is a boiler, or a carpet is a carpet, but the reality is that all components of all the…

  1. Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays Bonded to Solid Graphite Substrates: Thermal Analysis for Future Device Cooling Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty T. Quinton

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are known for high thermal conductivity and have potential use as nano-radiators or heat exchangers. This paper focuses on the thermal performance of carpet-like arrays of vertically aligned CNTs on solid graphite substrates with the idea of investigating their behavior as a function of carpet dimensions and predicting their performance as thermal interface material (TIM for electronic device cooling. Vertically aligned CNTs were grown on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG substrate, which creates a robust and durable all-carbon hierarchical structure. The multi-layer thermal analysis approach using Netzsch laser flash analysis system was used to evaluate their performance as a function of carpet height, from which their thermal properties can be determined. It was seen that the thermal resistance of the CNT array varies linearly with CNT carpet height, providing a unique way of decoupling the properties of the CNT carpet from its interface. This data was used to estimate the thermal conductivity of individual multi-walled nanotube strands in this carpet, which was about 35 W/m-K. The influence of CNT carpet parameters (aerial density, diameter, and length on thermal resistance of the CNT carpet and its potential advantages and limitations as an integrated TIM are discussed.

  2. Digging up the Dirt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuffman, Susan M.

    1997-01-01

    Explores ways of maintaining school floors and carpeting that ensure students and staff are comfortable, safe, and healthy. Carpet maintenance for high- to low-traffic areas and cleaning procedures are examined, as are ways maintenance staff can work together to help ensure a successful flooring-maintenance plan. (GR)

  3. Ozone-surface interactions: Investigations of mechanisms, kinetics, mass transport, and implications for indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Glenn Charles [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    In this dissertation, results are presented of laboratory investigations and mathematical modeling efforts designed to better understand the interactions of ozone with surfaces. In the laboratory, carpet and duct materials were exposed to ozone and measured ozone uptake kinetics and the ozone induced emissions of volatile organic compounds. To understand the results of the experiments, mathematical methods were developed to describe dynamic indoor aldehyde concentrations, mass transport of reactive species to smooth surfaces, the equivalent reaction probability of whole carpet due to the surface reactivity of fibers and carpet backing, and ozone aging of surfaces. Carpets, separated carpet fibers, and separated carpet backing all tended to release aldehydes when exposed to ozone. Secondary emissions were mostly n-nonanal and several other smaller aldehydes. The pattern of emissions suggested that vegetable oils may be precursors for these oxidized emissions. Several possible precursors and experiments in which linseed and tung oils were tested for their secondary emission potential were discussed. Dynamic emission rates of 2-nonenal from a residential carpet may indicate that intermediate species in the oxidation of conjugated olefins can significantly delay aldehyde emissions and act as reservoir for these compounds. The ozone induced emission rate of 2-nonenal, a very odorous compound, can result in odorous indoor concentrations for several years. Surface ozone reactivity is a key parameter in determining the flux of ozone to a surface, is parameterized by the reaction probability, which is simply the probability that an ozone molecule will be irreversibly consumed when it strikes a surface. In laboratory studies of two residential and two commercial carpets, the ozone reaction probability for carpet fibers, carpet backing and the equivalent reaction probability for whole carpet were determined. Typically reaction probability values for these materials were 10

  4. A novel first aid stretcher for immobilization and transportation of spine injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Sheng; Feng, Ya-Ping; Xie, Jia-Xin; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Shen, Cai-Hong; Niu, Fang; Zou, Jian; Tang, Shao-Feng; Hao, Jiang; Xu, Jia-Xiang; Xiao, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Effective immobilization and transportation are vital to the life-saving acute medical care needed when treating critically injured people. However, the most common types of stretchers used today are wrought with problems that can lead to further medical complications, difficulty in employment and rescue, and ineffective transitions to hospital treatment. Here we report a novel first aid stretcher called the "emergency carpet", which solves these problems with a unique design for spine injured patients. Polyurethane composite material, obtained by a novel process of manually mixing isocyanate and additives, can be poured into a specially designed fabric bag and allowed to harden to form a rigid human-shaped stretcher. The effectiveness of the emergency carpet was examined in the pre-hospital management of victims with spinal fractures. Additionally, it was tested on flat ground and complex terrain as well as in the sea and air. We demonstrated that the emergency carpet can be assembled and solidified on the scene in 5 minutes, providing effective immobilization to the entire injured body. With the protection of the emergency carpet, none of the 20 patients, who were finally confirmed to have spinal column fracture or dislocation, had any neurological deterioration during transportation. Furthermore, the carpet can be handled and transported by multiple means under differing conditions, without compromising immobilization. Finally, the emergency carpet allows the critically injured patient to receive multiple examinations such as X-ray, CT, and MRI without being removed from the carpet. Our results demonstrate that the emergency carpet has ideal capabilities for immobilization, extrication, and transportation of the spine injured patients. Compared with other stretchers, it allows for better mobility, effective immobilization, remarkable conformity to the body, and various means for transportation. The emergency carpet is promising for its intrinsic advantages in

  5. A Simple Survey Concerning the Approach of the Cleaning Companies to Mercury Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Camur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge of the cleaning companies in case of mercury spills at home. METHOD: Thirty-two cleaning companies were interviewed by a telephone survey. Two standard questions were asked to an authorized people of the company. “A manometer is broken on the carpet. The mercury in the manometer is all spilled on the wall to wall carpet in the living room. We want our carpet to be cleaned. Could you do it? How can be the carpet cleaned? Have you ever cleaned a carpet on which mercury was spilled?” It is stated that mercury spillage has happened just a very short time ago and nothing have been done after that. RESULTS: Fifty percent of the 32 companies work in Istanbul, 37.5% in Ankara and 22.5% in Izmir. Three companies from Ankara, five from Istanbul, one from Izmir stated that they have encountered with mercury spillage before. Three of the companies who have stated that the have not encountered with mercury spillage before, asked “What is mercury?” and one of them asked whether “Mercury is a communicable disease, isn’t it?”. Twenty-two of the interviewed cleaning companies stated that they could clean the carpet with stain remover and three of them offered vacuuming, one washing the carpet with carpet shampoo, one person cleaning the stain by wiping with alcohol/ethyl alcohol. Five of the companies stated that they could not clean the stain and one of them he has advised throwing the carpet away. CONCLUSION: In many developing countries there is no responsible association or institution for mercury spills. Such simple surveys may be very important in determining training and gaps concerning public health problems. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 557-562

  6. A novel first aid stretcher for immobilization and transportation of spine injured patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Sheng Liu

    Full Text Available Effective immobilization and transportation are vital to the life-saving acute medical care needed when treating critically injured people. However, the most common types of stretchers used today are wrought with problems that can lead to further medical complications, difficulty in employment and rescue, and ineffective transitions to hospital treatment. Here we report a novel first aid stretcher called the "emergency carpet", which solves these problems with a unique design for spine injured patients. Polyurethane composite material, obtained by a novel process of manually mixing isocyanate and additives, can be poured into a specially designed fabric bag and allowed to harden to form a rigid human-shaped stretcher. The effectiveness of the emergency carpet was examined in the pre-hospital management of victims with spinal fractures. Additionally, it was tested on flat ground and complex terrain as well as in the sea and air. We demonstrated that the emergency carpet can be assembled and solidified on the scene in 5 minutes, providing effective immobilization to the entire injured body. With the protection of the emergency carpet, none of the 20 patients, who were finally confirmed to have spinal column fracture or dislocation, had any neurological deterioration during transportation. Furthermore, the carpet can be handled and transported by multiple means under differing conditions, without compromising immobilization. Finally, the emergency carpet allows the critically injured patient to receive multiple examinations such as X-ray, CT, and MRI without being removed from the carpet. Our results demonstrate that the emergency carpet has ideal capabilities for immobilization, extrication, and transportation of the spine injured patients. Compared with other stretchers, it allows for better mobility, effective immobilization, remarkable conformity to the body, and various means for transportation. The emergency carpet is promising for its

  7. Mirror-backed Dark Alumina: A Nearly Perfect Absorber for Thermoelectronics and Thermophotovotaics

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed; Cheng, Tsung-Chieh; Le, Khai. Q.; Cheng, Mark Ming-Cheng; Bagci, Hakan; Chen, Pai-Yen

    2016-01-01

    We present here a broadband, wide-angle, and polarization-independent nearly perfect absorber consisting of mirror-backed nanoporous alumina. By electrochemically anodizing the disordered multicomponent aluminum and properly tailoring the thickness

  8. Comparison between full- and small-scale sensory assessments of air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Sabikova, J.; Lagercrantz, Love Per

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-nine untrained subjects made small- and full-scale evaluations of the acceptability of the quality of air at 22 deg.C and 40% RH, polluted by either carpet, felt floor covering, painted gypsum board, linoleum or chipboard. Small-scale evaluations were made on the air extracted from 200-L......-scale sensory ratings of acceptability of air polluted by carpet and by linoleum were systematically better than small-scale assessments, but not for the other three materials. Calculated sensory emission rates from carpet and linoleum were significantly lower in full scale than in small scale. When modelling...

  9. Impacts of a clay plaster on indoor air quality assessed using chemical and sensory measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darling, Erin K.; Cros, Clement J.; Wargocki, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    plaster as a PRM for improving air quality by controlling ozone, perceived air quality (PAQ) was determined in the presence of eight combinations of an emitting and reactive pollutant source (new carpet), clay plaster applied to gypsum wallboard, and chamber air with and without ozone. A panel of 24 human....... Perceived air quality was most acceptable and concentrations of aldehydes were lowest when only clay plaster or both clay plaster and carpet were present in the chambers without ozone. The least acceptable PAQ and the highest concentrations of aldehydes were observed when carpet and ozone were present...... together; addition of clay plaster for this condition improved PAQ and considerably decreased aldehyde concentrations....

  10. Enhanced Graphene Photodetector with Fractal Metasurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jieran; Wang, Di; DeVault, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a broadband, polarization-independent photodetector by integrating graphene with a fractal Cayley tree metasurface. Our measurements show an almost uniform, tenfold enhancement in photocurrent generation due to the fractal metasurface structure.......We designed and fabricated a broadband, polarization-independent photodetector by integrating graphene with a fractal Cayley tree metasurface. Our measurements show an almost uniform, tenfold enhancement in photocurrent generation due to the fractal metasurface structure....

  11. 77 FR 26004 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    .... 010807-00110 Aqua-Kill Resmethrin. Insecticide. 028293-00160 Unicorn House and Tetramethrin, Carpet Spray..., LLC, 21 Hubble, Irvine, CA 92618. 86068 Texcan Investments & Marketing Company, Inc., Agent: Pyxis...

  12. The Role of Interface on the Impact Characteristics and Cranial Fracture Patterns Using the Immature Porcine Head Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deland, Trevor S; Niespodziewanski, Emily; Fenton, Todd W; Haut, Roger C

    2016-01-01

    The role of impact interface characteristics on the biomechanics and patterns of cranial fracture has not been investigated in detail, and especially for the pediatric head. In this study, infant porcine skulls aged 2-19 days were dropped with an energy to cause fracturing onto four surfaces varying in stiffness from a rigid plate to one covered with plush carpeting. Results showed that heads dropped onto the rigid surface produced more extensive cranial fracturing than onto carpeted surfaces. Contact forces generated at fracture initiation and the overall maximum contact forces were generally lower for the rigid than carpeted impacts. While the degree of cranial fracturing from impacts onto the heavy carpeted surface was comparable to that of lower-energy rigid surface impacts, there were fewer diastatic fractures. This suggests that characteristics of the cranial fracture patterns may be used to differentiate energy level from impact interface in pediatric forensic cases. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. 40 CFR 63.4281 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., carpets, high-performance industrial fabrics, luggage, military fabrics, outer wear, sheets, towels, and... tire manufacturing). This would include any web coating line that applies coatings to both tire cord...

  14. TRANSFER EFFICIENCIES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD FLOORING SURFACES TO FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transfer of pesticides from household surfaces to foods was measured to determine if excess dietary exposure potentially occurs when children's foods contact contaminated surfaces prior to being. Three common household surfaces (ceramic tile, hardwood flooring, and carpet) w...

  15. Scabies: Workplace Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person and simple vacuuming of the infested person’s furniture, rugs, and carpeting should prevent any spread. If ... Page last updated: July 19, 2013 Content source: Global Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet ...

  16. Design of LTCC Based Fractal Antenna

    KAUST Repository

    AdbulGhaffar, Farhan

    2010-01-01

    The thesis presents a Sierpinski Carpet fractal antenna array designed at 24 GHz for automotive radar applications. Miniaturized, high performance and low cost antennas are required for this application. To meet these specifications a fractal array

  17. Plaadid / Tui Hirv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hirv, Tui, 1984-

    2007-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Andrea Bocelli "Vivere. The Best Of", Britney Spears "Blackout", John Fogerty "Revival", Bat For Lashes "Fur And Gold", Jimmy Eat World "Chase This Light", Duran Duran "Red Carpet Massacre"

  18. Determination of partition and diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity (journal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50% and 70% RH). A dynamic dual-chamber test meth...

  19. Determination of partition and diffusion coefficient of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50% and 70% RH). A dynamic dual-chamber test meth...

  20. Isolation of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic and potentially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... The aim of the present study is to determine the pathogenic and potentially ... Keywords: pathogenic bacteria; antibiotic resistance; carpets; mosques; Tripoli; Libya .... During the process of praying, a Muslim is obliged to go.

  1. Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... finish a basement below ground level unless all water leaks are patched and outdoor ventilation and adequate heat ... smoke; asbestos from insulating and fire-retardant building supplies; formaldehyde ... or water-damaged walls, ceilings, and carpets; and pesticides from ...

  2. 75 FR 9877 - Notice of Petitions by Firms for Determination of Eligibility To Apply for Trade Adjustment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... countertops, ceramic Lee's Summit, MO tile floors and walls. Carpet, vinyl and 64064. wood. R.E. Hansen... primary products, filter presses, tube filters and pressure leaf filters. Colorado Case, Inc 1713 E...

  3. 78 FR 32245 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Road, Pasadena, TX 77507-1041. Active ingredient: Novaluron. Product Type: Insecticide; Insect Growth... furniture, animal quarters, carpets, kennels, and poultry houses. Contact: Jennifer Gaines, (703) 305-5967...

  4. 76 FR 7703 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, Dimethyl Ester, Polymer With 1,4-Butanediol, Adipic Acid, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...., textiles (clothing and diapers), carpets, swimming pools, and hard surface disinfection on walls, floors... Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001) or...

  5. 76 FR 25236 - Carbon Dioxide; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... exposure (e.g., textiles (clothing and diapers), carpets, swimming pools, and hard surface disinfection on... Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001) or Executive Order 13045...

  6. 77 FR 20721 - 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ...-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., textiles (clothing and diapers), carpets, swimming pools, and hard... Executive Order 13211, entitled ``Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply...

  7. 77 FR 53144 - Nitric Acid; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ..., non-dietary exposure (e.g., textiles (clothing and diapers), carpets, swimming pools, and hard surface... Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001) or...

  8. 75 FR 34045 - Sodium 1,4-Dialkyl Sulfosuccinates; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ..., non-dietary exposure (e.g., textiles (clothing and diapers), carpets, swimming pools, and hard surface... Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (66 FR 28355, May 22...

  9. 75 FR 50891 - N-alkyl (C8-C18) Primary Amines and Acetate Salts; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...-dietary exposure (e.g., textiles (clothing and diapers), carpets, swimming pools, and hard surface... Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001) or...

  10. 78 FR 59265 - FD&C Yellow No. 5; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... (clothing and diapers), carpets, swimming pools, and hard surface disinfection on walls, floors, tables... Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR 28355, May 22...

  11. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide.......Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide....

  12. Multimode Interference: Identifying Channels and Ridges in Quantum Probability Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Ross C.; Loinaz, Will

    2004-01-01

    The multimode interference technique is a simple way to study the interference patterns found in many quantum probability distributions. We demonstrate that this analysis not only explains the existence of so-called "quantum carpets," but can explain the spatial distribution of channels and ridges in the carpets. With an understanding of the factors that govern these channels and ridges we have a limited ability to produce a particular pattern of channels and ridges by carefully choosing the ...

  13. Unified design of sinusoidal-groove fused-silica grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jijun; Zhou, Changhe; Cao, Hongchao; Lu, Peng

    2010-10-20

    A general design rule of deep-etched subwavelength sinusoidal-groove fused-silica grating as a highly efficient polarization-independent or polarization-selective device is studied based on the simplified modal method, which shows that the device structure depends little on the incident wavelength, but mainly on the ratio of groove depth to incident wavelength and the ratio of wavelength to grating period. These two ratios could be used as the design guidelines for wavelength-independent structure from deep ultraviolet to far infrared. The optimized grating profile with a different function as a polarizing beam splitter, a polarization-independent two-port beam splitter, or a polarization-independent grating with high efficiency of -1st order is obtained at a wavelength of 1064 nm, and verified by using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The performance of the sinusoidal grating is better than a conventional rectangular one, which could be useful for practical applications.

  14. Modular Flooring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thate, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped

  15. A high-speed tunable beam splitter for feed-forward photonic quantum information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Song; Zotter, Stefan; Tetik, Nuray; Qarry, Angie; Jennewein, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton

    2011-11-07

    We realize quantum gates for path qubits with a high-speed, polarization-independent and tunable beam splitter. Two electro-optical modulators act in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer as high-speed phase shifters and rapidly tune its splitting ratio. We test its performance with heralded single photons, observing a polarization-independent interference contrast above 95%. The switching time is about 5.6 ns, and a maximal repetition rate is 2.5 MHz. We demonstrate tunable feed-forward operations of a single-qubit gate of path-encoded qubits and a two-qubit gate via measurement-induced interaction between two photons.

  16. Indoor Fungal and Bacterial Contaminations on Household Environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwakeel, Suaad S

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the microbial and inhabitant of household environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Overall, a total of 180 samples were collected and analyzed for fungal growth, 160 house samples were obtained on BAP medium and PDA medium. The Eastern Riyadh region turned out with the highest fungal isolates with 15/61 (24.6%). Among the most common fungal isolates from bedroom carpets were Aspergillus niger (21.6%), Alternaria sp. (15.7%), Aspergillus flavus (15.7%) Candida sp. (11.8%), Cladosporium sp. (9.8%) and Rhizopus sp. (9.8%). Other fungal isolates from bedroom carpets included Penicillium sp (5.9%)., Cunninghamella sp.(3.9%), Rhodotorula sp.(3.9%) and Aspergillus terreus (1.9%) Overall relative densities from all specimens obtained from household carpets, bedroom walls and carpet stores showed Alternaria spp. as the most common fungal isolate (55.3%) followed by Aspergillus niger (29%), Aspergillus flavus (19.3%), Rhizopus spp. (9.7%) and Penicillium spp. (7.0%). Other fungal isolates such as Candida spp., Cladosporium spp., Cunninghamella spp., Rhodotorula spp. and Aspergillus terreus had less than 6% overall relative density. From 40 carpet specimens collected for microbial analysis, 20 (50%) showed bacterial growth. Bacillus spp. was the most common isolated organism (35%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (10%), Epiococcus spp. (10%), Corynebacterium spp. (10%) and Bacillus polymyxa (10%). Other bacterial isolates included Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus aureus .The presence of these fungal and microbial pathogens poses risk for individuals. When possible, floor carpeting in homes should be minimized or avoided since this serves as habitats for opportunistic fungi and infectious agents that pose harm to one's health. (author)

  17. House Dust Mite Prevalence in the House of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam Ziyaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being exposed to house dust mites intensifies atopic dermatitis. This study has investigated the con­tamination rate with Dermatophagoides mites in patient's residential home with atopic dermatitis.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 patients took part with atopic dermatitis (positive or negative for mites by prick Dermal Test. Samples were collected from 3 locations (living room, bedroom and bed by vacuum cleaner. Dust samples (transferred to freezer -20 ˚C were examined by direct method and flotation. The data were analyzed using statistical SPSS vr.20 software.Results: Twenty patients of positive prick test included 8 (40% male and 12 (60% female. The results of direct observation of mites: 7 cases (35% in bedding sheets, 6 cases (30% bedrooms' carpet, 3 cases (15% living room's carpet. Twenty patients of negative prick test included 8 (40% male and 12 (60% female. Only mites were found (5% in living room's carpets of negative prick test patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was more frequent than Dermatophagoides farinae. (98% vs 83%.Conclusion: Fifty-five percent of residential homes of prick test positive patients and only 5% of residential homes of prick test negative patients were positive for mite. Sunshine provided home had fewer mites than home where sunshine is not provided. Prick test positive patients used handmade carpets more than machine made ones. In posi­tive prick test patients, mites were found in bed sheet and bedroom’s carpet more than negative prick test patient's sheets and carpets.

  18. Electrical device fabrication from nanotube formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Nolan Walker; Kittrell, W. Carter; Kim, Myung Jong; Schmidt, Howard K.

    2013-03-12

    A method for forming nanotube electrical devices, arrays of nanotube electrical devices, and device structures and arrays of device structures formed by the methods. Various methods of the present invention allow creation of semiconducting and/or conducting devices from readily grown SWNT carpets rather than requiring the preparation of a patterned growth channel and takes advantage of the self-controlling nature of these carpet heights to ensure a known and controlled channel length for reliable electronic properties as compared to the prior methods.

  19. Parametric Amplification, Wavelength Conversion, and Phase Conjugation of a 2.048-Tbit/s WDM PDM 16-QAM Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Jopson, R. M.; Gnauck, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate polarization-independent parametric amplification of a 2.048-Tbit/s 8-WDM PDM 16-QAM signal and simultaneous wavelength conversion and phase conjugation in a highly nonlinear fiber. Two high-power continuous-wave pumps with orthogonal polarizations and counter-phase modulation are ...

  20. PEPSI: a Monte Carlo generator for polarized leptoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankiewicz, L.

    1992-01-01

    We describe PEPSI (Polarized Electron Proton Scattering Interactions) a Monte Carlo program for the polarized deep inelastic leptoproduction mediated by electromagnetic interaction. The code is a modification of the LEPTO 4.3 Lund Monte Carlo for unpolarized scattering and requires the standard polarization-independent JETSET routines to perform fragmentation into final hadrons. (orig.)

  1. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongers, W. A.; Kasparek, W.; Doelman, N.

    2012-01-01

    A CW capable inline electron cyclotron emission (ECE) separation system for feedback control, featuring oversized corrugated waveguides, is commissioned on ASDEX upgrade (AUG). The system is based on a combination of a polarization independent, non-resonant, Mach-Zehnder diplexer equipped with di...

  2. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, W.A.; Kasparek, W.; Doelman, N. J.; Braber, R. van den; Brand, H. van den; Meo, F.; Baar, M.R. de; Amerongen, F.J.; Donné, A.J.H.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Erckmann, V.; Goede, A.P.H.; Giannone, L.; Grünwald, G.; Hollman, F.; Kaas, G.; Krijger, B.; Michel, G.; Lubyako, L.; Monaco, F.; Noke, F.; Petelin, M.; Plaum, B.; Purps, F.; Pierik, J.G.W. ten; Schüller, C.; Slob, J.W.; Stober, J.K.; Schütz, H.; Wagner, D.; Westerhof, E.; Ronden, D.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    A CW capable inline electron cyclotron emission (ECE) separation system for feedback control, featuring oversized corrugated waveguides, is commissioned on ASDEX upgrade (AUG). The system is based on a combination of a polarization independent, non-resonant, Mach-Zehnder diplexer equipped with

  3. Dispersion-flattened-fiber based optical thresholder for multiple-access-interference suppression in OCDMA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Hamanaka, Taro; Wada, Naoya; Kitayama, Ken-Ichi

    2005-07-11

    An optical thresholding technique based on super-continuum generation in dispersion flattened fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to enable data-rate detection in optical code division multiple access networks. The proposed scheme exhibits an excellent discrimination between a desired signal and interference signals with features of pulse reshaping, low insertion loss, polarization independency as well as reasonable operation power.

  4. Learning to Weave the Threads of Honor: Understanding the Value of Female Schooling in Southern Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Myriem

    2012-01-01

    This article is concerned with the role of formal education in the upward social mobility of women in the Sirwa, a marginal Berber region of southern Morocco where carpets are produced by women, and marketed by men. To explore why girls' education in weaving takes precedence over formal education, the article considers the place of women's…

  5. WebQuest on Conic Sections as a Learning Tool for Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulus, Aytac; Ada, Tuba

    2012-01-01

    WebQuests incorporate technology with educational concepts through integrating online resources with student-centred and activity-based learning. In this study, we describe and evaluate a WebQuest based on conic sections, which we have used with a group of prospective mathematics teachers. The WebQuest entitled: "Creating a Carpet Design Using…

  6. Success Skills for the Textile Industry: Communication (SS1). Workforce 2000 Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

    This curriculum package on communication is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the apparel, carpet, and…

  7. Success Skills for the Textile Industry: Team Building (SS2). Workforce 2000 Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

    This curriculum package on team building is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the apparel, carpet, and…

  8. Success Skills for the Textile Industry: Problem Solving (SS3). Workforce 2000 Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

    This curriculum package on problem solving is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the apparel, carpet, and…

  9. An Interior's Interior. The American Film Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, David

    1974-01-01

    In the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, architects have broken some old conventions and rules of good taste in designing offices and a film theater through intelligent use of space and tacky flowered carpeting, garish colors, and automobile hoods and fenders. (Author/MF)

  10. YEAR-ROUND HOUSEDUST MITE LEVELS ON THE HIGHVELD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    electricity. Where possible dust was collected from the main bedroom, using the Rainbow Vacuum Cleaner. Bed linen was removed and the mattress was sampled. An area of 1 m' on the mattress was vacuumed for 2 minutes. The dust sampled was placed in a plastic bag, sealed and labelled. Thereafter the carpet next to.

