WorldWideScience

Sample records for polarization electric field

  1. A simplified model of polar cap electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, N.

    1977-01-01

    A simple-minded 'model' is used in order to visualize the gross features of polar cap electric fields, in particular the 'diode' effect which had emerged already from earlier observations and the asymmetry between the electric fields observed on the dawn and dusk sides of the polar cap, which depends on Bsub(y)

  2. Fourier analysis of polar cap electric field and current distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical study of high-latitude electric fields and currents, using analytic Fourier analysis methods, is conducted. A two-dimensional planar model of the ionosphere with an enhanced conductivity auroral belt and field-aligned currents at the edges is employed. Two separate topics are treated. A field-aligned current element near the cusp region of the polar cap is included to investigate the modifications to the convection pattern by the east-west component of the interplanetary magnetic field. It is shown that a sizable one-cell structure is induced near the cusp which diverts equipotential contours to the dawnside or duskside, depending on the sign of the cusp current. This produces characteristic dawn-dusk asymmetries to the electric field that have been previously observed over the polar cap. The second topic is concerned with the electric field configuration obtained in the limit of perfect shielding, where the field is totally excluded equatorward of the auroral oval. When realistic field-aligned current distributions are used, the result is to produce severely distorted, crescent-shaped equipotential contours over the cap. Exact, analytic formulae applicable to this case are also provided.

  3. Simulating electric field interactions with polar molecules using spectroscopic databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Alec; Zak, Emil J; Chubb, Katy L; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yachmenev, Andrey

    2017-03-24

    Ro-vibrational Stark-associated phenomena of small polyatomic molecules are modelled using extensive spectroscopic data generated as part of the ExoMol project. The external field Hamiltonian is built from the computed ro-vibrational line list of the molecule in question. The Hamiltonian we propose is general and suitable for any polar molecule in the presence of an electric field. By exploiting precomputed data, the often prohibitively expensive computations associated with high accuracy simulations of molecule-field interactions are avoided. Applications to strong terahertz field-induced ro-vibrational dynamics of PH 3 and NH 3 , and spontaneous emission data for optoelectrical Sisyphus cooling of H 2 CO and CH 3 Cl are discussed.

  4. Ab-initio study of the relation between electric polarization and electric field gradients in ferroelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, J N; Correia, J G; Butz, T; Picozzi, S; Fenta, A S; Amaral, V S

    2012-01-01

    The hyperfine interaction between the quadrupole moment of atomic nuclei and the electric field gradient (EFG) provides information on the electronic charge distribution close to a given atomic site. In ferroelectric materials, the loss of inversion symmetry of the electronic charge distribution is necessary for the appearance of the electric polarization. We present first-principles density functional theory calculations of ferroelectrics such as BaTiO$_{3}$, KNbO$_{3}$, PbTiO$_{3}$ and other oxides with perovskite structures, by focusing on both EFG tensors and polarization. We analyze the EFG tensor properties such as orientation and correlation between components and their relation with electric polarization. This work supports previous studies of ferroelectric materials where a relation between EFG tensors and polarization was observed, which may be exploited to study the ferroelectric order when standard techniques to measure polarization are not easily applied.

  5. General solution for calculating polarization electric fields in the auroral ionosphere and application examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amm, O.; Fujii, R.; VanhamäKi, H.; Yoshikawa, A.; Ieda, A.

    2013-05-01

    We devise an approach to calculate the polarization electric field in the ionosphere, when the ionospheric conductances, the primary (modeled) or the total (measured) electric field, and the Cowling efficiency are given. In contrast to previous studies, our approach is a general solution which is not limited to specific geometrical setups, and all parameters may have any kind of spatial dependence. The solution technique is based on spherical elementary current (vector) systems (SECS). This way, we avoid the need to specify explicit boundary conditions for the searched polarization electric field of its potential which would be required if the problem was solved in a differential equation approach. Instead, we solve an algebraic matrix equation, and the implicit boundary condition that the divergence of the polarization electric field vanishes outside our analysis area is sufficient. In order to illustrate our theory, we then apply it to two simple models of auroral electrodynamic situations, the first being a mesoscale strong conductance enhancement in the early morning sector within a relatively weak southward primary electric field, and a morning sector auroral arc with only a weak conductance enhancement, but a large southward primary electric field at the poleward flank of the arc. While the significance of the polarization electric field for maximum Cowling efficiency is large for the first case, it is rather minor for the second one. Both models show that the polarization electric field effect may not only change the magnitude of the current systems but also their overall geometry. Furthermore, the polarization electric field may extend into regions where the primary electric field is small, thus even dominating the total electric field in these regions. For the first model case, the total Joule heating integrated over the analysis area decreases by a factor of about 4 for maximum Cowling efficiency as compared to the case of vanishing Cowling efficiency

  6. Electric field Monte Carlo simulation of polarized light propagation in multi-layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chizhu; Tan, Zuojun; Zhang, Shuhui; Chen, Siyu

    2017-10-01

    Electric field Monte Carlo (EMC) simulation is capable of modeling the polarization and coherence phenomena of light. Previous EMC program treat the turbid media as an infinite slab. An electric field Monte Carlo simulation of polarized light propagation in multi-layered media (EMCML) is presented in this paper. The complex electric field vectors are traced during the scattering and the reflection (or refraction) events. In order to improve the computational efficiency, our EMCML program is implemented in parallel in the GPU. The validity of EMCML is demonstrated by comparison between simulation results obtained by EMCML and previously reported programs.

  7. Dielectric polarization and electric field distortion due to heavy ions impinging on silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlog, M.; Wieleczko, J.P.; Parlog, M.; Hamrita, H.; Borderie, B.; Lavergne, L.; Rivet, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    The polarization of the electron-hole pairs induced by 80 MeV 12 C in a silicon detector was considered and connected to the relative dielectric permittivity, locally increased. The exact coordinate dependence of the modified electric field - inside and outside the ion range - was found as the solution of the one dimension Poisson's equation for the electric potential in this inhomogeneous medium. The improvement of the signal simulation is encouraging, as compared to an undisturbed electric field case. (authors)

  8. General method for calculating polarization electric fields produced by auroral Cowling mechanism and application examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhamäki, Heikki; Amm, Olaf; Fujii, Ryo; Yoshikawa, Aki; Ieda, Aki

    2013-04-01

    The Cowling mechanism is characterized by the generation of polarization space charges in the ionosphere in consequence of a partial or total blockage of FAC flowing between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. Thus a secondary polarization electric field builds up in the ionosphere, which guarantees that the whole (primary + secondary) ionospheric current system is again in balance with the FAC. In the Earth's ionosphere the Cowling mechanism is long known to operate in the equatorial electrojet, and several studies indicate that it is important also in auroral current systems. We present a general method for calculate the secondary polarization electric field, when the ionospheric conductances, the primary (modeled) or the total (measured) electric field, and the Cowling efficiency are given. Here the Cowling efficiency is defined as the fraction of the divergent Hall current canceled by secondary Pedersen current. In contrast to previous studies, our approach is a general solution which is not limited to specific geometrical setups (like an auroral arc), and all parameters may have any kind of spatial dependence. The solution technique is based on spherical elementary current (vector) systems (SECS). This way, we avoid the need to specify explicit boundary conditions for the searched polarization electric field or its potential, which would be required if the problem was solved in a differential equation approach. Instead, we solve an algebraic matrix equation, for which the implicit boundary condition that the divergence of the polarization electric field vanishes outside our analysis area is sufficient. In order to illustrate the effect of Cowling mechanism on ionospheric current systems, we apply our method to two simple models of auroral electrodynamic situations: 1) a mesoscale strong conductance enhancement in the early morning sector within a relatively weak southward primary electric field, 2) a morning sector auroral arc with only a weak conductance

  9. NMR in an electric field: A bulk probe of the hidden spin and orbital polarizations

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Ruiz, Jorge; Boutin, Samuel; Garate, Ion

    2017-01-01

    Recent theoretical work has established the presence of hidden spin and orbital textures in non-magnetic materials with inversion symmetry. Here, we propose that these textures can be detected by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements carried out in the presence of an electric field. In crystals with hidden polarizations, a uniform electric field produces a staggered magnetic field that points to opposite directions at atomic sites related by spatial inversion. As a result, the NMR res...

  10. Spin polarization tuning in the graphene quantum dot by using in-plane external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarresi, M.; Roknabadi, M.R.; Shahtahmasebi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic, magnetic and transport properties of a nano-graphene dot have been studied by using the DFT and tight binding methods. In the tight binding calculations, the interaction between electrons is modeled using the Hubbard Hamiltonian. By comparison between the eigen-values and density of states in the tight binding and DFT models, we tabulate a set of tight-binding parameters to describe graphene quantum dots for future works. The effects of a single vacancy and an in-plane external electric field on the spin-dependent transport of graphene quantum dot have been investigated. Transport through GQD between two GNR is studied by using Green's function formalism. Our results confirm an intrinsic spin-dependent current and relatively large spin polarization through the GQD in the presence of a single vacancy and zigzag edge. It is also shown that an in-plane external electric field controls the spin-polarization in graphene quantum dot. - Graphical abstract: We study the spin polarization in the presence of an external electric field. Highlights: • A tight binding study of transport through GNR/GQD/GNR is presented. • Our results show a relatively large spin polarization in the current–voltage curve. • Spin polarization is controlled by using an in-plane external electric field

  11. Dynamical polarizability of graphene irradiated by circularly polarized ac electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busl, Maria; Platero, Gloria; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    We examine the low-energy physics of graphene in the presence of a circularly polarized electric field in the terahertz regime. Specifically, we derive a general expression for the dynamical polarizability of graphene irradiated by an ac electric field. Several approximations are developed...... that allow one to develop a semianalytical theory for the weak-field regime. The ac field changes qualitatively the single- and many-electron excitations of graphene: Undoped samples may exhibit collective excitations (in contrast to the equilibrium situation), and the properties of the excitations in doped...

  12. Electric field induced spin polarization oscillation in nonmagnetic benzene/Cu(100) interface: First principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X. B.; Cai, L. L.; Tian, Y. L.; Hu, G. C.; Ren, J. F.

    2018-01-01

    First-principles calculation are presented to study the influences of external electric fields on the spin polarization properties of benzene/Cu(100) system which do not contain any magnetic atom. Our simulations show that an obvious spontaneous spin polarization oscillation occurred in the benzene molecule when the electric fields are applied. The density of states (DOS), spin density distributions, charge transfer properties are also obtained. It is found that the p-d orbital coupling between the benzene molecule and the electrode leads to spin non-degeneration of the DOS near the fermi energy, so the transferred charges from the Cu atoms to the molecule will fill these spin non-degenerate coupled orbitals, and then the benzene molecule becomes spin polarized. The strength of the p-d orbital coupling as well as the transferred charges oscillated with the external electric fields, which induce spin polarization oscillation. The results are favorable for the understanding of spin polarization properties in organic/nonmagnetic metal structures.

  13. Electric field Monte Carlo simulation of polarized light propagation in turbid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min

    2004-12-27

    A Monte Carlo method based on tracing the multiply scattered electric field is presented to simulate the propagation of polarized light in turbid media. Multiple scattering of light comprises a series of updates of the parallel and perpendicular components of the complex electric field with respect to the scattering plane by the amplitude scattering matrix and rotations of the local coordinate system spanned by the unit vectors in the directions of the parallel and perpendicular electric field components and the propagation direction of light. The backscattering speckle pattern and the backscattering Mueller matrix of an aqueous suspension of polystyrene spheres in a slab geometry are computed using this Electric Field Monte Carlo (EMC) method. An efficient algorithm computing the Mueller matrix in the pure backscattering direction is detailed in the paper.

  14. Unpinning of rotating spiral waves in cardiac tissues by circularly polarized electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Pan, De-Bei; Li, Bing-Wei; Zhang, Hong

    2014-04-01

    Spiral waves anchored to obstacles in cardiac tissues may cause lethal arrhythmia. To unpin these anchored spirals, comparing to high-voltage side-effect traditional therapies, wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) induced by the uniform electric field (UEF) has provided a low-voltage alternative. Here we provide a new approach using WEH induced by the circularly polarized electric field (CPEF), which has higher success rate and larger application scope than UEF, even with a lower voltage. And we also study the distribution of the membrane potential near an obstacle induced by CPEF to analyze its mechanism of unpinning. We hope this promising approach may provide a better alternative to terminate arrhythmia.

  15. Lateral-electric-field-induced spin polarization in a suspended GaAs quantum point contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhabov, D. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Zhdanov, E. Yu.; Shevyrin, A. A.; Bakarov, A. K.; Shklyaev, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The conductance of a GaAs-based suspended quantum point contact (QPC) equipped with lateral side gates has been experimentally studied in the absence of the external magnetic field. The half-integer conductance plateau ( 0.5 ×2 e2/h ) has been observed when an asymmetric voltage between the side gates is applied. The appearance of this plateau has been attributed to the spin degeneracy lifting caused by the spin-orbit coupling associated with the lateral electric field in the asymmetrically biased QPC. We have experimentally demonstrated that, despite the relatively small g-factor in GaAs, the observation of the spin polarization in the GaAs-based QPC became possible after the suspension due to the enhancement of the electron-electron interaction and the effect of the electric field guiding. These features are caused by a partial confinement of the electric field lines within a suspended semiconductor layer with a high dielectric constant.

  16. A rate-equation model for polarized laser-induced fluorescence to measure electric field in glow discharge He plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiyama, K.; Watanabe, M.; Oda, T.

    1998-01-01

    Possibility of applying polarized laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy for measuring the electric field in a plasma with a large collisional depolarization has been investigated. A rate equation model including the depolarization process was employed to analyze the time evolution of LIF polarization components. The polarized LIF pulse shapes observed in the sheath of a He glow discharge plasma were successfully reproduced, and the electric field distribution was obtained with high accuracy. (author)

  17. Electric field and temperature scaling of polarization reversal in silicon doped hafnium oxide ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dayu; Guan, Yan; Vopson, Melvin M.; Xu, Jin; Liang, Hailong; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin; Mueller, Johannes; Schenk, Tony; Schroeder, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    HfO 2 -based binary lead-free ferroelectrics show promising properties for non-volatile memory applications, providing that their polarization reversal behavior is fully understood. In this work, temperature-dependent polarization hysteresis measured over a wide applied field range has been investigated for Si-doped HfO 2 ferroelectric thin films. Our study indicates that in the low and medium electric field regimes (E < twofold coercive field, 2E c ), the reversal process is dominated by the thermal activation on domain wall motion and domain nucleation; while in the high-field regime (E > 2E c ), a non-equilibrium nucleation-limited-switching mechanism dominates the reversal process. The optimum field for ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) applications was determined to be around 2.0 MV/cm, which translates into a 2.0 V potential applied across the 10 nm thick films

  18. Classical study of the rovibrational dynamics of a polar diatomic molecule in static electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inarrea, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.inarrea@unirioja.e [Area de Fisica, Universidad de la Rioja, E-26006 Logrono (Spain); Salas, J. Pablo [Area de Fisica, Universidad de la Rioja, E-26006 Logrono (Spain); Gonzalez-Ferez, Rosario [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Schmelcher, Peter [Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-01-04

    We study the classical dynamics of a polar diatomic molecule in the presence of a strong static homogeneous electric field. Our full rovibrational investigation includes the interaction with the field due to the permanent electric dipole moment and the polarizability of the molecule. Using the LiCs molecule as a prototype, we explore the stability of the equilibrium points and their bifurcations as the field strength is increased. The phase space structure and its dependence on the energy and field strength are analyzed in detail. We demonstrate that depending on the field strength and on the energy, the phase space is characterized either by regular features or by small stochastic layers of chaotic motion.

  19. NMR in an electric field: A bulk probe of the hidden spin and orbital polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Ruiz, Jorge; Boutin, Samuel; Garate, Ion

    2017-12-01

    Recent theoretical work has established the presence of hidden spin and orbital textures in nonmagnetic materials with inversion symmetry. Here, we propose that these textures can be detected by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements carried out in the presence of an electric field. In crystals with hidden polarizations, a uniform electric field produces a staggered magnetic field that points to opposite directions at atomic sites related by spatial inversion. As a result, the NMR resonance peak corresponding to inversion partner nuclei is split into two peaks. The magnitude of the splitting is proportional to the electric field and depends on the orientation of the electric field with respect to the crystallographic axes and the external magnetic field. As a case study, we present a theory of electric-field-induced splitting of NMR peaks for 77Se,125Te, and 209Bi in Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 . In conducting samples with current densities of ≃106A/cm 2 , the splitting for Bi can reach 100 kHz , which is comparable to or larger than the intrinsic width of the NMR lines. In order to observe the effect experimentally, the peak splitting must also exceed the linewidth produced by the Oersted field. In Bi2Se3 , this requires narrow wires of radius ≲1 μ m . We also discuss other potentially more promising candidate materials, such as SrRuO3 and BaIr2Ge2 , whose crystal symmetry enables strategies to suppress the linewidth produced by the Oersted field.

  20. Electric field Monte Carlo simulation of coherent backscattering of polarized light by a turbid medium containing Mie scatterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, John; Kastor, Nikolas; Xu, Min

    2008-04-14

    A method for directly simulating coherent backscattering of polarized light by a turbid medium has been developed based on the Electric field Monte Carlo (EMC) method. Electric fields of light traveling in a pair of time-reversed paths are added coherently to simulate their interference. An efficient approach for computing the electric field of light traveling along a time-reversed path is derived and implemented based on the time-reversal symmetry of electromagnetic waves. Coherent backscattering of linearly and circularly polarized light by a turbid medium containing Mie scatterers is then investigated using this method.

  1. Effects of electric field and light polarization on the electromagnetically induced transparency in an impurity doped quantum ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, D.; Stan, C.; Niculescu, E. C.

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically investigated the effects of the impurity position, in-plane electric field, intensity and polarization of the probe and control lasers on the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in GaAs/GaAlAs disc shaped quantum ring. Our study reveals that, depending on the impurity position, the quantum system presents two specific configurations for the EIT occurrence even in the absence of the external electric field, i.e. ladder-configuration or V-configuration, and changes the configuration from ladder to V for specific electric field values. The polarization of the probe and control lasers plays a crucial role in obtaining a good transparency. The electric field controls the red-shift (blue-shift) of the transparency window and modifies its width. The system exhibits birefringence for the probe light in a limited interval of electric field values.

  2. Two electric field Monte Carlo models of coherent backscattering of polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, Alexander; Radosevich, Andrew J; Backman, Vadim; Meglinski, Igor

    2014-11-01

    Modeling of coherent polarized light propagation in turbid scattering medium by the Monte Carlo method provides an ultimate understanding of coherent effects of multiple scattering, such as enhancement of coherent backscattering and peculiarities of laser speckle formation in dynamic light scattering (DLS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) diagnostic modalities. In this report, we consider two major ways of modeling the coherent polarized light propagation in scattering tissue-like turbid media. The first approach is based on tracking transformations of the electric field along the ray propagation. The second one is developed in analogy to the iterative procedure of the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. To achieve a higher accuracy in the results and to speed up the modeling, both codes utilize the implementation of parallel computing on NVIDIA Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) with Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). We compare these two approaches through simulations of the enhancement of coherent backscattering of polarized light and evaluate the accuracy of each technique with the results of a known analytical solution. The advantages and disadvantages of each computational approach and their further developments are discussed. Both codes are available online and are ready for immediate use or download.

  3. Single attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field combined with a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Changlong; Zhang Gangtai; Wu Jie; Liu Xueshen

    2010-01-01

    We investigate theoretic high-order harmonic generation and single attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field, which is synthesized by a mid-infrared (IR) pulse (12.5 fs, 2000 nm) in the y component and a much weaker (12 fs, 800 nm) pulse in the x component. We find that the width of the harmonic plateau can be extended when a static electric field is added in the y component. We also investigate emission time of harmonics in terms of a time-frequency analysis to illustrate the physical mechanism of high-order harmonic generation. We calculate the ionization rate using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov model and interpret the variation of harmonic intensity for different static electric field strengths. When the ratio of strengths of the static and the y-component laser fields is 0.1, a continuous harmonic spectrum is formed from 220 to 420 eV. By superposing a properly selected range of the harmonic spectrum from 300 to 350 eV, an isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of about 75 as is obtained, which is near linearly polarized.

  4. Configurational entropy of polar glass formers and the effect of electric field on glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2016-07-21

    A model of low-temperature polar liquids is constructed that accounts for the configurational heat capacity, entropy, and the effect of a strong electric field on the glass transition. The model is based on the Padé-truncated perturbation expansions of the liquid state theory. Depending on parameters, it accommodates an ideal glass transition of vanishing configurational entropy and its avoidance, with a square-root divergent enumeration function at the point of its termination. A composite density-temperature parameter ρ(γ)/T, often used to represent combined pressure and temperature data, follows from the model. The theory is in good agreement with the experimental data for excess (over the crystal state) thermodynamics of molecular glass formers. We suggest that the Kauzmann entropy crisis might be a signature of vanishing configurational entropy of a subset of degrees of freedom, multipolar rotations in our model. This scenario has observable consequences: (i) a dynamical crossover of the relaxation time and (ii) the fragility index defined by the ratio of the excess heat capacity and excess entropy at the glass transition. The Kauzmann temperature of vanishing configurational entropy and the corresponding glass transition temperature shift upward when the electric field is applied. The temperature shift scales quadratically with the field strength.

  5. Atomically-resolved mapping of polarization and electric fields across ferroelectric-oxide interfaces by Z-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisevich, Albina; Chang, Hye Jung; Kalinin, Sergei; Morozovska, Anna; Chu, Ying-Hao; Yu, Pu; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Pennycook, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Polarization, electric field, charge and potential across ferroelectric-oxide interfaces are obtained from direct atomic position mapping by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with Ginsburg-Landau-Devonshire theory. We compare two antiparallel polarization orientations, which allows separation of the polarization and intrinsic interface charge contributions. Using the Born effective charges, the complete interface electrostatics is obtained in real space, providing an alternative method to holography. The results provide new microscopic insight into the thermodynamics of polarization distribution at the atomic level. Research is sponsored by the of Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, U.S. DOE.

  6. Localized enhancement of electric field in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using radially and linearly polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Zanjani, Nastaran; Vedraine, Sylvain; Lagugné-Labarthet, François

    2013-10-21

    Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) calculations are used to characterize the electric field in the vicinity of a sharp silver or gold cone with an apex diameter of 10 nm. The simulations are utilized to predict the intensity and the distribution of the locally enhanced electric field in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). A side-by-side comparison of the enhanced electric field induced by a radially and a linearly polarized light in both gap-mode and conventional TERS setup is performed. For this purpose, a radially polarized source is introduced and integrated into the FDTD modeling. Additionally, the optical effect of a thin protective layer of alumina on the enhancement of the electric field is investigated.

  7. M-CARS and EFISHG study of the influence of a static electric field on a non-polar molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitaine, E.; Louot, C.; Ould-Moussa, N.; Lefort, C.; Kaneyasu, J. F.; Kano, H.; Pagnoux, D.; Couderc, V.; Leproux, P.

    2016-03-01

    The influence of a static electric field on a non-polar molecule has been studied by means of multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (M-CARS). A parallel measurement of electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG) has also been led. Both techniques suggest a reorientation of the molecule due to the presence of an electric field. This phenomenon can be used to increase the chemical selectivity and the signal to non-resonant background ratio, namely, the sensitivity of the M-CARS spectroscopy.

  8. [Fluorescence polarization used to investigate the cell membrane fluidity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae treated by pulsed electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zeng, Xin-An; Wen, Qi-Biao; Li, Lin

    2008-01-01

    To know the lethal mechanism of microorganisms under pulsed electric field treatment, the relationship between the inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CICC1308) cell and the permeability and fluidity changes of its cell membrane treated by pulsed electric field (0-25 kV x cm(-1), 0-266 ms) was investigated. With 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) used as a probe, the cell membrane fluidity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae treated by pulsed electric field was expressed by fluorescence polarization. Results showed that the cell membrane fluidity decreases when the electric flied strength is up to 5 kV x cm(-1), and decreases with the increase in electric field strength and treatment time. The plate counting method and ultraviolet spectrophotometer were used to determine the cell viability and to investigate the cell membrane permeability, respectively, treated by pulsed electric field. Results showed that the lethal ratio and the content of protein and nucleic acid leaked from intracellular plasma increased with the increase in the electric field strength and the extension of treatment time. Even in a quite lower electric field of 5 kV x cm(-1) with a tiny microorganism lethal level, the increase in UV absorption value and the decrease in fluidity were significant. It was demonstrated that the cell membrane fluidity decreases with the increase in lethal ratio and cell membrane permeability. The viscosity of cell membrane increases with the decrease in fluidity. These phenomena indicated that cell membrane is one of the most key sites during the pulsed electric field treatment, and the increased membrane permeability and the decreased cell membrane fluidity contribute to the cell death.

  9. Magnetic field and electric currents in the vicinity of polar cusps as inferred from Polar and Cluster data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tsyganenko

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed statistical study of the magnetic structure of the dayside polar cusps is presented, based on multi-year sets of magnetometer data of Polar and Cluster spacecraft, taken in 1996–2006 and 2001–2007, respectively. Thanks to the dense data coverage in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the analysis spanned nearly the entire length of the cusps, from low altitudes to the cusp "throat" and the magnetosheath. Subsets of data falling inside the polar cusp "funnels" were selected with the help of TS05 and IGRF magnetic field models, taking into account the dipole tilt and the solar wind/IMF conditions. The selection funnels were shifted within ±10° of SM latitude around the model cusp location, and linear regression parameters were calculated for each sliding subset, further divided into 10 bins of distance in the range 2≤R≤12 RE, with the following results. (1 Diamagnetic depression, caused by the penetrated magnetosheath plasma, becomes first visible at R~4–5 RE, rapidly deepens with growing R, peaks at R~6–9 RE, and then partially subsides and widens in latitude at the cusp's outer end. (2 The depression peak is systematically shifted poleward (by ~2° of the footpoint latitude with respect to the model cusp field line, passing through the min{|B|} point at the magnetopause. (3 At all radial distances, clear and distinct peaks of the correlation between the local By and By(IMF and of the corresponding proportionality coefficient are observed. A remarkably regular variation of that coefficient with R quantitatively confirms the field-aligned geometry of the cusp currents associated with the IMF By, found in earlier observations.

  10. Modulation of UK lightning and the atmospheric electric circuit by heliospheric magnetic field polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Mathew; Scott, Chris; Lockwood, Mike; Barnard, Luke; Harrison, Giles; Nicoll, Keri; Watt, Clare; Bennett, Alec

    2015-04-01

    Observational studies have reported solar magnetic modulation of terrestrial lightning on a range of time scales, from days to decades. The proposed mechanism is two-step: lightning rates vary with galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux incident on Earth, either via changes in atmospheric conductivity and/or direct triggering of lightning. GCR flux is, in turn, primarily controlled by the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) intensity. Consequently, global changes in lightning rates are expected. This study instead considers HMF polarity, which doesn't greatly affect total GCR flux. Opposing HMF polarities are, however, associated with a 40 to 60% difference in observed UK lightning and thunder rates. As HMF polarity skews the terrestrial magnetosphere from its nominal position, this perturbs local ionospheric potential at high latitudes and local exposure to energetic charged particles from the magnetosphere. We speculate as to the mechanism(s) by which this may, in turn, redistribute the global location and/or intensity of thunderstorm activity.

  11. Numerical study on the time evolutions of the electric field in helium plasma jets with positive and negative polarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Pedro; Péchereau, François; Bourdon, Anne

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents 2D simulations of atmospheric pressure discharges in helium with N2 and O2 admixtures, propagating in a dielectric tube between a point electrode and a grounded metallic target. For both positive and negative polarities, the propagation of the first ionization front is shown to correspond to a peak of the absolute value of the axial electric field inside the tube, but also outside the tube. After the impact on the metallic target, a rebound front is shown to propagate from the target to the point electrode. This rebound front is 2-3 times faster than the first ionization front. Close to the high voltage point, this rebound front corresponds to a second peak of the absolute value of the axial electric field. Close to the target, as the first ionization and rebound fronts are close in time, only one peak is observed. The dynamics of the absolute value of the radial component of electric field outside the tube is shown to present an increase during the first ionization front propagation and a fast decrease corresponding to the propagation of the rebound front. These time evolutions of the electric field components are in agreement with experiments. Finally, we have shown that the density of metastable He* in 99% He—1% N2 and 99% He—1% O2 atmospheric pressure discharges are very close. Close to the grounded target, the peak density of reactive species is significantly increased due to the synergy between the first ionization and rebound fronts, as observed in experiments. Similar results are obtained for both voltage polarities, but the peak density of metastable He* close to the target is shown to be two times less in negative polarity than in positive polarity.

  12. Dielectrics in electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur G

    2003-01-01

    Discover nontraditional applications of dielectric studies in this exceptionally crafted field reference or text for seniors and graduate students in power engineering tracks. This text contains more than 800 display equations and discusses polarization phenomena in dielectrics, the complex dielectric constant in an alternating electric field, dielectric relaxation and interfacial polarization, the measurement of absorption and desorption currents in time domains, and high field conduction phenomena. Dielectrics in Electric Fields is an interdisciplinary reference and text for professionals and students in electrical and electronics, chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineering; physical, surface, and colloid chemistry; materials science; and chemical physics.

  13. Influence of the channel electric field distribution on the polarization Coulomb field scattering in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxia Yu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the Quasi-Two-Dimensional (quasi-2D model, the current-voltage (I-V characteristics of AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs with different gate length were simulated based on the measured capacitance-voltage (C-V characteristics and I-V characteristics. By analyzing the simulation results, we found that the different polarization charge distribution generated by the different channel electric field distribution can result in different polarization Coulomb field scattering, and the difference of the electron mobility mostly caused by the polarization Coulomb field scattering can reach up to 1829.9 cm2/V·s for the prepared AlGaN/AlN/GaN HFET. In addition, it was also found that when the two-dimension electron gas (2DEG sheet density is modulated by the drain-source bias, the electron mobility appears peak with the variation of the 2DEG sheet density, and the ratio of gate length to drain-source distance is smaller, the 2DEG sheet density corresponding to the peak point is higher.

  14. Generation and control of polarization-entangled photons from GaAs island quantum dots by an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Mohsen; Ohtani, Keita; Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo

    2012-02-07

    Semiconductor quantum dots are potential sources for generating polarization-entangled photons efficiently. The main prerequisite for such generation based on biexciton-exciton cascaded emission is to control the exciton fine-structure splitting. Among various techniques investigated for this purpose, an electric field is a promising means to facilitate the integration into optoelectronic devices. Here we demonstrate the generation of polarization-entangled photons from single GaAs quantum dots by an electric field. In contrast to previous studies, which were limited to In(Ga)As quantum dots, GaAs island quantum dots formed by a thickness fluctuation were used because they exhibit a larger oscillator strength and emit light with a shorter wavelength. A forward voltage was applied to a Schottky diode to control the fine-structure splitting. We observed a decrease and suppression in the fine-structure splitting of the studied single quantum dot with the field, which enabled us to generate polarization-entangled photons with a high fidelity of 0.72 ± 0.05.

  15. On a distribution of electric fields caused by the northern component of the interplanetary magnetic field in the absence of longitudinal currents in the winter polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the distribution of electric fields, conditioned by the northern component of the interplanetary magnetic field Bsub(z), have been discussed. The problem of electric field excitation is reduced to the solution of equations of continuity for the current in three regions: northern and southern polar caps and region beyond the caps. At the values Bsub(z)>0 in the ranqe of latitudes phi >= 80 deg the localization of convection conversion effect is obtained in calculations for summer cap and it agrees with the data of direct measurements

  16. Electrically tunable dynamic nuclear spin polarization in GaAs quantum dots at zero magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, M.; Wang, G.; Kuroda, T.; Shree, S.; Balocchi, A.; Renucci, P.; Marie, X.; Durnev, M. V.; Glazov, M. M.; Sakoda, K.; Mano, T.; Amand, T.; Urbaszek, B.

    2018-04-01

    In III-V semiconductor nano-structures, the electron and nuclear spin dynamics are strongly coupled. Both spin systems can be controlled optically. The nuclear spin dynamics are widely studied, but little is known about the initialization mechanisms. Here, we investigate optical pumping of carrier and nuclear spins in charge tunable GaAs dots grown on 111A substrates. We demonstrate dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at zero magnetic field in a single quantum dot for the positively charged exciton X+ state transition. We tune the DNP in both amplitude and sign by variation of an applied bias voltage Vg. Variation of ΔVg on the order of 100 mV changes the Overhauser splitting (nuclear spin polarization) from -30 μeV (-22%) to +10 μeV (+7%) although the X+ photoluminescence polarization does not change sign over this voltage range. This indicates that absorption in the structure and energy relaxation towards the X+ ground state might provide favourable scenarios for efficient electron-nuclear spin flip-flops, generating DNP during the first tens of ps of the X+ lifetime which is on the order of hundreds of ps. Voltage control of DNP is further confirmed in Hanle experiments.

  17. Cycloid manipulation by electric field in BiFeO3 films: Coupling between polarization, octahedral rotation, and antiferromagnetic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, A. F.; Kulagin, N. E.; Soloviov, S. V.; Sukmanova, K. S.; Gareeva, Z. V.; Zvezdin, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    The room temperature multiferroic BiFeO3, by far the most studied experimentally, exhibits outstanding ferroelectric properties with a cycloidal magnetic order in the bulk and many unexpected advantages for possible applications in spintronics, sensor techniques, and photovoltaics. To consider ferroelectric and magnetic phase transitions in multiferroic BiFeO3 under electric field, we suggest the Ginsburg-Landau-like approach based on the symmetry and P -ω -L coupling, where the order parameters are: P is the electric polarization, ω is the axial vector of antidistorsion (describing a rotation of the oxygen octahedrons), and L is the antiferromagnetic vector. The theoretical model is consistent with experiment and ab initio calculations data. We give the complete set of numerical coefficients of the model and explore the behavior of P and ω vectors in strong electric field. The proposed approach is particularly promising for the analysis of magnetoelectric phenomena whose length scale is significantly larger than the length of the cell used in ab initio calculations. The considered cycloid problem is the clear example of such a system. Electric field-induced transformations of cycloid are exemplified on an epitaxial BiFeO3 film grown on the (001)-oriented substrate. We show that the jump of vectors P and ω in the field E =6 MV/m is accompanied by a jump of a cycloid spin rotation plane. This effect is of particular interest for spintronics and nanoelectronics.

  18. Optical absorption of carbon nanotube diodes: Strength of the electronic transitions and sensitivity to the electric field polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, Davide; Pierantoni, Luca; Rozzi, Tullio

    2008-03-01

    Aim of this work is to model electrostatically doped carbon nanotubes (CNT), which have recently proved to perform as ideal PN diodes, also showing photovoltaic properties. The new model is able to predict the optical absorption of semiconducting CNT as function of size and chirality. We justify theoretically, for the first time, the experimentally observed capability of CNTs to detect and select not only a well defined set of frequencies, as resulting from their discrete band structure, but also the polarization of the incident radiation. The analysis develops from an approach proposed in a recent contribution. The periodic structure of CNTs is formally modeled as a photonic crystal, that is characterized by means of numerical simulators. Longitudinal and transverse components of the electric field are shown to excite distinct interband transitions between well defined energy levels. Equivalently, for a given energy of the incident radiation, absorption may show polarization ratios strongly exceeding unity.

  19. Zeeman- and electric-field control of spin- and valley-polarized transport through biased magnetic junctions on WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M.; Krstajić, P. M.; Vasilopoulos, P.

    2017-04-01

    The electronic properties of WSe2 comprise a huge spin-orbit coupling, a wide direct band gap, and especially a strong anisotropic lifting of the degeneracy of the valley degree of freedom in a magnetic field. We study ballistic electron transport through single or double junctions on monolayer WSe2 in the presence of spin M s and valley M v Zeeman fields and of an electric potential U. The conductance vs. the field M s or M v decreases in a fluctuating manner. For a single junction the spin P s and valley P v polarizations rise with M=M_v=2Ms , reach a value of more than 70%, and become perfect above U≈ 90 \\text{meV} while for a double junction this change can occur for U≈ 50 \\text{meV} and M≥ 10 \\text{meV} . P v increases with U and both polarizations oscillate with the junction width. The results may render WSe2 a promising candidate for new spintronic and valleytronic devices.

  20. Dependence of InGaN solar cell performance on polarization-induced electric field and carrier lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jing; Zhao De-Gang; Jiang De-Sheng; Liu Zong-Shun; Chen Ping; Li Liang; Wu Liang-Liang; Le Ling-Cong; Li Xiao-Jing; He Xiao-Guang; Yang Hui; Wang Hui; Zhu Jian-Jun; Zhang Shu-Ming; Zhang Bao-Shun

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Mg-induced net acceptor doping concentration and carrier lifetime on the performance of a p—i—n InGaN solar cell are investigated. It is found that the electric field induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in the i-region could be totally shielded when the Mg-induced net acceptor doping concentration is sufficiently high. The polarization-induced potential barriers are reduced and the short circuit current density is remarkably increased from 0.21 mA/cm 2 to 0.95 mA/cm 2 by elevating the Mg doping concentration. The carrier lifetime determined by defect density of i-InGaN also plays an important role in determining the photovoltaic properties of solar cell. The short circuit current density severely degrades, and the performance of InGaN solar cell becomes more sensitive to the polarization when carrier lifetime is lower than the transit time. This study demonstrates that the crystal quality of InGaN absorption layer is one of the most important challenges in realizing high efficiency InGaN solar cells. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. Field-induced magnetic phases and electric polarization in LiNiPO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius; Christensen, Niels Bech; Kenzelmann, M.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is used to probe the (H,T) phase diagram of magnetoelectric (ME) LiNiPO4 for magnetic fields along the c axis. At zero field the Ni spins order in two antiferromagnetic phases. One has commensurate (C) structures and general ordering vectors k(C)=(0,0,0); the other one...

  2. Current sheets with inhomogeneous plasma temperature: Effects of polarization electric field and 2D solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catapano, F.; Zimbardo, G.; Artemyev, A. V.; Vasko, I. Y.

    2015-01-01

    We develop current sheet models which allow to regulate the level of plasma temperature and density inhomogeneities across the sheet. These models generalize the classical Harris model via including two current-carrying plasma populations with different temperature and the background plasma not contributing to the current density. The parameters of these plasma populations allow regulating contributions of plasma density and temperature to the pressure balance. A brief comparison with spacecraft observations demonstrates the model applicability for describing the Earth magnetotail current sheet. We also develop a two dimensional (2D) generalization of the proposed model. The interesting effect found for 2D models is the nonmonotonous profile (along the current sheet) of the magnetic field component perpendicular to the current sheet. Possible applications of the model are discussed

  3. Field theory of polar continua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, C.

    1988-01-01

    A Lagrangian density in the polar space X 1+3+3 depending of the potentials and their derivativs and of the fluxes is introduced. The potentials are then the mechanical and electromagnetic potentials, the potentials of gravity and in the polar space X 1+3+3 the components of affine connection. The fluxes are essentially the tangential motors of the mechanical and electromagnetic world-lines multiplied with the density of mass and electric charge. The Hamilton principle gives, with the in variational calculus usual integrations by part, here done via the theorem of Gauss, the equations of motion and the field equations. The conditions of integrability for these equations are discussed. (author)

  4. Comparative analysis of electric field influence on the quantum wells with different boundary conditions.: I. Energy spectrum, quantum information entropy and polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olendski, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    Analytical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for the one-dimensional quantum well with all possible permutations of the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions (BCs) in perpendicular to the interfaces uniform electric field [Formula: see text] are used for the comparative investigation of their interaction and its influence on the properties of the system. Limiting cases of the weak and strong voltages allow an easy mathematical treatment and its clear physical explanation; in particular, for the small [Formula: see text], the perturbation theory derives for all geometries a linear dependence of the polarization on the field with the BC-dependent proportionality coefficient being positive (negative) for the ground (excited) states. Simple two-level approximation elementary explains the negative polarizations as a result of the field-induced destructive interference of the unperturbed modes and shows that in this case the admixture of only the neighboring states plays a dominant role. Different magnitudes of the polarization for different BCs in this regime are explained physically and confirmed numerically. Hellmann-Feynman theorem reveals a fundamental relation between the polarization and the speed of the energy change with the field. It is proved that zero-voltage position entropies [Formula: see text] are BC independent and for all states but the ground Neumann level (which has [Formula: see text]) are equal to [Formula: see text] while the momentum entropies [Formula: see text] depend on the edge requirements and the level. Varying electric field changes position and momentum entropies in the opposite directions such that the entropic uncertainty relation is satisfied. Other physical quantities such as the BC-dependent zero-energy and zero-polarization fields are also studied both numerically and analytically. Applications to different branches of physics, such as ocean fluid dynamics and atmospheric and metallic waveguide electrodynamics, are discussed.

  5. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  6. A two-dimensional fully analytical model with polarization effect for off-state channel potential and electric field distributions of GaN-based field-plated high electron mobility transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Wei; She Wei-Bo; Zhang Chao; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Zhang Jin-Feng; Liu Hong-Xia; Yang Lin-An; Zhang Kai; Zhao Sheng-Lei; Chen Yong-He; Zheng Xue-Feng; Hao Yue; Yang Cui; Ma Xiao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two-dimensional (2D) fully analytical model with consideration of polarization effect for the channel potential and electric field distributions of the gate field-plated high electron mobility transistor (FP-HEMT) on the basis of 2D Poisson's solution. The dependences of the channel potential and electric field distributions on drain bias, polarization charge density, FP structure parameters, AlGaN/GaN material parameters, etc. are investigated. A simple and convenient approach to designing high breakdown voltage FP-HEMTs is also proposed. The validity of this model is demonstrated by comparison with the numerical simulations with Silvaco—Atlas. The method in this paper can be extended to the development of other analytical models for different device structures, such as MIS-HEMTs, multiple-FP HETMs, slant-FP HEMTs, etc. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  7. The electric wind of Venus: A global and persistent "polar wind"-like ambipolar electric field sufficient for the direct escape of heavy ionospheric ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Glyn A.; Frahm, Rudy A.; Glocer, Alex; Coates, Andrew J.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Barabash, Stas; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Fedorov, Andrei; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Gilbert, Lin K.; Khazanov, George; Nordheim, Tom A.; Mitchell, David; Moore, Thomas E.; Peterson, William K.; Winningham, John D.; Zhang, Tielong L.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding what processes govern atmospheric escape and the loss of planetary water is of paramount importance for understanding how life in the universe can exist. One mechanism thought to be important at all planets is an "ambipolar" electric field that helps ions overcome gravity. We report the discovery and first quantitative extraterrestrial measurements of such a field at the planet Venus. Unexpectedly, despite comparable gravity, we show the field to be five times stronger than in Earth's similar ionosphere. Contrary to our understanding, Venus would still lose heavy ions (including oxygen and all water-group species) to space, even if there were no stripping by the solar wind. We therefore find that it is possible for planets to lose heavy ions to space entirely through electric forces in their ionospheres and such an "electric wind" must be considered when studying the evolution and potential habitability of any planet in any star system.

  8. The Electric Wind of Venus: A global and persistent "polar wind" like ambipolar electric field sufficient for the direct escape of heavy ionospheric ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, G.; Frahm, R.; Glocer, A.; Coates, A. J.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Barbash, S.; Fedorov, A.; Futaana, Y.; Gilbert, L.; Khazanov, G. V.; Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Nordheim, T.; Mitchell, D. L.; Moore, T. E.; Peterson, W.; Winningham, D.; Zhang, T.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding what processes govern atmospheric escape and the loss of planetary water is of paramount importance for understanding how life in the universe can exist. One mechanism thought to be important at all planets is an "ambipolar" electric field that helps ions overcome gravity. We report the discovery and first quantitative extraterrestrial measurements of such a field at the planet Venus. Unexpectedly, despite comparable gravity, we show the field to be five times stronger than in Earth's similar ionosphere. Contrary to our understanding, Venus would still lose heavy ions (including oxygen and all water-group species) to space, even if there were no stripping by the solar wind. We therefore find it is possible for planets to lose heavy ions to space entirely through electric forces in their ionospheres, and such an "electric wind" must be considered when studying the evolution and potential habitability of any planet in any star system

  9. The Electric Wind of Venus: A Global and Persistent Polar Wind -Like Ambipolar Electric Field Sufficient for the Direct Escape of Heavy Ionospheric Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Glyn A.; Frahm, Rudy A.; Glocer, Alex; Coates, Andrew J.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Barabash, Stas; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Federov, Andrei; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Gilbert, Lin K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Understanding what processes govern atmospheric escape and the loss of planetary water is of paramount importance for understanding how life in the universe can exist. One mechanism thought to be important at all planets is an ambipolar electric field that helps ions overcome gravity. We report the discovery and first quantitative extraterrestrial measurements of such a field at the planet Venus. Unexpectedly, despite comparable gravity, we show the field to be five times stronger than in Earths similar ionosphere. Contrary to our understanding, Venus would still lose heavy ions (including oxygen and all water-group species) to space, even if there were no stripping by the solar wind. We therefore find that it is possible for planets to lose heavy ions to space entirely through electric forces in their ionospheres and such an electric wind must be considered when studying the evolution and potential habitability of any planet in any star system.

  10. Effects of polar field-aligned currents on the distribution of the electric field and current in the middle and low latitudes ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Koichiro

    1978-01-01

    According to the analysis of the magnetic records from the Triad satellite, it has been found that there are two regions of the field-aligned current of magnetospheric origin along the auroral oval; Region 1 in higher latitude and Region 2 in lower latitude. These currents seem to have important effect on the distribution of electric field and current in the ionosphere, in addition to the Sq electric field and current of ionospheric origin. The global current systems generated by the field-aligned current were calculated, using some simplified ionospheric models. The effect of the field-aligned current on the distribution of electric field and current of the ionosphere at middle and low latitudes was investigated. (Yoshimori, M.)

  11. Electric Field Imaging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields....

  12. Electric field analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravorti, Sivaji

    2015-01-01

    This book prepares newcomers to dive into the realm of electric field analysis. The book details why one should perform electric field analysis and what are its practical implications. It emphasizes both the fundamentals and modern computational methods of electric machines. The book covers practical applications of the numerical methods in high voltage equipment, including transmission lines, power transformers, cables, and gas insulated systems.

  13. Ephemeral Electric Potential and Electric Field Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the various embodiments provide for the minimization of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic leakage electrical currents enabling true measurements of electric potentials and electric fields. In an embodiment, an ephemeral electric potential and electric field sensor system may have at least one electric field sensor and a rotator coupled to the electric field sensor and be configured to rotate the electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency. In an embodiment, ephemeral electric potential and electric field measurements may be taken by rotating at least one electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency, receiving electrical potential measurements from the electric field sensor when the electric field sensor is rotating at the quasi-static frequency, and generating and outputting images based at least in part on the received electrical potential measurements.

  14. Earth's electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    The earth becomes charged during thunderstorm activity and discharges through the weak conducting atmosphere. Balloon and rocket studies infer that a high altitude electric field penetrates virtually unattenuated through the atmosphere, at least as far as balloon heights. The field has two primary sources. At low and mid latitudes, interaction between the earth's magnetic field and the neutral wind creates electric fields. At latitudes above 60 0 , the high altitude electrical structure is dominated by the interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetic field. The auroral light is emitted by atmospheric atoms and molecules excited by electrons with potentials of many thousands volts. The potentials are induced by the solar wind. Recent satellite data shows that the electrons get this energy by passing through a localized electric field about 6000 km above the auroral zone. Several rocket and satellite experiments used to study the earth's electric field are discussed

  15. Polarized particle levitation in hexapole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.B.; Kallio, G.A.; Robinson, K.S.

    1976-06-01

    Proposed here is a novel electrostatic levitation scheme which uses the force exerted by a non-uniform electric field on a polarized particle. The scheme differs from conventional quadrupole levitation devices principally in that the levitated particle is uncharged. In order to provide the proper force required to achieve dynamic stabilization, a very intense non-uniform time-varying electric field produced by a three-dimensional hexapole electrode structure is utilized. The primary advantage of this levitation scheme might accrue in target fabrication operations where particle charge is undesirable or where reproducible charging of the particles themselves is difficult, due to high resistivity. The disadvantages of this scheme, as compared to charged particle levitation, are (i) a more complex electrode structure and (ii) significantly higher voltages. The scheme has possible application to molecular mass spectrometry, in situations where un-ionized but strongly polar or polarizable molecules are to be trapped or confined for analysis

  16. Molecular dynamics in high electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostol, M., E-mail: apoma@theory.nipne.ro; Cune, L.C.

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • New method for rotation molecular spectra in high electric fields. • Parametric resonances – new features in spectra. • New elementary excitations in polar solids from dipolar interaction (“dipolons”). • Discussion about a possible origin of the ferroelectricity from dipolar interactions. - Abstract: Molecular rotation spectra, generated by the coupling of the molecular electric-dipole moments to an external time-dependent electric field, are discussed in a few particular conditions which can be of some experimental interest. First, the spherical-pendulum molecular model is reviewed, with the aim of introducing an approximate method which consists in the separation of the azimuthal and zenithal motions. Second, rotation spectra are considered in the presence of a static electric field. Two particular cases are analyzed, corresponding to strong and weak fields. In both cases the classical motion of the dipoles consists of rotations and vibrations about equilibrium positions; this motion may exhibit parametric resonances. For strong fields a large macroscopic electric polarization may appear. This situation may be relevant for polar matter (like pyroelectrics, ferroelectrics), or for heavy impurities embedded in a polar solid. The dipolar interaction is analyzed in polar condensed matter, where it is shown that new polarization modes appear for a spontaneous macroscopic electric polarization (these modes are tentatively called “dipolons”); one of the polarization modes is related to parametric resonances. The extension of these considerations to magnetic dipoles is briefly discussed. The treatment is extended to strong electric fields which oscillate with a high frequency, as those provided by high-power lasers. It is shown that the effect of such fields on molecular dynamics is governed by a much weaker, effective, renormalized, static electric field.

