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Sample records for polarization discrimination technique

  1. [Application of infrared spectroscopy technique to discrimination of alcoholic beverages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiao-Ying; Ying, Yi-Bin; Yu, Hai-Yan; Xie, Li-Juan; Fu, Xia-Ping

    2008-04-01

    Infrared spectroscopy technique is a rapid for the discrimination of food samples, and is widely used to detect and discriminate various beverages. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of techniques that have been used to discriminate alcoholic beverages, and the discriminating procedure with infrared spectroscopy technique. Applications of infrared spectroscopy technique to wine, whiskey, Japanese sake and Chinese rice wine etc. is presented too. Finally, problems in applications are analyzed, and the application of infrared spectroscopy technique to the discrimination of our traditional alcoholic beverages is prospected.

  2. Electron Beam Polarization Measurement Using Touschek Lifetime Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Changchun; /Duke U., DFELL; Li, Jingyi; /Duke U., DFELL; Mikhailov, Stepan; /Duke U., DFELL; Popov, Victor; /Duke U., DFELL; Wu, Wenzhong; /Duke U., DFELL; Wu, Ying; /Duke U., DFELL; Chao, Alex; /SLAC; Xu, Hong-liang; /Hefei, NSRL; Zhang, Jian-feng; /Hefei, NSRL

    2012-08-24

    Electron beam loss due to intra-beam scattering, the Touschek effect, in a storage ring depends on the electron beam polarization. The polarization of an electron beam can be determined from the difference in the Touschek lifetime compared with an unpolarized beam. In this paper, we report on a systematic experimental procedure recently developed at Duke FEL laboratory to study the radiative polarization of a stored electron beam. Using this technique, we have successfully observed the radiative polarization build-up of an electron beam in the Duke storage ring, and determined the equilibrium degree of polarization and the time constant of the polarization build-up process.

  3. Modifications of Surface Wave Discrimination Filter Based on the Polarization Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutlu, Y. A.; Sayil, N.

    2007-01-01

    The polarization properties of Love and Rayleigh waves are utilized to design Surface Wave Discrimination Filter. Filtering process for a selected window length and moving interval is that the amplitudes at each frequency on vertical, radial and transverse components are weighted according to how closely the theoretical three-dimensional particle motion pattern. In this study, weighted functions have been modified for epicenteral distances smaller than about 2200 km to corresponding with angular distribution of polarization parameters obtained from computed synthetic seismograms. Modified Surface Wave Discrimination Filter has been tested on synthetic seismograms and digital three-components broadband records at Trabzon earthquake station

  4. A field technique for rapid lithological discrimination and ore mineral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 1. A field technique for rapid lithological discrimination and ore mineral identification: Results from Mamandur Polymetal Deposit, India. D Ramakrishnan M Nithya K D Singh Rishikesh Bharti. Volume 122 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 93-106 ...

  5. Spinor techniques for massive fermions with arbitrary polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V.V.

    1999-12-01

    We present a new variant of spinor techniques for calculating the amplitudes of processes involving massive fermions with arbitrary polarization. It is relatively simple and leads to basic spinor products. Our procedure is riot more complex than CALCUL spinor techniques for massless fermions. We obtained spinor Chisholm identities for massive fermions. As an illustration, expressions are given for the amplitudes of elect ron- positron annihilation into fermions-pairs for several polarizations. (author)

  6. Interferometric crosstalk suppression using polarization multiplexing technique and an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Xueyan, Zheng; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud

    2000-01-01

    Interferometric crosstalk can be greatly suppressed at 10Gb/s and 20Gb/s by using a gain saturated SOA and a polarization multiplexing technique that eliminates impairments like waveform and extinction ratio degradation from the SOA.......Interferometric crosstalk can be greatly suppressed at 10Gb/s and 20Gb/s by using a gain saturated SOA and a polarization multiplexing technique that eliminates impairments like waveform and extinction ratio degradation from the SOA....

  7. On discriminant analysis techniques and correlation structures in high dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    the methods in two: Those who assume independence between the variables and thus use a diagonal estimate of the within-class covariance matrix, and those who assume dependence between the variables and thus use an estimate of the within-class covariance matrix, which also estimates the correlations between......This paper compares several recently proposed techniques for performing discriminant analysis in high dimensions, and illustrates that the various sparse methods dier in prediction abilities depending on their underlying assumptions about the correlation structures in the data. The techniques...... generally focus on two things: Obtaining sparsity (variable selection) and regularizing the estimate of the within-class covariance matrix. For high-dimensional data, this gives rise to increased interpretability and generalization ability over standard linear discriminant analysis. Here, we group...

  8. Robust techniques for polarization and detection of nuclear spin ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Jochen; Schwartz, Ilai; Müller, Samuel; Chen, Qiong; Dhand, Ish; Plenio, Martin B.; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor

    2017-11-01

    Highly sensitive nuclear spin detection is crucial in many scientific areas including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and quantum computing. The tiny thermal nuclear spin polarization represents a major obstacle towards this goal which may be overcome by dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNP) methods. The latter often rely on the transfer of the thermally polarized electron spins to nearby nuclear spins, which is limited by the Boltzmann distribution of the former. Here we utilize microwave dressed states to transfer the high (>92 % ) nonequilibrium electron spin polarization of a single nitrogen-vacancy center (NV) induced by short laser pulses to the surrounding 13C carbon nuclear spins. The NV is repeatedly repolarized optically, thus providing an effectively infinite polarization reservoir. A saturation of the polarization of the nearby nuclear spins is achieved, which is confirmed by the decay of the polarization transfer signal and shows an excellent agreement with theoretical simulations. Hereby we introduce the polarization readout by polarization inversion method as a quantitative magnetization measure of the nuclear spin bath, which allows us to observe by ensemble averaging macroscopically hidden polarization dynamics like Landau-Zener-Stückelberg oscillations. Moreover, we show that using the integrated solid effect both for single- and double-quantum transitions nuclear spin polarization can be achieved even when the static magnetic field is not aligned along the NV's crystal axis. This opens a path for the application of our DNP technique to spins in and outside of nanodiamonds, enabling their application as MRI tracers. Furthermore, the methods reported here can be applied to other solid state systems where a central electron spin is coupled to a nuclear spin bath, e.g., phosphor donors in silicon and color centers in silicon carbide.

  9. A technique for measurement of vector and tensor polarization in solid spin one polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielhorn, W.F.

    1991-06-01

    Vector and tensor polarizations are explicitly defined and used to characterize the polarization states of spin one polarized targets, and a technique for extracting these polarizations from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data is developed. This technique is independent of assumptions about spin temperature, but assumes the target's crystal structure induces a quadrupole interaction with the spin one particles. Analysis of the NMR signals involves a computer curve fitting algorithm implemented with a fast Fourier transform method which speeds and simplifies curve fitting algorithms used previously. For accurate curve fitting, the NMR electronic circuit must be modeled by the fitting algorithm. Details of a circuit, its model, and data collected from this circuit are given for a solid deuterated ammonia target. 37 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. A technique for measurement of vector and tensor polarization in solid spin one polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielhorn, W.F.

    1991-06-01

    Vector and tensor polarizations are explicitly defined and used to characterize the polarization states of spin one polarized targets, and a technique for extracting these polarizations from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data is developed. This technique is independent of assumptions about spin temperature, but assumes the target's crystal structure induces a quadrupole interaction with the spin one particles. Analysis of the NMR signals involves a computer curve fitting algorithm implemented with a fast Fourier transform method which speeds and simplifies curve fitting algorithms used previously. For accurate curve fitting, the NMR electronic circuit must be modeled by the fitting algorithm. Details of a circuit, its model, and data collected from this circuit are given for a solid deuterated ammonia target. 37 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs

  11. UV-visible microscope spectrophotometric polarization and dichroism with increased discrimination power in forensic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Dale Kevin

    Microanalysis of transfer (Trace) evidence is the application of a microscope and microscopical techniques for the collection, observation, documentation, examination, identification, and discrimination of micrometer sized particles or domains. Microscope spectrophotometry is the union of microscopy and spectroscopy for microanalysis. Analytical microspectroscopy is the science of studying the emission, reflection, transmission, and absorption of electromagnetic radiation to determine the structure or chemical composition of microscopic-size materials. Microscope spectrophotometry instrument designs have evolved from monochromatic illumination which transmitted through the microscope and sample and then is detected by a photometer detector (photomultiplier tube) to systems in which broad-band (white light) illumination falls incident upon a sample followed by a non-scanning grating spectrometer equipped with a solid-state multi-element detector. Most of these small modern spectrometers are configured with either silicon based charged-couple device detectors (200-950 nm) or InGaAs based diode array detectors (850-2300 nm) with computerized data acquisition and signal processing being common. A focus of this research was to evaluate the performance characteristics of various modern forensic (UV-Vis) microscope photometer systems as well as review early model instrumental designs. An important focus of this research was to efficiently measure ultraviolet-visible spectra of microscopically small specimens for classification, differentiation, and possibly individualization. The first stage of the project consisted of the preparation of microscope slides containing neutral density filter reference materials, molecular fluorescence reference materials, and dichroic reference materials. Upon completion of these standard slide preparations analysis began with measurements in order to evaluate figures of merit for comparison of the instruments investigated. The figures of

  12. Pulse-shape discrimination technique in radioanalytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacik, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Cervena, J.; Posta, S.

    1998-01-01

    Several successful techniques have been developed to eliminate unwanted background level in experimental radiation spectra. One of the background-reduction techniques is pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) which is based on the fact that different particles or quanta give rise to different spectrometer response, i.e. to different signal shapes. The shapes can be recognized and analyzed by appropriate electronic circuits which can measure either the rise time or the fall time of the pulses. The PSD technique has been suggested for different particle/background separations (such as n/γ, α/γ, α/proton or αa/electron separations). It has been successfully applied i.e. in separation of (fast) neutrons from intensive gamma background or charged particles from gammas. Recently the principle of the PSD has been applied in the construction of special ORTEC and CANBERRA spectroscopic modules. In this study we have employed the principle of PSD in two different radioanalytical methods developed in the Nuclear Research and Nuclear Physics Institutes in Rez. One of the methods concerns with the determination of uranium by delayed neutron counting (DNC), the second method is known as neutron depth profiling (NDP). An effective elimination of unwanted background signals in measured radiation spectra has been proved. At least two orders of magnitude of background level suppression has been achieved independently of employed PSD circuits. The PSD technique has substantially improved detection limits of the DNC and NDP facilities. (author)

  13. Analysis of trace element compositions in adhesive cloth tapes using high-energy x-ray fluorescence spectrometer with three-dimensional polarization optics for forensic discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Akiko; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi

    2008-01-01

    The forensic discrimination of adhesive cloth tapes often used in crimes was developed using a high-energy energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with 3-dimensional polarization optics. The best measurement condition for discrimination of the tape was as follows: secondary targets, Rh and Al 2 O 3 ; measurement time, 300 s for Rh and 600 s for Al 2 O 3 ; 14 elements (Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Sb, Ba and Pb) were used for discrimination. It is found that the combined information of yarn density and the XRF peak intensity of the 14 elements successfully discriminated 29 out of 31 samples, of which 2 probably had the same origin. This technique is useful for forensic analysis, because it is nondestructive, rapid and easy. Therefore, it can be applied to actual forensic identification. (author)

  14. Discriminating DNA mismatches by electrochemical and gravimetric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazouz, Zouhour; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Ommezine, Asma; Rebhi, Lamia; Yaakoubi, Nourdin; Kalfat, Rafik; Othmane, Ali

    2013-10-15

    A silicon nitride functionalized electrode and a 104 MHz lithium tantalate (LiTaO₃) surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor have been used to investigate target-probe recognition processes. Electrochemical and gravimetric measurements have been considered to monitor hybridization of single base mismatch (SBM) in synthetic oligonucleotides and single-nucleotide polymorphisms ApoE in real clinical genotypes. Obvious discrimination of SBM in nucleotides has been shown by both gravimetric and electrochemical techniques, without labeling nor amplification. Investigations on mismatches nature and position have also been considered. For guanine-adenine (GA), guanine-thymine (GT) and guanine-guanine (GG) mismatches, the sensors responses present a dependence upon positions. Considering the capacitance variations and hybridization rates, results showed that gravimetric transduction is more sensitive than electrochemical one. Moreover, the highest value of GT hybridization rate (in the middle position) was found in accordance with the nearest-neighbor model, where the considered configuration appears as the most thermodynamically stable. For the real samples, where the electrochemical transduction, by combining capacitance and flat-band potential measurements, were found more sensitive, the results show that the realized sensor permits an unambiguous discrimination of recognition between fully complementary, non-complementary and single base mismatched targets, and even between the combination of differently matched strands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvement of SOI microdosimeter performance using pulse shape discrimination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelius, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Microdosimetry is used to study the radiobiological properties of densely ionising radiations encountered in hadron therapy and space environments by measuring energy deposition in microscopic volumes. The creation of a solid state microdosimeter to replace the traditional tissue equivalent proportional counter is a topic of ongoing research. The Centre for Medical Radiation Physics has been investigating a technique using microscopic arrays of reverse biased pn junctions to measure the linear energy transfer of ions. A prototype silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microdosimeter was developed and measurements were conducted at boron neutron capture therapy, proton therapy, and fast neutron therapy facilities. Previous studies have shown the current microdosimeter possesses a poorly defined sensitive volume, a consequence of charge collection events being measured for ion strikes outside the pn junction via the diffusion of charge carriers. As a result, the amount of charge collected by the microdosimeter following an ion strike has a strong dependence on the location of the strike on the device and the angle of incidence of the ion. The aim of this work was to investigate the use of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) techniques to preclude the acquisition of events resulting from ion strikes outside the depletion region of the pn junction. Experiments were carried out using the Heavy Ion Microprobe (HIMP) at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, Australia. The HIMP was used to measure the charge collection time as a function of ion strike location on the microdosimeter array. As expected, the charge collection time was seen to increase monotonically as the distance of the ion strike from the junction increased. The charge collection time corresponding to ion strikes within the junction was determined. Through use of suitable electronics it was possible to gate the charge collection signal based on simultaneous measurements of

  16. Radially polarized and passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser based on intracavity birefringent mode discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuehuan; Wu, Yongxiao; Chen, Sanbin; Li, Jianlang

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a passive Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser with radially polarized beam emission by using a c-cut YVO4 birefringent crystal as the intracavity polarization discriminator, and a Cr4+:YAG crystal as the saturable absorber and output coupler. The maximum averaged laser power reached 3.89 W with a high slope efficiency of 66.5%. The laser pulse had a peak power of 161 W, 160 ns duration, and 151 kHz repetition rate at the absorbed pump power of 6.48 W. Such a radially polarized pulse would facilitate numerous applications.

  17. Target detection in sun glint using the improved MWIR polarization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ji; Zhao, Huijie; Li, Yansong; Cheng, Chi; Sun, Xiaofeng; Song, Pengfei; Wang, Shitao

    2017-08-01

    The sun glint problem is a major issue to be addressed for MWIR marine targets detection. The traditional technique based on the single horizontal linear polarizer was a common method to reduce the sun glint by eliminating its s-polarized component, nevertheless, the residual p-polarized component could be still too strong to saturate the detector in some cases. To solve this problem, the improved polarization technique based on two rotatable polarizers is presented. The field experiment results show that the improved polarization technique can significantly reduce sun glint and enhance the contrast of target images, confirming the effectiveness of the technology.

  18. A new perspective on turbulent Galactic magnetic fields through comparison of linear polarization decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, J.-F.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Carretti, E.; Gaensler, B. M.; McEwen, J. D.; Leistedt, B.; Haverkorn, M.; Bernardi, G.; Kesteven, M. J.; Poppi, S.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2017-07-01

    We compare two rotationally invariant decomposition techniques on linear polarization data: the spin-2 spherical harmonic decomposition in two opposite parities, the E- and B-mode, and the multiscale analysis of the gradient of linear polarization, |\

  19. Polarized small-angle neutron scattering (SANSPOL) for discrimination of nano sized components in ferro fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, A.; Wiedenmann, A.; Kammel, M.; Hoell, A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of polarized neutron technique in small-angle scattering (SANS) have led to new results in the case of magnetic nanometer-scale structure analysis. Different magnetic cross sections for spin-up and spin-down neutron scattering can be combined with chemical contrast variation methods. We show that the analysis of the interference term of nuclear and magnetic scattering respectively enables the extraction of additional information on the composition and magnetization profiles of the samples. This technique profits by the clear distinction between the magnetic and nonmagnetic scattering contributions and the strong auxiliary conditions for model fitting procedures. Beside general formulas for some special cases of present experimental interest, we apply the approach to cobalt bases ferro fluid scattering data obtained in the HMI-V4 experiment. (authors)

  20. Polarization Techniques for Mitigation of Low Grazing Angle Sea Clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    standard CFAR false alarm rate while maintaining detections on objects of interest. Moreover, PCL is elegant : It exploits fundamental characteristics of both...cannot measure polarization. Polarization is defined by the path traced by the tip of an EM wave’s electric field vector over one period of propagation...vector phasor propagating in the +z direction. Polarization is defined by the path traced by the tip of this electric field vector phasor over one

  1. Spectral analysis techniques for characterizing cadmium zinc telluride polarization modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, William R.; Taherion, Saeid; Kumar, F. Joseph; Giles, David; Hore, Dennis K.

    2018-04-01

    The low frequency electro-optic characteristics of cadmium zinc telluride are demonstrated in the mid-infrared, in the spectral range 2.5-11 μm. Conventional methods for characterizing the dynamic response by monitoring the amplitude of the time-varying light intensity do not account for spatial variation in material properties. In such cases, a more revealing method involves monitoring two distinct frequency components in order to characterize the dynamic and static contributions to the optical retardation. We demonstrate that, while this method works well for a ZnSe photo-elastic modulator, it does not fully capture the response of a cadmium zinc telluride electro-optic modulator. Ultimately, we show that acquiring the full waveform of the optical response enables a model to be created that accounts for inhomogeneity in the material that results in an asymmetric response with respect to the polarity of the driving voltage. This technique is applicable to broadband and fixed-wavelength applications in a variety of spectral ranges.

  2. New photothermal deflection technique to discriminate between heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Ross S.; Mathur, Veerendra K.; Barkyoumb, John H.

    2018-01-01

    Photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) is a highly sensitive and precise technique that is used to measure the optical absorption and thermal characteristics of a sample. While most applications of PDS utilize a heating beam, laser cooling of solids, or optical refrigeration as it is sometimes called, use this technique to determine if a laser is cooling or heating a sample. Current PDS methods for laser cooling require multiple laser wavelengths in both the Stokes and anti-Stokes region to ensure that cooling is occurring. This can cause problems if lasers must be changed or no lasers in the desired wavelength are available. Herein, we present a photothermal deflection technique that uses the deflection of the probe laser to determine if microcooling is occurring inside a sample.

  3. Analysis of pulse-shape discrimination techniques for BC501A using GHz digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooney, B.D.; Dinwiddie, D.R.; Nelson, M.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W.

    2001-01-01

    A comparison study of pulse-shape analysis techniques was conducted for a BC501A scintillator using digital signal processing (DSP). In this study, output signals from a preamplifier were input directly into a 1 GHz analog-to-digital converter. The digitized data obtained with this method was post-processed for both pulse-height and pulse-shape information. Several different analysis techniques were evaluated for neutron and gamma-ray pulse-shape discrimination. It was surprising that one of the simplest and fastest techniques resulted in some of the best pulse-shape discrimination results. This technique, referred to here as the Integral Ratio technique, was able to effectively process several thousand detector pulses per second. This paper presents the results and findings of this study for various pulse-shape analysis techniques with digitized detector signals.

  4. Characteristic Fingerprint Based on Low Polar Constituents for Discrimination of Wolfiporia extensa according to Geographical Origin Using UV Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Zhimin; Li, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The fungus species Wolfiporia extensa has a long history of medicinal usage and has also been commercially used to formulate nutraceuticals and functional foods in certain Asian countries. In the present study, a practical and promising method has been developed to discriminate the dried sclerotium of W. extensa collected from different geographical sites based on UV spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods. Characteristic fingerprint of low polar constituents of sample extracts that originated from chloroform has been obtained in the interval 250–400 nm. Chemometric pattern recognition methods such as partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied to enhance the authenticity of discrimination of the specimens. The results showed that W. extensa samples were well classified according to their geographical origins. The proposed method can fully utilize diversified fingerprint characteristics of sclerotium of W. extensa and requires low-cost equipment and short-time analysis in comparison with other techniques. Meanwhile, this simple and efficient method may serve as a basis for the authentication of other medicinal fungi. PMID:25544933

  5. Characteristic Fingerprint Based on Low Polar Constituents for Discrimination of Wolfiporia extensa according to Geographical Origin Using UV Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungus species Wolfiporia extensa has a long history of medicinal usage and has also been commercially used to formulate nutraceuticals and functional foods in certain Asian countries. In the present study, a practical and promising method has been developed to discriminate the dried sclerotium of W. extensa collected from different geographical sites based on UV spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods. Characteristic fingerprint of low polar constituents of sample extracts that originated from chloroform has been obtained in the interval 250–400 nm. Chemometric pattern recognition methods such as partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA were applied to enhance the authenticity of discrimination of the specimens. The results showed that W. extensa samples were well classified according to their geographical origins. The proposed method can fully utilize diversified fingerprint characteristics of sclerotium of W. extensa and requires low-cost equipment and short-time analysis in comparison with other techniques. Meanwhile, this simple and efficient method may serve as a basis for the authentication of other medicinal fungi.

  6. submitter Phase transition observations and discrimination of small cloud particles by light polarization in expansion chamber experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Nichman, Leonid; Järvinen, Emma; Ignatius, Karoliina; Höppel, Niko Florian; Dias, Antonio; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Tröstl, Jasmin; Wagner, Andrea Christine; Wagner, Robert; Williamson, Christina; Yan, Chao; Connolly, Paul James; Dorsey, James Robert; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Hoyle, Christopher Robert; Kristensen, Thomas Bjerring; Steiner, Gerhard; McPherson Donahue, Neil; Flagan, Richard; Gallagher, Martin William; Kirkby, Jasper; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, António

    2016-01-01

    Cloud microphysical processes involving the ice phase in tropospheric clouds are among the major uncertainties in cloud formation, weather, and general circulation models. The detection of aerosol particles, liquid droplets, and ice crystals, especially in the small cloud particle-size range below 50 μm, remains challenging in mixed phase, often unstable environments. The Cloud Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarization (CASPOL) is an airborne instrument that has the ability to detect such small cloud particles and measure the variability in polarization state of their backscattered light. Here we operate the versatile Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber facility at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) to produce controlled mixed phase and other clouds by adiabatic expansions in an ultraclean environment, and use the CASPOL to discriminate between different aerosols, water, and ice particles. In this paper, optical property measurements of mixed-phase clouds and viscous secondary ...

  7. Managing Age Discrimination: An Examination of the Techniques Used when Seeking Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ellie D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines the age-related management techniques used by older workers in their search for employment. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from interviews with individuals aged 45-65 years (N = 30). Results: Findings indicate that participants develop "counteractions" and "concealments" to manage perceived age discrimination.…

  8. An Efficient Digital Pulse Shape Discrimination Technique for Scintillation Detectors Based on FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Different techniques for pulse discrimination (PSD) of the scintillation pulses have been developed. The PSD of scintillation pulese can been used in several applications as Positron Emission Topography (PET) system. Each technique analyzes the resulting pulses from the absorption of radiation in the scintillation pulses were filtered and digitized then it is captured using DAQ, and it sent to the host computer for processing. The spatial resolution of images that generated in PET system can be improved by applying the proposed PSD. In this thesis various digital PSD techniques are proposed to discriminate the scintillation pulses. These techniques are based on discrete sine transform (DST). discrete cosine transform (DCT). Discrete hartley transform (DHT), Discrete Goertzel transform (DGT),and principal component analysis (PCA). Then the output coefficients of the discrete transforms are classified using one of the following classifiers T-test,tuned, or support vector machine (SVM).