  11. Comparative efficacy of house dust mite extermination products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schober, G.; Kniest, F.M.; Kort, H.S.M.; Saint Georges Gridelet, de D.M.O.G.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of nine marketed products, i.e. Acardust, Acarosan (foam and powder), Actelic 50, Artilin 3A (spirit and water base), liquid nitrogen, Paragerm AK, and Tymasil, and of intensive vacuum-cleaning have been compared on four different test surfaces: mattress, tufted carpet,

  12. 46 CFR 169.323 - Furniture and furnishings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of fire resistant materials. (b) Existing solid wooden furniture may be retained on existing vessels. (c) Draperies must be fabricated of fire resistant fabrics. (d) Rugs and carpets must be of wool or other material having equivalent fire resistant qualities. (e) Trash receptacles must be constructed of...

  13. 46 CFR 72.05-55 - Furniture and furnishings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be of approved fire resistant fabrics. (4) All rugs and carpets shall be of wool or other material... subpart, rooms containing “fire resistant furnishings” will be considered to be those in which: (1) All... fire resistant furnishings. In addition, all upholstery and padding of chairs, sofas, etc., in these...

  14. Post-Conflict Realities and the Future of Stability in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    British Army states that they have selected 310 recruits from Nepal, among which 230 will go to the British Army and the remaining 80 will join the...Workers’ Union 12. All Nepal Hotel and Restaurant Workers’ Union 13. All Nepal Carpet Workers’ Union 14. All Nepal Meter Tempo Workers’ Union 15

  15. 76 FR 10587 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ...-00160 Unicorn House and Phenothrin Carpet Spray 11. Tetramethrin 028293-00215 Unicorn IGR Phenothrin... company number. This number corresponds to the first part of the EPA registration numbers of the products listed in this unit. Table 4 --Registrants of Cancelled Products Company No. Company name and address 192...

  16. MATS--Management Accounting Tutorial System. Version 1.0. Project Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Andrew; O'Connor, Rodric

    The Management Accounting Tutorial System (MATS) is a management accounting database for a carpet manufacturing company. The system allows the display and output of monthly activities, and is intended to provide a means of illustrating the main topics of the second year management accounting course at Manchester University. The system itself…

  17. MATS--Management Accounting Tutorial System. Version 1.0. User Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Andrew; O'Connor, Rodric

    The Management Accounting Tutorial System (MATS) is a management accounting database for a carpet manufacturing company. The system allows the display and output of monthly activities, and is intended to provide a means of illustrating the main topics of the second year management accounting course at Manchester University. The system itself…

  18. The impact of a photocatalytic paint on indoor air pollutants: Sensory assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    was illuminated by bulbs emitting visible/UV light. A mixture of common indoor pollutants, including emissions from chipboard, linoleum and carpet, as well as human bioffluents and isopropanol, were used to test the efficacy of the paint. A sensory panel of 35 subjects assessed the air quality in the test...

  19. How one should perform sensory measurements of perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Knudsen, Henrik N; Krzyzanowska, Justyna

    2010-01-01

    materials were chosen for the study, including carpet, linoleum, PVC, ceiling and two different paints. The assessments were performed in the small-scale in 20 glass chambers called CLIMPAQs. Each CLIMPAQ was loaded with single material. Each material was examined at three different area specific...

  20. Flooring for Schools: Unsightly Walkways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Many mattress manufacturers recommend that consumers rotate their mattresses at least twice a year to help prevent soft spots from developing and increase the product's life span. It's unfortunate that the same kind of treatment can't be applied to flooring for schools, such as carpeting, especially in hallways. Being able to flip or turn a carpet…

  1. Floors: Selection and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Bernard

    Flooring for institutional, commercial, and industrial use is described with regard to its selection, care, and maintenance. The following flooring and subflooring material categories are discussed--(1) resilient floor coverings, (2) carpeting, (3) masonry floors, (4) wood floors, and (5) "formed-in-place floors". The properties, problems,…

  2. The influence of headform orientation and flooring systems on impact dynamics during simulated fall-related head impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alexander D; Laing, Andrew C

    2012-10-01

    Novel compliant flooring systems are a promising approach for reducing fall-related injuries in seniors, as they may provide up to 50% attenuation in peak force during simulated hip impacts while eliciting only minimal influences on balance. This study aimed to determine the protective capacity of novel compliant floors during simulated 'high severity' head impacts compared to common flooring systems. A headform was impacted onto a common Commercial-Carpet at 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 m/s in front, back, and side orientations using a mechanical drop tower. Peak impact force applied to the headform (F(max)), peak linear acceleration of the headform (g(max)) and Head Injury Criterion (HIC) were determined. For the 3.5 m/s trials, backwards-oriented impacts were associated with the highest F(max) and HIC values (pfloors (Resilient Rubber, Residential-Loop Carpet, Berber Carpet) and six novel compliant floors at each impact velocity. ANOVAs indicated that flooring type was associated with all parameters at each impact velocity (pfloors (pfloors can substantially reduce the forces and accelerations applied to a headform compared to common floors including carpet and resilient rubber. In combination with reports of minimal balance impairments, these findings support the promise of novel compliant floors as a biomechanically effective strategy for reducing fall-related injuries including traumatic brain injuries and skull fractures. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of flooring on environmental stressors: a study of three flooring materials in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Debra D

    2015-01-01

    Three flooring materials, terrazzo, rubber, and carpet tile, in patient unit corridors were compared for absorption of sound, comfort, light reflectance, employee perceptions and preferences, and patient satisfaction. Environmental stressors, such as noise and ergonomic factors, effect healthcare workers and patients, contributing to increased fatigue, anxiety and stress, decreased productivity, and patient safety and satisfaction. A longitudinal comparative cohort study comparing three types of flooring assessed sound levels, healthcare worker responses, and patient Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) ratings over 42 weeks. A linear mixed model analysis was conducted to determine significant differences between the means for participant responses and objective sound meter data during all three phases of the study. A significant difference was found for sound levels between flooring type for equivalent continuous sound levels. Carpet tile performed better for sound attenuation by absorption, reducing sound levels 3.14 dBA. Preferences for flooring materials changed over the course of the study. The HCAHPS ratings aligned with the sound meter data showing that patients perceived the noise levels to be lower with carpet tiles, improving patient satisfaction ratings. Perceptions for healthcare staff and patients were aligned with the sound meter data. Carpet tile provides sound absorption that affects sound levels and influences occupant's perceptions of environmental factors that contribute to the quality of the indoor environment. Flooring that provides comfort underfoot, easy cleanability, and sound absorption influence healthcare worker job satisfaction and patient satisfaction with their patient experience. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Structural Composite Construction Materials Manufactured from Municipal Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-20

    alternatives. One company uses the wastes from leg cutouts in disposable diaper manufacture as a supply stream. Another is turning used carpet into plastic...sheathing type applications. While it offers a number of desirable properties, fiberglass suffers from degradation from solar exposure and embrittlement

  5. 40 CFR 63.5758 - How do I determine the organic HAP content of materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operations and use that value as a substitute for mass fraction of organic HAP. (4) Alternative method. You... for each material used in your open molding resin and gel coat operations, carpet and fabric adhesive operations, or aluminum recreational boat surface coating operations, you must use one of the options in...

  6. Production of vertical arrays of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong

    2013-08-13

    A hot filament chemical vapor deposition method has been developed to grow at least one vertical single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In general, various embodiments of the present invention disclose novel processes for growing and/or producing enhanced nanotube carpets with decreased diameters as compared to the prior art.

  7. Porosimetry and packing morphology of vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays via impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutha, Heena K; Lu, Yuan; Stein, Itai; Cho, H Jeremy; Suss, Matthew; Laoui, Tahar; Thompson, Carl; Wardle, Brian; Wang, Evelyn

    2016-12-13

    Vertically aligned one-dimensional nanostructure arrays are promising in many applications such as electrochemical systems, solar cells, and electronics, taking advantage of high surface area per unit volume, nanometer length scale packing, and alignment leading to high conductivity. However, many devices need to optimize arrays for device performance by selecting an appropriate morphology. Developing a simple, non-invasive tool for understanding the role of pore volume distribution and interspacing would aid in the optimization of nanostructure morphologies in electrodes. In this work, we combined electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with capacitance measurements and porous electrode theory to conduct in situ porosimetry of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) non-destructively. We utilized the EIS measurements with a pore size distribution model to quantify the average and dispersion of inter-CNT spacing (Γ), stochastically, in carpets that were mechanically densified from 1.7 × 1010 tubes/cm2 to 4.5 × 1011 tubes/cm2. Our analysis predicts that the inter-CNT spacing ranges from over 100 ± 50 nm in sparse carpets to sub 10 ± 5 nm in packed carpets. Our results suggest that waviness of CNTs leads to variations in the inter-CNT spacing, which can be significant in sparse carpets. This methodology can be used to predict the performance of many nanostructured devices, including supercapacitors, batteries, solar cells, and semiconductor electronics. Copyright 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. The Re-Birth of African Moral Traditions as Key to the Development of Sub-Saharan Africa: The Igbo Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpalikel, Chika J. B. Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This work is set against the backdrop of the Sub-Saharan African environment observed to be morally degenerative. It judges that the level of decadence in the continent that could even amount to depravity could be blamed upon the disconnect between the present-day African and a moral tradition that has been swept under the carpet through history;…

  9. Polyelectrolyte brushes at the air/water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    The nanostructure of amphiphilic diblock copolymer monolayer on water surface was investigated by in situ X-ray and neutron reflectivity. The diblock copolymers used have a long hydrophobic chain and a polyelectrolyte chain as a hydrophilic block. The monolayer was found not to have a simple double layer structure (hydrophobic layer / hydrophilic (carpet) layer) but to have a three layer structure consisting of hydrophobic layer, hydrophilic dense carpet layer, and polyelectrolyte brush layer when the polyelectrolyte block is long enough and the surface pressure (i.e. brush density) is high enough. The transition from carpet only to carpet/brush double layer structure in hydrophilic layer was observed as a function of polyelectrolyte chain length, the surface pressure. When the hydrophilic chain is a weak polyelectrolyte, the monolayer first expanded and then shrunk with increasing salt concentration in the subphase. For the strongly ionic polyelectrolyte, the monolayer structure was not affected by salt addition up to ∼0.2 M. These observations can be explained by a balance of the charged state of the brush chain, an electrostatic repulsion between brush chains and salt concentration in the brush layer

  10. Sphagnum modifies climate-change impacts on subarctic vascular bog plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorrepaal, E.; Aerts, R.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; Callaghan, T.V.

    2006-01-01

    1. Vascular plant growth forms in northern peatlands differ in their strategies to cope with the harsh climate, low nutrient availability and progressively increasing height of the Sphagnum carpet in which they grow. Climate change may therefore affect growth forms differentially, both directly and

  11. 75 FR 81236 - Consumer Product Safety Act: Notice of Commission Action Lifting Stay of Enforcement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... action with respect to non-children's products subject to CPSC regulations pertaining to vinyl plastic... pertaining to vinyl plastic film, carpets and rugs, and clothing textiles on January 26, 2011. FOR FURTHER... Reduction, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 4330 East West Highway, Bethesda, Maryland 20814; e-mail...

  12. Respiratory tract infections and its preventive measures among hajj pilgrims, 2010: A nested case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Emamian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that measures such as seasonal influenza vaccination, use of face masks and personal prayer carpet have no effect on the incidence of respiratory tract infections. However, washing throat and mouth with salt water can be considered the most effective preventive measures.

  13. 46 CFR 116.423 - Furniture and furnishings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Systems Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source,” and with a specific optical density not to exceed 450 in both...) “Specific Optical Density of Smoke generated by Solid Materials.” Also: (i) Rugs and carpets shall not... spillage or leakage of flammable or combustible liquids is possible including areas immediately adjacent to...

  14. Kitchen hygiene in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, R.R.; Kusumaningrum, H.D.

    2003-01-01

    More and more data are available indicating that numerous (infectious) diseases are related to the home environment. Airborne microorganisms (bacteria, fungi), mites (in sheets or carpets), and (parts of) insects and beetles may be the cause of respiratory diseases such as asthma. In Europe and

  15. Cardboard Houses with Wings: The Architecture of Alabama's Rural Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botz-Bornstein, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    The Rural Studio, an outreach program of Auburn University, designs innovative houses for poor people living in Alabama's Hale County by using "junk" such as car windshields, carpet tiles, baled cardboard, and old license plates. The article theorizes this particular architecture in terms of Critical Regionalism, developed by…

  16. SAMJ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disposal of nuclear waste which has not yet been settled. (apart from using the technological equivalent of sweeping household dust under the carpet). Should we therefore be encouraging the spread of techniques involving the use of radioactive material when other, ecologically safe and well- tried methods for preserving ...

  17. Detsibill : Meie aja kangelane Maryn E. Coote ning ajakirjandus. White label : Soda Effect - Uus kraam. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Poplauljast Marju Kuudist. Ansambli Soda Effect heliplaadist. Heliplaatidest: Sentenced "Buried Alive", Depeche Mode"Best of. Volume 1", Moby "Go: The Very Best", Bill Frisell, Ron CArter, Paul Motian "Nonesuch", My Chemical Romance "The Black Parade", Arabanda "Shams", Barbariz "Auh", Demogustico "Demogustico", Tutty Moreno ft. Jouce "Magica", Akon "Konvicted", Union Of Knives "Violence and Birdsong", Snoop Dogg "The Blue Carpet Treatment"

  18. Lutte chimique contre les acariens de la poussière de maison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saint Georges Gridelet, de D.M.O.G.; Kniest, F.M.; Schober, G.; Penaud, A.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical control is one of the possibilities for home sanitation for house-dust allergic patients. The causative mites may be found in mattress, padded furniture, curtains, carpets or on walls. Eight different control formulations are available in Europe : Acardust (aerosol), Acarosan (foam and wet

  19. lAhoratoire Arago, Banyuls-sur-mer, France

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fourth day in the field. In behaviour the tadpoles belong to the 'social' type and frequently aggregate to form a compact ball. When they leave the water, the innumerable young froglets literally cover the bank like a carpet and remain there several ...

  20. 75 FR 44247 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ...-Rest AQ Pyrethrins, Piperonyl butoxide 067517-00045 Hard Hitter Permethrin Aerosol 067517-00049 Dog and... Permethrin 067517-00056 Flea And Insect Pyrethrins, Carpet Dust Piperonyl butoxide 067517-00057 Cat And Dog Pyrethrins, Pyrethrin Powder Piperonyl butoxide 067517-00061 Permethrin 10% Permethrin W.B. Multi- Purpose...

  1. Energy analysis for the textile and clothing industry branch; Brancheenergianalyse for textil- og beklaedningsindustrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J.; Hart, M.; Moeller, J. [DTI, Beklaedning og Tekstil, Herning (Denmark)

    1995-09-01

    Energy analysis and energy saving measures are proposed for the textile branch. Spinning, weaving, knitting and dye mills are analyzed as well as carpet production industry and clothing industry. Mechanical equipment, drying equipment, processing lines are investigated with regard to the possible energy savings. (EG) 19 refs.

  2. Polyamides : hydrogen bonding, the Brill transition, and superheated water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra - Vinken, E.

    2008-01-01

    Aliphatic polyamide, commonly known as nylon, was the world’s first synthetic fiber and has found its largest application range in tires, carpets, stockings, upholstery, and adhesives. All polyamides have a recurring amide group (–CONH–) present in the molecular structure with hydrogen bonds between

  3. PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS (PFCs) IN SERUM OF CATS – LINKAGE TO INDOOR EXPOSURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PFCs have been used in a wide range of consumer, including residential, products (e.g., stain-resistant coatings for carpets and upholstery). Carbon-fluoride bonds are highly stable, mak-ing PFCs extremely resistant to biodegradation. Thus, PFCs have become globally distribut...

  4. Characterizing Residuals in New and Aged Fluorotelomer Polymers in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorotelomer polymers (FTPs) comprise some of the major products of the fluorotelomer industry. FTPs impart anti-wetting and anti-staining properties which are invaluable to wide range of consumer products including clothing, upholstery, food packaging, and carpeting. FTPs retai...

  5. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 04: PARENT PRE-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data set contains data concerning the individuals living in the home and the possible sources and routes of exposure, and the activity patterns of the preschool children. The parent was asked questions related to the age of their home; frequency of cleaning carpets, rugs, an...

  6. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 05: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER PRE-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data collection form is used to identify the potential sources of pollutants at the day care center. The day care teacher is asked questions related to the age of their day care building; age and frequency of cleaning carpets or rugs; types of heating and air conditioning de...

  7. D-dimensional moments of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.; Mead, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the moments of inertia of D-dimensional spheres and spherical shells, where D is a complex number. We also examine the moments of inertia of fractional-dimensional geometrical objects such as the Cantor set and the Sierpinski carpet and their D-dimensional analogs. copyright 1995 American Association of Physics Teachers

  8. Evaluation of cimi-shield knock-out bed bug eliminator against house fly (Musca domestica) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimi-Shield Knock-Out (CSKO) Bed Bug Eliminator is a green treatment labeled for use against bed bugs, carpet beetles, ants, roaches, fleas, ticks, silverfish, millipedes and centipedes. The active ingredient is soybean oil. If CSKO is formulated according to label instructions and sprayed directly ...

  9. Housekeeping. An Approach to Housekeeping Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotel and Catering Industry Training Board, Wembley (England).

    This booklet examines the training required by staff employed in housekeeping departments in the hotel and catering industry. It details specifications of particular tasks--baths/cloakrooms; service pantries and utility rooms; beds; furniture/fittings; floors/walls and ceilings; carpets/upholstery/soft furnishings; linen handling; linen room work;…

  10. Numerical Calculation of Distribution of Induced Carge Density on Planar Confined Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotov, V.; Druzhchenko, R.; Karazin, V.; Lominadze, J.; Kharadze, F.

    2007-01-01

    The calculation method of distribution of induced charge density on planar surfaces, including fractal structures of Sierpinski carpet type, is propesed. The calculation scheme is based on the fact that simply connected conducting surface of arbitrary geometry is an equipotential surface. (author)

  11. Is It a Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how in early mathematics learning, young children are often asked to recognize and describe visual patterns in their environment--perhaps on their clothing, a toy, or the carpet; around a picture frame; or in the playground equipment. Exploring patterns in the early years is seen as an important introduction to algebraic…

  12. Making the Best Decisions: Designing for Excellence!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Ann Adams; Foster-Harrison, Elizabeth S.

    1997-01-01

    Argues classrooms must provide an appropriately stimulating environment that supports learning and provides teachers and students with a comfortable place to learn. Lists requisite factors of the school environment including furniture, aesthetics, color, carpet, building maintenance, decorating detail, comfort, space/design, lighting, classroom…

  13. Multiple Learning Strategies Project. Building Maintenance & Engineering. Educable Mentally Impaired. [Vol. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantini, Debra; And Others

    This instructional package is one of three designed for educable mentally impaired students in the vocational area of building maintenance and engineering. The thirty-four learning modules are organized into six units: general maintenance tasks; restrooms; chalkboards; carpet care; office cleaning; and grounds. Each module includes these elements:…

  14. Multiple Learning Strategies Project. Building Maintenance & Engineering. Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dwight; And Others

    This instructional package is designed for visually impaired students in the vocational area of building maintenance and engineering. The twenty-eight learning modules are organized into six units: floor care, general maintenance tasks; restrooms; carpet care; power and hand tools; and cabinet construction. Each module, printed in large block…

  15. Multiple Learning Strategies Project. Building Maintenance & Engineering. Low Reader. [Vol. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, A.; And Others

    This instructional package is one of two designed for low reader students (those reading at grade level 3-6) in the vocational area of building maintenance and engineering. The forty-four learning modules are organized into eleven units: chalkboards; carpet care; office cleaning; grounds; sanitation; boiler maintenance and operation; power and…

  16. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nits. You should also use hot water to wash any bed linens, towels, and clothing recently worn by the person who had head lice. Vacuum anything that can’t be washed, such as the couch, carpets, your child’s car seat, and any stuffed animals. Because head lice ...

  17. Lice Aren't So Nice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it's a good idea for an adult to wash all your bedding, hats, clothing, and stuffed animals in hot water. Or he or she can seal these things in airtight bags for 10 days. That also will kill the lice and their eggs. Vacuuming the carpets, upholstery, and car seats will take care of any lice that ...

  18. 49 CFR 24.304 - Reestablishment expenses-nonresidential moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., such as paint, paneling, or carpeting. (5) Advertisement of replacement location. (6) Estimated... or rental charges; (ii) Personal or real property taxes; (iii) Insurance premiums; and (iv) Utility charges, excluding impact fees. (7) Other items that the Agency considers essential to the reestablishment...

  19. Pull Out All the Stops, and Give Staff Development the Go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Peggy

    1987-01-01

    To benefit fully from the consultants and guest lecturers hired to conduct inservice training for teachers, the McDowell County schools (North Carolina) cultivate a "red carpet" treatment policy for such visitors. Success depends on good two-way communication, efficient hospitality arrangements, administrative presence at workshops, and an…

  20. High Throughput Exposure Modeling of Semi-Volatile Chemicals in Articles of Commerce (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical components of consumer products and articles of commerce such as carpet and clothing are key drivers of exposure in the near-field environment. These chemicals include semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), some of which have been shown to alter endocrine functionality...

  1. A kinetic analysis of manual wheelchair propulsion during start-up on select indoor and outdoor surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koontz, AM; Cooper, RA; Boninger, ML; Yang, YS; Impink, BG; van der Woude, LHV

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a kinetic analysis of manual wheelchair propulsion during start-LIP on select indoor and Outdoor surfaces. Eleven manual wheelchairs were fitted with a SMART(Wheel) and their users were asked to Push on a Course consisting of high- and low-pile carpet,

  2. Royal Delicacies at Peasant Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak

    2011-01-01

    Turkish groceries and fast food restaurants, Chinese barbecues, Pakistani kiosks, Iranian pizzerias and carpet stores, Arabic kebab houses, erotic artists from Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia, exchange agencies across Denmark and many other EU countries, a growing number of wholesale businesses...

  3. Refuting the "Nimble Fingers" Argument [and] Working Together against Child Labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World of Work, 1996

    1996-01-01

    An International Labour Organization study refutes one of the most common arguments of apologists for child labor in the hand-woven carpet industry--the so-called nimble fingers argument. Excerpts from presentations at an International Labour Organization meeting highlight the commitment to eradicating child labor. (JOW)

  4. Hand forces exerted by long-term care staff when pushing wheelchairs on compliant and non-compliant flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Chantelle C; Korall, Alexandra M B; Russell, Colin M; Feldman, Fabio; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Mackey, Dawn C

    2018-09-01

    Purpose-designed compliant flooring and carpeting have been promoted as a means for reducing fall-related injuries in high-risk environments, such as long-term care. However, it is not known whether these surfaces influence the forces that long-term care staff exert when pushing residents in wheelchairs. We studied 14 direct-care staff who pushed a loaded wheelchair instrumented with a triaxial load cell to test the effects on hand force of flooring overlay (vinyl versus carpet) and flooring subfloor (concrete versus compliant rubber [brand: SmartCells]). During straight-line pushing, carpet overlay increased initial and sustained hand forces compared to vinyl overlay by 22-49% over a concrete subfloor and by 8-20% over a compliant subfloor. Compliant subflooring increased initial and sustained hand forces compared to concrete subflooring by 18-31% when under a vinyl overlay. In contrast, compliant flooring caused no change in initial or sustained hand forces compared to concrete subflooring when under a carpet overlay. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 75 FR 43076 - 2-Propanol, 1,1′,1′′-nitrilotris-; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... before September 21, 2010. Addresses for mail and hand delivery of objections and hearing requests are... that of the active ingredient. Second, the conservatism of this methodology is compounded by EPA's... exposure (e.g., textiles (clothing and diapers), carpets, swimming pools, and hard surface disinfection on...

  6. 75 FR 71550 - N,N,N′,N″,-Tetrakis-(2-Hydroxypropyl) Ethylenediamine (NTHE); Exemption From the Requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Clerk on or before January 24, 2011. Addresses for mail and hand delivery of objections and hearing... generally used at levels far below this percentage. Second, the conservatism of this methodology is... refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., textiles (clothing and diapers), carpets...