  17. Molecular dynamics in high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, M.; Cune, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New method for rotation molecular spectra in high electric fields. • Parametric resonances – new features in spectra. • New elementary excitations in polar solids from dipolar interaction (“dipolons”). • Discussion about a possible origin of the ferroelectricity from dipolar interactions. - Abstract: Molecular rotation spectra, generated by the coupling of the molecular electric-dipole moments to an external time-dependent electric field, are discussed in a few particular conditions which can be of some experimental interest. First, the spherical-pendulum molecular model is reviewed, with the aim of introducing an approximate method which consists in the separation of the azimuthal and zenithal motions. Second, rotation spectra are considered in the presence of a static electric field. Two particular cases are analyzed, corresponding to strong and weak fields. In both cases the classical motion of the dipoles consists of rotations and vibrations about equilibrium positions; this motion may exhibit parametric resonances. For strong fields a large macroscopic electric polarization may appear. This situation may be relevant for polar matter (like pyroelectrics, ferroelectrics), or for heavy impurities embedded in a polar solid. The dipolar interaction is analyzed in polar condensed matter, where it is shown that new polarization modes appear for a spontaneous macroscopic electric polarization (these modes are tentatively called “dipolons”); one of the polarization modes is related to parametric resonances. The extension of these considerations to magnetic dipoles is briefly discussed. The treatment is extended to strong electric fields which oscillate with a high frequency, as those provided by high-power lasers. It is shown that the effect of such fields on molecular dynamics is governed by a much weaker, effective, renormalized, static electric field.

  18. Pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of pulsed electric fields (PEF) was first proposed in 1967 to change the behavior or microorganisms. The electric field phenomenon was identified as membrane rupture theory in the 1980s. Increasing the membrane permeability led to the application of PEF assisted extraction of cellular co...

  19. Investigating the Role of Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream Electric Field in Coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Systemwide Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-04

    Technology and Electrical Engineering - Address: The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Period of Performance: 1 June 2015 to...24-25 September 2000. Date received: 14 December 2016 Authors: Horvath, I., and B. C. Lovell f) List any interactions with industry or...Even Name: 2016 Joint CEDAR-GEM Workshop, Eldorado Hotel and Santa Fe Convention Center, Santa Fe, NM, USA Title: Flow channel events

  20. Electrically tunable polarizer based on 2D orthorhombic ferrovalley materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin-Wei; Tong, Wen-Yi; Gong, Shi-Jing; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2018-03-01

    The concept of ferrovalley materials has been proposed very recently. The existence of spontaneous valley polarization, resulting from ferromagnetism, in such hexagonal 2D materials makes nonvolatile valleytronic applications realizable. Here, we introduce a new member of ferrovalley family with orthorhombic lattice, i.e. monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides (GIVMs), in which the intrinsic valley polarization originates from ferroelectricity, instead of ferromagnetism. Combining the group theory analysis and first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that, different from the valley-selective circular dichroism in hexagonal lattice, linearly polarized optical selectivity for valleys exists in the new type of ferrovalley materials. On account of the distinctive property, a prototype of electrically tunable polarizer is realized. In the ferrovalley-based polarizer, a laser beam can be optionally polarized in x- or y-direction, depending on the ferrovalley state controlled by external electric fields. Such a device can be further optimized to emit circularly polarized radiation with specific chirality and to realize the tunability for operating wavelength. Therefore, we show that 2D orthorhombic ferrovalley materials are the promising candidates to provide an advantageous platform to realize the polarizer driven by electric means, which is of great importance in extending the practical applications of valleytronics.

  1. Investigation of polarization-induced electric field screening in InGaN light emitting diodes by means of hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franssen, G.; Suski, T.; Bohdan, R.; Trzeciakowski, W.; Teisseyre, H.; Khachapuridze, A.; Targowski, G.; Krowicki, K.; Czernecki, R. [Institute of High Pressure Physics ' Unipress' , Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Perlin, P.; Leszczynski, M. [Institute of High Pressure Physics ' Unipress' , Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); TopGaN Ltd., Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Kurouchi, M.; Nanishi, Y. [Department of Photonics, School of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Lu, H.; Schaff, W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (United States)

    2007-01-15

    We show that the hydrostatic pressure coefficient dE{sub E}/dp of luminescence in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N epilayers is in the range 20-38 meV/GPa for the entire alloy (0{>=}x{>=}1) and corresponds roughly to the bandgap increase with applied pressure. It is argued that lowering of dE{sub E}/dp in quantum structures of InGaN with respect to this range can be attributed to polarization-induced electric fields (PIEFs). Possible contribution to dE{sub E}/dp originating from In-segregation effects is of secondary importance. This information is used to investigate PIEF screening by free carriers in InGaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). We observe that Si doping at a level of 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2} of the barriers in the active region of such LEDs leads to a significant increase of dE {sub E}/dp as compared to LEDs with undoped barriers. This is evidence for efficient screening of PIEFs in the Si-doped devices. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Exploring Electric Polarization Mechanisms in Multiferroic Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyson, Trevor A. [New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), Newark, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Multiferroic oxides are a class of systems which exhibit coupling between the electrical polarization and the magnetization. These materials show promise to lead to devices in which ferromagnetic memory can be written with magnetic fields or magnetic bits can be written by an electric field. The work conducted in our research focuses on single phase materials. We studied the detailed coupling of the spin and lattice correlations in these systems. In the first phase of the proposal, we explored the complex spin spiral systems and low temperature behavior of hexagonal layered REMnO3 (RE= rare earth, Y and Sc) system following the detailed structural changes which occurred on crossing into the magnetic states. The techniques were applied to other layered materials such as superconductors and thermoelectric where the same layered motif exists. The second phase of the proposal focused on understanding the mechanisms involved in the onset high temperature ferroelectricity ion hexagonal REMnO3 and at low temperature in E-Type magnetic ordered perovskite REMnO3. We wsynthesized preovskite small A site multiferroics by high pressure and high temperature methods. Detailed measurement of the structural properties and dynamics were conducted over a range of length scales from atomic to mesoscopic scale using, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray diffuse scattering, x-ray and neutron pair distribution analysis and high resolution x-ray diffraction. Changes in vibration modes which occur with the onset of polarization were probed with temperature and pressure dependent infrared absorption spectroscopy. In addition the orthorhombic system (small radius RE ions) which is believed to exhibit electronically driven ferroelectricity and is also not understood was examined. The multiple length scale synchrotron based measurements may assist in developing more detailed models of these materials and possibly lead to device applications. The experimental

  3. Electrical polarization of lead bromide crystals. II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, J.; Dijkman, F.G.

    Electrical currents are measured as a function of time after application of a dc voltage on a cell arragement +C/PbBr2/C-. The presence of nonlinear polarization phenomena has been established from a test of Ohm's law, the superposition principle, and from initial and steady-state conductivities

  4. Partial Polarization in Interfered Plasmon Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martínez Vara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the polarization features for plasmon fields generated by the interference between two elemental surface plasmon modes, obtaining a set of Stokes parameters which allows establishing a parallelism with the traditional polarization model. With the analysis presented, we find the corresponding coherence matrix for plasmon fields incorporating to the plasmon optics the study of partial polarization effects.

  5. Polarization extension mechanism revealed through dynamic ferroelectric hysteresis and electric field driven structural distortions in lead free Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, T.; Asthana, Saket

    2017-09-01

    The electric field amplitude (E o) dependent dynamic ferroelectric hysteresis and polarization current density curves measured at room temperature for Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT), showed three different stages of polarization reversal mechanism. The scaling relationship confirmed the dominance of domain wall motion at Stage I (i.e. upto E o  <  35 kV cm-1), followed by domain switching at Stage II (35 kV cm-1  <  E o  <  60 kV cm-1). Interestingly, a unique behaviour with two sub stages was observed in Stage III (60 kV cm-1  <  E o  <  90 kV cm-1), with two distinct switching mechanisms viz., polarization rotation at Stage III-A and polarization extension at Stage III-B. X-ray diffraction analysis based on the Rietveld refined atomic positional co-ordinates, in electrically poled system strongly favors the polarization extension mechanism proposed at Stage III-B. The measured E o-dependent longitudinal piezoelectric response (d 33 and g33) values match closely with our proposed polarization reversal mechanism.

  6. Electric field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua Reynolds

    The physical user interface is an increasingly significant factor limiting the effectiveness of our interactions with and through technology. This thesis introduces Electric Field Imaging, a new physical channel and inference framework for machine perception of human action. Though electric field sensing is an important sensory modality for several species of fish, it has not been seriously explored as a channel for machine perception. Technological applications of field sensing, from the Theremin to the capacitive elevator button, have been limited to simple proximity detection tasks. This thesis presents a solution to the inverse problem of inferring geometrical information about the configuration and motion of the human body from electric field measurements. It also presents simple, inexpensive hardware and signal processing techniques for makin the field measurements, and several new applications of electric field sensing. The signal processing contribution includes synchronous undersampling, a narrowband, phase sensitive detection technique that is well matched to the capabilities of contemporary microcontrollers. In hardware, the primary contributions are the School of Fish, a scalable network of microcontroller-based transceive electrodes, and the LazyFish, a small footprint integrated sensing board. Connecting n School of Fish electrodes results in an array capable of making heterodyne measurements of any or all n(n - 1) off-diagonal entries in the capacitance matrix. The LazyFish uses synchronous undersampling to provide up to 8 high signal- to-noise homodyne measurements in a very small package. The inverse electrostatics portion of the thesis presents a fast, general method for extracting geometrical information about the configuration and motion of the human body from field measurements. The method is based on the Sphere Expansion, a novel fast method for generating approximate solutions to the Laplace equation. Finally, the thesis describes a variety

  7. An electric field in a gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harpaz, Amos

    2005-01-01

    The behaviour of an electric field in a gravitational field is analysed. It is found that due to the mass (energy) of the electric field, it is subjected to gravity and it falls in the gravitational field. This fall curves the electric field, a stress force (a reaction force) is created, and the interaction of this reaction force with the static charge gives rise to the creation of radiation

  8. Electrostatic air filters generated by electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.H.; Hebard, H.D.; Lum, B.Y.; Kuhl, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental findings on fibrous filters converted to electrostatic operation by a nonionizing electric field. Compared to a conventional fibrous filter, the electrostatic filter has a higher efficiency and a longer, useful life. The increased efficiency is attributed to a time independent attraction between polarized fibers and charged, polarized particles and a time dependent attraction between charged fibers and charged, polarized particles. The charge on the fibers results from a dynamic process of charge accumulation due to the particle deposits and a charge dissipation due to the fiber conductivity

  9. Spin-polarized current generated by magneto-electrical gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Minjie; Jalil, Mansoor Bin Abdul; Tan, Seng Ghee

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically study spin-polarized current through a single electron tunneling transistor (SETT), in which a quantum dot (QD) is coupled to non-magnetic source and drain electrodes via tunnel junctions, and gated by a ferromagnetic (FM) electrode. The I–V characteristics of the device are investigated for both spin and charge currents, based on the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The FM electrode generates a magnetic field, which causes a Zeeman spin-splitting of the energy levels in the QD. By tuning the size of the Zeeman splitting and the source–drain bias, a fully spin-polarized current is generated. Additionally, by modulating the electrical gate bias, one can effect a complete switch of the polarization of the tunneling current from spin-up to spin-down current, or vice versa. - Highlights: ► The spin polarized transport through a single electron tunneling transistor is systematically studied. ► The study is based on Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function and equation of motion method. ► A fully spin polarized current is observed. ► We propose to reverse current polarization by the means of gate voltage modulation. ► This device can be used as a bi-polarization current generator.

  10. Dispersion properties of transverse waves in electrically polarized BECs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Pavel A; Kuz'menkov, L S

    2014-01-01

    Further development of the method of quantum hydrodynamics in applications for Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) is presented. To consider the evolution of polarization direction along with particle movement, we have developed a corresponding set of quantum hydrodynamic equations. It includes equations of the polarization evolution and the polarization-current evolution along with the continuity equation and the Euler equation (the momentum-balance equation). Dispersion properties of the transverse waves, including the electromagnetic waves propagating through the BECs, are considered. To this end, we consider a full set of the Maxwell equations for the description of electromagnetic field dynamics. This approximation gives us the possibility of considering the electromagnetic waves along with the matter waves. We find a splitting of the electromagnetic-wave dispersion on two branches. As a result, we have four solutions, two for the electromagnetic waves and two for the matter waves; the last two are the concentration-polarization waves appearing as a generalization of the Bogoliubov mode. We also find that if the matter wave propagates perpendicular to the external electric field then the dipolar contribution does not disappear (as it follows from our generalization of the Bogoliubov spectrum). A small dipolar frequency shift exists in this case due to the transverse electric field of perturbation. (paper)

  11. Control of magnetism by electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, Fumihiro; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ohno, Hideo

    2015-03-01

    The electrical manipulation of magnetism and magnetic properties has been achieved across a number of different material systems. For example, applying an electric field to a ferromagnetic material through an insulator alters its charge-carrier population. In the case of thin films of ferromagnetic semiconductors, this change in carrier density in turn affects the magnetic exchange interaction and magnetic anisotropy; in ferromagnetic metals, it instead changes the Fermi level position at the interface that governs the magnetic anisotropy of the metal. In multiferroics, an applied electric field couples with the magnetization through electrical polarization. This Review summarizes the experimental progress made in the electrical manipulation of magnetization in such materials, discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms, and finally presents the future prospects of the field.

  12. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The technology and techniques for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field may be used for (illuminating) volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology, electric field sensor (e-sensor), and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasistatic generator), and current e-sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution, creating a new field of study that embraces areas of interest including electrostatic discharge mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, inspection of containers, inspection for hidden objects, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  13. Modulation of electromagnetic fields by a depolarizer of random polarizer array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The statistical properties of the electric fields with random changes of the polarization state in space generated by a depolarizer are investigated on the basis of the coherence matrix. The depolarizer is a polarizer array composed of a multitude of contiguous square cells of polarizers with ran......The statistical properties of the electric fields with random changes of the polarization state in space generated by a depolarizer are investigated on the basis of the coherence matrix. The depolarizer is a polarizer array composed of a multitude of contiguous square cells of polarizers...... with randomly distributed polarization angles, where the incident fields experience a random polarization modulation after passing through the depolarizer. The propagation of the modulated electric fields through any quadratic optical system is examined within the framework of the complex ABCD matrix to show...

  14. ion in crossed gradient electric and magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photodetachment cross-section for variousexternal fields and the laser polarization are calculated and displayed. A comparison with the photodetachment cross-section in crossed uniform electric and magnetic fields or in a single gradient electric field has been made.The agreement of our results with the above two special ...

  15. Electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falthammar, C.G.

    1989-01-01

    Electric field measurements on the satellites GEOS-1, GEOS-2, ISEE-1, and Viking have extended the empirical knowledge of electric fields in space so as to include the outer regions of the magnetosphere. While the measurements confirm some of the theoretically expected properties of the electric fields, they also reveal unexpected features and a high degree of complexity and variability. The existence of a magnetospheric dawn-to-dusk electric field, as expected on the basis of extrapolation from low altitude measurements, is confirmed in an average sense. However, the actual field exhibits large spatial and temporal variations, including strong fields of inductive origin. At the magnetopause, the average (dawn-to-dusk directed) tangential electric field component is typically obscured by irregular fluctuations of larger amplitude. The magnetic-field aligned component of the electric field, which is of particular importance for ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and for auroral acceleration, is even now very difficult to measure directly. However, the data from electric field measurements provide further support for the conclusion, based on a variety of evidence, that a non-vanishing magnetic-field aligned electric field exists in the auroral acceleration region

  16. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Dynamic Applications & Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Ed

    2017-01-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field made be used for volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e- Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Critical design elements of current linear and real-time two-dimensional (2D) measurement systems are highlighted, and the development of a three dimensional (3D) EFI system is presented. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. Recent work demonstrates that phonons may be used to create and annihilate electric dipoles within structures. Phonon induced dipoles are ephemeral and their polarization, strength, and location may be quantitatively characterized by EFI providing a new subsurface Phonon-EFI imaging technology. Results from real-time imaging of combustion and ion flow, and their measurement complications, will be discussed. Extensions to environment, Space and subterranean applications will be presented, and initial results for quantitative characterizing material properties are shown. A wearable EFI system has been developed by using fundamental EFI concepts. These new EFI capabilities are demonstrated to characterize electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, manufacturing quality control, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, combustion science, on-orbit space potential, container inspection, remote characterization of electronic circuits and level of activation, dielectric morphology of

  17. Compact electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber polarizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2009-01-01

    An electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic-bandgap fiber polarizer is experimentally demonstrated. A maximum 21.3dB electrically tunable polarization extinction ratio is achieved with 45° rotatable transmission axis as well as switched on and off in 1300nm–1600nm.......An electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic-bandgap fiber polarizer is experimentally demonstrated. A maximum 21.3dB electrically tunable polarization extinction ratio is achieved with 45° rotatable transmission axis as well as switched on and off in 1300nm–1600nm....

  18. Electrically-induced polarization selection rules of a graphene quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing-Rui; Li, Yan; Jia, Chen; Wang, Fu-Li; Zhang, Ya-Ting; Liu, Chun-Xiang

    2018-05-01

    We study theoretically the single-electron triangular zigzag graphene quantum dot in uniform in-plane electric fields. The absorption spectra of the dot are calculated by the tight-binding method. The energy spectra and the distribution of wave functions are also presented to analyse the absorption spectra. The orthogonal zero-energy eigenstates are arranged along to the direction of the external field. The remarkable result is that all intraband transitions and some interband transitions are forbidden when the absorbed light is polarized along the direction of the electric field. With x-direction electric field, all intraband absorption is y polarized due to the electric-field-direction-polarization selection rule. Moreover, with y-direction electric field, all absorption is either x or y polarized due to the parity selection rule as well as to the electric-field-direction-polarization selection rule. Our calculation shows that the formation of the absorption spectra is co-decided by the polarization selection rules and the overlap between the eigenstates of the transition.

  19. Characterization of Partially Polarized Light Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Herrero, Rosario; Piquero, Gemma

    2009-01-01

    Polarization involves the vectorial nature of light fields. In current applications of optical science, the electromagnetic description of light with its vector features has been shown to be essential: In practice, optical radiation also exhibits randomness and spatial non-uniformity of the polarization state. Moreover, propagation through photonic devices can alter the correlation properties of the light field, resulting in changes in polarization. All these vectorial properties have been gaining importance in recent years, and they are attracting increasing attention in the literature. This is the framework and the scope of the present book, which includes the authors’ own contributions to these issues.

  20. Electric field replaces gravity in laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgolewski, S.

    For several years experiments in physical laboratories and in the fitotron have shown that one can replace gravitational field with electrical fields for plants. First obvious experiments in strong electrical fields in the MV/m regi on show that any materials and living plants respond immediately to Coulomb forces. Such fields are found in nature during thunderstorms. One has to be very careful in handling such strong fields for safety reasons. The fair weather global electrical field is about 20,000 times weaker. The coulomb forces are proportional to the square of the field strength and are thus 400 milion times weaker for a field of the order of 100 V/m.Yet it was found that some plants respond to such "weak" fields. We must remember that the electrical field is a factor of 10 38 times stronger than gravitational interaction. In plants we have dissociated in water mineral salts and the ions are subject to such ernormous forces. It was shown and published that the positive charges in the air in fields of the order of 3kV/m enhance lettuce growth by a factor of four relative to fields about 30 times weaker (100V/m). Reversal of the field polarity reverses the direction of plant growth and retards the plant's growth. Such fields overpower the gravitropism in the laboratory. More so horizontal electrical field is othogonal to gravity, now the fields do not see each other. Lettuce now growth horizontally ignoring the gravitational field. We can thus select the plants whose electrotropism even in the laboratory overwhelms gravity. This is important for the long space flights that we must grow vegetarian food for the crew. The successful harvesting of wheat in orbit does not contradict our experimental findings because wheat is not electrotropic like all plants from the grass family. The results of fitotron experiments with kV/m electrical fields are richly illustrated with colour digital photographs. We also subjected the candle flame to very strong horizontal

  1. Comparing Penetration Electric Fields Using the Tsyganenko R1 and R2 Models and the Hill-Siscoe Polar Cap Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Paul; Jasperse, John

    Tsyganenko and co-workers have developed empirical models (labeled here as TR1, TR2) for the Region-1 (R1) and Region-2 (R2) currents. These models offer the advantage of being analyti-cally simple and solar-wind driven as well as giving the parallel current distributions in latitude and longitude . A study will be performed that uses the TR1 and TR2 models as inputs into our SWAGE (Solar Wind Acting on the Geophysical Environment) model that determines the global ionospheric electric field. Comparisons will be made between the Tsyganenko approach and that derived from the Hill-Siscoe model for the same solar wind parameters. Both current models will be used as inputs into a global ionospheric potential solver for the current continu-ity equation with the resulting equatorial penetration electric fields being compared with those measured via the vertical drift at Jicamarca, Peru. It is anticipated that such an approach will lead to an improved, solar-wind dependent , empirical model for R1 and, possibly, for R2 that will useful as near-term forecast tool.

  2. Cryosurgery with Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Charlotte S.; Rubinsky, Boris

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that combining the minimally invasive surgical techniques of cryosurgery and pulsed electric fields will eliminate some of the major disadvantages of these techniques while retaining their advantages. Cryosurgery, tissue ablation by freezing, is a well-established minimally invasive surgical technique. One disadvantage of cryosurgery concerns the mechanism of cell death; cells at high subzero temperature on the outer rim of the frozen lesion can survive. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are another minimally invasive surgical technique in which high strength and very rapid electric pulses are delivered across cells to permeabilize the cell membrane for applications such as gene delivery, electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. The very short time scale of the electric pulses is disadvantageous because it does not facilitate real time control over the procedure. We hypothesize that applying the electric pulses during the cryosurgical procedure in such a way that the electric field vector is parallel to the heat flux vector will have the effect of confining the electric fields to the frozen/cold region of tissue, thereby ablating the cells that survive freezing while facilitating controlled use of the PEF in the cold confined region. A finite element analysis of the electric field and heat conduction equations during simultaneous tissue treatment with cryosurgery and PEF (cryosurgery/PEF) was used to study the effect of tissue freezing on electric fields. The study yielded motivating results. Because of decreased electrical conductivity in the frozen/cooled tissue, it experienced temperature induced magnified electric fields in comparison to PEF delivered to the unfrozen tissue control. This suggests that freezing/cooling confines and magnifies the electric fields to those regions; a targeting capability unattainable in traditional PEF. This analysis shows how temperature induced magnified and focused PEFs could be used to

  3. Cryosurgery with pulsed electric fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte S Daniels

    Full Text Available This study explores the hypothesis that combining the minimally invasive surgical techniques of cryosurgery and pulsed electric fields will eliminate some of the major disadvantages of these techniques while retaining their advantages. Cryosurgery, tissue ablation by freezing, is a well-established minimally invasive surgical technique. One disadvantage of cryosurgery concerns the mechanism of cell death; cells at high subzero temperature on the outer rim of the frozen lesion can survive. Pulsed electric fields (PEF are another minimally invasive surgical technique in which high strength and very rapid electric pulses are delivered across cells to permeabilize the cell membrane for applications such as gene delivery, electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. The very short time scale of the electric pulses is disadvantageous because it does not facilitate real time control over the procedure. We hypothesize that applying the electric pulses during the cryosurgical procedure in such a way that the electric field vector is parallel to the heat flux vector will have the effect of confining the electric fields to the frozen/cold region of tissue, thereby ablating the cells that survive freezing while facilitating controlled use of the PEF in the cold confined region. A finite element analysis of the electric field and heat conduction equations during simultaneous tissue treatment with cryosurgery and PEF (cryosurgery/PEF was used to study the effect of tissue freezing on electric fields. The study yielded motivating results. Because of decreased electrical conductivity in the frozen/cooled tissue, it experienced temperature induced magnified electric fields in comparison to PEF delivered to the unfrozen tissue control. This suggests that freezing/cooling confines and magnifies the electric fields to those regions; a targeting capability unattainable in traditional PEF. This analysis shows how temperature induced magnified and focused

  4. Magnetic field reversal of electric polarization and magnetoelectric phase diagram of the hexaferrite Ba{sub 1.3}Sr{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 1.1}Fe{sub 10.8}Al{sub 1.2}O{sub 22}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Shipeng; Yan, Liqin; Chai, Yisheng; Cong, Junzhuang; Sun, Young, E-mail: youngsun@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-01-20

    Low magnetic field reversal of electric polarization has been demonstrated in the multiferroic Y-type hexaferrite Ba{sub 1.3}Sr{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 1.1}Fe{sub 10.8}Al{sub 1.2}O{sub 22} single crystal. The maximum magnetoelectric coefficient at 200 K reaches 1065 ps/m near zero magnetic field. By a systematic investigation of magnetic field dependence of magnetic and dielectric responses at various temperatures, we obtained the magnetoelectric phase diagram describing the detailed evolution of the spin-induced ferroelectric phases with temperature and magnetic field. Below 225 K, the transverse spin cone can be stabilized at zero magnetic field, which is responsible for the reversal behavior of electric polarization. Our study reveals how to eventually achieve magnetic field reversal of electric polarization in hexaferrites at room temperature.

  5. Erythrocytes in alternating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morariu, V.V.; Chifu, A.; Simplaceanu, T.; Frangopol, P.T.

    1983-02-01

    The elastic and inelastic deformation of erythrocytes induced by alternating fields and the suggestion that moderate field intensities (1.2 kV/cm) when continuously applied can cause lysis by a different mechanism compared to the action of short intense field pulses is presented. The different experimental conditions can be used to approach various properties of the membrane such as those related to the dielectric polarization of the membrane or to the interfacial polarization, leading to the inelastic deformation of the cells. (authors)

  6. Electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.G.

    1989-12-01

    The electric field plays an important role in the complex plasma system called the magnetosphere. In spite of this, direct measurement of this quantity are still scarce except in its lowest-altitude part, i.e. the ionosphere. The large scale ionospheric electric field has been determined from measurement on the ground and in low satellite orbit. For most of the magnetosphere, our concepts of the electric field have mostly been based on theoretical considerations and extrapolations of the ionspheric electric field. Direct, in situ, electric field measurements in the outer parts of the magnetosphere have been made only relatively recently. A few satellite missions. most recently the Viking mission, have extended the direct empirical knowledge so as to include major parts of the magnetosphere. These measurements have revealed a number of unexpected features. The actual electric field has been found to have unexpectedly strong space and time variations, which reflect the dynamic nature of the system. Examples are give of measured electric fields in the plasmasphere, the plasmasheet, the neutral sheet, the magnetotail, the flanks of the magnetosphere, the dayside magnetopause and the auroral acceleration region. (author)

  7. Electrically controlled phases of partially polarized light and orientational Kerr effect in liquid crystal ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Alexei D.; Kesaev, Vladimir V.; Pozhidaev, Evgeny P.

    2017-10-01

    We study the electro-optic properties of subwavelength-pitch deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystals illuminated with partially polarized light. In an experimental setup based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, it is found that the interference pattern crucially depends on the degree of polarization of the incident light. We evaluate the electric field dependence of both the Pancharatnam relative phase and the geometric phase for the general case of nonunitarily evolving mixed polarization states.

  8. Building Better Electrodes for Electrical Resistivity and Induced Polarization Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, P. L.; La Brecque, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    In the third year of a project to understand and mitigate the systematic noise in resistivity and induced polarization measurements, we put a significant effort into understanding and developing better electrodes. The simple metal electrodes commonly used for both transmitting and receiving of electrical geophysical data are likely the Achilles" heal of the resistivity method. Even stainless steel, a commonly used electrode material because of its durability, showed only average results in laboratory tests for electrode noise. Better results have been found with non-polarizing metal-metal salt electrodes, which are widely used as surface electrodes and in IP surveys. But although they produce small measurement errors, they are not durable enough for in-situ borehole resistivity surveys, and often contain compounds that are toxic to the environment. They are also very seldom used as transmitters. In laboratory studies, we are exploring other materials and configurations for low-noise compound electrodes that will be nontoxic, inexpensive, and durable and can be used as both transmitters and receivers. Testing of the electrical noise levels of electrodes is an arduous task involving repeated measurements under varying conditions at field scales. Thus it is important to find methods of sorting out likely candidates from the mass of possible electrode configurations and construction methods. Testing of electrode impedance versus current density appears to provide simple criteria for predicting the suitability of electrodes. The best electrodes show relatively low overall contact impedance, relatively small changes in impedance with increased current density, and relatively small changes in impedance with time. Furthermore it can be shown that resistivity and induced polarization performance of electrodes is strongly correlated, so that methods of finding electrodes with low impedance and good direct current performance usually provide better quality induced

  9. Reduced dielectric response in spatially varying electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamical equation for polarization is derived. From this the dielectric response to a spatially varying electric field is analyzed showing a reduced response due to flux of polarization in the material. This flux is modeled as a diffusive process through linear constitutive...... relations between the flux and the gradient of the polarization. Comparison between the theory and molecular dynamics simulations confirms this effect. The effect is significant for small length scale electric field variations and the inclusion of the flux is thus important in nanoscale modeling...

  10. Electric & Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Lead Mercury Mold Nanomaterials Ozone Perfluorinated Chemicals Pesticides Radon Soy Infant Formula Styrene Water Pollution Weather ... 102-486, Section 2118) Questions and Answers about Biological Effects and Potential Hazards of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields - ...

  11. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atmospheric electric field; magnetic storm; magnetosphere; ionosphere; global electrical circuit. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 124, No. 8, December 2015, pp. ... cycle, climate and air pollution is insufficient for extensive applications. Hence, the ..... frequency radars monitoring plasma flow in the polar ionosphere. The network database ...

  12. Questions Students Ask: Why Not Bend Light with an Electric Field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heuvelen, Alan

    1983-01-01

    In response to a question, "Why not use a magnetic or electric field to deflect light?," reviews the relation between electric charge and electric/magnetic fields. Discusses the Faraday effect, (describing matter as an intermediary in the rotation of the place of polarization) and other apparent interactions of light with electric/magnetic fields.…

  13. Advanced Electric Field Deployment Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Electric Field Deployment Systems provide prototype design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of advance electric field deployers (or booms) that are...

  14. Resonance scattering formalism for the hydrogen lines in the presence of magnetic and electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    We derive a formalism for the computation of resonance-scattering polarization of hydrogen lines in the presence of simultaneous magnetic and electric fields, within a framework of the quantum theory of polarized line formation in the limit of complete frequency redistribution and of collisionless regime. Quantum interferences between fine-structure levels are included in this formalism. In the presence of a magnetic field, these interferences affect, together with the magnetic Hanle effect, the polarization of the atomic levels. In the presence of an electric field, interferences between distinct orbital configurations are also induced, further affecting the polarization of the hydrogen levels. In turn, the electric field is expected to affect the polarization of the atomic levels (electric Hanle effect), in a way analogous to the magnetic Hanle effect. We find that the simultaneous action of electric and magnetic fields give rise to complicated patterns of polarization and depolarization regimes, for varying geometries and field strengths

  15. Organic Field Effect Transistors with Dipole-Polarized Polymer Gate Dielectrics for Control of Threshold Voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Heisuke; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Murata, Hideyuki

    2007-01-01

    The authors demonstrate organic field effect transistors (OFETs) with a dipole-polarized polyurea for the gate dielectrics. In the dielectrics, the internal electric field induces the mobile charge carrier in the semiconductor layer to the semiconductor-dielectric interface. OFETs with dipole-polarized gate dielectrics exhibit lower threshold voltage. With nonpolarized gate dielectrics, the threshold voltage was -11.4 V, whereas that decreased to -5.3 V with polarized gate dielectrics. In a...

  16. Galvanotactic behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis under electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dal Hyung; Kim, Paul Seung Soo; Kim, Min Jun; Lee, Kyoungwoo; Kim, JinSeok

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahymena pyriformis, a eukaryotic ciliate, swims toward a cathode in straight or cross-shaped microchannels under an applied electric field, a behavioral response called cathodal galvanotaxis. In straight channel experiments, a one-dimensional electric field was applied, and the galvanotactic swimming behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis was observed and described in detail while the polarity of this field is switched. In most individual cases, the cell would immediately switch its direction toward the cathode; however, exceptional cases have been observed where cells exhibit a turning delay or do not turn after a polarity switch. In cross-channel experiments, feedback control using vision-based tracking was used to steer a cell in the microchannel intersection using a two-dimensional electric field generated by four electrodes placed at four ends of the cross channel. The motivation for this work is to study the swimming behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis as a microrobot under the control of electric fields. (paper)

  17. Measurement of electrical polar symmetry in turbogenerator rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez-Niño, J; González Vázquez, A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement technique and an analysis of the electrical polar symmetry in turbogenerator rotors using the so-called recurrent pulse comparison with the injection of charge as the excitation source. The polar symmetry should be measured because it provides information that allows electrical insulation failures in the rotor winding to be detected. A simple electrical model for the rotor is introduced, and the technique for comparing the recurrent pulses is analysed in detail. The particular measurement instrumentation and the analysis of the results obtained in the time and frequency domains, including their relation to the rotor failures, are also described. (paper)

  18. The Polar BEAR magnetic field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bythrow, P. F.; Potemra, T. A.; Zanetti, L. J.; Mobley, F. F.; Scheer, L.; Radford, W. E.

    1987-09-01

    The objectives and the instrumentation of the Polar BEAR magnetic field experiment are described along with the preliminary results from simultaneous measurements of Birkeland currents and UV auroral emissions. The experiment consists of an integrated sensor head, analog electronics, and digital electronics. The sensor head is a single unit containing sensor windings for each of the three orthogonal axes, oriented parrallel to the spacecraft coordinates; to minimize interference from spacecraft-generated magnetic fields, the sensor unit is located at the end of the +y solar panel. The digital electronics package is essentially identical to that flown on HILAT. A signal processor digitizes the analog outputs of the three orthogonal axes of the flux-gate magnetometer to a 13-bit resolution, yielding a magnetic field range of + or - 63,000 nT and a resolution of 15.2 nT. The full-resolution magnetic field values are recovered by data processing techniques on the ground.

  19. Polar Functions for Anisotropic Gaussian Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X be an (N, d-anisotropic Gaussian random field. Under some general conditions on X, we establish a relationship between a class of continuous functions satisfying the Lipschitz condition and a class of polar functions of X. We prove upper and lower bounds for the intersection probability for a nonpolar function and X in terms of Hausdorff measure and capacity, respectively. We also determine the Hausdorff and packing dimensions of the times set for a nonpolar function intersecting X. The class of Gaussian random fields that satisfy our conditions includes not only fractional Brownian motion and the Brownian sheet, but also such anisotropic fields as fractional Brownian sheets, solutions to stochastic heat equation driven by space-time white noise, and the operator-scaling Gaussian random field with stationary increments.

  20. Electric fields and quantum wormholes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, D.; Freivogel, B.; Iqbal, N.

    2015-01-01

    Electric fields can thread a classical Einstein-Rosen bridge. Maldacena and Susskind have recently suggested that in a theory of dynamical gravity the entanglement of ordinary perturbative quanta should be viewed as creating a quantum version of an Einstein-Rosen bridge between the particles, or a

  1. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  2. Effects of geomagnetic activity on the mesospheric electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zadorozhny

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three series of rocket measurements of mesospheric electric fields carried out under different geomagnetic conditions at polar and high middle latitudes are analysed. The measurements show a clear dependence of the vertical electric fields on geomagnetic activity at polar and high middle latitudes. The vertical electric fields in the lower mesosphere increase with the increase of geomagnetic indexes Kp and ∑Kp. The simultaneous increase of the vertical electric field strength and ion conductivity was observed in the mesosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. This striking phenomenon was displayed most clearly during the solar proton events of October, 1989 accompanied by very strong geomagnetic storm (Kp=8+. A possible mechanism of generation of the vertical electric fields in the mesosphere caused by gravitational sedimentation of charged aerosol particles is discussed. Simultaneous existence in the mesosphere of both the negative and positive multiply charged aerosol particles of different sizes is assumed for explanation of the observed V/m vertical electric fields and their behaviour under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  3. Effects of geomagnetic activity on the mesospheric electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zadorozhny

    Full Text Available The results of three series of rocket measurements of mesospheric electric fields carried out under different geomagnetic conditions at polar and high middle latitudes are analysed. The measurements show a clear dependence of the vertical electric fields on geomagnetic activity at polar and high middle latitudes. The vertical electric fields in the lower mesosphere increase with the increase of geomagnetic indexes Kp and ∑Kp. The simultaneous increase of the vertical electric field strength and ion conductivity was observed in the mesosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. This striking phenomenon was displayed most clearly during the solar proton events of October, 1989 accompanied by very strong geomagnetic storm (Kp=8+. A possible mechanism of generation of the vertical electric fields in the mesosphere caused by gravitational sedimentation of charged aerosol particles is discussed. Simultaneous existence in the mesosphere of both the negative and positive multiply charged aerosol particles of different sizes is assumed for explanation of the observed V/m vertical electric fields and their behaviour under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.

    Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  4. Spontaneous electric polarization in the B-site magnetic spinel GeCu2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanda, Premakumar; Ghara, Somnath; Sundaresan, A.

    2018-04-01

    We report the observation of a spontaneous electric polarization at the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature (TN ∼ 33 K) of Cu2+ ions in the B-site magnetic spinel GeCu2O4, synthesized at high pressure and high temperature. This compound is known to crystallize in a tetragonal structure (space group I41/amd) due to Jahn-Teller distortion of Cu2+ ions and exhibit a collinear up-up-down-down (↑↑↓↓) antiferromagnetic spin configuration below TN. We found a clear dielectric anomaly at TN, where an electric polarization appears in the absence of applied magnetic field. The electric polarization is suppressed by applied magnetic fields, which demonstrates that the compound GeCu2O4 is a type-II multiferroic.

  5. Flexo- and piezo-electric polarization of smectic layers in ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczyński, W.; Hoffmann, J.; Dardas, D.; Nowicka, K.; Bielejewska, N.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we report on how flexoelectric and piezoelectric polarization components can be determined by a method based on simultaneous studies of dielectric and electrooptic properties of the chiral smectic liquid crystal in the regime of weak electric fields. As a rule, the measurements of spontaneous polarization are performed using switching experiments. The polarization measured in this way is not complete—it contains the piezoelectric component only. However, the knowledge of the entire local polarization of a single smectic layer is of great importance—it is necessary for correct determination of some material parameters, for instance elastic constants. Our experiments performed in a helical smectic mixture demonstrated that flexoelectric contribution to the local spontaneous polarization is significant in both ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phases. In the antiferroelectric phase, the flexoelectric polarization is less due to higher helical pitch.

  6. Electromagnetic fields of an ultra-short tightly-focused radially-polarized laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Yousef I.; Li, Jian-Xing

    2017-12-01

    Fully analytic expressions, for the electric and magnetic fields of an ultrashort and tightly focused laser pulse of the radially polarized category, are presented to lowest order of approximation. The fields are derived from scalar and vector potentials, along the lines of our earlier work for a similar pulse of the linearly polarized variety. A systematic program is also described from which the fields may be obtained to any desired accuracy, analytically or numerically.

  7. Trees and Fields and Negative Polarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2011-01-01

    The paper takes as its point of departure a comparison between two kinds of approaches to clause structure, namely tree analyses like the generative analysis and field analyses like the sætningsskema analysis of Danish of Diderichsen (1946) and many others (or like the topologische Modell analysi...... to accounting for negative polarity items in English, Danish and German, both the more straightforward aspects and the more complex ones, e.g. the so-called NPI-verbs as well as the interaction between NPI-elements and because-clauses...

  8. Nonlinear piezoelectricity in epitaxial ferroelectrics at high electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Alexei; Sichel, Rebecca; Lee, Ho Nyung; Landahl, Eric C; Adams, Bernhard; Dufresne, Eric M; Evans, Paul G

    2008-01-18

    Nonlinear effects in the coupling of polarization with elastic strain have been predicted to occur in ferroelectric materials subjected to high electric fields. Such predictions are tested here for a PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 ferroelectric thin film at electric fields in the range of several hundred MV/m and strains reaching up to 2.7%. The piezoelectric strain exceeds predictions based on constant piezoelectric coefficients at electric fields from approximately 200 to 400 MV/m, which is consistent with a nonlinear effect predicted to occur at corresponding piezoelectric distortions.

  9. Electrical properties of two-dimensional thin films of the ferroelectric material Polyvinylidene Fluoride as a function of electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belouadah, R., E-mail: r_belouadah74@yahoo.f [Departement de physique, Universite de M' sila, PB 116 Ichebilia, M' sila (Algeria); Laboratoire des Systemes Integres a base de Capteurs, Ecole Normale Superieure B.P 92 Kouba, Alger (Algeria); Kendil, D.; Bousbiat, E. [Laboratoire des Systemes Integres a base de Capteurs, Ecole Normale Superieure B.P 92 Kouba, Alger (Algeria); Guyomar, D.; Guiffard, B. [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique et Ferroelectricite, INSA-Lyon, Bat. Gustave Ferrie, 8 rue de la Physique, Villeurbanne (France)

    2009-06-01

    The study of the electrical properties of two-dimensional ferroelectric materials is very interesting because of the many possible applications relating to effects on their polarization properties. In this work we study the effect of a sinusoidal electric field on the dielectric and electrical properties of uni-axially and biaxially stretched polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films. We have determined the polarization current, remanent polarization, maximal polarization, the hysteresis loop and coercive field as a function of applied electric field amplitude. The most interesting effects are the electric field (E) dependences of the resistivity. It is shown that for the biaxially stretched PVDF sample, the resistivity is almost constant, whereas for the uni-axially stretched specimen, a large decrease of resistivity is observed.

  10. Electric Fields and Enzyme Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Stephen D; Boxer, Steven G

    2017-06-20

    What happens inside an enzyme's active site to allow slow and difficult chemical reactions to occur so rapidly? This question has occupied biochemists' attention for a long time. Computer models of increasing sophistication have predicted an important role for electrostatic interactions in enzymatic reactions, yet this hypothesis has proved vexingly difficult to test experimentally. Recent experiments utilizing the vibrational Stark effect make it possible to measure the electric field a substrate molecule experiences when bound inside its enzyme's active site. These experiments have provided compelling evidence supporting a major electrostatic contribution to enzymatic catalysis. Here, we review these results and develop a simple model for electrostatic catalysis that enables us to incorporate disparate concepts introduced by many investigators to describe how enzymes work into a more unified framework stressing the importance of electric fields at the active site.

  11. Can Polar Fields Explain Missing Open Flux?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, J.; Downs, C.; Caplan, R. M.; Riley, P.; Mikic, Z.; Lionello, R.

    2017-12-01

    The "open" magnetic field is the portion of the Sun's magnetic field that extends out into the heliosphere and becomes the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Both the IMF and the Sun's magnetic field in the photosphere have been measured for many years. In the standard paradigm of coronal structure, the open magnetic field originates primarily in coronal holes. The regions that are magnetically closed trap the coronal plasma and give rise to the streamer belt. This basic picture is qualitatively reproduced by models of coronal structure using photospheric magnetic fields as input. If this paradigm is correct, there are two primary observational constraints on the models: (1) The open field regions in the model should approximately correspond to coronal holes observed in emission, and (2) the magnitude of the open magnetic flux in the model should match that inferred from in situ spacecraft measurements. Linker et al. (2017, ApJ, submitted) investigated the July 2010 time period for a range of observatory maps and both PFSS and MHD models. We found that all of the model/map combinations underestimated the interplanetary magnetic flux, unless the modeled open field regions were larger than observed coronal holes. An estimate of the open magnetic flux made entirely from solar observations (combining detected coronal hole boundaries with observatory synoptic magnetic maps) also underestimated the interplanetary magnetic flux. The magnetic field near the Sun's poles is poorly observed and may not be well represented in observatory maps. In this paper, we explore whether an underestimate of the polar magnetic flux during this time period could account for the overall underestimate of open magnetic flux. Research supported by NASA, AFOSR, and NSF.

  12. Electric Fields for Flame Extinguishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    ethylene-air and methane-air flames, the application of a DC field of 0.5 kV/cm increased the burning velocity by close to a factor of two. Salamandra and...flame surface area and thus the velocity, but Jaggers and von Engel also saw physical perturbations in flame fronts with no electric field. Salamandra ...Conductivity in Propane-Air Flames by Using Rydberg State Stark Spectroscopy," Proc. Combustion Inst., Fall (1990). 12. Salamandra , G.D., and Mairov, N.I

  13. Recent progress on the unified theory of polarization and coherence for stochastic electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Juan; Hu, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    All optical fields undergo random fluctuation and the underlying theory referred to as coherence and polarization of optical fields has played a fundamental role as an important manifestation of the random fluctuations of the electric fields. In this paper, we reviewed our recent theoretical...

  14. Effects of a static electric field on nonsequential double ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongyun; Wang Bingbing; Li Xiaofeng; Fu Panming; Chen Jing; Liu Jie; Jiang Hongbing; Gong Qihuang; Yan Zongchao

    2007-01-01

    Using a three-dimensional semiclassical method, we perform a systematic analysis of the effects of an additional static electric field on nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of a helium atom in an intense, linearly polarized laser field. It is found that the static electric field influences not only the ionization rate, but also the kinetic energy of the ionized electron returning to the parent ion, in such a way that, if the rate is increased, then the kinetic energy of the first returning electron is decreased, and vice versa. These two effects compete in NSDI. Since the effect of the static electric field on the ionization of the first electron plays a more crucial role in the competition, the symmetric double-peak structure of the He 2+ momentum distribution parallel to the polarization of the laser field is destroyed. Furthermore, the contribution of the trajectories with multiple recollisions to the NSDI is also changed dramatically by the static electric field. As the static electric field increases, the trajectories with two recollisions, which start at the time when the laser and the static electric field are in the same direction, become increasingly important for the NSDI

  15. Coherent polarization driven by external electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, M.; Ganciu, M.

    2010-01-01

    The coherent interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with an ensemble of polarizable, identical particles with two energy levels is investigated in the presence of external electromagnetic fields. The coupled non-linear equations of motion are solved in the stationary regime and in the limit of small coupling constants. It is shown that an external electromagnetic field may induce a macroscopic occupation of both the energy levels of the particles and the corresponding photon states, governed by a long-range order of the quantum phases of the internal motion (polarization) of the particles. A lasing effect is thereby obtained, controlled by the external field. Its main characteristics are estimated for typical atomic matter and atomic nuclei. For atomic matter the effect may be considerable (for usual external fields), while for atomic nuclei the effect is extremely small (practically insignificant), due to the great disparity in the coupling constants. In the absence of the external field, the solution, which is non-analytic in the coupling constant, corresponds to a second-order phase transition (super-radiance), which was previously investigated.

  16. Electrical polarization and orbital magnetization: the modern theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resta, Raffaele

    2010-01-01

    Macroscopic polarization P and magnetization M are the most fundamental concepts in any phenomenological description of condensed media. They are intensive vector quantities that intuitively carry the meaning of dipole per unit volume. But for many years both P and the orbital term in M evaded even a precise microscopic definition, and severely challenged quantum-mechanical calculations. If one reasons in terms of a finite sample, the electric (magnetic) dipole is affected in an extensive way by charges (currents) at the sample boundary, due to the presence of the unbounded position operator in the dipole definitions. Therefore P and the orbital term in M-phenomenologically known as bulk properties-apparently behave as surface properties; only spin magnetization is problemless. The field has undergone a genuine revolution since the early 1990s. Contrary to a widespread incorrect belief, P has nothing to do with the periodic charge distribution of the polarized crystal: the former is essentially a property of the phase of the electronic wavefunction, while the latter is a property of its modulus. Analogously, the orbital term in M has nothing to do with the periodic current distribution in the magnetized crystal. The modern theory of polarization, based on a Berry phase, started in the early 1990s and is now implemented in most first-principle electronic structure codes. The analogous theory for orbital magnetization started in 2005 and is partly work in progress. In the electrical case, calculations have concerned various phenomena (ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, and lattice dynamics) in several materials, and are in spectacular agreement with experiments; they have provided thorough understanding of the behaviour of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. In the magnetic case the very first calculations are appearing at the time of writing (2010). Here I review both theories on a uniform ground in a density functional theory (DFT) framework, pointing out

  17. Mutagenic Potential of Direct Current Electric Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obringer, John

    1997-01-01

    .... EMF can be subdivided into either electric fields (E-field) or magnetic fields (B-field). Our research used a reverse mutagenesis bacteriophage T4D model to quantitatively study the effects of direct current E-fields...

  18. Electric-field effects in optically generated spin transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au

    2009-05-25

    Transport of spin-polarized electrons in semiconductors is studied experimentally. Spins are generated by optical excitation because of the selection rules governing optical transitions from heavy-hole and light-hole states to conduction-band states. Experiments designed for the control of spins in semiconductors investigate the bias-dependent spin transport process and detect the spin-polarized electrons during transport. A strong bias dependence is observed. The electric-field effects on the spin-polarized electron transport are also found to be depended on the excitation photon energy and temperature. Based on a field-dependent spin relaxation mechanism, the electric-field effects in the transport process are discussed.