  9. Development of a surface isolation estimation technique suitable for application of polar orbiting satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P. A.; Penn, L. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A technique is developed for the estimation of total daily insolation on the basis of data derivable from operational polar-orbiting satellites. Although surface insolation and meteorological observations are used in the development, the algorithm is constrained in application by the infrequent daytime polar-orbiter coverage.

  10. Towards Measurement of Polarization Properties of Skin using the Ellipsometry Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejhman Ghassemi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The human skin is an active medium from the optical point of view. Therefore, the diagnostic and therapeutic techniques employing light are increasing. Current optical techniques are based on the measurement of the intensity of reflected absorbed or backscattered light from or within skin. Studies have shown that biological tissues, and in particular skin, demonstrate polarization properties. Scattering of light from the surface of skin or the layers within it is a function of incident polarization. Therefore, by changing the polarization of the incident light and measuring the backscattered light, we can study those skin properties which affect the state of polarization. Material and methods: We have implemented a scattering ellipsometry system in order to investigate the polarization properties of a phantom representing skin. Using the Stocks vector defining the state of polarization and measuring the elements of the Mueller matrix representing the phantom under study, we have shown that by changing the reflection and scattering properties of the sample, polarization characteristics of the backscattered light will be affected. Results: The results of this investigation showed that some elements of the Mueller matrix of the phantom under study were affected by the polarization state of the incident light and the scattering component within the phantom. Therefore, these elements have the potential of being used as polarization markers of the biological tissue. Discussion and conclusion: Upon interaction of polarized light with the skin tissue, the backscattered light will contain optical and polarization information about the skin. Using a simple laboratory-made phantom, we have shown that by analyzing the polarization information within the backscattered light we can study the cause, and possibly the disease, which affected the polarization characteristics of the skin.

  11. Principle for the Realization of Dual-Orthogonal Linearly Polarized Antennas for UWB Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Adamiuk

    2011-01-01

    The presented method introduces a superior possibility of an extension of typical UWB technique to fully polarized systems, which improves significantly performance in, for example, UWB-MIMO or UWB-Radar.

  12. Discrimination and classification techniques applied on Mallotus and Phyllanthus high performance liquid chromatography fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, J; Goodarzi, M; Dejaegher, B; Tistaert, C; Hoang Le Tuan, A; Nguyen Hoai, N; Chau Van, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Vander Heyden, Y

    2015-06-02

    Mallotus and Phyllanthus genera, both containing several species commonly used as traditional medicines around the world, are the subjects of this discrimination and classification study. The objective of this study was to compare different discrimination and classification techniques to distinguish the two genera (Mallotus and Phyllanthus) on the one hand, and the six species (Mallotus apelta, Mallotus paniculatus, Phyllanthus emblica, Phyllanthus reticulatus, Phyllanthus urinaria L. and Phyllanthus amarus), on the other. Fingerprints of 36 samples from the 6 species were developed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (RP-HPLC-UV). After fingerprint data pretreatment, first an exploratory data analysis was performed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), revealing two outlying samples, which were excluded from the calibration set used to develop the discrimination and classification models. Models were built by means of Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA), Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). Application of the models on the total data set (outliers included) confirmed a possible labeling issue for the outliers. LDA, QDA and CART, independently of the pretreatment, or SIMCA after "normalization and column centering (N_CC)" or after "Standard Normal Variate transformation and column centering (SNV_CC)" were found best to discriminate the two genera, while LDA after column centering (CC), N_CC or SNV_CC; QDA after SNV_CC; and SIMCA after N_CC or after SNV_CC best distinguished between the 6 species. As classification technique, SIMCA after N_CC or after SNV_CC results in the best overall sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Femoral fracture repair using a locking plate technique in an adult captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Dawn M; Dew, Terry; Douglass, Michael; Perez, Edward

    2010-02-01

    To report successful femoral fracture repair in a polar bear. Case report. Female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) 5 years and approximately 250 kg. A closed, complete, comminuted fracture of the distal midshaft femur was successfully reduced and stabilized using a compression plating technique with 2 specialized human femur plates offering axial, rotational, and bending support, and allowing the bone to share loads with the implant. Postoperative radiographs were obtained at 11.5 weeks, 11 months, and 24 months. Bone healing characterized by marked periosteal reaction was evident at 11 months with extensive remodeling evident at 24 months. No complications were noted. Distal mid shaft femoral fracture was reduced, stabilized, and healed in an adult polar bear with a locking plate technique using 2 plates. Previously, femoral fractures in polar bears were considered irreparable. Use of 2 plates applied with a locking plate technique can result in successful fracture repair despite large body weight and inability to restrict postoperative activity.

  14. Discrimination of Parkinsonian Tremor From Essential Tremor by Voting Between Different EMG Signal Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hossen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD and essential tremor (ET are the two most common disorders that cause involuntary muscle shaking movements, or what is called "tremor”. PD is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopamine receptors which control and adjust the movement of the body. On the other hand, ET is a neurological movement disorder which also causes tremors and shaking, but it is not related to dopamine receptor loss; it is simply a tremor. The differential diagnosis between these two disorders is sometimes difficult to make clinically because of the similarities of their symptoms; additionally, the available tests are complex and expensive. Thus, the objective of this paper is to discriminate between these two disorders with simpler, cheaper and easier ways by using electromyography (EMG signal processing techniques. EMG and accelerometer records of 39 patients with PD and 41 with ET were acquired from the Hospital of Kiel University in Germany and divided into a trial group and a test group. Three main techniques were applied: the wavelet-based soft-decision technique, statistical signal characterization (SSC of the spectrum of the signal, and SSC of the amplitude variation of the Hilbert transform. The first technique resulted in a discrimination efficiency of 80% on the trial set and 85% on the test set. The second technique resulted in an efficiency of 90% on the trial set and 82.5% on the test set. The third technique resulted in an 87.5% efficiency on the trial set and 65.5% efficiency on the test set. Lastly, a final vote was done to finalize the discrimination using these three techniques, and as a result of the vote, accuracies of 92.5%, 85.0% and 88.75% were obtained on the trial data, test data and total data, respectively.

  15. Polarization Second Harmonic Generation Discriminates Between Fresh and Aged Starch-Based Adhesives Used in Cultural Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Gavgiotaki, Evaggelia; Melessanaki, Kristallia; Tsafas, Vassilis; Filippidis, George

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we report that polarization second harmonic generation (PSHG) microscopy, commonly used in biomedical imaging, can quantitatively discriminate naturally aged from fresh starch-based glues used for conservation or restoration of paintings, works of art on paper, and books. Several samples of fresh and aged (7 years) flour and starch pastes were investigated by use of PSHG. In these types of adhesives, widely used in cultural heritage conservation, second harmonic generation (SHG) contrast originates primarily from the starch granules. It was found that in aged glues, the starch SHG effective orientation (SHG angle, θ) shifts to significantly higher values in comparison to the fresh granules. This shift is attributed to the different degree of granule hydration between fresh and aged adhesives. Thus noninvasive high-resolution nonlinear scattering can be employed to detect and quantify the degree of deterioration of restoration adhesives and to provide guidance toward future conservation treatments.

  16. Spin-polarized radioactive isotope beam produced by tilted-foil technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Yoshikazu; Mihara, Mototsugu; Watanabe, Yutaka; Jeong, Sun-Chan; Miyatake, Hiroari; Momota, Sadao; Hashimoto, Takashi; Imai, Nobuaki; Matsuta, Kensaku; Ishiyama, Hironobu; Ichikawa, Shin-ichi; Ishii, Tetsuro; Izumikawa, Takuji; Katayama, Ichiro; Kawakami, Hirokane; Kawamura, Hirokazu; Nishinaka, Ichiro; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Makii, Hiroyuki; Mitsuoka, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Detail study for tilted foil technique. • New equation for estimating nuclear polarization dependence on the beam energy. • Production of nuclear polarization for heaviest nucleus 123 In in ground state. -- Abstract: The tilted-foil method for producing spin-polarized radioactive isotope beams has been studied using the re-accelerated radioactive 8 Li and 123 In beams produced at Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC) facility. We successfully produced polarization in a 8 Li beam of 7.3(5)% using thin polystyrene foils (4.2 μg/cm 2 ). The systematic study of the nuclear polarization as a function of the number of foils and beam energy has been performed, confirming the features of the tilted-foil technique experimentally. After the study, a spin-polarized radioactive 123 In beam, which is the heaviest ever polarized in its ground state by this method, has been successfully generated by the tilted-foil method, for the nuclear spectroscopy around the doubly magic nucleus 132 Sn

  17. Discrimination of collagen in normal and pathological dermis through polarization second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping-Jung; Chen, Wei-Liang; Hong, Jin-Bon; Li, Tsung-Hsien; Wu, Ruei-Jr; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Lin, Sung-Jan; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-02-01

    We used polarization-resolved, second harmonic generation (P-SHG) microscopy at single pixel resolution for medical diagnosis of pathological skin dermis, and found that P-SHG can be used to distinguish normal and dermal pathological conditions of keloid, morphea, and dermal elastolysis. We find that the histograms of the d33/d31 ratio for the pathological skins to contain two peak values and to be wider than that of the normal case, suggesting that the pathological dermal collagen fibers tend to be more structurally heterogeneous. Our work demonstrates that pixel-resolved, second-order susceptibility microscopy is effective for detecting heterogeneity in spatial distribution of collagen fibers.

  18. Fluorescence polarization of tetracycline derivatives as a technique for mapping nonmelanoma skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, Anna N; Salomatina, Elena V; Neel, Victor; Anderson, Rox; Flotte, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most common form of human cancer, often resulting in high morbidity. Low visual contrast of these tumors makes their delineation a challenging problem. Employing a linearly polarized monochromatic light source and a wide-field CCD camera, we have developed a technique for fluorescence polarization imaging of the nonmelanoma cancers stained using antibiotics from the tetracycline family. To determine the feasibility of the method, fluorescence polarization images of 86 thick, fresh cancer excisions were studied. We found that the level of endogenous fluorescence polarization was much lower than that of exogenous, and that the average values of fluorescence polarization of tetracycline derivatives were significantly higher in cancerous as compared to normal tissue. Out of 86 tumors [54 stained in demeclocycline (DMN) and 32 in tetracycline (TCN)], in 79 cases (51-DMN, 28-TCN) the location, size, and shape of the lesions were identified accurately. The results of this trial indicate that nonmelanoma skin tumors can be distinguished from healthy tissue based on the differences in exogenous fluorescence polarization of TCN and/or DMN. Therefore, the developed technique can provide an important new tool for image-guided cancer surgery.

  19. Optical asymmetric cryptography based on elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Wang, Zhisong; Zhao, Cheng

    2014-06-20

    We demonstrate a novel optical asymmetric cryptosystem based on the principle of elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique. The device of an array of linear polarizers is introduced to achieve linear truncation on the spatially resolved elliptical polarization distribution during image encryption. This encoding process can be characterized as confusion-based optical cryptography that involves no Fourier lens and diffusion operation. Based on the Jones matrix formalism, the intensity transmittance for this truncation is deduced to perform elliptical polarized light reconstruction based on two intensity measurements. Use of a quick response code makes the proposed cryptosystem practical, with versatile key sensitivity and fault tolerance. Both simulation and preliminary experimental results that support theoretical analysis are presented. An analysis of the resistance of the proposed method on a known public key attack is also provided.

  20. Fundamental studies for the proton polarization technique in neutron protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ichiro; Kusaka, Katsuhiro; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Niimura, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental trials to realise the proton polarization technique for detecting hydrogen with higher sensitivity in neutron protein crystallography are described. The isotope effect in conventional neutron protein crystallography (NPC) can be eliminated by the proton polarization technique (ppt). Furthermore, the ppt can improve detection sensitivity of hydrogen (relative neutron scattering length of hydrogen) by approximately eight times in comparison with conventional NPC. Several technical difficulties, however, should be overcome in order to perform the ppt. In this paper, two fundamental studies to realise ppt are presented: preliminary trials using high-pressure flash freezing has shown the advantage of making bulk water amorphous without destroying the single crystal; and X-ray diffraction and liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry analyses of standard proteins after introducing radical molecules into protein crystals have shown that radical molecules could be distributed non-specifically around proteins, which is essential for better proton polarization

  1. Quantitative ultrasound technique at the phalanges in discriminating between uremic and osteoporotic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, G.; De Terlizzi, F.; Aucella, F.; Scillitani, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the ability of quantitative ultrasound technique (QUS) at the phalanges to discriminate between uremic and osteoporotic patients. Three groups of subjects (38 dialytic women, 16 osteoporotic women with vertebral fractures, 19 non-dialytic and non-fractured women) were recruited at the Department of Radiology at 'Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy. The groups were matched for age and body mass index (BMI). On all subjects the following measurements were performed: spinal BMD by QCT and by DXA, Femoral BMD by DXA, phalangeal QUS. For QUS measurements, the DBM Sonic (IGEA, Carpi, Italy) was applied to the metaphysis of the proximal phalanges of the last four fingers of the hand. Osteoporotic women with vertebral fractures showed significantly lower values of spinal BMD by QCT and DXA and Ward's Triangle BMD with respect to hemodialytic patients (p < 0.005). All QUS values, except for BTT and SoS, showed lower values in osteoporotic women with respect to hemodialytic patients (p < 0.05). Control group showed higher values of AD-SoS, BTT and SoS than hemodialytic patients (p < 0.005) while the two groups did not differ for BMD values measured with both QCT and DXA. UBPI and FWA data showed a similar behaviour to DXA and QCT results, whereas BTT and SoS showed a completely different behaviour. AD-SoS was the only parameter that could effectively discriminate among the three groups (ANOVA, p < 0.0001). We conclude that phalangeal QUS can discriminate between hemodialysed patients and controls with similar bone mineral density, and can also discriminate between hemodialysed and osteoporotic subjects with vertebral fractures. Different characteristics of ultrasound signal can be ascribed to each bone tissue condition, enabling a clear differentiation of bone tissue changes occurring in menopause, osteoporosis and renal osteodystrophy

  2. Quantitative ultrasound technique at the phalanges in discriminating between uremic and osteoporotic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, G. [Department of Radiology, Scientific Institute Hospital ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' , Viale Cappuccini 1, 71013 San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy)]. E-mail: guglielmi_g@hotmail.com; De Terlizzi, F. [IGEA srl, Carpi (Italy); Aucella, F. [Division of Nephrology, Scientific Institute Hospital ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Scillitani, A. [Division of Endocrinology, Scientific Institute Hospital ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    This study was conducted to test the ability of quantitative ultrasound technique (QUS) at the phalanges to discriminate between uremic and osteoporotic patients. Three groups of subjects (38 dialytic women, 16 osteoporotic women with vertebral fractures, 19 non-dialytic and non-fractured women) were recruited at the Department of Radiology at 'Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy. The groups were matched for age and body mass index (BMI). On all subjects the following measurements were performed: spinal BMD by QCT and by DXA, Femoral BMD by DXA, phalangeal QUS. For QUS measurements, the DBM Sonic (IGEA, Carpi, Italy) was applied to the metaphysis of the proximal phalanges of the last four fingers of the hand. Osteoporotic women with vertebral fractures showed significantly lower values of spinal BMD by QCT and DXA and Ward's Triangle BMD with respect to hemodialytic patients (p < 0.005). All QUS values, except for BTT and SoS, showed lower values in osteoporotic women with respect to hemodialytic patients (p < 0.05). Control group showed higher values of AD-SoS, BTT and SoS than hemodialytic patients (p < 0.005) while the two groups did not differ for BMD values measured with both QCT and DXA. UBPI and FWA data showed a similar behaviour to DXA and QCT results, whereas BTT and SoS showed a completely different behaviour. AD-SoS was the only parameter that could effectively discriminate among the three groups (ANOVA, p < 0.0001). We conclude that phalangeal QUS can discriminate between hemodialysed patients and controls with similar bone mineral density, and can also discriminate between hemodialysed and osteoporotic subjects with vertebral fractures. Different characteristics of ultrasound signal can be ascribed to each bone tissue condition, enabling a clear differentiation of bone tissue changes occurring in menopause, osteoporosis and renal osteodystrophy.

  3. Adaptive Countering Technique for Angle Deception Based on Dual Polarization Radar Seeker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Angle deception jamming makes the monopulse radar seeker track to itself but not the real target, which is catastrophic for the guidance radar. In this paper, an adaptive technique based on dual polarization radar is presented to counter it. How angle deception jamming acts on the monopulse tracking radar is first investigated. An angle estimation technique of the real target is then derived from the conventional monopulse method, although it is being interfered with by angle deception jamming. Meanwhile, the polarization ratio characteristic of the angle deception jamming could be adaptively estimated in current practical scene. Furthermore, the similar characteristic of Jones vectors is defined as the rule to judge whether the target is being interfered with by jamming. It can make the radar seeker select different techniques for angle estimation adaptively. Finally, two major factors of angle estimation accuracy are analyzed by simulation and the effectiveness of the proposed technique is proved through experiments.

  4. Drainage-related ultrasonography (DRUS): a novel technique for discriminating obstructive and nonobstructive hydroureters in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Aryan, Zahra; Ebadi, Maryam; Esfahani, Shadi Abdar; Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Elmi, Azadeh; Talab, Saman Shafaat; Sadeghi, Zhina

    2015-06-01

    Despite advances in urologic imaging, the paucity of an optimal technique that accurately clarifies obstructive and nonobstructive hydroureter exists. This study was conducted to introduce a novel and modified ultrasonographic technique, known as drainage-related ultrasonography (DRUS), discriminating obstructive and nonobstructive, nonrefluxing hydroureter. A total of 358 children (mean age, 3.7 years) with 418 nonrefluxing hydroureter were included. These children were composed of two groups of obstructive nonrefluxing (141 children with 157 dilated ureters) and nonobstructive, nonrefluxing (217 children with 261 hydroureter). The definite diagnosis regarding the subtype of hydroureter was derived from appropriate investigation. The maximum diameter of the dilated ureter, which was observed on ultrasonography, was recorded before and after 3 h of catheterization, as D1 and D2, respectively. To assess the D ratio, a formula was developed, that is, [(|D1 - D2|)/D1] × 100. Values were recorded and cutoff points were set to discriminate between subtypes. Obstructive versus nonobstructive subtypes of nonrefluxing hydroureter were clarified with 78.5 % sensitivity and 83.4 % specificity, by setting a cutoff point of 22 % for the D ratio. Regardless of the cutoff point assigned to the reduction in D (D2 compared with D1), DRUS revealed 93.9 % sensitivity, 80.6 % specificity, 63.2 % positive predictive value, and 97.4 % negative predictive value in discriminating upper from lower obstruction. DRUS affords favorable results in terms of differentiating between obstructive and nonobstructive, nonrefluxing hydroureter, as well as between upper and lower obstruction in obstructive cases. It has the potential to become an efficient imaging modality in the diagnostic algorithm of hydroureter.

  5. Evaluation of salt tolerance in wheat genotypes using growth and carbon isotopes discrimination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, M.U.; Khan, M.A.; Mujtaba, S.M.; Shereen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies were conducted in green house to select suitable salt tolerant wheat genotypes on the basis of growth performance and carbon isotopes discrimination (CID) technique. Nine newly developed double haploids (DH) wheat genotypes were tested under gravel culture, along with salt tolerant (LU-26s) and high yielding (Sarsabz) checks. The crop was irrigated by non-saline (control) and saline (12dS/m) water and raised up to maturity, growth parameters (i.e. plant height, plant biomass, productive tillers, spike length, number of spiklets/spike, number of grains / spike, grain weight/ spike and grain yield/ 15 plants) were recorded after harvesting. Plant samples (straw) were collected and were analyzed for carbon isotopic ratio (C12/ C13) from IAEA laboratories Vienna Austria. The data showed that there was significant decrease in all the growth parameters due to salinity. On the basis of performance in different growth parameters it was found that wheat genotypes V3-DH, V9-DH, V10-DH, V13-DH, and LU-26s had good response at 12dSm-1, thus can be categorized as better performing genotypes. Studies on carbon isotopes discrimination (CID) showed a decreasing trend under salinity. Mean CID values were 20.86 and 17.49 under two environments (non saline and saline, respectively), showing an overall 19% decrease under salinity. Generally the wheat genotypes having higher grain yield also had high carbon isotopes discrimination (CID). The relationship between grain yield and CID was positive (R2 = 0.695). The genotypes V10-DH, V13-DH with lower decrease in CID (i.e. 1.2 and 11.0%, respectively), also had high grain yield under salinity. Therefore the studies suggest that we can include CID technique as one of the selection criteria for salt tolerance. (author)

  6. INSTRUMENTS MEASURING PERCEIVED RACISM/RACIAL DISCRIMINATION: REVIEW AND CRITIQUE OF FACTOR ANALYTIC TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2015-01-01

    Several compendiums of instruments that measure perceived racism and/or discrimination are present in the literature. Other works have reviewed the psychometric properties of these instruments in terms of validity and reliability and have indicated if the instrument was factor analyzed. However, little attention has been given to the quality of the factor analysis performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exploratory factor analyses done on instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination using guidelines from experts in psychometric theory. The techniques used for factor analysis were reviewed and critiqued and the adequacy of reporting was evaluated. Internet search engines and four electronic abstract databases were used to identify 16 relevant instruments that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Principal component analysis was the most frequent method of extraction (81%). Sample sizes were adequate for factor analysis in 81 percent of studies. The majority of studies reported appropriate criteria for the acceptance of un-rotated factors (81%) and justified the rotation method (75%). Exactly 94 percent of studies reported partially acceptable criteria for the acceptance of rotated factors. The majority of articles (69%) reported adequate coefficient alphas for the resultant subscales. In 81 percent of the studies, the conceptualized dimensions were supported by factor analysis. PMID:25626225

  7. Squids, snakes, and polarimeters: A new technique for measuring the magnetic moments of polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, P.R.; Luccio, A.U.; Shea, T.J.; Tsoupas, N.; Goldberg, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Effective polarimetry at high energies in hadron and lepton synchrotrons has been a long-standing and difficult problem. In synchrotrons with polarized beams it is possible to cause the direction of the polarization vector of a given bunch to alternate at a frequency which is some subharmonic of the rotation frequency. This can result in the presence of lines in the beam spectrum which are due only to the magnetic moment of the beam and which are well removed from the various lines due to the charge of the beam. The magnitude of these lines can be calculated from first principles. They are many orders of magnitude weaker than the Schottky signals. Measurement of the magnitude of one of these lines would be an absolute measurement of beam polarization. For measuring magnetic field, the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device, or squid, is about five orders of magnitude more sensitive than any other transducer. Using a squid, such a measurement might be accomplished with the proper combination of shielding, pickup loop design, and filtering. The resulting instrument would be fast, non-destructive, and comparatively cheap. In addition, techniques developed in the creation of such an instrument could be used to measure the Schottky spectrum in unprecedented detail. We present specifics of a polarimeter design for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and briefly discuss the possibility of using this technique to measure polarization at high-energy electron machines like LEP and HERA. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Lui, Harvey; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lee, Tim K.

    2013-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the Western world. In order to accurately detect the disease, especially malignant melanoma-the most fatal form of skin cancer-at an early stage when the prognosis is excellent, there is an urgent need to develop noninvasive early detection methods. We believe that polarization speckle patterns, defined as a spatial distribution of depolarization ratio of traditional speckle patterns, can be an important tool for skin cancer detection. To demonstrate our technique, we conduct a large in vivo clinical study of 214 skin lesions, and show that statistical moments of the polarization speckle pattern could differentiate different types of skin lesions, including three common types of skin cancers, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and two benign lesions, melanocytic nevus and seborrheic keratoses. In particular, the fourth order moment achieves better or similar sensitivity and specificity than many well-known and accepted optical techniques used to differentiate melanoma and seborrheic keratosis.

  9. Suppression of interferometric crosstalk and ASE noise using a polarization multiplexing technique and an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Xueyan; Liu, Fenghai; Wolfson, David

    2000-01-01

    Noise suppression at 10 Gbit/s and 20 Gbit/s is demonstrated using a gain saturated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a polarization multiplexing technique, where no impairments like waveform distortion and extinction ratio degradation caused by the gain saturation of the SOA appear....... Moreover, the method is bit rate transparent and the input power dynamic range is very large. Furthermore, the SOA can provide a high gain....