  7. 75 FR 74628 - Tristyrylphenol Ethoxylates; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    .... Addresses for mail and hand delivery of objections and hearing requests are provided in 40 CFR 178.25(b). In... the potentially higher residues from post-harvest treatment of this use. Second, the conservatism of... to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., textiles (clothing and diapers), carpets, swimming...

  8. Impact of Surface Type, Wheelchair Weight, and Axle Position on Wheelchair Propulsion by Novice Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Rachel E.; Nash, Mark S.; Collinger, Jennifer L.; Koontz, Alicia M.; Boninger, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and rear axle position on older adult propulsion biomechanics. Design Crossover trial. Setting Biomechanics laboratory. Participants Convenience sample of 53 ambulatory older adults with minimal wheelchair experience (65−87y); men = 20, women = 33. Intervention Participants propelled 4 different wheelchair configurations over 4 surfaces; tile, low carpet, high carpet, and an 8% grade ramp (surface, chair order randomized). Chair configurations included: (1) unweighted chair with an anterior axle position, (2) 9.05kg weighted chair with an anterior axle position, (3) unweighted chair with a posterior axle position (Δ0.08m), and (4) 9.05kg weighted chair with a posterior axle position (Δ0.08m). Weight was added to a titanium folding chair, simulating the weight difference between very light and depot wheelchairs. Instrumented wheels measured propulsion kinetics. Main Outcome Measures Average self-selected velocity, push-frequency, stroke length, peak resultant and tangential force. Results Velocity decreased as surface rolling resistance or chair weight increased. Peak resultant and tangential forces increased as chair weight increased, surface resistance increased, and with a posterior axle position. The effect of a posterior axle position was greater on high carpet and the ramp. The effect of weight was constant, but more easily observed on high carpet and ramp. The effects of axle position and weight were independent of one another. Conclusion Increased surface resistance decreases self-selected velocity and increases peak forces. Increased weight decreases self-selected velocity and increases forces. Anterior axle positions decrease forces, more so on high carpet. Effects of weight and axle position are independent. Greatest reductions in peak forces occur in lighter chairs with anterior axle positions. PMID:19577019

  9. External Hand Forces Exerted by Long-Term Care Staff to Push Floor-Based Lifts: Effects of Flooring System and Resident Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Chantelle C; Korall, Alexandra M B; Russell, Colin M; Feldman, Fabio; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Mackey, Dawn C

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of flooring type and resident weight on external hand forces required to push floor-based lifts in long-term care (LTC). Novel compliant flooring is designed to reduce fall-related injuries among LTC residents but may increase forces required for staff to perform pushing tasks. A motorized lift may offset the effect of flooring on push forces. Fourteen female LTC staff performed straight-line pushes with two floor-based lifts (conventional, motor driven) loaded with passengers of average and 90th-percentile resident weights over four flooring systems (concrete+vinyl, compliant+vinyl, concrete+carpet, compliant+carpet). Initial and sustained push forces were measured by a handlebar-mounted triaxial load cell and compared to participant-specific tolerance limits. Participants rated pushing difficulty. Novel compliant flooring increased initial and sustained push forces and subjective ratings compared to concrete flooring. Compared to the conventional lift, the motor-driven lift substantially reduced initial and sustained push forces and perceived difficulty of pushing for all four floors and both resident weights. Participants exerted forces above published tolerance limits only when using the conventional lift on the carpet conditions (concrete+carpet, compliant+carpet). With the motor-driven lift only, resident weight did not affect push forces. Novel compliant flooring increased linear push forces generated by LTC staff using floor-based lifts, but forces did not exceed tolerance limits when pushing over compliant+vinyl. The motor-driven lift substantially reduced push forces compared to the conventional lift. Results may help to address risk of work-related musculoskeletal injury, especially in locations with novel compliant flooring. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  10. Assessment of vegetation establishment on tailings dam at an iron ore mining site of suburban Beijing, China, 7 years after reclamation with contrasting site treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2013-09-01

    Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas.

  11. Optical invisibility through metasurfaces made of plasmonic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, A.; Alù, A.; Toscano, A.; Bilotti, F.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the application of the mantle cloaking technique to near-infrared and visible frequencies, analyzing and designing thin covers consisting of 2D arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles. First, we validate and generalize an analytical model recently appeared in the literature to describe a 2D array of plasmonic nanoparticles as a metasurface characterized by its homogenized surface reactance. We prove that the proposed model allows to efficiently design 2D mantle cloaks with an assigned surface reactance, enabling, thus, the extension of the mantle cloaking technique to optical frequencies. Then, we design realistic optical mantle cloaks made of 2D arrays of spheroidal plasmonic nanoparticles with a high eccentricity. We show that the proposed cloaks allow significant, moderately broadband cloaking effects at visible frequencies. In our designs, we consider realistic losses and non-critical nanoparticle dimensions to envision a practical realization of the proposed cloaks.

  12. Stable Dual-Wavelength Fibre Laser with Bragg Gratings Fabricated in a Polarization-Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wang; Feng-Ping, Yan; Xiang-Qiao, Mao; Shui-Sheng, Jian

    2008-01-01

    A new polarization-independent dual-wavelength fibre laser by fabricating a uniform FBG and a chirped FBG in a polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fibre (PM-EDF) is proposed and demonstrated. The wavelength spacing is 0.18nm and the optical signal-to-noise ratio is greater than 50dB with pump power of 246mW. Chirped FBG is used to make the reflectivity wavelengths of two PM-FBGs match easier. Since both EDF and FBGs are polarization-maintaining without splices and the two wavelengths are polarization-independent, the maximum amplitude variation and wavelength shifts for both lasing wavelength with 3-min intervals over a period of six hours are less than 0.2 dB and 0.005 nm, respectively, which shows stable dual-wavelength output

  13. Kerr nonlinearity mitigation in 5 × 28-GBd PDM16-QAM signal transmission over a dispersion-uncompensated link with backward-pumpeddistributed Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sackey, I.; Da Ros, Francesco; Jazayerifar, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present experimental and numerical investigations of Kerr nonlinearity compensation in a 400-km standard single-mode fiber link with distributed Raman amplification with backward pumping. A dual-pump polarization-independent fiber-based optical parametric amplifier is used for mid-link spectra...... to numerical simulations with good agreement. It is also shown with simulations that a maximum transmission reach of 2400 km enabled by the optical phase conjugator is possible for the WDM signal...

  14. High-power electro-optic switch technology based on novel transparent ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue-Jiao, Zhang; Qing, Ye; Rong-Hui, Qu; Hai-wen, Cai

    2016-03-01

    A novel high-power polarization-independent electro-optic switch technology based on a reciprocal structure Sagnac interferometer and a transparent quadratic electro-optic ceramic is proposed and analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The electro-optic ceramic is used as a phase retarder for the clockwise and counter-clockwise polarized light, and their polarization directions are adjusted to their orthogonal positions by using two half-wave plates. The output light then becomes polarization-independent with respect to the polarization direction of the input light. The switch characteristics, including splitter ratios and polarization states, are theoretically analyzed and simulated in detail by the matrix multiplication method. An experimental setup is built to verify the analysis and experimental results. A new component ceramic is used and a non-polarizing cube beam splitter (NPBS) replaces the beam splitter (BS) to lower the ON/OFF voltage to 305 V and improve the extinction ratio by 2 dB. Finally, the laser-induced damage threshold for the proposed switch is measured and discussed. It is believed that potential applications of this novel polarization-independent electro-optic switch technology will be wide, especially for ultrafast high-power laser systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61137004, 61405218, and 61535014).

  15. High-power electro-optic switch technology based on novel transparent ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xue-Jiao; Ye Qing; Qu Rong-Hui; Cai Hai-wen

    2016-01-01

    A novel high-power polarization-independent electro-optic switch technology based on a reciprocal structure Sagnac interferometer and a transparent quadratic electro-optic ceramic is proposed and analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The electro-optic ceramic is used as a phase retarder for the clockwise and counter-clockwise polarized light, and their polarization directions are adjusted to their orthogonal positions by using two half-wave plates. The output light then becomes polarization-independent with respect to the polarization direction of the input light. The switch characteristics, including splitter ratios and polarization states, are theoretically analyzed and simulated in detail by the matrix multiplication method. An experimental setup is built to verify the analysis and experimental results. A new component ceramic is used and a non-polarizing cube beam splitter (NPBS) replaces the beam splitter (BS) to lower the ON/OFF voltage to 305 V and improve the extinction ratio by 2 dB. Finally, the laser-induced damage threshold for the proposed switch is measured and discussed. It is believed that potential applications of this novel polarization-independent electro-optic switch technology will be wide, especially for ultrafast high-power laser systems. (paper)

  16. Green, Innovative, and Profitable: A Case Study of Managerial Capabilities at Interface Inc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommi Lampikoski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the pioneering green-innovation management practices of a resource-intensive corporation, Interface Inc., which is a globally operating carpet manufacturer. Even during the current economic downturn, many companies remain committed to advancing their green business agendas. However, recent research suggests that most of these companies are far from reaching substantial competitive advantage from this commitment because they lack the connection between their green agendas and core innovation-management activities. This study illustrates how Interface succeeded with radical green innovations by investing in managerial capabilities that allowed it to conduct research, recognize opportunities, and revolutionize the carpeting industry. These capabilities enabled Interface to continuously challenge and disrupt well-established management recipes, existing knowledge, and proven industrial practices, and they enabled it to create a sustainable competitive advantage through a winning portfolio of radical green innovations.

  17. Motor transfer from map ocular exploration to locomotion during spatial navigation from memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demichelis, Alixia; Olivier, Gérard; Berthoz, Alain

    2013-02-01

    Spatial navigation from memory can rely on two different strategies: a mental simulation of a kinesthetic spatial navigation (egocentric route strategy) or visual-spatial memory using a mental map (allocentric survey strategy). We hypothesized that a previously performed "oculomotor navigation" on a map could be used by the brain to perform a locomotor memory task. Participants were instructed to (1) learn a path on a map through a sequence of vertical and horizontal eyes movements and (2) walk on the slabs of a "magic carpet" to recall this path. The main results showed that the anisotropy of ocular movements (horizontal ones being more efficient than vertical ones) influenced performances of participants when they change direction on the central slab of the magic carpet. These data suggest that, to find their way through locomotor space, subjects mentally repeated their past ocular exploration of the map, and this visuo-motor memory was used as a template for the locomotor performance.

  18. $sup 155$Eu, $sup 144$Ce, $sup 125$Sb, $sup 106$Ru, $sup 95$Zr, $sup 54$Mn, and $sup 7$Be in the reindeer lichen Cladonia alpestris: deposition, retention and internal distribution, 1961--1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, L J.S.

    1972-09-01

    The retention and distribution of the fallout radionuclides , /sup 106/ Ru, /sup 95/Zr, and /sup 54/Mn and the naturally occurring radionuclide /sup 7/Be were studied in undisturbed natural carpets of the lichen Cladonia alpesiris, a major component of the diet of reindeer in the Lake Rogen district in central Sweden during the period 1961 to 1970. The contents of the artificially produced radionuclides in the lichen-carpet reached their maxima in 1963 to 1966 and all showed high retention values. During the seven-year period of 1962 to 1968 the average absorbed dose in the gut of a reindeer was calculated to be about 3 rad due to the passage of the food alone. The dominating contributions (about 40%) came from /sup 144/Ce. (CH)

  19. Fire retardant formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  20. Deposition of fine and ultrafine particles on indoor surface materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Reinhold, Claus

    2008-01-01

    -scale test chamber. Experiments took place in a 32 m3 chamber with walls and ceiling made of glass. Prior to each experiment the chamber was flushed with outdoor air to reach an initial particle concentration typical of indoor air in buildings with natural ventilation. The decay of particle concentrations...... The aim of this study was the experimental determination of particle deposition for both different particle size fractions and different indoor surface materials. The selected surface materials were glass, gypsum board, carpet, and curtain. These materials were tested vertically in a full...... was monitored. Seven particle size fractions were studied. These comprised ultrafine and fine particles. Deposition was higher on carpet and curtain than on glass and gypsum board. Particles ranging from 0.3 to 0.5 µm had the lowest deposition. This fraction also has the highest penetration and its indoor...

  1. Outbreak of eczema and rhinitis in a group of office workers in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, Niels E; Agner, Tove; Zimerson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Disturbed indoor climate may in some cases be associated with illness. In the present paper, we report the results from a thorough investigation of office workers in Greenland, who developed skin and/or airway problems after moving into renewed offices. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 2009...... the office of the Bank of Greenland had a total renovation of the building, including new furniture and carpets. Symptoms developed within the first year after moving back into the renewed buildings. After removal of carpets in the building, symptoms significantly improved. Workers were examined in 2009......: In total, 32 out of 80 workers (40%) developed symptoms; 27 reported eczema, 20 rhinitis and 4 urticaria. Eczema was located on the hands and/or lower arms in 18 workers, on the face in 10 workers and on legs/trunk in 12 workers. After intervention in the office, 22 workers with eczema reported significant...

  2. The Baksan experiment on thunderstorm CR variations: history, results, and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaerdinov, N.S.; Lidvansky, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Variations of cosmic rays in thunderstorm atmosphere, as measured at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory with the Carpet air shower array, are discussed. Their underlying mechanisms and accompanying phenomena are also considered. The observed effects in cosmic rays include regular variations with the near-ground electric field of the soft (electrons, positrons and gamma-rays) and hard (muons) components of secondary cosmic rays and sporadic changes in intensity of both these components (bright events). Associated phenomena occurring simultaneously with bright events in cosmic rays include geomagnetic pulsations (observed by high-sensitivity magnetic variation station deep underground) and large-scale atmospheric high-altitude discharge of a new type (observed by a video camera placed at a distance of 75 km from the Carpet array). Implications of all these results and prospects for further studies are discussed. (author)

  3. Nanostructure of polymer monolayer and polyelectrolyte brush at air/water interface by X-ray and neutron reflectometry

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, H; Matsumoto, K

    2003-01-01

    The nanostructure of amphiphilic diblock copolymer monolayer on water was directly investigated by in situ X-ray and neutron reflectivity techniques. The diblock copolymer consists of polysilacyclobutane, which is very flexible, as a hydrophobic block and polymethacrylic acid, an anionic polymer, as a hydrophilic block. The polymers with shorter hydrophilic segment formed a very smooth and uniform monolayer with hydrophobic layer on water and dense hydrophilic layer under the water. But the longer hydrophilic segment polymer formed three-layered monolayer with polyelectrolyte brush in addition to hydrophobic and dense hydrophilic layers. The dense hydrophilic layer is thought to be formed to avoid a contact between hydrophobic polymer layer and water. Its role is something like a 'carpet'. An additional interesting information is that the thickness of the 'carpet layer' is almost 15A, independent the surface pressure and hydrophilic polymer length. Highly quantitative information was obtained about the nanost...

  4. Nanostructure of Cationic Polymer Brush at the Air/Water Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuoka Hideki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cationic amphiphilic diblock copolymers were synthesized by RAFT polymerization and the nanostructure of their monolayers was investigated by π-A isotherm and X-ray reflectivity. Carpet layer (dense hydrophilic block layer formation under the hydrophobic layer was confirmed and a “brush” layer was found beneath the carpet layer. However, the thickness of brush layer was much thinner than that of the fully-stretched chain length. The critical salt concentration was found to be 0.01 M NaCl, which is much lower than that of the previous strongly anionic brush. These differences were probably caused by the low effective charge on the brush chains due to the hydrophobic nature of the quarternized ammonium cation.

  5. Structural study and fabrication of nano-pattern on ultra thin film of Ag grown by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Kundu, S.

    2001-01-01

    We present the structural study of ultra thin Ag films using grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity and the modification of these films with the tip of an atomic force microscope. Ag thin films are deposited using dc magnetron sputtering on a Si(001) substrate. Initially, the growth of the film is carpet like and above a certain thickness (∼42 A) the film structure changes to form mounds. This ultra thin film of Ag having carpet-like growth can be modified by the tip of an atomic force microscope, which occurs due to the porous nature of the film. A periodic pattern of nanometer dimensions has been fabricated on this film using the atomic force microscope tip. (author)

  6. Temperature-induced processes for size-selected metallic nanoparticles on surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettermann, H., E-mail: hendrik.bettermann@uni-duesseldorf.de; Werner, M.; Getzlaff, M., E-mail: getzlaff@uni-duesseldorf.de

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • FeNi nanoparticles on W(110) are stable at room temperature and above. • Unrolling carpet mechanism is driving the melting of nanoparticles. • Ostwald ripening is driving the formation of FeNi islands after melting. - Abstract: The melting behavior of Iron-Nickel alloy nanoparticles on W(110) was studied under UHV conditions as a function of heating temperature and heating duration. These particles were found to be stable at 423 K without evaporation or diffusion taking place. Unrolling carpet behavior occurs at higher temperatures. This creates ramified islands around the nanoparticles. Ostwald ripening at higher temperatures or longer heating times is creating compact islands. The melting of these nanoparticles opens the possibility for thin film growth of FeNi alloys. The formation of monolayer high islands is a strong contrast to Fe, Co, and FeCo alloy nanoparticles which are dominated by direct evaporation, single atom surface diffusion and anisotropic spreading.

  7. Robot Navigation Control Based on Monocular Images: An Image Processing Algorithm for Obstacle Avoidance Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Benn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers the use of monocular vision to control autonomous navigation for a robot in a dynamically changing environment. The solution focused on using colour segmentation against a selected floor plane to distinctly separate obstacles from traversable space: this is then supplemented with canny edge detection to separate similarly coloured boundaries to the floor plane. The resulting binary map (where white identifies an obstacle-free area and black identifies an obstacle could then be processed by fuzzy logic or neural networks to control the robot’s next movements. Findings show that the algorithm performed strongly on solid coloured carpets, wooden, and concrete floors but had difficulty in separating colours in multicoloured floor types such as patterned carpets.

  8. Build green and conventional materials off-gassing tests: A final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piersol, P.

    1995-12-31

    Build Green is a certification program that will identify and label building products with a known recycled content. The introduction of these recycled materials has raised the concern that they may emit more indoor pollutants than conventional materials. This study addresses that concern by analyzing Build Green and conventional materials to assess their potential for off-gassing. The study involved emission tests of 37 materials including carpets, carpet undercushions, structural lumber, foundation material, insulation, drywall, fiberboard, counter tops, and cabinetry. The results presented in this report include comparisons of Build Green and conventional materials in terms of emissions of volatile organic compounds and formaldehyde, the material loading ratio, and discussion of the specific sources of the emissions.

  9. Instrumented Footwear Inserts: A New Tool for Measuring Forces and Biomechanical State Changes During Dynamic Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    commercial insole. The load sensing elements are inexpensive, flat and flexible load cells (Figure 1). These novel load sensing elements are positioned...bonded to each of five waves (Figure 1A). A custom flexible circuit board (Figure 1B) connects the strain gages in series and provides analog to...consisted of walking for several minutes indoors (thin carpeted surface on concrete) and outdoors on several different surfaces ( pavement , gravel and

  10. The population structure of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes in the Lake Victoria basin in Uganda: implications for vector control

    OpenAIRE

    Hyseni, Chaz; Kato, Agapitus B; Okedi, Loyce M; Masembe, Charles; Ouma, Johnson O; Aksoy, Serap; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the primary vector of trypanosomiasis in humans and livestock in Uganda. The Lake Victoria basin has been targeted for tsetse eradication using a rolling carpet initiative, from west to east, with four operational blocks (3 in Uganda and 1 in Kenya), under a Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). We screened tsetse flies from the three Ugandan PATTEC blocks for genetic diversity at 15 microsatellite loci from con...

  11. Vertically aligned nanowires on flexible silicone using a supported alumina template prepared by pulsed anodization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.

    2009-01-01

    Carpets of vertically aligned nanowires on flexible substrates are successfully realized by a template method. Applying special pulsed anodization conditions, defect-free nanoporous alumina structures supported on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a flexible silicone elastomer, are created. By using...... this template with nanopores ending on a conducting underlayer, a high-density nanowire array can be simply grown by direct DCelectrodeposition on the top of the silicone rubber....

  12. Features of decorative art in the Stavropol region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalabuhova E. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available the article considers the specifics of the decorative arts in the Stavropol region. The creative efforts of artists and arts collectives of the enterprises – folk traditions continue to evolve in a new form in modern products. Today the art and crafts presented by such products as Kislovodsk porcelain, rugs, carpets, embroidery, Souvenirs. A reflection of the continuous creative search and new discoveries of artist was the technique of enamel.

  13. VOCs and formaldehyde emissions from cleaning products and air fresheners

    OpenAIRE

    Solal , Cécilia; Rousselle , Christophe; Mandin , Corinne; Manel , Jacques; Maupetit , François

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Human indoor exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) may be associated with the use of household products. However little is known about their emissions and to what extent they contribute to indoor air pollution. The French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) conducted tests in order to characterize VOCs emissions from 32 consumer products: air fresheners, glass cleaners, furniture polishes, toilet products, carpet and floor cleaning ...

  14. Surface analysis and mechanical behaviour mapping of vertically aligned CNT forest array through nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koumoulos, Elias P.; Charitidis, C.A., E-mail: charitidis@chemeng.ntua.gr

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Structure and wall numbers are identified through TEM. • Static contact angle measurements revealed a super-hydrophobic behavior. • Hysteresis was observed (loading–unloading) due to the local stress distribution. • Hardness and modulus mapping for a grid of 70 μm{sup 2} is conducted. • Resistance is clearly divided in 2 regions (MWCNT and MWCNT – MWCNT) interface. - Abstract: Carbon nanotube (CNT) based architectures have increased the scientific interest owning to their exceptional performance rendering them promising candidates for advanced industrial applications in the nanotechnology field. Despite individual CNTs being considered as one of the most known strong materials, much less is known about other CNT forms, such as CNT arrays, in terms of their mechanical performance (integrity). In this work, thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method is employed to produce vertically aligned multiwall (VA-MW) CNT carpets. Their structural properties were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, while their hydrophobic behavior was investigated via contact angle measurements. The resistance to indentation deformation of VA-MWCNT carpets was investigated through nanoindentation technique. The synthesized VA-MWCNTs carpets consisted of well-aligned MWCNTs. Static contact angle measurements were performed with water and glycerol, revealing a rather super-hydrophobic behavior. The structural analysis, hydrophobic behavior and indentation response of VA-MWCNTs carpets synthesized via CVD method are clearly demonstrated. Additionally, cycle indentation load-depth curve was applied and hysteresis loops were observed in the indenter loading–unloading cycle due to the local stress distribution. Hardness (as resistance to applied load) and modulus mapping, at 200 nm of displacement for a grid of 70 μm{sup 2} is presented. Through trajection, the resistance is clearly divided in 2

  15. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-30

    Products for export include fruits, raisins, melons, pomegranate juice (Anar), nuts, carpets, lapis lazuli gems, marble tile, timber products...Kunar, Nuristan provinces). In 2009, several large exports of pomegranates and apples to India and Dubai. Oil Proven Reserves 3.6 billion barrels of... composition as a result of the August 20, 2009 provincial council elections, even though these councils, for now, choose two-thirds of the members

  16. Promoting the rights of every child: the Ikea - Unicef partnership to prevent and combat child labor

    OpenAIRE

    M. Otto; L. Augelli; C. Hirsch

    2014-01-01

    IKEA is the world’s largest furniture retailer, founded in 1943 in Sweden. UNICEF is the leading international agency, working in 190 countries and territories to advance the rights of children. Together, IKEA and UNICEF created a partnership aimed at the prevention and reduction of the exploitation of children working in Northern India, in particular in the carpet belt of Uttar Pradesh. The partnership represents a prime example of a public-private partnership for development, contributing t...

  17. Study of propagation of Berberis thunbergii L. by cuttings, with using less-known methods of stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Říha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The different type of own produce stimulators were tested at Berberis thunbergii L. 'Green Carpet', Berberis thunbergii 'Red Shift' and Berberis thunbergii 'Aureum'. We used the combination of growing inhibitors and quick-dip method, single quick-dip metod in solution of acetone and stimulant in form of gel. Groving inhibitors is including paclobutrazol and CCC in test. We used IBK, NAA, IAA and nicotin acid as auxins in quick-dip method. Medium was aceton solution.

  18. How to develop Afghan Karakul marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdaws, Nesar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This study was specifically concerned with the Afghan karakul marketing development. After carpet and fruit, Afghan karakul is one of the most important export item of Afghanistan to international market especially western market. The study attempted to investigate, explore and analyze the current marketing of Afghan karakul and the significance of its marketing development. The objective of the study was to find ways in order to develop Afghan karakul marketing Qualitative research meth...