  19. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Song; Huang, Shiyong; Zhou, Meng; Ni, Binbin; Deng, Xiaohua

    2018-03-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  20. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  1. Impact of electric field on Hofmeister effects in aggregation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    interactions between colloidal minerals. Keywords. Electric field; Hofmeister effects; ionic polarization; colloidal minerals; electrostatic interaction. 1. Introduction. Aggregation and dissociation of colloidal and mineral particles is a corner stone issue in a variety of disci- plines.1,2 According to the Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey.

  2. Electric field measurements in high pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitko, S.V.; Ochkin, V.N.; Serdyuchenko, A.Yu.; Tskhai, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Electric fields define a wide range of interactions and phenomena at different phases of matter both on micro- and macro-level. Investigation of electric fields behavior provides a key for understanding of these phenomena and their application

  3. Electrical field of electrical appliances versus distance: A preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, Nur Badariah Ahmad; Nordin, Farah Hani; Ismail, Fakaruddin Ali Ahmad; Alkahtani, Ammar Ahmed; Balasubramaniam, Nagaletchumi; Hock, Goh Chin; Shariff, Z A M

    2013-01-01

    Every household electrical appliance that is plugged in emits electric field even if it is not operating. The source where the appliance is plugged into and the components of household electrical appliance contribute to electric field emission. The electric field may cause unknown disturbance to the environment or also affect the human health and the effect might depends on the strength of the electric field emitted by the appliance. This paper will investigate the strength of the electric field emitted by four different electrical appliances using spectrum analyser. The strength will be captured at three different distances; (i) 1m (ii) 2m and (iii) 3m and analysis of the strength of the electrical field is done based on the three different distances. The measurement results show that the strength of the electric field is strongest when it is captured at 1m and the weakest at 3m from the electrical appliance. The results proved that the farther an object is located from the electrical appliance; the less effect the magnetic field has.

  4. Dynamical interplay between fluctuations, electric fields and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    interplay between fluctuation in gradients, turbulent transport and radial electric fields has shown that these parameters ... electric fields and density fluctuations, ΓE¢B(t) = ˜n(t) ˜Eθ (t)/B. The poloidal electric field has been .... transport increases and the system performs a relaxation which tends to drive the plasma back to the ...

  5. Do neutrons feel electric fields?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Tony; Werner, Sam

    1991-01-01

    An accounts is given of the results of a co-operative research carried out at the University of Melbourne in Australia and the University of Missouri, Columbia in the United States on the physics of neutrons and their interactions as a test of fundamental principles in quantum mechanics and electrodynamics. In particular it comments on the verification of the Aharonov-Casher effect in electric as well as magnetic fields in the case of neutral particles. It was demonstrated that neutrons have a magnetic moment which precess and acquire phase shifts when exposed to magnetic fields. The sign of the measured phase shift agreed with the theoretical prediction and the magnitude was within one and a half standard deviations of it. 12 refs., 4 figs

  6. Communication: Permanent dipoles contribute to electric polarization in chiral NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, A. David

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is blind to chirality because the spectra of a molecule and its mirror image are identical unless the environment is chiral. However, precessing nuclear magnetic moments in chiral molecules in a strong magnetic field induce an electric polarization through the nuclear magnetic shielding polarizability. This effect is equal and opposite for a molecule and its mirror image but is small and has not yet been observed. It is shown that the permanent electric dipole moment of a chiral molecule is partially oriented through the antisymmetric part of the nuclear magnetic shielding tensor, causing the electric dipole to precess with the nuclear magnetic moment and producing a much larger temperature-dependent electric polarization with better prospects of detection

  7. Polarization as a field variable from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandadapu, Kranthi K.; Templeton, Jeremy; Lee, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    In this talk, we show that polarization density, an important quantity in electromagnetism, can be obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the Irving and Kirkwood procedure used for obtaining stresses and heat fluxes in terms of the microscopic quantities can be extended to the case of electrostatics where the macroscopic electrostatic equation can be derived starting with the microscopic electrostatic equation, microscopic density of charges and using a phase-space distribution function and a suitable localization function. As a result, we obtain an expression for polarization density as a field variable in terms of the microscopic dipole moments and quadrupole moments and higher order terms depending upon the degree of the polynomial used for the localization function. Finally, we apply this method to obtain the dielectric constant of bulk water and to study the polarization effects in electric double layer calculations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Characterization of spatial polarization fluctuations in scattered field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Singh, Rakesh; Naik, Dinesh N; Itou, Hitoshi; Miyamoto, Yoko; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    We extend the concept of Poincare vector correlations for the characterization of spatial polarization fluctuations of scattered fields. Spatial (rather than temporal) dynamics of polarization in the scattered field is investigated experimentally by detecting instantaneous polarization with a specially designed polarization interferometer. Use of the Poincare-vector correlation in characterization is demonstrated by determining polarization dynamics of three different cases of scattered fields. This confirms usefulness of the proposed technique in diagnosis of scatterers. Under the condition of spatial ergodicity and Gaussian statistics of the scattered field, we replace the ensemble average of the instantaneous field with the space average, and estimate generalized Stokes parameters (GSPs) of the polarization speckles. Results of GSPs are used to obtain spatial correlation of the Poincare vectors. (paper)

  9. Room-Temperature Magnetic Switching of the Electric Polarization in Ferroelectric Nanopillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Shashi; de Sa, Pedro; Cai, Ronggang; Delannay, Laurent; Nysten, Bernard; Piraux, Luc; Jonas, Alain M

    2018-01-23

    Magnetoelectric layers with a strong coupling between ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism offer attractive opportunities for the design of new device architectures such as dual-channel memory and multiresponsive sensors and actuators. However, materials in which a magnetic field can switch an electric polarization are extremely rare, work most often only at very low temperatures, and/or comprise complex materials difficult to integrate. Here, we show that magnetostriction and flexoelectricity can be harnessed to strongly couple electric polarization and magnetism in a regularly nanopatterned magnetic metal/ferroelectric polymer layer, to the point that full reversal of the electric polarization can occur at room temperature by the sole application of a magnetic field. Experiments supported by finite element simulations demonstrate that magnetostriction produces large strain gradients at the base of the ferroelectric nanopillars in the magnetoelectric hybrid layer, translating by flexoelectricity into equivalent electric fields larger than the coercive field of the ferroelectric polymer. Our study shows that flexoelectricity can be advantageously used to create a very strong magnetoelectric coupling in a nanopatterned hybrid layer.

  10. Residual-Charge Induced Memory Effect of Electric Polarization in Multiferroic CuFe1-xGaxO2 as Seen via Polarized Neutron Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Taro; Mitsuda, Setsuo; Yamazaki, Hiroe; Matsuura, Masato

    2013-02-01

    We have investigated ferroelectric polarization memory effect in a magneto-electric (ME) multiferroic CuFe1-x GaxO2 (CFGO) with x=0.035, which exhibits a spin-driven ferroelectric phase below TC˜ 7 K in zero magnetic field. In a previous study on CFGO(x=0.035), we have reported that the ferroelectric polarization induced by an applied electric field is retrieved after heating the sample to a non-ferroelectric high-temperature phase and then cooling down to the ferroelectric phase without electric field. [Mitsuda et al. Physica B 404 (2009) 2532] By measuring thermally stimulated electric current in detail, the previous study has elucidated that residual charges trapped in the sample are relevant to the memory effect. In the present study, we have performed polarized neutron diffraction measurements on CFGO(x=0.035) with applied electric fields, in order to investigate the multiferroic domain structure, which can reflect spatial distribution of internal electric fields due to the trapped charges. The present results have shown that the effect of the internal electric fields is significantly different from that of the ``uniform'' electric field applied on the first cooling. To explain the present results, we suggest a model that the residual charges are trapped on boundaries between the three types of magnetic domains originating from the trigonal symmetry of the crystal, implying that the presence of the bound charges of the ferroelectric polarization on the domain boundaries is a key to the memory effect in this system.

  11. Polarization singularity anarchy in three dimensional ellipse fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Isaac

    2004-11-01

    Lines of circular polarization, C lines, and lines of linear polarization, L lines, are studied in a computer simulated random three-dimensional ellipse field. Although we verify existing predictions for the location of particular points on these lines at which the sign of the topological index of the line inverts, we show that from the point of view of foliations of the field such points are better described as points of pair production. We find a new set of true sign inversion points, and show that when all possible foliations are considered this set includes all points on the line. We also find three new families of polarization singularities whose members include all polarization ellipses. The recently described polarization singularity democracy in two-dimensional fields evidently explodes into polarization singularity anarchy in three-dimensional fields.

  12. Spin polarization in quantum dots by radiation field with circular polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgakov, E N

    2001-01-01

    For circular quantum dot (QD) with account of the Razhba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) an exact energy spectrum is obtained. For the small SOI constant the Eigen functions of the QD are found. It is shown that application of radiation field with circular polarization lifts the Kramers degeneracy of the Eigen states of the QD. Effective spin polarization of transmitted electrons through the QD by radiation field with circular polarization is demonstrated

  13. Resistance switching induced by electric fields in manganite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villafuerte, M; Juarez, G; Duhalde, S; Golmar, F; Degreef, C L; Heluani, S P

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the polarity-dependent Electric Pulses Induced Resistive (EPIR) switching phenomenon in thin films driven by electric pulses. Thin films of 0.5 Ca 0.5 MnO 3 (manganite) were deposited by PLD on Si substrate. The transport properties at the interface between the film and metallic electrode are characterized in order to study the resistance switching. Sample thermal treatment and electrical field history are important to be considered for get reproducible EPIR effect. Carriers trapping at the interfaces are considered as a possible explanation of our results

  14. Relationships between the Birkeland currents, ionospheric currents, and electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleuler, E.; Li, C.H.; Nisbet, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Calculations are made of the currents and electric fields in the ionosphere by using a global model of the electron densities including conjugate coupling along field lines. Incoherent scatter and rocket measurements of high-latitude electron densities have been used to derive realistic variations of the polar conductivities as a function of magnetic activity. The Birkeland currents have been specified in terms of three indices, the total current into and out of the hemisphere, the ratio of the magnitudes of the currents in the AM and PM sectors, R/sub ap/ , and R 12 , the ratio of the magnitudes of the currents in region 1 and 2. The relationship between these parameters of the Birkeland current systems and the auroral electrojet indices AE, AL, and AU is examined as well as the polar cap potential and the electric field at lower latitudes. The cusp currents have been modeled in relation to the interplanetary magnetic field and calculations are given of their effect on electric field and current patterns. One aim of this study is to produce a mathematical model of the currents, electric fields and energy inputs produced by field aligned currents that is consistent with, and specifiable in terms of, measured geophysical indices

  15. Electropumping of water with rotating electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Sergio; Todd, B D; Hansen, J S; Daivis, Peter J

    2013-04-21

    Pumping of fluids confined to nanometer dimension spaces is a technically challenging yet vitally important technological application with far reaching consequences for lab-on-a-chip devices, biomimetic nanoscale reactors, nanoscale filtration devices and the like. All current pumping mechanisms require some sort of direct intrusion into the nanofluidic system, and involve mechanical or electronic components. In this paper, we present the first nonequilibrium molecular dynamics results to demonstrate that non-intrusive electropumping of liquid water on the nanoscale can be performed by subtly exploiting the coupling of spin angular momentum to linear streaming momentum. A spatially uniform rotating electric field is applied to water molecules, which couples to their permanent electric dipole moments. The resulting molecular rotational momentum is converted into linear streaming momentum of the fluid. By selectively tuning the degree of hydrophobicity of the solid walls one can generate a net unidirectional flow. Our results for the linear streaming and angular velocities of the confined water are in general agreement with the extended hydrodynamical theory for this process, though also suggest refinements to the theory are required. These numerical experiments confirm that this new concept for pumping of polar nanofluids can be employed under laboratory conditions, opening up significant new technological possibilities.

  16. An Electric Field Test Using the MRI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, P.; Bartušek, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 7 (2008), s. 701-705 ISSN 1931-7360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : MRI * electric field * numerical modeling Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  17. Effects of electric field and magnetic induction on spin injection into organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.M.; Ren, J.F.; Yuan, X.B.; Dou, Z.T.; Hu, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Spin-polarized injection and transport into ferromagnetic/organic semiconductor structure are studied theoretically in the presence of the external electric field and magnetic induction. Based on the spin-drift-diffusion theory and Ohm's law, we obtain the charge current polarization, which takes into account the special carriers of organic semiconductors. From the calculation, it is found that the current spin polarization is enhanced by several orders of magnitude by tuning the magnetic induction and electric fields. To get an apparent current spin polarization, the effects of spin-depended interfacial resistances and the special carriers in the organic semiconductor, which are polarons and bipolarons, are also discussed. -- Research highlights: → Current polarization in ferromagnetic/organic semiconductor structure is obtained. → Calculations are based on spin-drift-diffusion theory and Ohm's law. → Current polarization is enhanced by tuning magnetic induction and electric fields. → Effects of interfacial resistances and the special carriers are also discussed.

  18. Electric fields in plasmas under pulsed currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsigutkin, K.; Doron, R.; Stambulchik, E.; Bernshtam, V.; Maron, Y.; Fruchtman, A.; Commisso, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Electric fields in a plasma that conducts a high-current pulse are measured as a function of time and space. The experiment is performed using a coaxial configuration, in which a current rising to 160 kA in 100 ns is conducted through a plasma that prefills the region between two coaxial electrodes. The electric field is determined using laser spectroscopy and line-shape analysis. Plasma doping allows for three-dimensional spatially resolved measurements. The measured peak magnitude and propagation velocity of the electric field is found to match those of the Hall electric field, inferred from the magnetic-field front propagation measured previously

  19. Electric polarization switching in an atomically thin binary rock salt structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Castro, Jose; Piantek, Marten; Schubert, Sonja; Persson, Mats; Serrate, David; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.

    2018-01-01

    Inducing and controlling electric dipoles is hindered in the ultrathin limit by the finite screening length of surface charges at metal-insulator junctions1-3, although this effect can be circumvented by specially designed interfaces4. Heterostructures of insulating materials hold great promise, as confirmed by perovskite oxide superlattices with compositional substitution to artificially break the structural inversion symmetry5-8. Bringing this concept to the ultrathin limit would substantially broaden the range of materials and functionalities that could be exploited in novel nanoscale device designs. Here, we report that non-zero electric polarization can be induced and reversed in a hysteretic manner in bilayers made of ultrathin insulators whose electric polarization cannot be switched individually. In particular, we explore the interface between ionic rock salt alkali halides such as NaCl or KBr and polar insulating Cu2N terminating bulk copper. The strong compositional asymmetry between the polar Cu2N and the vacuum gap breaks inversion symmetry in the alkali halide layer, inducing out-of-plane dipoles that are stabilized in one orientation (self-poling). The dipole orientation can be reversed by a critical electric field, producing sharp switching of the tunnel current passing through the junction.

  20. Two devices for atmospheric electric field measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombet, Andre; Hubert, Pierre.

    1977-02-01

    Two instruments installed at St Privat d'Allier for electric field measurement in connection with the rocket triggered lighting experiment program are described. The first one is a radioactive probe electrometer used as a warning device. The second is a field mill used for tape recording of electric field variation during the triggering events. Typical examples of such records are given [fr

  1. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fu; S. Huang; M. Zhou; B. Ni; X. Deng

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplit...

  2. Field-scale electrical geophysics over an olive oil mill waste deposition site: Evaluating the information content of resistivity versus induced polarization (IP) images for delineating the spatial extent of organic contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Robinson, Judith; Soupios, Pantelis; Slater, Lee

    2016-12-01

    We performed 2D resistivity and IP measurements over a known olive oil mill waste plume at a site in western Crete, Greece. The objectives of the survey were: (1) to determine whether IP is more diagnostic in delineating the spatial extent of the plume relative to resistivity measurements alone; (2) to evaluate whether the additional information content obtained from IP is worth the effort given longer data acquisition times and higher measurement errors that inevitably characterize field IP data acquisition. Complex conductivity inversion of the field IP dataset revealed that the organic plume is characterized as a region of high electrical conductivity (real part of complex conductivity) consistent with the conceptual model for the electrical structure of a biodegraded LNAPL contaminant plume. The plume is also characterized by a region of high polarizability (imaginary part of complex conductivity) that is more localized to the known plume location (based on conventional monitoring) relative to the high conductivity region in the electrical conductivity image. This observation is attributed to the fact that electrical conductivity is more strongly controlled by hydrogeological and geological characteristics of the site that mask the response from the biodegraded plume. This result encourages the use of field IP to improve the spatial delineation of organic contamination in the subsurface. However, more laborious field procedures are required to acquire reliable field IP data and the inversion of field IP data remains more challenging than resistivity data alone.

  3. Electrical signature in polar night cloud base variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R Giles; Ambaum, Maarten H P

    2013-01-01

    Layer clouds are globally extensive. Their lower edges are charged negatively by the fair weather atmospheric electricity current flowing vertically through them. Using polar winter surface meteorological data from Sodankylä (Finland) and Halley (Antarctica), we find that when meteorological diurnal variations are weak, an appreciable diurnal cycle, on average, persists in the cloud base heights, detected using a laser ceilometer. The diurnal cloud base heights from both sites correlate more closely with the Carnegie curve of global atmospheric electricity than with local meteorological measurements. The cloud base sensitivities are indistinguishable between the northern and southern hemispheres, averaging a (4.0 ± 0.5) m rise for a 1% change in the fair weather electric current density. This suggests that the global fair weather current, which is affected by space weather, cosmic rays and the El Niño Southern Oscillation, is linked with layer cloud properties. (letter)

  4. Electric field control photo-induced Hall currents in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au

    2008-10-15

    We generate spin-polarized carrier populations in GaAs and low temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAs) by circularly polarized optical beams and pull them by external electric fields to create spin-polarized currents. In the presence of the optically generated spin currents, anomalous Hall currents with an enhancement with increasing doping are observed and found to be almost steady in moderate electric fields up to {approx}120 mV {mu}m{sup -1}, indicating that photo-induced spin orientation of electrons is preserved in these systems. However, a field {approx}300 mV {mu}m{sup -1} completely destroys the electron spin polarization due to an increase of the D'yakonov-Perel' spin precession frequency of the hot electrons. This suggests that high field carrier transport conditions might not be suitable for spin-based technology with GaAs and LT-GaAs. It is also demonstrated that the presence of the excess arsenic sites in LT-GaAs might not affect the spin relaxation by Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism owing to a large number of electrons in n-doped materials.

  5. Influence of magnetic field on the electrical breakdown characteristics in cylindrical diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shouzhe; Uhm, Han S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of magnetic field on the electrical breakdown properties is investigated by applying a magnetic field along the longitudinal direction in a cylindrical diode for two electrical polarities. Breakdown characteristics in a crossed magnetic field are analyzed with the equivalentreduced-electric-field concept and Townsend criterion. The discharge experiment at reduced pressure is carried out in the moderate magnetic field. Experimental investigation is concentrated on the magnetic dependent behavior of the electrical breakdown in the lower pressure side of Paschen's minimum. It is found that the electrical breakdown characteristics with respect to the magnetic field depend on electrical polarity of the cylindrical diode, which is interpreted by taking the gyromotion of the individual electrons in the diode into accounts under the moderate magnetic field in the lower pressure side of Paschen's minimum

  6. Fast electric field waveforms and near-surface electric field images of lightning discharges detected on Mt. Aragats in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Khanikyants, Y.; Kozliner, L.; Soghomonyan, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the observational data on fast electric waveforms that are detected at 3200 m altitudes above sea level on Mt. Aragats in Armenia during thunderstorms. We analyse the relations of these forms with count rates of particle flux (during Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements -TGEs); to the slow disturbance of the near-surface electrostatic field; and to the lightning location data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). An observed negative lightning that decreases a negative charge overhead often abruptly terminates TGEs. By analysing the recorded fast electric field waveforms and comparing them with similar classified waveforms reported previously, we could identify the type and polarity of the observed lightnings. (author)

  7. Mutagenic Potential of Alternating Current Electric Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obringer, John

    1997-01-01

    .... EMF can be subdivided into either electric fields (E-field) or magnetic fields (B-field). Our research used a reverse mutagenesis bacteriophage T4D model to quantitatively study the effects of E-fields on a molecular genetic level...

  8. Hydrogen and helium exposed to an attosecond electric field pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleiman, Ulrich; Rost, Jan-Michael [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik Komplexer Systeme, Dresden (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The characteristics of excitation and ionization of atoms exposed to very short electric field pulses are different from what is known from the long pulse and continuous wave regimes. We investigate the effect of a linearly polarized short electric field pulse of 1-5 cycles applied to hydrogen and collinear helium quantum mechanically by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation by means of the split-operator fast Fourier transform method. After a few modifications, one can handle the singularities of the Coulomb potential and the electron-electron interaction term. Stimulated by a recent theoretical study of the hydrogen ground state based on the discrete variable representation, we shall check whether or not the initial states of hydrogen and, more interesting, collinear helium can be fully restored by using two alternating linearly polarized one-cycle pulses.

  9. Ultra-broadband carpet cloak for transverse-electric polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ye; Xu, Su; Zhang, Runren; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Hua; Gao, Fei; Yu, Faxin; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Magnetism is a necessity in constructing macroscopic metamaterial invisibility cloaks that are theoretically designed by transformation optics, but will generally limit the cloaking bandwidth to an impractically narrow range. To meet the broad bandwidth demand, magnetism has been fully abandoned in previous demonstrations of macroscopic carpet cloaking, whose approach, however, cannot apply to a transverse-electric (TE) polarization. To fill this gap, here we experimentally demonstrate an ultra-broadband magnetic carpet cloak for the TE polarization. The cloak is made of non-resonant closed-ring metamaterials with little dispersion and the cloaking performance is confirmed with both time-domain simulation and frequency scanning measurement over a broad bandwidth corresponding to a pulse signal illumination.

  10. Radial electric fields for improved tokamak performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downum, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of externally-imposed radial electric fields on the fusion energy output, energy multiplication, and alpha-particle ash build-up in a TFTR-sized, fusing tokamak plasma is explored. In an idealized tokamak plasma, an externally-imposed radial electric field leads to plasma rotation, but no charge current flows across the magnetic fields. However, a realistically-low neutral density profile generates a non-zero cross-field conductivity and the species dependence of this conductivity allows the electric field to selectively alter radial particle transport

  11. Electric Field in Materials, Containing Conductive Nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Kornyushin, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    Concentrated electric field and its energy in materials, containing nanofibers, are discussed. It is shown that the electric field in the vicinity of the end of a fiber is proportional to the external applied field and to the fiber length, whilst it is inversely proportional to the fiber diameter. Specific electrostatic energy of a fiber in a sample under the action of external applied field is calculated. This energy appears to be negative and proportional to the ratio of the fiber length to...

  12. Rotating artificial gauge magnetic and electric fields

    OpenAIRE

    Lembessis, V. E.; Alqarni, A.; Alshamari, S.; Siddig, A.; Aldossary, O. M.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the creation of artificial gauge magnetic and electric fields created when a two-level atom interacts with an optical Ferris wheel light field.These fields have the spatial structure of the optical Ferris wheel field intensity profile. If this optical field pattern is made to rotate in space then we have the creation of artificial electromagnetic fields which propagate in closed paths. The properties of such fields are presented and discussed

  13. Polarization dependent switching of asymmetric nanorings with a circular field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar R. Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigated the switching from onion to vortex states in asymmetric cobalt nanorings by an applied circular field. An in-plane field is applied along the symmetric or asymmetric axis of the ring to establish domain walls (DWs with symmetric or asymmetric polarization. A circular field is then applied to switch from the onion state to the vortex state, moving the DWs in the process. The asymmetry of the ring leads to different switching fields depending on the location of the DWs and direction of applied field. For polarization along the asymmetric axis, the field required to move the DWs to the narrow side of the ring is smaller than the field required to move the DWs to the larger side of the ring. For polarization along the symmetric axis, establishing one DW in the narrow side and one on the wide side, the field required to switch to the vortex state is an intermediate value.

  14. Electric field control of emergent electrodynamics in quantum spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantagne-Hurtubise, Étienne; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Moessner, R.

    2017-09-01

    We study the coupling between conventional (Maxwell) and emergent electrodynamics in quantum spin ice, a 3+1-dimensional U (1 ) quantum spin liquid. We find that a uniform electric field can be used to tune the properties of both the ground state and excitations of the spin liquid. In particular, it induces emergent birefringence, rendering the speed of the emergent light anisotropic and polarization-dependent. A sufficiently strong electric field triggers a quantum phase transition into new U (1 ) quantum spin liquid phases, which trap emergent electric π fluxes. The flux patterns of these new phases depend on the direction of the electric field. Strikingly, some of the canonical pinch points in the spin structure factor, characteristic of classical spin ice, emerge near the phase transition, while they are absent in the quantum spin liquid phases. Estimating the electric field strength required, we find that this transition is potentially accessible experimentally. Finally, we propose a minimal mechanism by which an oscillating electric field can generate emergent radiation inside a quantum spin ice material with non-Kramers spin doublets.

  15. Pulsed electric field inactivation in a microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a novel, non-thermal pasteurization method which uses short, high electric field pulses to inactivate microorganisms. The advantage of a pasteurization method like PEF compared to regular heat pasteurization is that the taste, flavour, texture and nutritional value

  16. Classical theory of electric and magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Roland H

    1971-01-01

    Classical Theory of Electric and Magnetic Fields is a textbook on the principles of electricity and magnetism. This book discusses mathematical techniques, calculations, with examples of physical reasoning, that are generally applied in theoretical physics. This text reviews the classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, Maxwell's Equations, Lorentz Force, and Faraday's Law of Induction. The book also focuses on electrostatics and the general methods for solving electrostatic problems concerning images, inversion, complex variable, or separation of variables. The text also explains ma

  17. Analytic Calculation of Radio Emission from Extensive Air Showers subjected to Atmospheric Electric Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olaf; Trinh, Gia; de Vries, Krijn D.; van Sloten, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a code that semi-analytically calculates the radio footprint (intensity and polarization) of an extensive air shower subject to atmospheric electric fields. This can be used to reconstruct the height dependence of atmospheric electric field from the measured radio footprint. The

  18. The convection electric field in auroral substorms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) electric field and ion drift data are used in a statistical study of the ionospheric convection electric field in bulge-type auroral substorms. Thirty-one individual DE 2 substorm crossings were carefully selected and organized by the use of global auroral images obtained...... this database enabled us to compile a model of the ionospheric convection electric field. The characteristics of the premidnight convection reversal show a pronounced local time dependency. Far west of the surge it is a fairly well defined point reversal or convection shear. Approaching the surge and within...... the surge it is a region of weak electric fields increasing in width toward midnight that separates regions of equatorward and poleward electric fields. Therefore we adopt the term Harang region rather than the Harang discontinuity for the premidnight convection reversal. A relatively narrow convection...

  19. Analysis of the temporal electric fields in lossy dielectric media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1991-01-01

    The time-dependent electric fields associated with lossy dielectric media are examined. The analysis illustrates that, with respect to the basic time constant, these lossy media can take a considerable time to attain a steady-state condition. Time-dependent field enhancement factors are considered......, and inherent surface-charge densities quantified. The calculation of electrostatic forces on a free, lossy dielectric particle is illustrated. An extension to the basic analysis demonstrates that, on reversal of polarity, the resultant tangential field at the interface could play a decisive role...

  20. Electric field mapping and auroral Birkeland currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.L.; Larson, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic field lines, electric fields and equipotentials have been mapped throughout the magnetosphere in the vicinity of strong Birkeland currents. It was found that a uniform electric field at either the ionospheric or the equatorial end of a field line can map to a highly structured field at the other end if strong Birkeland currents are located nearby. The initiation of sheet currents of the region 1 - region 2 scale size and intensity resulted in magnetic field line displacements of about 1/2 hour in local time between equatorial and ionospheric end points. As a result, a uniform dawn to dusk electric field at the equator mapped to an ionospheric electric field with strong inward pointing components in the dusk hemisphere. Similar distortions were produced by Birkeland currents associated with narrow east-west-aligned auroral arcs. A specific model for the auroral current system, based on ionospheric measurements during a large substorm, was used to study effects seen during disturbed periods. An iterative procedure was developed to generate a self-consistent current system even in the presence of highly twisted field lines. The measured ionospheric electric field was projected tot he equatorial plane in the presence of the model Birkeland current system. Several physical processes were seen to influence ionospheric and equatorial electric fields, and the associated plasma convection, during a substorm

  1. Electrical Initialization of Electron and Nuclear Spins in a Single Quantum Dot at Zero Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadiz, Fabian; Djeffal, Abdelhak; Lagarde, Delphine; Balocchi, Andrea; Tao, Bingshan; Xu, Bo; Liang, Shiheng; Stoffel, Mathieu; Devaux, Xavier; Jaffres, Henri; George, Jean-Marie; Hehn, Michel; Mangin, Stephane; Carrere, Helene; Marie, Xavier; Amand, Thierry; Han, Xiufeng; Wang, Zhanguo; Urbaszek, Bernhard; Lu, Yuan; Renucci, Pierre

    2018-04-11

    The emission of circularly polarized light from a single quantum dot relies on the injection of carriers with well-defined spin polarization. Here we demonstrate single dot electroluminescence (EL) with a circular polarization degree up to 35% at zero applied magnetic field. The injection of spin-polarized electrons is achieved by combining ultrathin CoFeB electrodes on top of a spin-LED device with p-type InGaAs quantum dots in the active region. We measure an Overhauser shift of several microelectronvolts at zero magnetic field for the positively charged exciton (trion X + ) EL emission, which changes sign as we reverse the injected electron spin orientation. This is a signature of dynamic polarization of the nuclear spins in the quantum dot induced by the hyperfine interaction with the electrically injected electron spin. This study paves the way for electrical control of nuclear spin polarization in a single quantum dot without any external magnetic field.

  2. Electric Field Generation in Martian Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Erika L.; Farrell, William M.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial dust devils are known to generate electric fields from the vertical separation of charged dust particles. The particles present within the dust devils on Mars may also be subject to similar charging processes and so likely contribute to electric field generation there as well. However, to date, no Marsin situ instrumentation has been deployed to measure electric field strength. In order to explore the electric environment of dust devils on Mars, the triboelectric dust charging physics from the MacroscopicTriboelectric Simulation (MTS) code has been coupled to the Mars Regional Atmospheric ModelingSystem (MRAMS). Using this model, we examine how macroscopic electric fields are generated within martian dust disturbances and attempt to quantify the time evolution of the electrodynamical system.Electric fields peak for several minutes within the dust devil simulations. The magnitude of the electric field is a strong function of the size of the particles present, the average charge on the particles and the number of particles lifted. Varying these parameters results in peak electric fields between tens of millivolts per meter and tens of kilovolts per meter.

  3. Electroinduction disk sensor of electric field strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukov, S. V.; Korolyova, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of the level of electric fields exposure to the technical and biological objects for a long time is an urgent task. To solve this problem, the required electric field sensors with specified metrological characteristics. The aim of the study is the establishment of theoretical assumptions for the calculation of the flat electric field sensors. It is proved that the accuracy of the sensor does not exceed 3% in the spatial range 0source field that allows you to design better quality sensors used in different measuring systems of wide application.

  4. Evidence that polar cap arcs occur on open field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Hardy, D.A.; Rich, F.J.; Mullen, E.G.; Redus, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of polar cap arc occurrence are reviewed to show that the assumption of a closed magnetospheric magnetic field topology at very high latitudes when the IMF B z is strongly northward is difficult to reconcile with a wide variety of observational and theoretical considerations. In particular, we consider the implications of observations of particle entry for high and low energy electrons, magnetic flux conservation between the near and far tail, the time sequencing in polar cap arcs events, and the hemispherical differences in polar cap arc observations. These points can be explained either by excluding the need for a major topological magnetic field change from explanations of polar cap arc dynamics, or by assuming a long-tailed magnetosphere for all IMF orientations in which magnetic field lines eventually merge with solar wind field lines in either a smooth or a patchy fashion. (author)

  5. Experimental study of time response of bending deformation of bone cantilevers in an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Huimin; Hou, Zhende; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Bone is a complex composite material with hierarchical structures and anisotropic mechanical properties. Bone also processes electromechanical properties, such as piezoelectricity and streaming potentials, which termed as stress generated potentials. Furthermore, the electrostrictive effect and flexoelectric effect can also affect electromechanical properties of the bone. In the present work, time responses of bending deflections of bone cantilever in an external electric field are measured experimentally to investigate bone's electromechanical behavior. It is found that, when subjected to a square waveform electric field, a bone cantilever specimen begins to bend and its deflection increases gradually to a peak value. Then, the deflection begins to decrease gradually during the period of constant voltage. To analyze the reasons of the bending response of bone, additional experiments were performed. Experimental results obtained show the following two features. The first one is that the electric polarization, induced in bone by an electric field, is due to the Maxwell-Wagner polarization mechanism that the polarization rate is relatively slow, which leads to the electric field force acted on a bone specimen increase gradually and then its bending deflections increase gradually. The second one is that the flexoelectric polarization effect that resists the electric force to decrease and then leads to the bending deflection of a bone cantilever decrease gradually. It is concluded that the first aspect refers to the organic collagens decreasing the electric polarization rate of the bone, and the second one to the inorganic component influencing the bone's polarization intensity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Nanomechanical electric and electromagnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datskos, Panagiotis George; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a system for detecting and analyzing at least one of an electric field and an electromagnetic field. The system includes a micro/nanomechanical oscillator which oscillates in the presence of at least one of the electric field and the electromagnetic field. The micro/nanomechanical oscillator includes a dense array of cantilevers mounted to a substrate. A charge localized on a tip of each cantilever interacts with and oscillates in the presence of the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a subsystem for recording the movement of the cantilever to extract information from the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a means of adjusting a stiffness of the cantilever to heterodyne tune an operating frequency of the system over a frequency range.

  7. Electric field effect in superconductor-ferroelectric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemanov, V. V.

    1995-01-01

    Electric field effect (the E-effect) in superconductors has been studied since 1960 when Glover and Sherill published their results on a shift of the critical temperature T(sub c) about 0.1 mK in Sn and In thin films under the action Off the field E=300 kV/cm. Stadler was the first to study the effect or spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric substrate on the electric properties of superconductors. He observed that the reversal of polarization of TGS substrate under action of external electric field in Sn-TGS structures induced the T(sub c) shift in Sn about 1.3 mK. Since in this case the effect is determined not by the electric field but by the spontaneous polarization, we may call this effect the P-effect. High-T(sub c) superconductors opened the new possibilities to study the E- and P-effects due to low charge carrier density, as compared to conventional superconductors, and to anomalously small coherence length. Experiments in this field began in many laboratories but a breakthrough was made where a shift in T(sub c) by 50 mK was observed in YBCO thin films. Much higher effects were observed in subsequent studies. The first experiments on the P-effect in high-T(sub c) superconductors were reported elsewhere. In this report we shall give a short description of study on the P-effect in high-T(sub c) superconductors.

  8. Seasonal dependence of high-latitude electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Beaujardiere, O.; Leger, C.; Alcayde, D.; Fontanari, J.

    1991-01-01

    The seasonal dependence of the high-latitude electric field was investigated using Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar data. Average ExB drifts were derived from 5 years of measurements centered around solar minimum. The electrostatic potentials that best fit the observed average electric field were calculated. It was found that the large-scale convection pattern significantly changes with season. This change involves the overall shape of the convection pattern, as well as the electric field intensity, and thus the total dawn-dusk potential across the polar cap. The cross polar cap potential drop is largest in fall, followed by winter, spring and summer. The small difference found between the summer and winter cross polar cap potential can be attributed to differing field-aligned potential drops. In view of the well-known relationship between field-aligned currents and parallel potential drop, this is consistent with the observations that Birkeland currents are larger in the summer than in winter. Changes in the overall shape of the convection pattern are consistent with the simple notion that the whole pattern is shifted toward the nightside as well as, to a lesser extent, toward the dawnside in summer as compared to winter. This assumption is based on the following observed effects: (1) The rotation of the overall convection pattern toward earlier local times with respect to the noon-midnight direction is maximum for summer on the dayside. (2) On the nightside, the Harang discontinuity is typically located within the radar field of view (Λ=67 to 82) in the winter averaged patterns, but it is equatorward of the field of view in summer. (3) The line that joins the dawn and dusk potential maxima is shifted toward the midnight sector in summer as compared to winter by about 5 degree. (4) In the dawn cell, the latitude of the convection reversal is the lowest during summer; in the dusk cell the latitude of the reversal is the lowest during winter

  9. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ELECTRIC AND GASOLINE-POWERED VEHICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Measurements were conducted to investigate electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from 120 Hz to 10 kHz and 1.2 to 100 kHz in 9 electric or hybrid vehicles and 4 gasoline vehicles, all while being driven. The range of fields in the electric vehicles enclosed the range observed in the gasoline vehicles. Mean magnetic fields ranged from nominally 0.6 to 3.5 µT for electric/hybrids depending on the measurement band compared with nominally 0.4 to 0.6 µT for gasoline vehicles. Mean values of electric fields ranged from nominally 2 to 3 V m -1 for electric/hybrid vehicles depending on the band, compared with 0.9 to 3 V m -1 for gasoline vehicles. In all cases, the fields were well within published exposure limits for the general population. The measurements were performed with Narda model EHP-50C/EHP-50D EMF analysers that revealed the presence of spurious signals in the EHP-50C unit, which were resolved with the EHP-50D model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Probing electric field control of magnetism using ferromagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Trassin, Morgan; Gao, Ya; Gao, Yuan; Qiu, Diana; Ashraf, Khalid; Nan, Tianxiang; Yang, Xi; Bowden, S. R.; Pierce, D. T.; Stiles, M. D.; Unguris, J.; Liu, Ming; Howe, Brandon M.; Brown, Gail J.; Salahuddin, S.; Ramesh, R.; Sun, Nian X.

    2015-01-01

    Exchange coupled CoFe/BiFeO3 thin-film heterostructures show great promise for power-efficient electric field-induced 180° magnetization switching. However, the coupling mechanism and precise qualification of the exchange coupling in CoFe/BiFeO3 heterostructures have been elusive. Here we show direct evidence for electric field control of the magnetic state in exchange coupled CoFe/BiFeO3 through electric field-dependent ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and nanoscale spatially resolved magnetic imaging. Scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis images reveal the coupling of the magnetization in the CoFe layer to the canted moment in the BiFeO3 layer. Electric field-dependent ferromagnetic resonance measurements quantify the exchange coupling strength and reveal that the CoFe magnetization is directly and reversibly modulated by the applied electric field through a ~180° switching of the canted moment in BiFeO3. This constitutes an important step towards robust repeatable and non-volatile voltage-induced 180° magnetization switching in thin-film multiferroic heterostructures and tunable RF/microwave devices.

  11. ESTIMATING ELECTRIC FIELDS FROM VECTOR MAGNETOGRAM SEQUENCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, G. H.; Welsch, B. T.; Abbett, W. P.; Bercik, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the electric field distribution on the Sun's photosphere is essential for quantitative studies of how energy flows from the Sun's photosphere, through the corona, and into the heliosphere. This electric field also provides valuable input for data-driven models of the solar atmosphere and the Sun-Earth system. We show how observed vector magnetogram time series can be used to estimate the photospheric electric field. Our method uses a 'poloidal-toroidal decomposition' (PTD) of the time derivative of the vector magnetic field. These solutions provide an electric field whose curl obeys all three components of Faraday's Law. The PTD solutions are not unique; the gradient of a scalar potential can be added to the PTD electric field without affecting consistency with Faraday's Law. We then present an iterative technique to determine a potential function consistent with ideal MHD evolution; but this field is also not a unique solution to Faraday's Law. Finally, we explore a variational approach that minimizes an energy functional to determine a unique electric field, a generalization of Longcope's 'Minimum Energy Fit'. The PTD technique, the iterative technique, and the variational technique are used to estimate electric fields from a pair of synthetic vector magnetograms taken from an MHD simulation; and these fields are compared with the simulation's known electric fields. The PTD and iteration techniques compare favorably to results from existing velocity inversion techniques. These three techniques are then applied to a pair of vector magnetograms of solar active region NOAA AR8210, to demonstrate the methods with real data. Careful examination of the results from all three methods indicates that evolution of the magnetic vector by itself does not provide enough information to determine the true electric field in the photosphere. Either more information from other measurements, or physical constraints other than those considered here are necessary to find

  12. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Dynamic Applications: 2017 Research Award Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Ed

    2017-01-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field may be used for illuminating volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e- Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Critical design elements of current linear and real-time two-dimensional (2D) measurement systems are highlighted, and the development of a three dimensional (3D) EFI system is presented. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. Recent work demonstrates that phonons may be used to create and annihilate electric dipoles within structures. Phonon induced dipoles are ephemeral and their polarization, strength, and location may be quantitatively characterized by EFI providing a new subsurface Phonon-EFI imaging technology. Initial results from real-time imaging of combustion and ion flow, and their measurement complications, will be discussed. These new EFI capabilities are demonstrated to characterize electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, combustion science, on-orbit space potential, container inspection, remote characterization of electronic circuits and level of activation, dielectric morphology of structures, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, atmospheric science, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  13. Vacuum instability in a random electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Pastur, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction of the vacuum on an intense spatially homogeneous random electric field is investigated. It is shown that a stochastic electric field always causes a breakdown of the boson vacuum, and the number of pairs of particles which are created by the electric field increases exponentially in time. For the choice of potential field in the form of a dichotomic random process we find in explicit form the dependence of the average number of pairs of particles on the time of the action of the source of the stochastic field. For the fermion vacuum the average number of pairs of particles which are created by the field in the lowest order of perturbation theory in the amplitude of the random field is independent of time

  14. Numerical Study of Electric Field Enhanced Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie

    2016-12-26

    Electric fields can be used to change and control flame properties, for example changing flame speed, enhancing flame stability, or reducing pollutant emission. The ions generated in flames are believed to play the primary role. Although experiments have been carried out to study electric field enhanced combustion, they are not sufficient to explain how the ions in a flame are affected by an electric field. It is therefore necessary to investigate the problem through numerical simulations. In the present work, the electric structure of stabilized CH4/air premixed flames at atmospheric pressure within a direct current field is studied using numerical simulations. This study consists of three parts. First, the transport equations are derived from the Boltzmann kinetic equation for each individual species. Second, a general method for computing the diffusivity and mobility of ions in a gas mixture is introduced. Third, the mechanisms for neutral and charged species are improved to give better predictions of the concentrations of charged species, based on experimental data. Following from this, comprehensive numerical results are presented, including the concentrations and fluxes of charged species, the distributions of the electric field and electric potential, and the electric current-voltage relation. Two new concepts introduced with the numerical results are the plasma sheath and dead zone in the premixed flame. A reactive plasma sheath and a Boltzmann relation sheath are discovered in the region near the electrodes. The plasma sheath penetrates into the flame gas when a voltage is applied, and penetrating further if the voltage is higher. The zone outside the region of sheath penetration is defined as the dead zone. With the two concepts, analytical solutions for the electric field, electric potential and current-voltage curve are derived. The solutions directly describe the electric structure of a premixed flame subject to a DC field. These analytical solutions

  15. Effects of a low-voltage static electric field on energy metabolism in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R; Peng, L; Hertz, L

    1997-01-01

    Mouse astrocytes (glial cells) in primary cultures were exposed to a low-voltage static DC electric field with no current flow and thus with no generation of magnetic fields. The electric field altered the rate of glycolysis, measured by 2-deoxyglucose accumulation. The magnitude and direction of this effect depended on the polarization of the field and the applied voltage. The maximum effect was an increase of approximately 30%, which occurred with field across the cells at an intensity that can be calculated to be 0.3 mV/cm or less. Reversal of the polarization converted the stimulation to a small but statistically significant inhibition.

  16. Optical properties of an elliptic quantum ring: Eccentricity and electric field effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Doina; Stan, Cristina; Niculescu, Ecaterina C.

    2018-04-01

    We have theoretically studied the electronic and optical properties of a GaAs/AlGaAs elliptic quantum ring under in-plane electric field. The effects of an eccentric internal barrier -placed along the electric field direction, chosen as x-axis- and incident light polarization are particularly taken into account. The one-electron energy spectrum and wave functions are found using the adiabatic approximation and the finite element method within the effective-mass model. We show that it is possible to repair the structural distortion by applying an appropriate in-plane electric field, and the compensation is almost complete for all electronic states under study. For both concentric and eccentric quantum ring the intraband optical properties are very sensitive to the electric field and probe laser polarization. As expected, in the systems with eccentricity distortions the energy spectrum, as well as the optical response, strongly depends on the direction of the externally applied electric field, an effect that can be used as a signature of ring eccentricity. We demonstrated the possibility of generating second harmonic response at double resonance condition for incident light polarized along the x-axis if the electric field or/and eccentric barrier break the inversion symmetry. Also, strong third harmonic signal can be generated at triple resonance condition for a specific interval of electric field values when using y-polarized light.

  17. Role of Cortical Cell Type and Morphology in Sub- and Suprathreshold Uniform Electric Field Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radman, Thomas; Ramos, Raddy L; Brumberg, Joshua C; Bikson, Marom

    2009-01-01

    Background The neocortex is the most common target of sub-dural electrotherapy and non-invasive brain stimulation modalities including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current simulation (TCS). Specific neuronal elements targeted by cortical stimulation are considered to underlie therapeutic effects, but the exact cell-type(s) affected by these methods remains poorly understood. Objective We determined if neuronal morphology or cell type predicted responses to sub- and suprathreshold uniform electric fields. Methods We characterized the effects of sub- and supra-threshold electrical stimulation on identified cortical neurons in vitro. Uniform electric fields were applied to rat motor cortex brain slices, while recording from interneurons and pyramidal cells across cortical layers, using whole cell patch clamp. Neuron morphology was reconstructed following intracellular dialysis of biocytin. Based solely on volume-weighted morphology, we developed a parsimonious model of neuronal soma polarization by sub-threshold electric fields. Results We found that neuronal morphology correlated with somatic sub-threshold polarization. Based on neuronal morphology, we predict layer V pyramidal neuronal soma to be the most sensitive to polarization by optimally oriented sub-threshold fields. Supra-threshold electric field action potential threshold was shown to reflect both direct cell polarization and synaptic (network) activation. Layer V/VI neuron absolute electric field action potential thresholds were lower than Layer II/III pyramidal neurons and interneurons. Compared to somatic current injection, electric fields promoted burst firing and modulated action potential firing times. PMID:20161507

  18. Vacuum polarization in Coulomb field revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamastil, J., E-mail: zamastil@karlov.mff.cuni.cz; Šimsa, D.

    2017-04-15

    Simplified derivation of Wichmann–Kroll term is presented. The derivation uses two formulas for hypergeometric functions, but otherwise is elementary. It is found that Laplace transform of the vacuum charge density diverges at zero momentum transfer. This divergence has nothing to do with known ultraviolet divergence. The latter is related to the large momentum behavior of the pertinent integral, while the former to the small momentum behavior. When these divergences are removed, the energy shift caused by vacuum polarization for an ordinary hydrogen obtained here is in an exact agreement with the result obtained by Wichmann and Kroll. Also, for muonic hydrogen the result obtained here reasonably agrees with that given in literature.

  19. Electropumping of water with rotating electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; De Luca, Sergio; Todd, Billy

    2013-01-01

    exploiting the coupling of spin angular momentum to linear streaming momentum. A spatially uniform rotating electric field is applied to water molecules, which couples to their permanent electric dipole moments. The resulting molecular rotational momentum is converted into linear streaming momentum...

  20. Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.

    Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous

  1. Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous

  2. ICE PLASMA WAVE ELECTRIC FIELD MEASUREMENT DATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Plasma Wave Data were submitted to National Space Science Data Center after the Principal Investigator's death (Scarf) by S. Chang of TRW. For the electric field...

  3. Axial Field Electric Motor and Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cho, Chahee P

    2007-01-01

    .... A hybrid field, brushless, permanent magnet electric motor utilizing a rotor with two sets of permanent magnets oriented such that the flux produced by the two sets of magnets is perpendicular to each...

  4. Inductive electric field at the magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkila, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The electric field data for two crossings of the magnetopause by ISEE-1 on November 20, 1977, have been analyzed with high time resolution. In both cases the electric field has a negative dawn-dusk component in the boundary layer, so it must reverse somewhere within the current layer to the positive value outside. If there is a component parallel to the moving magnetopause current it is small, and by no means obvious. In the case of the exit crossing from the boundary layer to the magnetosheath the data show that the electric field vector is turning for about two seconds at roughly the satellite spin rate; this changing direction suggests that the electric field has a curl. Such a curl could be caused by a travelling localized perturbation of the magnetopause surface current associated with impulsive plasma transport through the magnetopause

  5. Electric field imaging of single atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Naoya; Seki, Takehito; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Findlay, Scott D.; Kohno, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takao; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    In scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), single atoms can be imaged by detecting electrons scattered through high angles using post-specimen, annular-type detectors. Recently, it has been shown that the atomic-scale electric field of both the positive atomic nuclei and the surrounding negative electrons within crystalline materials can be probed by atomic-resolution differential phase contrast STEM. Here we demonstrate the real-space imaging of the (projected) atomic electric field distribution inside single Au atoms, using sub-Å spatial resolution STEM combined with a high-speed segmented detector. We directly visualize that the electric field distribution (blurred by the sub-Å size electron probe) drastically changes within the single Au atom in a shape that relates to the spatial variation of total charge density within the atom. Atomic-resolution electric field mapping with single-atom sensitivity enables us to examine their detailed internal and boundary structures. PMID:28555629

  6. Surface polar states and pyroelectricity in ferroelastics induced by flexo-roto field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.; Kalinin, S. V.; Qing Chen, Long; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2012-04-01

    Theoretical analysis based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory is used to show that the joint action of flexoelectric effect and rotostriction leads to a large spontaneous in-plane polarization (˜1-5 μC/cm2) and pyroelectric coefficient (˜10-3 C/m2K) in the vicinity of surfaces of otherwise non-ferroelectric ferroelastics, such as SrTiO3, with static octahedral rotations. The origin of the improper polarization and pyroelectricity is an electric field we name flexo-roto field whose strength is proportional to the convolution of the flexoelectric and rotostriction tensors with octahedral tilts and their gradients. Flexo-roto field should exist at surfaces and interfaces in all structures with static octahedral rotations, and thus, it can induce surface polar states and pyroelectricity in a large class of otherwise nonpolar materials.