  10. Versatile Ion-polarized Techniques On-line (VITO) experiment at ISOLDE-CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachura, M., E-mail: monika.stachura@cern.ch [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gottberg, A. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Johnston, K. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Universität des Saarlandes, Experimentalphysik, 66123 Saabrucken (Germany); Bissell, M.L.; Garcia Ruiz, R.F. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Martins Correia, J.; Granadeiro Costa, A.R. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares - C" 2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Dehn, M. [Technische Universität München, Physics Department, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Deicher, M. [Universität des Saarlandes, Experimentalphysik, 66123 Saabrucken (Germany); Fenta, A. [CICECO, Complexo de Laboratórios Tecnológicos, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Hemmingsen, L. [Kemisk Institut, Københavns Universitet, Universtetsparken 5, 2100 København (Denmark); Mølholt, T.E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Munch, M. [Institut for Fysik og Astronomi, Aarhus Universitet, Ny Munkegade 120, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Neyens, G. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); and others

    2016-06-01

    The VITO (Versatile Ion-polarized Techniques Online) project is a new experimental setup at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. VITO is a dedicated beam line for producing laser-induced spin-polarized beams of both, atoms and ions, and it has been commissioned in response to the continuously growing demand for the use of spin-polarized beams. The new VITO beam line is a modification of the formerly existing ultra-high vacuum beam line, connecting ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN), and it has been under construction since the beginning of 2014. Once fully commissioned, VITO will open up numerous possibilities for carrying out multidisciplinary experiments in the areas of nuclear and solid state physics, fundamental interaction physics and biophysics. In its final stage the VITO beam line will provide three fully independent experimental stations: UHV chamber for material science applications, a β-asymmetry station where highly-polarized ions will be available, and a central open-end station suitable for travelling experiments. The VITO beam line will operate in two different modes providing either beams of spin-polarized atoms or ions, or non-polarized ion beams to all three end stations operating from 10{sup −10} mbar to 50 mbar. Recent experimental campaigns with stable and radioactive beams have allowed for testing VITO’s constituent parts and have demonstrated 96% of ion beam transmission to the collection chamber installed on the central station. The first experimental results obtained with on-line Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy using {sup 68m}Cu ion-beams will be briefly discussed.

  11. Bidirectional and simultaneous FTTX/Ethernet services using RSOA based remodulation and polarization multiplexing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindya S.; Patra, Ardhendu S.

    2015-08-01

    A bidirectional and simultaneous transmission of Ethernet, FTTX services through single optical carrier wavelength employing polarization multiplexing technique in the transmitter end and the user end. 10 Gbps and 2.5 Gbps datarates are transmitted over 50 km single mode fiber employing POLMUX technique at OLT and ONU to provide Ethernet and FTTX services concurrently to the user. Reflective semiconductor optical amplifier is used to reuse and remodulate the downlink signal to uplink transmission. The upstream and the downstream transmission performances are observed by the bit error rate values and the eye diagrams obtained by the BER analyzer.

  12. Improved techniques for the analysis of experiments with polarized targets. [1 to 2 GeV/c, polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrelet, E.

    1975-06-01

    An experiment was performed at the Bevatron to measure the polarization in the reaction ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/n from a polarized target, at beam momenta between 1 and 2 GeV/c. Concentration is placed on the original aspects of our analysis, in particular: the geometrical reconstruction of the elastic events; the use of the high analyzing power of the reaction studied to probe the polarization of the target in magnitude and distribution; a study of the statistical estimation of the polarization parameter; a detailed study of the quasielastic background. (JFP)

  13. Pulse-shape discrimination techniques for the COBRA double beta-decay experiment at LNGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatschler, S.; COBRA Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    In modern elementary particle physics several questions arise from the fact that neutrino oscillation experiments have found neutrinos to be massive. Among them is the so far unknown nature of neutrinos: either they act as so-called Majorana particles, where one cannot distinguish between particle and antiparticle, or they are Dirac particles like all the other fermions in the Standard Model. The study of neutrinoless double beta-decay (0νββ-decay), where the lepton number conservation is violated by two units, could answer the question regarding the underlying nature of neutrinos and might also shed light on the mechanism responsible for the mass generation. So far there is no experimental evidence for the existence of 0νββ-decay, hence, existing experiments have to be improved and novel techniques should be explored. One of the next-generation experiments dedicated to the search for this ultra-rare decay is the COBRA experiment. This article gives an overview of techniques to identify and reject background based on pulse-shape discrimination.

  14. New Techniques for Radar Altimetry of Sea Ice and the Polar Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, T. W. K.; Kwok, R.; Egido, A.; Smith, W. H. F.; Cullen, R.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite radar altimetry has proven to be a valuable tool for remote sensing of the polar oceans, with techniques for estimating sea ice thickness and sea surface height in the ice-covered ocean advancing to the point of becoming routine, if not operational, products. Here, we explore new techniques in radar altimetry of the polar oceans and the sea ice cover. First, we present results from fully-focused SAR (FFSAR) altimetry; by accounting for the phase evolution of scatterers in the scene, the FFSAR technique applies an inter-burst coherent integration, potentially over the entire duration that a scatterer remains in the altimeter footprint, which can narrow the effective along track resolution to just 0.5m. We discuss the improvement of using interleaved operation over burst-more operation for applying FFSAR processing to data acquired by future missions, such as a potential CryoSat follow-on. Second, we present simulated sea ice retrievals from the Ka-band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn), the instrument that will be launched on the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission in 2021, that is capable of producing swath images of surface elevation. These techniques offer the opportunity to advance our understanding of the physics of the ice-covered oceans, plus new insight into how we interpret more conventional radar altimetry data in these regions.

  15. Fundamental studies for the proton polarization technique in neutron protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ichiro; Kusaka, Katsuhiro; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Niimura, Nobuo

    2013-11-01

    The isotope effect in conventional neutron protein crystallography (NPC) can be eliminated by the proton polarization technique (ppt). Furthermore, the ppt can improve detection sensitivity of hydrogen (relative neutron scattering length of hydrogen) by approximately eight times in comparison with conventional NPC. Several technical difficulties, however, should be overcome in order to perform the ppt. In this paper, two fundamental studies to realise ppt are presented: preliminary trials using high-pressure flash freezing has shown the advantage of making bulk water amorphous without destroying the single crystal; and X-ray diffraction and liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry analyses of standard proteins after introducing radical molecules into protein crystals have shown that radical molecules could be distributed non-specifically around proteins, which is essential for better proton polarization.

  16. A Technique for Measuring Microparticles in Polar Ice Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimitsu Sakurai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe in detail our method of measuring the chemical forms of microparticles in polar ice samples through micro-Raman spectroscopy. The method is intended for solid ice samples, an important point because melting the ice can result in dissociation, contamination, and chemical reactions prior to or during a measurement. We demonstrate the technique of measuring the chemical forms of these microparticles and show that the reference spectra of those salts expected to be common in polar ice are unambiguously detected. From our measurements, Raman intensity of sulfate salts is relatively higher than insoluble dust due to the specific Raman scattering cross-section of chemical forms of microparticles in ice.

  17. Spin-filter scanning tunneling microscopy : a novel technique for the analysis of spin polarization on magnetic surfaces and spintronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera Marun, I.J.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a versatile technique to measure spin polarization with atomic resolution. A microscopy technique that can measure electronic spin polarization is relevant for characterization of magnetic nanostructures and spintronic devices. Scanning tunneling microscopy

  18. Application of the pulse-shape technique to proton-alpha discrimination in Si-detector arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pausch, G.; Moszynski, M.; Wolski, D.; Bohne, W.; Grawe, H.; Hilscher, D.; Schubart, R.; De Angelis, G.; De Poli, M.

    1995-04-01

    The capability of the pulse-shape technique with reversed n-type Si detectors for discrimination of protons and alphas produced in fusion-evaporation reactions was tested at the VICKSI cyclotron in Berlin. We applied a zero-crossing technique which does not need any external time reference, and which can therefore be exploited at DC accelerators. Excellent proton-alpha discrimination in the full energy range of the evaporation spectra, but also charge and even isotope resolution for heavier ions produced in projectile fragmentation, was obtained with detectors of an existing Si ball. There is no doubt that the pulse-shape discrimination works well with detectors from serial production and under experimental conditions which are typical for nuclear structure studies. An application of this technique in Si detector arrays is obvious, but some special features must be considered in the design of the electronics. The particle discrimination depends strongly on the electric field distribution inside the detector. Stabilization of the bias voltage at the detector is therefore recommended. A consequence of the rear-side injection mode is a strong variation of the charge-collection time with energy, charge, and mass number of the detected ion. To obtain a precise energy signal it is indispensable to correct for the ballistic deficit. (orig.)

  19. Discriminating sediment and clear water over coastal water using GD technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abd Rahman Mat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently two algorithms are being used routinely by the MODIS Atmosphere and Ocean Team in order to distinguish sediment influence and clear water pixels over turbid water area. These two algorithms require complicated computational analyses. In this paper, a simple algorithm based on empirical technique to detect the sediment-influenced pixels over coastal waters is proposed as an alternative to these two algorithms. This study used apparent reflectance acquired from MODIS L1B product. This algorithm is based on the gradient difference of the line connecting the 0.47- and 1.24-μm channels and 0.47- and 0.66-μm channels of a log-log graph of the apparent reflectance values against MODIS wavelengths. Over clear-water areas (deep blue sea, the 0.47-, 0.66- and 1.24-μm channels fitted very well in line with correlation R > 0.99. Over turbid waters, a substantial increase of 0.66 μm in the reflectance leads to a low correlation value. By computing the difference between the gradient of the line connecting 0.47 and 0.66 μm and the gradient of the line connecting 0.47 and 1.24 μm, the threshold to discriminate turbid and shallow coastal waters from clear-water pixels can be obtained. If the gradient difference is greater than 0, the pixels were then marked as sediment-influenced pixels. This proposed algorithm works well for MODIS Terra and Aqua sensor. The comparison of this algorithm with an established algorithm also showed a good agreement.

  20. The analysis of polar clouds from AVHRR satellite data using pattern recognition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William L.; Ebert, Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    does a global choice of a visible and/or infrared threshold. The classification also prevents erroneous estimates of large fractional cloudiness in areas of cloudfree snow and sea ice. The hybrid histogram-spatial coherence technique and the advantages of first classifying a scene in the polar regions are detailed. The complete Polar Cloud Pilot Data Set was analyzed and the results are presented and discussed.

  1. An investigation of polarized atomic photofragments using the ion imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracker, A.S.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis describes measurement and analysis of the recoil angle dependence of atomic photofragment polarization (atomic v-J correlation). This property provides information on the electronic rearrangement which occurs during molecular photodissociation. Chapter 1 introduces concepts of photofragment vector correlations and reviews experimental and theoretical progress in this area. Chapter 2 described the photofragment ion imaging technique, which the author has used to study the atomic v-J correlation in chlorine and ozone dissociation. Chapter 3 outlines a method for isolating and describing the contribution to the image signal which is due exclusively to angular momentum alignment. Ion imaging results are presented and discussed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 discusses a different set of experiments on the three-fragment dissociation of azomethane. 122 refs.

  2. A Novel Keep Zero as Zero Polar Correlation Technique for Mobile Robot Localization using LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIDHARTHAN, R. K.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensor fusion based localization techniques often need accurate estimate of the fast and uncertain scene change in environment. To determine the scene change from two consecutive LIDAR scans, this paper proposes a novel technique called 'keep zero as zero' polar correlation. As it name implies any zero in the scan data is kept isolated from scene change estimation as it do not carry any information about scene change. Unlike existing techniques, the proposed methodology employs minimization of selective horizontal and vertically shifted sum of difference between the scans to estimate scene change in terms of rotation and translation. Minimization of the proposed correlation function across the specified search space can guarantee an accurate estimate of scene change without any ambiguity. The performance of the proposed method is tested experimentally on a mobile robot in two modes depending on the scene change. In the first mode, scene change is detected using dynamic LIDAR, whereas static LIDAR is used in the second mode. The proposed methodology is found to be more robust to environmental uncertainties with a reliable level of localization accuracy.

  3. Evaluation of a novel technique for assessing speech discrimination in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newton, C.; Chiat, S.; Hald, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Methods used to assess children's speech perception and recognition in the clinical setting are out of step with current methods used to investigate these experimentally. Traditional methods of assessing speech discrimination, such as picture pointing, yield accuracy scores which may fail to detect

  4. Plasma-laser ion discrimination by TOF technique applied to coupled SiC detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    The rate estimation of nuclear reactions induced in high intensity laser-target interaction (≥1016 W/cm2), is strongly depending on the neutron detection efficiency and ion charge discrimination, according to particles involved in exit open-channels. Ion discrimination is basically performed by means of analysis of pits observed on track detector, which is critically dependent on calibration and/or fast TOF devices based on SiC and diamond detectors. Last setup is used to determine the ion energy and to obtain a rough estimation of yields. However, for each TOF interval, the dependence of yield from the energy deposited in the detector sensitive region, introduces a distortion in the ion spectra. Moreover, if two ion species are present in the same spectrum, the discrimination of their contribution is not attainable. In this paper a new method is described which allows to discriminate the contribution of two ion species in the wide energy range of nuclear reactions induced in laser-target interactions. The method is based on charge response of two TOF-SiC detectors, of suitable thicknesses, placed in adjacent positions. In presence of two ion species, the response of the detectors, associated with different energy losses, can determine the ion specific contribution to each TOF interval.

  5. Discrimination of the glucose and the white sugar based on the pulsed laser-induced photoacoustic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong

    2017-08-01

    In this study, to discriminate the glucose and the white sugar gradient in the food, a noninvasive optical detection system based on pulsed laser-induced photoacoustic technique was developed. Meanwhile, the Nd: YAG 532nm pumped OPO pulsed laser was used as the excitation light source to generate of the photoacoustic signals of the glucose and white sugar. The focused ultrasonic transducer with central detection frequency of 1MHz was used to capture the photoacoustic signals. In experiments, the real-time photoacoustic signals of the glucose and the white sugar aqueous solutions were gotten and compared with each other. In addition, to discriminate the difference of the characteristic photoacoustic signals between both of them, the difference spectrum and the first order derivative technique between the peak-to-peak photoacoustic signals of the water and that of the glucose and white sugar were employed. The difference characteristic photoacoustic wavelengths between the glucose and the white sugar were found based on the established photoacoustic detection system. This study provides the potential possibility for the discrimination of the glucose and the white sugar by using the photoacoustic detection method.

  6. Computational efficiency improvement with Wigner rotation technique in studying atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Minghu; Feng, Liqiang; Lü, Rui; Chu, Tianshu

    2014-01-01

    We show that by introducing Wigner rotation technique into the solution of time-dependent Schrödinger equation in length gauge, computational efficiency can be greatly improved in describing atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses. The methodology with Wigner rotation technique underlying our openMP parallel computational code for circularly polarized laser pulses is described. Results of test calculations to investigate the scaling property of the computational code with the number of the electronic angular basis function l as well as the strong field phenomena are presented and discussed for the hydrogen atom

  7. Revisiting the time domain induced polarization technique, from linearization to inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S.; Oldenburg, D.

    2015-12-01

    The induced polarization (IP) technique has been successful in mineral exploration, particularly for finding disseminated sulphide or porphyry deposits, but also in helping solve geotechnical and environmental problems. Electrical induced polarization (EIP) surveys use grounded electrodes and take measurements of the electric field while the current is both "on" and "off". Currently, 2D and 3D inversions of EIP data are generally carried out by first finding a background conductivity from the asymptotic "on-time" measurements. The DC resistivity problem is then linearized about that conductivity to obtain a linear relationship between the off-time data and the "pseudo-chargeability". The distribution of pseudo-chargeability in the earth is then interpreted within the context of the initial geoscience problem pursued. Despite its success, the current EIP implementation does have challenges. A fundamental assumption, that there is no electromagnetic induction (EM) effect, breaks down when the background is conductive. This is especially problematic in regions having conductive overburden. EM induction complicates, and sometimes overwhelms, the IP signal. To ameliorate this effect, we estimate the inductive signal, subtract it from the "off-time" data and invert the resultant IP data using the linearized formulation. We carefully examine the conditions under which this works. We also investigate the potential alterations to the linearized sensitivity function that are needed to allow a linearized inversion to be carried out. Inversions of EIP data recover a "chargeability" but this is not a uniquely defined quantity. There are multiple definitions of this property because there are a diverse number of ways in which an IP datum is defined. In time domain IP surveys, the data might be mV/V or a time-integrated voltage with units of ms. In reality however, data from an EIP survey have many time channels and each one can be inverted separately to produce a chargeability

  8. Post-Apartheid Trends in Gender Discrimination in South Africa: Analysis through Decomposition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Debra Shepherd

    2008-01-01

    Using appropriate econometric methods and 11 representative household surveys, this paper empirically assesses the extent and evolution of gender discrimination in the South African labour market over the post-apartheid period. Attention is also paid to the role that anti-discriminatory legislation has had to play in effecting change in the South African labour market. Much of the paper’s focus is placed on African women who would have benefited most from the new legislative environment. Afri...

  9. A novel measurement technique to estimate the RF beat-linewidth of free-running heterodyning system using a photonic discriminator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.R.H.; Marpaung, D.A.I.; Burla, M.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel technique to our knowledge to estimate the beat spectrum linewidth of a free-running heterodyning scheme using an optical discriminator. Utilizing a dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) filter as an optical discriminator, the phase modulation (PM) to intensity modulation

  10. General discrimination technique to determine between earthquake and nuclear test with seismic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashillah Baharuddin; Alawiah Musa; Roslan Mohd Ali

    2007-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was developed to ban of any nuclear weapon test explosion moreover will restrict the development and qualitative improvement of nuclear weapons and end the development of advanced new types of these weapons. The Treaty provides for a comprehensive global verification regime, which includes an International Monitoring System (IMS). The IMS comprises a network of 321 monitoring stations and 16 radionuclide laboratories that monitor the Earth for evidence of nuclear explosions, which cover underground, underwater and atmosphere environments. Presently, Malaysia receives seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide data from the International Data Centre (IDC) of the CTBT. In order to maximise the use of the data for the purposes of the CTBT, the Malaysian Nuclear Agency is developing capability to analyse the data in order to detect nuclear weapon test, with an initial focus on the seismic data. Through the CTBT IMS, seismic data is constantly being obtained to monitor and detect nuclear explosions. However, in the process, other natural and man-made activities that generate seismic waves, especially earthquakes and large man-made explosions, are also detectable through the IMS, and need to be differentiated and discriminated before any nuclear explosions can be identified. The detection capability by using seismological methods was proven through simulated explosion tests at selected nuclear weapon test sites. This is supported by data previously collected from a total of 2089 nuclear weapon tests that have been carried out globally, out of which 1567 were underground, 514 in the atmosphere, including outer space, and 8 underwater. The discrimination of seismic data to detect nuclear explosions from natural earthquake and explosions can be undertaken through the identification of the epicentre location, hypocentre depth, magnitude and short-period discrimination of the seismic events. (Author)

  11. Comparison of extraction and work up techniques for analysis of core and intact polar tetraether lipids from sedimentary environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengger, S.K.; Hopmans, E.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether-based intact polar lipids (IPL GDGTs) are used as biomarkers for living Archaea and are analyzed utilizing a variety of extraction and quantification techniques. Most IPL GDGT studies have used a modified Bligh-Dyer extraction method, but it has been

  12. Discrimination of plant root zone water status in greenhouse production based on phenotyping and machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Doudou; Juan, Jiaxiang; Chang, Liying; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2017-08-15

    Plant-based sensing on water stress can provide sensitive and direct reference for precision irrigation system in greenhouse. However, plant information acquisition, interpretation, and systematical application remain insufficient. This study developed a discrimination method for plant root zone water status in greenhouse by integrating phenotyping and machine learning techniques. Pakchoi plants were used and treated by three root zone moisture levels, 40%, 60%, and 80% relative water content. Three classification models, Random Forest (RF), Neural Network (NN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were developed and validated in different scenarios with overall accuracy over 90% for all. SVM model had the highest value, but it required the longest training time. All models had accuracy over 85% in all scenarios, and more stable performance was observed in RF model. Simplified SVM model developed by the top five most contributing traits had the largest accuracy reduction as 29.5%, while simplified RF and NN model still maintained approximately 80%. For real case application, factors such as operation cost, precision requirement, and system reaction time should be synthetically considered in model selection. Our work shows it is promising to discriminate plant root zone water status by implementing phenotyping and machine learning techniques for precision irrigation management.

  13. Light microscopy with differential staining techniques for the characterisation and discrimination of insects versus marine arthropods processed animal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoboni, Matteo; Tretola, Marco; Cheli, Federica; Marchis, Daniela; Veys, Pascal; Baeten, Vincent; Pinotti, Luciano

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of light microscopy with differential staining techniques for the discrimination of insect material from marine arthropods - classified as fishmeal. Specifically, three samples of single-species insect material, Hermetia illucens (HI), Bombyx mori (BM) and Tenebrio molitor (TM), and two samples of marine arthropods, shrimp material and krill, were analysed and compared after staining by two reagents to enhance fragment identification. Alizarin Red (AR) and Chlorazol Black (CB), which react respectively with calcium salts and chitin, were tested for their potential efficacy in distinguishing between insect and marine materials. Results indicated that AR failed to stain HI, BM and TM materials. By contrast, the three insect species materials tested were stained by CB. When shrimp fragments and krill were considered, AR and CB stained marine materials reddish-pink and light blue to black, respectively. By combining these results, it can be suggested that CB staining may efficiently be used to mark insect materials; AR does stain shrimp fragments but does not stain the tested insect material, indicating a possible approach for discriminating between insects and marine arthropods. However, since the present study was performed on pure materials and a small set of samples, possible implementation of this technique still needs to be confirmed in complex matrices such as compound feed.

  14. A Polar Fuzzy Control Scheme for Hybrid Power System Using Vehicle-To-Grid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel polar fuzzy (PF control approach for a hybrid power system is proposed in this research. The proposed control scheme remedies the issues of system frequency and the continuity of demand supply caused by renewable sources’ uncertainties. The hybrid power system consists of a wind turbine generator (WTG, solar photovoltaics (PV, a solar thermal power generator (STPG, a diesel engine generator (DEG, an aqua-electrolyzer (AE, an ultra-capacitor (UC, a fuel-cell (FC, and a flywheel (FW. Furthermore, due to the high cost of the battery energy storage system (BESS, a new idea of vehicle-to-grid (V2G control is applied to use the battery of the electric vehicle (EV as equivalent to large-scale energy storage units instead of small batteries to improve the frequency stability of the system. In addition, EV customers’ convenience is taken into account. A minimal-order observer is used to estimate the supply error. Then, the area control error (ACE signal is calculated in terms of the estimated supply error and the frequency deviation. ACE is considered in the frequency domain. Two PF approaches are utilized in the intended system. The mission of each controller is to mitigate one frequency component of ACE. The responsibility for ACE compensation is shared among all parts of the system according to their speed of response. The performance of the proposed control scheme is compared to the conventional fuzzy logic control (FLC. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control technique are verified by numerical simulations under various scenarios.

  15. Rosacea Subtypes Visually and Optically Distinct When Viewed with Parallel-Polarized Imaging Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, In Hyuk; Choi, Jae Eun; Seo, Soo Hong; Kye, Young Chul; Ahn, Hyo Hyun

    2017-04-01

    Parallel-polarized light (PPL) photography evaluates skin characteristics by analyzing light reflections from the skin surface. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of quantitative analysis of PPL images in rosacea patients, and to provide a new objective evaluation method for use in clinical research and practice. A total of 49 rosacea patients were enrolled. PPL images using green and white light emitting diodes (LEDs) were taken of the lesion and an adjacent normal area. The values from the PPL images were converted to CIELAB coordinates: L * corresponding to the brightness, a * to the red and green intensities, and b * to the yellow and blue intensities. A standard grading system showed negative correlations with L * (r=-0.67862, p =0.0108) and b * (r=-0.67862, p =0.0108), and a positive correlation with a * (r=0.64194, p =0.0180) with the green LEDs for papulopustular rosacea (PPR) types. The xerosis severity scale showed a positive correlation with L * (r=0.36709, p =0.0276) and a negative correlation with b * (r=-0.33068, p =0.0489) with the white LEDs for erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR) types. In the ETR types, there was brighter lesional and normal skin with white LEDs and a higher score on the xerosis severity scale than the PPR types. This technique using PPL images is applicable to the quantitative and objective assessment of rosacea in clinical settings. In addition, the two main subtypes of ETR and PPR are distinct entities visually and optically.