  19. Bangladesh: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-07

    rise in Bangladesh . Awami League Finance Minister A.M.S. Kibria and four others were killed in a bomb attack that also injured 70 at a political rally...Labor Force: Agriculture 63%, Industry 11%, and Services 26% Key Exports: Garments , jute, leather, frozen fish, seafood Key Export Partners: U.S. 24... Bangladesh . Ready made garments and jute carpet backing are two of Bangladesh’s key exports to the U.S. The United States has generally had a negative

  20. Separation efficiency of two waste polymer fibers for oily water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolović Dunja S.; Vulić Tatjana J.; Kiralj Arpad I.; Hadnađev-Kostić Milica S.; Sokolović Srđan S.

    2016-01-01

    This work is concerned with the efficiency of two different waste polymeric materials as the filter media in a laboratory-scale bed coalescer in the horizontal fluid flow mode, operating in a steady-state regime. The applied materials are: waste polyethylene terephthalate from textile industry, BA1 and waste polypropylene from carpet industry, PP. Using these compressible fiber polymeric materials, high bed porosity (up to 98%) could be obtained. The invest...

  1. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-11

    political situation was better than it had been in 1967, but 84 percent of the answers stressed that the Arab summit conferences had not succeeded in...34 Rabin stressed that the police was following the law in dealing with the suspects arrested in the riots, and that he was convinced that the report he...no exporting and do not understand it. None of those things we see as exportable traditional goods, such as carpets, cumin and so forth, were part of

  2. Strategic Insights. Volume 10, Issue 1, Spring 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    weapons in our arsenal and ban chemical and biological weapons. With persistence, there are solutions. A way around the attribution problem may be to...metal and plastic . America needs the ability to carpet bomb in cyberspace to create the deterrent we lack.13 In other words, Williamson was not only...Insights • Spring 2011 Volume 10, Issue 1 25 Cyber Conflict Between Taiwan and China Yao-chung Chang Introduction The Republic of China ( Taiwan

  3. Family and home characteristics correlate with mold in homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reponen, Tiina; Levin, Linda; Zheng, Shu; Vesper, Stephen; Ryan, Patrick; Grinshpun, Sergey A; LeMasters, Grace

    2013-07-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that infants residing in homes with higher Environmental Relative Moldiness Index were at greater risk for developing asthma by age seven. The purpose of this analysis was to identify the family and home characteristics associated with higher moldiness index values in infants' homes at age one. Univariate linear regression of each characteristic determined that family factors associated with moldiness index were race and income. Home characteristics associated with the moldiness index values were: air conditioning, carpet, age of the home, season of home assessment, and house dust mite allergen. Parental history of asthma, use of dehumidifier, visible mold, dog and cat allergen levels were not associated with moldiness index. Results of multiple linear regression showed that older homes had 2.9 units higher moldiness index (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.4, 5.4), whereas homes with central air conditioning had 2.5 units lower moldiness index (95% CI=-4.7, -0.4). In addition, higher dust mite allergen levels and carpeting were positively and negatively associated with higher moldiness index, respectively. Because older homes and lack of air conditioning were also correlated with race and lower income, whereas carpeting was associated with newer homes, the multivariate analyses suggests that lower overall socioeconomic position is associated with higher moldiness index values. This may lead to increased asthma risk in homes inhabited by susceptible, vulnerable population subgroups. Further, age of the home was a surrogate of income, race and carpeting in our population; thus the use of these factors should carefully be evaluated in future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors affecting orientation and satisfaction of women entrepreneurs in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti, Jeevan; Sharma, Jyoti; Kumari, Anita

    2011-01-01

    In the present era, the women-owned businesses in the form of women entrepreneurs are one of the fastest growing entrepreneurial populations in the India. The objective of the paper is to study the factors that affect women entrepreneurial orientation and their satisfaction. In this regard, the paper explores the affecting variables and their impact on orientation and satisfaction. The proposed model and hypotheses were tested by using the data collected from boutiques, beauty parlors, carpet...

  5. Development of a readily recyclable sound insulation material made of polyester fibers. Application of the PET fibers from plastic bottles; Recycle kanona jidoshayo polyester sei kyuon zairyo no kaihatsu. Shiyozumi pet bottle zai no insulator zai eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, K; Watanabe, K; Sugawara, H; Minemura, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have developed new polyester sound-absorbing materials made of fine and modified-cross-section polyester fabric. They provide noticeably higher sound-absorbing performance than traditional materials. Another feature of the new materials is their excellent recyclability since they are made of polyester. Application of the new materials to the dash silencer and the floor carpeting produced a great improvement in sound-insulation performance with less weight. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  6. The release of lindane from contaminated building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Volchek, Konstantin; Thouin, Geneviève; Kuang, Wenxing; Li, Ken; Tezel, F. Handan; Brown, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    The release of the organochlorine pesticide lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) from several types of contaminated building materials was studied to assess inhalation hazard and decontamination requirements in response to accidental and/or intentional spills. The materials included glass, polypropylene carpet, latex-painted drywall, ceramic tiles, vinyl floor tiles, and gypsum ceiling tiles. For each surface concentration, an equilibrium concentration was determined in the vapour phase of the s...

  7. Dynamic genome wide expression profiling of Drosophila head development reveals a novel role of Hunchback in retinal glia cell development and blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Torres-Oliva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster head development represents a valuable process to study the developmental control of various organs, such as the antennae, the dorsal ocelli and the compound eyes from a common precursor, the eye-antennal imaginal disc. While the gene regulatory network underlying compound eye development has been extensively studied, the key transcription factors regulating the formation of other head structures from the same imaginal disc are largely unknown. We obtained the developmental transcriptome of the eye-antennal discs covering late patterning processes at the late 2nd larval instar stage to the onset and progression of differentiation at the end of larval development. We revealed the expression profiles of all genes expressed during eye-antennal disc development and we determined temporally co-expressed genes by hierarchical clustering. Since co-expressed genes may be regulated by common transcriptional regulators, we combined our transcriptome dataset with publicly available ChIP-seq data to identify central transcription factors that co-regulate genes during head development. Besides the identification of already known and well-described transcription factors, we show that the transcription factor Hunchback (Hb regulates a significant number of genes that are expressed during late differentiation stages. We confirm that hb is expressed in two polyploid subperineurial glia cells (carpet cells and a thorough functional analysis shows that loss of Hb function results in a loss of carpet cells in the eye-antennal disc. Additionally, we provide for the first time functional data indicating that carpet cells are an integral part of the blood-brain barrier. Eventually, we combined our expression data with a de novo Hb motif search to reveal stage specific putative target genes of which we find a significant number indeed expressed in carpet cells.

  8. Public health aspects of snakebite care in West Africa: perspectives from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, Abdulrazaq G

    2013-01-01

    Snakebite envenoming is a major public health problem among rural communities of the Nigerian savanna. The saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) and, to a lesser extent, the African cobras (Naja spp.) and puff adders (Bitis arietans) have proved to be the most important cause of mortality and morbidity. The main clinical features of E. ocellatus envenoming are systemic hemorrhage, incoagulable blood, shock, local swelling, bleeding and, occasionally, necrosis. Bites may be complicated ...

  9. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) Quarterly Report to the United States Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-30

    USAID, Afghanistan’s main exports are agricul- tural or livestock-related—such as fruits , vegetables, nuts, resins, carpets, cotton, skins, and... leather .336 One of the goals of the New Silk Road initiative is to help promote private-sector investment in Afghanistan’s underdeveloped mining and...already imported 1.025 million tons of cereals and received 102,000 tons of food aid by the end of June 2011.342 By contrast, production of fruits

  10. Relativistic Quantum Revivals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, P.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum revivals are now a well-known phenomena within nonrelativistic quantum theory. In this Letter we display the effects of relativity on revivals and quantum carpets. It is generally believed that revivals do not occur within a relativistic regime. Here we show that while this is generally true, it is possible, in principle, to set up wave packets with specific mathematical properties that do exhibit exact revivals within a fully relativistic theory.

  11. Complex coupled system dynamics and the global warming policy problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Barkley Rosser

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A Public Domain, once a velvet carpet of rich buffalo-grass and grama, now an illimitable waste of rattlesnake-bush and tumbleweed, too impoverished to be accepted as a gift by the states within which it lies. Why? Because the ecology of this Southwest happened to be set on a hair trigger.—Aldo Leopold. 1933. The Conservation Ethic. Journal of Forestry 33: 636–637.

  12. Aircraft Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    fabrics of seats, carpets, drapes , lap robes, and sound deadening insulation. Also of concern are the polymeric based plastics used in interior walls...anti-petalling or backing boards,are used to seal up perforations caused by a wide -ange of combat threats, including ball and armour piercing...safe areas. Vital iarts of the engine/fuel system may be protected by armour . On the question of combustor chamber flame break out endeavours are

  13. Ozone-surface reactions in five homes: surface reaction probabilities, aldehyde yields, and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Morrison, G

    2010-06-01

    Field experiments were conducted in five homes during three seasons (summer 2005, summer 2006 and winter 2007) to quantify ozone-initiated secondary aldehyde yields, surface reaction probabilities, and trends any temporal over a 1.5-year interval. Surfaces examined include living room carpets, bedroom carpets, kitchen floors, kitchen counters, and living room walls. Reaction probabilities for all surfaces for all seasons ranged from 9.4 x 10(-8) to 1.0 x 10(-4). There were no significant temporal trends in reaction probabilities for any surfaces from summer 2005 to summer 2006, nor over the entire 1.5-year period, indicating that it may take significantly longer than this period for surfaces to exhibit any 'ozone aging' or lowering of ozone-surface reactivity. However, all surfaces in three houses exhibited a significant decrease in reaction probabilities from summer 2006 to winter 2007. The total yield of aldehydes for the summer of 2005 were nearly identical to that for summer of 2006, but were significantly higher than for winter 2007. We also observed that older carpets were consistently less reactive than in newer carpets, but that countertops remained consistently reactive, probably because of occupant activities such as cooking and cleaning. Ozone reactions taking place at indoor surfaces significantly influence personal exposure to ozone and volatile reaction products. These field studies show that indoor surfaces only slowly lose their ability to react with ozone over several year time frames, and that this is probably because of a combination of large reservoirs of reactive coatings and periodic additions of reactive coatings in the form of cooking, cleaning, and skin-oil residues. When considering exposure to ozone and its reaction products and in the absence of dramatic changes in occupancy, activities or furnishings, indoor surface reactivity is expected to change very slowly.

  14. Transanal endoscopic micro-surgery (TEMS) for the management of large or sessile rectal adenomas: a review of the technique and indications

    OpenAIRE

    Papagrigoriadis, Savvas

    2006-01-01

    In this review article the surgical technique of Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEMS) is examined. A number of techniques have been used to treat adenomas of the rectum. The treatment of large adenomas which occupy a large surface of the rectal lumen or adenomas which are flat and grow in a "carpet-like" fashion is particularly challenging. Major rectal surgery carries a risk of morbidity and mortality, particularly in elderly and unfit patients. Although local excision with transanal res...

  15. Dynamic genome wide expression profiling of Drosophila head development reveals a novel role of Hunchback in retinal glia cell development and blood-brain barrier integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Schneider, Julia; Wiegleb, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster head development represents a valuable process to study the developmental control of various organs, such as the antennae, the dorsal ocelli and the compound eyes from a common precursor, the eye-antennal imaginal disc. While the gene regulatory network underlying compound eye development has been extensively studied, the key transcription factors regulating the formation of other head structures from the same imaginal disc are largely unknown. We obtained the developmental transcriptome of the eye-antennal discs covering late patterning processes at the late 2nd larval instar stage to the onset and progression of differentiation at the end of larval development. We revealed the expression profiles of all genes expressed during eye-antennal disc development and we determined temporally co-expressed genes by hierarchical clustering. Since co-expressed genes may be regulated by common transcriptional regulators, we combined our transcriptome dataset with publicly available ChIP-seq data to identify central transcription factors that co-regulate genes during head development. Besides the identification of already known and well-described transcription factors, we show that the transcription factor Hunchback (Hb) regulates a significant number of genes that are expressed during late differentiation stages. We confirm that hb is expressed in two polyploid subperineurial glia cells (carpet cells) and a thorough functional analysis shows that loss of Hb function results in a loss of carpet cells in the eye-antennal disc. Additionally, we provide for the first time functional data indicating that carpet cells are an integral part of the blood-brain barrier. Eventually, we combined our expression data with a de novo Hb motif search to reveal stage specific putative target genes of which we find a significant number indeed expressed in carpet cells. PMID:29360820

  16. Skin friction related behaviour of artificial turf systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Sock Peng; Fleming, Paul; Hu, Xiao; Forrester, Steph

    2017-08-01

    The occurrence of skin friction related injuries is an issue for artificial turf sports pitches and remains a barrier to their acceptance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current industry standard Securisport® Sports Surface Tester that measures skin surface related frictional behaviour of artificial turf. Little research has been published about the device and its efficacy, despite its widespread use as a standard FIFA test instrument. To achieve a range of frictional behaviours, several "third generation" (3G) carpet and infill combinations were investigated; friction time profiles throughout the Securisport rotations were assessed in combination with independent measurements of skin roughness before and after friction testing via 3D surface scanning. The results indicated that carpets without infill had greatest friction (coefficients of friction 0.97-1.20) while those completely filled with sand or rubber had similar and lower values independent of carpet type (coefficient of friction (COF) ≈0.57). Surface roughness of a silicone skin (s-skin) decreased after friction testing, with the largest change on sand infilled surfaces, indicating an "abrasive" polishing effect. The combined data show that the s-skin is damaged in a surface-specific manner, thus the Securisport COF values appear to be a poor measure of the potential for skin abrasion. It is proposed that the change in s-skin roughness improves assessment of the potential for skin damage when players slide on artificial turf.

  17. Evaluation of the concentration of allergens from mites in fur and households dust of dogs with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dévaki L. de Assunção

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the concentration of Der p 1, Der f 1 and Blo t 5 in the fur and households of 20 dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD and 20 healthy dogs. The diagnosis of AD was clinical based on Favrot’s criteria. Dust samples were collected with a domestic vacuum cleaner. For each site, 1m2 was vacuumed for 2 min. The samples were collected in separate filters, transferred into plastic containers, sealed and kept frozen until ELISA analysis. In the fur of atopic dogs the average concentration of Der p 1 was 0.25μg/g compared to 0.03μg/g in healthy dogs. In households with atopic dogs the highest concentrations of Der p 1 were found in carpets (2.18μg/g, followed by couches (1.53μg/g, beds (1.14μg/g, dogs’ bed linen (0.64μg/g and floors (0.14μg/g. The concentrations of Der p 1 on carpets, couches and beds were significantly higher than in atopic dogs’ fur (p0.05. The concentrations of Der p 1, Der f 1 and Blo t 5 were equivalent in atopic and non-atopic dog’s households. Among the allergens studied, Der p 1 was the most commonly found, predominantly in carpets and couches.

  18. Dynamic behavior of semivolatile organic compounds in indoor air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loy, Michael David Van [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-12-09

    Exposures to a wide range of air pollutants are often dominated by those occurring in buildings because of three factors: 1) most people spend a large fraction of their time indoors, 2) many pollutants have strong indoor sources, and 3) the dilution volume in buildings is generally several orders of magnitude smaller than that of an urban airshed. Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCS) are emitted by numerous indoor sources, including tobacco combustion, cooking, carpets, paints, resins, and glues, so indoor gasphase concentrations of these compounds are likely to be elevated relative to ambient levels. The rates of uptake and release of reversibly sorbing SVOCS by indoor materials directly affect both peak concentrations and persistence of the pollutants indoors after source elimination. Thus, accurate predictions of SVOC dynamics in indoor air require an understanding of contaminant sorption on surface materials such as carpet and wallboard. The dynamic behaviors of gas-phase nicotine and phenanthrene were investigated in a 20 ms stainless steel chamber containing carpet and painted wallboard. Each compound was studied independently, first in the empty chamber, then with each sorbent individually, and finally with both sorbents in the chamber.

  19. Characterization of the protective capacity of flooring systems using force-deflection profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinka, Michal N; Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P; Laing, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    'Safety floors' aim to decrease the risk of fall-related injuries by absorbing impact energy during falls. Ironically, excessive floor deflection during walking or standing may increase fall risk. In this study we used a materials testing system to characterize the ability of a range of floors to absorb energy during simulated head and hip impacts while resisting deflection during simulated single-leg stance. We found that energy absorption for all safety floors (mean (SD)=14.8 (4.9)J) and bedside mats (25.1 (9.3)J) was 3.2- to 5.4-fold greater than the control condition (commercial carpet). While footfall deflections were not significantly different between safety floors (1.8 (0.7)mm) and the control carpet (3.7 (0.6)mm), they were significantly higher for two bedside mats. Finally, all of the safety floors, and two bedside mats, displayed 3-10 times the energy-absorption-to-deflection ratios observed for the baseline carpet. Overall, these results suggest that the safety floors we tested effectively addressed two competing demands required to reduce fall-related injury risk; namely the ability to absorb substantial impact energy without increasing footfall deflections. This study contributes to the literature suggesting that safety floors are a promising intervention for reducing fall-related injury risk in older adults. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Status of the ARGO Experiment at YBJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aielli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Tor Vergata' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma2 (Italy); Bacci, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Roma Tre' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma3 (Italy); Bartoli, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli and INFN Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Lecce and INFN Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Bi, X.J. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophyics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Beijing (China); Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Lecce and INFN Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Bussino, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Roma Tre' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma3 (Italy); Calabrese Melcarne, A.K. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Lecce and INFN Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Tor Vergata' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma2 (Italy); Campana, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli and INFN Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Cao, Z. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophyics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Beijing (China); Cardarelli, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Tor Vergata' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma2 (Italy); Catalanotti, S.; Cavaliere, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli and INFN Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Celio, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Roma Tre' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma3 (Italy); Chen, S.Z.; Cheng, N. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophyics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Beijing (China); Creti, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Lecce and INFN Sezione di Lecce(Italy); Cui, S.W. [Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China)] (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment, located at Yangbajing, Tibet, China, performed by a wide Sino-Italian collaboration, is designed to study cosmic rays, sub-TeV gamma ray sources and GeV Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) emission in the northern hemisphere, by means of detecting small size EAS (Extensive Air Shower) using a full coverage RPC (Resistive Plate Chamber) carpet. The central carpet of the detector is installed and put into operation to date, with 1900m{sup 2} of the carpet already operating since December 2004. With a trigger multiplicity of {>=}60 hits, corresponding to a primary mode energy of 2 TeV, the angular resolution of EAS measurements is < 1{sup o} for showers with more than 500 recorded hits. We report the preliminary results of data taking performed during 2005: the all-sky survey for gamma ray sources and the search for GRBs, as well as the cosmic ray spectrum up to about 100 TeV. The Forbush decrease of the cosmic ray flux during January, 2005 is observed using the ARGO data.

  1. A first generation dynamic ingress, redistribution and transport model of soil track-in: DIRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D L

    2008-12-01

    This work introduces a spatially resolved quantitative model, based on conservation of mass and first order transfer kinetics, for following the transport and redistribution of outdoor soil to, and within, the indoor environment by track-in on footwear. Implementations of the DIRT model examined the influence of room size, rug area and location, shoe size, and mass transfer coefficients for smooth and carpeted floor surfaces using the ratio of mass loading on carpeted to smooth floor surfaces as a performance metric. Results showed that in the limit for large numbers of random steps the dual aspects of deposition to and track-off from the carpets govern this ratio. Using recently obtained experimental measurements, historic transport and distribution parameters, cleaning efficiencies for the different floor surfaces, and indoor dust deposition rates to provide model boundary conditions, DIRT predicts realistic floor surface loadings. The spatio-temporal variability in model predictions agrees with field observations and suggests that floor surface dust loadings are constantly in flux; steady state distributions are hardly, if ever, achieved.

  2. Combined use of alkane-degrading and plant growth-promoting bacteria enhanced phytoremediation of diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara, Nain; Afzal, Muhammad; Ansari, Tariq M; Tahseen, Razia; Iqbal, Samina; Khan, Qaiser M

    2014-01-01

    Inoculation of plants with pollutant-degrading and plant growth-promoting microorganisms is a simple strategy to enhance phytoremediation activity. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculation of different bacterial strains, possessing alkane-degradation and 1-amino-cyclopropane-1 -carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, on plant growth and phytoremediation activity. Carpet grass (Axonopus affinis) was planted in soil spiked with diesel (1% w/w) for 90 days and inoculated with different bacterial strains, Pseudomonas sp. ITRH25, Pantoea sp. BTRH79 and Burkholderia sp. PsJN, individually and in combination. Generally, bacterial application increased total numbers of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere ofcarpet grass, plant biomass production, hydrocarbon degradation and reduced genotoxicity. Bacterial strains possessing different beneficial traits affect plant growth and phytoremediation activity in different ways. Maximum bacterial population, plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation were achieved when carpet grass was inoculated with a consortium of three strains. Enhanced plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation were associated with increased numbers of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere of carpet grass. The present study revealed that the combined use of different bacterial strains, exhibiting different beneficial traits, is a highly effective strategy to improve plant growth and phytoremediation activity.

  3. Impact of Mass and Weight Distribution on Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigle, Stephen; Huang, Morris

    2015-01-01

    Propulsion effort of manual wheelchairs, a major determinant of user mobility, is a function of human biomechanics and mechanical design. Human studies that investigate both variables simultaneously have resulted in largely inconsistent outcomes, motivating the implementation of a robotic propulsion system that characterizes the inherent mechanical performance of wheelchairs. This study investigates the impacts of mass and mass distribution on manual wheelchair propulsion by configuring an ultra-lightweight chair to two weights (12-kg and 17.6-kg) and two load distributions (70% and 55% on drive wheels). The propulsion torques of these four configurations were measured for a straight maneuver and a fixed-wheel turn, on both tile and carpet. Results indicated that increasing mass to 17.6-kg had the largest effect on straight acceleration, requiring 7.4% and 5.8% more torque on tile and carpet, respectively. Reducing the drive wheel load to 55% had the largest effect on steady-state straight motion and on both turning acceleration and steady-state turning; for tile and carpet, propulsion torque increased by 13.5% and 11.8%, 16.5% and 4.1%, 73% and 5.1%, respectively. These results demonstrate the robot's high sensitivity, and support the clinical importance of evaluating effects of wheelchair mass and axle position on propulsion effort across maneuvers and surfaces.

  4. Optical properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Hsiang-Lin

    2014-11-17

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to characterize the complex refractive index of chemical-vapor-deposited monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). The extraordinary large value of the refractive index in the visible frequency range is obtained. The absorption response shows a strong correlation between the magnitude of the exciton binding energy and band gap energy. Together with the observed giant spin-orbit splitting, these findings advance the fundamental understanding of their novel electronic structures and the development of monolayer TMDs-based optoelectronic and spintronic devices.

  5. Optical properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Hsiang-Lin; Shen, Chih-Chiang; Su, Sheng-Han; Hsu, Chang-Lung; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to characterize the complex refractive index of chemical-vapor-deposited monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). The extraordinary large value of the refractive index in the visible frequency range is obtained. The absorption response shows a strong correlation between the magnitude of the exciton binding energy and band gap energy. Together with the observed giant spin-orbit splitting, these findings advance the fundamental understanding of their novel electronic structures and the development of monolayer TMDs-based optoelectronic and spintronic devices.

  6. Synchrotron radiation interferences between small dipoles at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovet, C.; Burns, A.; Meot, F.; Placidi, M.; Rossa, E.; Vries, J. de

    1997-06-01

    Synchrotron Radiation interferences between small dipoles in the very low (visible) frequency range have been studied at the LEP diagnostic mini-wiggler. Their understanding allowed a substantial brightness gain by adequate layout modifications. The phenomenon is described analytically in terms of time coherence effects. This serves as a basis for further detailed numerical simulations of the experiment by means of stepwise ray-tracing, and allows precise interpretation of the spectral, polarization and intensity measurements collected at LEP. It also provides guidelines for SR diagnostic at injection energy in LHC

  7. Observation of quasiperiodic dynamics in a one-dimensional quantum walk of single photons in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peng; Qin, Hao; Tang, Bao; Sanders, Barry C.

    2014-05-01

    We realize the quasi-periodic dynamics of a quantum walker over 2.5 quasi-periods by realizing the walker as a single photon passing through a quantum-walk optical-interferometer network. We introduce fully controllable polarization-independent phase shifters in each optical path to realize arbitrary site-dependent phase shifts, and employ large clear-aperture beam displacers, while maintaining high-visibility interference, to enable 10 quantum-walk steps to be reached. By varying the half-wave-plate setting, we control the quantum-coin bias thereby observing a transition from quasi-periodic dynamics to ballistic diffusion.

  8. PEPSI — a Monte Carlo generator for polarized leptoproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankiewicz, L.; Schäfer, A.; Veltri, M.

    1992-09-01

    We describe PEPSI (Polarized Electron Proton Scattering Interactions), a Monte Carlo program for polarized deep inelastic leptoproduction mediated by electromagnetic interaction, and explain how to use it. The code is a modification of the LEPTO 4.3 Lund Monte Carlo for unpolarized scattering. The hard virtual gamma-parton scattering is generated according to the polarization-dependent QCD cross-section of the first order in α S. PEPSI requires the standard polarization-independent JETSET routines to simulate the fragmentation into final hadrons.