  7. POLARIZED LINE FORMATION IN NON-MONOTONIC VELOCITY FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N., E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in, E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bengaluru 560034 (India)

    2016-12-10

    For a correct interpretation of the observed spectro-polarimetric data from astrophysical objects such as the Sun, it is necessary to solve the polarized line transfer problems taking into account a realistic temperature structure, the dynamical state of the atmosphere, a realistic scattering mechanism (namely, the partial frequency redistribution—PRD), and the magnetic fields. In a recent paper, we studied the effects of monotonic vertical velocity fields on linearly polarized line profiles formed in isothermal atmospheres with and without magnetic fields. However, in general the velocity fields that prevail in dynamical atmospheres of astrophysical objects are non-monotonic. Stellar atmospheres with shocks, multi-component supernova atmospheres, and various kinds of wave motions in solar and stellar atmospheres are examples of non-monotonic velocity fields. Here we present studies on the effect of non-relativistic non-monotonic vertical velocity fields on the linearly polarized line profiles formed in semi-empirical atmospheres. We consider a two-level atom model and PRD scattering mechanism. We solve the polarized transfer equation in the comoving frame (CMF) of the fluid using a polarized accelerated lambda iteration method that has been appropriately modified for the problem at hand. We present numerical tests to validate the CMF method and also discuss the accuracy and numerical instabilities associated with it.

  8. Electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge in atmospheric air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Frederickson, Kraig; Lempert, Walter R; Adamovich, Igor V; Goldberg, Benjamin M; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of temporally and spatially resolved electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge in atmospheric air, sustained between a razor edge high-voltage electrode and a plane grounded electrode covered by a thin dielectric plate. The electric field is measured by picosecond four-wave mixing in a collinear phase-matching geometry, with time resolution of approximately 2 ns, using an absolute calibration provided by measurements of a known electrostatic electric field. The results demonstrate electric field offset on the discharge center plane before the discharge pulse due to surface charge accumulation on the dielectric from the weaker, opposite polarity pre-pulse. During the discharge pulse, the electric field follows the applied voltage until ‘forward’ breakdown occurs, after which the field in the plasma is significantly reduced due to charge separation. When the applied voltage is reduced, the field in the plasma reverses direction and increases again, until the weak ‘reverse’ breakdown occurs, producing a secondary transient reduction in the electric field. After the pulse, the field is gradually reduced on a microsecond time scale, likely due to residual surface charge neutralization by transport of opposite polarity charges from the plasma. Spatially resolved electric field measurements show that the discharge develops as a surface ionization wave. Significant surface charge accumulation on the dielectric surface is detected near the end of the discharge pulse. Spatially resolved measurements of electric field vector components demonstrate that the vertical electric field in the surface ionization wave peaks ahead of the horizontal electric field. Behind the wave, the vertical field remains low, near the detection limit, while the horizontal field is gradually reduced to near the detection limit at the discharge center plane. These results are consistent with time-resolved measurements of electric field

  9. Heisenberg spin-1/2 XXZ chain in the presence of electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Pradeep; Durganandini, P.

    2018-02-01

    We study the interplay of electric and magnetic order in the one-dimensional Heisenberg spin-1/2 XXZ chain with large Ising anisotropy in the presence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction and with longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields, interpreting the DM interaction as a coupling between the local electric polarization and an external electric field. We obtain the ground state phase diagram using the density matrix renormalization group method and compute various ground state quantities like the magnetization, staggered magnetization, electric polarization and spin correlation functions, etc. In the presence of both longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields, there are three different phases corresponding to a gapped Néel phase with antiferromagnetic (AF) order, gapped saturated phase, and a critical incommensurate gapless phase. The external electric field modifies the phase boundaries but does not lead to any new phases. Both external magnetic fields and electric fields can be used to tune between the phases. We also show that the transverse magnetic field induces a vector chiral order in the Néel phase (even in the absence of an electric field) which can be interpreted as an electric polarization in a direction parallel to the AF order.

  10. Electromagnetic processes in pulsars under strong electric and magnetic field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayasli, S.; Hacinliyan, A.; Oegelman, H.B.; Daugherty, I.K.

    1977-01-01

    It is believed that pulsars possess huge electric and magnetic fields. However, the electric field is commonly neglected in calculations of the rate of pair production, a process which is thought to be greatly important in the radiation mechanisms of pulsars. To see the effect of the electric field, the pair production is calculated for arbitrary electric and magnetic field configurations. The formulae thus obtained are then applied to pulsars. It is shown that the correction to the ''polar gap'' height calculated in the Ruderman and Sutherland model is negligible, although it might be important for the spectrum of emerging photons. (author)

  11. Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen

  12. Electrically induced magnetic fields; a consistent approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batell, Brian; Ferstl, Andrew

    2003-09-01

    Electromagnetic radiation exists because changing magnetic fields induce changing electric fields and vice versa. This fact often appears inconsistent with the way some physics textbooks solve particular problems using Faraday's law. These types of problems often ask students to find the induced electric field given a current that does not vary linearly with time. A typical example involves a long solenoid carrying a sinusoidal current. This problem is usually solved as an example or assigned as a homework exercise. The solution offered by many textbooks uses the approximation that the induced, changing electric field produces a negligible magnetic field, which is only valid at low frequencies. If this approximation is not explicitly acknowledged, then the solution appears inconsistent with the description of electromagnetic radiation. In other cases, when the problem is solved without this approximation, the electric and magnetic fields are derived from the vector potential. We present a detailed calculation of the electric and magnetic fields inside and outside the long solenoid without using the vector potential. We then offer a comparison of our solution and a solution given in an introductory textbook.

  13. Using a quantum well heterostructure to study the longitudinal and transverse electric field components of a strongly focused laser beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kihara Rurimo, G.; Schardt, M.; Quabis, S.; Malzer, S.; Dotzler, C.; Winkler, A.; Leuchs, G.; Döhler, G.H.; Driscoll, D.; Hanson, M.; Gossard, A.C.; Pereira, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    We report a method to measure the electric energy density of longitudinal and transverse electric field components of strongly focused polarized laser beams. We used a quantum well photodetector and exploited the polarization dependent optical transitions of light holes and heavy holes to probe the

  14. Detection of electric field around field-reversed configuration plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeyama, Taeko; Hiroi, Masanori; Nogi, Yasuyuki; Ohkuma, Yasunori

    2010-01-01

    Electric-field probes consisting of copper plates are developed to measure electric fields in a vacuum region around a plasma. The probes detect oscillating electric fields with a maximum strength of approximately 100 V/m through a discharge. Reproducible signals from the probes are obtained with an unstable phase dominated by a rotational instability. It is found that the azimuthal structure of the electric field can be explained by the sum of an n=2 mode charge distribution and a convex-surface electron distribution on the deformed separatrix at the unstable phase. The former distribution agrees with that anticipated from the diamagnetic drift motions of plasma when the rotational instability occurs. The latter distribution suggests that an electron-rich plasma covers the separatrix.

  15. An explanation for parallel electric field pulses observed over thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M. C.; Barnum, B. H.

    2009-10-01

    Every electric field instrument flown on sounding rockets over a thunderstorm has detected pulses of electric fields parallel to the Earth's magnetic field associated with every strike. This paper describes the ionospheric signatures found during a flight from Wallops Island, Virginia, on 2 September 1995. The electric field results in a drifting Maxwellian corresponding to energies up to 1 eV. The distribution function relaxes because of elastic and inelastic collisions, resulting in electron heating up to 4000-5000 K and potentially observable red line emissions and enhanced ISR electron temperatures. The field strength scales with the current in cloud-to-ground strikes and falls off as r -1 with distance. Pulses of both polarities are found, although most electric fields are downward, parallel to the magnetic field. The pulse may be the reaction of ambient plasma to a current pulse carried at the whistler packet's highest group velocity. The charge source required to produce the electric field is very likely electrons of a few keV traveling at the packet velocity. We conjecture that the current source is the divergence of the current flowing at mesospheric heights, the phenomenon called an elve. The whistler packet's effective radiated power is as high as 25 mW at ionospheric heights, comparable to some ionospheric heater transmissions. Comparing the Poynting flux at the base of the ionosphere with flux an equal distance away along the ground, some 30 db are lost in the mesosphere. Another 10 db are lost in the transition from free space to the whistler mode.

  16. Maxwell-Wagner polarization and frequency-dependent injection at aqueous electrical interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Mitchell; Mavrogiannis, Nicholas; Gagnon, Zachary

    2012-11-02

    We demonstrate a new type of alternating current (ac) interfacial polarization and frequency-dependent fluid displacement phenomenon at a liquid-liquid electrical interface. Two fluid streams--one with a greater electrical conductivity and the other a greater dielectric constant--are made to flow side by side in a microfluidic channel. An ac electric field is applied perpendicular to the interface formed between the liquid lamellae, and fluid is observed to displace across the liquid-liquid interface. The direction and magnitude of this displacement is frequency dependent. At low ac frequency, below the interfacial inverse charge relaxation time, the high-conductivity fluid displaces into the high-dielectric stream. At high frequency the direction of liquid displacement reverses, and the high-dielectric stream injects into the high-conductivity stream. The interfacial crossover frequency where the liquid displacement direction reverses is dependent on differences in electrical properties between the two fluid streams, and is well explained by Maxwell-Wagner polarization mechanics.

  17. Positrons trapped in polyethylene: Electric field effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolaccini, M.; Bisi, A.; Gambarini, G.; Zappa, L.

    1978-01-01

    The intensity of the iot 2 -component of positrons annihilated in polyethylene is found to increase with increasing electric field, while the formation probability of the positron state responsible for this component remains independent of the field. (orig.) 891 HPOE [de

  18. Vacuum polarization of massless fields in black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'nikov, A.I.; Frolov, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter contains a detailed survey of the fundamental results from an investigation of the contribution of massless fields to vacuum polarization near black holes. A method is developed for calculating the vacuum average energy-momentum tensor for the electromagnetic field on the surface of a black hole. An explicit value is derived for the renormalized energy-momentum tensor of an electromagnetic field near the event horizon of a rotating black hole

  19. Canonical perturbation treatment of a Rydberg electron in combined electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Milczewski, Jan; Uzer, T.

    1997-07-01

    We analyze the motion of a Rydberg electron in combined external electric and magnetic fields using different levels of classical perturbation theory. Important dynamical properties of these systems are captured analytically through adiabatic invariants, and three widely different time scales for motion are identified. The hydrogen atom in tilted electric and magnetic fields, the hydrogen atom in combined magnetic and circularly polarized microwave fields, and the generalized van der Waals interaction are among the cases we examine.

  20. Bragg diffraction of light by ultrasonic waves in planargyrotrophic optical waveguides in an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulak, G.V. [Mozyr` State Pedagogical Institute (Belarus)

    1995-09-01

    Features of Bragg diffraction of light by two-partial surface ultrasonic waves in planar gyrotropic optical waveguides placed in an external electric field are considered. General expressions for complex vector amplitudes of diffracted fields are presented. It is shown that the diffracted waves have elliptic polarization, the ellipticity being determined by the linear anisotropy of the waveguide structure, the anisotropy induced by an external electric field, the anisotropy of photoelasticity, and the crystal gyrotropy. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Photoinduced electric currents in ring-shaped molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobusada, Katsuyuki; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    We have theoretically demonstrated that circularly polarized laser pulses induce electric currents and magnetic moments in ring-shaped molecules Na 10 and benzene. The time-dependent adiabatic local density approximation is employed for this purpose, solving the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equation in real space and real time. It has been found that the electric currents are induced efficiently and persist continuously even after the laser pulses were switched off provided the frequency of the applied laser pulse is in tune with the excitation energy of the electronic excited state with the dipole strength for each molecular system. The electric currents are definitely revealed to be a second-order nonlinear optical response to the magnitude of the electric field. The magnetic dipole moments inevitably accompany the ring currents, so that the molecules are magnetized. The production of the electric currents and the magnetic moments in the present procedure is found to be much more efficient than that utilizing static magnetic fields

  2. Field Models in Electricity and Magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barba, Paolo Di; Wiak, S

    2008-01-01

    Covering the development of field computation in the past forty years, Field Models in Electricity and Magnetism intends to be a concise, comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to field models in electricity and magnetism, ranging from basic theory to numerical applications. The approach assumed throughout the whole book is to solve field problems directly from partial differential equations in terms of vector quantities. Theoretical issues are illustrated by practical examples. In particular, a single example is solved by different methods so that, by comparison of results, limitations and advantages of the various methods are made clear. The subjects of the synthesis of fields and of the optimal design of devices, which are growing in research and so far have not been adequately covered in textbooks, are developed in addition to more classical subjects of analysis. Topics covered include: vector fields: electrostatics, magnetostatics, steady conduction; analytical methods for solving boundary-value probl...

  3. Central polar cap convection response to short duration southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Jayachandran

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Central polar cap convection changes associated with southward turnings of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF are studied using a chain of Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosondes (CADI in the northern polar cap. A study of 32 short duration (~1 h southward IMF transition events found a three stage response: (1 initial response to a southward transition is near simultaneous for the entire polar cap; (2 the peak of the convection speed (attributed to the maximum merging electric field propagates poleward from the ionospheric footprint of the merging region; and (3 if the change in IMF is rapid enough, then a step in convection appears to start at the cusp and then propagates antisunward over the polar cap with the velocity of the maximum convection. On the nightside, a substorm onset is observed at about the time when the step increase in convection (associated with the rapid transition of IMF arrives at the polar cap boundary.Key words: Ionosphere (plasma convection; polar ionosphere - Magnetospheric physics (solar wind - magnetosphere interaction

  4. Central polar cap convection response to short duration southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Jayachandran

    Full Text Available Central polar cap convection changes associated with southward turnings of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF are studied using a chain of Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosondes (CADI in the northern polar cap. A study of 32 short duration (~1 h southward IMF transition events found a three stage response: (1 initial response to a southward transition is near simultaneous for the entire polar cap; (2 the peak of the convection speed (attributed to the maximum merging electric field propagates poleward from the ionospheric footprint of the merging region; and (3 if the change in IMF is rapid enough, then a step in convection appears to start at the cusp and then propagates antisunward over the polar cap with the velocity of the maximum convection. On the nightside, a substorm onset is observed at about the time when the step increase in convection (associated with the rapid transition of IMF arrives at the polar cap boundary.

    Key words: Ionosphere (plasma convection; polar ionosphere - Magnetospheric physics (solar wind - magnetosphere interaction

  5. Stark-state resonances induced by low-frequency elliptically polarized fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, D.

    1997-09-01

    We analyse the effect of a low-frequency elliptically polarized electric field on an excited hydrogen atom using classical dynamics. It is shown that at particular frequencies the ionization probability is a non-monotonic function of the field strength and that at these frequencies the classical ionization probabilities agree well with those of experiment. We show that this unusual behaviour is produced by resonance between Stark states and the driving field near the circularly polarized limit. By averaging over the fast motion, to produce a mean-motion approximation, we show how the resonance affects the motion and that the effect is different according to whether the electron is initially rotating in the same or in the opposite direction to the field.

  6. Linear Response of Field-Aligned Currents to the Interplanetary Electric Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weimer, D. R.; R. Edwards, T.; Olsen, Nils

    2017-01-01

    Many studies that have shown that the ionospheric, polar cap electric potentials (PCEP) exhibit a “saturation” behavior in response to the level of the driving by the solar wind. As the magnitude of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and electric field (IEF) increase, the PCEP response...... of the field-aligned currents (FAC) with the solar wind/magnetosphere/ionosphere system has a role. As the FAC are more difficult to measure, their behavior in response to the level of the IEF has not been investigated as thoroughly. In order to resolve the question of whether or not the FAC also exhibit...... saturation, we have processed the magnetic field measurements from the Ørsted, CHAMP, and Swarm missions, spanning more than a decade. As the amount of current in each region needs to be known, a new technique is used to separate and sum the current by region, widely known as R0, R1, and R2. These totals...

  7. Electric-Field-Induced Soft-Mode Hardening in SrTiO3 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, I. A.; Sirenko, A. A.; Clark, A. M.; Hao, J.-H.; Xi, X. X.

    2000-05-01

    We have studied electric-field-induced Raman scattering in SrTiO3 thin films using an indium-tin-oxide/SrTiO3/SrRuO3 structure grown by pulsed laser deposition. The soft mode polarized along the field becomes Raman active. Experimental data for electric-field-induced hardening of the soft modes and the tuning of the static dielectric constant are in agreement described by the Lyddane-Sachs-Teller formalism. The markedly different behavior of the soft modes in thin films from that in the bulk is explained by the existence of local polar regions.

  8. Microfluidic Screening of Electric Fields for Electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Paulo A.; Ge, Zhifei; Moran, Jeffrey L.; Buie, Cullen R.

    2016-02-01

    Electroporation is commonly used to deliver molecules such as drugs, proteins, and/or DNA into cells, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. In this work a rapid microfluidic assay was developed to determine the critical electric field threshold required for inducing bacterial electroporation. The microfluidic device was designed to have a bilaterally converging channel to amplify the electric field to magnitudes sufficient to induce electroporation. The bacterial cells are introduced into the channel in the presence of SYTOX®, which fluorescently labels cells with compromised membranes. Upon delivery of an electric pulse, the cells fluoresce due to transmembrane influx of SYTOX® after disruption of the cell membranes. We calculate the critical electric field by capturing the location within the channel of the increase in fluorescence intensity after electroporation. Bacterial strains with industrial and therapeutic relevance such as Escherichia coli BL21 (3.65 ± 0.09 kV/cm), Corynebacterium glutamicum (5.20 ± 0.20 kV/cm), and Mycobacterium smegmatis (5.56 ± 0.08 kV/cm) have been successfully characterized. Determining the critical electric field for electroporation facilitates the development of electroporation protocols that minimize Joule heating and maximize cell viability. This assay will ultimately enable the genetic transformation of bacteria and archaea considered intractable and difficult-to-transfect, while facilitating fundamental genetic studies on numerous diverse microbes.

  9. Evaluation of DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen based on the measurement of electrical conductivity in LN2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon; Cho, Jeon-Wook; Ryoo, Hee-Suk; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN 2 was successfully measured. •Based on the measured value of PPLP, DC field analysis was performed. •The electric field distribution was altered according to the DC applying stages. •The maximum electric field was observed during polarity reversal situation. •DC field analysis is important to determine the optimum design of DC HTS devices. -- Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been paid much attention due to its high efficiency and high current transportation capability, and it is also regarded as eco-friendly power cable for the next generation. Especially for DC HTS cable, it has more sustainable and stable properties compared to AC HTS cable due to the absence of AC loss in DC HTS cable. Recently, DC HTS cable has been investigated competitively all over the world, and one of the key components of DC HTS cable to be developed is a cable joint box considering HVDC environment. In order to achieve the optimum insulation design of the joint box, analysis of DC electric field distribution of the joint box is a fundamental process to develop DC HTS cable. Generally, AC electric field distribution depends on relative permittivity of dielectric materials but in case of DC, electrical conductivity of dielectric material is a dominant factor which determines electric field distribution. In this study, in order to evaluate DC electric field characteristics of the joint box for DC HTS cable, polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) specimen has been prepared and its DC electric field distribution was analyzed based on the measurement of electrical conductivity of PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ). Electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN 2 has not been reported yet but it should be measured for DC electric field analysis. The experimental works for measuring electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN 2 were presented in this paper. Based on the experimental works, DC electric field distribution of

  10. Polar Magnetic Field Reversals of the Sun in Maunder Minimum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    The data on polar migration of solar magnetic fields were obtained on the basis of. Η alpha magnetic synoptic charts for 1880 1991 using Kodaikanal, Kislovodsk and Italian observations, and Atlas of Η alpha charts (Mclntosh 1979; Makarov &. Fatianov 1980; Makarov & Sivaraman 1989; Makarov 1994). The Wolf numbers ...

  11. Local field in LiD polarized target material

    CERN Document Server

    Kisselev, Yu V; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Görtz, S; Horikawa, N; Koivuniemi, J H; Kondo, K; Magnon, A; Meyer, Werner T; Reicherz, G

    2004-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the first and the second moments of D, **6Li and **7Li (I greater than 1/2) NMR lines in a granulated LiD- target material as a function of nuclear polarizations and the data has been compared with a theory elaborated by Abragam, Roinel and Bouffard for monocrystalline samples. The experiments were carried out in the large COMPASS twin-target at CERN. The static local magnetic field of the polarized nuclei was measured by frequency shift between the NMR-signals in the two oppositely polarized cells and lead to the first moment, whereas the investigation of the second moment was done through Gaussian approximation. The average field magnitude in granulated material was estimated 20% larger than the value given by the calculations for monocrystalline samples of cylindrical shape. The second moment shows a qualitative agreement with the theory but it is slightly larger at the negative than at the positive polarization. In a polarized mode, the moments depend on the saturated microw...

  12. Electric Field Effects in RUS Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Timothy W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ten Cate, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allured, Bradley [UNIV NEVADA, RENO; Carpenter, Michael A [CAMBRIDGE UNIV. UK

    2009-09-21

    Much of the power of the Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) technique is the ability to make mechanical resonance measurements while the environment of the sample is changed. Temperature and magnetic field are important examples. Due to the common use of piezoelectric transducers near the sample, applied electric fields introduce complications, but many materials have technologically interesting responses to applied static and RF electric fields. Non-contact optical, buffered, or shielded transducers permit the application of charge and externally applied electric fields while making RUS measurements. For conducting samples, in vacuum, charging produces a small negative pressure in the volume of the material - a state rarely explored. At very high charges we influence the electron density near the surface so the propagation of surface waves and their resonances may give us a handle on the relationship of electron density to bond strength and elasticity. Our preliminary results indicate a charge sign dependent effect, but we are studying a number of possible other effects induced by charging. In dielectric materials, external electric fields influence the strain response, particularly in ferroelectrics. Experiments to study this connection at phase transformations are planned. The fact that many geological samples contain single crystal quartz suggests a possible use of the piezoelectric response to drive vibrations using applied RF fields. In polycrystals, averaging of strains in randomly oriented crystals implies using the 'statistical residual' strain as the drive. The ability to excite vibrations in quartzite polycrystals and arenites is explored. We present results of experimental and theoretical approaches to electric field effects using RUS methods.

  13. Direct observation of electric field induced pattern formation and particle aggregation in ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajnak, Michal; Kopcansky, Peter; Timko, Milan [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Košice (Slovakia); Petrenko, Viktor I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University, Volodymyrska Street 64, Kyiv 01033 (Ukraine); Avdeev, Mikhail V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ivankov, Olexandr I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University, Volodymyrska Street 64, Kyiv 01033 (Ukraine); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskiy per. 9, Dolgoprudniy 141700 (Russian Federation); Feoktystov, Artem [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS) at Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Dolnik, Bystrik; Kurimsky, Juraj [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 04200 Košice (Slovakia)

    2015-08-17

    Ferrofluids typically respond to magnetic fields and can be manipulated by external magnetic fields. Here, we report on formation of visually observable patterns in a diluted low-polarity ferrofluid exposed to external electric fields. This presents a specific type of ferrofluid structure driven by a combined effect of electrohydrodynamics and electrical body forces. The free charge and permittivity variation are considered to play a key role in the observed phenomenon. The corresponding changes in the ferrofluid structure have been found at nanoscale as well. By small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we show that the magnetic nanoparticles aggregate in direct current (dc) electric field with a strong dependence on the field intensity. The anisotropic aggregates preferably orient in the direction of the applied electric field. Conducting SANS experiments with alternating current (ac) electric fields of various frequencies, we found a critical frequency triggering the aggregation process. Our experimental study could open future applications of ferrofluids based on insulating liquids.

  14. Direct observation of electric field induced pattern formation and particle aggregation in ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnak, Michal; Petrenko, Viktor I.; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Ivankov, Olexandr I.; Feoktystov, Artem; Dolnik, Bystrik; Kurimsky, Juraj; Kopcansky, Peter; Timko, Milan

    2015-08-01

    Ferrofluids typically respond to magnetic fields and can be manipulated by external magnetic fields. Here, we report on formation of visually observable patterns in a diluted low-polarity ferrofluid exposed to external electric fields. This presents a specific type of ferrofluid structure driven by a combined effect of electrohydrodynamics and electrical body forces. The free charge and permittivity variation are considered to play a key role in the observed phenomenon. The corresponding changes in the ferrofluid structure have been found at nanoscale as well. By small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we show that the magnetic nanoparticles aggregate in direct current (dc) electric field with a strong dependence on the field intensity. The anisotropic aggregates preferably orient in the direction of the applied electric field. Conducting SANS experiments with alternating current (ac) electric fields of various frequencies, we found a critical frequency triggering the aggregation process. Our experimental study could open future applications of ferrofluids based on insulating liquids.

  15. Parallel electric fields from ionospheric winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The possible production of electric fields parallel to the magnetic field by dynamo winds in the E region is examined, using a jet stream wind model. Current return paths through the F region above the stream are examined as well as return paths through the conjugate ionosphere. The Wulf geometry with horizontal winds moving in opposite directions one above the other is also examined. Parallel electric fields are found to depend strongly on the width of current sheets at the edges of the jet stream. If these are narrow enough, appreciable parallel electric fields are produced. These appear to be sufficient to heat the electrons which reduces the conductivity and produces further increases in parallel electric fields and temperatures. Calculations indicate that high enough temperatures for optical emission can be produced in less than 0.3 s. Some properties of auroras that might be produced by dynamo winds are examined; one property is a time delay in brightening at higher and lower altitudes

  16. Particle creation by peak electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, S.P. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Department of General and Experimental Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, CP 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    The particle creation by the so-called peak electric field is considered. The latter field is a combination of two exponential parts, one exponentially increasing and another exponentially decreasing. We find exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the field under consideration with appropriate asymptotic conditions and calculate all the characteristics of particle creation effect, in particular, differential mean numbers of created particle, total number of created particles, and the probability for a vacuum to remain a vacuum. Characteristic asymptotic regimes are discussed in detail and a comparison with the pure asymptotically decaying field is considered. (orig.)

  17. Modulation of Jahn-Teller effect on magnetization and spontaneous electric polarization of CuFeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guiling; Xia, Zhengcai; Wei, Meng; Huang, Sha; Shi, Liran; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Wu, Huan; Yang, Feng; Song, Yujie; Ouyang, Zhongwen

    2018-03-01

    CuFe0.99Mn0.01O2 and CuFe0.99Co0.01O2 single crystal samples are grown by a floating zone technique and their magnetization and spontaneous electric polarization have been investigated. Similarly with pure CuFeO2, an obviously anisotropic magnetization and spontaneous electric polarization were observed in the both doped samples, and their phase transition critical fields and temperatures are directly doping ion dependent. Considering the different d-shell configuration and ionic size between Mn3+, Co3+ and Fe3+ ions, in which the Mn3+ ion with Jahn-Teller (J-T) effect has different distortion on the geometry frustration from both of Fe3+ and Co3+ ion. Since for Mn3+ ion, the orbital splitting results from the low-symmetry J-T distortion in a crystal-field environment leads to a distorted MnO6 octahedron, which different from undistorted FeO6 and CoO6 octahedrons. The strain between distorted and undistorted octahedrons produces different effects on the spin reorientation transition and spontaneous electric polarization. Although the pure CuFeO2 has a very strong and robust frustration, the presence of the strain due to the random distribution of distorted MnO6 octahedron and undistorted CoO6 (FeO6) octahedrons leads to its spin reorientation transitions and spontaneous electric polarization different from CuFeO2.

  18. Atomic emission spectroscopy in high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.E.; Filuk, A.B.; Carlson, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Pulsed-power driven ion diodes generating quasi-static, ∼10 MV/cm, 1-cm scale-length electric fields are used to accelerate lithium ion beams for inertial confinement fusion applications. Atomic emission spectroscopy measurements contribute to understanding the acceleration gap physics, in particular by combining time- and space-resolved measurements of the electric field with the Poisson equation to determine the charged particle distributions. This unique high-field configuration also offers the possibility to advance basic atomic physics, for example by testing calculations of the Stark-shifted emission pattern, by measuring field ionization rates for tightly-bound low-principal-quantum-number levels, and by measuring transition-probability quenching

  19. Electrical access to critical coupling of circularly polarized waves in graphene chiral metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Teun-Teun; Oh, Sang Soon; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Park, Hyun Sung; Hess, Ortwin; Min, Bumki; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-09-01

    Active control of polarization states of electromagnetic waves is highly desirable because of its diverse applications in information processing, telecommunications, and spectroscopy. However, despite the recent advances using artificial materials, most active polarization control schemes require optical stimuli necessitating complex optical setups. We experimentally demonstrate an alternative-direct electrical tuning of the polarization state of terahertz waves. Combining a chiral metamaterial with a gated single-layer sheet of graphene, we show that transmission of a terahertz wave with one circular polarization can be electrically controlled without affecting that of the other circular polarization, leading to large-intensity modulation depths (>99%) with a low gate voltage. This effective control of polarization is made possible by the full accessibility of three coupling regimes, that is, underdamped, critically damped, and overdamped regimes by electrical control of the graphene properties.

  20. Electric field assisted nanocolloidal gold deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst S.; Brouwer, E.A.M.; Poelsema, Bene

    2007-01-01

    The deposition of nanocolloidal gold particles under the influence of an externally applied electric field is studied in situ by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry. The variation of the relative coverage with time, as a function of applied potential, is determined using a principal component

  1. Pulsed Electric Field treatment of packaged food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.

    2011-01-01

    Food manufacturers are looking for new preservation techniques that don’t influence the fresh-like characteristics of products. Non-thermal pasteurisation of food with Pulsed Electric Fields (often referred to as PEF) is an emerging technology, where the change of the food is less than with thermal

  2. Moderate and high intensity pulsed electric fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Rian Adriana Hendrika

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) processing has gained a lot of interest the last decades as mild processing technology as alternative to thermal pasteurisation, and is suitable for preservation of liquid food products such as fruit juices. PEF conditions typically applied at industrial scale for

  3. Dynamical interplay between fluctuations, electric fields and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    similarity in the scaling properties of the probability distribution function (PDF) of turbulent transport has been observed in the plasma edge region in fusion plasmas. The investigation of the dynamical interplay between fluctuation in gradients, turbulent transport and radial electric fields has shown that these parameters are ...

  4. Spontaneous electric fields in solid films: spontelectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    When dipolar gases are condensed at sufficiently low temperature onto a solid surface, they form films that may spontaneously exhibit electric fields in excess of 108V/m. This effect, called the ‘spontelectric effect’, was recently revealed using an instrument designed to measure scattering...

  5. Plasma instabilities in high electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morawetz, K.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1994-01-01

    expression is derived for the nonequilibrium dielectric function epsilon(K, omega). For certain values of momenta K and frequency omega, Imepsilon(K, omega) becomes negative, implying a plasma instability. This new instability exists only for strong electric fields, underlining its nonequilibrium origin....

  6. Topology Optimized Nanostrips for Electric Field Enhancements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Petersen, Joakim; Christiansen, Rasmus E.; Julsgaard, Brian

    energy photons are converted to higher energy photons able to bridge the band gap energy and contribute the energy generation. The upconversion process in erbium is inefficient under the natural solar irradiation, and without any electric field enhancements of the incident light, the process...

  7. THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN TAURUS PROBED BY INFRARED POLARIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Pineda, Jorge L.; Li Di; Clemens, D. P.; Krco, Marko

    2011-01-01

    We present maps of the plane-of-sky magnetic field within two regions of the Taurus molecular cloud: one in the dense core L1495/B213 filament and the other in a diffuse region to the west. The field is measured from the polarization of background starlight seen through the cloud. In total, we measured 287 high-quality near-infrared polarization vectors in these regions. In L1495/B213, the percent polarization increases with column density up to A V ∼ 9 mag, the limits of our data. The radiative torques model for grain alignment can explain this behavior, but models that invoke turbulence are inconsistent with the data. We also combine our data with published optical and near-infrared polarization measurements in Taurus. Using this large sample, we estimate the strength of the plane-of-sky component of the magnetic field in nine subregions. This estimation is done with two different techniques that use the observed dispersion in polarization angles. Our values range from 5 to 82 μG and tend to be higher in denser regions. In all subregions, the critical index of the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio is sub-unity, implying that Taurus is magnetically supported on large scales (∼2 pc). Within the region observed, the B213 filament takes a sharp turn to the north and the direction of the magnetic field also takes a sharp turn, switching from being perpendicular to the filament to becoming parallel. This behavior can be understood if we are observing the rim of a bubble. We argue that it has resulted from a supernova remnant associated with a recently discovered nearby gamma-ray pulsar.

  8. Silicon Photomultiplier Performance in High ELectric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, J.; Morad, J.

    2016-12-01

    Roughly 27% of the universe is thought to be composed of dark matter. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) relies on the emission of light from xenon atoms after a collision with a dark matter particle. After a particle interaction in the detector, two things can happen: the xenon will emit light and charge. The charge (electrons), in the liquid xenon needs to be pulled into the gas section so that it can interact with gas and emit light. This allows LUX to convert a single electron into many photons. This is done by applying a high voltage across the liquid and gas regions, effectively ripping electrons out of the liquid xenon and into the gas. The current device used to detect photons is the photomultiplier tube (PMT). These devices are large and costly. In recent years, a new technology that is capable of detecting single photons has emerged, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). These devices are cheaper and smaller than PMTs. Their performance in a high electric fields, such as those found in LUX, are unknown. It is possible that a large electric field could introduce noise on the SiPM signal, drowning the single photon detection capability. My hypothesis is that SiPMs will not observe a significant increase is noise at an electric field of roughly 10kV/cm (an electric field within the range used in detectors like LUX). I plan to test this hypothesis by first rotating the SiPMs with no applied electric field between two metal plates roughly 2 cm apart, providing a control data set. Then using the same angles test the dark counts with the constant electric field applied. Possibly the most important aspect of LUX, is the photon detector because it's what detects the signals. Dark matter is detected in the experiment by looking at the ratio of photons to electrons emitted for a given interaction in the detector. Interactions with a low electron to photon ratio are more like to be dark matter events than those with a high electron to photon ratio. The ability to

  9. Modulation of UK lightning by heliospheric magnetic field polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, M. J.; Scott, C. J.; Lockwood, M.; Barnard, L.; Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K.; Watt, C.; Bennett, A. J.

    2014-11-01

    Observational studies have reported solar magnetic modulation of terrestrial lightning on a range of time scales, from days to decades. The proposed mechanism is two-step: lightning rates vary with galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux incident on Earth, either via changes in atmospheric conductivity and/or direct triggering of lightning. GCR flux is, in turn, primarily controlled by the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) intensity. Consequently, global changes in lightning rates are expected. This study instead considers HMF polarity, which doesn't greatly affect total GCR flux. Opposing HMF polarities are, however, associated with a 40-60% difference in observed UK lightning and thunder rates. As HMF polarity skews the terrestrial magnetosphere from its nominal position, this perturbs local ionospheric potential at high latitudes and local exposure to energetic charged particles from the magnetosphere. We speculate as to the mechanism(s) by which this may, in turn, redistribute the global location and/or intensity of thunderstorm activity.

  10. Orienting Asymmetric Molecules by Laser Fields with Twisted Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershnabel, E.; Averbukh, I. Sh.

    2018-02-01

    We study interaction of generic asymmetric molecules with laser fields having twisted polarization, using a pair of strong time-delayed short laser pulses with crossed linear polarizations as an example. We show that such an excitation not only provides unidirectional rotation of the most polarizable molecular axis, but also induces a directed torque along this axis, which results in a transient orientation of the molecules. The asymmetric molecules are chiral in nature and different molecular enantiomers experience the orienting action in opposite directions causing out-of-phase oscillations of their dipole moments. The resulting microwave radiation was recently suggested to be used for analysis or discrimination of chiral molecular mixtures. We reveal the mechanism behind this laser-induced orientation effect, show that it is classical in nature, and envision further applications of light with twisted polarization.

  11. Effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation between different atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Debashree; Deb, Bimalendu

    2014-01-01

    We study non-perturbative effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation of different atoms. A static electric field induces anisotropy in scattering between two different atoms and hybridizes field-free rotational states of heteronuclear dimers or polar molecules. In a previous paper [D. Chakraborty et al., J. Phys. B 44, 095201 (2011)], the effects of a static electric field on one-color photoassociation between different atoms has been described through field-modified ground-state scattering states, neglecting electric field effects on heteronuclear diatomic bound states. To study the effects of a static electric field on heteronuclear bound states, and the resulting influence on Raman-type two-color photoassociation between different atoms in the presence of a static electric field, we develop a non-perturbative numerical method to calculate static electric field-dressed heteronuclear bound states. We show that the static electric field induced scattering anisotropy as well as hybridization of rotational states strongly influence two-color photoassociation spectra, leading to significant enhancement in PA rate and large shift. In particular, for static electric field strengths of a few hundred kV/cm, two-color PA rate involving high-lying bound states in electronic ground-state increases by several orders of magnitude even in the weak photoassociative coupling regime

  12. Optical Polarization Modulation and Gain Anisotropy in an Electrically Injected Spin Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, D.; Saha, D.; Bhattacharya, P.

    2009-03-01

    The effects of spin-induced gain anisotropy on output polarization and threshold current reduction of electrically pumped spin-polarized lasers have been studied. Analytical forms of these parameters are derived by considering diffusive transport from the spin injector to the active region. The calculated values of the parameter are in excellent agreement with values obtained from measurements made at 200 K on an InAs/GaAs quantum dot spin-polarized vertical cavity surface-emitting laser. Electrical modulation of the output polarization of the laser is demonstrated with a peak modulation index of 0.6.

  13. Plasmasheet boundary electric fields during substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, A.

    1985-01-01

    Electric field data from the ISEE-1 and GEOS-2 satellites have been studied during two substorms when ISEE-1 was in a favourable position in the magneto-tail and GEOS-2 was in the afternoon/evening sector of the geostationary orbit. Both electric field measurements were carried out with spherical double probes, separately by 73.5 m on ISEE-1, and 42 m on GEOS-2. In one case GEOS-2, in the afternoon sector, detected an increase of the dawn-to-dusk electric field during plasmasheet thinning and approximately 10 minutes prior to a substorm expansion. At the time of this expansion ISEE-1 was most likely near an X-line, on the Earthward side and detected Earthward antiE x antiB velocities, in excess of 500 km s -1 . In another example ISEE-1 was most likely near an X-line, on the tailward side, and observed tailward antiE x antiB velocities which were followed, 5-20 minutes later, by characteristic oscillating electric fields (time scales of 10s-30s) on GEOS-2 near 23 local time. Such signatures have on many occasions been connected with observations of westward travelling surges near the GEOS-2 conjugated area in Scandinavia. The ISEE-1 observations of large-dawn-to-dusk electric fields were concentrated to the outer boundary of the plasmasheet, and in the case of the westward travelling surge. GEOS-2 was most likely at the inner, Earthward edge of the plasmasheet. Time delays between ISEE-1 and GEOS-2 indicate a propagation velocity comparable to the antiE x antiB velocity

  14. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields in Thunderstorms through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellart, P; Trinh, T N G; Buitink, S; Corstanje, A; Enriquez, J E; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J R; Nelles, A; Rachen, J P; Rossetto, L; Scholten, O; Ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Ebert, U; Koehn, C; Rutjes, C; Alexov, A; Anderson, J M; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; de Vos, M; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Fallows, R A; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Holties, H A; Juette, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Mann, G; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Moldon, J; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D J; Serylak, M; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; van Weeren, R J; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Zarka, P

    2015-04-24

    We present measurements of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers that took place during thunderstorms. The intensity and polarization patterns of these air showers are radically different from those measured during fair-weather conditions. With the use of a simple two-layer model for the atmospheric electric field, these patterns can be well reproduced by state-of-the-art simulation codes. This in turn provides a novel way to study atmospheric electric fields.

  15. Electric Field Control of Magnetism Using BiFeO3-Based Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-22

    properties of the system may be tailored. III. ELECTRIC FIELD CONTROL OF MAGNETISM A. Electric field control of antiferromagnetism The first milestone in the...polar rotations of the network of oxygen octahedra.43 This invariance can be overcome in the R3c perovskite structure when the magnetic cations are... magnetic properties , through chemical doping of the Bi site. Previous reports have shown that the substitution of 10 % La can reduce the switching to

  16. Tikekar superdense stars in electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2007-04-01

    We present exact solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations with a specified form of the electric field intensity by assuming that the hypersurface {t=constant} are spheroidal. The solution of the Einstein-Maxwell system is reduced to a recurrence relation with variable rational coefficients which can be solved in general using mathematical induction. New classes of solutions of linearly independent functions are obtained by restricting the spheroidal parameter K and the electric field intensity parameter α. Consequently, it is possible to find exact solutions in terms of elementary functions, namely, polynomials and algebraic functions. Our result contains models found previously including the superdense Tikekar neutron star model [J. Math. Phys. 31, 2454 (1990)] when K=-7 and α=0. Our class of charged spheroidal models generalize the uncharged isotropic Maharaj and Leach solutions [J. Math. Phys. 37, 430 (1996)]. In particular, we find an explicit relationship directly relating the spheroidal parameter K to the electromagnetic field.

  17. Correlation between magnetic and electric field perturbations in the field-aligned current regions deduced from DE 2 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, M.; Sugiura, M.; Iyemori, T.; Slavin, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The satellite-observed high correlations between magnetic and electric field perturbations in the high-latitude field-aligned current regions are investigated by examining the dependence of the relationship between Delta-B and E on spatial scale, using the electric and magnetic field data obtained by DE 2 in the polar regions. The results are compared with the Pedersen conductivity inferred from the international reference ionosphere model and the Alfven wave velocity calculated from the in situ ion density and magnetic field measurements.

  18. Electric field measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges in air over liquid water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Baratte, Edmond; Zhang, Cheng; Frederickson, Kraig; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2018-01-01

    Electric field in nanosecond pulse discharges in ambient air is measured by picosecond four-wave mixing, with absolute calibration by a known electrostatic field. The measurements are done in two geometries, (a) the discharge between two parallel cylinder electrodes placed inside quartz tubes, and (b) the discharge between a razor edge electrode and distilled water surface. In the first case, breakdown field exceeds DC breakdown threshold by approximately a factor of four, 140 ± 10 kV cm-1. In the second case, electric field is measured for both positive and negative pulse polarities, with pulse durations of ˜10 ns and ˜100 ns, respectively. In the short duration, positive polarity pulse, breakdown occurs at 85 kV cm-1, after which the electric field decreases over several ns due to charge separation in the plasma, with no field reversal detected when the applied voltage is reduced. In a long duration, negative polarity pulse, breakdown occurs at a lower electric field, 30 kV cm-1, after which the field decays over several tens of ns and reverses direction when the applied voltage is reduced at the end of the pulse. For both pulse polarities, electric field after the pulse decays on a microsecond time scale, due to residual surface charge neutralization by transport of opposite polarity charges from the plasma. Measurements 1 mm away from the discharge center plane, ˜100 μm from the water surface, show that during the voltage rise, horizontal field component (Ex ) lags in time behind the vertical component (Ey ). After breakdown, Ey is reduced to near zero and reverses direction. Further away from the water surface (≈0.9 mm), Ex is much higher compared to Ey during the entire voltage pulse. The results provide insight into air plasma kinetics and charge transport processes near plasma-liquid interface, over a wide range of time scales.

  19. Coupling between surface plasmon polaritons and transverse electric polarized light via L-shaped nano-apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Hu, Chuang; Wen, Qiuling; Zhao, Chenglong; Zhang, Jiasen

    2015-03-15

    Given that plasmonic fields are intrinsically transverse magnetic (TM), coupling surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and transverse electric (TE) polarized light, especially at nanoscale, remain challenging. We propose the use of L-shaped nano-apertures to overcome this fundamental limitation and enable coupling between SPPs and TE polarized light. Polarization conversion originates from the interference of two resonant modes excited in the nano-apertures and the nearly 180° phase retardation between them. The experiments show that both TE-to-plasmon and plasmon-to-TE couplings can be implemented at the subwavelength scale. This discovery provides great freedom when manipulating light based on SPPs at the nanoscale and helps in using the energy of TE polarized light.

  20. Effect of the electric field on buckled and puckered arsenene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Victor Hugo; Fernandez-Escamilla, Hector Noe; Martínez-Guerra, Edgar

    With the emergence of new 2D materials, more recently phosphorene, arsenene appears as a new candidate to be explored for electronic devices. We have studied the stability of arsenene pristine and the effect of a transversal electric field on its electronic properties. The calculations were performed using the SIESTA code, with the GGA exchange-correlation functional in the PBE form. We have used numerical atomic orbitals as the basis set for the valence wavefunctions employing a double ζ-polarized basis. We use the Perdew-Becke pseudopotential for an As atom that includes the scalar-relativistic effect and Troullier-Martins parametrization. We adopt the Monkhorst-Pack scheme for k-point sampling of Brillouin zone integrations with 25 ×25 ×1 and 25 ×25 ×1 for the buckled/planar and puckered systems, respectively. We found that buckled and puckered arsenenes are stable and posses indirect gap. The effect of the electric field on the electronic structure of the buckled arsenene is the modulation of indirect to direct gap, while in puckered arsenene the gap linearly decreases as electric field is increased. This research was supported by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (Conacyt) under Grant No. 43830-F.

  1. Influence of Electric Fields on Biofouling of Carbonaceous Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Soumya; Shanbhag, Sneha; Mauter, Meagan; Oren, Yoram; Herzberg, Moshe

    2017-09-05

    Biofouling commonly occurs on carbonaceous capacitive deionization electrodes in the process of treating natural waters. Although previous work reported the effect of electric fields on bacterial mortality for a variety of medical and engineered applications, the effect of electrode surface properties and the magnitude and polarity of applied electric fields on biofilm development has not been comprehensively investigated. This paper studies the formation of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm on a Papyex graphite (PA) and a carbon aerogel (CA) in the presence and the absence of an electric field. The experiments were conducted using a two-electrode flow cell with a voltage window of ±0.9 V. The CA was less susceptible to biofilm formation compared to the PA due to its lower surface roughness, lower hydrophobicity, and significant antimicrobial properties. For both positive and negative applied potentials, we observed an inverse relationship between biofilm formation and the magnitude of the applied potential. The effect is particularly strong for the CA electrodes and may be a result of cumulative effects between material toxicity and the stress experienced by cells at high applied potentials. Under the applied potentials for both electrodes, high production of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) was indicative of bacterial stress. For both electrodes, the elevated specific ROS activity was lowest for the open circuit potential condition, elevated when cathodically and anodically polarized, and highest for the ±0.9 V cases. These high applied potentials are believed to affect the redox potential across the cell membrane and disrupt redox homeostasis, thereby inhibiting bacterial growth.

  2. Effect of magnetic polarity on surface roughness during magnetic field assisted EDM of tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendee, A. M.; Saifuldin, M.; Gebremariam, MA; Azhari, A.

    2018-04-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the non-traditional machining techniques where the process offers wide range of parameters manipulation and machining applications. However, surface roughness, material removal rate, electrode wear and operation costs were among the topmost issue within this technique. Alteration of magnetic device around machining area offers exciting output to be investigated and the effects of magnetic polarity on EDM remain unacquainted. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of magnetic polarity on surface roughness during magnetic field assisted electrical discharge machining (MFAEDM) on tool steel material (AISI 420 mod.) using graphite electrode. A Magnet with a force of 18 Tesla was applied to the EDM process at selected parameters. The sparks under magnetic field assisted EDM produced better surface finish than the normal conventional EDM process. At the presence of high magnetic field, the spark produced was squeezed and discharge craters generated on the machined surface was tiny and shallow. Correct magnetic polarity combination of MFAEDM process is highly useful to attain a high efficiency machining and improved quality of surface finish to meet the demand of modern industrial applications.

  3. Polar gravity fields from GOCE and airborne gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Yidiz, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Airborne gravity, together with high-quality surface data and ocean satellite altimetric gravity, may supplement GOCE to make consistent, accurate high resolution global gravity field models. In the polar regions, the special challenge of the GOCE polar gap make the error characteristics...... of combination models especially sensitive to the correct merging of satellite and surface data. We outline comparisons of GOCE to recent airborne gravity surveys in both the Arctic and the Antarctic. The comparison is done to new 8-month GOCE solutions, as well as to a collocation prediction from GOCE gradients...... in Antarctica. It is shown how the enhanced gravity field solutions improve the determination of ocean dynamic topography in both the Arctic and in across the Drake Passage. For the interior of Antarctica, major airborne gravity programs are currently being carried out, and there is an urgent need...