  16. Adsorptive micro-extraction techniques--novel analytical tools for trace levels of polar solutes in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neng, N R; Silva, A R M; Nogueira, J M F

    2010-11-19

    A novel enrichment technique, adsorptive μ-extraction (AμE), is proposed for trace analysis of polar solutes in aqueous media. The preparation, stability tests and development of the analytical devices using two geometrical configurations, i.e. bar adsorptive μ-extraction (BAμE) and multi-spheres adsorptive μ-extraction (MSAμE) is fully discussed. From the several sorbent materials tested, activated carbons and polystyrene divinylbenzene phases demonstrated the best stability, robustness and to be the most suitable for analytical purposes. The application of both BAμE and MSAμE devices proved remarkable performance for the determination of trace levels of polar solutes and metabolites (e.g. pesticides, disinfection by-products, drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals) in water matrices and biological fluids. By comparing AμE techniques with stir bar sorptive extraction based on polydimethylsiloxane phase, great effectiveness is attained overcoming the limitations of the latter enrichment approach regarding the more polar solutes. Furthermore, convenient sensitivity and selectivity is reached through AμE techniques, since the great advantage of this new analytical technology is the possibility to choose the most suitable sorbent to each particular type of application. The enrichment techniques proposed are cost-effective, easy to prepare and work-up, demonstrating robustness and to be a remarkable analytical tool for trace analysis of priority solutes in areas of recognized importance such as environment, forensic and other related life sciences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Applying modern psychometric techniques to melodic discrimination testing: Item response theory, computerised adaptive testing, and automatic item generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Peter M C; Collins, Tom; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-06-15

    Modern psychometric theory provides many useful tools for ability testing, such as item response theory, computerised adaptive testing, and automatic item generation. However, these techniques have yet to be integrated into mainstream psychological practice. This is unfortunate, because modern psychometric techniques can bring many benefits, including sophisticated reliability measures, improved construct validity, avoidance of exposure effects, and improved efficiency. In the present research we therefore use these techniques to develop a new test of a well-studied psychological capacity: melodic discrimination, the ability to detect differences between melodies. We calibrate and validate this test in a series of studies. Studies 1 and 2 respectively calibrate and validate an initial test version, while Studies 3 and 4 calibrate and validate an updated test version incorporating additional easy items. The results support the new test's viability, with evidence for strong reliability and construct validity. We discuss how these modern psychometric techniques may also be profitably applied to other areas of music psychology and psychological science in general.

  18. Candida "Psilosis" - electromigration techniques and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for phenotypical discrimination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubesová, Anna; Šalplachta, Jiří; Horká, Marie; Růžička, F.; Šlais, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 8 (2012), s. 1937-1943 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Project s: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : Candida parapsilosis * electromigration techniques * MALDI-TOF MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.969, year: 2012

  19. Search for the existence of circulating currents in high-Tc superconductors using the polarized neutron scattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidis, Y.; Fauque, B.; Aji, V.; Bourges, P.

    2007-01-01

    We review experimental attempts using polarized neutron scattering technique to reveal the existence in high temperature superconductors of a long-range ordered state characterized by the spontaneous appearance of current loops. We draw particular attention to our recent results (B. Fauque et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 197001) that, up to now, can be explained only by the theory of circulating currents proposed by Varma

  20. Detection of faint X-ray spectral features using wavelength, energy, and spatial discrimination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, L.T.; Gillaspy, J.D.; Pomeroy, J.M.; Szabo, C.I.; Tan, J.N.; Radics, B.; Takacs, E.; Chantler, C.T.; Kimpton, J.A.; Kinnane, M.N.; Smale, L.F.

    2007-01-01

    We report here our methods and results of measurements of very low-signal X-ray spectra produced by highly charged ions in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). A megapixel Si charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was used in a direct-detection, single-photon-counting mode to image spectra with a cylindrically bent Ge(2 2 0) crystal spectrometer. The resulting wavelength-dispersed spectra were then processed using several intrinsic features of CCD images and image-analysis techniques. We demonstrate the ability to clearly detect very faint spectral features that are on the order of the noise due to cosmic-ray background signatures in our images. These techniques remove extraneous signal due to muon tracks and other sources, and are coupled with the spectrometer wavelength dispersion and atomic-structure calculations of hydrogen-like Ti to identify the energy of a faint line that was not in evidence before applying the methods outlined here

  1. Effective-Medium Inversion of Induced Polarization Data for Mineral Exploration and Mineral Discrimination: Case Study for the Copper Deposit in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zhdanov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a novel method of 3D inversion of induced polarization (IP survey data, based on a generalized effective-medium model of the IP effect (GEMTIP. The electrical parameters of the effective-conductivity model are determined by the intrinsic petrophysical and geometrical characteristics of composite media, such as the mineralization and/or fluid content of rocks and the matrix composition, porosity, anisotropy, and polarizability of formations. The GEMTIP model of multiphase conductive media provides a quantitative tool for evaluation of the type of mineralization, and the volume content of different minerals using electromagnetic (EM data. The developed method takes into account the nonlinear nature of both electromagnetic induction and IP phenomena and inverts the EM data in the parameters of the GEMTIP model. The goal of the inversion is to determine the electrical conductivity and the intrinsic chargeability distributions, as well as the other parameters of the relaxation model simultaneously. The recovered parameters of the relaxation model can be used for the discrimination of different rocks, and in this way may provide an ability to distinguish between uneconomic mineral deposits and zones of economic mineralization using geophysical remote sensing technology.

  2. Discrimination techniques employing both reflective and thermal multispectral signals. [for remote sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malila, W. A.; Crane, R. B.; Richardson, W.

    1973-01-01

    Recent improvements in remote sensor technology carry implications for data processing. Multispectral line scanners now exist that can collect data simultaneously and in registration in multiple channels at both reflective and thermal (emissive) wavelengths. Progress in dealing with two resultant recognition processing problems is discussed: (1) More channels mean higher processing costs; to combat these costs, a new and faster procedure for selecting subsets of channels has been developed. (2) Differences between thermal and reflective characteristics influence recognition processing; to illustrate the magnitude of these differences, some explanatory calculations are presented. Also introduced, is a different way to process multispectral scanner data, namely, radiation balance mapping and related procedures. Techniques and potentials are discussed and examples presented.

  3. A Polarization Technique for Mitigating Low Grazing Angle Radar Sea Clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    returns due to man -made objects. Specifically, the sea surface features measured by horizontally polarized on trans- mit and receive (HH) radar have...562, 2008. [4] S. Haykin, E. O. Lewis, R. K. Raney, and J. R. Rossiter, Remote Sensing of Sea Ice and Icebergs, John Wiley & Sons , 1994. [5] M. W

  4. Versatile Ion-polarized Techniques On-line (VITO) experiment at ISOLDE-CERN

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stachura, M.; Gottberg, A.; Johnston, K.; Bissell, M. L.; Ruiz, R. F. G.; Correia, J. M.; Costa, A. R. G.; Dehn, M.; Deicher, M.; Fenta, A.; Hemmingsen, L.; Molholt, T. E.; Munch, M.; Neyens, G.; Pallada, S.; Silva, M. R.; Zákoucký, Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 376, JUN (2016), s. 369-373 ISSN 0168-583X Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : laser-induced nuclear polarization * beta-NMR spectroscopy * beta-Asymmetry * PAC spectroscopy * radioisotopes Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  5. Applicability of geochemical techniques and artificial sweeteners in discriminating the anthropogenic sources of chloride in shallow groundwater north of Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Esmaeil; Milne-Home, William

    2017-05-01

    Elevated levels of chloride concentration due to anthropogenic activities including the road salts, septic effluent and agricultural sources are common in shallow groundwater of the recent glacial deposits north of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Identifying suitable techniques for discriminating the source of the chloride concentration helps to better plan the protection of groundwater in the area. This paper examines the applicability of geochemical techniques with emphasis on Panno et al. (Ground Water 44: 176-187, 2006) and Mullaney et al. (2009) graphical approaches for discriminating the sources of chloride with known causes of impacts. The results indicated that the graphical methods developed using Cl - , Br - and/or total nitrogen (N) could identify the combined sources of road salts and septic systems. However, discriminating between the road salts, septic effluent or agricultural sources needs to be complemented by other techniques including the artificial sweeteners and isotope tracers.

  6. MODIS Snow Cover Mapping Decision Tree Technique: Snow and Cloud Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, George A.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mapping of snow cover continues to challenge cryospheric scientists and modelers. The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow data products have been used since 2000 by many investigators to map and monitor snow cover extent for various applications. Users have reported on the utility of the products and also on problems encountered. Three problems or hindrances in the use of the MODIS snow data products that have been reported in the literature are: cloud obscuration, snow/cloud confusion, and snow omission errors in thin or sparse snow cover conditions. Implementation of the MODIS snow algorithm in a decision tree technique using surface reflectance input to mitigate those problems is being investigated. The objective of this work is to use a decision tree structure for the snow algorithm. This should alleviate snow/cloud confusion and omission errors and provide a snow map with classes that convey information on how snow was detected, e.g. snow under clear sky, snow tinder cloud, to enable users' flexibility in interpreting and deriving a snow map. Results of a snow cover decision tree algorithm are compared to the standard MODIS snow map and found to exhibit improved ability to alleviate snow/cloud confusion in some situations allowing up to about 5% increase in mapped snow cover extent, thus accuracy, in some scenes.

  7. Influence of ns-laser wavelength in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for discrimination of painting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xueshi; Syvilay, Delphine; Wilkie-Chancellier, Nicolas; Texier, Annick; Martinez, Loic; Serfaty, Stéphane; Martos-Levif, Dominique; Detalle, Vincent

    2017-08-01

    The influence of ns-laser wavelength to discriminate ancient painting techniques such as are fresco, casein, animal glue, egg yolk and oil was investigated in this work. This study was carried out with a single shot laser on samples covered by a layer made of a mixture of the cinnabar pigment and different binders. Three wavelengths based on Nd: YAG laser were investigated (1064, 532 and 266 nm). The plasma is controlled at the same electron temperature after an adjustment of pulse energy for these three wavelengths on a fresco sample without organic binder. This approach allows to eliminate the effects of laser pulse energy and the material laser absorption. Afterwards, the emission spectra were compared to separate different techniques. The organic binding media has been separated based on the relative emission intensity of the present CN or C2 rovibrational emissions. In order to test the capability of separating or identifying, the chemometric approach (PCA) was applied to the different matrix. The different solutions in term of wavelength range to optimise the identification was investigated. We focused on the evaluation for the laser wavelength to insure a better separation. The different capacity was interpreted by differentiating the binders by the altered interaction mechanisms between the laser photon and the binders. Also, the electron temperature in the plasma was estimated, which provided the evidences to our findings.

  8. Applying Weibull Distribution and Discriminant Function Techniques to Predict Damage Cup Anemometers in the 2011 PHM Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Cassity

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cup anemometers are frequently employed in the wind power industry for wind resource assessment at prospective wind farm sites. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for identifying faulty three cup anemometers. This method is applicable to cases where data is available from two or more anemometers at equal height and cases where data is available from anemometers at different heights. It is based on examining the Weibull parameters of the distribution generated from the difference between the anemometer’s reported measurements and utilizing a discriminant function technique to separate out the data corresponding to bad cup anemometers. For anemometers at different heights, only data from the same height pair combinations are compared. In addition, various preprocessing techniques are discussed to improve performance of the algorithm. These include removing data that corresponds to poor wind directions for comparing the anemometers and removing data that corresponds to frozen anemometers. These methods are employed on the data from the PHM 2011 Data Competition with results presented.

  9. A changing world: Using nuclear techniques to investigate the impact of climate change on polar and mountainous regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are being used in polar and mountainous regions to study climate change and its impact on the quality of land, water and ecosystems in order to better conserve and manage these resources. Researchers from around the world will be using data from 13 benchmark sites to draw conclusions about the effects of the rapidly changing climate on the Arctic, mountains and the western part of Antarctica, which have alarmed communities, environmentalists, scientists and policy makers. Between July 2015 and July 2016 they will be using isotopic and nuclear techniques, as well as geochemical and biological analytical methods from other scientific disciplines. This will enable them to track soil and water, to monitor the movement of soil and sediment and to assess the effects of melting permafrost on the atmosphere, as well as on the land, water and fragile ecosystems of mountainous and polar regions. The measurements follow numerous on-site tests carried out since November 2014 to perfect the sampling technique.

  10. A passive technique for detecting copy-move forgery with rotation based on polar complex exponential transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Mahmoud; Han, Qi; Yu, Liyang; Zhang, Ye; Niu, Xiamu

    2015-07-01

    Copy-move is one of the most common methods for image manipulation. Several methods have been proposed to detect and locate the tampered regions, while many methods failed when the copied regions are rotated before being pasted. A rotational invariant detecting method using Polar Complex Exponential Transform (PCET) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the original image is divided into overlapping circular blocks, and PCET is employed to each block to extract the rotation-invariant robust features. Secondly, the Approximate Nearest Neighbors (ANN) of each feature vector are collected by Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH). Experimental results show that the proposed technique is robust to rotation.

  11. Corrosion rate transients observed by linear polarization techniques at Zr-1%Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beran, J.; Cerny, K.

    1997-01-01

    Momentary corrosion rate of Zr-1%Nb alloy during nonisothermal autoclave experiments at temperature up to 328 deg. C in various solutions was determined by T/R p values (T - absolute temperature, R p - polarization resistance), multiplied by temperature independent conversion factor. This factor was found by comparison of conventional corrosion loss evaluation with electrochemical measurements. Corrosion rate transients in boric acid solutions and in lithium hydroxide differed significantly. Great differences were also found in stabilized corrosion rates at the end of experiments. Temperature irregularities caused considerable changes in corrosion rate. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  12. Analytic parallel-polarized light imaging technique using various light-emitting diodes: a comparison with skin conductance values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D H; Choi, J E; Ryu, H J; Seo, S H; Kye, Y C; Ahn, H H

    2015-05-01

    The quantitative difference of the light reflected from a skin surface can be analyzed using parallel-polarized light (PPL) photography when combined with an analytic technique similar to colorimetric photography. To improve the PPL photography technique as an assessment tool for the evaluation of skin condition using light-emitting diodes (LED) of different colors. Parallel-polarized light images were taken using white and green LED illuminators. The acquired images were transformed to CIELAB coordinates. An in-house skin conductance meter was constructed to assess skin hydration level. A dermatologist evaluated the clinical grading of dryness and glossiness. These clinical severities were also compared statistically with the CIELAB values. As with the green illuminator, the correlation analysis of whole sites showed that the L* value positively correlated with age (r = 0.18677, P < 0.05), and that the a* value has negative and positive relationships with age (r = -0.20528, P < 0.05) and glossiness (r = 0.20885, P < 0.05) respectively. The correlations between CIELAB values and multiple characteristics of skin were more significant when green LED was applied than when white light was applied. In addition, coherent relationships between the grade of dryness and skin conductance values showed that visual assessment could be appropriate for the study as with objective measurement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Voltage switching technique for detecting nuclear spin polarization in a quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryo; Kono, Kimitoshi; Tarucha, Seigo; Ono, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    We have introduced a source-drain voltage switching technique for studying nuclear spins in a vertical double quantum dot. Switching the source-drain voltage between the spin-blockade state and the zero-bias Coulomb blockade state can tune the energy difference between the spin singlet and triplet, and effectively turn on/off the hyperfine interaction. Since the change in the nuclear spin state affects the source-drain current, nuclear spin properties can only be detected by transport measurement. Using this technique, we have succeeded in measuring the timescale of nuclear spin depolarization. Furthermore, combining this technique and an RF ac magnetic field, we successfully detected continuous-wave NMR signals of 75 As, 69 Ga, and 71 Ga, which are contained in a quantum dot. (author)

  14. Virtual Polar Motion and Universal Time Variations in Space Geodetic Techniques due to Atmospheric Pressure Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes Cerveira, P. J.; Englich, S.; Boehm, J.; Weber, R.; Schuh, H.

    2006-12-01

    Earth rotation variations, in polar motion and universal time (ERP), appear as a response due to the sum of solid Earth displacements, fluid and gaseous mass transports. In finite networks, e.g., the network of eleven operational VLBI stations during the CONT05 VLBI experiment, horizontal displacements due to atmospheric pressure loading (APL) may accidentally introduce a net rotation. Generally, a no-net-rotation is expected, hypothesizing a surface normal stress due to APL upon a radially symmetric Earth. However, the horizontal crustal deformations due to APL given on a 2.5x2.5 degrees grid provided by the Goddard VLBI Group show systematic temporal net rotations. We compared the change of the eleven station network of CONT05 with and without APL, every six hours, by a three Helmert parameter transformation (three rotations). The "virtual" predicted ERP variations were validated w.r.t. the estimated ones, obtained from CONT05 (using the OCCAM 61E VLBI software). These tiny ERP variations, representing about 2 mm on Earth's surface, could statistically be detected if more VLBI sessions were processed. Even the inverted and non-inverted barometric assumptions of the response of the oceans to atmospheric pressure variations could potentially be verified.

  15. Utilising psychophysical techniques to investigate the effects of age, typeface design, size and display polarity on glance legibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobres, Jonathan; Chahine, Nadine; Reimer, Bryan; Gould, David; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2016-10-01

    Psychophysical research on text legibility has historically investigated factors such as size, colour and contrast, but there has been relatively little direct empirical evaluation of typographic design itself, particularly in the emerging context of glance reading. In the present study, participants performed a lexical decision task controlled by an adaptive staircase method. Two typefaces, a 'humanist' and 'square grotesque' style, were tested. Study I examined positive and negative polarities, while Study II examined two text sizes. Stimulus duration thresholds were sensitive to differences between typefaces, polarities and sizes. Typeface also interacted significantly with age, particularly for conditions with higher legibility thresholds. These results are consistent with previous research assessing the impact of the same typefaces on interface demand in a simulated driving environment. This simplified methodology of assessing legibility differences can be adapted to investigate a wide array of questions relevant to typographic and interface designs. Practitioner Summary: A method is described for rapidly investigating relative legibility of different typographical features. Results indicate that during glance-like reading induced by the psychophysical technique and under the lighting conditions considered, humanist-style type is significantly more legible than a square grotesque style, and that black-on-white text is significantly more legible than white-on-black.

  16. Comparison of electrochemical noise with impedance and polarization resistance techniques in the steel/concrete system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista, A.; Gonzalez, J.A.; Vergara, A.; Davila, J.V.; Mariaca, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies the corrosion rates of active and passive rebars embedded in concrete in various degrees of wetness using different electrochemical techniques. The ability of the electrochemical noise to quantificate the intensity of the attack and the advantages of this method are stressed. Data that prove that the corrosion rate is proportional to the current noise and independent to the potential noise in this system are also shown. (Author) 23 refs

  17. Development of Efficient and Robust Heteronuclear Cross-Polarization Techniques for Biological Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Sheetal Kumar

    2014-01-01

    →13C polarization transfer to facilitate 2-dimensional experiments detecting 14N in the indirect dimension are shown. Finally, to test the polarization transfer efficiency with very large chemical shift anisotropies, 19F→13C polarization transfer experiments for Poly Tetra Fluoro Ethylene (PTFE...

  18. Measurement of third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor in InP using extended Z-scan technique with elliptical polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masaki; Shinozaki, Tomohisa; Hara, Hikaru; Yamamoto, Kazunuki; Matsusue, Toshio; Bando, Hiroyuki

    2018-05-01

    The elliptical polarization dependence of the two-photon absorption coefficient β in InP has been measured by the extended Z-scan technique for thick materials in the wavelength range from 1640 to 1800 nm. The analytical formula of the Z-scan technique has been extended with consideration of multiple reflections. The Z-scan results have been fitted very well by the formula and β has been evaluated accurately. The three independent elements of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor in InP have also been determined accurately from the elliptical polarization dependence of β.

  19. Discriminative capacity of bronchodilator response measured with three different lung function techniques in asthmatic and healthy children aged 2 to 5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    as compared with placebo in healthy control subjects. Lung function improved to a significantly greater extent in asthmatic children than in control subjects as reflected by all methods. sRaw provided the best discriminative power of such a bronchodilator response, with a sensitivity of 66% and specificity......The primary aim of this study was to quantify and compare bronchodilator responsiveness in healthy and asthmatic children aged 2 to 5 yr. The secondary aim of the study was to compare discriminative capacity (i.e., sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the reversibility test......) as measured with the impulse oscillation technique were assessed before and 20 min after inhalation of terbutaline from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler via a metal spacer by 92 children (37 healthy controls and 55 asthmatic subjects). The study of healthy children followed a randomized, double...

  20. A Molecular Method to Discriminate between Mass-Reared Sterile and Wild Tsetse Flies during Eradication Programmes That Have a Sterile Insect Technique Component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaïla Pagabeleguem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Senegal has embarked several years ago on a project that aims to eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area. The removal of the animal trypanosomosis would allow the development more efficient livestock production systems. The project was implemented using an area-wide integrated pest management strategy including a sterile insect technique (SIT component. The released sterile male flies originated from a colony from Burkina Faso.Monitoring the efficacy of the sterile male releases requires the discrimination between wild and sterile male G. p. gambiensis that are sampled in monitoring traps. Before being released, sterile male flies were marked with a fluorescent dye powder. The marking was however not infallible with some sterile flies only slightly marked or some wild flies contaminated with a few dye particles in the monitoring traps. Trapped flies can also be damaged due to predation by ants, making it difficult to discriminate between wild and sterile males using a fluorescence camera and / or a fluorescence microscope. We developed a molecular technique based on the determination of cytochrome oxidase haplotypes of G. p. gambiensis to discriminate between wild and sterile males. DNA was isolated from the head of flies and a portion of the 5' end of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I was amplified to be finally sequenced. Our results indicated that all the sterile males from the Burkina Faso colony displayed the same haplotype and systematically differed from wild male flies trapped in Senegal and Burkina Faso. This allowed 100% discrimination between sterile and wild male G. p. gambiensis.This tool might be useful for other tsetse control campaigns with a SIT component in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC and, more generally, for other vector or insect pest control programs.

  1. Study of semileptonic and leptonic neutral-current processes and of $\\mu$-polarization using counter techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    .PP This experiment will study semileptonic neutral current neutrino interactions with nucleons, using principally the dichromatic neutrino beam N1 and will make measurements of the polarization of muons produced in the WA1 experiment by neutrino-nucleon interactions, using the horn-focused broad-band neutrino The main part of the apparatus is a fine-grained target calorimeter in which the energy and direction of the hadronic jet resulting from the neutrino scattering is measured by electronic techniques. It is supplemented by a muon detector and spectrometer. The fine-grained calorimeter is used as a polarimeter for muons produced in WA1. \\\\ \\\\ The calorimeter is composed of 13 modules, each 1.2 m long and 4~m x 4~m in cross section. A module consists of six 3 m x 3 m target plates made of 8 cm thick marble with 12 cm gaps for insertion of 20 scintillation counters of 15 cm width and 3 cm thickness, 128 proportional counters of 3~x~3~cm|2 cross-section and 4~m length, and 256 streamer tubes of 0.9~x~0.9~cm|2...