  9. PEPSI - a Monte Carlo generator for polarized leptoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankiewicz, L.

    1992-01-01

    We describe PEPSI (Polarized Electron Proton Scattering Interactions) a Monte Carlo program for polarized deep inelastic leptoproduction mediated by electromagnetic interaction, and explain how to use it. The code is a modification of the Lepto 4.3 Lund Monte Carlo for unpolarized scattering. The hard virtual gamma-parton scattering is generated according to the polarization-dependent QCD cross-section of the first order in α S . PEPSI requires the standard polarization-independent JETSET routines to simulate the fragmentation into final hadrons. (orig.)

  10. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donné A.J.H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A CW capable inline electron cyclotron emission (ECE separation system for feedback control, featuring oversized corrugated waveguides, is commissioned on ASDEX upgrade (AUG. The system is based on a combination of a polarization independent, non-resonant, Mach-Zehnder diplexer equipped with dielectric plate beam splitters [2, 3] employed as corrugated oversized waveguide filter, and a resonant Fast Directional Switch, FADIS [4, 5, 6, 7] as ECE/ECCD separation system. This paper presents an overview of the system, the low power characterisation tests and first high power commissioning on AUG.

  11. Three-port beam splitter of a binary fused-silica grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jijun; Zhou, Changhe; Wang, Bo; Zheng, Jiangjun; Jia, Wei; Cao, Hongchao; Lv, Peng

    2008-12-10

    A deep-etched polarization-independent binary fused-silica phase grating as a three-port beam splitter is designed and manufactured. The grating profile is optimized by use of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis around the 785 nm wavelength. The physical explanation of the grating is illustrated by the modal method. Simple analytical expressions of the diffraction efficiencies and modal guidelines for the three-port beam splitter grating design are given. Holographic recording technology and inductively coupled plasma etching are used to manufacture the fused-silica grating. Experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical values.

  12. Optical parametric amplification of arbitrarily polarized light in periodically poled LiNbO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guang-hao; Song, Xiao-shi; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2012-08-13

    Optical parametric amplification (OPA) of arbitrarily polarized light is proposed in a multi-section periodically poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN). External electric field is applied on selected sections to induce the polarization rotation of involved lights, thus the quasi-phase matched optical parametric processes exhibit polarization insensitivity under suitable voltage. In addition to the amplified signal wave, an idler wave with the same polarization is generated simultaneously. As an example, a ~10 times OPA showing polarization independency is simulated. Applications of this technology are also discussed.

  13. Detection of vortex-core dynamics using current-induced self-bistable rectifying effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, M; Hata, H; Yamaguchi, A; Miyajima, H; Nozaki, Y; Nakatani, Y; Yamaoka, T

    2011-01-01

    A magnetic vortex core confined in a micron-scale magnetic disk is resonantly excited by spin-polarized radio-frequency (rf) current and rf field. We show that rectifying voltage spectra caused by the vortex core resonance is dependent on the core polarity. Rectifying voltage spectra are given by the superposition of the polarity-dependent term and the polarity-independent term. The sign of the polarity-dependent rectifying voltage reverses when the sign of polarity P or external field H is reversed. This experimental result can be explained by the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect caused by the vortex core motion.

  14. Analysis of the polarization characteristic of a satellite-to-ground laser communication optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Jiang, Lun; An, Yan; Doug, Ke-yan; Zhang, Ya-lin

    2015-10-01

    We present three rotation symmetric planar metamaterials and consist of 3, 4 and 6 split resonant rings (SRRs) respectively, proved that they are polarization-insensitive. The modulation characters constructed by the three planar metamaterials are also studied and compared to demonstrate that the structure with more even rotation symmetry is much more beneficial to be polarization-independence. Furthermore, the influencing rules of the electrodes on the polarization character of metamaterials are obtained. The polarization character can be converted by tailoring the electrodes which provides a guide to construct and design novel terahertz polarimetirc devices for potential applications.

  15. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Symmetric Planar Metamaterial at THz Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelwaheb Ourir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the experimental observation and the evidence of the analogue of electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT in a symmetric planar metamaterial. This effect has been obtained in the THz range thanks to a destructive Fano-interference between the two first modes of an array of multi-gap split ring resonators deposited on a silicon substrate. This structure is a planar thin film material with four-fold symmetry. Thanks to this property, a polarization-independent transmission has been achieved. The proposed metamaterial is well adapted to variety of slow-light applications in the infrared and optical range.

  16. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, W. A.; Kasparek, W.; Doelman, N.; van den Braber, R.; van den Brand, H.; Meo, F.; de Baar, M. R.; Amerongen, F. J.; Donné, A. J. H.; Elzendoorn, B. S. Q.; Erckmann, V.; Goede, A. P. H.; Giannone, L.; Grünwald, G.; Hollman, F.; Kaas, G.; Krijger, B.; Michel, G.; Lubyako, L.; Monaco, F.; Noke, F.; Petelin, M.; Plaum, B.; Purps, F.; ten Pierik, J. G. W.; Schüller, C.; Slob, J. W.; Stober, J. K.; Schütz, H.; Wagner, D.; Westerhof, E.; Ronden, D. M. S.

    2012-09-01

    A CW capable inline electron cyclotron emission (ECE) separation system for feedback control, featuring oversized corrugated waveguides, is commissioned on ASDEX upgrade (AUG). The system is based on a combination of a polarization independent, non-resonant, Mach-Zehnder diplexer equipped with dielectric plate beam splitters [2, 3] employed as corrugated oversized waveguide filter, and a resonant Fast Directional Switch, FADIS [4, 5, 6, 7] as ECE/ECCD separation system. This paper presents an overview of the system, the low power characterisation tests and first high power commissioning on AUG.

  17. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  18. Anomalous behaviors during infiltration into heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarão Reis, F. D. A.; Bolster, D.; Voller, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    Flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media often exhibit anomalous behavior. A physical analog example is the uni-directional infiltration of a viscous liquid into a horizontal oriented Hele-Shaw cell containing through thickness flow obstacles; a system designed to mimic a gravel/sand medium with impervious inclusions. When there are no obstacles present or the obstacles form a multi-repeating pattern, the change of the length of infiltration F with time t tends to follow a Fickian like scaling, F ∼t1/2 . In the presence of obstacle fields laid out as Sierpinski carpet fractals, infiltration is anomalous, i.e., F ∼ tn, n ≠ 1/2. Here, we study infiltration into such Hele-Shaw cells. First we investigate infiltration into a square cell containing one fractal carpet and make the observation that it is possible to generate both sub (n 1/2) diffusive behaviors within identical heterogeneity configurations. We show that this can be explained in terms of a scaling analysis developed from results of random-walk simulations in fractal obstacles; a result indicating that the nature of the domain boundary controls the exponent n of the resulting anomalous transport. Further, we investigate infiltration into a rectangular cell containing several repeats of a given Sierpinski carpet. At very early times, before the liquid encounters any obstacles, the infiltration is Fickian. When the liquid encounters the first (smallest scale) obstacle the infiltration sharply transitions to sub-diffusive. Subsequently, around the time where the liquid has sampled all of the heterogeneity length scales in the system, there is a rapid transition back to Fickian behavior. An explanation for this second transition is obtained by developing a simplified infiltration model based on the definition of a representative averaged hydraulic conductivity.

  19. The NSCL cyclotron gas stopper – Entering commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Bollen, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, East Lansing, MI (United States); Chouhan, S. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, East Lansing, MI (United States); Das, J.J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Green, M. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, East Lansing, MI (United States); Magsig, C. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Morrissey, D.J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ottarson, J.; Sumithrarachchi, C. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Villari, A.C.C.; Zeller, A. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Linear gas stopping cells have been used successfully at NSCL to slow down ions produced by projectile fragmentation from the 100 MeV/u to the keV energy range. These ‘stopped beams’ have first been used for low-energy high precision experiments and more recently for NSCLs re-accelerator ReA. A gas-filled reverse cyclotron is currently under construction by the NSCL to complement the existing stopping cells: Due to its extended stopping length, efficient stopping and fast extraction is expected even for light and medium-mass ions, which are difficult to thermalize in linear gas cells. The device is based on a 2.6 T maximum-field cyclotron-type magnet to confine the injected beam while it is slowed down in ≈100 mbar of LN{sub 2}-temperature helium gas. Once thermalized, the beam will be transported to the center of the device by a traveling-wave RF-carpet system, extracted along the symmetry axis with an ion conveyor and miniature RF-carpets, and accelerated to a few tens of keV of energy for delivery to the users. The superconducting magnet has been constructed on a 60 kV platform and energized to its nominal field strength. The magnet’s two cryostats use 3 cryo-refrigerators each and liquid-nitrogen cooled thermal shields to cool the coil pair to superconductivity. This concept, chosen not to have to rely on external liquid helium, has been working well. Measurements of axial and radial field profiles confirm the field calculations. The individual RF-ion guiding components for low-energy ion transport through the device have been tested successfully. The beam stopping chamber with its 0.9 m-diameter RF carpet system and the ion extraction system are being prepared for installation inside the magnet for low-energy ion transport tests.

  20. Nitrogen removal from concentrated latex wastewater by land treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikanda Thongnuekhang

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the concentrated latex factories in the South of Thailand discharge treated wastewater that contains high level of nitrogen to a nearby river or canals leading to a water pollution problem. A study of land treatment system was conducted to treat and utilize nitrogen in treated wastewater from the concentrated latex factory. The experimental pilot-scale land treatment system was constructed at the Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus. It consisted of water convolvulus (Ipomea aquatica, I. Reptans, tropical carpet grass (Axonopus compresus (Swartz Beav. and control unit (no plantation. The treated wastewater from the stabilization pond system of the selected concentrated latex factoryin Songkhla was used to irrigate each experimental unit. Influent and effluent from the experimental units were analyzed for TKN, NH3-N, Org-N, NO3 --N, NO2 --N, BOD5, sulfate, pH and EC. The land treatment system resulted a high removal efficiency for nitrogen. Tropical carpet grass provided higher removal efficiency than other units for all parameters. The removal efficiency of water convolvulus and control unit were not significantly different. The average removal efficiency of TKN, NH3-N, Org-N, BOD5 and sulfate for tropical carpet grass unit were 92, 97, 61, 88 and 52%, for water convolvulus unit were 75, 80, 43, 41 and 30%, and for control unit were 74, 80, 41, 31 and 28%, respectively. Mass balance of nitrogen transformation was conducted. It revealed that plant uptake was the major mechanism for nitrogen removal in land treatment.

  1. Building America Case Study: Impact of Slab-Foundation Heat Transfer on Space-Conditioning Energy Use in Florida, Cocoa, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Heat transfer to slab foundations has remained an area of building science with poor understanding over the last three decades of energy efficiency research. This is somewhat surprising since the area of floors in single family homes is generally equal to wall, or windows or attics which have been extensively evaluated. Research that has been done has focused in the impact of slab on grade foundations and insulation schemes on heat losses associated with heating in predominantly heating dominated climates. Slab on grade construction is very popular in cooling-dominated southern states where it accounts for 77 percent of new home floors according to U.S. Census data in 2014. There is a widespread conception that tile flooring, as opposed to carpet, makes for a cooler home interior in warm climates. Empirical research is needed as building energy simulations such as DOE-2 and EnergyPlus rely on simplified models to evaluate these influences. BA-PIRC performed experiments over an entire year from 2014-2015 in FSEC's Flexible Residential Test Facilities (FRTF) intended to assess for the first time 1) slab on grade influence in a cooling dominated climate, and 2) how the difference in a carpeted vs. uncarpeted building might influence heating and cooling. Two identical side by side residential buildings were evaluated, the East with pad and carpet and the west with a bare slab floor. A highly detailed grid of temperature measurements were taken on the slab surface at various locations as well as at depths of 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 feet.

  2. Owner observations regarding cat scratching behavior: an internet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Colleen; Bain, Melissa; DePorter, Theresa; Beck, Alexandra; Grassi, Vanessa; Landsberg, Gary

    2016-10-01

    This study was performed to examine aspects of the cat, environment and scratching post that might influence scratching behavior, in an effort to determine how inappropriate scratching behavior might be refocused on acceptable targets. An internet survey, posted on several public websites, gathered details about scratching behavior, as described by owners in their home environments, from 4331 respondents over a 4 month period. Responses from 39 different countries were analyzed, mostly from the USA, Canada and the UK. Owners offered traditionally recommended scratching substrates including rope, cardboard, carpet and wood. Rope was most frequently used when offered, although carpet was offered most commonly. Most owners provided at least one scratching post; cats scratched the preferred substrate more often when the post was a simple upright type or a cat tree with two or more levels and at least 3 ft high. Narrower posts (base width ⩽3 ft) were used more often than wider posts (base width ⩾5 ft). Intact or neutered cats (males and females) were as likely to scratch inappropriately, and inappropriate scratching decreased with age. Geriatric cats between the ages of 10 and 14 years preferred carpet substrate most frequently; all other ages preferred rope first. Inappropriate scratching decreased as the different types/styles of posts increased in the home. Inappropriate scratching did not increase if the number of cats or dogs increased in the household. Declawed cats were preventatively declawed most often to prevent household item destruction. Although cats can have individual preferences, our data provide a starting point for veterinarians recommending scratching posts to clients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Epidemiological survey of patients with a carpal tunnel syndrome referred to Sina Hospital in Hamedan during 2014-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Ghiasian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common mono-neuropathy with various causes. This study aimed at evaluating the epidemiology of patients with the carpal tunnel syndrome referred to Sina Hospital in Hamedan City, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-cross sectional study, 300 patients (600 hands suffering from paresthesia, pain and weakness of the first to third finger were studied. Diagnosis and severity of the disease was evaluated according to history, examination and electro-diagnostic studies. Afterall the data were collected. Results: This study was conducted on 230 (76.7% females and 70 (23.3% males with the mean ages of 47.3±17.4 and 49.1±20.2 years, respectively (P=0.224. Sixteen of them were left-handed and the rest were right-handed. Also, 113 of the patients had risk factors such as diabetes with the prevalence of 18.1% and hypothyroidism with 6.4% as the most common ones. The most common occupations were carpet weaving and milking with prevalence rates of 19.4% and 13.3%, respectively. In electro-diagnostic findings, 57% of the patients had moderate involvement and 16.6% had severe involvement. The Phalen and Tinel test was positive in 32.2% of the patients and negative in 32.2% of the cases. There was a relationship between the severity of involvement and probability of a positive Phalen and Tinel test. Conclusion: Considering that 76% of the cases were women and among jobs, after housekeeping, carpet weaving and milking are the most common ones, paying more attention to these people and designing the proper work tools (especially carpet weaving and milking tools as well as training of the housewives are recommended to prevent this syndrome.

  4. Synthesis characterization, and properties of rubber lattices; a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.M.; Chughtai, A.; Sattar, A.

    2008-01-01

    Latex is a stable dispersion of polymeric material in an aqueous medium. Lattices are present in natural as well as in synthetic forms. The range of applications of latex is extensive in carpet underlay, fabric back-coating, paper and paints coatings, adhesive, binder, leather finish, floor polish, waterproof clothing, bounded fiber, pigment printing, latex thread, cement and asphalt, foam scraps binders, can closure, thickeners, box toes and shoes counters, sealant and mastics, modifiers, protein reduction, enzyme treatment and peroxide vulcanization. In this review we are presenting synthesis, characterization, properties, manufacturing and processing of latex. (author)

  5. Microbiorobots for Manipulation and Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    interaction  A net thrust on the microsturcture causing rotational and/or translational movement • Self-actuation of BPM...summary  There are variance on Brownian motion due to measurement noise.  The bacterial carpet generates much stronger flow field than Brownian ...16 μm 22 μm Brownian motion 20 18 16 12 2 10 8 6 4 14 Height (μm) t = 0.00s t = 1.00s t = 2.00s Dalton 2004 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

  6. Bevalac Radiotherapy Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.; Howard, J.; Criswell, T.

    1979-03-01

    Patient Treatment Room at the Bevalac is now in full operation. In the design of this facility, emphasis has been placed on creating an atmosphere appropriate to a clinical facility; the usual features of an irradiation cave have been hidden behind carpets, curtains and paint. Patient positioning is done with a Philips Ram-style couch, with additional fixtures to accommodate a patient in the seated or standing, as well as the supine, position. Dosimetry apparatus, collimators, ion chambers and the beam flattening system used to produce the highly uniform 20 cm diameter therapy field are described

  7. From Broken Glass to Ruf Diamonds: Manchester Hip Hop

    OpenAIRE

    de Paor-Evans, Adam

    2018-01-01

    When one considers music culture in Manchester during the 1980s and 1990s, Hip Hop is not an obvious cultural arena for discussion. However, amidst the spectacle of The Haçienda, the pop boom of Factory Records and the evolution of rave subculture and form of dance music which produced the pop cultural phenomenon of Madchester; in the space of music between The Fall and The Charlatans where brief stardom was found by Inspiral Carpets, Northside and Candyflip, Mancunian Hip Hop was also evolvi...

  8. The Voices of Women in the Night: Veronica and Judith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Walker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available quite often leave the radio playing all night on the bedside table; my only company in an all too empty house. It shuts out the noises of the night: the cry of the great owl in the rain-forest trees, the scurrying of possums on the roof, or the rustle of the neighbourhood carpet snake, a beautiful multi-coloured python, slithering into or out of the roof-space. I’m used to him (or her. She’s harmless —just another presence in the night.

  9. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  10. Wetlands Research Program. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. Appendix C. Sections 1 and 2. Region 2 - Southeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    22 7.V.: 14 -1b Jil -7 1 N.- .- WETLANDS RESEARCH PROGRAM TECHNICAL REPORT Y-87-1 CORPS OF ENGINEERS WETLANDS DELINEATION MANUAL APPENDIX C SECTIONS ...ARMYLA- US Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 B , , , -I *. 4 -w *" APPENDIX C SECTION 1 NATIONAL LIST OF PLANT SPECIES THAT OCCUR IN...Redtop FACW A. hiernalia (Walter) B.S.P. Winter bent FAC A. scabra Wilid. Rough bentgrass FAC A. st~nfyaL. Carpet bentgrass FACW Aletris aurea

  11. Plutonium isotopes in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    1977-12-01

    Determination of plutonium and americium by ion exchange and alpha-spectrometry. Deposition of global fall-out and accumulated area-content of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu and 241 Am in central Sweden (62.3 deg N, 12.4 deg E), by using the lichen species Cladonia alpestris as bioindicator. Retention and distribution of plutonium in carpets of lichen and soil. Transfer of plutonium from lichen to reindeer and man. Absorbed dose in reindeer and man from plutonium. Basic studies of plutonium and americium in the western Mediterranean surface waters, with emphases on particulate form of the transuranics. (author)

  12. Near East/South Asia Report No. 2742

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-22

    bandles the import of edible oil put for sale in the eight-day fair for the Ghee Corporation ef Pak- would. be handicrafts, carpets, istk which has...indicated its to-garments, cutlery items, sports itn hc a niae t ogoods and some other goods tal requirement for current fiscal gcar at 434,000 metric tons... edible *ait fair. Oil. OVERALL EXPORTS Apart from these ems, he said About overall exports of TCP the fiv has also idlsorted tea during current

  13. Major and trace elements in Sphagnum moss from four southern German bogs, and comparison with available moss monitoring data

    OpenAIRE

    KEMPTER HEIKE; KRACHLER MICHAEL; SHOTYK W.; ZACCONE CLAUDIO

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present concentrations of an array of major and trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Tl, U, V, Zn) in living Sphagnum mosses from four southern German bogs and compare them with moss monitoring data of the respective regions. To do this, Sphagnum mosses were collected in Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and, one year la...

  14. Gaussian multiscale aggregation applied to segmentation in hand biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santos Sierra, Alberto; Avila, Carmen Sánchez; Casanova, Javier Guerra; del Pozo, Gonzalo Bailador

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an image segmentation algorithm based on Gaussian multiscale aggregation oriented to hand biometric applications. The method is able to isolate the hand from a wide variety of background textures such as carpets, fabric, glass, grass, soil or stones. The evaluation was carried out by using a publicly available synthetic database with 408,000 hand images in different backgrounds, comparing the performance in terms of accuracy and computational cost to two competitive segmentation methods existing in literature, namely Lossy Data Compression (LDC) and Normalized Cuts (NCuts). The results highlight that the proposed method outperforms current competitive segmentation methods with regard to computational cost, time performance, accuracy and memory usage.

  15. The RiSE climbing robot: body and leg design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A.; Goldman, D. I.; Full, R. J.; Buehler, M.

    2006-05-01

    The RiSE robot is a biologically inspired, six legged climbing robot, designed for general mobility in scansorial (vertical walls, horizontal ledges, ground level) environments. It exhibits ground reaction forces that are similar to animal climbers and does not rely on suction, magnets or other surface-dependent specializations to achieve adhesion and shear force. We describe RiSE's body and leg design as well as its electromechanical, communications and computational infrastructure. We review design iterations that enable RiSE to climb 90° carpeted, cork covered and (a growing range of) stucco surfaces in the quasi-static regime.

  16. Disseminated Mycosis in Veiled Chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) Caused by Chamaeleomyces granulomatis, a New Fungus Related to Paecilomyces viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigler, Lynne; Gibas, Connie Fe C.; Kokotovic, Branko

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of disseminated granulomatous disease occurred in a group of veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) in a zoo collection. An adult female and six offspring developed large granulomas in multiple organs and were euthanized. At necropsy, roughly spherical yellow-to-white nodules 1 to 3...... of morphology results to represent Paecilomyces viridis, a species known only from one outbreak of fatal mycosis in carpet chameleons (Furcifer lateralis). Data obtained from morphological studies and from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal rRNA (rDNA) sequence data revealed the Danish chameleon....... Chamaeleomyces species appear to be rare but aggressive pathogens of chameleons....

  17. Development of a novel methodology for indoor emission source identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, K.H.; Zhang, J.S.; Knudsen, H.N.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a methodology to identify individual sources of emissions based on the measurements of mixed air samples and the emission signatures of individual materials previously determined by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS), an on......-line analytical device. The methodology based on signal processing principles was developed by employing the method of multiple regression least squares (MRLS) and a normalization technique. Samples of nine typical building materials were tested individually and in combination, including carpet, ceiling material...... experiments and investigation are needed for cases where the relative emission rates among different compounds may change over a long-term period....

  18. Status of the low-energy super-heavy element facility at RIKEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schury, P., E-mail: schury@riken.jp [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Wada, M.; Ito, Y. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Arai, F. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); Kaji, D. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Kimura, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); Morimoto, K.; Haba, H. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Jeong, S. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Koura, H. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Miyatake, H. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Morita, K.; Reponen, M. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Ozawa, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); Sonoda, T.; Takamine, A. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Wollnik, H. [Dept. Chemistry and BioChemistry, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate nuclei produced via fusion–evaporation reactions, especially super-heavy elements (SHE), we have begun construction of a facility for conversion of fusion–evaporation residues (EVR) to low-energy beams. At the base of this facility is a small cryogenic gas cell utilizing a traveling wave RF-carpet, located directly following the gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS-II, which will thermalize EVRs to convert them into ion beams amenable to ion trapping. We present here the results of initial studies of this small gas cell.

  19. The effects of cement-based and cement-ash-based mortar slabs on indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Kolarik, Jakub; Wargocki, Pawel

    2018-01-01

    The effects of emissions from cement-based and cement-ash-based mortar slabs were studied. In the latter, 30% of the cement content had been replaced by sewage sludge ash. They were tested singly and together with either carpet or linoleum. The air exhausted from the chambers was assessed by means...... of odour intensity and chemical characterization of emissions. Odour intensity increased with the increased exposed area of the slabs. It did not differ significantly between cement-based or cement-ash-based mortar and neither did the chemical composition of the exhaust air. A significant sink effect...

  20. Breakfast in a hotel dining room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kennan Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available My father and I were the only ones there on a winter Saturday.Yet a full staff of penguins was on duty, webbed shoes muffled on thick but aging carpet, their lined faces and beaks a bit mottled.They brought us the morning newspaper, toast, coffee, orange juice, grapefruit (a beauty nestled on ice in a pewter tureen, an old-fashioned presentation,with a hint of decay.The hotel was closed shortly thereafter, for a decade, then remodeled,reopened with new crystal, dinnerware with postmodern chi...

  1. Bevalac Radiotherapy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.R.; Howard, J.; Criswell, T.

    1979-03-01

    Patient Treatment Room at the Bevalac is now in full operation. In the design of this facility, emphasis has been placed on creating an atmosphere appropriate to a clinical facility; the usual features of an irradiation cave have been hidden behind carpets, curtains and paint. Patient positioning is done with a Philips Ram-style couch, with additional fixtures to accommodate a patient in the seated or standing, as well as the supine, position. Dosimetry apparatus, collimators, ion chambers and the beam flattening system used to produce the highly uniform 20 cm diameter therapy field are described.