  4. Temperature dependence of electric field tunable ferromagnetic resonance lineshape in multiferroic heterostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglong Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we experimentally investigate the effect of temperature on the electric field tunable ferromagnetic resonance (FMR in a ferroelectric/ferromagnetic heterostructure, and demonstrate the tuning of abnormal change in FMR using the polarization of the ferroelectric layer above 200 K. The FMR was found to be almost unchanged under different electric field strength at 100 K owing to frozen polarization, which causes extremely weak magnetoelectric coupling. More interestingly, negative effective linewidth was observed when an electric field greater than 10 kV/cm was applied above 220 K. The simultaneous electrical control of magnetization and its damping via FMR based on linear magnetoelectric coupling are directly relevant to use of composite multiferroics for a wide range of devices.

  5. Magnetic field sensor based on the Ampere's force using dual-polarization DBR fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuang; Zhang, Yang; Guan, Baiou

    2015-08-01

    A novel magnetic field sensor using distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) fiber laser by Ampere's force effect is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The key sensing element, that is the dual-polarization DBR fiber laser, is fixed on the middle part of two copper plates which carry the current. Ampere's force is applied onto the coppers due to an external magnetic field generated by a DC solenoid. Thus, the lateral force from the coppers is converted to a corresponding beat frequency signal shift produced by the DBR laser. The electric current sensing is also realized by the same configuration and same principle simultaneously in an intuitive manner. Good agreement between the theory calculation and the experimental results is obtained, which shows a good linearity. This sensor's sensitivity to the magnetic field and to the electric current finally reaches ~258.92 kHz/mT and ~1.08727 MHz/A, respectively.

  6. Electrical and magnetic fields of the power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The availability of electrical energy in all areas of life is guaranteed by a widely ramified power grid. When electricity is transported, magnetic fields are created in addition to the electrical fields. In this brochure one will learn more about the causes and effects of electrical and magnetic fields as well as protection concepts and preventive measures. [de

  7. Numerical simulation of electric field assisted sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Brandon A.

    A fully coupled thermal-electric-sintering finite element model was developed and implemented to explore electric field assisted sintering techniques (FAST). FAST is a single step processing operation for producing bulk materials from powders, in which the powder is heated by the application of electric current under pressure. This process differs from other powder processing techniques such as hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and traditional press and sinter operations where the powder or compact is heated externally, in that the powder is heated directly as a result of internal Joule heating (for conductive powders) and/or by direct conduction from the die and punches. The overall result is much more efficient heating which allows heating rates of >1000°C/min to be achieved which is desirable for sintering bulk nanocrystalline and other novel high performance materials. Previous modeling efforts on FAST have only considered the thermal-electric aspect of the problem and have neglected densification. In addition to the introduction of a sintering model, a detailed thermal-electric study of process parameters was carried out in order to identify key system variables and quantify their effect on the overall system response and subsequent thermal history of a consolidated sample. This analysis was compared to empirical data from a parallel experimental study and shown to satisfactorily predict the observed trends. This model was then integrated with a phenomenologically based sintering model to capture the densification of the sample. This fully coupled model was used to predict densification kinetics under FAST like conditions and examine the evolution of material properties as the sample transitions from a loose powder to a fully dense compact and the resulting effect on the electrical and thermal fields within the compact. This model was also used to explore the effect of non-uniform thermal, electrical, stress and density fields on the final geometry and local

  8. Electrically Rotatable Polarizer Using One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal with a Nematic Liquid Crystal Defect Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryotaro Ozaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polarization characteristics of defect mode peaks in a one-dimensional (1D photonic crystal (PC with a nematic liquid crystal (NLC defect layer have been investigated. Two different polarized defect modes are observed in a stop band. One group of defect modes is polarized along the long molecular axis of the NLC, whereas another group is polarized along its short axis. Polarizations of the defect modes can be tuned by field-induced in-plane reorientation of the NLC in the defect layer. The polarization properties of the 1D PC with the NLC defect layer is also investigated by the finite difference time domain (FDTD simulation.

  9. Pulsed Electric Fields for Biological Weapons Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    including Staphylococcus, a-hemolytic Streptococcus, Actinomyces, and Candida species. , 12% 0.1 % ° F R 3 R2 R3 .0 E R5:2 % R5: 32...pulsed electric field. Pore formation in these simulations of homogeneous lipid bilayers is a molecular process , an extension of water defects into...and Bianco, A. (2006). Functionalized carbon nanotubes are non-cytotoxic and preserve the functionality of primary immune cells. Nano Letters 6, 1522-8

  10. Workshop on Biophysics of Transmembrane Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-15

    the viscosity of the solution. It means that diffusional stage is important. It is known that inulin inhibit osmotical lysis of the cells. In our...experiments we see no inhibition of ET by inulin . So, osmotic influx is not important for ET. Than we had shown that ET depends on time interval t between...high-resolution recording techniques will be mandatory. Marine elasmobranch fishes detect dc and low-frequency electric fields as weak as 5 nV/cm. The

  11. Collapse of DNA in ac Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunda; Reisner, Walter W.; Staunton, Rory J.; Ashan, Amir; Austin, Robert H.; Riehn, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We report that double-stranded DNA collapses in the presence of ac electric fields at frequencies of a few hundred Hertz, and does not stretch as commonly assumed. In particular, we show that confinement-stretched DNA can collapse to about one quarter of its equilibrium length. We propose that this effect is based on finite relaxation times of the counterion cloud, and the subsequent partitioning of the molecule into mutually attractive units. We discuss alternative models of those attractive units.

  12. Collapse of DNA in ac electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunda; Reisner, Walter W; Staunton, Rory J; Ashan, Amir; Austin, Robert H; Riehn, Robert

    2011-06-17

    We report that double-stranded DNA collapses in the presence of ac electric fields at frequencies of a few hundred Hertz, and does not stretch as commonly assumed. In particular, we show that confinement-stretched DNA can collapse to about one quarter of its equilibrium length. We propose that this effect is based on finite relaxation times of the counterion cloud, and the subsequent partitioning of the molecule into mutually attractive units. We discuss alternative models of those attractive units.

  13. Fields of an ultrashort tightly focused radially polarized laser pulse in a linear response plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Yousef I.

    2017-10-01

    Analytical expressions for the fields of a radially polarized, ultrashort, and tightly focused laser pulse propagating in a linear-response plasma are derived and discussed. The fields are obtained from solving the inhomogeneous wave equations for the vector and scalar potentials, linked by the Lorenz gauge, in a plasma background. First, the scalar potential is eliminated using the gauge condition, then the vector potential is synthesized from Fourier components of an initial uniform distribution of wavenumbers, and the inverse Fourier transformation is carried out term-by-term in a truncated series (finite sum). The zeroth-order term in, for example, the axial electric field component is shown to model a pulse much better than its widely used paraxial approximation counterpart. Some of the propagation characteristics of the fields are discussed and all fields are shown to have manifested the expected limits for propagation in a vacuum.

  14. Electric and magnetic fields at power frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anthony B; Green, Lois M

    2010-01-01

    Exposures to electric and magnetic fields are among the most ubiquitous exposures that the Canadian population experiences. Sources of electric and magnetic field exposures may be occupational or residential and include proximity to certain types of electrical equipment, transmission and distribution power lines as well as appliance use. The early studies of children tended toward a consistent association between risks for leukemia and brain cancer and residential proximity to power lines having high wire configuration. More recent studies-and studies which have attempted to improve upon the measurement of exposure by using calculated fields, point-in-time or personal monitoring-have been inconsistent, with some suggesting increased risk and others not. Occupational exposures have suggested an increase in risk for leukemia, and to a lesser extent brain cancer and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. However, studies of residential exposures and cancer in adults generally have suggested no effect. Laboratory work has been unable to demonstrate a biological mechanism which might explain the epidemiological findings. In spite of extensive efforts over the past 20 years and many expert reviews, it has been difficult to reach consensus regarding the carcinogenic effects of electric and magnetic fields. Exposure assessment has proven to be complex, and agreement on the relevant exposure metric has not yet been obtained. There is justification to question whether point-in-time measures in homes are appropriate indices of the relevant etiological exposure, as they fail to account for changes over time, peak exposures or time-varying fields. Nevertheless, it is probably desirable to err on the side of caution in not placing too much weight on the inconsistencies. The IARC has classified EMF as a "possible carcinogen" which refers to the circumstances where there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and inadequate evidence in experimental animals. The IARC review indicated

  15. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.

    2017-07-21

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field applied, the flame spread rate and the flame width of downwardly spreading flames (DSFs) decreased from the horizontal case for −20° ≤ θ < 0° and maintained near constant values for −90° ≤ θ < −20°, while the flame spread rate increased appreciably as the inclination angle of upwardly spreading flames (USFs) increased. When an AC electric field was applied, the behavior of flame spread rate in DSFs (USFs) could be classified into two (three) sub-regimes characterized by various functional dependences on VAC, fAC, and θ. In nearly all cases of DSFs, a globular molten polyethylene formed ahead of the spreading flame edge, occasionally dripping onto the ground. In these cases, an effective flame spread rate was defined to represent the burning rate by measuring the mass loss due to dripping. This effective spread rate was independent of AC frequency, while it decreased linearly with voltage and was independent of the inclination angle. In DSFs, when excessively high voltage and frequency were applied, the dripping led to flame extinction during propagation and the extinction frequency correlated well with applied voltage. In USFs, when high voltage and frequency were applied, multiple globular molten PEs formed at several locations, leading to ejections of multiple small flame segments from the main flame, thereby reducing the flame spread rate, which could be attributed to the electrospray phenomenon.

  16. Extremely low frequency electric fields and cancer: assessing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheifets, Leeka; Renew, David; Sias, Glenn; Swanson, John

    2010-02-01

    Much of the research and reviews on extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) have focused on magnetic rather than electric fields. Some have considered such focus to be inappropriate and have argued that electric fields should be part of both epidemiologic and laboratory work. This paper fills the gap by systematically and critically reviewing electric-fields literature and by comparing overall strength of evidence for electric versus magnetic fields. The review of possible mechanisms does not provide any specific basis for focusing on electric fields. While laboratory studies of electric fields are few, they do not indicate that electric fields should be the exposure of interest. The existing epidemiology on residential electric-field exposures and appliance use does not support the conclusion of adverse health effects from electric-field exposure. Workers in close proximity to high-voltage transmission lines or substation equipment can be exposed to high electric fields. While there are sporadic reports of increase in cancer in some occupational studies, these are inconsistent and fraught with methodologic problems. Overall, there seems little basis to suppose there might be a risk for electric fields, and, in contrast to magnetic fields, and with a possible exception of occupational epidemiology, there seems little basis for continued research into electric fields. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF POLARIZATION PHASE DIFFERENCE RELATED TO FOREST FIELDS CHARACTERIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Majidi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The information content of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data significantly included in the radiometric polarization channels, hence polarimetric SAR data should be analyzed in relation with target structure. The importance of the phase difference between two co-polarized scattered signals due to the possible association between the biophysical parameters and the measured Polarization Phase Difference (PPD statistics of the backscattered signal recorded components has been recognized in geophysical remote sensing. This paper examines two Radarsat-2 images statistics of the phase difference to describe the feasibility of relationship with the physical properties of scattering targets and tries to understand relevance of PPD statistics with various types of forest fields. As well as variation of incidence angle due to affecting on PPD statistics is investigated. The experimental forest pieces that are used in this research are characterized white pine (Pinus strobus L., red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait., jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb., white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill B.S.P., poplar (Populus L., red oak (Quercus rubra L. , aspen and ground vegetation. The experimental results show that despite of biophysical parameters have a wide diversity, PPD statistics are almost the same. Forest fields distributions as distributed targets have close to zero means regardless of the incidence angle. Also, The PPD distribution are function of both target and sensor parameters, but for more appropriate examination related to PPD statistics the observations should made in the leaf-off season or in bands with lower frequencies.

  18. The Dynamics of Oblate Drop Between Heterogeneous Plates Under Alternating Electric Field. Non-uniform Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashina, M. A.; Alabuzhev, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The dynamics of the incompressible fluid drop under the non-uniform electric field are considered. The drop is bounded axially by two parallel solid planes and the case of heterogeneous plates is investigated. The external electric field acts as an external force that causes motion of the contact line. We assume that the electric current is alternative current and the AC filed amplitude is a spatially non-uniform function. In equilibrium, the drop has the form of a circular cylinder. The equilibrium contact angle is 0.5 π. In order to describe this contact line motion the modified Hocking boundary condition is applied: the velocity of the contact line is proportional to the deviation of the contact angle and the speed of the fast relaxation processes, which frequency is proportional to twice the frequency of the electric field. The Hocking parameter depends on the polar angle, i.e. the coefficient of the interaction between the plate and the fluid (the contact line) is a function of the plane coordinates. This function is expanded in a series of the Laplace operator eigenfunctions.

  19. Colloidal Switches by Electric and Magnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirörs, Ahmet Faik; Beltramo, Peter J; Vutukuri, Hanumantha Rao

    2017-05-24

    External electric and magnetic fields have already been proven to be a versatile tool to control the particle assembly; however, the degree of control of the dynamics and versatility of the produced structures is expected to increase if both can be implemented simultaneously. For example, while micromagnets can rapidly assemble superparamagnetic particles, repeated, rapid disassembly or reassembly is not trivial because of the remanence and coercivity of metals used in such applications. Here, an interdigitated design of micromagnet and microfabricated electrodes enables rapid switching of colloids between their magnetic and electric potential minima. Active control over colloids between two such adjacent potential minima enables a fast on/off mechanism, which is potentially important for optical switches or display technologies. Moreover, we demonstrate that the response time of the colloids between these states is on the order of tens of milliseconds, which is tunable by electric field strength. By carefully designing the electrode pattern, our strategy enables the switchable assembly of single particles down to few microns and also hierarchical assemblies containing many particles. Our work on precise dynamic control over the particle position would open new avenues to find potential applications in optical switches and display technologies.

  20. Neutral fermion possessing by electric and magnetic moments in external electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalilov, V.R.

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that in 2+1 dimensions the Dirac equations for a neutral fermion, specified by electric and magnetic dipole moments, is reduced in the electromagnetic field to the Dirac equation for the charged fermion in the external field, characterized by some pseudovector potential. The neutral fermion charge is determined by its dipole moments. The exact solution is found for the Dirac equation for the massive neutral fermion with magnetic and electric dipole moments in the external electromagnetic plane-wave field. The problem on the neutral fermion vacuum polarization in presence of external electromagnetic fields is considered [ru

  1. A physics-based potential and electric field model of a nanoscale ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we have developed a physics-based model for surface potential, channel potential, electric field and drain current for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor with high-K gate dielectric using two-dimensional Poisson equation under full depletion approximation with the inclusion of effect of polarization ...

  2. Influence of atmospheric electric fields on the radio emission from extensive air showers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, T. N. G.; Scholten, O.; Buitink, S.

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric electric fields in thunderclouds have been shown to significantly modify the intensity and polarization patterns of the radio footprint of cosmic-ray-induced extensive air showers. Simulations indicated a very nonlinear dependence of the signal strength in the frequency window of ...

  3. Unusual lightning electric field waveforms observed in Kathmandu, Nepal, and Uppsala, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Pitri Bhakta; Sharma, Shriram; Baral, Kedarnath; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2017-11-01

    Unusual lightning events have been observed in Uppsala, Sweden, and Kathmandu, Nepal, using essentially the same electric field measuring system developed at Uppsala University. They occurred in the storms that also generated ;normal; lightning events. The unusual events recorded in Uppsala occurred on one thunderstorm day. Similar events were observed in Kathmandu on multiple thunderstorm days. The unusual events were analyzed in this study assuming them to be positive ground flashes (+CGs), although we cannot rule out the possibility that some or most of them were actually cloud discharges (ICs). The unusual events were each characterized by a relatively slow, negative (atmospheric electricity sign convention) electric field waveform preceded by a pronounced opposite-polarity pulse whose duration was some tens of microseconds. To the best of our knowledge, such unusual events have not been reported in the literature. The average amplitudes of the opposite-polarity pulses with respect to those of the following main waveform were found to be about 33% in Uppsala (N = 31) and about 38% in Kathmandu (N = 327). The average durations of the main waveform and the preceding opposite-polarity pulse in Uppsala were 8.24 ms and 57.1 μs, respectively, and their counterparts in Kathmandu were 421 μs and 39.7 μs. Electric field waveforms characteristic of negative ground flashes (-CGs) were also observed, and none of them exhibited an opposite-polarity pulse prior to the main waveform. Possible origins of the unusual field waveforms are discussed.

  4. A physics-based potential and electric field model of a nanoscale ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... paper, we have developed a physics-based model for surface potential, channel potential, electric field and drain current for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor with high-K gate dielectric using two-dimensional Poisson equation under full depletion approximation with the inclusion of effect of polarization charges.

  5. Electronic properties of phosphorene/graphene heterostructures: Effect of external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Sumandeep; Srivastava, Sunita; Tankeshwar, K. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Kumar, Ashok [Centre for Physical Sciences, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India 151001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    We report the electronic properties of electrically gated heterostructures of black and blue phosphorene with graphene. The heterostructure of blue phosphorene with graphene is energetically more favorable than black phospherene/graphene. However, both are bonded by weak interlayer interactions. Graphene induces the Dirac cone character in both heterostructure which shows tunabilities with external electric field. It is found that Dirac cone get shifted depending on the polarity of external electric field that results into the so called self induced p-type or n-type doping effect. These features have importance in the fabrication of nano-electronic devices based on the phosphorene/graphene heterostructures.

  6. Quasi-static electric fields, turbulence and VLF waves in the ionosphere and magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temerin, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Two rocket payloads launched from Greenland in December 1974 and January 1975 into the dayside auroral oval measured large scale electric fields. Sunward convection in regions of polar cusp type particle precipitation argues for the existence of a turbulent entry region at the magnetopause. Smaller scale changes in the electric field and energetic electron precipitation require field-aligned currents predominately at the boundaries of auroral arcs. Measurements of electric fields parallel to the magnetic field place upper limits to the parallel electric field. An analysis of the effect of zero-frequency electric field turbulence on the output of an electric field double probe detector is applied to data from two satellites, OVI-17 and S3-3. It is found that the electric field of high latitude low frequency turbulence is polarized perpendicular to the magnetic field and that the frequency is measured by the satellites is due to the Doppler shift of near zero frequency turbulence both in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In addition, rocket measurements of low frequency turbulence in the dayside auroral oval reveal characteristics similar to those of the large electric field regions recently seen on S3-3 indicating that the turbulence from those regions extends into the ionosphere. VLF waves were also observed during the two rocket flights into the dayside auroral oval. The correlation of the VLF hiss intensity with the fluxes of precipitating electrons above 500 eV on a short spatial and time scale is often poor, even when a positive slope exists in the electron phase space density. The frequency of the lower hybrid waves were used to measure the ratio of NO + and O 2 + to O + . Electrostatic waves were observed during a barium release

  7. Electric field gradients in copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalley, L.R.

    1974-02-01

    The electric field gradients at Cu atoms which are near neighbors to the nickel impurity in a dilute CuNi alloy were measured. The technique used is zero field pure quadrupole resonance which was first demonstrated by Redfield [Redfield, Phys. Rev. 130, 589 (1963)]. The measured electric field gradients for this alloy system are 4.1 x 10 23 cm -3 , 0.84 x 10 23 cm -3 , 0.46 x 10 23 cm -3 and 0.146 x 10 23 cm -3 . These measured values are compared with the values calculated by Beal-Monod [Beal-Monod, Phys. Rev. 164, 360 (1967)]. In addition the following alloy systems were measured; CuCo, CuFe, and CuV. The nuclear relaxation of the alloys was measured but no satellite structure was detected. Results of these measurements show the similarity of the interactions measured here to the interactions in CuZn measured by Redfield. Since nickel has an unfilled 3d shell in its electronic structure, magnetic interactions in the CuNi alloy might be expected. Magnetic interactions were not found. Like the nickel alloy, the zinc alloy with copper exhibits no magnetic effects. (U.S.)

  8. Low- and mid-latitude ionospheric electric fields during the January 1984 GISMOS campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fejer, B.G.; Kelley, M.C.; Senior, C.; De La Beaujardiere, O.; Holt, J.A.; Tepley, C.A.; Burnside, R.; Abdu, M.A.; Sobral, J.H.A.; Woodman, R.F.; Kamide, Y.; Lepping, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines in detail the electrical coupling between the high-, middle, and low-latitude ionospheres during January 17-19, 1984, using interplanetary and high-latitude magnetic field data together with F region plasma drift measurements from the EISCAT, Sondre Stromfjord, Millstone Hill, Saint-Santin, Arecibo, and Jicamarca incoherent scatter radars. The authors study the penetration of both the zonal and meridional electric field components of high-latitude origin into the low-latitude and the equatorial ionospheres. In the dusk sector, a large perturbation of the zonal equatorial electric field was observed in the absence of similar changes at low and middle latitudes in the same longitudinal sector. The observations in the postmidnight sector are used to compare the longitudinal variation of the zonal perturbation electric field with predictions made from global convection models. The results show that the meridional electric field perturbations are considerably more attenuated with decreasing latitude than the zonal fluctuations. As a result, they conclude that variations in the meridional electric field at low latitudes are largely due to dynamo effects. These observations are used to show that the global convection models reproduce a number of characteristics of low-latitude and equatorial electric fields associated with changes in the polar cap potential drop. In addition, they highlight several areas where there is still substantial disagreement between the electric field data and the theoretical results

  9. Linear response of field-aligned currents to the interplanetary electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, D. R.; Edwards, T. R.; Olsen, Nils

    2017-08-01

    Many studies that have shown that the ionospheric, polar cap electric potentials (PCEPs) exhibit a "saturation" behavior in response to the level of the driving by the solar wind. As the magnitudes of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and electric field (IEF) increase, the PCEP response is linear at low driving levels, followed with a rollover to a more constant level. While there are several different theoretical explanations for this behavior, so far, no direct observational evidence has existed to confirm any particular model. In most models of this saturation, the interaction of the field-aligned currents (FACs) with the solar wind/magnetosphere/ionosphere system has a role. As the FACs are more difficult to measure, their behavior in response to the level of the IEF has not been investigated as thoroughly. In order to resolve the question of whether or not the FAC also exhibit saturation, we have processed the magnetic field measurements from the Ørsted, CHAMP, and Swarm missions, spanning more than a decade. As the amount of current in each region needs to be known, a new technique is used to separate and sum the current by region, widely known as R0, R1, and R2. These totals are found separately for the dawnside and duskside. Results indicate that the total FAC has a response to the IEF that is highly linear, continuing to increase well beyond the level at which the electric potentials saturate. The currents within each region have similar behavior.

  10. Magnetized boxes for housing polarized spins in homogeneous fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebel, S; Grossmann, T; Kiselev, D; Schmiedeskamp, J; Gusev, Y; Heil, W; Karpuk, S; Krimmer, J; Otten, E W; Salhi, Z

    2010-05-01

    We present novel types of permanently magnetized as well as current powered boxes built from soft-ferromagnetic materials. They provide shielded magnetic fields which are homogeneous within a large fraction of the enclosed volume, thus minimizing size, weight, and costs. For the permanently magnetized solutions, homogenization is achieved either by an optimized distribution of the permanent field sources or by jacketing the field with a soft-ferromagnetic cylindrical shell which is magnetized in parallel to the enclosed field. The latter principle may be applied up to fields of about 0.1T. With fields of about 1mT, such boxes are being used for shipping spin-polarized (3)He worldwide for MRI purposes. For current powered boxes, we present concepts and realizations of uniaxial and tri-axial shielded magnetic fields which are homogeneous on the level of 10(-4) within the entire shielded volume. This is achieved by inserting tightly fitting solenoids into a box from soft-magnetic material. The flexible tri-axial solution suits in particular laboratory applications, e.g. for establishing a spin quantization axis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radial-Electric-Field Piezoelectric Diaphragm Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Working, Dennis C.; Mossi, Karla; Castro, Nicholas D.; Mane, Pooma

    2009-01-01

    In a recently invented class of piezoelectric diaphragm pumps, the electrode patterns on the piezoelectric diaphragms are configured so that the electric fields in the diaphragms have symmetrical radial (along-the-surface) components in addition to through-the-thickness components. Previously, it was accepted in the piezoelectric-transducer art that in order to produce the out-of-plane bending displacement of a diaphragm needed for pumping, one must make the electric field asymmetrical through the thickness, typically by means of electrodes placed on only one side of the piezoelectric material. In the present invention, electrodes are placed on both sides and patterned so as to produce substantial radial as well as through-the-thickness components. Moreover, unlike in the prior art, the electric field can be symmetrical through the thickness. Tests have shown in a given diaphragm that an electrode configuration according to this invention produces more displacement than does a conventional one-sided electrode pattern. The invention admits of numerous variations characterized by various degrees of complexity. Figure 1 is a simplified depiction of a basic version. As in other piezoelectric diaphragm pumps of similar basic design, the prime mover is a piezoelectric diaphragm. Application of a suitable voltage to the electrodes on the diaphragm causes it to undergo out-of-plane bending. The bending displacement pushes a fluid out of, or pulls the fluid into, a chamber bounded partly by the diaphragm. Also as in other diaphragm pumps in general, check valves ensure that the fluid flows only in through one port and only out through another port.

  12. Three dimensional alignment of molecules using elliptically polarized laser fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Bjerre, N.; Hald, K.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, that an intense, elliptically polarized, nonresonant laser field can simultaneously force all three axes of a molecule to align along given axes fixed in space, thus inhibiting the free rotation in all three Euler angles. Theoretically, the effect...... is illustrated through time dependent quantum mechanical calculations. Experimentally, 3, 4-dibromothiophene molecules are aligned with a nanosecond laser pulse. The alignment is probed by 2D ion imaging of the fragments from a 20 fs laser pulse induced Coulomb explosion....

  13. Biological effects of electrical and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault de Boesinghe, L. de

    1979-01-01

    A review is made by the author of the literature about the biological effects of electrical and magnetic fields. A distinction is made between the observations made on man and the experience on animals. The results do not allow to reach a uniform conclusion. The used methodology is furthermore often open for discussion. One fundamental question remains: is there or not a threshold value. The question may be asked if objective modifications would not better come out in the light of systematical programs studies. This review of the literature gives results which anyway justify a systematic study of this subject. (author)

  14. Modelling electricity forward markets by ambit fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Fred Espen Benth, Fred Espen; Veraart, Almut

    This paper proposes a new modelling framework for electricity forward markets, which is based on ambit fields. The new model can capture many of the stylised facts observed in energy markets. One of the main differences to the traditional models lies in the fact that we do not model the dynamics......, but the forward price directly, where we focus on models which are stationary in time. We give a detailed account on the probabilistic properties of the new model and we discuss martingale conditions and change of measure within the new model class. Also, we derive a model for the spot price which is obtained...... from the forward model through a limiting argument....

  15. Minimum Q circularly polarized electrically small spherical antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2011-01-01

    The radiation problem for the TM10- and TE10-mode electric current densities on the surface of a spherical magnetic-coated PEC core is solved analytically. The combination of the electric and magnetic dipole modes reduces the radiation Q of the antenna. Moreover, with an appropriately designed ma...

  16. Nonlinear relaxation field in charged systems under high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, K.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of an external electric field on the current in charged systems is investigated. The results from the classical hierarchy of density matrices are compared with the results from the quantum kinetic theory. The kinetic theory yields a systematic treatment of the nonlinear current beyond linear response. To this end the dynamically screened and field-dependent Lenard-Balescu equation is integrated analytically and the nonlinear relaxation field is calculated. The classical linear response result known as Debye - On-Sager relaxation effect is only obtained if asymmetric screening is assumed. Considering the kinetic equation of one specie the other species have to be screened dynamically while the screening with the same specie itself has to be performed statically. Different other approximations are discussed and compared. (author)

  17. Moving antiphase boundaries using an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaideeswaran, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushik.vaideeswaran@alumni.epfl.ch; Shapovalov, Konstantin; Yudin, Petr V.; Setter, Nava [Ceramics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Tagantsev, Alexander K. [Ceramics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ferroics Laboratory, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-09

    Antiphase boundaries (APBs) are unique domain walls that may demonstrate switchable polarization in otherwise non-ferroelectric materials such as SrTiO{sub 3} and PbZrO{sub 3}. The current study explores the possibility of displacing such domain walls at the nanoscale. We suggest the possibility of manipulating APBs using the inhomogeneous electric field of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) tip with an applied voltage placed in their proximity. The displacement is studied as a function of applied voltage, film thickness, and initial separation of the AFM tip from the APB. It is established, for example, that for films with thickness of 15 nm, an APB may be attracted under the tip with a voltage of 25 V from initial separation of 30 nm. We have also demonstrated that the displacement is appreciably retained after the voltage is removed, rendering it favorable for potential applications.

  18. Particle Agglomeration in Bipolar Barb Agglomerator Under AC Electric Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chao; Ma Xiuqin; Sun Youshan; Wang Meiyan; Zhang Changping; Lou Yueya

    2015-01-01

    The development of an efficient technology for removing fine particles in flue gas is essential as the haze is becoming more and more serious. To improve agglomeration effectiveness of fine particles, a dual zone electric agglomeration device consisting of a charging chamber and an agglomeration chamber with bipolar barb electrodes was developed. The bipolar barb electric agglomerator with a polar distance of 200 mm demonstrates good agglomeration effectiveness for particles with a size less than 8.0 μm under applied AC electric field. An optimal condition for achieving better agglomeration effectiveness was found to be as follows: flue gas flow velocity of 3.00 m/s, particle concentration of 2.00 g/m 3 , output voltage of 35 kV and length of the barb of 16 mm. In addition, 4.0–6.0 μm particles have the best effectiveness with the variation of particle volume occupancy of −3.2. (paper)

  19. Electric field manipulation in Al/CdTe/Pt detectors under optical perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turturici, A.A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); Franc, J.; Grill, R.; Dědič, V. [Institute of Physics of Charles University, MFF, Ke Karlovu 5, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Abbene, L., E-mail: leonardo.abbene@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); Principato, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy)

    2017-06-21

    Al/CdTe/Pt detectors are very attractive devices for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy, even though they suffer from polarization phenomena, which cause a progressive time degradation of the spectroscopic performance. In this work we investigated on the time dependence of the electric field of an Al/CdTe/Pt detector under optical perturbation by means of Pockels effect measurements. A tunable laser with wavelengths ranging within 700−1000 nm and a 940 nm light emitting diode (LED) were used. The measurements of both the electric field profile and the total current were used to better understand the effects of the optical perturbation on polarization phenomena. The results point out as the above band-gap light, due to the trapping of photo-generated holes at the anode (the Al/CdTe blocking contact), brings to a reduction of the negative space charge caused by the bias voltage (bias induced polarization) and the LED irradiation (radiation induced polarization). The reduction of the negative space charge ensures a quite stable and uniform electric field distribution, typically termed depolarization. Conversely, optical perturbation with sub-band-gap light enhances the polarization with the formation of two oppositely charged regions within the detector.

  20. Electric field manipulation in Al/CdTe/Pt detectors under optical perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turturici, A. A.; Franc, J.; Grill, R.; Dědič, V.; Abbene, L.; Principato, F.

    2017-06-01

    Al/CdTe/Pt detectors are very attractive devices for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy, even though they suffer from polarization phenomena, which cause a progressive time degradation of the spectroscopic performance. In this work we investigated on the time dependence of the electric field of an Al/CdTe/Pt detector under optical perturbation by means of Pockels effect measurements. A tunable laser with wavelengths ranging within 700-1000 nm and a 940 nm light emitting diode (LED) were used. The measurements of both the electric field profile and the total current were used to better understand the effects of the optical perturbation on polarization phenomena. The results point out as the above band-gap light, due to the trapping of photo-generated holes at the anode (the Al/CdTe blocking contact), brings to a reduction of the negative space charge caused by the bias voltage (bias induced polarization) and the LED irradiation (radiation induced polarization). The reduction of the negative space charge ensures a quite stable and uniform electric field distribution, typically termed depolarization. Conversely, optical perturbation with sub-band-gap light enhances the polarization with the formation of two oppositely charged regions within the detector.

  1. Enhanced fog collection with electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damak, Maher; Mahmoudi, Seyed Reza; Varanasi, Kripa

    2015-11-01

    Fog harvesting is a promising source of fresh water in remote areas. However, the efficiency of current collectors, consisting in fine meshes standing perpendicularly to the wind, is dramatically low. Fog-laden flows generally have low Stokes numbers, which leads to the deviation of fog droplets in the vicinity of the mesh wires. Here, we propose to overcome this aerodynamic limitation using a combination of electric fields and specific collecting surfaces. We show that our system largely increases the fog collection efficiency. We study the trajectories of individual particles and use the results to derive a model to predict the collection efficiency of the system. We finally identify and quantify the mechanisms that can limit the collection of fog particles. The understanding of these mechanisms leads us to construct a design chart that can be used to determine the optimal design parameters that should be used in fog collection applications as a function of the field conditions.

  2. Controlling Positronium Annihilation with Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, A M; Cooper, B S; Deller, A; Hogan, S D; Cassidy, D B

    2015-10-30

    We show that the annihilation dynamics of excited positronium (Ps) atoms can be controlled using parallel electric and magnetic fields. To achieve this, Ps atoms were optically excited to n=2 sublevels in fields that were adjusted to control the amount of short-lived and long-lived character of the resulting mixed states. Inclusion of the former offers a practical approach to detection via annihilation radiation, whereas the increased lifetimes due to the latter can be exploited to optimize resonance-enhanced two-photon excitation processes (e.g., 1^{3}S→2^{3}P→nS/nD), either by minimizing losses through intermediate state decay, or by making it possible to separate the excitation laser pulses in time. In addition, photoexcitation of mixed states with a 2^{3}S_{1} component represents an efficient route to producing long-lived pure 2^{3}S_{1} atoms via single-photon excitation.

  3. The induced electric field distribution in the solar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rong; Yang Zhi-Liang; Deng Yuan-Yong

    2013-01-01

    A method of calculating the induced electric field is presented. The induced electric field in the solar atmosphere is derived by the time variation of the magnetic field when the accumulation of charged particles is neglected. In order to derive the spatial distribution of the magnetic field, several extrapolation methods are introduced. With observational data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory taken on 2010 May 20, we extrapolate the magnetic field from the photosphere to the upper atmosphere. By calculating the time variation of the magnetic field, we can get the induced electric field. The derived induced electric field can reach a value of 10 2 V cm −1 and the average electric field has a maximum point at the layer 360 km above the photosphere. The Monte Carlo method is used to compute the triple integration of the induced electric field.

  4. Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography for determining electric field distribution during electroporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranjc, Matej; Miklavcic, Damijan; Bajd, Franci; Serša, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Electroporation is a phenomenon caused by externally applied electric field to cells that results in an increase of cell membrane permeability to various molecules. Accurate coverage of the tissue with a sufficiently large electric field presents one of the most important conditions for successful membrane permeabilization. Applications based on electroporation would greatly benefit with a method for monitoring the electric field, especially if it could be done in situ. As the membrane electroporation is a consequence of an induced transmembrane potential, which is directly proportional to the local electric field, we have been investigating current density imaging and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography techniques to determine the electric field distribution during electroporation. In this paper, we present comparison of current density and electric field distribution in an agar phantom and in a liver tissue exposed to electroporation pulses. As expected, a region of increased electrical conductivity was observed in the liver tissue exposed to sufficiently high electric field but not in agar phantom.

  5. Influence of relative humidity on analyzing electric field exposure using ELF electric field measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena H; Kuisti, Harri A; Tarao, Hiroo; Elovaara, Jarmo A

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of humidity on analyzing electric field exposure using extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field measurements. The study included 322 measurements in a climate room. We used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300, and employed two measurement techniques in the climate room where we varied the temperature from 15 to 25 °C, the relative humidity from 55% to 95%, and the electric field from 1 to 25 kV/m. We calculated Pearson correlations between humidity and percentage errors for all data and for data at different levels of humidity. When the relative humidity was below 70%, the results obtained by the different measurement methods in terms of percentage errors were of the same order of magnitude for the considered temperatures and field strength, but the results were less reliable when the relative humidity was higher than 80%. In the future, it is important to take humidity into account when electric field measurement results will be compared to the values given in different exposure guidelines. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Intermediate polars as low-field magnetic cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, D.T.; Kinwah Wu; Ferrario, Lilia

    1991-01-01

    We present the first detailed calculations of the polarization properties of extended accretion shocks on the surface of a magnetic white dwarf where allowance is made both for field spread and for the change in shock height as a function of specific accretion rate. These results are used to show conclusively that the null detection of circular polarization in most IPs imply fields of less than 5 MG. We suggest that the X-ray properties of MCVs depends critically on the fractional area of the white-dwarf surface over which accretion occurs, and on the type of accretion (smooth or clumpy). We argue that in the known IPs, accretion occurs via a disc. The accretion flow is smooth and a strong shock forms making them a powerful source of hard X-rays. We propose that there is a new class of MCV distinct from the IPs, where the white dwarf is asynchronous and accretes without a disc in which the accretion is clumpy and the radiation is mainly in the EUV region. (author)

  7. Quantum mechanical force field for water with explicit electronic polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaebeom; Mazack, Michael J M; Zhang, Peng; Truhlar, Donald G; Gao, Jiali

    2013-08-07

    A quantum mechanical force field (QMFF) for water is described. Unlike traditional approaches that use quantum mechanical results and experimental data to parameterize empirical potential energy functions, the present QMFF uses a quantum mechanical framework to represent intramolecular and intermolecular interactions in an entire condensed-phase system. In particular, the internal energy terms used in molecular mechanics are replaced by a quantum mechanical formalism that naturally includes electronic polarization due to intermolecular interactions and its effects on the force constants of the intramolecular force field. As a quantum mechanical force field, both intermolecular interactions and the Hamiltonian describing the individual molecular fragments can be parameterized to strive for accuracy and computational efficiency. In this work, we introduce a polarizable molecular orbital model Hamiltonian for water and for oxygen- and hydrogen-containing compounds, whereas the electrostatic potential responsible for intermolecular interactions in the liquid and in solution is modeled by a three-point charge representation that realistically reproduces the total molecular dipole moment and the local hybridization contributions. The present QMFF for water, which is called the XP3P (explicit polarization with three-point-charge potential) model, is suitable for modeling both gas-phase clusters and liquid water. The paper demonstrates the performance of the XP3P model for water and proton clusters and the properties of the pure liquid from about 900 × 10(6) self-consistent-field calculations on a periodic system consisting of 267 water molecules. The unusual dipole derivative behavior of water, which is incorrectly modeled in molecular mechanics, is naturally reproduced as a result of an electronic structural treatment of chemical bonding by XP3P. We anticipate that the XP3P model will be useful for studying proton transport in solution and solid phases as well as across

  8. Enhanced Dielectronic Recombination in Crossed Electric and Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robicheaux, F.; Pindzola, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The dependence of the dielectronic recombination cross section on crossed electric and magnetic fields is described. The enhancement of this cross section due to a static electric field is further increased when a magnetic field is added perpendicular to the electric field. Calculation of this field induced enhancement is presented for a realistic atomic model, and the mechanism for the enhancement is discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi, E-mail: shong21@korea.ac.kr, E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr [School of Biosystem and Biomedical Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-703 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jiwon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun, E-mail: shong21@korea.ac.kr, E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr [Department of Bio-convergence Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-703 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Eui Kwan [Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-17

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields.

  10. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi; Sung, Jiwon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun; Koh, Eui Kwan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields

  11. Experimental Investigation of Integrated Optical Intensive Impulse Electric Field Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Sun; Fu-Shen, Chen

    2009-01-01

    We design and fabricate an integrated optical electric field sensor with segmented electrode for intensive impulse electric field measurement. The integrated optical sensor is based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with segmented electrodes. The output/input character of the sensing system is analysed and measured. The maximal detectable electric field range (−75 kV/m to 245 kV/m) is obtained by analysing the results. As a result, the integrated optics electric field sensing system is suitable for transient intensive electric field measurement investigation

  12. Electric field measurements in a NLC/PMSE region during the MASS/ECOMA campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shimogawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present results of electric field measurements made during the MASS rocket campaign in Andøya, Norway into noctilucent clouds (NLC and polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE on 3 August 2007. The instrument used high input-impedance preamps to measure vertical and horizontal electric fields. No large-amplitude geophysical electric fields were detected in the cloud layers, but significant levels of electric field fluctuations were measured. Within the cloud layer, the probe potentials relative to the rocket skin were driven negative by incident heavy charged aerosols. The amplitude of spikes caused by probe shadowing were also larger in the NLC/PMSE region. We describe a method for calculating positive ion conductivities using these shadowing spike amplitudes and the density of heavy charged aerosols.

  13. Influence of Electric Fields and Conductivity on Pollen Tube Growth assessed via Electrical Lab-on-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, Carlos; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Geitmann, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Pollen tubes are polarly growing plant cells that are able to rapidly respond to a combination of chemical, mechanical, and electrical cues. This behavioural feature allows them to invade the flower pistil and deliver the sperm cells in highly targeted manner to receptive ovules in order to accomplish fertilization. How signals are perceived and processed in the pollen tube is still poorly understood. Evidence for electrical guidance in particular is vague and highly contradictory. To generate reproducible experimental conditions for the investigation of the effect of electric fields on pollen tube growth we developed an Electrical Lab-on-Chip (ELoC). Pollen from the species Camellia displayed differential sensitivity to electric fields depending on whether the entire cell or only its growing tip was exposed. The response to DC fields was dramatically higher than that to AC fields of the same strength. However, AC fields were found to restore and even promote pollen growth. Surprisingly, the pollen tube response correlated with the conductivity of the growth medium under different AC frequencies—consistent with the notion that the effect of the field on pollen tube growth may be mediated via its effect on the motion of ions. PMID:26804186

  14. Influence of Electric Fields and Conductivity on Pollen Tube Growth assessed via Electrical Lab-on-Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, Carlos; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Geitmann, Anja

    2016-01-25

    Pollen tubes are polarly growing plant cells that are able to rapidly respond to a combination of chemical, mechanical, and electrical cues. This behavioural feature allows them to invade the flower pistil and deliver the sperm cells in highly targeted manner to receptive ovules in order to accomplish fertilization. How signals are perceived and processed in the pollen tube is still poorly understood. Evidence for electrical guidance in particular is vague and highly contradictory. To generate reproducible experimental conditions for the investigation of the effect of electric fields on pollen tube growth we developed an Electrical Lab-on-Chip (ELoC). Pollen from the species Camellia displayed differential sensitivity to electric fields depending on whether the entire cell or only its growing tip was exposed. The response to DC fields was dramatically higher than that to AC fields of the same strength. However, AC fields were found to restore and even promote pollen growth. Surprisingly, the pollen tube response correlated with the conductivity of the growth medium under different AC frequencies--consistent with the notion that the effect of the field on pollen tube growth may be mediated via its effect on the motion of ions.

  15. Solar causes of the excitation of earth electric currents and of geomagnetic field disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivsky, L.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is given of the effects of solar activity on geomagnetic and geoelectric disturbances. Indexes are given showing changes in the magnetic field, the occurrence of calm geomagnetic days related to solar activity, proton solar flares and electrical currents in the high layers of the atmosphere in the polar region, powerfull solar activity and electric currents in the polar region, the time rise of shock waves in the development of proton flares and the boundaries of sector structures of the interplanetary magnetic field and its effect on the Earth. It is stated that the geoelectric and geomagnetic fields are affected by the discrete phenomena of solar activity and by the transition of the quasimagnetic sectors of interplanetary fields. (J.P.)

  16. Influence of strike object grounding on close lightning electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yoshihiro; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2008-06-01

    Using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, we have calculated vertical electric field Ez, horizontal (radial) electric field Eh, and azimuthal magnetic field Hϕ produced on the ground surface by lightning strikes to 160-m- and a 553-m-high conical strike objects representing the Peissenberg tower (Germany) and the CN Tower (Canada), respectively. The fields were computed for a typical subsequent stroke at distances d' from the bottom of the object ranging from 5 to 100 m for the 160-m tower and from 10 to 300 m for the 553-m tower. Grounding of the 160-m object was assumed to be accomplished by its underground basement represented by a 10-m-radius and 8-m-long perfectly conducting cylinder with or without a reference ground plane located 2 m below. The reference ground plane simulates, to some extent, a higher-conducting ground layer that is expected to exist below the water table. The configuration without reference ground plane actually means that this plane is present, but is located at an infinitely large depth. Grounding of the 553-m object was modeled in a similar manner but in the absence of reference ground plane only. In all cases considered, waveforms of Eh and Hϕ are not much influenced by the presence of strike object, while waveforms of Ez are. Waveforms of Ez are essentially unipolar (as they are in the absence of strike object) when the ground conductivity σ is 10 mS/m (the equivalent transient grounding impedance is several ohms) or greater. Thus, for the CN Tower, for which σ ≥ 10 mS/m, the occurrence of Ez polarity change is highly unlikely. For the 160-m tower and for σ = 1 and 0.1 mS/m, waveforms of Ez become bipolar (exhibit polarity change) at d' ≤ 10 m and d' ≤ 50 m, respectively, regardless of the presence of the reference ground plane. The corresponding equivalent transient grounding impedances are about 30 and 50 Ω in the absence of the reference ground plane and smaller than 10 Ω in the presence of the reference

  17. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 8. Variation of surface electric field ... Diurnal variation of surface electric field measured at Maitri shows a similar variation with worldwide thunderstorm activity, whereas the departure of the field is observed during disturbed periods. This part of the field ...

  18. Control of the radial electric field shear by modification of the magnetic field configuration in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Yokoyama, M.

    2005-01-01

    Control of the radial electric field, E r , is considered to be important in helical plasmas, because the radial electric field and its shear are expected to reduce neoclassical and anomalous transport, respectively. In general, the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, and positive or negative electric fields have been obtained by decreasing or increasing the electron density, respectively. Although the sign of the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, modification of the magnetic field is required to achieve further control of the radial electric field, especially to produce a strong radial electric field shear. In the Large Helical Device (LHD) the radial electric field profiles are shown to be controlled by the modification of the magnetic field by (1) changing the radial profile of the effective helical ripples, ε h (2) creating a magnetic island with an external perturbation field coil and (3) changing the local island divertor coil current

  19. Control of the radial electric field shear by modification of the magnetic field configuration in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Yokoyama, M.

    2005-01-01

    Control of the radial electric field, E γ , is considered to be important in helical plasmas, because the radial electric field and its shear are expected to reduce neoclassical and anomalous transport, respectively. In general, the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, and positive or negative electric field have been obtained by decreasing or increasing the electron density, respectively. Although the sign of the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, modification of the magnetic field is required to achieve further control of the radial electric field, especially producing a strong radial electric field shear. In the Large Helical Device (LHD) the radial electric field profiles are shown to be controlled by the modification of the magnetic field by 1) changing the radial profile of the helical ripples, ε h , 2) creating a magnetic island with an external perturbation field coil and 3) changing the local island divertor coil current. (author)

  20. Liquid methanol under a static electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, Giuseppe; Giaquinta, Paolo V.; Saija, Franz; Saitta, A. Marco

    2015-02-01

    We report on an ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid methanol under the effect of a static electric field. We found that the hydrogen-bond structure of methanol is more robust and persistent for field intensities below the molecular dissociation threshold whose value (≈0.31 V/Å) turns out to be moderately larger than the corresponding estimate obtained for liquid water. A sustained ionic current, with ohmic current-voltage behavior, flows in this material for field intensities above 0.36 V/Å, as is also the case of water, but the resulting ionic conductivity (≈0.40 S cm-1) is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of water, a circumstance that evidences a lower efficiency of proton transfer processes. We surmise that this study may be relevant for the understanding of the properties and functioning of technological materials which exploit ionic conduction, such as direct-methanol fuel cells and Nafion membranes.

  1. Liquid methanol under a static electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassone, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.cassone@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Giaquinta, Paolo V., E-mail: paolo.giaquinta@unime.it [Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); Saija, Franz, E-mail: saija@ipcf.cnr.it [CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Saitta, A. Marco, E-mail: marco.saitta@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-02-07

    We report on an ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid methanol under the effect of a static electric field. We found that the hydrogen-bond structure of methanol is more robust and persistent for field intensities below the molecular dissociation threshold whose value (≈0.31 V/Å) turns out to be moderately larger than the corresponding estimate obtained for liquid water. A sustained ionic current, with ohmic current-voltage behavior, flows in this material for field intensities above 0.36 V/Å, as is also the case of water, but the resulting ionic conductivity (≈0.40 S cm{sup −1}) is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of water, a circumstance that evidences a lower efficiency of proton transfer processes. We surmise that this study may be relevant for the understanding of the properties and functioning of technological materials which exploit ionic conduction, such as direct-methanol fuel cells and Nafion membranes.

  2. High electric field conduction in low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Priyanka; Yuan, Mengxue; Gao, Jun; Furman, Eugene; Lanagan, Michael T.

    2018-02-01

    Electrical conduction in silica-based glasses under a low electric field is dominated by high mobility ions such as sodium, and there is a transition from ionic transport to electronic transport as the electric field exceeds 108 V/m at low temperatures. Electrical conduction under a high electric field was investigated in thin low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass samples, showing nonlinear conduction with the current density scaling approximately with E1/2, where E is the electric field. In addition, thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) characterization was carried out on room-temperature electrically poled glass samples, and an anomalous discharging current flowing in the same direction as the charging current was observed. High electric field conduction and TSDC results led to the conclusion that Poole-Frenkel based electronic transport occurs in the mobile-cation-depleted region adjacent to the anode, and accounts for the observed anomalous current.

  3. Electric-field-controlled spin reversal in a quantum dot with ferromagnetic contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, J. R.; Paaske, J.; Lindelof, P. E.