  2. Direct observation of hopping induced spin polarization current in oxygen deficient Co-doped ZnO by Andreev reflection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kung-Shang; Huang, Tzu-Yu; Dwivedi, G.D. [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Lu-Kuei; Lee, Shang-Fan [Taiwan Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Sun, Shih-Jye [Department of Applied Physics, National Kaohsiung University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chou, Hsiung, E-mail: hchou@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Co-doped ZnO thin-films were grown with varying V{sub O} concentartion. • PCAR measurements were done to study the SPC. • High spin polarization was observed above a certain V{sub O} concentartion. • High V{sub O} samples provide a high density of completed percolation path. • This complete percolation path gives rise to high SPC. - Abstract: Oxygen vacancy induced ferromagnetic coupling in diluted magnetic oxide (DMO) semiconductors have been reported in several studies, but technologically more crucial spin-polarized current (SPC) is still under-developed in DMOs. Few studies have claimed that VRH mechanism can originate the SPC, but, how VRH mechanism associated with percolation path, is not clearly understood. We used Point-contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) technique to probe the SPC in Co-doped ZnO (CZO) films. Since the high resistance samples cause broadening in conductance(G)-voltage(V) curves, which may result in an unreliable evaluation of spin polarization, we include two extra parameters, (i) effective temperature and (ii) spreading resistance, for the simulation to avoid the uncertainty in extracting spin polarization. The effective G-V curves and higher spin polarization can be obtained above a certain oxygen vacancy concentration. The number of completed and fragmentary percolation paths is proportional to the concentration of oxygen vacancies. For low oxygen vacancy samples, the Pb-tip has a higher probability of covering fragmentary percolation paths than the complete ones, due to its small contact size. The completed paths may remain independent of one another and get polarized in different directions, resulting in lower spin-polarization value. High oxygen vacancy samples provide a high density of completed path, most of them link to one another by crossing over, and gives rise to high spin-polarization value.

  3. A technique for accurately determining the cusp-region polar cap boundary using SuperDARN HF radar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chisham

    Full Text Available Accurately measuring the location and motion of the polar cap boundary (PCB in the high-latitude ionosphere can be crucial for studies concerned with the dynamics of the polar cap, e.g. the measurement of reconnection rates. The Doppler spectral width characteristics of backscatter received by the SuperDARN HF radars have been previously used for locating and tracking the PCB in the cusp region. The boundary is generally observed in meridional beams of the SuperDARN radars and appears as a distinct change between low spectral width values observed equatorward of the cusp region, and high, but variable spectral width values observed within the cusp region. To identify the spectral width boundary (SWB between these two regions, a simple algorithm employing a spectral width threshold has often been applied to the data. However, there is not, as yet, a standard algorithm, or spectral width threshold, which is universally applied. Nor has there been any rigorous assessment of the accuracy of this method of boundary determination. This study applies a series of threshold algorithms to a simulated cusp-region spectral width data set, to assess the accuracy of different algorithms. This shows that simple threshold algorithms correctly identify the boundary location in, at the most, 50% of the cases and that the average boundary error is at least ~ 1–2 range gates (~ 1° latitude. It transpires that spatial and temporal smoothing of the spectral width data (e.g. by median filtering, before application of a threshold algorithm can increase the boundary determination accuracy to over 95% and the average boundary error to much less than a range gate. However, this is sometimes at the cost of temporal resolution in the motion of the boundary location. The algorithms are also applied to a year’s worth of spectral width data from the cusp ionosphere, measured by the Halley SuperDARN radar in Antarctica. This analysis highlights the increased accuracy of

  4. A technique for accurately determining the cusp-region polar cap boundary using SuperDARN HF radar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chisham

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurately measuring the location and motion of the polar cap boundary (PCB in the high-latitude ionosphere can be crucial for studies concerned with the dynamics of the polar cap, e.g. the measurement of reconnection rates. The Doppler spectral width characteristics of backscatter received by the SuperDARN HF radars have been previously used for locating and tracking the PCB in the cusp region. The boundary is generally observed in meridional beams of the SuperDARN radars and appears as a distinct change between low spectral width values observed equatorward of the cusp region, and high, but variable spectral width values observed within the cusp region. To identify the spectral width boundary (SWB between these two regions, a simple algorithm employing a spectral width threshold has often been applied to the data. However, there is not, as yet, a standard algorithm, or spectral width threshold, which is universally applied. Nor has there been any rigorous assessment of the accuracy of this method of boundary determination. This study applies a series of threshold algorithms to a simulated cusp-region spectral width data set, to assess the accuracy of different algorithms. This shows that simple threshold algorithms correctly identify the boundary location in, at the most, 50% of the cases and that the average boundary error is at least ~ 1–2 range gates (~ 1° latitude. It transpires that spatial and temporal smoothing of the spectral width data (e.g. by median filtering, before application of a threshold algorithm can increase the boundary determination accuracy to over 95% and the average boundary error to much less than a range gate. However, this is sometimes at the cost of temporal resolution in the motion of the boundary location. The algorithms are also applied to a year’s worth of spectral width data from the cusp ionosphere, measured by the Halley SuperDARN radar in Antarctica. This analysis highlights the increased accuracy of

  5. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  6. Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys recent economic research on price discrimination, both in monopoly and oligopoly markets. Topics include static and dynamic forms of price discrimination, and both final and input markets are considered. Potential antitrust aspects of price discrimination are highlighted throughout the paper. The paper argues that the informational requirements to make accurate policy are very great, and with most forms of price discrimination a laissez-faire policy may be the best availabl...

  7. Discriminating Z' from anomalous trilinear gauge coupling signatures in e+e- \\to W+W- at ILC with polarized beams

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V.V.; Osland, P.; Pankov, A.A.; Paver, N.

    2012-01-01

    New heavy neutral gauge bosons Z' are predicted by many models of physics beyond the Standard Model. It is quite possible that Z's are heavy enough to lie beyond the discovery reach of the CERN Large Hadron Collider LHC, in which case only indirect signatures of Z' exchanges may emerge at future colliders, through deviations of the measured cross sections from the Standard Model predictions. We discuss in this context the foreseeable sensitivity to Z's of W^\\pm-pair production cross sections at the e^+e^- International Linear Collider (ILC), especially as regards the potential of distinguishing observable effects of the Z' from analogous ones due to competitor models with anomalous trilinear gauge couplings (AGC) that can lead to the same or similar new physics experimental signatures at the ILC. The sensitivity of the ILC for probing the Z-Z' mixing and its capability to distinguish these two new physics scenarios is substantially enhanced when the polarization of the initial beams and the produced W^\\pm bos...

  8. Comparative Analysis Of The Performance Of Principal Component Analysis PCA And Linear Discriminant Analysis LDA As Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Peprah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Face Recognition System employs a variety of feature extraction projection techniques which are grouped into Appearance-Based and Feature-Based. In a vast majority of the studies undertaken in the field of Face Recognition special attention is given to the Appearance-Based Methods which represent the dominant and most popular feature extraction technique used. Even though a number of comparative studies exist researchers have not reached consensus within the scientific community regarding the relative ranking of the efficiency of the appearance-based methods LDA PCA etc for face recognition task. This paper studied two appearance-based methods LDA PCA separately with three 3 distance metrics similarity measures such as Euclidean distance City Block amp Cosine to ascertain which projection-metric combination was relatively more efficient in terms of time it takes to recognise a face. The study considered the effect of varying the image data size in a training database on all the projection-metric methods implemented. LDA-Cosine Distance Metric was consequently ascertained to be the most efficient when tested with two separate standard databases AT amp T Face Database and Indian Face Database. It was also concluded that LDA outperformed PCA.

  9. Differential discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukhanov, V.I.; Mazurov, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    A principal flowsheet of a differential discriminator intended for operation in a spectrometric circuit with statistical time distribution of pulses is described. The differential discriminator includes four integrated discriminators and a channel of piled-up signal rejection. The presence of the rejection channel enables the discriminator to operate effectively at loads of 14x10 3 pulse/s. The temperature instability of the discrimination thresholds equals 250 μV/ 0 C. The discrimination level changes within 0.1-5 V, the level shift constitutes 0.5% for the filling ratio of 1:10. The rejection coefficient is not less than 90%. Alpha spectrum of the 228 Th source is presented to evaluate the discriminator operation with the rejector. The rejector provides 50 ns time resolution

  10. Search for the neutrinoless double β-decay in GERDA phase I using a pulse shape discrimination technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Andrea

    2014-07-09

    The Germanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment, located underground at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy, deploys high-purity germanium detectors to search for the neutrinoless double β-decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. An observation of this lepton number violating process, which is expected by many extensions of the Standard Model, would not only generate a fundamental shift in our understanding of particle physics, but also unambiguously prove the neutrino to have a non-vanishing Majorana mass component. A first phase of data recording lasted from November 2011 to May 2013 - resulting in a total exposure (defined as the product of detector mass and measurement time) of 21.6 kg.yr. Within this thesis a thorough study of this data with special emphasis on the development and scrutiny of an active background suppression technique by means of a signal shape analysis has been performed. Among several investigated multivariate approaches, particularly a selection algorithm based on an artificial neural network is found to yield the best performance; i.a. the background index close to the Q-value of the 0νββ-decay could be suppressed by 45% to 1.10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.yr), while still retaining a considerably high signal survival fraction of (83±3)% leading to a significant improvement of the experimental sensitivity. The efficiency is derived by a simulation and further validated by substantiated consistency checks availing themselves of measurements taken with different calibration sources and physics data. No signal is observed and a new lower limit of T{sup 0ν}{sub 1/2} (90%C.L.)> 2.2. 10{sup 25} yr for the half-life of neutrinoless double β-decay of {sup 76}Ge is established.

  11. Prototyping Regional Discrimination Tools with Matseis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chael, Eric; Harris, Mark; Young, Chris; Mayeda, Kevin; Walter, William; Taylor, Steve; Velasco, Aaron

    1999-08-03

    To facilitate the development testing and comparison of regional seismic discriminants, we have implemented some of the most promising techniques in Matseis, a-Matlab-based seismic processing toolkit. The existing Matseis package provides graphical tools for analyzing seismic data from a network of stations. It can access data via a CSS 3.0 database, or from static files in a format defined by the user. Waveforms are displayed in a record-section format, with overlays for IASPE191 travel-time curves. The user can pick arrivals and locate events, then show the results on a map. Tools are available for spectral and polarization measurements, as well as beam forming and f-k analysis with array data. Additionally, one has full access to the Matlab environment and any functions available there, as well as to portions of the U.S. Department of Energy Knowledge Base. Recently, we have added some new tools to Matseis for calculating regional discrimination measurements. The first of these performs Lg coda analysis as developed by Mayeda and coworkers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Lg coda magnitudes are calculated from the amplitudes of the coda envelopes in narrow frequency bands. Ratios of these amplitudes between high- and low-frequency bands provide a spectral-ratio discriminant for regional events. The second tool we have implemented measures P/Lg phase ratios, using the MDAC technique of Taylor (Los Alamos National Laboratory) and Walter (LLNL). P and Lg amplitudes are obtained at select frequencies, then corrected for source magnitude and propagation path. Finally, we added a tool for analyzing long-period Rayleigh and Love arrivals, useful for moment:magnitude and LQ:LR discrimination. Because all these tools have been written as Matlab functions, they can be easily modified to experiment with different processing details. The performance of the discriminants can be evaluated using any event available in the database.

  12. Polarization Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Fressengeas, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The physics of polarization optics *Polarized light propagation *Partially polarized light; DEA; After a brief introduction to polarization optics, this lecture reviews the basic formalisms for dealing with it: Jones Calculus for totally polarized light and Stokes parameters associated to Mueller Calculus for partially polarized light.

  13. Structural Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    In this article, I discuss structural discrimination, an underrepresented area of study in Danish discrimination and intercultural research. It is defined here as discursive and constitutive, and presented as a central element of my analytical approach. This notion is employed in the with which t...

  14. Determination of intrinsic polarization for K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} single crystal grown by Czochralski technique for ferroelectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sonu [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India); Ray, Geeta [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India); Physics Department, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India); Sinha, Nidhi [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India); Department of Electronics, SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India); Kumar, Binay, E-mail: b3kumar69@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Large sized single crystal of K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} (KZC) was grown by Czochralski (Cz) technique. Structural parameters of KZC were determined by Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD). From DSC analysis and temperature dependent dielectric measurement, KZC crystal was found to show Curie phase transition at 151 °C. TG/DTA confirmed the melting point that was found to be 443 °C. The value of piezoelectric charge coefficient (d{sub 33}) for KZC crystal was found to be 32 pC/N demonstrating their applicability in transducers and piezoelectric devices. Ferroelectric P-E loop for the grown crystal was traced at room temperature and the intrinsic polarization obtained by PUND measurement was found to be 0.1398 μC/cm{sup 2} indicating its applicability in switching devices. The energy band gap for KZC single crystal was found to be 6.13 eV. Vickers micro-hardness test revealed soft nature of KZC single crystals. - Highlights: • Large sized K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} (KZC) single crystal was grown by Czochralski technique. • It possesses high Curie temperature as 151 °C. • d{sub 33} coefficient was found to be 32 pC/N. • Intrinsic polarization measured by PUND. • Its direct band gap energy was calculated to be 6.13 eV.

  15. Study of the dynamic and magnetic properties of solids using inelastic scattering and polarized neutron techniques. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of neutron scattering techniques in the study of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, P.

    1977-12-01

    Magnetic moment density distributions of several cubic spinel ferrites were obtained by using the neutron diffraction technique. The investigated materials were magnetite, MnFe 2 O 4 , MnAlGe, and Cu 2 MnAl. Information about the static and time-averaged behaviour of the magnetic electrons was deduced. The diffuse scattering technique with polarized neutrons which permits to isolate the magnon-scattering profile from other neutron profiles, was utilized to explore the acoustic magnon branches in ferro and ferrimagnetic materials such as MnFe 2 O 4 . The lattice and molecular dynamics has been studied in a number of condensed systems. Librational motions of water molecules in crystal hydrates were determined by the technique of polarization dependence of incoherent scattering cross section. Librations of amino and methyl groups in amino acids have been studied. Mixed salts of various ammonium and potassium compounds were investigated with a view to elucidate the nature of potential function and reorientational motions of reorienting ions

  16. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika M. J.; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe

    2013-01-01

    in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember...... the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test......Two methods investigating learning and memory in juvenile Gottingen minipigs were evaluated for potential use in preclinical toxicity testing. Twelve minipigs were tested using a spatial hole-board discrimination test including a learning phase and two memory phases. Five minipigs were tested...

  17. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Genetic Discrimination Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions ...

  18. SEISMIC DISCRIMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    a potential new discriminant , and to study depth phases. Surface- and body-wave magnitude data have been obtained and used to study regionalization...and signal equalization studies initiated. Upgrading of software and hardware facilities has continued. (Author)

  19. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization studies of non-polar isomeric hydrocarbons using ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry with different ionization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsdorf, H.; Nazarov, E. G.; Eiceman, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    The ionization pathways were determined for sets of isomeric non-polar hydrocarbons (structural isomers, cis/trans isomers) using ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry with different techniques of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization to assess the influence of structural features on ion formation. Depending on the structural features, different ions were observed using mass spectrometry. Unsaturated hydrocarbons formed mostly [M - 1]+ and [(M - 1)2H]+ ions while mainly [M - 3]+ and [(M - 3)H2O]+ ions were found for saturated cis/trans isomers using photoionization and 63Ni ionization. These ionization methods and corona discharge ionization were used for ion mobility measurements of these compounds. Different ions were detected for compounds with different structural features. 63Ni ionization and photoionization provide comparable ions for every set of isomers. The product ions formed can be clearly attributed to the structures identified. However, differences in relative abundance of product ions were found. Although corona discharge ionization permits the most sensitive detection of non-polar hydrocarbons, the spectra detected are complex and differ from those obtained with 63Ni ionization and photoionization. c. 2002 American Society for Mass Spectrometry.

  20. Concentration profiling of minerals in iliac crest bone tissue of opium addicted humans using inductively coupled plasma and discriminant analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad; Jamshidi, Mahbobeh; Yeganeh, Ali; Mahmoudi, Mani

    2016-02-20

    Opium addiction is one of the main health problems in developing countries and induces serious defects on the human body. In this work, the concentrations of 32 minerals including alkaline, heavy and toxic metals have been determined in the iliac crest bone tissue of 22 opium addicted individuals using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The bone tissues of 30 humans with no physiological and metabolomic diseases were used as the control group. For subsequent analyses, the linear and quadratic discriminant analysis techniques have been used for classification of the data into "addicted" and "non-addicted" groups. Moreover, the counter-propagation artificial neural network (CPANN) has been used for clustering of the data. The results revealed that the CPANN is a robust model and thoroughly classifies the data. The area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve for this model was more than 0.91. Investigation of the results revealed that the opium consumption causes a deficiency in the level of Calcium, Phosphate, Potassium and Sodium in iliac crest bone tissue. Moreover, this type of addiction induces an increment in the level of toxic and heavy metals such as Co, Cr, Mo and Ni in iliac crest tissue. The correlation analysis revealed that there were no significant dependencies between the age of the samples and the mineral content of their iliac crest, in this study. The results of this work suggest that the opium addicted individuals need thorough and restricted dietary and medical care programs after recovery phases, in order to have healthy bones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lesion size detection in geographic atrophy by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and correlation to conventional imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Christopher; Bolz, Matthias; Sayegh, Ramzi; Baumann, Bernhard; Pircher, Michael; Götzinger, Erich; Hitzenberger, Christoph K; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2013-01-28

    To investigate the reproducibility of automated lesion size detection in patients with geographic atrophy (GA) using polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and to compare findings with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and intensity-based spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT). Twenty-nine eyes of 22 patients with GA were examined by PS-OCT, selectively identifying the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). A novel segmentation algorithm was applied, automatically detecting and quantifying areas of RPE atrophy. The reproducibility of the algorithm was assessed, and lesion sizes were correlated with manually delineated SLO, FAF, and intensity-based SD-OCT images to validate the clinical applicability of PS-OCT in GA evaluation. Mean GA lesion size of all patients was 5.28 mm(2) (SD: 4.92) in PS-OCT. Mean variability of individual repeatability measurements was 0.83 mm(2) (minimum: 0.05; maximum: 3.65). Mean coefficient of variation was 0.07 (min: 0.01; max: 0.19). Mean GA area in SLO (Spectralis OCT) was 5.15 mm(2) (SD: 4.72) and 2.5% smaller than in PS-OCT (P = 0.9, Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.98, P < 0.01). Mean GA area in intensity-based SD-OCT pseudo-SLO images (Cirrus OCT) was 5.14 mm(2) (SD: 4.67) and 2.7% smaller than in PS-OCT (P = 0.9, Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.98, P < 0.01). Mean GA area of all eyes measured 5.41 mm(2) (SD: 4.75) in FAF, deviating by 2.4% from PS-OCT results (P = 0.89, Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.99, P < 0.01). PS-OCT demonstrated high reproducibility of GA lesion size determination. Results correlated well with SLO, FAF, and intensity-based SD-OCT fundus imaging. PS-OCT may therefore be a valuable and specific imaging modality for automated GA lesion size determination in scientific studies and clinical practice.

  2. Application of polarization ellipse technique for analysis of ULF magnetic fields from two distant stations in Koyna-Warna seismoactive region, West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dudkin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A new approach is developed to find the source azimuth of the ultra low frequency (ULF electromagnetic (EM signals believed to be emanating from well defined seismic zone. The method is test applied on magnetic data procured from the seismoactive region of Koyna-Warna, known for prolonged reservoir triggered seismicity. Extremely low-noise, high-sensitivity LEMI-30 search coil magnetometers were used to measure simultaneously the vector magnetic field in the frequency range 0.001–32 Hz at two stations, the one located within and another ~100 km away from the seismic active zone. During the observation campaign extending from 15 March to 30 June 2006 two earthquakes (EQs of magnitude (ML>4 occurred, which are searched for the presence of precursory EM signals.

    Comparison of polarization ellipses (PE parameters formed by the magnetic field components at the measurement stations, in select frequency bands, allows discrimination of seismo-EM signals from the natural background ULF signals of magnetospheric/ionospheric origin. The magnetic field components corresponding to spectral bands dominated by seismo-EM fields define the PE plane which at any instant contains the source of the EM fields. Intersection lines of such defined PE planes for distant observation stations clutter in to the source region. Approximating the magnetic-dipole configuration for the source, the magnetic field components along the intersection lines suggest that azimuth of the EM source align in the NNW-SSE direction. This direction well coincides with the orientation of nodal plane of normal fault plane mechanism for the two largest EQs recorded during the campaign. More significantly the correspondence of this direction with the tectonic controlled trend in local seismicity, it has been surmised that high pressure fluid flow along the fault that facilitate EQs in the region may also be the source mechanism for EM fields by electrokinetic effect.

  3. [Review] Polarization and Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, Sascha

    2014-02-01

    Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/γ wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astronomical masers, pulsars, galactic magnetic fields, gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and cosmic microwave background radiation.

  4. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure of copper(II) complexes at the air-water interface by a polarized total-reflection X-ray absorption technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Hirohisa; Tanida, Hajime; Watanabe, Iwao; Sagara, Takamasa

    2009-04-01

    Copper(II) complexes spread on an aqueous solution surface were studied by a polarized total-reflection X-ray absorption fine structure (TR-XAFS) technique. The polarized TR-XAFS spectra at the Cu-K edge for copper(II) porphyrins and copper(II) chlorophyllin in a monolayer were measured in situ at the air-water interface. The polarization dependences of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) involving a 1s-->4p(z) transition allowed us to estimate the molecular orientation and the local coordination structure around the copper(II) atom in the polarization plane selectively. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) region of the polarized TR-XAFS spectra for the metal complexes present at the air-water interface was successfully analyzed for the first time. The relative coordination number for the copper center evaluated from the EXAFS analysis indicated larger values in the vertical polarization than in the horizontal one, in agreement with the standing-up molecular orientation at the air-water interface estimated from the XANES region.

  5. Study of the nuclear structure far from stability: Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich Rb isotopes around N=60; Production of nuclear spin polarized beams using the tilted foils technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotty, C.

    2013-01-01

    The underlying structure in the region A ∼ 100, N ∼ 60 has been under intensive and extensive investigation, mainly by β-decay and γ-ray spectroscopy from fission processes. Around N ∼ 60, by adding just few neutrons, protons a rapid shape change occurs from spherical-like to well deformed g.s. shape. Shape coexistence has been observed in the Sr and Zr nuclei, and is expected to take place in the whole region. The mechanisms involved in the appearance of the deformation is not well understood. The interplay between down-sloping and up-sloping neutron Nilsson orbital is evoked as one of the main reasons for the sudden shape change. However, a clear identification of the active proton and neutron orbitals was still on-going. For that purpose, the neutron rich 93;95;97;99 Rb isotopes have been studied by Coulomb excitation at CERN (ISOLDE) using the REX-ISOLDE post-accelerator and the MINIBALL setup. The completely unknown structures of 97;99 Rb have been populated and observed. Prompt γ-ray coincidences of low-lying states have been observed and time-correlated in order to build level schemes. The associated transition strengths have been extracted with the GOSIA code. The observed matrix elements of the electromagnetic operator constituted new inputs of further theoretical calculations giving new insight on the involved orbitals. The sensitivity of such experiment can be increased using nuclear spin polarized radioactive ion beam. For that purpose the Tilted Foils Technique (TFT) of polarization has been investigated at CERN. This technique consists to spin polarize the ion beam, passing through thin foils tilted at an oblique angle with respect to the beam direction. The initially obtained atomic polarization is transferred to the nucleus by hyperfine interaction. This technique does not depend on the chemical nature of the element. Short lived nuclei can be polarized in-flight without any need to be stopped in a catcher. It opens up the possibility to

  6. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  7. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  8. Discriminant forest classification method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Barry Y.; Hanley, William G.; Lemmond, Tracy D.; Hiller, Lawrence J.; Knapp, David A.; Mugge, Marshall J.

    2012-11-06

    A hybrid machine learning methodology and system for classification that combines classical random forest (RF) methodology with discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to provide enhanced classification capability. A DA technique which uses feature measurements of an object to predict its class membership, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or Andersen-Bahadur linear discriminant technique (AB), is used to split the data at each node in each of its classification trees to train and grow the trees and the forest. When training is finished, a set of n DA-based decision trees of a discriminant forest is produced for use in predicting the classification of new samples of unknown class.