  2. Impacts Of Passive Removal Materials On Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darling, Erin; Cros, Clement; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) was determined in the presence of eight combinations of building materials with and without ozone. Air samples were collected in twin 30 m3 chambers to assess the C5 to C10 aldehyde content of the air while a panel of 18 to 23 human subjects assessed air quality using...... a continuous acceptability scale. Materials were either new carpet that was aired out for three weeks, clay plaster applied to gypsum wallboard that was aired out for up to one month, both materials, or neither. Perceived Air Quality (PAQ) assessed by the panel was most acceptable and concentrations...

  3. Isolation of dermatophytes and non-dermatophytic fungi from soil in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeka, C A; Okoli, I

    2003-09-01

    A total of 60 soil samples were collected from Ifite Awka, Nnamdi Azikiwe University and Amawbia, all located in Awka Urban, Anambra State, Nigeria. An additional sample was collected from a household rug-carpet vacuum cleaner from a house located in Enugu city, Enugu State (a neighbouring state). The 61 samples were investigated for the occurrence of dermatophytic and non-dermatophytic fungi, using the hair-bait technique and agar dilution procedure. The medical importance of the isolates in the samples is discussed.

  4. Dry Friction: Motions - Map and Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motchongom-Tingue, M.; Kenfack-Jiotsa, A.; Tsobgni-Fozap, D.C.; Kofane, T.C.

    2009-12-01

    We consider a simple model of spring-mass block placed over a constant velocity v of a rolling plate. The map of the dynamic is presented in the (v,r) space where r accounts for the possible variation of the periodic shape profile of the rolling carpet. In order to characterize each type of motion, we found that evaluating the area of the phase space trajectories is more relevant than attempting on one hand, to solve analytically the asymptotic behavior or on the other hand, to obtain an equivalent of the entropy and the free energy. (author)

  5. Trypanosoma (megatrypanum) melophagium in the sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of the parasites and the insect gut wall surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, D H; Selkirk, M; Lavin, D

    1978-12-01

    A description of the different stages of Trypanosoma (M.) melophagium in different regions of the gut of the sheep ked (Melophagus ovinus) as observed by the SEM is presented. The extensive pile carpet or palisade colonization of the midgut and pylorus is described. The method of attachment and the relationship of the parasites to the microvilli in the midgut and the cuticle of the pylorus and ileum observed by other methods are confirmed. The micro-structure of the surfaces themselves in the regions of the gut to which parasites attach are described. The use of the technique for the study of other similar systems is discussed.

  6. Restoration techniques for Sphagnum-dominated peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferland, C.; Rochefort, L. [Laval University, Sainte-Foy, PQ (Canada). Department of Phytology

    1997-07-01

    After peat harvesting, peat mosses do not usually recolonize the abandoned site. The purpose of this study is to develop techniques for restoring peatlands. Sphagnum diaspores from natural peatlands were introduced to exploited peatlands. The influence of microrelief, of planting companion species with the Sphagnum, and of light phosphorus fertilization on establishment of a peat moss carpet are examined. The results show that Sphagnum diaspores can be reintroduced on bare peat surfaces. The restoration method is combined with techniques to improve substrata moisture conditions, such as creation of surface roughness and the use of companion plant species. 32 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Environmental-friendly wool fabric finishing by some water plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmelcerović Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, environmental-friendly finishing of wool fabric were processed with several water extract plants, such as hibiscus, St. John's wort, and marigold. The plant extracts have good basis in the commercial dyeing of wool, for garment and carpet industry. At the same time, the environmental-friendly finishing by water extracts plants shows very good fastness of the antimicrobial properties and coloration of wool fabric. From an ecological viewpoint, the substitution of chemical dyes with "natural products" may represent not only a strategy to reduce risk and pollutants but also an opportunity for new markets and new businesses, which can expend involving of ecology in trade policy.

  8. A liquid lens switching-based motionless variable fiber-optic delay line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, Tariq Shamim; Reza, Syed Azer; Sheikh, Mumtaz

    2018-05-01

    We present a Variable Fiber-Optic Delay Line (VFODL) module capable of imparting long variable delays by switching an input optical/RF signal between Single Mode Fiber (SMF) patch cords of different lengths through a pair of Electronically Controlled Tunable Lenses (ECTLs) resulting in a polarization-independent operation. Depending on intended application, the lengths of the SMFs can be chosen accordingly to achieve the desired VFODL operation dynamic range. If so desired, the state of the input signal polarization can be preserved with the use of commercially available polarization-independent ECTLs along with polarization-maintaining SMFs (PM-SMFs), resulting in an output polarization that is identical to the input. An ECTL-based design also improves power consumption and repeatability. The delay switching mechanism is electronically-controlled, involves no bulk moving parts, and can be fully-automated. The VFODL module is compact due to the use of small optical components and SMFs that can be packaged compactly.

  9. Integrated devices for quantum information and quantum simulation with polarization encoded qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansoni, Linda; Sciarrino, Fabio; Mataloni, Paolo; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    The ability to manipulate quantum states of light by integrated devices may open new perspectives both for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and for novel technological applications. The technology for handling polarization-encoded qubits, the most commonly adopted approach, was still missing in quantum optical circuits until the ultrafast laser writing (ULW) technique was adopted for the first time to realize integrated devices able to support and manipulate polarization encoded qubits.1 Thanks to this method, polarization dependent and independent devices can be realized. In particular the maintenance of polarization entanglement was demonstrated in a balanced polarization independent integrated beam splitter1 and an integrated CNOT gate for polarization qubits was realized and carachterized.2 We also exploited integrated optics for quantum simulation tasks: by adopting the ULW technique an integrated quantum walk circuit was realized3 and, for the first time, we investigate how the particle statistics, either bosonic or fermionic, influences a two-particle discrete quantum walk. Such experiment has been realized by adopting two-photon entangled states and an array of integrated symmetric directional couplers. The polarization entanglement was exploited to simulate the bunching-antibunching feature of non interacting bosons and fermions. To this scope a novel three-dimensional geometry for the waveguide circuit is introduced, which allows accurate polarization independent behaviour, maintaining a remarkable control on both phase and balancement of the directional couplers.

  10. Optical interconnects based on VCSELs and low-loss silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Timo; Harjanne, Mikko; Karppinen, Mikko; Cherchi, Matteo; Sitomaniemi, Aila; Ollila, Jyrki; Malacarne, Antonio; Neumeyr, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Silicon photonics with micron-scale Si waveguides offers most of the benefits of submicron SOI technology while avoiding most of its limitations. In particular, thick silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides offer 0.1 dB/cm propagation loss, polarization independency, broadband single-mode (SM) operation from 1.2 to >4 µm wavelength and ability to transmit high optical powers (>1 W). Here we describe the feasibility of Thick-SOI technology for advanced optical interconnects. With 12 μm SOI waveguides we demonstrate efficient coupling between standard single-mode fibers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and photodetectors (PDs), as well as wavelength multiplexing in small footprint. Discrete VCSELs and PDs already support 28 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK), which shows a path towards 50-100 Gb/s bandwidth per wavelength by using more advanced modulation formats like PAM4. Directly modulated VCSELs enable very power-efficient optical interconnects for up to 40 km distance. Furthermore, with 3 μm SOI waveguides we demonstrate extremely dense and low-loss integration of numerous optical functions, such as multiplexers, filters, switches and delay lines. Also polarization independent and athermal operation is demonstrated. The latter is achieved by using short polymer waveguides to compensate for the thermo-optic effect in silicon. New concepts for isolator integration and polarization rotation are also explained.

  11. Respirable antimony and other trace-elements inside and outside an elementary school in Flagstaff, AZ, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majestic, Brian J.; Turner, Joseph A.; Marcotte, Aurelie R.

    2012-01-01

    Because people spend almost 90% of their time indoors, ambient air monitors may severely underestimate actual exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM). Therefore, it becomes increasingly important to better understand the microenvironments where people are spending their time. For preadolescent children, the best estimates of exposure may be inside of their school. In this study, 11 size fractions of PM were collected inside and outside of an elementary school in Flagstaff, AZ, USA. In particles −3 — greater than many urban areas around the world. Cu:Sb ratios and size distribution functions suggest that the excess source of PM1 indoor Sb results from the suspension of embedded Sb (used as a flame retardant) in the carpeting. This is the first study to observe elevated submicron Sb in schools and further studies are required to determine if this is a widespread health risk. -- Highlights: ► Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) was collected inside and outside an elementary school. ► Size-resolved trace metal and mass concentrations were measured. ► Indoor / Outdoor ratios of PM mass were very large for particles larger than 1 µm and about unity for particles < 1 µm. ► Most of the metal mass was found to originate from crustal sources. ► Highly elevated levels of antimony were measured – most likely from the resuspension of Sb embedded in carpeting.

  12. Comparison of survivability of Staphylococcus aureus and spores of Aspergillus niger on commonly used floor materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mridula; Bisesi, Michael; Lee, Jiyoung

    2017-07-01

    The survivability of Staphylococcus aureus and spores of Aspergillus niger was compared on 5 common floor materials. Floor materials were inoculated with a known concentration of S aureus and spores of A niger on day 0. Their survivability was measured on days, 2, 7, 14, and 28 by bulk rinsate method and enumerated using culture-based method. The difference in change of S aureus levels was statistically significant for all tested days (P niger spores were undetected on residential broadloom carpet and rubber-backed commercial carpet after day 2 but survived on VCT, PT, and wood until day 28. Floor materials with hard and smooth surfaces, such as VCT and PT, can allow survival of S aureus and A niger for up to 4 weeks. It may imply that floor materials can play a major role in preserving microbial contaminants in the built environment. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative efficacy of house dust mite extermination products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, G; Kniest, F M; Kort, H S; De Saint Georges Gridelet, D M; Van Bronswijk, J E

    1992-06-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of nine marketed products, i.e. Acardust, Acarosan (foam and powder), Actelic 50, Artilin 3A (spirit and water base), liquid nitrogen, Paragerm AK, and Tymasil, and of intensive vacuum-cleaning have been compared on four different test surfaces: mattress, tufted carpet, gypsum board and rough wooden board, all covered with artificial house dust. They were inoculated with the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus or the house-dust fungus Aspergillus repens for evaluation of the fungistatic claims of some products. The acaricidal activity of Tymasil did not surpass that of vacuuming; its fungistatic effect was not apparent. The other products showed complete to almost complete eradication on at least one of the substrates tested. Taking into account the results of acaricidal efficacy as well as the data on safety and practicality acquired earlier, Acarosan powder was considered first choice for carpet treatment. Acarosan and liquid nitrogen, were found to be effective in the treatment of mattress, pillow, upholstered furniture and heavy curtains. On wooden surfaces Acarosan was found to be both effective and safe, while Acardust, Actelic 50, Artilin 3A (both fungistatic as well as acaricidal), liquid nitrogen and Paragerm also passed the efficiency test.

  14. A thermal ground cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Wu, Qinghe; Xu, Weikai; Liu, Di; Huang, Lujun; Chen, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The thermal cloak has been a long-standing scientific dream of researchers and engineers. Recently thermal metamaterials with man-made micro-structure have been presented based on the principle of transformation optics (TO). This new concept has received considerable attention, which is a powerful tool for manipulating heat flux in thermal imaging systems. However, the inherent material singularity has long been a captivation of experimental realization. As an alternative method, the scattering-cancellation-based cloak (or bi-layer thermal cloak) has been presented to remove the singularity for achieving the same cloaking performance. Nevertheless, such strategy needs prerequisite knowledge (geometry and conductivity) of the object to be cloaked. In this paper, a new thermal ground cloak is presented to overcome the limitations. The device is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the thermal cloaking performance. We experimentally show that the remarkably low complexity of the device can fully and effectively be manipulated using realizable transformation thermal devices. More importantly, this thermal ground cloak is designed to exclude heat flux without knowing the information of the cloaked object. - Highlights: • We present the first thermal carpet cloak. • The carpet can thermally cloak any shaped object without knowing the properties of the object to be cloaked. • Excellent agreements between simulation and experiment are observed.

  15. Extracting natural dyes from wool--an evaluation of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Dias, Cristina Barrocas

    2011-05-01

    The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye's main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na(2)EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, which presented a wide range of chemical structures. The identification of the natural dyes used in the making of an eighteenth century Arraiolos carpet was possible using the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction of the wool embroidery samples and an LC-DAD-MS methodology. The effectiveness of the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction method was particularly observed in the extraction of weld dye components. Nine flavone derivatives previously identified in weld extracts could be identified in a single historical sample, confirming the use of this natural dye in the making of Arraiolos carpets. Indigo and brazilwood were also identified in the samples, and despite the fact that these natural dyes were referred in the historical recipes of Arraiolos dyeing, it is the first time that the use of brazilwood is confirmed. Mordant analysis by ICP-MS identified the widespread use of alum in the dyeing process, but in some samples with darker hues, high amounts of iron were found instead.

  16. Reaerosolization of Spores from Flooring Surfaces To Assess the Risk of Dissemination and Transmission of Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Susan; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Parks, Simon R; Bennett, Allan M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify reaerosolization of microorganisms caused by walking on contaminated flooring to assess the risk to individuals accessing areas contaminated with pathogenic organisms, for example, spores of Bacillus anthracis. Industrial carpet and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) floor coverings were contaminated with aerosolized spores of Bacillus atrophaeus by using an artist airbrush to produce deposition of ∼10(3) to 10(4) CFU · cm(-2). Microbiological air samplers were used to quantify the particle size distribution of the aerosol generated when a person walked over the floorings in an environmental chamber. Results were expressed as reaerosolization factors (percent per square centimeter per liter), to represent the ratio of air concentration to surface concentration generated. Walking on carpet generated a statistically significantly higher reaerosolization factor value than did walking on PVC (t = 20.42; P flooring in order to inform the choice of appropriate respiratory protective equipment and may aid in the selection of the most suitable flooring types for use in health care environments, to reduce aerosol transmission in the event of contamination. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Designing Industrial Networks Using Ecological Food Web Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Astrid; Bras, Bert; Weissburg, Marc

    2016-10-18

    Biologically Inspired Design (biomimicry) and Industrial Ecology both look to natural systems to enhance the sustainability and performance of engineered products, systems and industries. Bioinspired design (BID) traditionally has focused on a unit operation and single product level. In contrast, this paper describes how principles of network organization derived from analysis of ecosystem properties can be applied to industrial system networks. Specifically, this paper examines the applicability of particular food web matrix properties as design rules for economically and biologically sustainable industrial networks, using an optimization model developed for a carpet recycling network. Carpet recycling network designs based on traditional cost and emissions based optimization are compared to designs obtained using optimizations based solely on ecological food web metrics. The analysis suggests that networks optimized using food web metrics also were superior from a traditional cost and emissions perspective; correlations between optimization using ecological metrics and traditional optimization ranged generally from 0.70 to 0.96, with flow-based metrics being superior to structural parameters. Four structural food parameters provided correlations nearly the same as that obtained using all structural parameters, but individual structural parameters provided much less satisfactory correlations. The analysis indicates that bioinspired design principles from ecosystems can lead to both environmentally and economically sustainable industrial resource networks, and represent guidelines for designing sustainable industry networks.

  18. Memoralization of the Holocaust in the Polish film Aftermath and in contemporary Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Petö

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary Eastern Europe, after the policy of forced forgetting under communism, a memory bomb exploded in 1989. Society was said to have broken out from under the red carpet under which everything had been swept. Suddenly, everything was rendered visible. In the village described in Aftermath, even the red carpet was not really needed: the crimes committed had already been covered up, and in the absence of any real contact with the outside world, the villagers had been able to use communist laws to bury their secret even deeper. Evidently, the situation in Hungary, home to Central Europe’s largest Jewish survivor community, is even more complicated. While silence and forgetting meant, for many, abandoning one’s Jewish identity, among some families and groups of friends the discussion of past events was a means of establishing identity. In informal salon-style gatherings, people told family stories, and this became an important way of establishing group cohesion. Personal narration gave credibility to the historical events: by telling the stories, people made them true. Linked with this were efforts to improve the emotional and intellectual well-being of the surviving mourners, combining the commandment of nichumaveilim with memory policy. This commandment connects the story of the brothers in Aftermath with the battles over the politics of memory in Hungary.

  19. Influence of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion Training in Adolescent Wheelchair Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Dysterheft

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ten full time adolescent wheelchair users (ages 13-18 completed a total of three propulsion trials on carpet and tile surfaces, at a self-selected velocity, and on a concrete surface, at a controlled velocity. All trials were performed in their personal wheelchair with force and moment sensing wheels attached bilaterally. The first two trials on each surface were used as pre-intervention control trials. The third trial was performed after receiving training on proper propulsion technique. Peak Resultant Force, Contact Angle, Stroke Frequency, and Velocity were recorded during all trials for primary analysis. Carpet and tile trials resulted in significant increases in Contact Angle and Peak Total Force with decreased Stroke Frequency after training. During the velocity controlled trials on concrete, significant increases in Contact Angle occurred, as well as decreases in Stroke Frequency after training. Overall, the use of a training video and verbal feedback may help to improve short term propulsion technique in adolescent wheelchair users and decrease the risk of developing upper limb pain and injury.

  20. Environmental Air Pollutants as Risk Factors for Asthma Among Children Seen in Pediatric Clinics in UKMMC, Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Idayu Badilla; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Zhie, Khor Hui; Khairuman, Khairul Aliff; Yahya, Siti Kasuma; Abd Zaim, Farah Azureen; Nam, Chok Wai; Abdul Rasid, Hazwan Zuhairi; Isa, Zaleha Md

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma is increasing, especially among children in Malaysia, with environmental factors as one of the main preventable contributors. The aim of this study was to determine the association between environmental air pollutants and the occurrence of asthma among children seen in pediatric clinics in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur. An unmatched case control study among children who attended the pediatric clinic was carried out from May to August 2015. A total of 223 children who were diagnosed with asthma (105 cases) and who did not have asthma (118 controls) were included in this study. Their parents or caregivers were interviewed using questionnaires modified from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. There was a higher risk of asthma in those who had carpet at home (OR = 2.15 CI [1.25-3.68]), those who lived within 200 m of heavy traffic (OR = 1.72 CI [1.01-2.93]), and those who were exposed to lorry fumes (OR = 2.61. CI [1.38-4.93]). Environmental air pollutants increased the risk of asthma among children in Malaysia. Exposure to congested roads, lorry fumes, and indoor carpet were associated with asthma among children in this study. Parents or caretakers of children with asthma should be given adequate education on the prevention of asthmatic attack among these children. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Particle size fractionation and human exposure of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor dust from Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hua; Turyk, Mary; Cali, Salvatore; Dorevitch, Samuel; Erdal, Serap; Li, An

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the concentration level, the mass distribution based on dust particle size, and the associated human exposure of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor dust. The total concentration of 13 PBDEs Sigma(13)(BDEs) was found to be 500-6,944 ng/g in indoor dusts, 4,000 ng/g in car interior dust, 260-300 ng/g in outdoor ambient air particles, 30 ng/g in carpet fibers, and as high as 0.5% in carpet padding. Selected dust samples were fractionated based on particle size, and over 80% of the Sigma(13)BDEs were associated with particles exposure of Americans to PBDEs via hand-to-mouth transfer of house dust was estimated under the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure scenarios. The results suggest that ingestion of PBDE-laden house dust via hand-to-mouth contact is likely a significant exposure pathway, especially for children.

  2. Non-contact radio frequency shielding and wave guiding by multi-folded transformation optics method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madni, Hamza Ahmad; Zheng, Bin; Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Zhang, Xianmin; Yin, Wenyan; Li, Erping; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-11-14

    Compared with conventional radio frequency (RF) shielding methods in which the conductive coating material encloses the circuits design and the leakage problem occurs due to the gap in such conductive material, non-contact RF shielding at a distance is very promising but still impossible to achieve so far. In this paper, a multi-folded transformation optics method is proposed to design a non-contact device for RF shielding. This "open-shielded" device can shield any object at a distance from the electromagnetic waves at the operating frequency, while the object is still physically open to the outer space. Based on this, an open-carpet cloak is proposed and the functionality of the open-carpet cloak is demonstrated. Furthermore, we investigate a scheme of non-contact wave guiding to remotely control the propagation of surface waves over any obstacles. The flexibilities of such multi-folded transformation optics method demonstrate the powerfulness of the method in the design of novel remote devices with impressive new functionalities.

  3. Public health aspects of snakebite care in West Africa: perspectives from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Abdulrazaq G

    2013-10-17

    Snakebite envenoming is a major public health problem among rural communities of the Nigerian savanna. The saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) and, to a lesser extent, the African cobras (Naja spp.) and puff adders (Bitis arietans) have proved to be the most important cause of mortality and morbidity. The main clinical features of E. ocellatus envenoming are systemic hemorrhage, incoagulable blood, shock, local swelling, bleeding and, occasionally, necrosis. Bites may be complicated by amputation, blindness, disability, disfigurement, mutilation, tissue destruction and psychological consequences. Antivenom remains the hallmark and mainstay of envenoming management while studies in Nigeria confirm its protection of over 80% against mortality from carpet-viper bites. However, the availability, distribution and utilization of antivenom remain challenging although two new antivenoms (monospecific EchiTab G and trispecific EchiTab ICP-Plus) derived from Nigerian snake venoms have proven very effective and safe in clinical trials. A hub-and-spoke strategy is suggested for broadening antivenom access to endemic rural areas together with instituting quality assurance, standardization and manpower training. With the advent of antivenomics, national health authorities must be aided in selecting and purchasing antivenoms appropriate to their national needs while manufacturers should be helped in practical ways to improve the safety, efficacy and potential coverage against snake venoms and pricing of their products.

  4. Interaction of flexible surface hairs with near-wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücker, Ch

    2011-05-11

    The interaction of near-wall turbulence with hairy surfaces is investigated in a turbulent boundary layer flow along a flat plate in an oil channel at Re = 1.2 × 10⁶. The plate is covered locally with a dense carpet of elastomeric micro-hairs (length L = 1 mm, length in viscous units L( + ) = 30) which are arranged in a regular grid (60 × 30 hairs with a streamwise spacing Δx( + )≈15 and a spanwise spacing Δy( + )≈30). Instead of the micro-structures used in previous studies for sensory applications, the surface hairs are considerably larger and much more densely distributed with a spacing of S/D wall-normal directions. Near-wall high-frequency disturbances excited by the passage of turbulent sweeps are dampened over their course along the carpet. The cooperative action of the hairs leads to an energy transfer from small-scale motion to larger scales, thus increasing the coherence of the motion pattern in streamwise and spanwise directions. As a consequence of the specific arrangement of the micro-hairs in streamwise columns a reduced spanwise meandering and stabilization of the streamwise velocity streaks is achieved by promoting varicose waves and inhibiting sinusoidal waves. Streak stabilization is known to be a major contributor to turbulent drag reduction. Thus it is concluded that hairy surfaces may be of benefit for turbulent drag reduction as hypothesized by Bartenwerfer and Bechert (1991 Z. Flugwiss. Weltraumforsch. 15 19-26).

  5. Inactivation of Burkholderia pseudomallei on environmental surfaces using spray-applied, common liquid disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, M W; Wendling, M

    2015-11-01

    Five commercially available liquid antimicrobials were evaluated for their ability to decontaminate common environmental surface materials, contaminated with Burkholderia pseudomallei, using a spray-based disinfectant delivery procedure. Tests were conducted at both an ambient temperature (c. 20°C) and a lower temperature (c. 12°C) condition. Nonporous materials (glass and aluminium) were more easily decontaminated than porous materials (wood, concrete and carpet). Citric acid (1%) demonstrated poor efficacy in all test conditions. Bleach (pH-adjusted), ethanol (70%), quaternary ammonium and PineSol®, demonstrated high (>6 log10 reduction) efficacies on glass and aluminium at both temperatures, but achieved varying results for wood, carpet and concrete. Temperature had minimal effect on decontamination efficacy during these tests. Much of the antimicrobial efficacy data for pathogenic micro-organisms are generated with testing that utilizes hard nonporous surface materials. These data are not directly translatable for decontaminant selection following an incident whereby complex and porous environmental surfaces are contaminated. This study presents efficacy data for spray-applied antimicrobial liquids, when used to decontaminate common environmental surfaces contaminated with Burkholderia pseudomallei. These data can help responders develop effective remediation strategies following an environmental contamination incident involving B. pseudomallei. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Ukraine biosolids incineration project generates electricity while solving disposal problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosanke, J. [Quality Recycling Ltd., Henderson, NC (United States)

    2008-07-15

    This article described an innovative Waste-to-Energy (WtE) system that is currently being installed in the city of Odessa in the Ukraine. The city has a population of 1 million and is a major seaport on the Black Sea. Sewage sludge will be used as a biomass fuel to power an electrical generation plant. The system includes a clean-burning rotary cascading bed combustor (RCBC) linked to a boiler and an electricity-generating steam turbine. The RCBC spins in order to keep fuel cascading for maximum combustion, and is expected to burn over 50,000 tons of dewatered sewage sludge per year while generating 33,507,000 kWh of electricity per individual location. Eleven systems will be installed at major sewage processing modules in the Ukraine. A pilot program is also being conducted to test and monitor the system under United States emissions and operational standards. The RCBC is also being used to combust fuels derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) at a site in Kansas. Other fuels that can be cleanly burned using the RCBC system included high sulfur bituminous coal; anthracite coal waste; carpet and carpet scrap, and tires and rubber wastes. Studies have demonstrated that some toxic wastes can be removed using the RCBC system. It was concluded that burning negative value fuels can allow some power plants to earn revenues from disposal fees. 3 figs.