    2008-05-01

    Manipulation of the spin states of a quantum dot by purely electrical means is a highly desirable property of fundamental importance for the development of spintronic devices such as spin filters, spin transistors and single spin memories as well as for solid-state qubits. An electrically gated quantum dot in the Coulomb blockade regime can be tuned to hold a single unpaired spin-1/2, which is routinely spin polarized by an applied magnetic field. Using ferromagnetic electrodes, however, the quantum dot becomes spin polarized by the local exchange field. Here, we report on the experimental realization of this tunnelling-induced spin splitting in a carbon-nanotube quantum dot coupled to ferromagnetic nickel electrodes with a strong tunnel coupling ensuring a sizeable exchange field. As charge transport in this regime is dominated by the Kondo effect, we can use this sharp many-body resonance to read off the local spin polarization from the measured bias spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the exchange field can be compensated by an external magnetic field, thus restoring a zero-bias Kondo resonance, and we demonstrate that the exchange field itself, and hence the local spin polarization, can be tuned and reversed merely by tuning the gate voltage.

  4. Electrical and luminescent properties and deep traps spectra of N-polar GaN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, A.Y.; Smirnov, N.B.; Govorkov, A.V.; Sun, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Cho, Y.S.; Lee, I.-H.; Han, J.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical and luminescent properties of N-polar undoped GaN films grown using low temperature GaN buffers on on-axis and miscut sapphire and on-axis AlN buffers are compared to the properties of Ga-polar films grown on low temperature GaN buffers. It is shown that the concentration of residual donors increases by about an order of magnitude for on-axis N-polar growth and by two orders of magnitude for off-axis growth compared to Ga-polar films. On-axis films for both Ga-polar and N-polar polarities show the presence of n + interfacial layers greatly influencing the apparent electron concentration and mobility deduced from capacitance-voltage C-V measurements. These interfacial layers are much less prominent in the miscut N-polar films. Growth on N-polar greatly increases the concentration of electron traps with activation energy of 0.9 eV possibly related to Ga-interstitials.

  5. A novel variable field system for field-cycled dynamic nuclear polarization spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shet, Keerthi; Caia, George L.; Kesselring, Eric; Samouilov, Alexandre; Petryakov, Sergey; Lurie, David J.; Zweier, Jay L.

    2010-08-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is an NMR-based technique which enables detection and spectral characterization of endogenous and exogenous paramagnetic substances measured via transfer of polarization from the saturated unpaired electron spin system to the NMR active nuclei. A variable field system capable of performing DNP spectroscopy with NMR detection at any magnetic field in the range 0-0.38 T is described. The system is built around a clinical open-MRI system. To obtain EPR spectra via DNP, partial cancellation of the detection field B0NMR is required to alter the evolution field B0EPR at which the EPR excitation is achieved. The addition of resistive actively shielded field cancellation coils in the gap of the primary magnet provides this field offset in the range of 0-100 mT. A description of the primary magnet, cancellation coils, power supplies, interfacing hardware, RF electronics and console are included. Performance of the instrument has been evaluated by acquiring DNP spectra of phantoms with aqueous nitroxide solutions (TEMPOL) at three NMR detection fields of 97 G, 200 G and 587 G corresponding to 413 kHz, 851.6 kHz and 2.5 MHz respectively and fixed EPR evolution field of 100 G corresponding to an irradiation frequency of 282.3 MHz. This variable-field DNP system offers great flexibility for the performance of DNP spectroscopy with independent optimum choice of EPR excitation and NMR detection fields.

  6. Ionization and acoustical instability of a low temperature magnetized plasma in a combined (direct and alternating) electrical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andropov, V.G.; Sinkevich, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the ionization front which moves through a gas along a magnetic field in a combined electrical field, which lies in the plane of the front, may be unstable, as a result of the development of an ionization instability in the plasma behind the front. The criterion of instability of the ionization front does not greatly differ from the criterion of instability of an infinite plasma. The ionization front in the magnetic field is stable only in an electrical field of circular polarization or in a combined field in which the direct and alternating electrical fields are orthogonal and the Joule heat liberation from them is equal. The generation of sound is possible in a magnetized plasma in an alternating electrical field orthogonal to a magnetic due to the parametric acoustical instability at the frequency of the external electrical field. 8 refs

  7. Effects of electric fields on ultracold Rydberg atom interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, J S; Kondo, J M; Goncalves, L F; Marcassa, L G; Nascimento, V A; Booth, D; Tallant, J; Schwettmann, A; Overstreet, K R; Sedlacek, J; Shaffer, J P

    2011-01-01

    The behaviour of interacting ultracold Rydberg atoms in both constant electric fields and laser fields is important for designing experiments and constructing realistic models of them. In this paper, we briefly review our prior work and present new results on how electric fields affect interacting ultracold Rydberg atoms. Specifically, we address the topics of constant background electric fields on Rydberg atom pair excitation and laser-induced Stark shifts on pair excitation.

  8. Technical Note: Computation of Electric Field Strength Necessary for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obviously, electric field is established by this charge. The effects of this field on the objects lying within its vicinity depend on its intensity. In this paper, the electric field of 33kV overhead line is considered. The aim of the paper is to determine the maximum electric field strength or potential gradient, E of the 33kV overhead ...

  9. X-ray diffraction study of KTP (KTiOPO4) crystals under a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, M.T.; Klapper, H.; Bolt, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray diffraction studies are made on ion-conducting potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystals with in situ DC electric field along different crystallographic directions. The X-ray rocking curves recorded with an electric field along the polar b axis (which is the direction of ion conduction) show a strong enhancement of the 040 reflection intensity (reflecting planes normal to the b axis) whereas the h0l reflections (reflecting planes parallel to the polar axis) do not show any intensity change. For an electric field normal to the polar axis no intensity change, either in 040 or in h0l reflections occurs. This observation is supplemented by X-ray topography. The 040 X-ray topographs recorded with in situ electric field along b exhibit strong extinction contrast in the form of striations parallel to the polar (ion-conduction) axis. The 040 intensity increase and the striation contrast are attributed to lattice deformation by the space-charge polarization due to the movement of the K + ions under the influence of the electric field. (orig.)

  10. Electric-field tunable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in tetragonal Fe4N/BiFeO3 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; Wang, Xiaocha; Mi, Wenbo

    2017-07-01

    Electric field control on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is indispensable for spintronic devices. Herewith, in tetragonal Fe4N/BiFeO3 heterostructures with the FeAFeB/Fe-O2 interface, PMA in each Fe4N layer, not merely interfacial layers, is modulated by the electric field, which is attributed to the broken spin screening of the electric field in highly spin-polarized Fe4N. Moreover, the periodical dx y+dy z+dz2 and dx y+dx2-y2 orbital-PMA oscillation enhances the interactions between adjacent FeAFeB and (FeB)2N atomic layers, which benefits the electric field modulation on PMA in the whole Fe4N atomic layers. The electric-field control on PMA in Fe4N/BiFeO3 heterostructures is favored by the electric-field-lifted potential in Fe4N.

  11. Annular billiard dynamics in a circularly polarized strong laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamor, A.; Mauger, F.; Chandre, C.; Uzer, T.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a valence electron of the buckminsterfullerene molecule (C60) subjected to a circularly polarized laser field by modeling it with the motion of a classical particle in an annular billiard. We show that the phase space of the billiard model gives rise to three distinct trajectories: “whispering gallery orbits,” which hit only the outer billiard wall; “daisy orbits,” which hit both billiard walls (while rotating solely clockwise or counterclockwise for all time); and orbits that only visit the downfield part of the billiard, as measured relative to the laser term. These trajectories, in general, maintain their distinct features, even as the intensity is increased from 1010 to 1014Wcm-2. We attribute this robust separation of phase space to the existence of twistless tori.

  12. Graphene Dirac point tuned by ferroelectric polarization field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Chen, Yan; Wu, Guangjian; Wang, Jianlu; Tian, Bobo; Sun, Shuo; Shen, Hong; Lin, Tie; Hu, Weida; Kang, Tingting; Tang, Minghua; Xiao, Yongguang; Sun, Jinglan; Meng, Xiangjian; Chu, Junhao

    2018-04-03

    Graphene has received numerous attention for future nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. The Dirac point is a key parameter of graphene that provides information about its carrier properties. There are lots of methods to tune the Dirac point of graphene, such as chemical doping, impurities, defects, and disorder. In this study, we report a different approach to tune the Dirac point of graphene using a ferroelectric polarization field. The Dirac point can be adjusted to near the ferroelectric coercive voltage regardless its original position. We have ensured this phenomenon by temperature-dependent experiments, and analyzed its mechanism with the theory of impurity correlation in graphene. Additionally, with the modulation of ferroelectric polymer, the current on/off ratio and mobility of graphene transistor both have been improved. This work provides an effective method to tune the Dirac point of graphene, which can be readily used to configure functional devices such as p-n junctions and inverters.

  13. Graphene Dirac point tuned by ferroelectric polarization field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Chen, Yan; Wu, Guangjian; Wang, Jianlu; Tian, Bobo; Sun, Shuo; Shen, Hong; Lin, Tie; Hu, Weida; Kang, Tingting; Tang, Minghua; Xiao, Yongguang; Sun, Jinglan; Meng, Xiangjian; Chu, Junhao

    2018-04-01

    Graphene has received numerous attention for future nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. The Dirac point is a key parameter of graphene that provides information about its carrier properties. There are lots of methods to tune the Dirac point of graphene, such as chemical doping, impurities, defects, and disorder. In this study, we report a different approach to tune the Dirac point of graphene using a ferroelectric polarization field. The Dirac point can be adjusted to near the ferroelectric coercive voltage regardless its original position. We have ensured this phenomenon by temperature-dependent experiments, and analyzed its mechanism with the theory of impurity correlation in graphene. Additionally, with the modulation of ferroelectric polymer, the current on/off ratio and mobility of graphene transistor both have been improved. This work provides an effective method to tune the Dirac point of graphene, which can be readily used to configure functional devices such as p-n junctions and inverters.

  14. Electronic properties of bilayer phosphorene quantum dots in the presence of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. L.; Moldovan, D.; Xu, W.; Peeters, F. M.

    2017-10-01

    Using the tight-binding approach, we investigate the electronic properties of bilayer phosphorene (BLP) quantum dots (QDs) in the presence of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. Since BLP consists of two coupled phosphorene layers, it is of interest to examine the layer-dependent electronic properties of BLP QDs, such as the electronic distributions over the two layers and the so-produced layer-polarization features, and to see how these properties are affected by the magnetic field and the bias potential. We find that in the absence of a bias potential only edge states are layer polarized while the bulk states are not, and the layer-polarization degree (LPD) of the unbiased edge states increases with increasing magnetic field. However, in the presence of a bias potential both the edge and bulk states are layer polarized, and the LPD of the bulk (edge) states depends strongly (weakly) on the interplay of the bias potential and the interlayer coupling. At high magnetic fields, applying a bias potential renders the bulk electrons in a BLP QD to be mainly distributed over the top or bottom layer, resulting in layer-polarized bulk Landau levels (LLs). In the presence of a large bias potential that can drive a semiconductor-to-semimetal transition in BLP, these bulk LLs exhibit different magnetic-field dependences, i.e., the zeroth LLs exhibit a linearlike dependence on the magnetic field while the other LLs exhibit a square-root-like dependence.

  15. Electric toothbrushes induce electric current in fixed dental appliances by creating magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkumura, Kazuo; Ishii, Nozomu; Sano, Natsuki; Ogura, Hideo; Terada, Kazuto

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic fields can represent a health problem, especially low frequency electromagnetic fields sometimes induced by electric current in metallic objects worn or used in or on the body (as opposed to high frequency electromagnetic fields that produce heat). Electric toothbrushes are widely used because of their convenience, but the electric motors that power them may produce electromagnetic waves. In this study, we showed that electric toothbrushes generate low frequency (1-2000 Hz) magnetic ...

  16. Molecular dynamics study of response of liquid N,N-dimethylformamide to externally applied electric field using a polarizable force field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Weimin; Niu, Haitao; Lin, Tong; Wang, Xungai; Kong, Lingxue [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds VIC 3216 (Australia)

    2014-01-28

    The behavior of Liquid N,N-dimethylformamide subjected to a wide range of externally applied electric fields (from 0.001 V/nm to 1 V/nm) has been investigated through molecular dynamics simulation. To approach the objective the AMOEBA polarizable force field was extended to include the interaction of the external electric field with atomic partial charges and the contribution to the atomic polarization. The simulation results were evaluated with quantum mechanical calculations. The results from the present force field for the liquid at normal conditions were compared with the experimental and molecular dynamics results with non-polarizable and other polarizable force fields. The uniform external electric fields of higher than 0.01 V/nm have a significant effect on the structure of the liquid, which exhibits a variation in numerous properties, including molecular polarization, local cluster structure, rotation, alignment, energetics, and bulk thermodynamic and structural properties.

  17. Plasma Flows in Crossed Magnetic and Electric Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the magnitude and direction of an external electric field on the plasma flowing through a magnetic barrier is studied by numerically solving two-fluid MHD equations. The drift velocity of the plasma flow and the distribution of the flow electrons over transverse velocities are found to depend on the magnitude and direction of the electric field. It is shown that the direction of the induced longitudinal electric field is determined by the direction of the external field and that the electric current generated by the plasma flow significantly disturbs the barrier field

  18. Measuring the electric field of few-cycle laser pulses by attosecond cross correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandrauk, Andre D.; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Shon, Nguyen Hong

    2002-01-01

    A new technique for directly measuring the electric field of linearly polarized few-cycle laser pulses is proposed. Based on the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) for an H atom in the combined field of infrared (IR) femtosecond (fs) and ultraviolet (UV) attosecond (as) laser pulses we show that, as a function of the time delay between two pulses, the difference (or equivalently, asymmetry) of photoelectron signals in opposite directions (along the polarization vector of laser pulses) reproduces very well the profile of the electric field (or vector potential) in the IR pulse. Such ionization asymmetry can be used for directly measuring the carrier-envelope phase difference (i.e., the relative phase of the carrier frequency with respect to the pulse envelope) of the IR fs laser pulse

  19. New Phase Transition in the $Pr_{1-x}Ca_{x}MnO_{3}$ System Evidence for Electrical Polarization in Charge Ordered Manganites

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, A M; Amaral, V S; Correia, G; Tomioka, Y; Tokura, Y

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter a detailed study of the electric field gradient (EFG) across the Pr1-xCaxMnO3 phase diagram and its temperature dependence is given. Clearly, distinct EFG behavior for samples outside or inside the charge order (CO) region are observed. The EFG temperature dependence evidences a new phase transition occurring over the broad CO region of the phase diagram. This transition is discontinuous and occurs at temperatures between the charge ordering and the Néel temperatures. The prominent features observed in the EFG are associated with polar atomic vibrations which eventually lead to a spontaneous local electric polarization below CO transition.

  20. Photodetachment of F- by a few-cycle circularly polarized laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivona, Saverio; Burlon, Riccardo; Leone, Claudio

    2006-12-01

    We report on calculations of the above threshold detachment of F- by a few-cycle circularly polarized laser field, discussing the effects of both the carrier-envelope relative phase and the number of the cycle contained in a pulse on the angular distribution of ejected photoelectron. The results are analyzed in terms of a two-step semiclassical model: after the electrons are detached through tunnelling their motion is determined by the electric field pulse according to the classical dynamics laws. Anisotropies in the angular distributions of the electrons ejected on the plane perpendicular to the laser propagation direction are found that depend on the number of cycle of the laser pulse.

  1. Influence of Direct Current Electric Field on Corrosion Behavior of Tin Under a Thin Electrolyte Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. L.; Bu, F. R.; Tian, J.; Liu, D.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of a direct current electric field (DCEF) on corrosion behavior of tin under a thin electrolyte layer was investigated based on an array electrode technology by polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and surface analysis. The experimental results indicate that the corrosion rate of tin near the positive plate of DCEF increases with increased electric field intensity, which could be attributed to the acceleration of the migration of ions, the removal of corrosion products under DCEF and the damage of tin surface oxide film. Furthermore, tin at different positions in a DCEF exhibits different corrosion behavior, which could be ascribed to the difference of the local corrosion environment caused by the DCEF.

  2. Effects of AC Electric Field on Small Laminar Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    80 Hz and became saturated at over 80 Hz, which has been explained based on the interaction between the buoyancy and ionic wind. Electrical measurement showed the power consumed by the AC was smaller than 0.01% of the heat release rate from the flame. To improve the understanding on the electric current resulting from applying electric field on flames, a simplified one-dimensional model was developed in that the reaction zone was modeled as a thin ionized layer. Model governing equations were derived from species equations by implementing mobility differences depending on the type of charged particles, especially between ions and electrons. The result showed that the sub-saturated current along with field intensity was significantly influenced by the polarity of DC due to the combined effect of non-equal mobility of charged particles as well as the position of the ionized layer in a gap relative to two electrodes. Experiments with quasi-one-dimensional flames under DC were conducted to substantiate the model and measured currents agreed qualitatively well with the model predictions.

  3. Optimization of s-Polarization Sensitivity in Apertureless Near-Field Optical Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuika Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a general belief in apertureless near-field microscopy that the so-called p-polarization configuration, where the incident light is polarized parallel to the axis of the probe, is advantageous to its counterpart, the s-polarization configuration, where the incident light is polarized perpendicular to the probe axis. While this is true for most samples under common near-field experimental conditions, there are samples which respond better to the s-polarization configuration due to their orientations. Indeed, there have been several reports that have discussed such samples. This leads us to an important requirement that the near-field experimental setup should be equipped with proper sensitivity for measurements with s-polarization configuration. This requires not only creation of effective s-polarized illumination at the near-field probe, but also proper enhancement of s-polarized light by the probe. In this paper, we have examined the s-polarization enhancement sensitivity of near-field probes by measuring and evaluating the near-field Rayleigh scattering images constructed by a variety of probes. We found that the s-polarization enhancement sensitivity strongly depends on the sharpness of the apex of near-field probes. We have discussed the efficient value of probe sharpness by considering a balance between the enhancement and the spatial resolution, both of which are essential requirements of apertureless near-field microscopy.

  4. PHASE GRADIENT METHOD OF MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ptitsyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of electric and hybrid vehicles demands real time magnetic field control, for instance, for fire and electromagnetic safety. The article deals with a method of magnetic field measurements onboard electric cars taking into account peculiar features of these fields. The method is based on differential methods of measurements, and minimizes the quantity of magnetic sensors.

  5. Electric field enhancement at multiple densities in laser-irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The electric field enhancement inside a nanotube irradiated by intense ultrashort laser pulse (≪1 ps) is calculated. The hollowness of the nanotubes determines the field enhancement and the electron density at which such structures exhibit resonance. The electric field in a nano- tube plasma is shown to be ...

  6. Field-Induced Superconductivity in Electric Double Layer Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ueno, Kazunori; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Yuan, Hongtao; Ye, Jianting; Kawasaki, Masashi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    Electric field tuning of superconductivity has been a long-standing issue in solid state physics since the invention of the field-effect transistor (FET) in 1960. Owing to limited available carrier density in conventional FET devices, electric-field-induced superconductivity was believed to be

  7. Computation of induced electric field for the sacral nerve activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Hattori, Junya; Laakso, Ilkka; Takagi, Airi; Shimada, Takuo

    2013-01-01

    The induced electric field/current in the sacral nerve by stimulation devices for the treatment of bladder overactivity is investigated. Implanted and transcutaneous electrode configurations are considered. The electric field induced in the sacral nerve by the implanted electrode is largely affected by its surrounding tissues, which is attributable to the variation in the input impedance of the electrode. In contrast, the electric field induced by the transcutaneous electrode is affected by the tissue conductivity and anatomical composition of the body. In addition, the electric field induced in the subcutaneous fat in close proximity of the electrode is comparable with the estimated threshold electric field for pain. These computational findings explain the clinically observed weakness and side effect of each configuration. For the transcutaneous stimulator, we suggest that the electrode contact area be increased to reduce the induced electric field in the subcutaneous fat. (paper)

  8. Problems related to macroscopic electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.

    1977-01-01

    The macroscopic electric fields in the magnetosphere originate from internal as well as external sources. The fields are intimately coupled with the dynamics of magnetospheric plasma convection. They also depend on the complicated electrical properties of the hot collisionless plasma. Macroscopic electric fields are responsible for some important kinds of energization of charged particles that take place in the magnetosphere and affect not only particles of auroral energy but also, by multistep processes, trapped high-energy particles. A particularly interesting feature of magnetospheric electric fields is that they can have substantial components along the geomagnetic field, as has recently been confirmed by observations. Several physical mechanisms have been identified by which such electric fields can be supported even when collisions between particles are negligible. Comments are made on the magnetic mirror effect, anomalous resistivity, the collisionless thermoelectric effect, and electric double layers, emphasizing key features and differences and their significance in the light of recent observational data

  9. Influence of the oscillating electric field on the photodetachment of H− ion in a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, De-hua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The photodetachment of H − in an oscillating electric field has been studied using the time-dependent closed orbit theory. • An analytical formula for calculating the photodetachement cross section has been put forward. • Our study provides a clear physical picture for the photodetachment of negative ion in an oscillating electric filed. • Our work is useful in guiding the experimental research for the photodetachment dynamics in the time-dependent field. - Abstract: Using the time-dependent closed orbit theory, we study the photodetachment of H − ion in a time-dependent electric field. The photodetachment cross section is specifically studied in the presence of a static electric field plus an oscillating electric field. We find that the photodetachment of negative ion in the time-dependent electric field becomes much more complicated than the case in a static electric field. The oscillating electric field can weaken the photodetachment cross section greatly when the strength of the oscillating electric field is less than the static electric field. However, as the strength of the oscillating electric field is larger than the static electric field, four types of closed orbits are identified for the detached electron, which makes the oscillating amplitude in the photodetachment cross section gets increased again. The connection between the detached electron’s closed orbit with the oscillating cross section is analyzed quantitatively. This study provides a clear and intuitive picture for the understanding of the connections between quantum and classical description for the time-dependent Hamiltonian systems and may guide the future experimental research for the photodetachment dynamics in the time-dependent electric field.

  10. Reorganization of microfilament structure induced by ac electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, M.R.; Thatte, H.S.; Golan, D.E. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Lee, R.C. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-11-01

    AC electric fields induce redistribution of integral membrane proteins. Cell-surface receptor redistribution does not consistently follow electric field lines and depends critically on the frequency of the applied ac electric fields, suggesting that mechanisms other than electroosmosis are involved. We hypothesized that cytoskeletal reorganization is responsible for electric field-induced cell-surface receptor redistribution, and used fluorescence video microscopy to study the reorganization of microfilaments in human hepatoma (Hep3B) cells exposed to low-frequency electric fields ranging in strength from 25 mV/cm to 20 V/cm (peak to peak). The frequency of the applied electric field was varied from 1 to 120 Hz and the field exposure duration from 1 to 60 min. In control cells, cytoplasmic microfilaments were aligned in the form of continuous parallel cables along the longitudinal axis of the cell. Exposure of cells to ac electric fields induced alterations in microfilament structure in a manner that depended on the frequency of the applied field. A 1 or 10 Hz ac field caused microfilament reorganization from continuous, aligned cable structures to discontinuous globular patches. In contrast, the structure of microfilaments in cells exposed to 20-120 Hz electric fields did not offer from that in control cells. The extent of microfilament reorganization increased nonlinearly with the electric field strength. The characteristic time for microfilament reorganization in cells exposed to a 1 Hz, 20 V/cm electric field was {approx} 5 min. Applied ac electric fields could initiate signal transduction cascades, which in turn cause reorganization of cytoskeletal structures. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Measurements of the vertical atmospheric electric field and of the electrical conductivity with stratospheric balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, I. B.; Madsen, M. M.; Dangelo, N.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the atmospheric (vertical) electric field with balloons in the stratosphere are reported. The atmospheric electrical conductivity is also measured and the current density inferred. The average vertical current shows the expected variation with universal time and is also seen to be influenced by external (magnetospheric) electric fields.

  12. Measurement of electric fields in the H-1NF heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, B.W.; Howard, J.

    1999-01-01

    There are a number of laser induced fluorescence techniques which can be used to measure internal plasma electric fields. It is planned to use a technique based on Stark mixing of energy levels in a supersonic beam containing metastable helium atoms to measure radial electric fields in H-1NF. Enhanced values of radial electric field are associated with improved confinement modes in H-1NF and other magnetically confined plasmas

  13. Natural factor impact on atmospheric electric field variations in Kamchatka

    OpenAIRE

    Firstov Pavel; Cherneva Nina; Akbashev Rinat

    2017-01-01

    The paper briefly describes a site network which registers atmospheric electric field strength (AEF V’). The scheme of natural processes affecting the formation of the local atmospheric electric field is considered. AEF V’ disturbances on ground flux meters are described. They were recorded when two eruptive clouds from Shiveluch volcano eruption were passing by. Key words: atmospheric electric field, potential gradient, electrostatic flux meter, volcanic clouds

  14. Polarization of high harmonics generated from a hydrogen atom in a strong laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melezhik, V.S.

    1996-01-01

    The high harmonic spectrum of a hydrogen atom subject to an intense (>10 13 W/cm 2 ), elliptically polarized laser field is analyzed with a nonperturbative method of global approximation on a subspace grid. Considerable alteration of harmonics polarization with respect to laser polarization is found. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Polarization monotones of two-dimensional and three-dimensional random electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosyk, G. M.; Bellomo, G.; Luis, A.

    2018-02-01

    We propose a formal resource-theoretic approach to quantify the degree of polarization of two- and three-dimensional random electromagnetic fields. This endows the space of spectral polarization matrices with the orders induced by majorization or convex mixing that naturally recover the best-known polarization measures.

  16. Time-domain electric field enhancement on micrometer scale in coupled split ring resonator upon terahertz radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Simon Lehnskov; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We present here a novel design for a coupled split ring resonator antenna optimized for time-domain electric field enhancement in the 0.1 to 1 terahertz (THz) range. The antenna is designed to be sensitive to the incident field polarization and seeks to avoid metal damage due to electron...

  17. Electric Fields in Composite Dielectrics and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Takuma, Tadasu

    2010-01-01

    An accurate quantitative picture of electric field distribution is essential in many electrical and electronic applications. In composite dielectric configurations composed of multiple dielectrics, anomalous or unexpected behavior of electric fields may appear when a solid dielectric is in contact with a conductor or another solid dielectric. The electric field near the contact point may become higher than the original field not only in the surrounding medium but also in the solid dielectric. Theoretically it may become infinitely high, depending on the contact angle. Although these characteri

  18. Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, Herbert O [Los Alamos, NM; Feldman, William C [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-06-10

    A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.

  19. Nonlinear optical response induced by a second-harmonic electric-field component concomitant with optical near-field excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Maiku; Nobusada, Katsuyuki; Yatsui, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    Electron dynamics excited by an optical near field (ONF) in a two-dimensional quantum dot model was investigated by solving a time-dependent Schrödinger equation. It was found that the ONF excitation of the electron caused two characteristic phenomena: a two-photon absorption and an induction of a magnetic dipole moment with a strong third-harmonic component. By analyzing the interaction dynamics of the ONF and the electron, we explained that the physical mechanism underlying these phenomena was the second-harmonic electric-field component concomitant with the near-field excitation originating from the nonuniformity of the ONF. Despite a y -polarized ONF source, the second-harmonic component of an x -polarized electric field was inherently generated. The effect of the second-harmonic electric-field component is not due to usual second-order nonlinear response but appears only when we explicitly consider the electron dynamics interacting with the ONF beyond the conventional optical response assuming the dipole approximation.

  20. Acanthamoeba Migration in an Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudell, Jolene Chang; Gao, Jing; Sun, Yuxin; Sun, Yaohui; Chodosh, James; Schwab, Ivan; Zhao, Min

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated the in vitro response of Acanthamoeba trophozoites to electric fields (EFs). Methods. Acanthamoeba castellanii were exposed to varying strengths of an EF. During EF exposure, cell migration was monitored using an inverted microscope equipped with a CCD camera and the SimplePCI 5.3 imaging system to capture time-lapse images. The migration of A. castellanii trophozoites was analyzed and quantified with ImageJ software. For analysis of cell migration in a three-dimensional culture system, Acanthamoeba trophozoites were cultured in agar, exposed to an EF, digitally video recorded, and analyzed at various Z focal planes. Results. Acanthamoeba trophozoites move at random in the absence of an EF, but move directionally in response to an EF. Directedness in the absence of an EF is 0.08 ± 0.01, while in 1200 mV/mm EF, directedness is significantly higher at −0.65 ± 0.01 (P Acanthamoeba move directionally in a three-dimensional (3D) agar system as well when exposed to an EF. Conclusions. Acanthamoeba trophozoites move directionally in response to an EF in a two-dimensional and 3D culture system. Acanthamoeba trophozoite migration is also voltage-dependent, with increased directionality with increasing voltage. This may provide new treatment modalities for Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:23716626

  1. A Classroom Activity for Teaching Electric Polarization of Insulators and Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligkaris, Christos

    2018-04-01

    The phenomenon of electric polarization is crucial to student understanding of forces exerted between charged objects and insulators or conductors, the process of charging by induction, and the behavior of electroscopes near charged objects. In addition, polarization allows for microscopic-level models of everyday-life macroscopic-level phenomena. Textbooks may adequately discuss polarization, but there is little material in active learning labs and tutorials on this topic. Since polarization of materials is a microscopic phenomenon, instructors often use diagrams and figures on the classroom board to explain the process in a lecture setting. In this paper I will describe a classroom activity where the students play the role of electrons as an alternative option.

  2. End-shorting and electric field in edge plasmas with application to field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, Loren C.

    2002-01-01

    The shorting of open field lines where they intersect external boundaries strongly modifies the transverse electric field all along the field lines. The modified electric field is found by an extension of the familiar Boltzmann relation for the electric potential. This leads to a prediction of the electric drift. Flow generation by electrical shorting is applied here to three aspects of elongated field-reversed configurations: plasma rotation rate; the particle-loss spin-up mechanism; and the sustainability of the rotating magnetic field current drive method

  3. Heliospheric magnetic field polarity inversions driven by radial velocity field structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landi, S.; Hellinger, Petr; Velli, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 14 (2006), L14101/1-L14101/5 ISSN 0094-8276 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) HRPN-CT-2001-00310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : solar wind * magnetic field polarity inversions * microstreams * turbulence Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2006

  4. Atomistic modeling of metal surfaces under electric fields: direct coupling of electric fields to a molecular dynamics algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Djurabekova, Flyura; Pohjonen, Aarne; Nordlund, Kai

    2011-01-01

    The effect of electric fields on metal surfaces is fairly well studied, resulting in numerous analytical models developed to understand the mechanisms of ionization of surface atoms observed at very high electric fields, as well as the general behavior of a metal surface in this condition. However, the derivation of analytical models does not include explicitly the structural properties of metals, missing the link between the instantaneous effects owing to the applied field and the consequent response observed in the metal surface as a result of an extended application of an electric field. In the present work, we have developed a concurrent electrodynamic–molecular dynamic model for the dynamical simulation of an electric-field effect and subsequent modification of a metal surface in the framework of an atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) approach. The partial charge induced on the surface atoms by the electric field is assessed by applying the classical Gauss law. The electric forces acting on the partially...

  5. Absolute technique for measuring internal electric fields in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by electroreflectance applicable to all crystal orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Tomoyuki; Shojiki, Kanako; Katayama, Ryuji; Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Matsuoka, Takashi; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    The internal electric fields in III-polar (0001), N-polar (000\\bar{1}), and semipolar (10\\bar{1}1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes were investigated by electroreflectance (ER) spectroscopy. The ER spectra reflected the difference in the direction and strength of internal electric fields. Phase analyses of the ER signal revealed that only III-polar InGaN wells have the opposite direction of the internal electric field at zero bias voltage; this finding is in good agreement with the results of numerical analyses. Quantitative analyses of internal electric fields were conducted by the linewidth analyses of ER spectra. Our experimental results indicate that the absolute value of internal electric fields can be measured from ER spectra.

  6. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  7. Latitudinal variation of perturbation electric fields during magnetically disturbed periods - 1986 Sundial observations and model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejer, B. G.; Spiro, R. W.; Wolf, R. A.; Foster, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    F-region incoherent scatter radar drift observations from Millstone Hill and Jicamarca, h-prime F observations from Huancayo, and high latitude ground-magnetometer measurements taken during the Sundial 1986 campaign are used to study the relationship between plasmaspheric electric field perturbations and high latitude currents during disturbed periods. The observations are in good agreement with numerical results from a Rice Covection Model run that involved a sharp increase in the polar cap potential drop followed by a subsequent decrease. The zonal disturbance electric field pattern is latitude independent, and the corresponding amplitudes change approximately as L exp n (where n is about 1.5). The meridional electric field patterns and amplitudes have larger latitudinal variations. The mid-, low, and equatorial electric fields from the Rice Convection Model are in good agreement with previous results from the semianalytic, Senior-Blanc (1987) model. Also discussed are three physical mechanisms (over-shielding, fossil winds, and magnetic reconfiguration) that contribute to the long lasting (1-2 h) equatorial zonal electric field perturbations associated with a sudden northward turning of the IMF. It is predicted that the penetration of high latitude electric fields to low latitudes should, in general, be closely related to the rate of motion of the shielding layer and the equatorward edge of the diffuse aurora.

  8. Electric field strength determination in filamentary DBDs by CARS-based four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Patrick; Kettlitz, Manfred; Brandenburg, Ronny; Hoeft, Hans; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    The electric field strength is a basic parameter of non-thermal plasmas. Therefore, a profound knowledge of the electric field distribution is crucial. In this contribution a four wave mixing technique based on Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is used to measure electric field strengths in filamentary dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs). The discharges are operated with a pulsed voltage in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Small amounts hydrogen (10 vol%) are admixed as tracer gas to evaluate the electric field strength in the 1 mm discharge gap. Absolute values of the electric field strength are determined by calibration of the CARS setup with high voltage amplitudes below the ignition threshold of the arrangement. Alteration of the electric field strength has been observed during the internal polarity reversal and the breakdown process. In this case the major advantage over emission based methods is that this technique can be used independently from emission, e.g. in the pre-phase and in between two consecutive, opposite discharge pulses where no emission occurs at all. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Forschergruppe FOR 1123 and Sonderforschungsbereich TRR 24 ``Fundamentals of complex plasmas''.

  9. The impact of the biasing radial electric field on the SOL in a divertor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhansky, V.; Tendler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Strong radial electric field can be induced within the SOL in a divertor tokamak by applying a voltage to divertor plates with respect to the first wall. This biasing scheme results in the strong radial electric field which is much larger than the natural electric field, usually of the order T e /e. Experiments employing this biasing scheme were carried out on the tokamak TdeV. Many interesting effects such as - modifications of the density profile and radial transport of impurities as a function of the polarity and the magnitude of the biasing voltage, the generation of the flux surface average toroidal rotation proportional to the applied voltage, redistribution of the plasma outflow onto divertor plates and so on - were demonstrated to result from the biasing. Furthermore, in contrast to studies carried out employing a different biasing scheme which primarily results in a poloidal electric field, the strong radial electric field impacts more significantly within SOL than the poloidal electric field. Here, we aim to show that the main effects observed experimentally follow from the analysis, provided continuity and momentum balances are employed invoking anomalous viscosity and inertia. (author) 4 refs

  10. Structure and viscosity of a transformer oil-based ferrofluid under an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajnak, M., E-mail: rajnak@saske.sk [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Košice (Slovakia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 04200 Košice (Slovakia); Timko, M.; Kopcansky, P.; Paulovicova, K. [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Košice (Slovakia); Tothova, J.; Kurimsky, J.; Dolnik, B.; Cimbala, R. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 04200 Košice (Slovakia); Avdeev, M.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Moscow region, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Petrenko, V.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Moscow region, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Volodymyrska Street 64, 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Feoktystov, A. [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS) at Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    Various structural changes of ferrofluids have been intensively studied under external magnetic fields. In this work we present an experimental evidence of similar changes induced by an electric field. In the context of the electric field effect on ferrofluids structure, we studied a simple ferrofluid consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and dispersed in transformer oil. The structural changes have been observed both on macroscopic and microscopic scale. We also demonstrate a remarkable impact of the electric field on the ferrofluid viscosity in relation to the reported structural changes. It was found that the electric field induced viscosity changes are analogous to the magnetoviscous effect. These changes and the electroviscous effect are believed to stem from the dielectric permittivity contrast between the iron oxide nanoparticles and transformer oil, giving rise to the effective electric polarization of the nanoparticles. It is highlighted that this electrorheological effect should be considered in studies of ferrofluids for high voltage engineering applications, as it can have impact on the thermomagnetic convection or the dielectric breakdown performance. - Highlights: • An experimental evidence of the electric field induced structural changes in a ferrofluid is presented. • An electroviscous effect in the transformer oil-based ferrofluid is shown. • The dielectric contrast between the particles and the carrier fluid is the key factor. • The potential impact on the thermomagnetic convection of ferrofluids in power transformers is highlighted.

  11. Laboratory and Field Experiments on Expulsion of Selected Ions along Divergent Polar Geomagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A. Y.; Deng, B.; Quon, B.; Wang, R.; Hartzell, J.; Rosenthal, G.; Hazelton, L. R.

    2007-12-01

    Laboratory and Field Experiments on Expulsion of Selected Ions along Divergent Polar Geomagnetic Fields. Laboratory experiments have shown significant gyro-resonance acceleration of minority ion species in a magnetized plasma. Field aligned elctron drifts can provide free energy needed to make this process efficient. The linear magnetized device has a uniform magnetic field linked to two adjustable mirrors at the ends. Outdoor experiments at HIPAS Facility Ak(1) ( 84 MW ERP ) are used to test this process in the earth's "chimneys" at the two poles. The divergent polar geomagnetic field converts the perpendicular ion velocity into an upward motion. Satellites and ground-based ELF receivers,supplemented by UHF radars, LIDARs and infrared diagnostics , will monitor low-frequency EM waves and upflows of ions. The upward transport of ions in the lower atmosphere by field-induced diffusion and convection and the coupling to the free energy in the auroral region will be discussed. Computer modeling and theoeries complement our experiments. 1. Wong, A.Y. et al. AIP CIP 96-27719, Chap 3, pp 41-75, 1997

  12. Effect of applied DC electric fields in flame spread over polyethylene-coated electrical wire

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Young Kyu

    2011-03-01

    We experimentally investigated the effect of applied DC electric fields on the flame spread over polyethylene-coated electrical wire. The flame-spread rates over electrical wire with negative and positive DC electric fields from 0 to ±7 kV were measured and analyzed. We compared the results for DC electric fields with previous results for AC electric fields. We explored whether or not various flame shapes could be obtained with DC electric fields and the main reason for the flame-spread acceleration, particularly at the end of the electrical wire, for AC electric fields. We found that DC electric fields do not significantly affect the flame-spread rates. However, the flame shape is mildly altered by the ionic wind effect even for DC electric fields. The flame-spread rate is relevant to the flame shape and the slanted direction in spite of the mild impact. A possible explanation for the flame spread is given by a thermal-balance mechanism and fuel-vapor jet. © 2011 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  13. Assessing the Polarization of a Quantum Field from Stokes Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimov, A. B.; Björk, G.; Söderholm, J.

    2010-01-01

    We propose an operational degree of polarization in terms of the variance of the Stokes vector minimized over all the directions of the Poincaré sphere. We examine the properties of this second-order definition and carry out its experimental determination. Quantum states with the same standard...... (first-order) degree of polarization are correctly discriminated by this new measure. We argue that a comprehensive quantum characterization of polarization properties requires a whole hierarchy of higher-order degrees....

  14. Built-in electric field minimization in (In, Ga)N nanoheterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhiwen; Wildeson, Isaac H; Colby, Robert; Ewoldt, David A; Zhang, Tong; Sands, Timothy D; Stach, Eric A; Benes, Bedrich; García, R Edwin

    2011-11-09

    (In, Ga)N nanostructures show great promise as the basis for next generation LED lighting technology, for they offer the possibility of directly converting electrical energy into light of any visible wavelength without the use of down-converting phosphors. In this paper, three-dimensional computation of the spatial distribution of the mechanical and electrical equilibrium in nanoheterostructures of arbitrary topologies is used to elucidate the complex interactions between geometry, epitaxial strain, remnant polarization, and piezoelectric and dielectric contributions to the self-induced internal electric fields. For a specific geometry-nanorods with pyramidal caps-we demonstrate that by tuning the quantum well to cladding layer thickness ratio, h(w)/h(c), a minimal built-in electric field can be experimentally realized and canceled, in the limit of h(w)/h(c) = 1.28, for large h(c) values.

  15. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    storm current generators, through the ionosphere, and down to the Earth's surface in the fair ... Atmospheric electric field; magnetic storm; magnetosphere; ionosphere; global electrical circuit. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 124, No. 8, December ... electrical conductivity of the ice surface is in sev- eral orders of magnitude higher than that ...

  16. Analysis of Electric Field Propagation in Anisotropically Absorbing and Reflecting Waveplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnio, B. N.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for half-wave plates (HWPs) and quarter-wave plates (QWPs) based on uniaxial crystals. This general analysis describes the behavior of anisotropically absorbing and reflecting waveplates across the electromagnetic spectrum, which allows for correction to the commonly used equations determined assuming isotropic absorptions and reflections. This analysis is crucial to the design and implementation of HWPs and QWPs in the terahertz regime, where uniaxial crystals used for waveplates are highly birefringent and anisotropically absorbing. The derived HWP equations describe the rotation of linearly polarized light by an arbitrary angle, whereas the QWP analysis focuses on manipulating a linearly polarized electric field to obtain any ellipticity. The HWP and QWP losses are characterized by determining equations for the total electric field magnitude transmitted through these phase-retarding elements.

  17. Quadratic dependence of the spin-induced Hall voltage on longitudinal electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2008-01-01

    The effect of optically induced spins in semiconductors in the low electric field is investigated. Here we report an experiment which investigates the effect of a longitudinal electric field (E) on the spin-polarized carriers generated by a circularly polarized light in semiconductors. Our experiment observes the effect as a spin-induced anomalous Hall voltage (V AH ) resulting from spin-carrier electrons accumulating at the transverse edges of the sample. Unlike the ordinary Hall effect, a quadratic dependence of V AH on E is observed, which agrees with the results of the recent theoretical investigations. It is also found that V AH depends on the doping density. The results are discussed

  18. Quadratic dependence of the spin-induced Hall voltage on longitudinal electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au

    2008-10-15

    The effect of optically induced spins in semiconductors in the low electric field is investigated. Here we report an experiment which investigates the effect of a longitudinal electric field (E) on the spin-polarized carriers generated by a circularly polarized light in semiconductors. Our experiment observes the effect as a spin-induced anomalous Hall voltage (V{sub AH}) resulting from spin-carrier electrons accumulating at the transverse edges of the sample. Unlike the ordinary Hall effect, a quadratic dependence of V{sub AH} on E is observed, which agrees with the results of the recent theoretical investigations. It is also found that V{sub AH} depends on the doping density. The results are discussed.

  19. Cloaking magnetic field and generating electric field with topological insulator and superconductor bi-layer sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin

    2017-12-01

    When an electric field is applied on a topological insulator, not only the electric field is generated, but also the magnetic field is generated, vice versa. I designed topological insulator and superconductor bi-layer magnetic cloak, derived the electric field and magnetic field inside and outside the topological insulator and superconductor sphere. Simulation and calculation results show that the applied magnetic field is screened by the topological insulator and superconductor bi-layer, and the electric field is generated in the cloaked region.

  20. Gastric applications of electrical field stimulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    Advances in clinical applications of electricity have been vast since the launch of Hayman\\'s first cardiac pacemaker more than 70 years ago. Gastric electrical stimulation devices have been recently licensed for treatment of gastroparesis and preliminary studies examining their potential for use in refractory obesity yield promising results.

  1. Shielding of an oscillating electric field by a hollow conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirregabiria, J. M.; Hernández, A.; Rivas, M.

    1996-08-01

    The electric and magnetic fields for a hollow conducting sphere located in a slowly varying uniform electric field background are computed to first-order in a power series expansion in the field frequency. These results are used to define an equivalent RC circuit and to test the circuit approach which is often used in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). The case of an infinite cylindrical conducting tube under the influence of the same external field is also analyzed.

  2. Static and low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thommesen, G.; Tynes, T.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields are reviewed with the objective of summarizing effects directly relevant to considerations of the health and safety of exposed people. Static and low frequency electric and magnetic fields may elicit biological reactions. Whether exposure to such fields may affect human health at field strengths present in everyday or occupational life is still unsettled. There is unsufficient knowledge to establish any dose concept relevant to health risk. 196 refs., 6 tabs

  3. Electric Field Measurements At The Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, P.-A.; Dunlop, M.

    The quasi-thermal noise (QTN) is due to the thermal motions of the particles, which produce electrostatic fluctuations. This noise is detected by any sensitive receiver at the ports of an electric antenna immersed in a plasma and can be used to measure in-situ the plasma density, temperature and bulk velocity. The basic reason is that this noise can be formally calculated as a function of both the particle velocity distribu- tions and the antenna geometry. So, conversely, the "spectroscopy" of this noise re- veals the local plasma properties. This method is routinely used on various spacecraft (Ulysses, Wind) in the solar wind or in planetary magnetospheres/ionospheres (Image at Earth, Cassini at Venus, Earth and soon at Saturn). This method has the advantage of being relatively immune to spacecraft potential and photoelectrons pertubations, since it senses a large plasma volume. It provides an accurate measurement of the electron density (a few %) because it is based on the detection of the strong signal peak near the local plasma frequency (which is close to a resonance for electrostatic waves). We will show that QTN may be as well adapted to measure 1) magnetized (anisotropic) plasmas (and deduce the magnetic field strength), 2) suprathermal or non-thermal component (as for example a kappa distribution), and 3) a wide range of core temperature, i.e from ~10 eV, as in the solar wind, to rather low temperatures (tron density and temperature for comparison with our models of Mercury/solar wind interaction.

  4. High-latitude dayside electric fields and currents during strong northward interplanetary magnetic field: Observations and model simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauer, C.R.; Friis-Christensen, E.

    1988-01-01

    On July 23, 1983, the Interplanetary Magnetic Field turned strongly northward, becoming about 22 nT for several hours. Using a combined data set of ionospheric convection measurements made by the Sondre Stromfjord incoherent scatter radar and convection inferred from Greenland magnetometer measurements, we observe the onset of the reconfiguration of the high-latitude ionospheric currents to occur about 3 min following the northward IMF encountering the magnetopause. The large-scale reconfiguration of currents, however, appears to evolve over a period of about 22 min. Using a computer model in which the distribution of field-aligned current in the polar cleft is directly determined by the strength and orientation of the interplanetary electric field, we are able to simulate the time-varying pattern of ionospheric convection, including the onset of high-latitude ''reversed convection'' cells observed to form during the interval of strong northward IMF. These observations and the simulation results indicate that the dayside polar cap electric field observed during strong northward IMF is produced by a direct electrical current coupling with the solar wind. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  5. Pre-polarization enhancement by dynamic nuclear polarization in SQUID-based ultra-low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong-Joo; Kim, Kiwoong; Kang, Chan Seok; Hwang, Seong-min; Lee, Yong-Ho, E-mail: kwkim@kriss.re.k [Brain and Cognition Measurement Laboratory, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Doryong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We achieved enhanced pre-polarization in a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)-based microtesla nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment by using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The pre-polarization field is necessary to provide enough signal to noise to perform SQUID-based ultra-low-field (ULF) NMR/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments. However, it is quite tricky to deal with the strong transient magnetic field when operating the SQUID in a magnetically shielded room (MSR); besides the direct interference with the sensitive SQUID sensor, the strong magnetic field and its abrupt change generate magnetization in local areas in the MSR and eddy currents along the wall, which makes the NMR measurement difficult. The enhanced {sup 1}H NMR signals of water in TEMPOL and TEMPO solutions were obtained with a relatively weak radio-frequency (rf) field and double-relaxation oscillation SQUIDs (DROS) at a few mT pre-polarization fields. In our experimental condition, the enhancement factor was near ten in spite of the rf power far below the saturation in both samples.

  6. Pre-polarization enhancement by dynamic nuclear polarization in SQUID-based ultra-low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Joo; Kim, Kiwoong; Kang, Chan Seok; Hwang, Seong-min; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2010-11-01

    We achieved enhanced pre-polarization in a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)-based microtesla nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment by using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The pre-polarization field is necessary to provide enough signal to noise to perform SQUID-based ultra-low-field (ULF) NMR/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments. However, it is quite tricky to deal with the strong transient magnetic field when operating the SQUID in a magnetically shielded room (MSR); besides the direct interference with the sensitive SQUID sensor, the strong magnetic field and its abrupt change generate magnetization in local areas in the MSR and eddy currents along the wall, which makes the NMR measurement difficult. The enhanced 1H NMR signals of water in TEMPOL and TEMPO solutions were obtained with a relatively weak radio-frequency (rf) field and double-relaxation oscillation SQUIDs (DROS) at a few mT pre-polarization fields. In our experimental condition, the enhancement factor was near ten in spite of the rf power far below the saturation in both samples.

  7. Lunar electric fields, surface potential and associated plasma sheaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J. W.; Ibrahim, M.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of studies of the electric-field environment of the moon. Surface electric potentials are reported for the dayside and terminator regions, electron and ion densities in the plasma sheath adjacent to each surface-potential regime are evaluated, and the corresponding Debye lengths are estimated. The electric fields, which are approximated by the surface potential over the Debye length, are shown to be at least three orders of magnitude higher than the pervasive solar-wind electric field and to be confined to within a few tens of meters of the lunar surface.