  9. Use of the product of mean intensity ratio (PMIR) technique for discriminant analysis of lycopene-rich vegetable juice using a portable NIR-excited Raman spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Risa; Ishigaki, Mika; Kitahama, Yasutaka; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Genkawa, Takuma

    2018-02-15

    In this study, a lycopene-content-based discriminant analysis was performed using a portable near-infrared-excited Raman spectrometer. In the vegetable-juice Raman spectra, the peak intensity of the lycopene band increased with increasing lycopene concentration, but scattering decreased the repeatability of the peak intensity. Consequently, developing a lycopene-concentration regression model using peak intensity is not straightforward. Therefore, a new method known as the product of mean intensity ratio (PMIR) analysis was developed to rapidly identify lycopene-rich samples on-site. In the PMIR analysis, Raman spectra are measured with short exposure times, confirming only the peaks of carotenoids with high concentrations, and thus the lycopene concentrations of vegetable juice samples could be determined successfully. Exposure times of 20ms and 100ms could detect lycopene concentrations of ≥5mg/100g and ≥2mg/100g with 93.2% and 97.7% accuracy, respectively; thus, lycopene-content-based discriminant analysis using the PMIR and a portable Raman spectrometer is feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Minimum-error discrimination of entangled quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.; Coish, N.; Kaltenbaek, R.; Hamel, D. R.; Resch, K. J.; Croke, S.

    2010-01-01

    Strategies to optimally discriminate between quantum states are critical in quantum technologies. We present an experimental demonstration of minimum-error discrimination between entangled states, encoded in the polarization of pairs of photons. Although the optimal measurement involves projection onto entangled states, we use a result of J. Walgate et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4972 (2000)] to design an optical implementation employing only local polarization measurements and feed-forward, which performs at the Helstrom bound. Our scheme can achieve perfect discrimination of orthogonal states and minimum-error discrimination of nonorthogonal states. Our experimental results show a definite advantage over schemes not using feed-forward.

  11. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  12. Polarized Raman spectroscopic characterization of normal and oral cancer blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    In India oral cancer ranks the top due to the habitual usage of tobacco in its various forms and remains the major burden. Hence priority is given for early diagnosis as it is the better solution for cure or to improve the survival rate. For the past three decades, optical spectroscopic techniques have shown its capacity in the discrimination of normal and malignant samples. Many research works have conventional Raman in the effective detection of cancer using the variations in bond vibrations of the molecules. However in addition polarized Raman provides the orientation and symmetry of biomolecules. If so can polarized Raman be the better choice than the conventional Raman in the detection of cancer? The present study aimed to found the answer for the above query. The conventional and polarized Raman spectra were acquired for the same set of blood plasma samples of normal subjects and oral malignant (OSCC) patients. Thus, obtained Raman spectral data were compared using linear discriminant analysis coupled with artificial neural network (LDA-ANN). The depolarization ratio of biomolecules such as antioxidant, amino acid, protein and nucleic acid bases present in blood plasma was proven to be the best attributes in the categorization of the groups. The polarized Raman results were promising in discriminating oral cancer blood plasma from that of normal blood plasma with improved efficiency. The results will be discussed in detail.

  13. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2015-01-01

    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass

  14. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  15. Rapid discrimination and classification of the Lactobacillus plantarum group based on a partial dnaK sequence and DNA fingerprinting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Lee, Fwu-Ling; Liou, Jong-Shian

    2010-03-01

    The Lactobacillus plantarum group comprises five very closely related species. Some species of this group are considered to be probiotic and widely applied in the food industry. In this study, we compared the use of two different molecular markers, the 16S rRNA and dnaK gene, for discriminating phylogenetic relationships amongst L. plantarum strains using sequencing and DNA fingerprinting. The average sequence similarity for the dnaK gene (89.2%) among five type strains was significantly less than that for the 16S rRNA (99.4%). This result demonstrates that the dnaK gene sequence provided higher resolution than the 16S rRNA and suggests that the dnaK could be used as an additional phylogenetic marker for L. plantarum. Species-specific profiles of the Lactobacillus strains were obtained with RAPD and RFLP methods. Our data indicate that phylogenetic relationships between these strains are easily resolved using sequencing of the dnaK gene or DNA fingerprinting assays.

  16. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  17. PEPPo: Using a Polarized Electron Beam to Produce Polarized Positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeyemi, Adeleke H. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); et al.

    2015-09-01

    Polarized positron beams have been identified as either an essential or a significant ingredient for the experimental program of both the present and next generation of lepton accelerators (JLab, Super KEK B, ILC, CLIC). An experiment demonstrating a new method for producing polarized positrons has been performed at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Lab. The PEPPo (Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons) concept relies on the production of polarized e⁻/e⁺ pairs from the bremsstrahlung radiation of a longitudinally polarized electron beam interacting within a high-Z conversion target. PEPPo demonstrated the effective transfer of spin-polarization of an 8.2 MeV/c polarized (P~85%) electron beam to positrons produced in varying thickness tungsten production targets, and collected and measured in the range of 3.1 to 6.2 MeV/c. In comparison to other methods this technique reveals a new pathway for producing either high-energy or thermal polarized positron beams using a relatively low polarized electron beam energy (~10MeV) .This presentation will describe the PEPPo concept, the motivations of the experiment and high positron polarization achieved.

  18. Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  19. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of the modern understanding of orientational order in liquid crystals (LCs) is based on polarizing microscopy (PM). A PM image bears only two-dimensional (2D) information, integrating the 3D pattern of optical birefringence over the path of light. Recently, we proposed a technique to image 3D director patterns by ...

  20. Total milk fat extraction and quantification of polar and neutral lipids of cow, goat, and ewe milk by using a pressurized liquid system and chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Gómez, M P; Rodriguez-Alcalá, L M; Calvo, M V; Romero, J; Mendiola, J A; Ibañez, E; Fontecha, J

    2014-11-01

    Although milk polar lipids such as phospholipids and sphingolipids located in the milk fat globule membrane constitute 0.1 to 1% of the total milk fat, those lipid fractions are gaining increasing interest because of their potential beneficial effects on human health and technological properties. In this context, the accurate quantification of the milk polar lipids is crucial for comparison of different milk species, products, or dairy treatments. Although the official International Organization for Standardization-International Dairy Federation method for milk lipid extraction gives satisfactory results for neutral lipids, it has important disadvantages in terms of polar lipid losses. Other methods using mixtures of solvents such as chloroform:methanol are highly efficient for extracting polar lipids but are also associated with low sample throughput, long time, and large solvent consumption. As an alternative, we have optimized the milk fat extraction yield by using a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method at different temperatures and times in comparison with those traditional lipid extraction procedures using 2:1 chloroform:methanol as a mixture of solvents. Comparison of classical extraction methods with the developed PLE procedure were carried out using raw whole milk from different species (cows, ewes, and goats) and considering fat yield, fatty acid methyl ester composition, triacylglyceride species, cholesterol content, and lipid class compositions, with special attention to polar lipids such as phospholipids and sphingolipids. The developed PLE procedure was validated for milk fat extraction and the results show that this method performs a complete or close to complete extraction of all lipid classes and in less time than the official and Folch methods. In conclusion, the PLE method optimized in this study could be an alternative to carry out milk fat extraction as a routine method. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  1. Dimensionality Reduction by Local Discriminative Gaussians

    OpenAIRE

    Parrish, Nathan; Gupta, Maya

    2012-01-01

    We present local discriminative Gaussian (LDG) dimensionality reduction, a supervised dimensionality reduction technique for classification. The LDG objective function is an approximation to the leave-one-out training error of a local quadratic discriminant analysis classifier, and thus acts locally to each training point in order to find a mapping where similar data can be discriminated from dissimilar data. While other state-of-the-art linear dimensionality reduction methods require gradien...

  2. A polarized alkali ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, R.; Tungate, G.; Bauer, B.; Egelhof, P.; Moebius, K.H.; Steffens, E.

    1978-01-01

    The beam foil technique has been applied to detect nuclear vector polarization of a 10 keV 23 Na + beam. The result was about 70% of the atomic beam polarization thus limiting the depolarization by the surface ionizer to at most 30%. In a Coulomb excitation experiment with a tensor polarized 42 MeV 23 Na 7+ beam an effect of 0.011 +- 0.003 was measured yielding a value of t 20 approx. 0.04 for the beam polarization. The depolarization during the acceleration process can be estimated to be about 0.8. (orig.) [de

  3. Pulse duration discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosakovskij, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Basic circuits of a discriminator for discrimination of pulses with the duration greater than the preset one, and of a multifunctional discriminator allowing to discriminate pulses with the duration greater (tsub(p)>tsub(s)) and lesser (tsub(p) tsub(s) and with the duration tsub(p) [ru

  4. Quantifying explainable discrimination and removing illegal discrimination in automated decision making

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2012-11-18

    Recently, the following discrimination-aware classification problem was introduced. Historical data used for supervised learning may contain discrimination, for instance, with respect to gender. The question addressed by discrimination-aware techniques is, given sensitive attribute, how to train discrimination-free classifiers on such historical data that are discriminative, with respect to the given sensitive attribute. Existing techniques that deal with this problem aim at removing all discrimination and do not take into account that part of the discrimination may be explainable by other attributes. For example, in a job application, the education level of a job candidate could be such an explainable attribute. If the data contain many highly educated male candidates and only few highly educated women, a difference in acceptance rates between woman and man does not necessarily reflect gender discrimination, as it could be explained by the different levels of education. Even though selecting on education level would result in more males being accepted, a difference with respect to such a criterion would not be considered to be undesirable, nor illegal. Current state-of-the-art techniques, however, do not take such gender-neutral explanations into account and tend to overreact and actually start reverse discriminating, as we will show in this paper. Therefore, we introduce and analyze the refined notion of conditional non-discrimination in classifier design. We show that some of the differences in decisions across the sensitive groups can be explainable and are hence tolerable. Therefore, we develop methodology for quantifying the explainable discrimination and algorithmic techniques for removing the illegal discrimination when one or more attributes are considered as explanatory. Experimental evaluation on synthetic and real-world classification datasets demonstrates that the new techniques are superior to the old ones in this new context, as they succeed in

  5. Advancements on Radar Polarization Information Acquisition and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Dahai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study on radar polarization information acquisition and processing has currently been one important part of radar techniques. The development of the polarization theory is simply reviewed firstly. Subsequently, some key techniques which include polarization measurement, polarization anti-jamming, polarization recognition, imaging and parameters inversion using radar polarimetry are emphatically analyzed in this paper. The basic theories, the present states and the development trends of these key techniques are presented and some meaningful conclusions are derived.

  6. The Badness of Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2006-01-01

    The most blatant forms of discrimination are morally outrageous and very obviously so; but the nature and boundaries of discrimination are more controversial, and it is not clear whether all forms of discrimination are morally bad; nor is it clear why objectionable cases of discrimination are bad....... In this paper I address these issues. First, I offer a taxonomy of discrimination. I then argue that discrimination is bad, when it is, because it harms people. Finally, I criticize a rival, disrespect-based account according to which discrimination is bad regardless of whether it causes harm....

  7. Discrimination and quantification of contamination and implanted solar wind in Genesis collector shards using grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray techniques: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitts, K.; Sutton, S.; Eng, P.; Ghose, S.; Burnett, D.

    2006-01-01

    Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence is a non-destructive technique that can differentiate the embedded solar wind component from surface contamination and collector background in the Genesis shards. Initial solar Fe abundance in D30554 is 8 x 10 12 /cm 2 . Accurate knowledge of the composition of the Sun provides a baseline, which allows an understanding of how the solar system has evolved over time and how solar processes and solar wind mechanics behave. Unfortunately, the errors in photospheric abundances are too large for many planetary science problems and this hampers our understanding of these different processes. Analyses of solar wind implanted in meteorites or lunar soils have provided more precise data but alteration processes on these bodies may complicate such information. In response to this need for pristine solar wind samples, NASA developed and launched the Genesis Probe. Unfortunately, the probe smashed into the Utah desert shattering the 300 collector plates into 15,000+ pieces all of which are now coated in a both a fine terrestrial dust and Si and Ge powder from the disrupted collectors themselves. The solar wind penetration depth is 100-200 nm and the superposed contamination layers are typically 40-50 nm. Stringent cleaning regimes have the potential of removing the solar wind itself. The best solution is to have sufficient spatial resolution to separately analyze the surface contamination and penetrated solar wind. To that end, three Genesis collector array shards and their appropriate flight spares were characterized via grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence and x-ray reflectivity. The goals were (1) to evaluate the various cleaning methods used to eliminate contamination, (2) to identify the collector substrates most suited for this technique, (3) to determine whether the solar wind signature could be deconvolved from the collector background signature, and (4) to measure the relative abundances of Ca to Ge in the embedded solar wind.

  8. Modeling radio circular polarization in the Crab nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciantini, N.; Olmi, B.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present, for the first time, simulated maps of the circularly polarized synchrotron emission from the Crab nebula, using multidimensional state of the art models for the magnetic field geometry. Synchrotron emission is the signature of non-thermal emitting particles, typical of many high-energy astrophysical sources, both Galactic and extragalactic ones. Its spectral and polarization properties allow us to infer key information on the particles distribution function and magnetic field geometry. In recent years, our understanding of pulsar wind nebulae has improved substantially thanks to a combination of observations and numerical models. A robust detection or non-detection of circular polarization will enable us to discriminate between an electron-proton plasma and a pair plasma, clarifying once for all the origin of the radio emitting particles, setting strong constraints on the pair production in pulsar magnetosphere, and the role of turbulence in the nebula. Previous attempts at measuring the circular polarization have only provided upper limits, but the lack of accurate estimates, based on reliable models, makes their interpretation ambiguous. We show here that those results are above the expected values, and that current polarimetric techniques are not robust enough for conclusive result, suggesting that improvements in construction and calibration of next generation radio facilities are necessary to achieve the desired sensitivity.

  9. Discrimination between underground explosions and earthquakes using discriminant functions: Examples for Eurasia and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowroozi, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Discriminant functions are extensively used as a technical tool in educational and psychological research as well as in some branches of geological sciences. The application of this technique to the problem of discrimination between underground nuclear explosions and earthquakes has been reported. Here we apply this technique to a known population of underground nuclear explosions and earthquakes for the determination of various statistical parameters needed for setting up the discriminant function equations for discrimination between unknown population of earthquakes, anomalous events, and underground explosions, then we classify earthquakes, explosions and anomalous events in Eurasia and North America

  10. Authentication of pure L-leucine products manufactured in China by discriminating between plant and animal sources using nitrogen stable isotope technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip N; Appiah-Sefah, Gloria; Tang, Shijiang

    2013-03-01

    isotope techniques, the region-of-origin of the detected adulteration can also be traced successfully. It therefore serves as a guide to food regulatory bodies, food scientists, retailers of these products, consumers, and the general public at large. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.

    2007-01-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  12. Political polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2007-05-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  13. Programmable quantum-state discriminator by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, T.; Das, Ranabir; Kumar, Anil

    2005-01-01

    A programmable quantum-state discriminator is implemented by using nuclear magnetic resonance. We use a two-qubit spin-1/2 system, one for the data qubit and one for the ancilla (program) qubit. This device does the unambiguous (error-free) discrimination of a pair of states of the data qubit that are symmetrically located about a fixed state. The device is used to discriminate both linearly polarized states and elliptically polarized states. The maximum probability of successful discrimination is achieved by suitably preparing the ancilla qubit. It is also shown that the probability of discrimination depends on the angle of the unitary operator of the protocol and ellipticity of the data qubit state

  14. Parahydrogen discriminated PHIP at low magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prina, I.; Buljubasich, L.; Acosta, R. H.

    2015-02-01

    Parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) is a powerful hyperpolarization technique. However, as the signal created has an anti-phase characteristic, it is subject to signal cancellation when the experiment is carried out in inhomogeneous magnetic fields or in low fields that lack the necessary spectral resolution. The use of benchtop spectrometers and time domain (TD) analyzers has continuously grown in the last years and many applications are found in the food industry, for non-invasive compound detection or as a test bench for new contrast agents among others. In this type of NMR devices the combination of low and inhomogeneous magnetic fields renders the application of PHIP quite challenging. We have recently shown that the acquisition of J-spectra in high magnetic fields not only removes the anti-phase peak cancellation but also produces a separation of thermal from hyperpolarized signals, providing Parahydrogen Discriminated (PhD-PHIP) spectra. In this work we extend the use of PhD-PHIP to low and inhomogeneous fields. In this case the strong coupling found for the protons of the sample renders spin-echo spectra that have a great complexity, however, a central region in the spectrum with only hyperpolarized signal is clearly identified. This experimental approach is ideal for monitoring real time chemical reaction of pure PHIP signals.

  15. Digital pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L. F.; Preston, J.; Pozzi, S.; Flaska, M.; Neal, J.

    2007-01-01

    Pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) has been utilised for about 40 years as a method to obtain estimates for dose in mixed neutron and photon fields. Digitizers that operate close to GHz are currently available at a reasonable cost, and they can be used to directly sample signals from photomultiplier tubes. This permits one to perform digital PSD rather than the traditional, and well-established, analogous techniques. One issue that complicates PSD for neutrons in mixed fields is that the light output characteristics of typical scintillators available for PSD, such as BC501A, vary as a function of energy deposited in the detector. This behaviour is more easily accommodated with digital processing of signals than with analogous signal processing. Results illustrate the effectiveness of digital PSD. (authors)

  16. Airline Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Price discrimination enjoys a long history in the airline industry. Borenstein (1989) discusses price discrimination through frequent flyer programs from 1985 as related to the Piedmont-US Air merger, price discrimination strategies have grown in size and scope since then. From Saturday stay over requirements to varying costs based on time of purchase, the airline industry is uniquely situated to enjoy the fruits of price discrimination.

  17. POLARIZED NEUTRONS IN RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COURANT,E.D.

    1998-04-27

    There does not appear to be any obvious way to accelerate neutrons, polarized or otherwise, to high energies by themselves. To investigate the behavior of polarized neutrons the authors therefore have to obtain them by accelerating them as components of heavier nuclei, and then sorting out the contribution of the neutrons in the analysis of the reactions produced by the heavy ion beams. The best neutron carriers for this purpose are probably {sup 3}He nuclei and deuterons. A polarized deuteron is primarily a combination of a proton and a neutron with their spins pointing in the same direction; in the {sup 3}He nucleus the spins of the two protons are opposite and the net spin (and magnetic moment) is almost the same as that of a free neutron. Polarized ions other than protons may be accelerated, stored and collided in a ring such as RHIC provided the techniques proposed for polarized proton operation can be adapted (or replaced by other strategies) for these ions. To accelerate polarized particles in a ring, one must make provisions for overcoming the depolarizing resonances that occur at certain energies. These resonances arise when the spin tune (ratio of spin precession frequency to orbit frequency) resonates with a component present in the horizontal field. The horizontal field oscillates with the vertical motion of the particles (due to vertical focusing); its frequency spectrum is dominated by the vertical oscillation frequency and its modulation by the periodic structure of the accelerator ring. In addition, the magnet imperfections that distort the closed orbit vertically contain all integral Fourier harmonics of the orbit frequency.

  18. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  19. Target Discrimination Using Infrared Techniques: Theoretical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    of the bidirectional reflectance factor with wavelength and scan angle for wheat at a growth stage of 3.5 27,36, on the modified Feeks scale...wneat at a growth stage of 3.5 on the modified Feeks scale (boot stage) are considered. In each case, a vegetative index (VIN) is used to typify the...pp. 136-146 "- 153. Kelfrco: , K., 19c7, iardware for non-uniformity correction devices for non-scanned systems \\ Unicorns ’ • Interm ,ecnn al Report

  20. Pulse-width discriminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budyashov, Yu.G.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    A pulse duration discriminator is described which is intended for processing signals from multilayer scintillators. The basic elements of the scintillator are: an input gate, a current generator, an integrating capacitor, a Schmidt trigger and an anticoincidence circuit. The basic circuit of the discriminator and its time diagrams explaining its operating are given. The discriminator is based on microcircuits. Pulse duration discrimination threshold changes continuously from 20 to 100 ns, while its amplitude threshold changes within 20 to 100 mV. The temperature instability of discrimination thresholds (both in pulse width and in amplitude) is better than 0.1 per cent/deg C

  1. LABOR DISCRIMINATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyara Slavyanska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor discrimination is a phenomenon with very serious social and economic consequences, which has increased actuality and importance in Bulgaria nowadays. Because of the high price of discrimination, building effective anti-discrimination legislation occupies a special place in the policy of the European Union. Despite the European directives, the presence of anti-discrimination legislation and the broadly declared anti-discrimination inclinations in our country, these are absolutely not enough for providing environment of equality, with a climate of respect and tolerance to the differences. It turns out that certain groups are definitely victims of labor discrimination. In this connection the present article consecutively identifies these groups, as well as the reasons for their discrimination, underlining the necessity and benefits of the integration of the different.

  2. Polar map or novel three-dimensional display technique for the improved detection of inferior wall myocardial infarction using tomographic radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, M.J.; Cross, S.; Norton, M.Y.; Lomax, A.; Jennings, K.; Walton, S.

    1994-01-01

    Tomographic radionuclide ventriculography has the potential to be a significant improvement over conventional planar imaging. Although tomographic imaging can now be performed with relative ease, it is little used. This is most probably due to a perceived imbalance between potential clinical benefit and the extra complications of imaging. We investigated this matter by examining a series of 30 patients with isolated inferior or anterior myocardial infarction, identified by cardiac catheterization. Using either radionuclide imaging method, a significant wall motion abnormality was defined as matching (and appropriately located) phase and amplitude values outwith of two standard deviations from control values. These values were obtained from a series of 25 controls and represent construction values used to create a conventional polar map display. Overall detection rates for anterior myocardial infarction were 93 and 100% for planar and tomographic imaging, respectively (ns). For inferior myocardial infarction the rates were 7 and 93% respectively (p <0.001). Identical results were found using a novel three-dimensional method of displaying wall motion abnormalities. Tomography is therefore superior to planar imaging for the detection of inferior myocardial infarction but similar to planar imaging for the detection of anterior myocardial infarction. (Author)

  3. Emission polarization study on quartz and calcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, R. K.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the spectral emission polarization of quartz and calcite polished plates for observation angles of 20 and 70 deg by the substitution of complex index of refraction values for each mineral into Fresnel's equations. The emission polarization is shown to be quite wavelength-dependent, demonstrating that selected narrow or medium-width spectral bands exhibit a significantly higher percentage of polarization than a broad spectral band for these two minerals. Field measurements with a broadband infrared radiometer yield polarizations on the order of 2% for a coarse-grained granite rock and beach sand (both quartz-rich). This implies that a more sensitive detector with a selected medium-width filter may be capable of measuring emission polarization accurately enough to make this parameter useful as a remote sensing tool for discrimination among rocks on the basis of texture.

  4. Drug discrimination models in anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J S; Stephens, D N

    1990-01-01

    Drug discrimination is a technique for investigating the stimulus properties of centrally active drugs. Although many studies have employed animals to investigate the stimulus properties of substances used clinically for the treatment of anxiety and depression, it would be a mistake to consider the internal discriminative stimuli as being related specifically to the anxiolytic or antidepressant properties of these drugs. Rather drug cues are better considered as relating to the pharmacological action of classes of compounds. Thus, benzodiazepine cues generalize to other compounds acting at benzodiazepine receptors, but not to substances (anxiolytic or otherwise) acting at 5-HT1A receptors. Similarly, antidepressants with different pharmacological properties, for example the tricyclic imipramine, or the phenylaminoketone buproprion produce distinct, unrelated discriminative stimuli. For this reason, the limits of drug discrimination techniques for investigating novel anxiolytic or antidepressant drugs should be clearly recognized. Attempts to identify an anxiogenic discriminative stimulus using pentylenetetrazole have also been misguided. In this technique it has proven difficult to separate unequivocally the pharmacological proconvulsant effects of the drug from the psychological construct anxiety. Nevertheless, drug discrimination remains a valuable technique for investigating pharmacological interactions in animals and man.