  7. Graphene production by dissociation of camphor molecules on nickel substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravani, Fotini [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Interdepartmental Program in Polymer Science and Technology, University of Patras, 26504, Patras (Greece); Papagelis, Konstantinos [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504, Patras (Greece); Dracopoulos, Vassileios; Parthenios, John [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Dassios, Konstantinos G. [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110, Ioannina (Greece); Siokou, Angeliki [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Galiotis, Costas, E-mail: c.galiotis@iceht.forth.gr [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Interdepartmental Program in Polymer Science and Technology, University of Patras, 26504, Patras (Greece); Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504, Patras (Greece)

    2013-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for the production of continuous-high quality-graphene layers based on camphor decomposition on polycrystalline Ni foil, is demonstrated. In situ X-ray diffraction at the pyrolysis temperature of the Ni foil indicates the presence of dominant Ni <111> grains which play an important role in the carbon nucleation and growth. The topography of the grown graphene layers is studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy which show that the Ni surface is covered by continuous and wrinkled graphene carpets. Raman spectroscopy reveals the high quality of the graphene film which appears to be only a few monolayers thick. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates the existence of graphitic layers and the absence of any spectral features associated with carbides (Ni{sub x}C). The proposed CVD process is a sufficient method for large scale production of graphene films. - Highlights: ► An inexpensive chemical vapor deposition method based on camphor is presented. ► Few-layer graphene carpets of high quality are produced on polycrystalline Ni. ► The working deposition temperature is decreased by about 15%. ► Natural cooling is employed for graphene production. ► Role of Ni surface texture upon the graphene growth process is demonstrated.

  8. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of endothermal catalytic reaction in catalyst porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xunfeng; Cai Jun; Xin Fang; Huai Xiulan; Guo Jiangfeng

    2013-01-01

    Gas catalytic reaction in a fixed bed reactor is a general process in chemical industry. The chemical reaction process involves the complex multi-component flow, heat and mass transfer coupling chemical reaction in the catalyst porous structure. The lattice Boltzmann method is developed to simulate the complex process of the surface catalytic reaction in the catalyst porous media. The non-equilibrium extrapolation method is used to treat the boundaries. The porous media is structured by Sierpinski carpet fractal structure. The velocity correction is adopted on the reaction surface. The flow, temperature and concentration fields calculated by the lattice Boltzmann method are compared with those computed by the CFD software. The effects of the inlet velocity, porosity and inlet components ratio on the conversion are also studied. Highlights: ► LBM is developed to simulate the surface catalytic reaction. ► The Sierpinski carpet structure is used to construct the porous media. ► The LBM results are in agreement with the CFD predictions. ► Velocity, temperature and concentration fields are obtained. ► Effects of the velocity, porosity and concentration on conversion are analyzed.

  9. Nanostructure of polymer monolayer and polyelectrolyte brush at air/water interface by X-ray and neutron reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Hideki; Mouri, Emiko; Matsumoto, Kozo [Kyoto Univ., Dept. of Polymer Chemistry, Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The nanostructure of amphiphilic diblock copolymer monolayer on water was directly investigated by in situ X-ray and neutron reflectivity techniques. The diblock copolymer consists of polysilacyclobutane, which is very flexible, as a hydrophobic block and polymethacrylic acid, an anionic polymer, as a hydrophilic block. The polymers with shorter hydrophilic segment formed a very smooth and uniform monolayer with hydrophobic layer on water and dense hydrophilic layer under the water. But the longer hydrophilic segment polymer formed three-layered monolayer with polyelectrolyte brush in addition to hydrophobic and dense hydrophilic layers. The dense hydrophilic layer is thought to be formed to avoid a contact between hydrophobic polymer layer and water. Its role is something like a 'carpet'. An additional interesting information is that the thickness of the 'carpet layer' is almost 15A, independent the surface pressure and hydrophilic polymer length. Highly quantitative information was obtained about the nanostructure of polymer brush under water by neutron reflectometry with the aid of contrast variation technique. X-ray and neutron reflectivity is a very powerful technique to investigate the nanostructure of surface and interfaces, which is important not only for surface nanotechnology but also industrial and medical applications. (author)

  10. Lead-210, polonium-210, and stable lead in the food-chain lichen, reindeer and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B.R.

    1972-01-01

    The measurements of stable lead and the natural fallout radionuclides lead-210 and polonium-210 in communities of lichen (Cladonia alpestris) in central Sweden from 1961 to 1970 indicate a quite constant level. The average lead-210 content per unit area in lichen carpets was found to be 15 +- 2 nCi m -2 , the average lead-210 activity concentration 6.7 +- 0.9 nCi per kg dry weight and the lead-210 specific activity 630 +- 60 nCi per g of stable lead. The polonium-210/lead-210 activity ratio was about 0.9 +- 0.1. The vertical distribution of lead-210 in the lichen carpet showed a maximum concentration in the top layer. The distribution was similar during 1967 and 1968 but the low amount of precipitation during 1968 and 1969 disturbed the distribution pattern in 1969 and 1970. The transfer of lead-210, polonium-210 and stable lead through the food chain: lichen, reindeer, and man was characterized. The absorbed dose rate in Lapps due to polonium-210 was estimated to be about 6 to 8 mrad per year in gonads and 8 to 20 mrad per year in bone tissues. This is about ten percent of their entire absorbed dose contribution from all natural radiation sources. (U.S.)

  11. Preparation of high-content hexagonal boron nitride composite film and characterization of atomic oxygen erosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Min; Gu, Yizhuo; Wang, Shaokai, E-mail: wsk@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets can be well exfoliated with the help of nanofibrillated cellulose. • A carpet-like rough surface and distortion in crystal structure of h-BN are found in both h-BN film and h-BN/epoxy film after AO exposure. • H-BN/epoxy film exhibits a higher mass loss and erosion yield, different element content changes and chemical oxidations compared with h-BN film. - Abstract: Space aircrafts circling in low earth orbit are suffered from highly reactive atomic oxygen (AO). To shield AO, a flexible thin film with 80 wt.% hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and h-BN/epoxy film were fabricated through vacuum filtration and adding nanofibrillated cellulose fibers. H-BN nanosheets were hydroxylated for enhancing interaction in the films. Mass loss and erosion yield at accumulated AO fluence about 3.04 × 10{sup 20} atoms/cm{sup 2} were adopted to evaluate the AO resistance properties of the films. A carpet-like rough surface, chemical oxidations and change in crystal structure of h-BN were found after AO treatment, and the degrading mechanism was proposed. The mass loss and erosion yield under AO attack were compared between h-BN film and h-BN/epoxy film, and the comparison was also done for various types of shielding AO materials. Excellent AO resistance property of h-BN film is shown, and the reasons are analyzed.

  12. CORAL ASSEMBLAGES AND BIOCONSTRUCTIONS ADAPTED TO THE DEPOSITIONAL DYNAMICS OF A MIXED CARBONATE-SILICICLASTIC SETTING: THE CASE STUDY OF THE BURDIGALIAN BONIFACIO BASIN (SOUTH CORSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO BRANDANO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coral bioconstructions associated with mixed carbonate-siliciclastic settings are known to be strongly controlled by coastal morphology and paleotopography. A striking example is represented by the different types of coral bioconstructions and coral-rich deposits of the Cala di Labra Formation deposited in the coastal environment of the Bonifacio Basin (Corsica, France during the Early Miocene. Detailed mapping on photomosaics allowed accurate documentation of the internal organization of coral deposits as well as lateral and vertical facies relationships. Four types of coral bioconstructions (CB  and one reworked coral deposits (RCD have been recognized. The CB are represented by sigmoidal cluster reefs, coral carpets and skeletal conglomerates rich in corals. The RCD occurs in lens-shaped bodies intercalated within clinoforms composed of bioclastic floatstones and coarse packstones. The investigated bioconstructions can be contextualised in a coastal environment. In the upper shoreface corals developed in association with the oyster Hyotissa, above bioclastic conglomerates sourced by ephemeral streams and erosion of the granitic coastline. In the lower shoreface corals formed sigmoidal bioconstructions interpreted as cluster reefs, whereas  coral carpets developed during a relative sea-level rise related to the middle Burdigalian transgressive phase. The reworked coral deposits can be interpreted as lobe-shaped deposits of coarse-grained bioclastic submarine fans formed at the base of the depositional slope of an infralittoral prograding wedge system.

  13. Influence of handrim wheelchair propulsion training in adolescent wheelchair users, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysterheft, Jennifer L; Rice, Ian M; Rice, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    Ten full-time adolescent wheelchair users (ages 13-18) completed a total of three propulsion trials on carpet and tile surfaces, at a self-selected velocity, and on a concrete surface, at a controlled velocity. All trials were performed in their personal wheelchair with force and moment sensing wheels attached bilaterally. The first two trials on each surface were used as pre-intervention control trials. The third trial was performed after receiving training on proper propulsion technique. Peak resultant force, contact angle, stroke frequency, and velocity were recorded during all trials for primary analysis. Carpet and tile trials resulted in significant increases in contact angle and peak total force with decreased stroke frequency after training. During the velocity controlled trials on concrete, significant increases in contact angle occurred, as well as decreases in stroke frequency after training. Overall, the use of a training video and verbal feedback may help to improve short-term propulsion technique in adolescent wheelchair users and decrease the risk of developing upper limb pain and injury.

  14. Fabrication of poly-crystalline Si-based Mie resonators via amorphous Si on SiO2 dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffouti, Meher; David, Thomas; Benkouider, Abdelmalek; Favre, Luc; Ronda, Antoine; Berbezier, Isabelle; Bidault, Sebastien; Bonod, Nicolas; Abbarchi, Marco

    2016-02-07

    We report the fabrication of Si-based dielectric Mie resonators via a low cost process based on solid-state dewetting of ultra-thin amorphous Si on SiO2. We investigate the dewetting dynamics of a few nanometer sized layers annealed at high temperature to form submicrometric Si-particles. Morphological and structural characterization reveal the polycrystalline nature of the semiconductor matrix as well as rather irregular morphologies of the dewetted islands. Optical dark field imaging and spectroscopy measurements of the single islands reveal pronounced resonant scattering at visible frequencies. The linewidth of the low-order modes can be ∼20 nm in full width at half maximum, leading to a quality factor Q exceeding 25. These values reach the state-of-the-art ones obtained for monocrystalline Mie resonators. The simplicity of the dewetting process and its cost-effectiveness opens the route to exploiting it over large scales for applications in silicon-based photonics.

  15. Infrared study of the electronic phase diagram of Cr{sub 1-x}V{sub x}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meggle, Fabian; Kuntscher, Christine [Experimentalphysik II, Universitaet Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Ebad-Allah, Jihaan [Experimentalphysik II, Universitaet Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Tanta, 31527 Tanta (Egypt); Rivadulla, Francisco [Center for Research in Biological Chemistry and Molecular Materials, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    Transition-metal nitrides have attracted great interest due to their mechanical and physical properties, which are useful for improving technological applications. Several studies suggested that doping CrN with vanadium could lead to thermoelectric materials, which have optimal mechanical and chemical properties. CrN is a narrow gap, correlation-induced, semiconductor. Increasing vanadium doping in Cr{sub 1-x}V{sub x}N leads to a gradual suppression of the resistivity and a transition to itinerant-electron behavior through several phases including superconductivity in VN. Here we report the results of a study on the electronic and vibrational properties of Cr{sub 1-x}V{sub x}N powder pellets by reflection measurements in the infrared and visible frequency ranges at ambient conditions. Furthermore, we carried out resistivity measurements to confirm the behaviour of the optical conductivity at low energy.

  16. Strong magnetorefractive effect in epitaxial La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrabovsky, D. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Catalonia (Spain); Herranz, G., E-mail: gherranz@icmab.e [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Catalonia (Spain); Caicedo, J.M.; Infante, I.C.; Sanchez, F.; Fontcuberta, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Catalonia (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    We report here on the magneto-optical characterization of epitaxial La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin films. We observe that the magnetic field dependence of the magneto-optical signal measured in transverse Kerr geometry can be decomposed into even and odd contributions which evolve differently with the temperature. We demonstrate that whereas the odd component is proportional to the magnetization, the even contribution is related to the magnetorefractive effect, which is caused by the changes of the refractive index and optical conductivity with the magnetic field. This phenomenon, previously reported only at infrared wavelengths in some spin valves and granular systems, is shown here to be very relevant at visible frequencies for the colossal magnetoresistance manganites, thus allowing simultaneous optical characterization of the magnetic and magnetotransport properties. We argue that these characteristics result from inherent transport properties of these strongly correlated ferromagnetic oxides.

  17. Study of the spectra of silica colloidal crystals with assembled silver obtained from a photolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjiang; He, Jinglong; He, Sailing

    2005-02-01

    The colorful artificial 3D silica colloidal crystals (opal) were prepared through self-assembly of silica spheres in the visible frequency range. We directly synthesized nano silver particles in the void of the silica artificial opal film using the photolysis of silver nitrate under UV light, nano silver particles were self-deposited around the surface of silica sphere. The shifts of the stop band of the artificial crystals after exposing different time under UV light were studied. Synthetic silica opal with three-dimensional (3D) structure is potentially useful for the development of diffractive optical devices, micro mechanical systems, and sensory elements because photonic band gaps obtained from self-assembled closely packed periodic structures.

  18. Effect of relative nanohole position on colour purity of ultrathin plasmonic subtractive colour filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L B; Hu, X L; Zhang, D X; Zeng, Beibei; Wang, L S; Yang, S M; Tai, R Z; Fecht, H J; Jiang, J Z

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic subtractive color filters through patterning periodic nanostructures on ultrathin Ag films deposited on a glass substrate, exhibiting good durability, simple fabrication, and flexible color tunability, have attracted considerable attention due to their tremendous potential applications. While previous studies have mainly focused on their extraordinary physical mechanisms, color purity, which is another key parameter for high quality imaging applications, has been much less investigated. In this work, we demonstrate that the relative position of nanoholes patterned on ultrathin Ag films can largely affect the color purity of plasmonic subtractive color filters. The calculated results agree reasonably well with the experimental data, revealing that the purity of subtractive colors can be improved by changing the nanohole arrays from square lattice to triangular lattice without reducing transmission at visible frequencies. In addition, underlying mechanisms are clarified by systematically analyzing the dominant valley in transmission spectra. (paper)

  19. Spatially-resolved EEL studies of plasmons in silver filled carbon nanotubes using a dedicated STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangert, U; Harvey, A J; Seepujak, A

    2008-01-01

    Using a dedicated FEG STEM, we present highly spatially-resolved electron energy-loss (EEL) studies of individual multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), each with the inner cavity possessing regions completely filled with silver. The transmission and attenuation of graphite π-collective mode E-fields through the MWCNT walls are established. Noticeable changes in the graphite π-surface mode are witnessed, concomitant with coupling of the silver Mie mode and the graphite π-surface mode. The resulting collective mode is significantly red-shifted to below 5 eV, with considerable intensity in the visible frequency regime. It appears that silver retains its ability to enhance E-fields when surrounded by a MWCNT. Present observations lead to the possibility of collective modes propagating on graphene monolayers being tuned in frequency by the presence of a metal.

  20. Photoperoxidation of lens lipids: prevention by vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, S.D.; Beachy, N.A.; Richards, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Light of visible frequency was observed to initiate peroxidative degradation of lipids of rat lenses when the latter were maintained in organ culture. The extent of degradation was monitored by measurement of malonaldehyde. This photodegradative process, which is possibly triggered by light catalyzed generation of superoxide and its subsequent transformation to other potent oxidants, was observed to be thwarted substantially if the medium of organ culture was fortified with 10 - 3 and 10 - 7 M vitamin E (αtochopherol). These studies suggest that vitamin E may be metabolically beneficial by protecting light exposed tissues, such as those in the eye, against photoperoxidative damage concomitant to light-catalyzed generation of oxygen-free radicals. The findings appear relevant to age-associated pathogenesis of cataracts and their possible attenuation. In addition, they provide a basis of pathogenesis in other ocular tissues such as the macula known to undergo age-dependent degeneration. (author)

  1. Photoperoxidation of lens lipids: prevention by vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, S.D.; Beachy, N.A.; Richards, R.D. (Maryland Univ., Baltimore (USA). School of Medicine)

    1982-12-01

    Light of visible frequency was observed to initiate peroxidative degradation of lipids of rat lenses when the latter were maintained in organ culture. The extent of degradation was monitored by measurement of malonaldehyde. This photodegradative process, which is possibly triggered by light catalyzed generation of superoxide and its subsequent transformation to other potent oxidants, was observed to be thwarted substantially if the medium of organ culture was fortified with 10/sup -3/ and 10/sup -7/ M vitamin E (..cap alpha..tochopherol). These studies suggest that vitamin E may be metabolically beneficial by protecting light exposed tissues, such as those in the eye, against photoperoxidative damage concomitant to light-catalyzed generation of oxygen-free radicals. The findings appear relevant to age-associated pathogenesis of cataracts and their possible attenuation. In addition, they provide a basis of pathogenesis in other ocular tissues such as the macula known to undergo age-dependent degeneration.

  2. Optical magnetism and plasmonic Fano resonances in metal-insulator-metal oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verre, R; Yang, Z J; Shegai, T; Käll, M

    2015-03-11

    The possibility of achieving optical magnetism at visible frequencies using plasmonic nanostructures has recently been a subject of great interest. The concept is based on designing structures that support plasmon modes with electron oscillation patterns that imitate current loops, that is, magnetic dipoles. However, the magnetic resonances are typically spectrally narrow, thereby limiting their applicability in, for example, metamaterial designs. We show that a significantly broader magnetic response can be realized in plasmonic pentamers constructed from metal-insulator-metal (MIM) sandwich particles. Each MIM unit acts as a magnetic meta-atom and the optical magnetism is rendered quasi-broadband through hybridization of the in-plane modes. We demonstrate that scattering spectra of individual MIM pentamers exhibit multiple Fano resonances and a broad subradiant spectral window that signals the magnetic interaction and a hierarchy of coupling effects in these intricate three-dimensional nanoparticle oligomers.

  3. A dynamically reconfigurable Fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, M.; Farhat, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    We report on a novel electrically tunable hybrid graphene-gold Fano resonator. The proposed metamaterial consists of a square graphene patch and a square gold frame. The destructive interference between the narrow- and broadband dipolar surface plasmons, which are induced respectively on the surfaces of the graphene patch and the gold frame, leads to the plasmonic equivalent of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The response of the metamaterial is polarization independent due to the symmetry of the structure and its spectral features are shown to be highly controllable by changing a gate voltage applied to the graphene patch. Additionally, effective group index of the device is retrieved and is found to be very high within the EIT window suggesting its potential use in slow light applications. Potential outcomes such as high sensing ability and switching at terahertz frequencies are demonstrated through numerical simulations with realistic parameters.

  4. Transparent thin film polarizing and optical control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson V. Tabiryan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We show that a diffractive waveplate can be combined with a phase retardation film for fully converting light of arbitrary polarization state into a polarized light. Incorporating a photonic bandgap layer into a system of such polarizers that unify different polarization states in the input light into a single polarization state at its output, rather than absorbing or reflecting half of it, we developed and demonstrated a polarization-independent optical controller capable of switching between transmittive and reflective states. The transition between those states is smoothly controlled with low-voltage and low-power sources. Using versatile fabrication methods, this “universally polarizing optical controller” can be integrated into a thin package compatible with a variety of display, spatial light modulation, optical communication, imaging and other photonics systems.

  5. High-Efficiency Dielectric Metasurfaces for Polarization-Dependent Terahertz Wavefront Manipulation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Huifang

    2017-11-30

    Recently, metasurfaces made up of dielectric structures have drawn enormous attentions in the optical and infrared regimes due to their high efficiency and designing freedom in manipulating light propagation. Such advantages can also be introduced to terahertz frequencies where efficient functional devices are still lacking. Here, polarization-dependent all-silicon terahertz dielectric metasurfaces are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The metasurfaces are composed of anisotropic rectangular-shaped silicon pillars on silicon substrate. Each metasurface holds dual different functions depending on the incident polarizations. Furthermore, to suppress the reflection loss and multireflection effect in practical applications, a high-performance polarization-independent antireflection silicon pillar array is also proposed, which can be patterned at the other side of the silicon substrate. Such all-silicon dielectric metasurfaces are easy to fabricate and can be very promising in developing next-generation efficient, compact, and low-cost terahertz functional devices.

  6. Switchable Bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Carl Johan

    2003-01-01

    Research Center (MIC) at the Technical University of Denmark. The Bragg gratings were fabricated at COM using UV irradiation of the planar waveguides using the phase mask method. The induction of a frozen-in DC electric field into the samples was performed by thermal poling of the Bragg gratings...... layers, it becam possible to investigate the symmetry properties of the third-order nonlinearities. Contrary to the expectations for an amorphous material, the measurements indicated an almost polarization independent third-order nonlinearity - the most probable explanation being electrostriction......The subject of this ph.d. thesis was the development of an electrically switchable Bragg grating made in an optical waveguide using thermal poling to be applied within optical telecommunication systems. The planar waveguides used in this thesis were fabricated at the Micro- and Nanotechnology...

  7. A dynamically reconfigurable Fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, M.

    2013-07-01

    We report on a novel electrically tunable hybrid graphene-gold Fano resonator. The proposed metamaterial consists of a square graphene patch and a square gold frame. The destructive interference between the narrow- and broadband dipolar surface plasmons, which are induced respectively on the surfaces of the graphene patch and the gold frame, leads to the plasmonic equivalent of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The response of the metamaterial is polarization independent due to the symmetry of the structure and its spectral features are shown to be highly controllable by changing a gate voltage applied to the graphene patch. Additionally, effective group index of the device is retrieved and is found to be very high within the EIT window suggesting its potential use in slow light applications. Potential outcomes such as high sensing ability and switching at terahertz frequencies are demonstrated through numerical simulations with realistic parameters.

  8. Combining the absorptive and radiative loss in metasurfaces for multi-spectral shaping of the electromagnetic scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenbo; Huang, Cheng; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Cui, Jianhua; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-02-19

    The absorptive and radiative losses are two fundamental aspects of the electromagnetic responses, which are widely occurring in many different systems such as waveguides, solar cells, and antennas. Here we proposed a metasurface to realize the control of the absorptive and radiative loss and to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) in multi-frequency bands. The anti-phase gradient and absorptive metasurfaces were designed that consists of metallic square patch and square loop structure inserted with resistors, acting as an phase gradient material in the X and Ku band, while behaving as an absorber in the S band. The simulation and experiment results verified the double-band, wideband and polarization-independent RCS reduction by the absorptive and anti-phase gradient metasurfaces.

  9. Wideband radar cross section reduction using two-dimensional phase gradient metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongfeng; Qu, Shaobo; Wang, Jiafu; Chen, Hongya [College of Science, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710051 (China); Zhang, Jieqiu [College of Science, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710051 (China); Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Xu, Zhuo [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Zhang, Anxue [School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2014-06-02

    Phase gradient metasurface (PGMs) are artificial surfaces that can provide pre-defined in-plane wave-vectors to manipulate the directions of refracted/reflected waves. In this Letter, we propose to achieve wideband radar cross section (RCS) reduction using two-dimensional (2D) PGMs. A 2D PGM was designed using a square combination of 49 split-ring sub-unit cells. The PGM can provide additional wave-vectors along the two in-plane directions simultaneously, leading to either surface wave conversion, deflected reflection, or diffuse reflection. Both the simulation and experiment results verified the wide-band, polarization-independent, high-efficiency RCS reduction induced by the 2D PGM.

  10. High-efficiency terahertz polarization devices based on the dielectric metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Wang, JingJing; Guo, Kai; Shen, Fei; Zhou, Qingfeng; Zhiping yin; Guo, Zhongyi

    2018-02-01

    Metasurfaces are composed of the subwavelength structures, which can be used to manipulate the amplitude, phase, and polarization of incident electromagnetic waves efficiently. Here, we propose a novel type of dielectric metasurface based on crystal Si for realizing to manipulate the terahertz wave, in which by varying the geometric sizes of the Si micro-bricks, the transmitting phase of the terahertz wave can almost span over the entire 2π range for both of the x-polarization and y-polarization simultaneously, while keeping the similarly high-transmission amplitudes (over 90%). At the frequency of 1.0 THz, we have successfully designed a series of controllable THz devices, such as the polarization-dependent beam splitter, polarization-independent beam deflector and the focusing lenses based on the designed metasurfaces. Our designs are easy to fabricate and can be promising in developing high-efficiency THz functional devices.