  8. Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R; Leitgeb, N; Pediaditis, M

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the interaction of low frequency electric and magnetic fields with pregnant women and in particular with the fetus, an anatomical voxel model of an 89 kg woman at week 30 of pregnancy was developed. Intracorporal electric current density distributions due to exposure to homogeneous 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields were calculated and results were compared with basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP guidelines. It could be shown that the basic restriction is met within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother at exposure to reference level of either electric or magnetic fields. However, within the fetus the basic restriction is considerably exceeded. Revision of reference levels might be necessary

  9. Lattice distortion under an electric field in BaTiO3 piezoelectric single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazaki, Ryoko; Fu Desheng; Daimon, Masahiro; Koshihara, Shin-ya; Itoh, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    Lattice distortions under an electric field in a mono-domain of BaTiO 3 ferroelectric crystal have been detected with synchrotron x-ray radiation. The variation of the lattice constant with an electric field observed with high angle diffraction shows a linear response nature of the piezoelectric effect. When an electric field is applied along the spontaneous polarization direction, the c-axis of the lattice elongates and the a-axis of the lattice shrinks at a rate of d 33 = 149 ± 54 pm V -1 and d 31 = -82 ± 61 pm V -1 ; these represent the longitudinal and transverse piezoelectric coefficients of BaTiO 3 crystal, respectively. These results give an insight into the intrinsic piezoelectric response on the lattice scale in BaTiO 3 that has been widely used to explore high performance lead-free piezoelectric alloys.

  10. Effect of Electric Field in the Stabilized Premixed Flame on Combustion Process Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Krickis

    2017-10-01

    The effect of the AC and DC electrical field on combustion processes has been investigated by various researchers. The results of these experiments do not always correlate, due to different experiment conditions and experiment equipment variations. The observed effects of the electrical field impact on the combustion process depends on the applied voltage polarity, flame speed and combustion physics. During the experiment was defined that starting from 1000 V the ionic wind takes the effect on emissions in flue gases, flame shape and combustion instabilities. Simulation combustion process in hermetically sealed chamber with excess oxygen amount 3 % in flue gases showed that the positive effect of electrical field on emissions lies in region from 30 to 400 V. In aforementioned voltage range carbon monoxide emissions were reduced by 6 % and at the same time the nitrogen oxide emissions were increased by 3.5 %.

  11. Effects of electric fields on the photodetachment cross section of the H- ion near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.E.

    1987-12-01

    The photodetachment cross section of the H - ion near the one electron threshold in electric fields ranging from approximately 5 x 10 -7 atomic units up to 2.4 x 10 -4 atomic units has been studied using an 800 MeV beam at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The lowest field data, analyzed as though at zero field, are consistent with the Wigner prediction for p wave processes. At greater field values, photodetachment using σ polarized laser light displays the expected lowering of apparent threshold and evidence of tunneling. Using π polarized laser light the same features are seen with the addition of oscillations superimposed on the cross section. Three complementary explanations are presented for the oscillations. 42 refs., 35 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Clay-Oil Droplet Suspensions in Electric Field

    OpenAIRE

    Kjerstad, Knut Brøndbo

    2012-01-01

    Silicone oil droplets containing synthetic smectite clay submerged in another immiscible organic oil have been studied by observing clay particle movement, oil circulation and drop deformation when an electric field is applied. Results show how electric field strength, electrohydrodynamics, dielectric and conductive properties determines the fluid flow, clay particle formation and drop deformation.

  13. Effect of a background electric field on the Hagedorn temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, E.J.; Incera, V. de la; Fradkin, E.S.

    1990-07-01

    We compute the one-loop free energy of the open neutral string gas in a constant electromagnetic background. Starting from this result we show that the Hagedorn temperature of this hot string gas depends on the background electric field. The larger the electric field, the lower the Hagedorn temperature is. (author). 13 refs

  14. High field electrical behaviour in lithium–phospho–vanadate glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. High field electrical behaviour; lithium–phospho–vanadate glass system. 1. Introduction. High field electrical switching behaviour is one of the fascinating properties in oxide glasses, since it exhibits reversible threshold and irreversible memory states. Several investigations have been initiated to study switching ...

  15. High School Students' Representations and Understandings of Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the representations and understandings of electric fields expressed by Chinese high school students 15 to 16 years old who have not received high school level physics instruction. The physics education research literature has reported students' conceptions of electric fields post-instruction as indicated by students'…

  16. Phonon-assisted transitions in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.R.

    1980-05-01

    A theory of the effect of a crossed electric, E, and magnetic, H, fields in the indirect transitions in semiconductors is developed. A semi-classical treatment is adopted where the electric field is considered as a small perturbation. A numerical application to GaP gives the limiting values of E/H valid to this approach. (author)

  17. Effect of electric field (at different temperatures) on germination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds were exposed to electric field from zero to 1300 V for 15 min at three different temperatures (13, 16 and 19°C). It was found that the exposure of chickpea seeds to the electric field caused a change in water uptake capacity (and its coefficient) as compared to control. A new theoretical model ...

  18. Incompressible Einstein–Maxwell fluids with specified electric fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Einstein–Maxwell equations describing static charged spheres with uniform density and variable electric field intensity are studied. The special case of constant electric field is also studied. The evolution of the model is governed by a hypergeometric differential equation which has a general solution in terms of special ...

  19. Study of electric field pulsation in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S; Itoh, K

    2011-01-01

    A model for the experimental results of the periodic oscillation of the electric field, so-called the electric field pulsation, observed in the Compact Helical Device (Fujisawa et al 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 2256) and the Large Helical Device (Shimizu et al 2010 Plasma Fusion Res. 5 S1015) is presented. A self-generated oscillation of the radial electric field is shown as the simulation result in helical plasmas. The reduction of the anomalous transport diffusivity in the core region is observed due to the strong shear of the radial electric field when the positive electric field is shown in the core region in the periodic oscillation of E r . Two different time scales are found in the self-generated oscillation, which are the transport time scale and the fast time scale at the transition of the radial electric field. This oscillation because of the hysteresis characteristic is attributed to the electric field pulsation observed in helical plasmas. The parameter region of the condition for the self-generated oscillation is derived. It is shown that the multiple solutions of the radial electric field for the ambipolar condition are necessary but not sufficient for obtaining the self-generated oscillation.

  20. Electric and Magnetic Fields | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-07

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are a combination of electric and magnetic fields of energy that surround any electrical device when it is plugged in and turned on. Scientific experiments have not clearly shown whether or not exposure to EMF increases cancer risk. Scientists continue to study the issue.

  1. Electric field numerical simulation of disc type electrostatic spinning spinneret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L.; Deng, ZL; Qin, XH; Liang, ZY

    2018-01-01

    Electrospinning is a new type of free-end spinning built on electric field. Different from traditional single needle spinneret, in this study, a new disc type free surface spinneret is used to produce multiple jets, this will greatly improve production efficiency of nanofiber. The electric-field distribution of spinneret is the crux of the formation and trajectory of jets. In order to probe the electric field intensity of the disc type spinneret, computational software of Ansoft Maxwell 12 is adopted for a precise and intuitive analysis. The results showed that the whole round cambered surface of the spinning solution at edge of each layer of the spinneret with the maximum curvature has the highest electric field intensity, and through the simulation of the electric field distribution of different spinneret parameters such as layer, the height and radius of the spinneret. Influences of various parameters on the electrostatic spinning are obtained.

  2. Electric Field Simulation of Surge Capacitors with Typical Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenmeng; Mao, Yuxiang; Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Yu

    2018-03-01

    The electric field of power capacitors with different typical defects in DC working condition and impulse oscillation working condition is studied in this paper. According to the type and location of defects and considering the influence of space charge, two-dimensional models of surge capacitors with different typical defects are simulated based on ANSYS. The distribution of the electric field inside the capacitor is analyzed, and the concentration of electric field and its influence on the insulation performance are obtained. The results show that the type of defects, the location of defects and the space charge all affect the electric field distribution inside the capacitor in varying degrees. Especially the electric field distortion in the local area such as sharp corners and burrs is relatively larger, which increases the probability of partial discharge inside the surge capacitor.

  3. Cometary dust dynamics and polarization in electromagnetic radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranen, J.; Markkanen, J.; Muinonen, K.

    2017-09-01

    In our work, we apply a fast solution of electromagnetic scattering to determine the induced spin and movement of a dust particle in a cometary coma. The resulted aligned spinning state is then used to determine the observable polarization of the dust, and compared against the randomly averaged polarization of the same particle. We find that measurable effects arise due to the alignment. In the future, similar methods can be used to model the dynamics and in turn the polarization of the whole coma.

  4. Theory of Multiphoton Processes for Atoms and Ions in the Presence of a Static Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Min-Qi.

    Theoretical studies of both Multiphoton Detachment (MPD) and High Harmonic Generation (HHG) processes of ions and atoms in the presence of a static electric field are presented in this thesis. In the first part of this thesis, a symbolic algebra program is presented for the analytical evaluation of Feynman's path integral for an interaction of the form F(t) cdot r. Such an interaction governs the motion of an electron in a combination of laser fields and/or static electric fields. This Feynman's path integral is used in the rest of this thesis. In the second part of this thesis, theories of atomic effects on MPD of negative ions in a static electric field are developed by using the Green's function approach as well as the quasienergy approach. Atomic rescattering effects on both linearly and circularly polarized laser detachment cross sections are demonstrated. In the third part of this thesis, theories of HHG of atoms and ions in the presence of a static electric field are presented. The presence of the static electric field leads to the extension of the well-known HHG plateau and the production of even as well as odd high harmonics; the interplay between MPD and HHG is also illustrated. In the last part of this thesis, the classical and quantum mechanical motions of a charged particle in a Paul trap are investigated. The animation code in Mathematica of these motions is included.

  5. Electric field-mediated processing of polymer blend solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnek, G. E.; Krause, S.

    1993-01-01

    Multiphase polymer blends in which the minor phases are oriented in a desired direction may demonstrate unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. While morphology development in shear fields was studied extensively, little work has focused on effects of electric fields on phase structure. The use of electric fields for blend morphology modulation with particular attention given to solvent casting of blends in d.c. fields was explored. Both homopolymer blends (average phase sizes of several microns) and diblock copolymer/homopolymer blends (average phase sizes of hundreds of Angstroms) were investigated. Summarized are important observations and conclusions.

  6. Peculiarities of gadolinium molybdate change-over using alternating electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.N.; Zlokazov, M.V.; Prokolov, A.L.; Tikhomirova, N.A.; Shuvalov, L.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kristallografii)

    1984-01-01

    Experimental investigation into processes of total repolarization of a gadolinium molybdate monocrystal Gd(MoO 4 ) 3 -GMO following alternating electric effects is conduced. The process of total change-over of the GMO monocrystal with a capillar layer of weak-conductive liquid deposited on its polar surfaces at application of alternating stationary electric field is shown to proceed through sidewise traverse of the single plane domain boundary of one and the same crystallographical orientation (110) in the coordinate system of monodomain state being changed-over

  7. Circularly polarized near-field optical mapping of spin-resolved quantum Hall chiral edge states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyouda, Syuhei; Ito, Hironori; Shibata, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masumi; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Ootuka, Youiti; Nomura, Shintaro

    2015-04-08

    We have successfully developed a circularly polarized near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) that enables us to irradiate circularly polarized light with spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. As a demonstration, we perform real-space mapping of the quantum Hall chiral edge states near the edge of a Hall-bar structure by injecting spin polarized electrons optically at low temperature. The obtained real-space mappings show that spin-polarized electrons are injected optically to the two-dimensional electron layer. Our general method to locally inject spins using a circularly polarized NSOM should be broadly applicable to characterize a variety of nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  8. Electric Field-Assisted Pressureless Sintering of Ceramic Protonic Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muccillo, R.; Esposito, Vincenzo; Zanetti De Florio, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    -5 A the electric current pulse amplitude. The sintering experiments were carried out in ambient atmosphere with the pellets positioned inside a vertical dilatometer furnace with Pt-Ir electrodes connected either to a power supply for applying the electric field or to an impedance analyzer for collecting [-Z''(ω) x......Gadolinium, yttrium and samarium-doped barium cerate (BCGd, BCY and BCSm, respectively) polycrystalline green pellets were submitted to electric field-assisted pressureless sintering experiments isothermally in the temperature range 800-1200oC under 100-200 V cm-1 electric fields, limiting to 1...... of the electrical conductivity of flash sintered specimens. Joule heating is assumed to be the primary effect of the electric current pulse through the specimens. Improved grain-to-grain contact and the removal of depleted chemical species due to Joule heating at the space charge region are proposed, respectively...

  9. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxin; Versteeg, Roelof; Slater, Lee; LaBrecque, Douglas

    2009-05-12

    Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO(3) and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO(3) as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD analysis. Electrical measurements revealed decreases in conductivity and polarization of both columns, suggesting that electrically insulating CaCO(3) dominates the electrical response despite the presence of electrically conductive iron oxides. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical signal reflects the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. CaCO(3) forms insulating films on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, restricting charge transfer between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions via charge transfer, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss due to CaCO(3) precipitation. Comparison between laboratory and field data shows consistent changes in electrical signatures due to iron corrosion and secondary mineral precipitation.

  10. Electric field measurements on Cluster: comparing the double-probe and electron drift techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Eriksson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The four Cluster satellites each carry two instruments designed for measuring the electric field: a double-probe instrument (EFW and an electron drift instrument (EDI. We compare data from the two instruments in a representative sample of plasma regions. The complementary merits and weaknesses of the two techniques are illustrated. EDI operations are confined to regions of magnetic fields above 30 nT and where wave activity and keV electron fluxes are not too high, while EFW can provide data everywhere, and can go far higher in sampling frequency than EDI. On the other hand, the EDI technique is immune to variations in the low energy plasma, while EFW sometimes detects significant nongeophysical electric fields, particularly in regions with drifting plasma, with ion energy (in eV below the spacecraft potential (in volts. We show that the polar cap is a particularly intricate region for the double-probe technique, where large nongeophysical fields regularly contaminate EFW measurments of the DC electric field. We present a model explaining this in terms of enhanced cold plasma wake effects appearing when the ion flow energy is higher than the thermal energy but below the spacecraft potential multiplied by the ion charge. We suggest that these conditions, which are typical of the polar wind and occur sporadically in other regions containing a significant low energy ion population, cause a large cold plasma wake behind the spacecraft, resulting in spurious electric fields in EFW data. This interpretation is supported by an analysis of the direction of the spurious electric field, and by showing that use of active potential control alleviates the situation.

  11. Laser ablation of titanium in liquid in external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkov, A.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, “Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University)”, 9 Institutskiy per., 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Barmina, E.V., E-mail: barminaev@gmail.com [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 31, Kashirskoye Highway, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Ablation of a bulk Ti target by 10 ps laser pulses in liquid is experimentally studied in external DC electric field. • Applied cathodic bias leads to increase in average size of self-organized nanostructures formed upon ablation of titanium target. • Laser ablation of Ti target in external electric field results in generation of elongated titanium oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Ablation of a bulk Ti target by 10 ps laser pulses in water is experimentally studied in external DC electric field. It is demonstrated that both lateral size of nanostructures (NS) on Ti surface and their density depend on the electric field applied to the target. Scanning Electron Microscopy of NS reveals the shift of their size distribution function toward larger sizes with applied field (cathodic bias, 25 V DC). Density of mushroom-like NS with applied electric field amounts to 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}. X-ray diffraction of generated nanoparticles (NPs) shows difference in the crystallographic structure of NPs of non-stoichiometric Ti oxides generated with and without electric field. This conclusion is corroborated with the optical absorption spectroscopy of obtained colloids. Transmission Electron Microscopy of NPs also shows difference in morphology of particles produced with and without cathodic bias. The results are interpreted on the basis of instability of the melt on Ti surface in the electric field.

  12. Should we be afraid of magnetic fields related to electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souques, M.

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled that the main sources of 50 Hz electric field are high voltage lines while such a field around any electrical equipment is null because of a presence of insulation, the author comments the magnetic field level at the vicinity of common electrical equipment (refrigerator, hi-fi, computer, television, and so on) and at some distance (30 or 100 meters) of high-voltage and low-voltage lines. She comments the knowledge on the effects of exposure to a 50 Hz magnetic field, and recalls that a publication suggested in 1979 that there was a risk of leukaemia for children living close to electrical lines. More recent studies proposed to apply to magnetic fields an existing classification of products with respect to cancer risk (known, likely, possible, insufficient knowledge, not carcinogen). Some studies put the risk of leukaemia associated to magnetic fields into question again

  13. Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Huveneers

    Full Text Available Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nV cm(-1, using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1 the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias near a static bait, and (2 the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks.

  14. Polarization-independent magneto-electric Fano resonance in hybrid ring/disk hetero-cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhiqiang; Gao, Yune; Huang, Zhenxian; Liang, Xinyi

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we study the scattering properties of the hybrid ring/disk hetero-cavity and reveal the existence of polarization-independent magneto-electric Fano resonance. Such Fano resonance occurs through the destructive interference between the orthogonal electric and magnetic modes in hetero-cavity, where the Si ring provides additional magnetic response. Furthermore, dipole radiative enhancement is used to analysis magneto-electric response of the hetero-cavity and the spectral features of cavity can be used to quantitatively characterize by coupled oscillator model. Generation of magneto-electric Fano resonance in such nanostructures does not require any symmetry breaking and presents clear advantages over their asymmetric counterparts, as it is easier to fabricate and can be used in a wider range of technological applications.

  15. Unidirectional evanescent-wave coupling from circularly polarized electric and magnetic dipoles: An angular spectrum approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Michela F.; Manjavacas, Alejandro; Zayats, Anatoly V.; Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J.

    2017-06-01

    Unidirectional evanescent-wave coupling from circularly polarized dipole sources is one of the most striking types of evidence of spin-orbit interactions of light and an inherent property of circularly polarized dipoles. Polarization handedness self-determines propagation direction of guided modes. In this paper, we compare two different approaches currently used to describe this phenomenon: the first requires the evaluation of the coupling amplitude between dipole and waveguide modes, while the second is based on the calculation of the angular spectrum of the dipole. We present an analytical expression of the angular spectrum of dipole radiation, unifying the description for both electric and magnetic dipoles. The symmetries unraveled by the implemented formalism show the existence of specific terms in the dipole spectrum which can be recognized as being directly responsible for directional evanescent-wave coupling. This provides a versatile tool for both a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon and a fully controllable engineering of directionality of guided modes.

  16. Transport properties of finite carbon nanotubes under electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T S; Lin, M F

    2006-01-01

    Electronic and transport properties of finite carbon nanotubes subject to the influences of a transverse electric field and a magnetic field with varying polar angles are studied by the tight-binding model. The external fields will modify the state energies, destroy the state degeneracy, and modulate the energy gap. Both the state energy and the energy gap exhibit rich dependence on the field strength, the magnetic field direction, and the types of carbon nanotubes. The semiconductor-metal transition would be allowed for certain field strengths and magnetic field directions. The variations of state energies with the external fields will also be reflected in the electrical and thermal conductance. The number, the heights, and the positions of the conductance peaks are strongly dependent on the external fields. The heights of the electrical and thermal conductance peaks display a quantized behaviour, while that of the Peltier coefficient does not. Finally, it is found that the validity of the Wiedemann-Franz law depends upon the temperature, the field strength, the electronic structure, and the chemical potential

  17. Electrically switchable photonic liquid crystal devices for routing of a polarized light wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushnova, Irina I.; Melnikova, Elena A.; Tolstik, Alexei L.; Muravsky, Alexander A.

    2018-04-01

    The new mode of LC alignment based on photoalignment AtA-2 azo dye where the refractive interface between orthogonal orientations of the LC director exists without voltage and disappeared or changed with critical voltage has been proposed. The technology to fabricate electrically controlled liquid crystal elements for spatial separation and switching of linearly polarized light beams on the basis of the total internal reflection effect has been significantly improved. Its distinctive feature is the application of a composite alignment material comprising two sublayers of Nylon-6 and AtA-2 photoalignment azo dye offering patterned liquid crystal director orientation with high alignment quality value q = 0 . 998. The fabricated electrically controlled spatially structured liquid crystal devices enable implementation of propagation directions separation for orthogonally polarized light beams and their switching with minimal crosstalk.

  18. Noninvasive Deep Brain Stimulation via Temporally Interfering Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Nir; Bono, David; Dedic, Nina; Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B; Rudenko, Andrii; Suk, Ho-Jun; Cassara, Antonino M; Neufeld, Esra; Kuster, Niels; Tsai, Li-Huei; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Boyden, Edward S

    2017-06-01

    We report a noninvasive strategy for electrically stimulating neurons at depth. By delivering to the brain multiple electric fields at frequencies too high to recruit neural firing, but which differ by a frequency within the dynamic range of neural firing, we can electrically stimulate neurons throughout a region where interference between the multiple fields results in a prominent electric field envelope modulated at the difference frequency. We validated this temporal interference (TI) concept via modeling and physics experiments, and verified that neurons in the living mouse brain could follow the electric field envelope. We demonstrate the utility of TI stimulation by stimulating neurons in the hippocampus of living mice without recruiting neurons of the overlying cortex. Finally, we show that by altering the currents delivered to a set of immobile electrodes, we can steerably evoke different motor patterns in living mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determinants of the electric field during transcranial direct current stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opitz, Alexander; Paulus, Walter; Will, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) causes a complex spatial distribution of the electric current flow in the head which hampers the accurate localization of the stimulated brain areas. In this study we show how various anatomical features systematically shape the electric field...... over the motor cortex in small steps to examine the resulting changes of the electric field distribution in the underlying cortex. We examined the effect of skull thickness and composition on the passing currents showing that thinner skull regions lead to higher electric field strengths. This effect...... fluid and the skull, the gyral depth and the distance to the anode and cathode. These factors account for up to 50% of the spatial variation of the electric field strength. Further, we demonstrate that individual anatomical factors can lead to stimulation "hotspots" which are partly resistant...

  20. Electric field measurements at subcritical, oblique bow shock crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wygant, J.R.; Bensadoun, M.; Mozer, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Electric field measurements at oblique, subcritical bow shock crossings are presented from the ISEE 1 University of California, Berkeley, double-probe electric field experiment. The measurements averaged over the 3-s spin period of the spacecraft provide the first observations of the large-scale (100 km) laminar oscillations in the longitudinal component of the electric field associated with the whistler precursor which is characteristic of these dispersive shocks. The amplitude of the oscillations increases from ∼0.5 mV/m to a maximum of 6 mV/m across the magnetic ramp of the shock (directed along the shock normal). The calculated electric potential drops across the shocks varied from 340 to 550 volts, which is 40-60% of the observed loss of kinetic energy associated with the bulk flow of the ions. These measurements suggest that at these shocks the additional deceleration of incident ions is due to the Lorentz force. The contributions to the normal component of the large-scale electric field at the shock due to the parallel and perpendicular components (relative to the magnetic field) of the electric field are evaluated. It is shown that the perpendicular component of the electric field dominates, accounting for most of the cross-shock potential, but that there is a nonnegligible parallel component. This large-scale parallel component has a magnitude of 1-2 mV/m which sometimes results in a potential well for electrons with a depth of ∼150 eV. It is experimentally demonstrated that the dominance of the perpendicular over the parallel component of the electric field resulted in a correlation between the longitudinal component of the large-scale electric field and the fluctuations in the magnetic field component perpendicular to the coplanarity plane

  1. Theory and analysis of a large field polarization imaging system with obliquely incident light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaotian; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Li; Wang, Xia; Qiu, Su; Liu, Jing

    2018-02-05

    Polarization imaging technology provides information about not only the irradiance of a target but also the polarization degree and angle of polarization, which indicates extensive application potential. However, polarization imaging theory is based on paraxial optics. When a beam of obliquely incident light passes an analyser, the direction of light propagation is not perpendicular to the surface of the analyser and the applicability of the traditional paraxial optical polarization imaging theory is challenged. This paper investigates a theoretical model of a polarization imaging system with obliquely incident light and establishes a polarization imaging transmission model with a large field of obliquely incident light. In an imaging experiment with an integrating sphere light source and rotatable polarizer, the polarization imaging transmission model is verified and analysed for two cases of natural light and linearly polarized light incidence. Although the results indicate that the theoretical model is consistent with the experimental results, the theoretical model distinctly differs from the traditional paraxial approximation model. The results prove the accuracy and necessity of the theoretical model and the theoretical guiding significance for theoretical and systematic research of large field polarization imaging.

  2. Electric conductivity of TlInTe2 monocrystal in strong electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarbaliev, M.M.; Godzhaev, Eh.M.; Gadzhiev, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Electric condUctivity of the TlInTe 2 single crystal in strong electric fields has been studied in the range of 77-300 K. The electron part of the TlInTe 2 dielectric constant has been found to be 4. The dependence of the activation energy of current carriers on the electric field strength is constructed and the value of the activation energy of current carriers in the absence of an electric field is determined by the extrapolation method. The results of the experiments are in good agreement with the Frenkel-Pool theory, and this affords grounds for asserting that the obtained dependences of electric conductivity on temperature and the electric field strength are defined by variation in the current carrier concentration due to action of the thermal-electron ionization mechanism

  3. Nonpremixed flame in a counterflow under electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Daegeun

    2016-05-08

    Electrically assisted combustion has been studied in order to control or improve flame characteristics, and emphasizing efficiency and emission regulation. Many phenomenological observations have been reported on the positive impact of electric fields on flame, however there is a lack of detailed physical mechanisms for interpreting these. To clarify the effects of electric fields on flame, I have investigated flame structure, soot formation, and flow field with ionic wind electrical current responses in nonpremixed counterflow flames. The effects of direct current (DC) electric field on flame movement and flow field was also demonstrated in premixed Bunsen flames. When a DC electric field was applied to a lower nozzle, the flames moved toward the cathode side due to Lorentz force action on the positive ions, soot particles simultaneously disappeared completely and laser diagnostics was used to identify the results from the soot particles. To understand the effects of an electric field on flames, flow visualization was performed by Mie scattering to check the ionic wind effect, which is considered to play an important role in electric field assisted combustion. Results showed a bidirectional ionic wind, with a double-stagnant flow configuration, which blew from the flame (ionic source) toward both the cathode and the anode. This implies that the electric field affects strain rate and the axial location of stoichiometry, important factors in maintaining nonpremixed counterflow flames; thus, soot formation of the counterflow flame can also be affected by the electric field. In a test of premixed Bunsen flames having parallel electrodes, flame movement toward the cathode and bidirectional ionic wind were observed. Using PIV measurement it was found that a created radial velocity caused by positive ions (i.e. toward a cathode), was much faster than the velocity toward the anode. Even in a study of alternating current (AC) electric fields, bidirectional ionic wind could

  4. Ambipolar Electric Field, Photoelectrons, and Their Role in Atmospheric Escape From Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, O.; Glocer, A.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loss from Hot Jupiters can be large due to the close proximity of these planets to their host star and the strong radiation the planetary atmosphere receives. On Earth, a major contribution to the acceleration of atmospheric ions comes from the vertical separation of ions and electrons, and the generation of the ambipolar electric field. This process, known as the "polar wind," is responsible for the transport of ionospheric constituents to Earth's magnetosphere, where they are well observed. The polar wind can also be enhanced by a relatively small fraction of super-thermal electrons (photoelectrons) generated by photoionization.We formulate a simplified calculation of the effect of the ambipolar electric field and the photoelectrons on the ion scale height in a generalized manner. We find that the ion scale height can be increased by a factor of 2-15 due to the polar wind effects. We also estimate a lower limit of an order of magnitude increase of the ion density and the atmospheric mass-loss rate when polar wind effects are included.

  5. RichMol: A general variational approach for rovibrational molecular dynamics in external electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Alec; Yachmenev, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a general variational approach for computing the rovibrational dynamics of polyatomic molecules in the presence of external electric fields is presented. Highly accurate, full-dimensional variational calculations provide a basis of field-free rovibrational states for evaluating the rovibrational matrix elements of high-rank Cartesian tensor operators and for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The effect of the external electric field is treated as a multipole moment expansion truncated at the second hyperpolarizability interaction term. Our fully numerical and computationally efficient method has been implemented in a new program, RichMol, which can simulate the effects of multiple external fields of arbitrary strength, polarization, pulse shape, and duration. Illustrative calculations of two-color orientation and rotational excitation with an optical centrifuge of NH3 are discussed.

  6. Spin-Hall conductivity and electric polarization in metallic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui

    2013-02-21

    We predict theoretically that when a normal metallic thin film (without bulk spin-orbit coupling, such as Cu or Al) is sandwiched by two insulators, two prominent effects arise due to the interfacial spin-orbit coupling: a giant spin-Hall conductivity due to the surface scattering and a transverse electric polarization due to the spin-dependent phase shift in the spinor wave functions.

  7. Three-dimensional imaging of vortex structure in a ferroelectric nanoparticle driven by an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, D; Liu, Z; Rolo, T Dos Santos; Harder, R; Balachandran, P V; Xue, D; Lookman, T; Fohtung, E

    2017-08-17

    Topological defects of spontaneous polarization are extensively studied as templates for unique physical phenomena and in the design of reconfigurable electronic devices. Experimental investigations of the complex topologies of polarization have been limited to surface phenomena, which has restricted the probing of the dynamic volumetric domain morphology in operando. Here, we utilize Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of a single BaTiO 3 nanoparticle in a composite polymer/ferroelectric capacitor to study the behavior of a three-dimensional vortex formed due to competing interactions involving ferroelectric domains. Our investigation of the structural phase transitions under the influence of an external electric field shows a mobile vortex core exhibiting a reversible hysteretic transformation path. We also study the toroidal moment of the vortex under the action of the field. Our results open avenues for the study of the structure and evolution of polar vortices and other topological structures in operando in functional materials under cross field configurations.Imaging of topological states of matter such as vortex configurations has generally been limited to 2D surface effects. Here Karpov et al. study the volumetric structure and dynamics of a vortex core mediated by electric-field induced structural phase transition in a ferroelectric BaTiO 3 nanoparticle.

  8. Determining Thunderstorm Electric Fields using Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, B.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.; Ebert, U.; Rutjes, C.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a novel non-intrusive way to investigate electric fields in thunderclouds.Energetic cosmic rays penetrating the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. The front of the shower is a plasma cloud that contains 10^6 or more free electrons and positrons moving towards the Earth's surface at the speed of light. The electric fields that exists in thunderclouds induces electric currents in the plasma cloud that emit radio waves. The radio footprint for intensity, linear and circular polarization thus contains the finger print of the atmospheric electric fields along the path of the air shower.Here we report on the analysis of many cosmic-ray radio footprints as have been measured at LOFAR, a dense array of simple radio antennas (several thousands of dual-polarized antennas) primarily developed for radio-astronomy observations. We show that this method can be used to determine the charge structure in thunderclouds and discuss the accuracy of the method. We have observed seasonal dependencies.

  9. Nanoscale electron manipulation in metals with intense THz electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Jun; Yoshioka, Katsumasa; Minami, Yasuo; Katayama, Ikufumi

    2018-03-01

    Improved control over the electromagnetic properties of metals on a nanoscale is crucial for the development of next-generation nanoelectronics and plasmonic devices. Harnessing the terahertz (THz)-electric-field-induced nonlinearity for the motion of electrons is a promising method of manipulating the local electromagnetic properties of metals, while avoiding undesirable thermal effects and electronic transitions. In this review, we demonstrate the manipulation of electron delocalization in ultrathin gold (Au) films with nanostructures, by intense THz electric-field transients. On increasing the electric-field strength of the THz pulses, the transmittance in the THz-frequency region abruptly decreases around the percolation threshold. The observed THz-electric-field-induced nonlinearity is analysed, based on the Drude-Smith model. The results suggest that ultrafast electron delocalization occurs by electron tunnelling across the narrow insulating bridge between the Au nanostructures, without material breakdown. In order to quantitatively discuss the tunnelling process, we perform scanning tunnelling microscopy with carrier-envelope phase (CEP)-controlled single-cycle THz electric fields. By applying CEP-controlled THz electric fields to the 1 nm nanogap between a metal nanotip and graphite sample, many electrons could be coherently driven through the quantum tunnelling process, either from the nanotip to the sample or vice versa. The presented concept, namely, electron tunnelling mediated by CEP-controlled single-cycle THz electric fields, can facilitate the development of nanoscale electron manipulation, applicable to next-generation ultrafast nanoelectronics and plasmonic devices.

  10. Electric field mapping inside metallized film capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Achton; Popok, Vladimir; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is an important step in the reliability assessment process of electric components. It provides knowledge of the physics of failure of a component that has been subjected to a given stress profile. This knowledge enables improvement of the component robustness...... of the metallization stripes had lost contact to the end-spray. Thus, it is shown that the surface electric potential distributions on micro-sectioned film capacitors can be obtained through KPFM analysis. We have, from KPFM measurements, shown that the degraded capacitors under investigation had suffered from...

  11. Completely independent electrical control of spin and valley in a silicene field effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Xuechao; Jin, Guojun

    2016-01-01

    One-atom-thick silicene is a silicon-based hexagonal-lattice material with buckled structure, where an electron fuses multiple degrees of freedom including spin, sublattice pseudospin and valley. We here demonstrate that a valley-selective spin filter (VSSF) that supports single-valley and single-spin transport can be realized in a silicene field effect transistor constructed of an npn junction, where an antiferromagnetic exchange field and a perpendicular electric field are applied in the p -doped region. The nontrivial VSSF property benefits from an electrically controllable state of spin-polarized single-valley Dirac cone. By reversing the electric field direction, the device can operate as a spin-reversed but valley-unreversed filter due to the dependence of band gap on spin and valley. Further, we find that all the possible spin-valley configurations of VSSF can be achieved just by tuning the electric field. Our findings pave the way to the realization of completely independent electrical control of spin and valley in silicene circuits. (paper)

  12. Electric field effect of GaAs monolayer from first principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongyao Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Using first-principle calculations, we investigate two-dimensional (2D honeycomb monolayer structures composed of group III-V binary elements. It is found that such compound like GaAs should have a buckled structure which is more stable than graphene-like flat structure. This results a polar system with out-of-plane dipoles arising from the non-planar structure. Here, we optimized GaAs monolayer structure, then calculated the electronic band structure and the change of buckling height under external electric field within density functional theory using generalized gradient approximation method. We found that the band gap would change proportionally with the electric field magnitude. When the spin-orbit coupling (SOC is considered, we revealed fine spin-splitting at different points in the reciprocal space. Furthermore, the valence and conduction bands spin-splitting energies due to SOC at the K point of buckled GaAs monolayers are found to be weakly dependent on the electric field strength. Finally electric field effects on the spin texture and second harmonic generation are discussed. The present work sheds light on the control of physical properties of GaAs monolayer by the applied electric field.

  13. Longitudinal and transverse electric field measurements in resonant cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Dechun; Chen Linfeng; Zheng Xiaoyue

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents a measuring technique for the electric field distribution of high order modes in resonant cavities. A perturbing bead-like cage made with metallic wires are developed for S-band field measurements, which can be used to detect a small electric field component in the presence of other strong electric or magnetic field components (That means high sensitivity and high directivity). In order to avoid orientation error for the cage with very high directivity, two parallel threads were used for supporting the perturbing cage. A simple mechanical set-up is described. The cage can be driven into the cavity on-axis or off-axis in any azimuth for the longitudinal and transverse electric field measurements

  14. D.C.-electrical conductivity as a method for monitoring radiation curing of unsaturated polyester resins. Pt. 2: Influence of electrical field and dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucic, I.; Ranogajec, F.

    1996-01-01

    The course of radiation cross linking of unsaturated polyester resins was followed by measuring electrical conductivity change. Both the electrical field strength and dose rate influenced the crosslinking. The electrical field somewhat increased the reaction rate possibly due to the orientation of a polar polyester chains. To investigate the effect of electrical field, the samples were irradiated to different doses at different field strengths, from 2.5 to 250 kV/m and then extracted in benzene to determine the extent of crosslinking. The extraction analysis of irradiated samples confirmed the influence of electrical field observed in conductivity measurements. The electrical field effect depended on the dose rate. Three dose rates were applied 3.05, 0.354 and 0.096 kGy/h. The medium dose rate gave the highest reaction rate (on dose scale). Faster decrease of free styrene content with radiation dose than increase of gel content at higher dose rate implies partial styrene grafting or homopolymerization. The higher the electrical field, the more pronounced were the effects of dose rate. (Author)

  15. COMPUTATION OF ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH NECESSARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike,. P.M.B. 7267, Umuahia, Abia State, .... System Analysis. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994. 7. Lucian Dascalescu, Patrick Ribardiere, Claude Du- vanaud, Jean-Marie Paillot. Electrostatic Discharges form Charged ...

  16. Dynamical interplay between fluctuations, electric fields and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An empirical similarity in the scaling properties of the probability distribution function (PDF) of turbulent transport has been observed in the plasma edge region in fusion plasmas. The investigation of the dynamical interplay between fluctuation in gradients, turbulent transport and radial electric fields has shown that these ...

  17. [Mechanism of ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Chao; Chen, Xin-hua; Zheng, Shu-sen

    2015-11-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation has been widely applied in clinical cancer treatment, while its molecular mechanism is still unclear. Researchers have revealed that nanosecond pulsed electric field generates nanopores in plasma membrane, leading to a rapid influx of Ca²⁺; it has specific effect on intracellular organelle membranes, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum injuries and mitochondrial membrane potential changes. In addition, it may also change cellular morphology through damage of cytoskeleton. This article reviews the recent research advances on the molecular mechanism of cell membrane and organelle changes induced by nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation.

  18. Distributions of electric and elastic fields at domain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Josef; Fousek, Jan; Maryska, Jiri; Marvan, Milan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the application of the finite element method (FEM) in modelling spatial distributions of electric and elastic fields in a ferroelectric crystals with two domains separated by a 90 deg. domain wall. The domain boundary is idealized as a two-dimensional defect in an electro-elastic continuum. It represents the source of inhomogenity and internal distortion in both elastic and electric fields. The main results are distributions of electric field, strain and mechanical force along the domain boundary

  19. Interferometric methods for mapping static electric and magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzi, Giulio; Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    The mapping of static electric and magnetic fields using electron probes with a resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to reveal nanoscale features in materials requires the use of phase-sensitive methods such as the shadow technique, coherent Foucault imaging and the Transport of Intensity...... on theoretical models that form the basis of the quantitative interpretation of electron holographic data. We review the application of electron holography to a variety of samples (including electric fields associated with p–n junctions in semiconductors, quantized magnetic flux in superconductors......) the model-independent determination of the locations and magnitudes of field sources (electric charges and magnetic dipoles) directly from electron holographic data....

  20. Initial plasma production by induction electric field on QUEST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Nakamura, Kazuo; Sato, Kohnosuke

    2007-01-01

    Induction electric field by center solenoid coil plays a roll to produce initial plasma. According to Townsend avalanche theory, minimum electric field for plasma breakdown depends on neutral gas pressure and connection length. On QUEST spherical tokamak, a connection length is evaluated as 966m on null point neighborhood with coil current ratio I PF26 /I CS =0.1, and induction electric field considering eddy current of vacuum vessel is evaluated as about 0.1 V/m on null point neighborhood. With Townsend avalanche theory, these values manage to produce initial plasma on QUEST. (author)

  1. Polarization properties of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules H2+ in linearly polarized laser fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fulong; Tian, Yiqun; Yu, Shujuan; Wang, Shang; Yang, Shiping; Chen, Yanjun

    2015-07-13

    We investigate the polarization properties of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields numerically and analytically. We focus on lower-order harmonics (LOHs). Our simulations show that the ellipticity of below-threshold LOHs depends strongly on the orientation angle and differs significantly for different harmonic orders. Our analysis reveals that this LOH ellipticity is closely associated with resonance effects and the axis symmetry of the molecule. These results shed light on the complex generation mechanism of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules.

  2. Electric field effects on fluorescence of the green fluorescent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Takakazu; Kinjo, Masataka; Ohta, Nobuhiro

    2008-05-01

    External electric field effects on state energy and photoexcitation dynamics have been examined for a mutant of UV-excited green fluorescent protein (GFPuv5) in a PVA film. The electrofluorescence spectrum of GFPuv5 is reproduced by a linear combination between the fluorescence spectrum and its second derivative spectrum, indicating the field-induced fluorescence quenching and the difference in electric dipole moment between the fluorescent state and the ground state. The direct measurements of the field-induced change in fluorescence decay show that the field-induced quenching results from the field-induced increase in the rate of the non-radiative process from the fluorescent state.

  3. Magnetic and electric control of spin- and valley-polarized transport across tunnel junctions on monolayer WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M.; Krstajić, P. M.; Vasilopoulos, P.

    2017-06-01

    The recent experimental realization of high-quality WSe2 leads to the possibility of an efficient manipulation of its spin and valley degrees of freedom. Its electronic properties comprise a huge spin-orbit coupling, a direct band gap, and a strong anisotropic lifting of the degeneracy of the valley degree of freedom in a magnetic field. We evaluate its band structure and study ballistic electron transport through single and double junctions (or barriers) on monolayer WSe2 in the presence of spin Ms and valley Mv Zeeman fields and of an electric potential U . The conductance versus the field Ms or Mv decreases in a fluctuating manner. For a single junction, the spin Ps and valley Pv polarizations rise with M =Mv=2 Ms , reach a value of more than 55 % , and become perfect above U ≈45 meV while for a double junction this change can occur for U ≥50 meV and M ≥5 meV. In certain regions of the (M ,U ) plane Pv becomes perfect. The conductance gc, its spin-up and spin-down components, and both polarizations oscillate with the barrier width d . The ability to isolate various carrier degrees of freedom in WSe2 may render it a promising candidate for new spintronic and valleytronic devices.

  4. Enhanced electrical conductivity in graphene and boron nitride nanoribbons in large electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Raad

    2018-02-01

    Based on data of density function theory (DFT) as the input of tight binding model, the electrical conductivity (σ(T)) of graphene nanoribbos (GNRs) and Boron Nitride nanoribbos (BNNRs) under external electric fields with different wide are studied using the Green's function method. The BNNRs are wide band gap semiconductor and they are turned into metal depending on their electric field strength. The σ(T) shows increasing in low temperature region and after reaching the maximum value, it will decrease in high temperature region. In lower temperature ranges, the electrical conductivity of the GNRs is greater than that of the BNNRs. In a low temperature region, the σ(T) of GNRs increases linearly with temperature unlike the BNNRs. The electrical conductivity are strongly dependent on the electric field strength.

  5. Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A.; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks. PMID:23658766

  6. Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J; Semmens, Jayson M; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks.

  7. The bee, the flower and the electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects use several different senses to forage on flowers, and detect floral cues such as color, shape, pattern, humidity and chemical volatiles. This presentation will present our discovery of a previously unappreciated sensory capacity in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris: the detection of floral electric fields. We show that these floral fields act as informational cues, and that they can be affected by the visit of naturally electrically charged bees. Like visual cues, floral electric fields exhibit variations in pattern and structure, which can be discriminated by bumblebees. We also show that such electric field information contributes to the complex array of floral cues that together improve a pollinator’s memory of floral rewards. Floral electric fields arise from complex interactions with the surrounding atmosphere, an interaction between plants and their environment that not well understood. Because floral electric fields can change within seconds, this new sensory modality - electrostatic field detection- may facilitate rapid and dynamic communication between flowers and their pollinators.

  8. Electric and magnetic fields in medicine and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Papers Include: The effects of low frequency (50 Hz) magnetic fields on neuro-chemical transmission in vitro; Morphological changes in E Coli subjected to DC electrical fields; An investigation of some claimed biological effects of electromagnetic fields; Electrical phenomena and bone healing - a comparison of contemporary techniques; Clinical evaluations of a portable module emitting pulsed RF energy; The design, construction and performance of a magnetic nerve stimulator; The principle of electric field tomography and its application to selective read-out of information from peripheral nerves; Applied potential tomography - clinical applications; Impendance imaging using a linear electrode array; Mathematics as an aid to experiment: human body currents induced by power frequency electric fields; Effects of electric field near 750KV transmission line and protection against their harmful consequences; Leukemia and electromagnetic fields: a case-control study; Overhead power lines and childhood cancer; Magnetic measurement of nerve action currents - a new intraoperative recording technique; The potential use of electron spin resonance or impedance measurement to image neuronal electrical activity in the human brain

  9. Mutagenic Potential of Alternating Current Electric Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obringer, John

    1997-01-01

    .... Statistical analysis of the data indicated that there was no significant difference (p=> 0.05) in the mutagenic rate of phages grown in the presence of A/C E-fields compared to the controls except at a field-strength of 1053 V/M...

  10. The effect of the adsorbate layer on the work function reduction of gold substrates under external electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang; Cheng, Feng; Chen, Zhao-Xu

    2017-12-01

    The interface interaction between the dimethyl sulfide (DMS) molecule and the gold substrate under external electric fields is investigated by density functional theory method. The polarized DMS adsorbate reduces the work function of the gold substrate while the induced substrate dipole upon the adsorption slightly increases the work function. The DMS layer partially shields the Au(111) substrate from the electric fields and the vacuum level of DMS/Au(111) shifts less than of Au(111) in consequence. Under electric fields pointing outward from the Au(111) surface, both the reduction of work function and the adsorption of DMS molecule are enhanced on the surface. We also suggest the possible application of the field-effect transistor (FET) sensor with gold gate for detecting DMS molecule by utilizing the reduction of substrate work function upon adsorption. The effects of coverage and electric field on the theoretical sensitivity of the sensor are also discussed.

  11. Light- and electric-field-induced first-order orientation transitions in a dendrimer-doped nematic liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayan, E A; Budagovsky, I A; Shvetsov, S A; Smayev, M P; Zolot'ko, A S; Boiko, N I; Barnik, M I

    2010-12-01

    Interaction of light and ac electric fields with a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) doped with nanosized second-generation carbosilane codendrimers containing terminal azobenzene fragments has been studied. A first-order Freedericksz transition in the linearly polarized light, accompanied by an intrinsic bistability in a wide region, was observed. An additional ac electric field decreases the light-induced Freedericksz transition threshold and narrows the bistability region. Light illumination transforms the second-order electric-field-induced Freedericksz transition to a first-order one. The width of the bistability region increases with the light wave intensity. The theory of the interaction of light and ac electric fields with the dendrimer-doped NLCs is developed taking into account an additional (with respect to the undoped nematic host) dependence of the optical torque on the angle between the director and the light field.

  12. Polarization analysis for magnetic field imaging at RADEN in J-PARC/MLF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Takenao; Hiroi, Kosuke; Su, Yuhua; Kai, Tetsuya; Nakatani, Takeshi; Oikawa, Kenichi; Segawa, Mariko; Hayashida, Hirotoshi; Parker, Joseph D.; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Zhang, Shuoyuan; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    2017-06-01

    Polarized neutron imaging is an attractive method for visualizing magnetic fields in a bulk object or in free space. In this technique polarization of neutrons transmitted through a sample is analyzed position by position to produce an image of the polarization distribution. In particular, the combination of three-dimensional spin analysis and the use of a pulsed neutron beam is very effective for the quantitative evaluation of both field strength and direction by means of the analysis of the wavelength dependent polarization vector. Recently a new imaging instrument “RADEN” has been constructed at the beam line of BL22 of the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at J-PARC, which is dedicated to energy-resolved neutron imaging experiments. We have designed a polarization analysis apparatus for magnetic field imaging at the RADEN instrument and have evaluated its performance.

  13. Double-edged effect of electric field on the mechanical property of water-filled carbon nanotubes with an application to nanoscale trigger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongfei; Zheng, Yonggang; Zhou, Lili; Zhao, Junfei; Zhang, Hong Wu; Chen, Zhen

    2017-11-08

    Polar water molecules would exhibit extraordinary phenomena under nanoscale confinement. By means of electric field, the water-filled carbon nanotube (CNT) that has been successfully fabricated in laboratory is expected to make distinct responses to the external electricity. Here, we examine the effect of electric field direction on the mechanical property of water-filled CNTs. It is found that the longitudinal electric field enhances but the transversal electric field reduces the elastic modulus and critical buckling stress of water-filled CNTs. The double-edged effect of electric field is attributed to the competition between the axial and circumferential pressures induced by polar water molecules. Furthermore, it is notable that the transversal electric field could result in an internal pressure with elliptical distribution, which is an effective and convenient approach to apply the nonuniform pressure on nanochannels. Based on a pre-strained water-filled CNTs, we design a nanoscale trigger with the evident and rapid height change started through switching the direction of electric field. The reported finding lays a foundation for the electricity-controlled property of nanochannels filled with polar molecules and provides an insight into the design of nanoscale functional devices. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Divergent effect of electric fields on the mechanical property of water-filled carbon nanotubes with an application as a nanoscale trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongfei; Zheng, Yonggang; Zhou, Lili; Zhao, Junfei; Zhang, Hongwu; Chen, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Polar water molecules exhibit extraordinary phenomena under nanoscale confinement. Through the application of an electric field, a water-filled carbon nanotube (CNT) that has been successfully fabricated in the laboratory is expected to have distinct responses to the external electricity. Here, we examine the effect of electric field direction on the mechanical property of water-filled CNTs. It is observed that a longitudinal electric field enhances, but the transverse electric field reduces the elastic modulus and critical buckling stress of water-filled CNTs. The divergent effect of the electric field is attributed to the competition between the axial and circumferential pressures induced by polar water molecules. Furthermore, it is notable that the transverse electric field could result in an internal pressure with elliptical distribution, which is an effective and convenient approach to apply nonuniform pressure on nanochannels. Based on pre-strained water-filled CNTs, we designed a nanoscale trigger with an evident and rapid height change initiated by switching the direction of the electric field. The reported finding provides a foundation for an electricity-controlled property of nanochannels filled with polar molecules and provides an insight into the design of nanoscale functional devices.