  5. Optimising the measurement of bruises in children across conventional and cross polarized images using segmentation analysis techniques in Image J, Photoshop and circle diameter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C; Alcock, A; Trefan, L; Nuttall, D; Evans, S T; Maguire, S; Kemp, A M

    2018-02-01

    Bruising is a common abusive injury in children, and it is standard practice to image and measure them, yet there is no current standard for measuring bruise size consistently. We aim to identify the optimal method of measuring photographic images of bruises, including computerised measurement techniques. 24 children aged Photoshop 'ruler' software (Photoshop diameter)). Inter and intra-observer effects were determined by two individuals repeating 11 electronic measurements, and relevant Intraclass Correlation Coefficient's (ICC's) were used to establish reliability. Spearman's rank correlation was used to compare in vivo with computerised measurements; a comparison of measurement techniques across imaging modalities was conducted using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Significance was set at p 0.5 for all techniques, with maximum Feret diameter and maximum Photoshop diameter on conventional images having the strongest correlation with in vivo measurements. There were significant differences between in vivo and computer-aided measurements, but none between different computer-aided measurement techniques. Overall, computer aided measurements appeared larger than in vivo. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was high for all maximum diameter measurements (ICC's > 0.7). Whilst there are minimal differences between measurements of images obtained, the most consistent results were obtained when conventional images, segmented by Image J Software, were measured with a Feret diameter. This is therefore proposed as a standard for future research, and forensic practice, with the proviso that all computer aided measurements appear larger than in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  7. Assessing the Polarization of a Quantum Field from Stokes Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimov, A. B.; Björk, G.; Söderholm, J.

    2010-01-01

    We propose an operational degree of polarization in terms of the variance of the Stokes vector minimized over all the directions of the Poincaré sphere. We examine the properties of this second-order definition and carry out its experimental determination. Quantum states with the same standard...... (first-order) degree of polarization are correctly discriminated by this new measure. We argue that a comprehensive quantum characterization of polarization properties requires a whole hierarchy of higher-order degrees....

  8. Estereoscopia aplicada à neuroanatomia: estudo comparativo entre as técnicas de filtro de cores e de polarização Stereoscopic neuroanatomy: comparative study between anaglyphic and light polarization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Sousa de Meneses

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente há grande necessidade de maior disponibilização de material didático no ensino médico. A escassez de segmentos anatômicos e a toxicidade dos conservantes, como o formol, têm gerado uma busca intensa por novos meios de demonstração da anatomia humana. Como solução para esta dificuldade pode-se utilizar imagens tridimensionais (3D, que facilitam o processo de aprendizado. Este estudo tem como objetivo comparar e descrever duas técnicas de reprodução de imagens bidimensionais em três dimensões, o que é chamado de estereoscopia. Os dois métodos avaliados foram o de filtro de cores (anaglífico e o de luz polarizada. As técnicas foram analisadas segundo a nitidez e o efeito 3D. Avaliaram-se 14 imagens por 5 pessoas, com notas de 0 a 4. A média total da técnica de polarização foi superior em relação à técnica anaglífica. Ambas realizam codificação de imagens, que consiste na separação e na exclusividade com que cada olho vê a imagem correspondente. Após vários ensaios fotográficos e adaptações gradativas a uma melhor técnica, baseando-se em conhecimentos de física elementar, fotografia e neuroanatomia, concluímos que ambas são capazes de produzir efeito 3D. No entanto, a melhor técnica, em termos de qualidade final da imagem foi a de polarização, não alterando a coloração natural da peça, mantendo traços nítidos e possuindo menor custo.The need of didactic material is increasing in medical science nowadays. The lack of anatomical specimens, and the toxicity of conservators, have originated an intense search for alternative ways of demonstrating the human anatomy. As a solution for this difficulty, three-dimensional (3-D images may be used, facilitating the learning process. This study aims at comparing and describing two techniques of reproduction of bi-dimensional images into three dimensions, which is called stereoscopy. The methods evaluated are filter of colors (anaglyphic and polarized

  9. Quantum-state discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, Luis; Retamal, Juan Carlos; Saavedra, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    A proposal for a physical implementation of a quantum-state discrimination protocol using an ion in a linear trap is studied, where two nonorthogonal quantum states are codified using two electronic states of the ion. In addition, a protocol is given for discriminating superpositions of nonorthogonal entangled states between ions inside widely separated optical cavities. The discrimination protocol is extended to the case of N linearly independent nonorthogonal quantum states lying in a space of 2N-1 dimensions

  10. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple rent-seeking model of conflict w...

  11. Oral cancer detection based on fluorescence polarization of blood plasma at excitation wavelength 405 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Manoharan, Yuvaraj; Dornadula, Koteeswaran; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    During metabolism the metabolites such as hormones, proteins and enzymes were released in to the blood stream by the cells. These metabolites reflect any change that occurs due to any disturbances in normal metabolic function of the human system. This was well observed with the altered spectral signatures observed with fluorescence spectroscopic technique. Previously many have reported on the significance of native fluorescence spectroscopic method in the diagnosis of cancer. As fluorescence spectroscopy is sensitive and simple, it has complementary techniques such as excitation-emission matrix, synchronous and polarization. The fluorescence polarization measurement provides details about any association or binding reactions and denaturing effects that occurs due to change in the micro environment of cells and tissues. In this study, we have made an attempt in the diagnosis of oral cancer at 405 nm excitation using fluorescence polarization measurement. The fluorescence anisotropic values calculated from polarized fluorescence spectral data of normal and oral cancer subjects yielded a good accuracy when analyzed with linear discriminant analysis based artificial neural network. The results will be discussed in detail.

  12. Precessing deuteron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.; Volkov, V.I.; Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M.; Plis, Yu.A.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the acceleration in the Nuclotron of deuterons polarized in the horizontal plane is considered. This horizontal polarization is named precessing polarization. The effects of the main magnetic field and synchrotron oscillations are included. The precessing polarization is supposed to be used in studying the polarization parameters of the elastic dp back-scattering and other experiments

  13. Development of a fast, thermal neutron, and gamma ray component discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, K.; Kobayashi, H.

    1996-01-01

    A fast neutron, thermal neutron, and gamma ray component (FTG) discriminator is proposed in this study. The FTG discriminator was tested using neutron beams generated from the YAYOI fast neutron reactor and the Kyoto University Research Reactor. Various beams were successfully discriminated into fast, thermal, cold neutrons and gamma rays. The measurement technique and the reliability of the FTG discriminator are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Optical vector network analyzer with improved accuracy based on polarization modulation and polarization pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Jian Guo; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2015-04-15

    We report a novel optical vector network analyzer (OVNA) with improved accuracy based on polarization modulation and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) assisted polarization pulling. The beating between adjacent higher-order optical sidebands which are generated because of the nonlinearity of an electro-optic modulator (EOM) introduces considerable error to the OVNA. In our scheme, the measurement error is significantly reduced by removing the even-order optical sidebands using polarization discrimination. The proposed approach is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the OVNA is greatly improved compared to a conventional OVNA.

  15. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  16. Digital voltage discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhicheng

    1992-01-01

    A digital voltage discriminator is described, which is synthesized by digital comparator and ADC. The threshold is program controllable with high stability. Digital region of confusion is approximately equal to 1.5 LSB. This discriminator has a single channel analyzer function model with channel width of 1.5 LSB

  17. INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILDREN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against ch...... children, and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection....

  18. Discrimination against Black Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloud, Ashwaq; Alsulayyim, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a structured way of abusing people based on racial differences, hence barring them from accessing wealth, political participation and engagement in many spheres of human life. Racism and discrimination are inherently rooted in institutions in the society, the problem has spread across many social segments of the society including…

  19. Discrimination and delusional ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, I.C.M.; Hanssen, M.S.S.; Bak, M.L.F.J.; Bijl, R.V.; Graaf, R. de; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; McKenzie, K.; Os, J. van

    2003-01-01

    Background In the UK and The Netherlands, people with high rates of psychosis are chronically exposed to discrimination. Aims To test whether perceived discrimination is associated longitudinally with onset of psychosis. Method A 3-year prospective study of cohorts with no history of psychosis and

  20. Discrimination and delusional ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, I; Hanssen, M; Bak, M; Bijl, R V; de Graaf, R; Vollebergh, W; McKenzie, K; van Os, J

    2003-01-01

    In the UK and The Netherlands, people with high rates of psychosis are chronically exposed to discrimination. To test whether perceived discrimination is associated longitudinally with onset of psychosis. A 3-year prospective study of cohorts with no history of psychosis and differential rates of reported discrimination on the basis of age, gender, disability, appearance, skin colour or ethnicity and sexual orientation was conducted in the Dutch general population (n=4076). The main outcome was onset of psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations). The rate of delusional ideation was 0.5% (n=19) in those who did not report discrimination, 0.9% (n=4) in those who reported discrimination in one domain, and 2.7% (n=3) in those who reported discrimination in more than one domain (exact P=0.027). This association remained after adjustment for possible confounders. No association was found between baseline discrimination and onset of hallucinatory experiences. Perceived discrimination may induce delusional ideation and thus contribute to the high observed rates of psychotic disorder in exposed minority populations.

  1. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Iwamae, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    Plasma Polarization Spectroscopy (PPS) is now becoming a standard diagnostic technique for working with laboratory plasmas. This new area needs a comprehensive framework, both experimental and theoretical. This book reviews the historical development of PPS, develops a general theoretical formulation to deal with this phenomenon, along with an overview of relevant cross sections, and reports on laboratory experiments so far performed. It also includes various facets that are interesting from this standpoint, e.g. X-ray lasers and effects of microwave irradiation. It also offers a timely discussion of instrumentation that is quite important in a practical PPS experiment.

  2. Influence of temperature on the hydrogen evolution reaction on stainless steels in LiBr solution by means of polarization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinon Pina, V.; Igual-Munoz, A.; Garcia-Anton, J. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. ETSI Industriales, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Lithium Bromide aqueous solutions used as absorbent in refrigeration machines can cause serious corrosion problems which also facilitate the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in the cathodic regions. Hydrogen formation is an important problem in the operating conditions of adsorption machines because they operate under low pressure conditions. Hydrogen generation makes pressure to increase and as a consequence efficiency decreases. Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) are iron-based alloys with a two-phase microstructure: austenite and delta ferrite in approximately similar percentages. DSS find increasing use as an alternative to austenitic stainless steels, particularly where aggressive anions such as bromide are present in high concentrations. The objective of the present work is to study the effect of temperature on the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) of two different stainless steels, Austenitic and Duplex steels, using different electrochemical techniques: Open Circuit Potential (OCP), potentiodynamic and galvano-static measurements and image digital analysis. The HER was studied in 992 g/l LiBr at three different temperatures (25, 50 and 75 C). The results showed that the electrocatalytic activity for the HER increased with temperature. The energy consumption for hydrogen generation on Austenitic Stainless Steel, UNS N08031, is lower than on Duplex Stainless Steel, EN 1.4462, at the studied temperatures. (authors)

  3. Introduction to integral discriminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.; Shakirov, Sh.

    2009-01-01

    The simplest partition function, associated with homogeneous symmetric forms S of degree r in n variables, is integral discriminant J n|r (S) = ∫e -S(x 1 ,...,x n ) dx 1 ...dx n . Actually, S-dependence remains the same if e -S in the integrand is substituted by arbitrary function f(S), i.e. integral discriminant is a characteristic of the form S itself, and not of the averaging procedure. The aim of the present paper is to calculate J n|r in a number of non-Gaussian cases. Using Ward identities - linear differential equations, satisfied by integral discriminants - we calculate J 2|3 ,J 2|4 ,J 2|5 and J 3|3 . In all these examples, integral discriminant appears to be a generalized hypergeometric function. It depends on several SL(n) invariants of S, with essential singularities controlled by the ordinary algebraic discriminant of S.

  4. Introduction to integral discriminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A.; Shakirov, Sh.

    2009-12-01

    The simplest partition function, associated with homogeneous symmetric forms S of degree r in n variables, is integral discriminant Jn|r(S) = ∫e-S(x1,...,xn)dx1...dxn. Actually, S-dependence remains the same if e-S in the integrand is substituted by arbitrary function f(S), i.e. integral discriminant is a characteristic of the form S itself, and not of the averaging procedure. The aim of the present paper is to calculate Jn|r in a number of non-Gaussian cases. Using Ward identities — linear differential equations, satisfied by integral discriminants — we calculate J2|3,J2|4,J2|5 and J3|3. In all these examples, integral discriminant appears to be a generalized hypergeometric function. It depends on several SL(n) invariants of S, with essential singularities controlled by the ordinary algebraic discriminant of S.

  5. Discrimination in Modern Society

    OpenAIRE

    Schekach, E. V.; Щекач, Е. В.

    2013-01-01

    Issues of discrimination in modern society are examined in the article. Types of discrimination, ways of demonstration, methods of combating discrimination and inequality are described. Particular attention is paid to the legal basis and the real life stories, which serve as a material base for judgments how to prevent discrimination. Possible ways are suggested to eliminate such a negative phenomenon of society like discrimination. Статья посвящена вопросам дискриминации в современном общ...

  6. Studying Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence with Synchrotron Polarization Dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian-Fu; Lazarian, Alex; Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, Jungyeon

    2016-01-01

    We test a new technique of studying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence suggested by Lazarian \\& Pogosyan, using synthetic synchrotron polarization observations. This paper focuses on a one-point statistics, which is termed the polarization frequency analysis, that is characterized by the variance of polarized emission as a function of the square of wavelengths along a single line of sight. We adopt a ratio $\\eta$ of the standard deviation of the line-of-sight turbulent magnetic field to the...

  7. Polare maskuliniteter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Anne Hauan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper my aim is to read and understand the journal of Gerrit de Veer from the last journey of William Barents to the Arctic Regions in 1596 and the journal of captain Junge on his hunting trip from Tromsø to Svalbard in 1834.It is nearly 240 years between this to voyages. The first journal is known as the earliest report from the arctic era. Gerrit de Veer adds instructive copper engravings to his text and give us insight in the crews meeting with this new land. Captain Junges journal is found together with his dead crew in a house in a fjord nearby Ny-Ålesund and has no drawings, but word. Both of these journals may be read as sources of the knowledge and understanding of the polar region. They might also unveil the ideas of how to deal with and survive under the challenges that is given. In addition one can ask if the sources can tell us more about how men describe their challenges. Can the way they expressed themselves in the journals give us an understanding of masculinity? And not least help us to create good questions of the change in the ideas of masculinities which is said to follow the change in understanding of the wilderness.

  8. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colston, B W; DaSilva, L B; Everett, M J; Featherstone, J D B; Fried, D; Ragadio, J N; Sathyam, U S.

    1999-01-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for non-invasive in vivo detection and characterization of early, incipient caries lesions. PS-OCT generates cross-sectional images of biological tissue while measuring the effect of the tissue on the polarization state of incident light. Clear discrimination between regions of normal and demineralized enamel is first shown in PS-OCT images of bovine enamel blocks containing well-characterized artificial lesions. High-resolution, cross-sectional images of extracted human teeth are then generated that clearly discriminate between the normal and carious regions on both the smooth and occlusal surfaces. Regions of the teeth that appeared to be demineralized in the PS-OCT images were verified using histological thin sections examined under polarized light microscopy. The PS-OCT system discriminates between normal and carious regions by measuring the polarization state of the back-scattered 1310 nm light, which is affected by the state of demineralization of the enamel. Demineralization of enamel increases the scattering coefficient, thus depolarizing the incident light. This study shows that PS-OCT has great potential for the detection, characterization, and monitoring of incipient caries lesions

  9. CMB polarization at large angular scales: Data analysis of the POLAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, Christopher W.; Keating, Brian G.; Oliveira-Costa, Angelica de; Tegmark, Max; Timbie, Peter T.

    2003-01-01

    The coming flood of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments, spurred by the recent detection of CMB polarization by the DASI and WMAP instruments, will be confronted by many new analysis tasks specific to polarization. For the analysis of CMB polarization data sets, the devil is truly in the details. With this in mind, we present details of the data analysis for the POLAR experiment, which recently led to the tightest upper limits on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation at large angular scales. We discuss the data selection process, map-making algorithms, offset removal, and likelihood analysis which were used to find upper limits on the polarization. Stated using the modern convention for reporting CMB Stokes parameters, these limits are 5.0 μK on both E- and B-type polarization at 95% confidence. Finally, we discuss simulations used to test our analysis techniques and to probe the fundamental limitations of the experiment

  10. Decision theory for discrimination-aware classification

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2012-12-01

    Social discrimination (e.g., against females) arising from data mining techniques is a growing concern worldwide. In recent years, several methods have been proposed for making classifiers learned over discriminatory data discriminationaware. However, these methods suffer from two major shortcomings: (1) They require either modifying the discriminatory data or tweaking a specific classification algorithm and (2) They are not flexible w.r.t. discrimination control and multiple sensitive attribute handling. In this paper, we present two solutions for discrimination-aware classification that neither require data modification nor classifier tweaking. Our first and second solutions exploit, respectively, the reject option of probabilistic classifier(s) and the disagreement region of general classifier ensembles to reduce discrimination. We relate both solutions with decision theory for better understanding of the process. Our experiments using real-world datasets demonstrate that our solutions outperform existing state-ofthe-art methods, especially at low discrimination which is a significant advantage. The superior performance coupled with flexible control over discrimination and easy applicability to multiple sensitive attributes makes our solutions an important step forward in practical discrimination-aware classification. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. A discrimination problem from seismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvers, E.

    1975-12-01

    Seismic discrimination between earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions is studied, utilizing magnitudes of two kinds from several seismic stations. A model is given first, where the mean values of the magnitudes are linear fuctions of a parameter describing event size. It is shown how the model parameters can be estimated after a minor restriction on their space. When the discrimination rule is derived from the model, a few different approaches are considered, and they are shown to coincide. It is found reasonabel to use a discriminant, which is linear in the magnitudes, and explicit formulas are obtained. The power of the method is expressed by a measure of separation between the alternatives, which also shows the importance of the individual magnitudes. Missing data is a frequent problem in practice, and the case is treated where there is a detection threshold for one of the magnitudes. The classicfication probabilities are computed when applying the rule to the available magnitudes, and they depend on the event size. The method is not optimal, and it is shown that it can be improved by using the technique of identification by negative evidence, i.e. by utilizing the threshold as upper bound for a missing magnitude. The model is one of general use, and the results thus have a wider applicability. (author)

  12. Design of a tensor polarized deuterium target polarized by spin-exchange with optically pumped NA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    A proposed design for a tensor polarized deuterium target (approx. 10 15 atoms/cm 2 ) for nuclear physics studies in an electron storage ring accelerator is presented. The deuterium atoms undergo electron spin exchange with a highly polarized sodium vapor; this polarization is transferred to the deuterium nuclei via the hyperfine interaction. The deuterium nuclei obtain their tensor polarization through repeated electron spin exchange/hyperfine interactions. The sodium vapor polarization is maintained by standard optical pumping techniques. Model calculations are presented in detail leading to a discussion of the expected performance and the technical obstacles to be surmounted in the development of such a target

  13. Polarization of Coronal Forbidden Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao; Qu, Zhongquan [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China); Landi Degl’Innocenti, Egidio, E-mail: sayahoro@ynao.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2017-03-20

    Since the magnetic field is responsible for most manifestations of solar activity, one of the most challenging problems in solar physics is the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields, particularly in the outer atmosphere. To this end, it is important to develop rigorous diagnostic tools to interpret polarimetric observations in suitable spectral lines. This paper is devoted to analyzing the diagnostic content of linear polarization imaging observations in coronal forbidden lines. Although this technique is restricted to off-limb observations, it represents a significant tool to diagnose the magnetic field structure in the solar corona, where the magnetic field is intrinsically weak and still poorly known. We adopt the quantum theory of polarized line formation developed in the framework of the density matrix formalism, and synthesize images of the emergent linear polarization signal in coronal forbidden lines using potential-field source-surface magnetic field models. The influence of electronic collisions, active regions, and Thomson scattering on the linear polarization of coronal forbidden lines is also examined. It is found that active regions and Thomson scattering are capable of conspicuously influencing the orientation of the linear polarization. These effects have to be carefully taken into account to increase the accuracy of the field diagnostics. We also found that linear polarization observation in suitable lines can give valuable information on the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona.

  14. A Trivial Linear Discriminant Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shinmura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the new model selection procedure of the discriminant analysis. Combining re-sampling technique with k-fold cross validation, we develop a k-fold cross validation for small sample method. By this breakthrough, we obtain the mean error rate in the validation samples (M2 and the 95\\% confidence interval (CI of discriminant coefficient. Moreover, we propose the model  selection  procedure  in  which  the model having a minimum M2 was  chosen  to  the  best  model.  We  apply  this  new  method and procedure to the pass/ fail determination of  exam  scores.  In  this  case,  we  fix  the constant =1 for seven linear discriminant  functions  (LDFs  and  several  good  results  were obtained as follows: 1 M2 of Fisher's LDF are over 4.6\\% worse than Revised IP-OLDF. 2 A soft-margin  SVM  for  penalty c=1  (SVM1  is  worse  than  another  mathematical  programming (MP based LDFs and logistic regression . 3 The 95\\% CI of the best discriminant coefficients was obtained. Seven LDFs except for Fisher's LDF are almost the same as a trivial LDF for the linear separable model. Furthermore, if we choose the median of the coefficient of seven LDFs except for Fisher's LDF,  those are almost the same as the trivial LDF for the linear separable model.

  15. The 95% confidence intervals of error rates and discriminant coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shinmura

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fisher proposed a linear discriminant function (Fisher’s LDF. From 1971, we analysed electrocardiogram (ECG data in order to develop the diagnostic logic between normal and abnormal symptoms by Fisher’s LDF and a quadratic discriminant function (QDF. Our four years research was inferior to the decision tree logic developed by the medical doctor. After this experience, we discriminated many data and found four problems of the discriminant analysis. A revised Optimal LDF by Integer Programming (Revised IP-OLDF based on the minimum number of misclassification (minimum NM criterion resolves three problems entirely [13, 18]. In this research, we discuss fourth problem of the discriminant analysis. There are no standard errors (SEs of the error rate and discriminant coefficient. We propose a k-fold crossvalidation method. This method offers a model selection technique and a 95% confidence intervals (C.I. of error rates and discriminant coefficients.

  16. Set discrimination of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengyu; Ying Mingsheng

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a notion of set discrimination, which is an interesting extension of quantum state discrimination. A state is secretly chosen from a number of quantum states, which are partitioned into some disjoint sets. A set discrimination is required to identify which set the given state belongs to. Several essential problems are addressed in this paper, including the condition of perfect set discrimination, unambiguous set discrimination, and in the latter case, the efficiency of the discrimination. This generalizes some important results on quantum state discrimination in the literature. A combination of state and set discrimination and the efficiency are also studied

  17. Sex Discrimination in Selecting Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses recent sex discrimination cases by women seeking administrative positions. Points out that women plaintiffs alleging sex bias in such cases have a difficult time proving discrimination. (MD)

  18. Harassment, Bias, and Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welliver, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a new principle which has been added to the AECT (Association for Educational Communications and Technology) Code of Professional Ethics regarding discrimination, harassment, and bias. An example is presented which illustrates a violation of a professional colleague's rights. (LRW)

  19. An experiment of spectral induced polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sambuelli

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP survey was carried out in a mining test site in Sardinia (Italy. Measurements were developed along a profile by using an axial dipole-dipole array with 10 AB positions and 6 MN positions for cach AB. The amplitude and phase spectra of the apparent resistivity were acquired in the 0.25-4096 Hz frequeney range. The results obtained through the processing and inversion step seem to confirm that, with respect to the classical TD/FD Induced Polarization, SIP allows better discrimination of some important characteristics of mineral deposits such as mineral content and grain size.