  11. Wideband radar cross section reduction using two-dimensional phase gradient metasurfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yongfeng; Qu, Shaobo; Wang, Jiafu; Chen, Hongya; Zhang, Jieqiu; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Anxue

    2014-01-01

    Phase gradient metasurface (PGMs) are artificial surfaces that can provide pre-defined in-plane wave-vectors to manipulate the directions of refracted/reflected waves. In this Letter, we propose to achieve wideband radar cross section (RCS) reduction using two-dimensional (2D) PGMs. A 2D PGM was designed using a square combination of 49 split-ring sub-unit cells. The PGM can provide additional wave-vectors along the two in-plane directions simultaneously, leading to either surface wave conversion, deflected reflection, or diffuse reflection. Both the simulation and experiment results verified the wide-band, polarization-independent, high-efficiency RCS reduction induced by the 2D PGM.

  12. Biomimetic plasmonic color generated by the single-layer coaxial honeycomb nanostructure arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiancun; Gao, Bo; Li, Haoyong; Yu, Xiaochang; Yang, Xiaoming; Yu, Yiting

    2017-07-01

    We proposed a periodic coaxial honeycomb nanostructure array patterned in a silver film to realize the plasmonic structural color, which was inspired from natural honeybee hives. The spectral characteristics of the structure with variant geometrical parameters are investigated by employing a finite-difference time-domain method, and the corresponding colors are thus derived by calculating XYZ tristimulus values corresponding with the transmission spectra. The study demonstrates that the suggested structure with only a single layer has high transmission, narrow full-width at half-maximum, and wide color tunability by changing geometrical parameters. Therefore, the plasmonic colors realized possess a high color brightness, saturation, as well as a wide color gamut. In addition, the strong polarization independence makes it more attractive for practical applications. These results indicate that the recommended color-generating plasmonic structure has various potential applications in highly integrated optoelectronic devices, such as color filters and high-definition displays.

  13. Scattering engineering in continuously shaped metasurface: An approach for electromagnetic illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yinghui; Yan, Lianshan; Pan, Wei; Shao, Liyang

    2016-07-01

    The control of electromagnetic waves scattering is critical in wireless communications and stealth technology. Discrete metasurfaces not only increase the design and fabrication complex but also cause difficulties in obtaining simultaneous electric and optical functionality. On the other hand, discontinuous phase profiles fostered by discrete systems inevitably introduce phase noises to the scattering fields. Here we propose the principle of a scattering-harness mechanism by utilizing continuous gradient phase stemming from the spin-orbit interaction via sinusoidal metallic strips. Furthermore, by adjusting the amplitude and period of the sinusoidal metallic strip, the scattering characteristics of the underneath object can be greatly changed and thus result in electromagnetic illusion. The proposal is validated by full-wave simulations and experiment characterization in microwave band. Our approach featured by continuous phase profile, polarization independent performance and facile implementation may find widespread applications in electromagnetic wave manipulation.

  14. Extraordinary Light-Trapping Enhancement in Silicon Solar Cell Patterned with Graded Photonic Super-Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Hassan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Light-trapping enhancement in newly discovered graded photonic super-crystals (GPSCs with dual periodicity and dual basis is herein explored for the first time. Broadband, wide-incident-angle, and polarization-independent light-trapping enhancement was achieved in silicon solar cells patterned with these GPSCs. These super-crystals were designed by multi-beam interference, rendering them flexible and efficient. The optical response of the patterned silicon solar cell retained Bloch-mode resonance; however, light absorption was greatly enhanced in broadband wavelengths due to the graded, complex unit super-cell nanostructures, leading to the overlap of Bloch-mode resonances. The broadband, wide-angle light coupling and trapping enhancement mechanism are understood to be due to the spatial variance of the index of refraction, and this spatial variance is due to the varying filling fraction, the dual basis, and the varying lattice constants in different directions.

  15. A reflective-backing-free metamaterial absorber with broadband response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilian Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a polarization-independent and broadband perfect infrared (IR metamaterial absorber (MA without reflective backing. The proposed absorber is a periodic meta-atom array consisting of metal-dielectric-multilayer truncated cones which can absorb 80% EM wave from 50.70 to 81.87THz, while transmit 80% EM wave from 0 to 37.71THz. With the decreasing of frequency, the transmissivity increases, which is close to 100% from 0 to 5THz. We can broaden the absorption bandwidth of the MA by cascading multi-layers truncated cones. Furthermore, the proposed IR MA promises to be one desirable stealth material for radar-IR compatibility.

  16. Thin randomly aligned hierarchical carbon nanotube arrays as ultrablack metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Francesco; Hines, Peter; De Crescenzi, Maurizio; Motta, Nunzio

    2017-07-01

    Ultrablack metamaterials are artificial materials able to harvest all the incident light regardless of wavelength, angle, or polarization. Here, we show the ultrablack properties of randomly aligned hierarchical carbon nanotube arrays with thicknesses below 200 nm. The thin coatings are realized by solution processing and dry-transfer deposition on different substrates. The hierarchical surface morphology of the coatings is biomimetic and provides a large effective area that improves the film optical absorption. Also, such a morphology is responsible for the moth-eye effect, which leads to the omnidirectional and polarization-independent suppression of optical reflection. The films exhibit an emissivity up to 99.36% typical of an ideal black body, resulting in the thinnest ultrablack metamaterial ever reported. Such a material may be exploited for thermal, optical, and optoelectronic devices such as heat sinks, optical shields, solar cells, light and thermal sensors, and light-emitting diodes.

  17. Two-dimensional QR-coded metamaterial absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Sai; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the design of metamaterial absorbers is proposed based on QR coding and topology optimization. Such absorbers look like QR codes and can be recognized by decoding softwares as well as mobile phones. To verify the design, two lightweight wideband absorbers are designed, which can achieve wideband absorption above 90 % in 6.68-19.30 and 7.00-19.70 GHz, respectively. More importantly, polarization-independent absorption over 90 % can be maintained under incident angle within 55°. The QR code absorber not only can achieve wideband absorption, but also can carry information such as texts and Web sites. They are of important values in applications such identification and electromagnetic protection.

  18. Efficient quantum entanglement distribution over an arbitrary collective-noise channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yu-Bo; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2010-04-01

    We present an efficient quantum entanglement distribution over an arbitrary collective-noise channel. The basic idea in the present scheme is that two parties in quantum communication first transmit the entangled states in the frequency degree of freedom which suffers little from the noise in an optical fiber. After the two parties share the photon pairs, they add some operations and equipments to transfer the frequency entanglement of pairs into the polarization entanglement with the success probability of 100%. Finally, they can get maximally entangled polarization states with polarization independent wavelength division multiplexers and quantum frequency up-conversion which can erase distinguishability for frequency. Compared with conventional entanglement purification protocols, the present scheme works in a deterministic way in principle. Surprisingly, the collective noise leads to an additional advantage.

  19. Nondipole Effects in Double Photoionization of He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istomin, A. Y.; Starace, A. F.; Manakov, N. L.; Meremianin, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    Lowest-order nondipole effects are studied in double photoionization (DPI) of the He atom. Ab initio parametrizations of the quadrupole transition amplitude for DPI from the 1S0-state are presented in terms of the exact two-electron reduced matrix elements. Parametrizations for the dipole-quadrupole triply differential cross section (TDCS) and doubly differential cross section (DDCS) are presented in terms of polarization-independent amplitudes for the case of an elliptically polarized photon. Expressions for the DDCS in terms of the reduced two-electron matrix elements are also given. A general analysis of retardation-induced asymmetries of the TDCS including the circular dichroism effect at equal energy sharing is presented. Our numerical results exhibit a nondipole forward-backward asymmetry in the TDCS for DPI of He at an excess energy of 450 eV that is in qualitative agreement with existing experimental data

  20. Suspended silica beam splitters on silicon with large core-clad index deference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Armani, Andrea M.

    2012-03-01

    Optical beam splitters form a fundamental component in integrated optical systems, performing as modulators, interferometers and (de)multiplexers. While silica is a desirable material, because of its low non-linear susceptibility, it is extremely challenging to achieve the requisite core-clad refractive index contrast. In this work, silica splitters with an effective refractive index difference of 25% between the core and clad is demonstrated. The splitter can divide power evenly with low crosstalk from 1520 to 1630nm. In addition, the splitting ratio doesn't change and the output power increases linearly with the input power, which indicates a low susceptibility to thermal effects. The splitter's polarization independent behavior is also verified.

  1. Beam delivery system with a non-digitized diffractive beam splitter for laser-drilling of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amako, J.; Fujii, E.

    2016-02-01

    We report a beam-delivery system consisting of a non-digitized diffractive beam splitter and a Fourier transform lens. The system is applied to the deep-drilling of silicon using a nanosecond pulse laser in the manufacture of inkjet printer heads. In this process, a circularly polarized pulse beam is divided into an array of uniform beams, which are then delivered precisely to the process points. To meet these requirements, the splitter was designed to be polarization-independent with an efficiency>95%. The optical elements were assembled so as to allow the fine tuning of the effective overall focal length by adjusting the wavefront curvature of the beam. Using the system, a beam alignment accuracy ofbeam array and the throughput was substantially improved (10,000 points on a silicon wafer drilled in ~1 min). This beam-delivery scheme works for a variety of laser applications that require parallel processing.

  2. Simulation of quantum dynamics with integrated photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansoni, Linda; Sciarrino, Fabio; Mataloni, Paolo; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, quantum walks have been proposed as promising resources for the simulation of physical quantum systems. In fact it is widely adopted to simulate quantum dynamics. Up to now single particle quantum walks have been experimentally demonstrated by different approaches, while only few experiments involving many-particle quantum walks have been realized. Here we simulate the 2-particle dynamics on a discrete time quantum walk, built on an array of integrated waveguide beam splitters. The polarization independence of the quantum walk circuit allowed us to exploit the polarization entanglement to encode the symmetry of the two-photon wavefunction, thus the bunching-antibunching behavior of non interacting bosons and fermions has been simulated. We have also characterized the possible distinguishability and decoherence effects arising in such a structure. This study is necessary in view of the realization of a quantum simulator based on an integrated optical array built on a large number of beam splitters.

  3. Metamaterials for perfect absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young Pak; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Ki Won

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the theory and practical development of metamaterial-based perfect absorbers (MMPAs). It begins with a brief history of MMPAs which reviews the various theoretical and experimental milestones in their development. The theoretical background and fundamental working principles of MMPAs are then discussed, providing the necessary background on how MMPAs work and are constructed. There then follows a section describing how different MMPAs are designed and built according to the operating frequency of the electromagnetic wave, and how their behavior is changed. Methods of fabricating and characterizing MMPAs are then presented. The book elaborates on the performance and characteristics of MMPAs, including electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT). It also covers recent advances in MMPAs and their applications, including multi-band, broadband, tunability, polarization independence and incidence independence. Suitable for graduate students in optical sciences and e...

  4. Optical programmable Boolean logic unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2011-11-10

    Logic units are the building blocks of many important computational operations likes arithmetic, multiplexer-demultiplexer, radix conversion, parity checker cum generator, etc. Multifunctional logic operation is very much essential in this respect. Here a programmable Boolean logic unit is proposed that can perform 16 Boolean logical operations from a single optical input according to the programming input without changing the circuit design. This circuit has two outputs. One output is complementary to the other. Hence no loss of data can occur. The circuit is basically designed by a 2×2 polarization independent optical cross bar switch. Performance of the proposed circuit has been achieved by doing numerical simulations. The binary logical states (0,1) are represented by the absence of light (null) and presence of light, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of the Impact of Slab Foundation Heat Transfer on Heating and Cooling in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kono, J. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Vieira, R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Gu, L. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    During the last three decades of energy-efficiency research, there has been limited study of heat transfer to slab-on-grade foundations in cooling-dominated climates. Most experimental research has focused on the impact of slab-on-grade foundations and insulation schemes on heat losses in heating-dominated climates. This is surprising because the floor area in single-family homes is generally equal to wall area, window area, or attic area, all of which have been extensively evaluated for heat-transfer properties. Moreover, slab foundations are the most common foundation type in cooling-dominated climates. Slab-on-grade construction is very popular in southern states, accounting for 77% of new home floors according to 2014 U.S. Census data. There is a widespread perception that tile flooring, as opposed to carpet, provides a cooler home interior in warm climates. Empirical research is needed because building energy simulation software programs running DOE-2 and EnergyPlus engines often rely on simplified models to evaluate the influence of flooring on interior temperature, even though in some cases more detailed models exist. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC) performed experiments in the Florida Solar Energy Center’s Flexible Residential Test Facility intended to assess for the first time (1) how slab-on-grade construction influences interior cooling in a cooling-dominated climate and (2) how the difference in a carpeted versus uncarpeted building might influence heating and cooling energy use. Two nominally identical side-by-side residential buildings were evaluated during the course of 1 year, from 2014 to 2015: the east building with a pad and carpet floor and the west building with a bare slab floor. A detailed grid shows temperature measurements taken on the slab surface at various locations as well as at depths of 1.0 ft, 2 ft, 5.0 ft, 10.0 ft, and 20.0 ft below the surface. Temperature

  6. An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xingjie; Wong, Zi Jing; Mrejen, Michael; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-09-18

    Metamaterial-based optical cloaks have thus far used volumetric distribution of the material properties to gradually bend light and thereby obscure the cloaked region. Hence, they are bulky and hard to scale up and, more critically, typical carpet cloaks introduce unnecessary phase shifts in the reflected light, making the cloaks detectable. Here, we demonstrate experimentally an ultrathin invisibility skin cloak wrapped over an object. This skin cloak conceals a three-dimensional arbitrarily shaped object by complete restoration of the phase of the reflected light at 730-nanometer wavelength. The skin cloak comprises a metasurface with distributed phase shifts rerouting light and rendering the object invisible. In contrast to bulky cloaks with volumetric index variation, our device is only 80 nanometer (about one-ninth of the wavelength) thick and potentially scalable for hiding macroscopic objects. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Bilevel thresholding of sliced image of sludge floc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J

    2004-02-15

    This work examined the feasibility of employing various thresholding algorithms to determining the optimal bilevel thresholding value for estimating the geometric parameters of sludge flocs from the microtome sliced images and from the confocal laser scanning microscope images. Morphological information extracted from images depends on the bilevel thresholding value. According to the evaluation on the luminescence-inverted images and fractal curves (quadric Koch curve and Sierpinski carpet), Otsu's method yields more stable performance than other histogram-based algorithms and is chosen to obtain the porosity. The maximum convex perimeter method, however, can probe the shapes and spatial distribution of the pores among the biomass granules in real sludge flocs. A combined algorithm is recommended for probing the sludge floc structure.

  8. Is economic dependence on the husband a risk factor for intimate partner violence against female factory workers in Nepal?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhungel, Sunita; Dhungel, Pabita; Dhital, Shalik Ram

    2017-01-01

    and garment factories in Kathmandu, Nepal. Interviews were conducted to collect quantitative data on three forms of IPV, namely physical violence, psychological violence and sexual violence, as well as on a number of potentially associated factors. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of women experienced sexual IPV......BACKGROUND: Violence related injury is a serious public health issue all over the world. This study aims to assess the association between several socio-economic factors and intimate partner violence (IPV) in Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 236 women working in carpet......, 28% physical IPV and 35% psychological IPV at least once in the last 12 months. The variables independently associated with at least one form of IPV were: age of the woman >29 years [OR = 4.23, p = 0.025 for physical IPV; OR = 6.94, p = 0.008 for sexual IPV; OR = 3.42, p = 0.043 for psychological IPV...

  9. Can profiles of poly- and Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum provide information on major exposure sources?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xindi C; Dassuncao, Clifton; Zhang, Xianming

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Humans are exposed to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from diverse sources and this has been associated with negative health impacts. Advances in analytical methods have enabled routine detection of more than 15 PFASs in human sera, allowing better profiling of PFAS......) and their precursors are ubiquitous in multiple exposure sources. However, their composition varies among sources, which may impact associated adverse health effects. METHODS: We use available PFAS concentrations from several demographic groups in a North Atlantic seafood consuming population (Faroe Islands...... sulfonamidoacetate (N-EtFOSAA), which are directly used or metabolized from fluorochemicals in consumer products such as carpet and food packaging. We find that the same compounds are associated with the same exposure sources in two North American populations, suggesting generalizability of results from the Faroese...

  10. The importance of chemical components in cleaning agents for the indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejrup, Karl Ventzel

    In order to evaluate the importance for the indoor environment of chemical compounds in cleaning agents, the emission of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) from 10 selected cleaning agents and the content of LAS (Linear AlkanbenzeneSulfonate) in dust samples from 7 buildings were investigated.The...... of LAS between smooth floored corridors to carpeted offices, are apparently also of importance for the LAS content in individual rooms.The amounts of LAS found in the dust samples indicated that LAS may be of importance for the indoor environment, but inadequate knowledge about how low concentrations...... investigation of VOC emission from 10 selected cleaning agents showed that it was useful to classify the VOCs into two groups: nonpolar VOCs and polar VOCs.The nonpolar VOCs consisted of several hundred different compounds, mainly terpenes typically used as perfume in cleaning agents. The nonpolar VOC...

  11. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete. Final report, August 3, 1993 - September 15, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The ELECTROSORB reg-sign open-quotes Cclose quotes process is an electrokinetic process for decontaminating concrete. ELECTROSORB reg-sign open-quotes Cclose quotes uses a carpet-like extraction pad which is placed on the contaminated concrete surface. An electrolyte solution is circulated from a supporting module. This module keeps the electrolyte solution clean. The work is advancing through the engineering development stage with steady progress toward a full scale demonstration unit which will be ready for incorporation in the DOE Large Scale Demonstration Program by Summer 1997. A demonstration was carried out at the Mound Facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, in June 1996. Third party verification by EG ampersand G verified the effectiveness of the process. Results of this work and the development work that proceeded are described herein

  12. A New Look at an Old Activity: Resonance Tubes Used to Teach Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Jane

    2017-12-01

    There are several variations of resonance laboratory activities used to determine the speed of sound. This is not one of them. This activity uses the resonance tube idea to teach resonance, not to verify the speed of sound. Prior to this activity, the speed of sound has already been measured using computer sound-sensors and timing echoes produced in long tubes like carpet tubes. There are other methods to determine the speed of sound. Some methods are referenced at the end of this article. The students already know the speed of sound when they are confronted with data that contradict their prior knowledge. Here, the mystery is something the students solve with the help of a series of demonstrations by the instructor.

  13. Conceptional design of a novel next-generation cryogenic stopping cell for the Low-Energy Branch of the Super-FRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickel, T., E-mail: t.dickel@gsi.de [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Gießen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Plaß, W.R.; Geissel, H. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Gießen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Heiße, F. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Gießen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Institut für Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Miskun, I. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Gießen (Germany); Purushothman, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Reiter, M.P.; Rink, A.-K. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Gießen (Germany); Scheidenberger, C. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Gießen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-06-01

    The conceptual design of a next-generation cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) for the Low-Energy Branch (LEB) of the Super-FRS has been developed. It builds on advanced techniques implemented in the prototype version of the CSC, which has recently been commissioned as part of the FRS Ion Catcher with {sup 238}U projectile and fission fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u. These techniques include cryogenic operation to ensure a high purity of the stopping gas and high-density operation enabled using an RF carpet with a small electrode structure size. The next generation CSC implements several novel concepts (e.g. perpendicular extraction) which lead to enhanced performance compared to the prototype CSC: (i) extremely short extraction times, (ii) higher rate capability, (iii) increased areal density without deteriorating extraction times, efficiencies or rate capability, (iv) minimized RF power, (v) precise range measurement of the ions and (vii) improved cleanliness of the CSC.

  14. An analogy strategy for transformation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Kan; Liu, Yongmin; Chen, Huanyang; Jiang, Xunya

    2014-01-01

    We introduce an analogy strategy to design transformation optical devices. Based on the similarities between field lines in different physical systems, the trajectories of light can be intuitively determined to curve in a gentle manner, and the resulting materials are isotropic and nonmagnetic. Furthermore, the physical meaning of the analogue problems plays a key role in the removal of dielectric singularities. We illustrate this approach by creating two designs of carpet cloak and a collimating lens as representative examples in two- and three-dimensional spaces, respectively. The analogy strategy not only reveals the intimate connections between different physical disciplines, such as optics, fluid mechanics and electrostatics, but also provides a heuristic pathway to designing advanced photonic systems

  15. Preliminary results of the Moon shadow using ARGO-YBJ detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yungang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences 19B Yuquan Lu, Shijingshan, Beijing, 100049 (China)], E-mail: wangyg@mail.ihep.ac.cn

    2008-01-15

    ARGO-YBJ is a 'full coverage' air shower detector consisting of Resistive Plate Chambers(RPCs) at the Yangbajing High Altitude Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, China) at 4300 m a.s.l. (lat=30.11{sup o} N, long=90.53{sup o} E). Using the data collected with a carpet of RPCs (1900 m{sup 2}, about 1/3 of the whole ARGO-YBJ detector), the cosmic ray shadowing effect due to the Moon was studied. The 50% angular resolution is found to be {approx}1.2{sup o} with the Chess-board method and the Moon shadow with a significance of 4.9 {sigma} is found displaced by 0.7{sup o} westward and 0.5{sup o} northward with respect to the expected position by the equi-zenith angle Method.

  16. Evaluation of the Children's Environmental Health Network's environmental stewardship checklist responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilden, Robyn; McElroy, Katie; Friedmann, Erika; Witherspoon, Nsedu Obot; Paul, Hester

    2015-03-01

    Children are subject to multiple hazards on a daily basis, including in child care facilities. Research has shown that children in the child care setting may be exposed to lead, radon, pesticides, and multiple chemicals that are associated with known or suspected adverse health effects. The authors' study used an existing environmental health endorsement program to describe current practices of child care facilities as related to environmental health and safety. The facilities varied greatly in size and were located mainly in the U.S. with a few from Canada and Australia. A few checklist items had nearly a 100% positive response rate; however, some of the items had more than 10% of the facilities answer "false" or "don't know." Although many areas exist in which these sampled child care facilities are being environmentally responsible, further education is needed, particularly as related to the use of wall-to-wall carpeting, radon testing, aerosols, and air fresheners.

  17. A proposal for self-correcting stabilizer quantum memories in 3 dimensions (or slightly less)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brell, Courtney G.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a family of local CSS stabilizer codes as possible candidates for self-correcting quantum memories in 3D. The construction is inspired by the classical Ising model on a Sierpinski carpet fractal, which acts as a classical self-correcting memory. Our models are naturally defined on fractal subsets of a 4D hypercubic lattice with Hausdorff dimension less than 3. Though this does not imply that these models can be realized with local interactions in {{{R}}}3, we also discuss this possibility. The X and Z sectors of the code are dual to one another, and we show that there exists a finite temperature phase transition associated with each of these sectors, providing evidence that the system may robustly store quantum information at finite temperature.

  18. Knight Mine reclamation: a study of revegetation difficulties in a semi-arid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNearny, R.L.; Wheeler, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the difficulties associated with the re-establishment of reclamation vegetation on a dry underground coal mine site in southern Utah, USA, is presented. Precipitation amounts, seed mix, seed bed preparation techniques, and soil properties all appeared to be adequate for vegetation establishment at the site. However, failure of repeated revegetation efforts in a redisturbed area of the mine site may have been due to higher soil salinity levels in the area, which may have given 'Kochia scoparia' an initial competitive advantage. Lack of soil moisture and allelopathic effects due to the dense carpet of 'Kochi' may have also contributed to the continued lack of revegation success. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  19. River-bed erosion due to changing boundary conditions: performance of a protective measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Termini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the introduction of man-made sediment barriers along a river, the amount of sediment load entering the downstream river reach is different to that leaving the reach, and erosion processes occur downstream of the barrier itself. Designers are often required to take into account the scouring process and to include adequate protective measures against the local scour. This paper addresses the performance of bio-engineering protective measures against the erosion process. In particular, a green carpet, realized with real flexible vegetation, has been used as the protective measure against erosion processes downstream of a rigid bed. Analyses are based on experimental work carried out in a straight channel constructed at the laboratory of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aereospaziale, dei Materiali, Palermo University (Italy.

  20. Taking the Extra out of the Extraordinary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerslev, Anne; Mortensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    people engaged in insignificant everyday activities hold by far the largest share of today’s insatiable digital, globalized and commercialized market for news pictures of celebrities off-duty. Re-examining the well-known theorization of the tension between the ordinary and extraordinary in celebrity......Paparazzi photography presently constitutes the largest genre of visual celebrity news on the internet along with red carpet photography. With the emergence of digital media, this genre has moved towards the centre of mainstream news and entertainment culture, and the content has undergone...... culture studies, this article thus investigates the following research question: How is the ordinary represented in paparazzi photographs as a genre of visual celebrity news in the current, digital media landscape?...