  15. Valley-polarized quantum transport generated by gauge fields in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Garcia, Jose H; Roche, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    We report on the possibility to simultaneously generate in graphene a bulk valley-polarized dissipative transport and a quantum valley Hall effect by combining strain-induced gauge fields and real magnetic fields. Such unique phenomenon results from a ‘resonance/anti-resonance’ effect driven...... by the superposition/cancellation of superimposed gauge fields which differently affect time reversal symmetry. The onset of a valley-polarized Hall current concomitant to a dissipative valley-polarized current flow in the opposite valley is revealed by a Hall conductivity plateau. We employ efficient linear scaling...

  16. Stimuli-Responsive Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites under Electric Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Piao, Shang Hao; Kwon, Seung Hyuk; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2016-01-01

    This short Feature Article reviews electric stimuli-responsive polymer/clay nanocomposites with respect to their fabrication, physical characteristics and electrorheological (ER) behaviors under applied electric fields when dispersed in oil. Their structural characteristics, morphological features and thermal degradation behavior were examined by X-ray diffraction pattern, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Particul...

  17. Anomalous electric field changes and high flash rate beneath a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 119; Issue 5. Anomalous electric field changes and high flash rate beneath a thunderstorm in northeast India ... Further,all electric field changes after a lightning discharge indicates the presence of strong Lower Positive Charge Centers (LPCC)in the active and ...

  18. Lateral electric-field control of giant magnetoresistance in Co/Cu/Fe/BaTiO{sub 3} multiferroic heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savitha Pillai, S.; Kojima, H.; Itoh, M.; Taniyama, T., E-mail: taniyama.t.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    We report lateral electric-field-driven sizable changes in the magnetoresistance of Co/Cu/Fe tri-layered wires on BaTiO{sub 3} single crystal. While the observed change is marginal in the tetragonal phase of BaTiO{sub 3}, it reaches over 40% in the orthorhombic and rhombohedral phases with an electric field of 66 kV/cm. We attribute it to possible electric-field-induced variations of the spin-dependent electronic structures, i.e., spin polarization, of the Fe via interfacial strain transfer from BaTiO{sub 3}. The contrasting results for the different phases of BaTiO{sub 3} are discussed, associated with the distinct aspects of the ferroelectric polarization switching processes in each phase.

  19. Lateral electric-field control of giant magnetoresistance in Co/Cu/Fe/BaTiO3 multiferroic heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitha Pillai, S.; Kojima, H.; Itoh, M.; Taniyama, T.

    2015-01-01

    We report lateral electric-field-driven sizable changes in the magnetoresistance of Co/Cu/Fe tri-layered wires on BaTiO 3 single crystal. While the observed change is marginal in the tetragonal phase of BaTiO 3 , it reaches over 40% in the orthorhombic and rhombohedral phases with an electric field of 66 kV/cm. We attribute it to possible electric-field-induced variations of the spin-dependent electronic structures, i.e., spin polarization, of the Fe via interfacial strain transfer from BaTiO 3 . The contrasting results for the different phases of BaTiO 3 are discussed, associated with the distinct aspects of the ferroelectric polarization switching processes in each phase

  20. Lateral electric-field control of giant magnetoresistance in Co/Cu/Fe/BaTiO3 multiferroic heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha Pillai, S.; Kojima, H.; Itoh, M.; Taniyama, T.

    2015-08-01

    We report lateral electric-field-driven sizable changes in the magnetoresistance of Co/Cu/Fe tri-layered wires on BaTiO3 single crystal. While the observed change is marginal in the tetragonal phase of BaTiO3, it reaches over 40% in the orthorhombic and rhombohedral phases with an electric field of 66 kV/cm. We attribute it to possible electric-field-induced variations of the spin-dependent electronic structures, i.e., spin polarization, of the Fe via interfacial strain transfer from BaTiO3. The contrasting results for the different phases of BaTiO3 are discussed, associated with the distinct aspects of the ferroelectric polarization switching processes in each phase.

  1. Model study of the influence of solar wind parameters on electric currents and fields in middle atmosphere at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonev, P.; Velinov, P.

    2012-01-01

    The electric currents and fields in the strato/mesosphere and lower ionosphere are a result mainly of tropospheric electrical generators (thunderstorms and electrified clouds) which principally determine their global distributions and magnitudes. There are, however, additional sources, e.g. the solar wind (SW), whose contribution to these currents and fields is realized by SW-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. This last causes creation of large trans-polar electric potential difference VPC in each polar cap of ∼ 30–140 kV and of horizontal scale ∼ 3000 km which is realized through field-aligned currents (FAC) and is controlled by SW parameters. The potential difference VPC forces formation of closure currents in the dynamo-region. Our study by simulation shows that much smaller currents penetrate into the lower atmospheric regions and influence characteristics of the global atmospheric electrical circuit (GEC). Also, the downward mapping of the horizontal electric fields due to the potential difference VPC leads to creation of very small, but non-negligible vertical electric fields at sea level. They have been demonstrated experimentally as significant (up to few tens of per cent) SW-controlled modifications of the GEC electric characteristics at the ground, at polar latitudes. Our model, based on simulation of Maxwell’s equations in the region 0–160 km under steady-state conditions show that similar but relatively much larger SW-dominated modifications of GEC characteristics take place in the strato/mesosphere and lower ionosphere at polar and high latitudes

  2. Pulsed electric fields for pasteurization: defining processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology in food pasteurization has been extensively studied. Optimal PEF treatment conditions for maximum microbial inactivation depend on multiple factors including PEF processing conditions, production parameters and product properties. In order for...

  3. A high-performance electric field detector for space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoni, D.; Ammendola, R.; Bertello, I.; Cipollone, P.; Conti, L.; De Santis, C.; Diego, P.; Masciantonio, G.; Picozza, P.; Sparvoli, R.; Ubertini, P.; Vannaroni, G.

    2018-04-01

    We present the prototype of an Electric Field Detector (EFD) for space applications, that has been developed in the framework of the Chinese-Italian collaboration on the CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) forthcoming missions. In particular CSES-1 will be placed in orbit in the early 2018. The detector consists of spherical probes designed to be installed at the tips of four booms deployed from a 3-axes stabilized satellite. The instrument has been conceived for space-borne measurements of electromagnetic phenomena such as ionospheric waves, lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and anthropogenic electromagnetic emissions. The detector allows to measure electric fields in a wide band of frequencies extending from quasi-DC up to about 4 MHz , with a sensitivity of the order of 1 μV / m in the ULF band. With these bandwidth and sensitivity, the described electric field detector represents a very performing and updated device for electric field measurements in space.

  4. Communication: Control of chemical reactions using electric field gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Shivaraj D; Tsori, Yoav

    2016-05-21

    We examine theoretically a new idea for spatial and temporal control of chemical reactions. When chemical reactions take place in a mixture of solvents, an external electric field can alter the local mixture composition, thereby accelerating or decelerating the rate of reaction. The spatial distribution of electric field strength can be non-trivial and depends on the arrangement of the electrodes producing it. In the absence of electric field, the mixture is homogeneous and the reaction takes place uniformly in the reactor volume. When an electric field is applied, the solvents separate and the reactants are concentrated in the same phase or separate to different phases, depending on their relative miscibility in the solvents, and this can have a large effect on the kinetics of the reaction. This method could provide an alternative way to control runaway reactions and to increase the reaction rate without using catalysts.

  5. Roles of electric field on toroidal magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Sanuki, Heiji; Fukuyama, Atsushi.

    1992-11-01

    Theoretical research on the influence of the electric field on the toroidal magnetic confinement is surveyed. The static electric field is first described. Physics pictures on the generation of the radial electric field and the influence on the confinement are shown. Neoclassical effects as well as the nonclassical processes are discussed. Emphasis is made on the connection with the improved confinement. Convective cell, i.e. the nonuniform potential on the magnetic surface is also discussed. The roles of the fluctuating electric field are then reviewed. The progress in the recent theories on the anomalous transport is addressed. Through these surveys, the impact of the experiments using the heavy ion beam probes on the modern plasma physics is illustrated. (author) 66 refs

  6. Electric field effects in hyperexcitable neural tissue: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Uniform electric fields applied to neural tissue can modulate neuronal excitability with a threshold value of about 1mV mm -1 in normal physiological conditions. However, electric fields could have a lower threshold in conditions where field sensitivity is enhanced, such as those simulating epilepsy. Uniform electrical fields were applied to hippocampal brain slices exposed to picrotoxin, high potassium or low calcium solutions. The results in the low calcium medium show that neuronal activity can be completely blocked in 10% of the 30 slices tested with a field amplitude of 1mV mm -1 . These results suggest that the threshold for this effect is clearly smaller than 1mV mm -1 . The hypothesis that the extracellular resistance could affect the sensitivity to the electrical fields was tested by measuring the effect of the osmolarity of the extracellular solution on the efficacy of the field. A 10% decrease on osmolarity resulted in a 56% decrease ( n =4) in the minimum field required for full suppression. A 14% in osmolarity produced an 81% increase in the minimum field required for full suppression. These results show that the extracellular volume can modulate the efficacy of the field and could lower the threshold field amplitudes to values lower than ∼1mmV mm -. (author)

  7. High-intensity pulsed electric field variables affecting Staphylococcus aureus inoculated in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino-López, A; Raybaudi-Massilia, R; Martín-Belloso, O

    2006-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important milk-related pathogen that is inactivated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF). In this study, inactivation of Staph. aureus suspended in milk by HIPEF was studied using a response surface methodology, in which electric field intensity, pulse number, pulse width, pulse polarity, and the fat content of milk were the controlled variables. It was found that the fat content of milk did not significantly affect the microbial inactivation of Staph. aureus. A maximum value of 4.5 log reductions was obtained by applying 150 bipolar pulses of 8 mus each at 35 kV/cm. Bipolar pulses were more effective than those applied in the monopolar mode. An increase in electric field intensity, pulse number, or pulse width resulted in a drop in the survival fraction of Staph. aureus. Pulse widths close to 6.7 micros lead to greater microbial death with a minimum number of applied pulses. At a constant treatment time, a greater number of shorter pulses achieved better inactivation than those treatments performed at a lower number of longer pulses. The combined action of pulse number and electric field intensity followed a similar pattern, indicating that the same fraction of microbial death can be reached with different combinations of the variables. The behavior and relationship among the electrical variables suggest that the energy input of HIPEF processing might be optimized without decreasing the microbial death.

  8. A high field optical-pumping spin-exchange polarized deuterium source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, K.P.; Holt, R.J.; Kinney, E.R.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Poelker, M.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L.; Zeidman, B.; Toporkov, D.

    1992-01-01

    Recent results from a prototype high field optical-pumping spin-exchange polarized deuterium source are presented. Atomic polarization as high as 62% have been observed with an intensity of 6.3 x 10 17 atoms-sec -1 and 65% dissociation fraction

  9. The giant Stark effect in armchair-edge phosphorene nanoribbons under a transverse electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Benliang; Zhou, Benhu; Liu, Pu; Zhou, Guanghui

    2018-01-01

    We study the variation of electronic properties for armchair-edge phosphorene nanoribbons (APNRs) modulated by a transverse electric field. Within the tight-binding model Hamiltonian, and by solving the differential Schrödinger equation, we find that a band gap closure appears at the critical field due to the giant Stark effect for an APNR. The gap closure has no field polarity, and the gap varies quadratically for small fields but becomes linear for larger ones. We attribute the giant Stark effect to the broken edge degeneracy, i.e., the charge redistributions of the conduction band minimum and valence band maximum states localized at opposite edges induced by the field. By combined with the Green's function approach, it is shown that in the presence of the critical field a gap of density of states (DOS) disappears and a high value DOS turns up at the energy position of the band gap closure. Finally, as the field increases, we find the band gap decreases more rapidly and the gap closure occurs at smaller fields for wider ribbons. Both the band gap and DOS variations with the field show an insulator-metal transition induced by a transverse electric field for the APNR. Our results show that wider APNRs are more appreciable to design field-effect transistors.

  10. Increasing Electric Field Strength of Polymer Capacitors (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0496 INCREASING ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH OF POLYMER CAPACITORS (PREPRINT) Fahima Ouchen KBRWyle James Grote...POLYMER CAPACITORS (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-15-D-5518 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR(S) 1) Fahima...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Increased electric field breakdown in several polymer-based capacitor dielectrics, including biaxially oriented

  11. Effect of longitudinal electric fields on electrostatic electron cyclotron waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinca, A.L.; Dysthe, K.B. (Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Centro de Electrodinamica)

    1983-02-01

    The influence of static parallel electric fields on the characteristics of obliquely propagating electron Bernstein waves is studied. Analysis of the equilibrium state defines the range of validity of the adopted model, (a collisionless, locally homogeneous medium described by the Vlasov and Poisson equations). An iterative method yields the modified dispersion relation whose numerical solution, for an idealized medium, suggests the relevance of the effects induced by static parallel electric fields in natural plasmas.

  12. Synthesis and electrical field-assisted sintering behaviour of yttria ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 3YSZ nanopowders with mean particle size of 12 nm can be densified in 1 h at 800 ∘ C, by the application of a d.c. electrical field. Under a constant d.c. electrical field, the current density through the specimen of 3YSZ rose rapidly when the temperature increased to a certain value. In the sintering process, the current ...

  13. Electric field distribution in polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    deMello; Halls; Graham; Tessler; Friend

    2000-07-10

    We use electroabsorption spectroscopy and modeling studies to probe the electric field in light-emitting electrochemical cells. At room temperature and constant applied bias, the steady-state internal field is zero for a range of biases. However, when the ions are frozen in place by cooling under steady bias, and the bias is subsequently changed, the profile of the electric potential resembles a typical p-n junction.

  14. North-south polarization of European electricity consumption under future warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders; Auffhammer, Maximilian

    2017-09-19

    There is growing empirical evidence that anthropogenic climate change will substantially affect the electric sector. Impacts will stem both from the supply side-through the mitigation of greenhouse gases-and from the demand side-through adaptive responses to a changing environment. Here we provide evidence of a polarization of both peak load and overall electricity consumption under future warming for the world's third-largest electricity market-the 35 countries of Europe. We statistically estimate country-level dose-response functions between daily peak/total electricity load and ambient temperature for the period 2006-2012. After removing the impact of nontemperature confounders and normalizing the residual load data for each country, we estimate a common dose-response function, which we use to compute national electricity loads for temperatures that lie outside each country's currently observed temperature range. To this end, we impose end-of-century climate on today's European economies following three different greenhouse-gas concentration trajectories, ranging from ambitious climate-change mitigation-in line with the Paris agreement-to unabated climate change. We find significant increases in average daily peak load and overall electricity consumption in southern and western Europe (∼3 to ∼7% for Portugal and Spain) and significant decreases in northern Europe (∼-6 to ∼-2% for Sweden and Norway). While the projected effect on European total consumption is nearly zero, the significant polarization and seasonal shifts in peak demand and consumption have important ramifications for the location of costly peak-generating capacity, transmission infrastructure, and the design of energy-efficiency policy and storage capacity.

  15. Vacuum radiation induced by time dependent electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Many predictions of new phenomena given by strong field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED will be tested on next generation multi-petawatt laser facilities in the near future. These new phenomena are basis to understand physics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields therefore have attracted wide research interest. Here we discuss a new SFQED phenomenon that is named as vacuum radiation. In vacuum radiation, a virtual electron loop obtain energy from time dependent external electric field and radiate an entangled photon pair. Features of vacuum radiation in a locally time dependent electric field including spectrum, characteristic temperature, production rate and power are given.

  16. The chromatographic separation of particles using optical electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javier Alvarez, Nicolas; Jeppesen, Claus; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new field-flow fractionation (FFF) technique, whereby molecules are separated based on their differential interaction (dielectrophoresis (DEP)) with optical electric fields, i.e. electric fields with frequencies in the visible and near-infrared range. The results show that a parallel...... array of axially non-uniform optical fields yielding an attractive potential (positive-DEP-FFF) is advantageous for the separation of polymers, biomolecules, and nanoparticles over very short distances. Furthermore, positive-DEP-FFF yields superior selectivity and resolution compared to conventional...

  17. Vacuum radiation induced by time dependent electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo, E-mail: zhangbolfrc@caep.cn [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Zhi-meng; Hong, Wei; He, Shu-Kai; Teng, Jian [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Gu, Yu-qiu, E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China)

    2017-04-10

    Many predictions of new phenomena given by strong field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED) will be tested on next generation multi-petawatt laser facilities in the near future. These new phenomena are basis to understand physics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields therefore have attracted wide research interest. Here we discuss a new SFQED phenomenon that is named as vacuum radiation. In vacuum radiation, a virtual electron loop obtain energy from time dependent external electric field and radiate an entangled photon pair. Features of vacuum radiation in a locally time dependent electric field including spectrum, characteristic temperature, production rate and power are given.

  18. Effect of the radial electric field on turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1990-01-01

    For many years, the neoclassical transport theory for three- dimensional magnetic configurations, such as magnetic mirrors, ELMO Bumpy Tori (EBTs), and stellarators, has recognized the critical role of the radial electric field in the confinement. It was in these confinement devices that the first experimental measurements of the radial electric field were made and correlated with confinement losses. In tokamaks, the axisymmetry implies that the neoclassical fluxes are ambipolar and, as a consequence, independent of the radial electric field. However, axisymmetry is not strict in a tokamak with turbulent fluctuations, and near the limiter ambipolarity clearly breaks down. Therefore, the question of the effect of the radial electric field on tokamak confinement has been raised in recent years. In particular, the radial electric field has been proposed to explain the transition from L-mode to H-mode confinement. There is some initial experimental evidence supporting this type of explanation, although there is not yet a self-consistent theory explaining the generation of the electric field and its effect on the transport. Here, a brief review of recent results is presented. 27 refs., 4 figs

  19. Spiking patterns of a hippocampus model in electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men Cong; Wang Jiang; Qin Ying-Mei; Wei Xi-Le; Deng Bin; Che Yan-Qiu

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model of CA3 neurons embedded in a resistive array to mimic the effects of electric fields from a new perspective. Effects of DC and sinusoidal electric fields on firing patterns in CA3 neurons are investigated in this study. The firing patterns can be switched from no firing pattern to burst or from burst to fast periodic firing pattern with the increase of DC electric field intensity. It is also found that the firing activities are sensitive to the frequency and amplitude of the sinusoidal electric field. Different phase-locking states and chaotic firing regions are observed in the parameter space of frequency and amplitude. These findings are qualitatively in accordance with the results of relevant experimental and numerical studies. It is implied that the external or endogenous electric field can modulate the neural code in the brain. Furthermore, it is helpful to develop control strategies based on electric fields to control neural diseases such as epilepsy. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  20. Static electric field enhancement in nanoscale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.lepetit@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr; Lemoine, Didier, E-mail: didier.lemoine@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5589, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Márquez-Mijares, Maykel, E-mail: mmarquez@instec.cu [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5589, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias Aplicadas, Avenida Salvador Allende 1110, Quinta de los Molinos, La Habana (Cuba)

    2016-08-28

    We study the effect of local atomic- and nano-scale protrusions on field emission and, in particular, on the local field enhancement which plays a key role as known from the Fowler-Nordheim model of electronic emission. We study atomic size defects which consist of right angle steps forming an infinite length staircase on a tungsten surface. This structure is embedded in a 1 GV/m ambient electrostatic field. We perform calculations based upon density functional theory in order to characterize the total and induced electronic densities as well as the local electrostatic fields taking into account the detailed atomic structure of the metal. We show how the results must be processed to become comparable with those of a simple homogeneous tungsten sheet electrostatic model. We also describe an innovative procedure to extrapolate our results to nanoscale defects of larger sizes, which relies on the microscopic findings to guide, tune, and improve the homogeneous metal model, thus gaining predictive power. Furthermore, we evidence analytical power laws for the field enhancement characterization. The main physics-wise outcome of this analysis is that limited field enhancement is to be expected from atomic- and nano-scale defects.

  1. Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Martin; Bothschafter, Elisabeth M; Sommer, Annkatrin; Holzner, Simon; Schweinberger, Wolfgang; Fiess, Markus; Hofstetter, Michael; Kienberger, Reinhard; Apalkov, Vadym; Yakovlev, Vladislav S; Stockman, Mark I; Krausz, Ferenc

    2013-01-03

    The control of the electric and optical properties of semiconductors with microwave fields forms the basis of modern electronics, information processing and optical communications. The extension of such control to optical frequencies calls for wideband materials such as dielectrics, which require strong electric fields to alter their physical properties. Few-cycle laser pulses permit damage-free exposure of dielectrics to electric fields of several volts per ångström and significant modifications in their electronic system. Fields of such strength and temporal confinement can turn a dielectric from an insulating state to a conducting state within the optical period. However, to extend electric signal control and processing to light frequencies depends on the feasibility of reversing these effects approximately as fast as they can be induced. Here we study the underlying electron processes with sub-femtosecond solid-state spectroscopy, which reveals the feasibility of manipulating the electronic structure and electric polarizability of a dielectric reversibly with the electric field of light. We irradiate a dielectric (fused silica) with a waveform-controlled near-infrared few-cycle light field of several volts per angström and probe changes in extreme-ultraviolet absorptivity and near-infrared reflectivity on a timescale of approximately a hundred attoseconds to a few femtoseconds. The field-induced changes follow, in a highly nonlinear fashion, the turn-on and turn-off behaviour of the driving field, in agreement with the predictions of a quantum mechanical model. The ultrafast reversibility of the effects implies that the physical properties of a dielectric can be controlled with the electric field of light, offering the potential for petahertz-bandwidth signal manipulation.

  2. Action potential propagation: ion current or intramembrane electric field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Albert; Pérez, Juan J; Madrenas, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    The established action potential propagation mechanisms do not satisfactorily explain propagation on myelinated axons given the current knowledge of biological channels and membranes. The flow across ion channels presents two possible effects: the electric potential variations across the lipid bilayers (action potential) and the propagation of an electric field through the membrane inner part. The proposed mechanism is based on intra-membrane electric field propagation, this propagation can explain the action potential saltatory propagation and its constant delay independent of distance between Ranvier nodes in myelinated axons.

  3. Electric Field-Responsive Mesoporous Suspensions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hyuk Kwon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly reviews the fabrication and electrorheological (ER characteristics of mesoporous materials and their nanocomposites with conducting polymers under an applied electric field when dispersed in an insulating liquid. Smart fluids of electrically-polarizable particles exhibit a reversible and tunable phase transition from a liquid-like to solid-like state in response to an external electric field of various strengths, and have potential applications in a variety of active control systems. The ER properties of these mesoporous suspensions are explained further according to their dielectric spectra in terms of the flow curve, dynamic moduli, and yield stress.

  4. Electric field and temperature effects in irradiated MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, M. A. G., E-mail: marcilei@fei.edu.br; Santos, R. B. B.; Leite, F. G.; Araújo, N. E.; Cirne, K. H.; Melo, M. A. A.; Rallo, A. [Centro Universitário da FEI, São Bernardo do Campo, S.P. (Brazil); Aguiar, Vitor A. P.; Aguirre, F.; Macchione, E. L. A.; Added, N.; Medina, N. H. [Instituto de Física da USP, São Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)

    2016-07-07

    Electronic devices exposed to ionizing radiation exhibit degradation on their electrical characteristics, which may compromise the functionality of the device. Understanding the physical phenomena responsible for radiation damage, which may be specific to a particular technology, it is of extreme importance to develop methods for testing and recovering the devices. The aim of this work is to check the influence of thermal annealing processes and electric field applied during irradiation of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) in total ionizing dose experiments analyzing the changes in the electrical parameters in these devices.

  5. Electric Field Effect on Magnetization of an Fe Ultrathin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Masashi; Shimamura, Kazutoshi; Ono, Shimpei; Fukami, Shunsuke; Matsukura, Fumihiro; Ohno, Hideo; Chiba, Daichi; Ono, Teruo

    2012-06-01

    We show the effect of an applied electric field on the magnetization of an Fe ultrathin film. An electric double layer was formed at the interface between an ionic liquid and the Fe layer by the accumulation of ions caused by applying a gate voltage, and a large electric field was exerted on the Fe film surface. The saturation magnetization increased when the electron density at the Fe surface increased. A change in the saturation magnetization of ˜50% was observed by applying a gate voltage of +/-2 V.

  6. Possible role of electric forces in bromine activation during polar boundary layer ozone depletion and aerosol formation events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Ekaterina

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a hypothesis about the mechanism of bromine activation during polar boundary layer ozone depletion events (ODEs) as well as the mechanism of aerosol formation from the frost flowers. The author suggests that ODEs may be initiated by the electric-field gradients created at the sharp tips of ice formations as a result of the combined effect of various environmental conditions. According to the author's estimates, these electric-field gradients may be sufficient for the onset of point or corona discharges followed by generation of high local concentrations of the reactive oxygen species and initiation of free-radical and redox reactions. This process may be responsible for the formation of seed bromine which then undergoes further amplification by HOBr-driven bromine explosion. The proposed hypothesis may explain a variety of environmental conditions and substrates as well as poor reproducibility of ODE initiation observed by researchers in the field. According to the author's estimates, high wind can generate sufficient conditions for overcoming the Rayleigh limit and thus can initiate ;spraying; of charged aerosol nanoparticles. These charged aerosol nanoparticles can provoke formation of free radicals, turning the ODE on. One can also envision a possible emission of halogen ion as a result of the ;electrospray; process analogous to that of electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry.

  7. Ultrashort hybrid plasmonic transverse electric pass polarizer for silicon-on-insulator platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Mohamed Farhat O.; Zaghloul, Reham; Azzam, Shaimaa I.; Obayya, Salah S. A.

    2017-01-01

    A design of a transverse electric (TE)-pass polarizer based on hybrid plasmonic silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform is reported and analyzed using full vectorial finite element method. The proposed design has gold nanorods that are injected into the silicon dioxide substrate to tolerate the function of the device, and hence the required polarizing state can be obtained. Detailed design principle is presented, taking advantage of the distinct confinements of the TE and transverse magnetic modes in the core region and their coupling with the surface plasmon modes around the metallic nanorods. According to the positions of the gold nanorods, the suggested plasmonic SOI can be used as a TE-pass polarizer with a compact device length of 1.85 μm with 0.1639 dB insertion losses and extinction ratio of 14.58 dB at wavelength of 1.55 μm. The optimized geometrical parameters offer 3 orders of magnitude smaller than similar devices previously demonstrated on the SOI platform. The proposed design has advantages in terms of simplicity and compactness, which makes it a good candidate to be used in integrated silicon photonics. Further, the compact device size and good performance could provide a simple yet satisfactory solution to the polarization-dependent performance drawback of the silicon photonics devices on the SOI platform.

  8. Critical electric field for maximum tunability in nonlinear dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.

    2006-09-01

    The authors develop a self-consistent thermodynamic theory to compute the critical electric field at which maximum tunability is attained in a nonlinear dielectric. They then demonstrate that the stored electrostatic free energy functional has to be expanded at least up to the sixth order in electric field so as to define the critical field, and show that it depends solely on the fourth and sixth order permittivities. They discuss the deficiency of the engineering tunability metric in describing nonlinear dielectric phenomena, introduce a critical field renormalized tunability parameter, and substantiate the proposed formalism by computing the critical electric field for prototypical 0.9Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)-0.1PbTiO3 and Ba(Ti0.85,Sn0.15)O3 paraelectrics.

  9. Electric fields in nonhomogeneously doped silicon. Summary of simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, I.V.; Humanic, T.J.; Nouais, D.; Randel, J.; Rashevsky, A.

    2006-01-01

    Variations of the doping concentration inside a silicon device result in electric field distortions. These distortions, 'parasitic' fields, have been observed in Silicon Drift Detectors [D. Nouais, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 501 (2003) 119; E. Crescio, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 539 (2005) 250]. Electric fields inside a silicon device can be calculated for a given doping profile. In this study, the ATLAS device simulator. [Silvaco International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Bldg.2, Santa Clara, CA 95054, USA and s imulation/atlas.html>] was used to calculate the electric field inside an inhomogeneously doped device. Simulations were performed for 1D periodic doping profiles. Results show strong dependence of the parasitic field strength on the 'smoothness' of the doping profile

  10. Electric fields in nonhomogeneously doped silicon. Summary of simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)]. E-mail: kotov@mps.ohio-state.edu; Humanic, T.J. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Nouais, D. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Randel, J. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Rashevsky, A. [INFN, Sezione di Triste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-11-30

    Variations of the doping concentration inside a silicon device result in electric field distortions. These distortions, 'parasitic' fields, have been observed in Silicon Drift Detectors [D. Nouais, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 501 (2003) 119; E. Crescio, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 539 (2005) 250]. Electric fields inside a silicon device can be calculated for a given doping profile. In this study, the ATLAS device simulator. [Silvaco International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Bldg.2, Santa Clara, CA 95054, USA and ] was used to calculate the electric field inside an inhomogeneously doped device. Simulations were performed for 1D periodic doping profiles. Results show strong dependence of the parasitic field strength on the 'smoothness' of the doping profile.

  11. Effect of the Electric Field Frequency on Ascorbic Acid Degradation during Thermal Treatment by Ohmic Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercali, Giovana Domeneghini; Schwartz, Steven; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina; Sastry, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the influence of the electric field frequency and solids content on the degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid during ohmic heating of acerola pulp and acerola serum was investigated. The degradation percentage of ascorbic acid in the pulp after 120 min of heating varied between 12 and 17%. For the serum, the degradation percentage was in the range of 13 and 18%. The results were fitted to the first-order model, and the kinetic rate constants ranged from 1.1 to 1.6 × 10−3 min−1 and from 1.1 to 1.5 × 10−3 min−1 for pulp and serum, respectively. D values ranged between 1480 and 2145 min for the pulp and between 1524 and 1951 min for the serum. A distinct behavior between the kinetic parameters of the pulp and serum in electric field frequencies ranging from 10 to 1000 Hz indicates that the presence of distinct amounts and types of solids might affect the rate of the electron transfer in electrochemical reactions. These variables may also affect the polarization process stimulated by the oscillating electric field. The non-achievement of the equilibrium of the polarization process may have an influence on oxidation reactions, affecting the predisposition to hydrogen donation from the ascorbic acid molecule. PMID:24892902

  12. Field spectrometer measurement errors in presence of partially polarized light; evaluation of ground truth measurement accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Martin P; Dissanska, Maria

    2016-11-28

    Considering that natural light is always partially polarized (reflection, Rayleigh scattering, etc.) and the alteration of the spectral response of spectrometers due to the polarization, some concerns were raised about the accuracy and variability of spectrometer outdoor measurements in field campaigns. We demonstrated by simple experiments that, in some circumstances, spectral measurements can be affected by the polarization. The signal variability due to polarization sensitivity of the spectrometer for the measured sample was about 5-10%. We noted that, measuring surfaces at right angle (a frequently used measurement protocol) minimized the problems due to polarization, producing valid results. On the other hand, measurements acquired with a slant angle are more or less accurate; an important proportion of the signal variability is due to the polarization. Direct sun reflection and reflection from close objects must be avoided.

  13. Sparse Reconstruction of Electric Fields from Radial Magnetic Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, Anthony R.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the horizontal electric field on the Sun’s visible surface are important not only for estimating the Poynting flux of magnetic energy into the corona but also for driving time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic models of the corona. In this paper, a method is developed for estimating the horizontal electric field from a sequence of radial-component magnetic field maps. This problem of inverting Faraday’s law has no unique solution. Unfortunately, the simplest solution (a divergence-free electric field) is not realistically localized in regions of nonzero magnetic field, as would be expected from Ohm’s law. Our new method generates instead a localized solution, using a basis pursuit algorithm to find a sparse solution for the electric field. The method is shown to perform well on test cases where the input magnetic maps are flux balanced in both Cartesian and spherical geometries. However, we show that if the input maps have a significant imbalance of flux—usually arising from data assimilation—then it is not possible to find a localized, realistic, electric field solution. This is the main obstacle to driving coronal models from time sequences of solar surface magnetic maps.

  14. New Method for Solving Inductive Electric Fields in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhamäki, H.

    2005-12-01

    We present a new method for calculating inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. It is well established that on large scales the ionospheric electric field is a potential field. This is understandable, since the temporal variations of large scale current systems are generally quite slow, in the timescales of several minutes, so inductive effects should be small. However, studies of Alfven wave reflection have indicated that in some situations inductive phenomena could well play a significant role in the reflection process, and thus modify the nature of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling. The input to our calculation method are the time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS). This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfven wave reflection from uniformly conducting ionosphere.

  15. Sparse Reconstruction of Electric Fields from Radial Magnetic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeates, Anthony R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-10

    Accurate estimates of the horizontal electric field on the Sun’s visible surface are important not only for estimating the Poynting flux of magnetic energy into the corona but also for driving time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic models of the corona. In this paper, a method is developed for estimating the horizontal electric field from a sequence of radial-component magnetic field maps. This problem of inverting Faraday’s law has no unique solution. Unfortunately, the simplest solution (a divergence-free electric field) is not realistically localized in regions of nonzero magnetic field, as would be expected from Ohm’s law. Our new method generates instead a localized solution, using a basis pursuit algorithm to find a sparse solution for the electric field. The method is shown to perform well on test cases where the input magnetic maps are flux balanced in both Cartesian and spherical geometries. However, we show that if the input maps have a significant imbalance of flux—usually arising from data assimilation—then it is not possible to find a localized, realistic, electric field solution. This is the main obstacle to driving coronal models from time sequences of solar surface magnetic maps.

  16. High electric field phenomena in insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghari, J. R.; Sarjeant, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    The present study extends previous work to include electron radiation-induced changes in monoisopropyl biphenyl (MIPB)-impregnated polypropylene film as well as the effects of neutron/gamma radiation on dry polypropylene films. Effects that were quite similar were induced by both electron and neutron radiation on the properties of interest of the polypropylene films. Impregnation of the film with MIPB had a mitigatory effect on the degradation of the properties. This report also contains the results of a simultaneous electrical and thermal aging study of a capacitor-grade polypropylene film. The data obtained in this study was fitted to models that will enable realistic prediction of lifetimes under operating conditions.

  17. Time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Two different approaches, referred to as Bu and Ej, can be used to examine the time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas based on the fundamental laws of physics. From the Bu approach, the required equation involves the generalized Ohm's law with some simplifying assumptions. From the Ej approach, the required equation can be derived from the equation of particle motion, coupled self-consistently with Maxwell's equation, and the definition of electric current density. Recently, some strong statements against the Ej approach have been made. In this paper, we evaluate these statements by discussing (1 some limitations of the Bu approach in solving the time development of electric fields and currents, (2 the procedure in calculating self-consistently the time development of the electric current in space plasmas without taking the curl of the magnetic field in some cases, and (3 the dependency of the time development of magnetic field on electric current. It is concluded that the Ej approach can be useful to understand some magnetospheric problems. In particular, statements about the change of electric current are valid theoretical explanations of change in magnetic field during substorms.

  18. Time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Two different approaches, referred to as Bu and Ej, can be used to examine the time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas based on the fundamental laws of physics. From the Bu approach, the required equation involves the generalized Ohm's law with some simplifying assumptions. From the Ej approach, the required equation can be derived from the equation of particle motion, coupled self-consistently with Maxwell's equation, and the definition of electric current density. Recently, some strong statements against the Ej approach have been made. In this paper, we evaluate these statements by discussing (1 some limitations of the Bu approach in solving the time development of electric fields and currents, (2 the procedure in calculating self-consistently the time development of the electric current in space plasmas without taking the curl of the magnetic field in some cases, and (3 the dependency of the time development of magnetic field on electric current. It is concluded that the Ej approach can be useful to understand some magnetospheric problems. In particular, statements about the change of electric current are valid theoretical explanations of change in magnetic field during substorms.

  19. High magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchenko, N.G.; Bartenev, V.D.; Blinov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    The superconducting polarizing magnet was constructed for movable polarized target (MPT) with working volume 200 mm long and 30 mm in diameter. The magnet provides a polarizing magnetic field up to 6 T with the uniformity of 4.5 x 10 -4 in the working volume of the target. The magnet windings are made of a NbTi wire, impregnated with the epoxy resin and placed in the horizontal cryostat with 'warm' aperture diameter of 96 mm. The design and technology of the magnet winding are described. Results of the magnetic field map measurements using a NMR-magnetometer are given. The MPT set-up is installed in the beam line of polarized neutrons produced by break-up of polarized deuterons extracted from the Synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies (LHE), JINR, Dubna

  20. Depth enhancement of multi-layer light field display using polarization dependent internal reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Na-Young; Lim, Hong-Gi; Lee, Sung-Keun; Kim, Yong-Soo; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2013-12-02

    A technique to enhance the depth range of the multi-layer light field three-dimensional display is proposed. A set of the optical plates are stacked in front of the conventional multi-layer light field display, creating additional internal reflection for one polarization state. By switching between two orthogonal polarization states in synchronization with the displayed three-dimensional images, the depth range of the display can be doubled. The proposed method is verified experimentally, confirming its feasibility.

  1. Polarization operator in quantum electrodynamics with a pair-producing external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashev, V.P.; Shvartsman, Sh.M.; Shabad, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Various radiative processes with one-photon initial state are treated in QED with pair-producing external field. It is shown that the probabilities of such processes are expressed in terms of two different polarization operators. For the case of a constant field the polarization operator which is expressed through the so-called causal Green electron function, is calculated. This operator has never been calculated previously. It enters the formula for probability of production of N arbitrary pairs by a photon

  2. 16-QAM Field-Quadrature Decomposition using Polarization-Assisted Phase Sensitive Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Niels-Kristian; Piels, Molly; Da Ros, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous I and Q extraction for 16-QAM is experimentally demonstrated through field-quadrature decomposition using a polarization-assisted phase sensitive amplifier. The quadrature components are successfully received and performance is evaluated through bit-error-ratio testing.......Simultaneous I and Q extraction for 16-QAM is experimentally demonstrated through field-quadrature decomposition using a polarization-assisted phase sensitive amplifier. The quadrature components are successfully received and performance is evaluated through bit-error-ratio testing....

  3. Surface states in an external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steslicka, M.

    1975-10-01

    Under conditions typical for field ion microscopy, true surface states can exist. Their shift towards higher energies can be quite significant and, moreover, additional surface levels at still higher energies can appear. The latter can play an important role in the process of tunneling of image gas electrons into surface states

  4. Electric field measurements in a near atmospheric pressure nanosecond pulse discharge with picosecond electric field induced second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M.; Chng, Tat Loon; Dogariu, Arthur; Miles, Richard B.

    2018-02-01

    We present an optical electric field measurement method for use in high pressure plasma discharges. The method is based upon the field induced second harmonic generation technique and can be used for localized electric field measurements with sub-nanosecond resolution in any gaseous species. When an external electric field is present, a dipole is induced in the typically centrosymmetric medium, allowing for second harmonic generation with signal intensities which scale by the square of the electric field. Calibrations have been carried out in 100 Torr room air, and a minimum sensitivity of 450 V/cm is demonstrated. Measurements were performed with nanosecond or faster temporal resolution in a 100 Torr room air environment both with and without a plasma present. It was shown that with no plasma present, the field follows the applied voltage to gap ratio, as measured using the back current shunt method. When the electric field is strong enough to exceed the breakdown threshold, the measured field was shown to exceed the anticipated voltage to gap ratio which is taken as an indication of the ionization wave front as it sweeps through the plasma volume.

  5. Effect of Electric Field on Outwardly Propagating Spherical Flame

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama

    2012-06-01

    The thesis comprises effects of electric fields on a fundamental study of spheri­cal premixed flame propagation.Outwardly-propagating spherical laminar premixed flames have been investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel by applying au uni-directional electric potential.Direct photography and schlieren techniques have been adopted and captured images were analyzed through image processing. Unstretched laminar burning velocities under the influence of electric fields and their associated Markstein length scales have been determined from outwardly prop­agating spherical flame at a constant pressure. Methane and propane fuels have been tested to assess the effect of electric fields on the differential diffusion of the two fuels.The effects of varying equivalence ratios and applied voltages have been in­vestigated, while the frequency of AC was fixed at 1 KHz. Directional propagating characteristics were analyzed to identify the electric filed effect. The flame morphology varied appreciably under the influence of electric fields which in turn affected the burning rate of mixtures.The flame front was found to propagate much faster toward to the electrode at which the electric fields were supplied while the flame speeds in the other direction were minimally influenced. When the voltage was above 7 KV the combustion is markedly enhanced in the downward direction since intense turbulence is generated and as a result the mixing process or rather the heat and mass transfer within the flame front will be enhanced.The com­bustion pressure for the cases with electric fields increased rapidly during the initial stage of combustion and was relatively higher since the flame front was lengthened in the downward direction.

  6. On a Correlation between the Ionospheric Electric Field and the Time Derivative of the Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Ilma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A correlation of the ionospheric electric field and the time derivative of the magnetic field was noticed over thirty years ago and has yet to be explained. Here we report on another set of examples during the superstorm of November 2004. The electric field in the equatorial ionosphere, measured with the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar, exhibited a 3 mV/m electric field pulse that was not seen in the interplanetary medium. It was, however, accompanied by a correlation with the time derivative of the magnetic field measured at two points in Peru. Our inclination was to assume that the field was inductive. However, the time scale of the pulse was too short for the magnetic field to penetrate the crust of the Earth. This means that the area threaded by ∂B/∂t was too small to create the observed electric field by induction. We suggest that the effect was caused by a modulation of the ring current location relative to the Earth due to the electric field. This electric field is required, as the magnetic field lines are considered frozen into the plasma in the magnetosphere. The closer location of the ring current to the Earth in turn increased the magnetic field at the surface.

  7. Electric-Field-Induced Superconductivity Detected by Magnetization Measurements of an Electric-Double-Layer Capacitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasahara, Yuichi; Nishijima, Takahiro; Sato, Tatsuya; Takeuchi, Yuki; Ye, Jianting; Yuan, Hongtao; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    We report evidence for superconductivity induced by the application of strong electric fields onto the surface of a band insulator, ZrNCl, provided by the observation of a shielding diamagnetic signal. We introduced an electric-double-layer capacitor configuration and in situ magnetization

  8. Polarization of the vacuum by a stochastic external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Pastur, L.A.; Rozhavskii, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of disorder, realized in the form of a fluctuating extra mass term, on the bosonic vacuum and fermionic vacuum of models of quantum field theory is studied. A method is developed for calculating the mean effective potential in the stochastic external field. For a model of interacting scalar and fermion fields in (3+1)-dimensional space-time it is shown that random fluctuations of the mass lead to an increase of the equilibrium mean scalar field in the system

  9. Optimized design of micromachined electric field mills to maximize electrostatic field sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yu; Shafai, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design optimization of a micromachined electric field mill, in relation to maximizing its output signal. The cases studied are for a perforated electrically grounded shutter vibrating laterally over sensing electrodes. It is shown that when modeling the output signal of the sensor, the differential charge on the sense electrodes when exposed to vs. visibly shielded from the incident electric field must be considered. Parametric studies of device dimensions show that t...

  10. The Bloch equation with terms induced by an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbacz, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    The Bloch equation of the nuclear magnetization of spin-1/2 nuclei in molecules, which have permanent electric dipole moments μe that are placed simultaneously in a magnetic field B and an electric field E, is derived. It is shown that if the principal components of the nuclear magnetic shielding tensor σ and the dipole moment μe are known, then the measurement of the transverse component to the magnetic field B of the nuclear magnetization, which is induced by the application of the electric field oscillating at the half of the spin precession frequency, allows determining the orientation of the dipole moment μe with respect to the principal axis system of the symmetric part of the tensor σ. Four-component relativistic density functional theory computations, which have been performed for several molecules containing heavy nuclei, i.e., 207Pb, 205Tl, 199Hg, 195Pt, and 125Te, indicate that coefficients of the relaxation matrix perturbed by the electric field E are in favorable cases of the order of 1000 pm2 V-2 T-2. Therefore, the spin dynamics is perturbed at experimentally observable levels for the strengths of electric and magnetic fields E = 5 kV/mm and B = 10 T, respectively.

  11. Electric and magnetic fields at extremely low frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.E.; Kaune, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    Whole-body exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF, 30-300 Hz) electric fields may involve effects related to stimulation of the sensory apparatus at the body surface (hair vibration, possible direct neural stimulation) and effects within the body caused by the flow of current. Magnetic fields may interact predominantly by the induction of internal current flow. Biological effects observed in a living organism may depend on the electric fields induced inside the body, possibly on the magnetic fields penetrating into the body, and on the fields acting at the surface of the body. Areas in which effects have been observed often appear to be associated with the nervous system, including altered neuronal excitability and neurochemical changes, altered hormone levels, changes in behavioural responses, and changes in biological rhythms. No studies unequivocably demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF electric or magnetic field exposure on mammalian reproduction and development, but several suggest such effects. Exposure to ELF electric and magnetic fields does produce biological effects. However, except for fields strong enough to induce current densities above the threshold for the stimulation of nerve tissues, there is no consensus as to whether these effects constitute a hazard to human health. Human data from epidemiological studies, including reported effects on cancer promotion, congenital malformations, reproductive performance and general health, though somewhat suggestive of adverse health effects, are not conclusive. 274 refs, 13 figs, 6 tabs

  12. Production of pulsed electric fields using capacitively coupled electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, B. R. F.; Schwab, F. A. S.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that pulsed electric fields can be produced over extended volumes by taking advantage of the internal capacitances in a stacked array of electrodes. The design, construction, and performance of practical arrays are discussed. The prototype arrays involved fields of 100-1000 V/cm extending over several centimeters. Scaling to larger physical dimensions is straightforward.

  13. High field electrical behaviour in lithium–phospho–vanadate glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 30; Issue 1. High field ... The high field electrical switching behaviour of lithium–phospho–vanadate glasses has been studied by determining the current–voltage characteristics. The investigated glasses exhibit temperature, thickness and composition dependent trends.

  14. Abnormally large magnetospheric electric field on 9 November 2004 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was a solar event around 1850 UT on 9th November 2004, associated with an abnormally large solar wind flow pressure and large southward interplanetary magnetic field, causing an abnormally large prompt penetration electric field between 1850 and 2100 UT. Abnormally large vertical F-region drifts by Jicamarca ...

  15. Field in Focus with a Maximum Longitudinal Electric Component

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbach, H.P.; Pereira, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    Closed formulas are presented for the field in the lens pupil for which the longitudinal electric component at the focal point is larger than any other focused field with the same power. The fullwidth-at-half-maximum of the squared amplitude of the maximum longitudinal component is 15% to 30% less

  16. Effects of pulsed electric field on ULQ and RFP plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Saito, K.; Suzuki, T.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamo activity and self-organization processes are investigated using the application of pulsed poloidal and toroidal electric fields on ULQ and RFP plasmas. Synchronized to the application of the pulsed electric fields, the remarkable responses of the several plasma parameters are observed. The plasma has a preferential magnetic field structure, and the external perturbation activates fluctuation to maintain the structure through dynamo effect. This process changes the total dissipation with the variation of magnetic helicity in the system, showing that self organization accompanies an enhanced dissipation. (author)

  17. Relativistic Bosons in Time-Harmonic Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhucianu, Ovidiu; Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian

    2012-02-01

    In the present paper, we consider a bi-dimensional thin sample, placed in a strong harmonically oscillating electric field and a static magnetic induction, both directed along the normal to the sample's plane. The Klein-Gordon equation describing the relativistic bosons leads to a Mathieu's type equation for the temporal part of the wave functions. It follows that, for the electric field pulsation inside a computable range, depending on the external fields intensities, the amplitude functions are turning from oscillatory to exponentially growing modes. For ultra-relativistic particles, one can recover the periodic stationary amplitude behavior.

  18. Conductivity of impurity graphene nanoribbons and gate electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konobeeva, Natalia; Belonenko, Mikhail

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of a gate electric field on the tunneling current for the contact of impurity graphene nanoribbon with a metal or quantum dots. Based on the Hamiltonian for graphene in the tight-binding approximation, the density of states is calculated, which allows us to obtain a tunneling current. We analyze the effect of the field magnitude on the detecting possibility of an impurity in the graphene nanoribbon. A sufficient change of current-voltage characteristic (CVC) of the contact is observed, with an increase in the constant electric field applied parallel to the nanoribbon plane.

  19. 3D electric field calculation with surface charge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an outline and some examples of three dimensional electric field calculations with a computer code developed at NIRS. In the code, a surface charge method is adopted because of it's simplicity in the mesh establishing procedure. The charge density in a triangular mesh is assumed to distribute with a linear function of the position. The electric field distribution is calculated for a pair of drift tubes with the focusing fingers on the opposing surfaces. The field distribution in an acceleration gap is analyzed with a Fourier-Bessel series expansion method. The calculated results excellently reproduces the measured data with a magnetic model. (author)

  20. Tunable terahertz optical properties of graphene in dc electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, H. M.; Huang, F.; Xu, W.

    2018-03-01

    We develop a simple theoretical approach to investigate terahertz (THz) optical properties of monolayer graphene in the presence of an external dc electric field. The analytical results for optical coefficients such as the absorptance and reflectivity are obtained self-consistently on the basis of a diagrammatic self-consistent field theory and a Boltzmann equilibrium equation. It is found that the optical refractive index, reflectivity and conductivity can be effectively tuned by not only a gate voltage but also a driving dc electric field. This study is relevant to the applications of graphene as advanced THz optoelectronic devices.