  20. Polarized light in optics and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kliger, David S

    1990-01-01

    This comprehensive introduction to polarized light provides students and researchers with the background and the specialized knowledge needed to fully utilize polarized light. It provides a basic introduction to the interaction of light with matter for those unfamiliar with photochemistry and photophysics. An in-depth discussion of polarizing optics is also given. Different analytical techniques are introduced and compared and introductions to the use of polarized light in various forms of spectroscopy are provided.Key Features* Starts at a basic level and develops tools for resear

  1. Thermal stability of tunneling spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, C.H.; Kohlhepp, J.T.; Paluskar, P.V.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Jonge, W.J.M. de

    2005-01-01

    We present a study of the thermal stability of tunneling spin polarization in Al/AlOx/ferromagnet junctions based on the spin-polarized tunneling technique, in which the Zeeman-split superconducting density of states in the Al electrode is used as a detector for the spin polarization. Thermal robustness of the polarization, which is of key importance for the performance of magnetic tunnel junction devices, is demonstrated for post-deposition anneal temperatures up to 500 o C with Co and Co 90 Fe 10 top electrodes, independent of the presence of an FeMn layer on top of the ferromagnet

  2. Optical detection dental disease using polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Fried, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    A polarization sensitive optical imaging system is used to detect changes in polarization in dental tissues to aid the diagnosis of dental disease such as caries. The degree of depolarization is measured by illuminating the dental tissue with polarized light and measuring the polarization state of the backscattered light. The polarization state of this reflected light is analyzed using optical polarimetric imaging techniques. A hand-held fiber optic dental probe is used in vivo to direct the incident beam to the dental tissue and collect the reflected light. To provide depth-resolved characterization of the dental tissue, the polarization diagnostics may be incorporated into optical coherence domain reflectometry and optical coherence tomography (OCDR/OCT) systems, which enables identification of subsurface depolarization sites associated with demineralization of enamel or bone.

  3. 76 FR 38743 - Proposed Information Collection (Complaint of Employment Discrimination) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... (Complaint of Employment Discrimination) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Human Resources and Administration... a complaint of employment discrimination. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the... respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques or the use of other forms of...

  4. Learning discriminant face descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

    2014-02-01

    Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent.

  5. Multi-Level Approach for the Discriminative Generalized Hough Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruppertshofen, H.; Künne, D.; Lorenz, C.; Schmidt, S.; Beyerlein, P.; Salah, Z.; Rose, G.; Schramm, Hauke

    2011-01-01

    The Discriminative Generalized Hough Transform (DGHT) is a method for object localization, which combines the standard GHT with a discriminative training technique. Thereby the aim of the discriminativetraining is to equip the models used in the GHT with individual model point weights such that the

  6. Price Discrimination and Market Power

    OpenAIRE

    Shane Carbonneau; Preston McAfee; Hugo Mialon; Sue Mialon

    2004-01-01

    If there is price discrimination, at least one of the prices is not equal to marginal cost. Therefore, if there is price discrimination, there must be market power. While this logic is sound, it has led many policymakers to believe that price discrimination and market power are positively correlated. We present a model where measured price discrimination can be low while market power is high, and price discrimination can be high while market power is low, thus demonstrating that there is no t...

  7. Laser-driven polarized H/D sources and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clasie, B.; Crawford, C.; Dutta, D.; Gao, H.; Seely, J.; Xu, W.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, Atomic Beam Sources are used to produce targets of nuclear polarized hydrogen (H) or deuterium (D) for experiments using storage rings. Laser-Driven Sources (LDSs) offer a factor of 20-30 gain in the target thickness (however, with lower polarization) and may produce a higher overall figure of merit. The LDS is based on the technique of spin-exchange optical pumping where alkali vapor is polarized by absorbing circularly polarized laser photons. The H or D atoms are nuclear-polarized through spin-exchange collisions with the polarized alkali vapor and through subsequent hyperfine interactions during frequent H-H or D-D collisions

  8. Drugs, discrimination and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Frances

    2009-12-01

    Whether addiction to prohibited drugs should be classified as a disability for the purposes of disability discrimination is a controversial question in Australia. The leading Australian case of Marsden v Human Rights Equal Opportunity Commission & Coffs Harbour & District Ex-Servicemen & Women's Memorial Club Ltd (HREOC, No H98/51, 30 August 1999); [2000] FCA 1619 concerned a disability discrimination complaint brought by Mr Marsden as a result of his treatment by the club. The case was brought as a public interest test case by the New South Wales Legal Aid Commission. Mr Marsden was on a methadone program at the time. The reasoning of the decision at the Federal Court opened the way for a finding that dependence on illegal drugs constituted a disability under disability discrimination legislation. The media reaction to the court's decision led to State and federal governments proposing legislation limiting legal protection from discrimination for people addicted to illegal drugs on the basis of their drug use. While the proposed federal legislation lapsed after objections from a coalition of medical, legal and other advocacy groups, the New South Wales legislation still provides that, in employment matters, it is not unlawful to discriminate against a person on the ground of disability if the disability relates to the person's addiction to a prohibited drug and the person is actually addicted to a prohibited drug at the time of the discrimination. The article details the sequence of events in the Marsden case, reflects on the role of public interest litigation in achieving social justice outcomes and suggests that Australia's recent ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 17 July 2008 should encourage legislators to review legislation which may have a discriminatory effect on people suffering from addictions.

  9. Disturbance by optimal discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the disturbance by measurements which unambiguously discriminate between given candidate states. We prove that such an optimal measurement necessarily changes distinguishable states indistinguishable when the inconclusive outcome is obtained. The result was previously shown by Chefles [Phys. Lett. A 239, 339 (1998), 10.1016/S0375-9601(98)00064-4] under restrictions on the class of quantum measurements and on the definition of optimality. Our theorems remove these restrictions and are also applicable to infinitely many candidate states. Combining with our previous results, one can obtain concrete mathematical conditions for the resulting states. The method may have a wide variety of applications in contexts other than state discrimination.

  10. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live......In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  11. Feasibility studies of a polarized positron source based on the Bremsstrahlung of polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, J.

    2011-09-01

    The nuclear and high-energy physics communities have shown a growing interest in the availability of high current, highly-polarized positron beams. A sufficiently energetic polarized photon or lepton incident on a target may generate, via Bremsstrahlung and pair creation within a solid target foil, electron-positron pairs that should carry some fraction of the initial polarization. Recent advances in high current (> 1 mA) spin polarized electron sources at Jefferson Lab offer the perspective of creating polarized positrons from a low energy electron beam. This thesis discusses polarization transfer from electrons to positrons in the perspective of the design optimization of a polarized positron source. The PEPPo experiment, aiming at a measurement of the positron polarization from a low energy (< 10 MeV) highly spin polarized electron beam is discussed. A successful demonstration of this technique would provide an alternative scheme for the production of low energy polarized positrons and useful information for the optimization of the design of polarized positron sources in the sub-GeV energy range. (author)

  12. Dual-Polarization Ku-Band Compact Spaceborne Antenna Based on Dual-Reflectarray Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienda, Carolina; Encinar, Jose A; Barba, Mariano; Arrebola, Manuel

    2018-04-05

    This article demonstrated an accurate analysis technique for dual-reflectarray antennas that take into account the angle of incidence of the impinging electric field on the main reflectarray cells. The reflected field on the sub and the main reflectarray surfaces is computed using Method of Moments in the spectral domain and assuming local periodicity. The sub-reflectarray is divided into groups of elements and the field radiated by each group is used to compute the incident and reflected field on the main reflectarray cells. A 50-cm demonstrator in Ku-band that provides European coverage has been designed, manufactured and tested to validate the analysis technique. The measured radiation patterns match the simulations and they fulfill the coverage requirements, achieving a cross-polar discrimination better than 25 dB in the frequency range: 12.975-14.25 GHz.

  13. Immunological self, nonself discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillet, J G; Lai, M Z; Briner, T J

    1987-01-01

    The ability of immunodominant peptides derived from several antigen systems to compete with each other for T cell activation was studied. Only peptides restricted by a given transplantation antigen are mutually competitive. There is a correlation between haplotype restriction, ability to bind to ...... that provides a basis for explaining self, nonself discrimination as well as alloreactivity....

  14. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    , not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  15. Homosexual Discrimination in Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Gary R.

    1976-01-01

    Recent developments in homosexual activism regarding employment problems in both the public and private sector are analyzed. Focus is on the law governing private employment, where homosexuals are afforded the least legal protection against discrimination. Available from: the University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California 95053. (LBH)

  16. Discrimination Learning in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  17. Discrimination? - Exhibition of posters

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimovska, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Participation in the exhibition with the students form the Art Academy. The exhibition consisted of 15 posters tackling the subjects of hate speech and discrimination. The exhibition happened thanks to the invitation of the Faculty of Law at UGD, and it was a part of a larger event of launching books on the aforementioned subjects.

  18. "Man" and Sexual Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Mary

    1981-01-01

    Comments on the linguistic impact of the Canadian Human Rights Act, which forbids discrimination on the basis qf sex, examining its effects on common English usages of "man." After illustrating the problems posed by government guidelines on job titles, addresses the ideological and socioeconomic implications of the "man" issue.…

  19. Education and Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  20. Airborne particulate discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creek, Kathryn Louise [San Diego, CA; Castro, Alonso [Santa Fe, NM; Gray, Perry Clayton [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  1. Housing discrimination 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, D

    2000-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that phone-based discrimination exists, an undergraduate course was conducted at the University of Pennsylvania. It was noted that racial housing audits were designed in such a way that teams of White and Black auditors were assigned similar identities and characteristics. To this effect, systematic differences in treatment were taken to reflect racial discrimination. The course, ¿Research Design: Measurement of Discrimination,¿ was carried out as a response to the pressure to involve undergraduates in research. A racially diverse group of students registered, among them speakers of Black English Vernacular, Black Accented English, and White Middle Class English. A total of 79 rental units advertised in newspapers and rental guides were audited by the class. Overall, results of the study suggest that telephone audits constitute a potentially cheap, easy, and efficient way of measuring and studying processes of racial discrimination in urban housing markets. Compared with Whites, African Americans were less likely to be told of a unit's availability, more likely to speak to a rental agent, to pay an application fee, and to have credit mentioned as an issue. In addition, these racial effects interacted with and were exacerbated by gender class.

  2. Aptitude Tests and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupland, D. E.

    1970-01-01

    Explains why in the United States the feeling is increasing that much of the aptitude testing now being done discriminates against minority group members seeking employment. Skeptical of eliminating the discriminatory aspects of testing, the article raises the question of eliminating testing itself. (DM)

  3. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  4. Discriminating Yogurt Microstructure Using Diffuse Reflectance Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Møller, Flemming; Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann

    2015-01-01

    The protein microstructure of many dairy products is of great importance for the consumers’ experience when eating the product. However, studies concerning discrimination between protein microstructures are limited. This paper presents preliminary results for discriminating different yogurt...... microstructures using hyperspectral (500-900nm) diffuse reflectance images (DRIs) – a technique potentially well suited for inline process control. Comparisons are made to quantified measures of the yogurt microstructure observed through confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The output signal from both...... modalities is evaluated on a 24 factorial design covering four common production parameters, which significantly change the chemistry and the microstructure of the yogurt. It is found that the DRIs can be as discriminative as the CSLM images in certain cases, however the performance is highly governed...

  5. Polarized Moessbauer transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the emission, absorption and scattering of polarized gamma rays are reviewed for a general case of combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions; various possibilities of obtaining polarized gamma sources are described and examples are given of the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with polarized gamma rays in solving problems of solid state physics. (A.K.)

  6. Applying random forest and subtractive fuzzy c-means clustering techniques for the development of a novel G protein-coupled receptor discrimination method using pseudo amino acid compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokouti, Babak; Rezvan, Farshad; Dastmalchi, Siavoush

    2015-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest superfamily of integral membrane proteins (IMPs) and they tremendously contribute in the flow of information into cells. In this study, the random forest (RF) and the subtractive fuzzy c-means clustering (SBC) methods have been used to determine the importance of input variables and discriminate GPCRs from non-GPCRs using twenty amino acid and fifty pseudo amino acid compositions derived from GPCR sequences. The studied dataset was retrieved from the UniProt/SWISSPROT database and consists of 1000 GPCR and 1000 non-GPCR reviewed sequences. The top ranked RF-SBC-based model discriminates GPCRs and non-GPCRs successfully with the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and Matthew's coefficient correlation (MCC) rates of 99.15%, 99.60%, 98.70% and 0.983%, respectively. These rates were obtained from averaged values of 5-fold cross validation using only twenty four out of fifty pseudo amino acid composition features. The results show that the proposed RF-SBC-based model outperforms other existing algorithms in terms of the evaluated performance criteria. The webserver for the proposed algorithm is available at http://brcinfo.shinyapps.io/GPCRIden.

  7. Quantum state discrimination and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonwoo; Kwek, Leong-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Quantum state discrimination underlies various applications in quantum information processing tasks. It essentially describes the distinguishability of quantum systems in different states, and the general process of extracting classical information from quantum systems. It is also useful in quantum information applications, such as the characterization of mutual information in cryptographic protocols, or as a technique for deriving fundamental theorems on quantum foundations. It has deep connections to physical principles such as relativistic causality. Quantum state discrimination traces a long history of several decades, starting with the early attempts to formalize information processing of physical systems such as optical communication with photons. Nevertheless, in most cases, the problems of finding optimal strategies of quantum state discrimination remain unsolved, and related applications are valid in some limited cases only. The present review aims to provide an overview on quantum state discrimination, covering some recent progress, and addressing applications in some selected areas. This review serves to strengthen the link between results in quantum state discrimination and quantum information applications, by showing the ways in which the fundamental results are exploited in applications and vice versa. (topical review)

  8. Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Braxton, Shawn Lamont

    2010-01-01

    Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment Shawn L. Braxton Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore how racial and gender discrimination is reproduced in concrete workplace settings even when anti-discrimination policies are present, and to understand the various reactions utilized by those who commonly experience it. I have selected a particular medical center, henceforth referred to by a pseudonym, â The Bliley Medical Centerâ as my case ...

  9. Synthesis of a polar ordered oxynitride perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapoo, Rajasekarakumar; Ahart, Muhtar; Somayazulu, Maddury; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Meng, Yue; Konopkova, Zuzana; Hemley, Russell J.; Cohen, R. E.

    2017-06-01

    For decades, numerous attempts have been made to produce polar oxynitride perovskites, where some of the oxygen is replaced by nitrogen, but a polar ordered oxynitride has never been demonstrated. Caracas and Cohen [Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 092902 (2007), 10.1063/1.2776370] studied possible ordered polar oxynitrides within density-functional theory (DFT) and found a few candidates that were predicted to be insulating and at least metastable. YSi O2N stood out with huge predicted polarization and nonlinear optic coefficients. In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of perovskite-structured YSi O2N by using a combination of a diamond-anvil cell and in situ laser-heating techniques. Subsequent in situ x-ray diffraction, second-harmonic generation, and Raman-scattering measurements confirm that it is polar and a strong nonlinear optical material, with structure and properties similar to those predicted by DFT.

  10. Synthesis of a polar ordered oxynitride perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadapoo, Rajasekarakumar; Ahart, Muhtar; Somayazulu, Maddury; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Meng, Yue; Konopkova, Zuzana; Hemley, Russell J.; Cohen, R. E.

    2017-06-01

    For decades, numerous attempts have been made to produce polar oxynitride perovskites, where some of the oxygen is replaced by nitrogen, but a polar ordered oxynitride has never been demonstrated. Caracas and Cohen [Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 092902 (2007)] studied possible ordered polar oxynitrides within density-functional theory (DFT) and found a few candidates that were predicted to be insulating and at least metastable. YSi O 2 N stood out with huge predicted polarization and nonlinear optic coefficients. In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of perovskite-structured YSi O 2 N by using a combination of a diamond-anvil cell and in situ laser-heating techniques. Subsequent in situ x-ray diffraction, second-harmonic generation, and Raman-scattering measurements confirm that it is polar and a strong nonlinear optical material, with structure and properties similar to those predicted by DFT.

  11. The Case for Positive Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses both three basic strategies, preferences, allocational priorities, and incentives--and four principles of positive discrimination--compensation and rectification, appropriate meritocratic criteria, the development of the discriminated, and fairness. (JM)

  12. The Struggle against Sex Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jane

    1982-01-01

    Provides overview of laws, policies, and regulations available to women to secure their job rights when faced with sex discrimination. Equal pay, sexual harassment, pregnancy discrimination, and affirmative action are discussed, noting procedures involved in filing a complaint. (EJS)

  13. Fast timing discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The processing of pulses with very fast risetimes for timing purposes involves many problems because of the large equivalent bandwidths involved. For pulses with risetimes in the 150 ps range (and full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of 400 ps) bandwidths in excess of 1GHz are required. Furthermore, these very narrow pulses with current amplitudes as small as 1 mA carry very small charges ( -12 coulomb), therefore, requiring very sensitive trigger circuits. The difficulty increases when timing characteristics in the picosecond range are sought especially when a wide input signal amplitude range causes a time-walk problem. The fast timing discriminator described has a time-walk of approximately +-75 ps over the input signal range from 80 mV to 3V. A schematic of the discriminator is included, and operation and performance are discussed

  14. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  15. Employee Discrimination against Female Executives

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Naomi; Odaki, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The theory of employee discrimination gives a possible explanation for the scarcity of female executive officers. This paper tests the employee discrimination hypothesis by measuring the wage premium received by employees working with female executives against their tastes for discrimination. Using a fixed effects analysis of establishment-level panel data on Japanese employees, we separate the discrimination premiums that would otherwise cause a bias from the establishment-level unobserved p...

  16. Language discrimination by Java sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Erico; Uozumi, Midori

    2006-07-01

    Java sparrows (Padda oryzivora) were trained to discriminate English from Chinese spoken by a bilingual speaker. They could learn discrimination and showed generalization to new sentences spoken by the same speaker and those spoken by a new speaker. Thus, the birds distinguished between English and Chinese. Although auditory cues for the discrimination were not specified, this is the first evidence that non-mammalian species can discriminate human languages.

  17. Optical polarization: background and camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlind, Christina; Hallberg, Tomas; Eriksson, Johan; Kariis, Hans; Bergström, David

    2017-10-01

    Polarimetric imaging sensors in the electro-optical region, already military and commercially available in both the visual and infrared, show enhanced capabilities for advanced target detection and recognition. The capabilities arise due to the ability to discriminate between man-made and natural background surfaces using the polarization information of light. In the development of materials for signature management in the visible and infrared wavelength regions, different criteria need to be met to fulfil the requirements for a good camouflage against modern sensors. In conventional camouflage design, the aimed design of the surface properties of an object is to spectrally match or adapt it to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast given by a specific threat sensor. Examples will be shown from measurements of some relevant materials and how they in different ways affect the polarimetric signature. Dimensioning properties relevant in an optical camouflage from a polarimetric perspective, such as degree of polarization, the viewing or incident angle, and amount of diffuse reflection, mainly in the infrared region, will be discussed.

  18. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  19. Workplace discrimination and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred.

  20. Polarized proton target with horizontal spin orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyatova, Eh.I.; Kiselev, Yu.F.; Kozlenko, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Proton target, the polarization vector of which may be arbitrary oriented in horizontal plane relatively to the beam, is developed and tested. 70% value of polarization is obtained. 0.6 K temperature is acquired through 3 He pumping out continuous cycle. 1.2-propylene glycol - Cr(V) was used as working medium. Magnetic system is made in the form of Helmholtz sperconducting coils with working curren close to critical one. Target polarization is measured by NMR technique using original system of proton signal processing

  1. Sex Discrimination? The XYZ Affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Carl; Reed, John Shelton

    1981-01-01

    Describes an investigation of sex discrimination at a large American corporation. The investigation found that although fewer women than men were promoted, this was due to greater interest in promotion expressed by men, rather than to discrimination by the company. Argues against criteria applied by federal agencies to prove discrimination. (GC)

  2. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  3. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  4. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  5. Influence of absorption in linear polarization imaging of melanoma tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongzhi Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The contrast mechanism of different polarization imaging techniques for melanoma in mouse skin is studied using both experiments and Monte Carlo simulations. Total intensity, linear polarization difference imaging (DPI, degree of polarization imaging (DOPI and rotating linear polarization imaging (RLPI are applied and the relative contrasts of these polarization imaging methods between the normal and cancerous tissues are compared. A two-layer absorption-scattering model is proposed to explain the contrast mechanism of the polarization imaging for melanoma. By taking into account of both scattering of symmetrical and asymmetrical scatterers and absorption of inter-scatterer medium, the two-layer model reproduces the relative contrasts for polarization images observed in experiments. The simulation results also show that, the parameters of polarization imaging change more dramatically with the variation of absorption in the bottom layer than the top layer.

  6. Jones matrix treatment for optical Fourier processors with structured polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ignacio; Iemmi, Claudio; Campos, Juan; Yzuel, Maria J

    2011-02-28

    We present a Jones matrix method useful to analyze coherent optical Fourier processors employing structured polarization. The proposed method is a generalization of the standard classical optical Fourier transform processor, but considering vectorial spatial functions with two complex components corresponding to two orthogonal linear polarizations. As a result we derive a Jones matrix that describes the polarization output in terms of two vectorial functions defining respectively the structured polarization input and the generalized polarization impulse response. We apply the method to show and analyze an experiment in which a regular scalar diffraction grating is converted into equivalent polarization diffraction gratings by means of an appropriate polarization filtering. The technique is further demonstrated to generate arbitrary structured polarizations. Excellent experimental results are presented.

  7. Wavelet analysis of polarization maps of polycrystalline biological fluids networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, Y. A.

    2011-12-01

    The optical model of human joints synovial fluid is proposed. The statistic (statistic moments), correlation (autocorrelation function) and self-similar (Log-Log dependencies of power spectrum) structure of polarization two-dimensional distributions (polarization maps) of synovial fluid has been analyzed. It has been shown that differentiation of polarization maps of joint synovial fluid with different physiological state samples is expected of scale-discriminative analysis. To mark out of small-scale domain structure of synovial fluid polarization maps, the wavelet analysis has been used. The set of parameters, which characterize statistic, correlation and self-similar structure of wavelet coefficients' distributions of different scales of polarization domains for diagnostics and differentiation of polycrystalline network transformation connected with the pathological processes, has been determined.

  8. Chiral discrimination by chemical force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendry, Rachel; Theoclitou, Maria-Elena; Rayment, Trevor; Abell, Chris

    1998-02-01

    Chirality is a fundamental aspect of chemical biology, and is of central importance in pharmacology. Consequently there is great interest in techniques for distinguishing between different chiral forms of a compound. Chemical force microscopy is a technique that combines chemical discrimination with atomic force microscopy by chemical derivatization of the scanning probe tip. It has been applied to the study of hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions, the binding between biotin and streptavidin, and between DNA bases. Here we report on the use of chemical force microscopy to discriminate between chiral molecules. Using chiral molecules attached to the probe tip, we can distinguish the two enantiomers of mandelic acid arrayed on a surface, through differences in both the adhesion forces and the frictional forces measured by the probe.

  9. Tilted Foils Nuclear Spin Polarization at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, Hans Toshihide

    2013-08-08

    This thesis will explain and summarize my work and involvement in experiments aimed at producing nuclear spin polarization of post-accelerated beams of ions with the tilted-foils technique at the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator at CERN. Polarizing the nuclear spin of radioactive beams in particular may provide access to observables which may be difficult to obtain otherwise. Currently, the techniques commonly employed for nuclear spin polarization are restricted to specific nuclides and experimental measurement techniques. Tilted foils polarization may provide a new tool to extend the range of nuclides that can be polarized and the types of experiments that can be performed. The experiments rely not only on the production but also on the method to measure the degree of attained polarization. Two methods will be treated, based on particle scattering in Coulomb excitation that may be utilized for stable beams, and the $\\beta$-NMR that requires $\\beta$-decaying nuclei. The experimental setups and measurements will...

  10. Low power constant fraction discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Raut, S.M.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a low power ultrafast constant fraction discriminator, which significantly reduces the power consumption. A conventional fast discriminator consumes about 1250 MW of power whereas this low power version consumes about 440 MW. In a multi detector system, where the number of discriminators is very large, reduction of power is of utmost importance. This low power discriminator is being designed for GRACE (Gamma Ray Atmospheric Cerenkov Experiments) telescope where 1000 channels of discriminators are required. A novel method of decreasing power consumption has been described. (author)

  11. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-09-28

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  12. Polarization in Sagittarius A*

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Geoffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    We summarize the current state of polarization observations of Sagittarius A*, the compact radio source and supermassive black hole candidate in the Galactic Center. These observations are providing new tools for understanding accretion disks, jets and their environments. Linear polarization observations have shown that Sgr A* is unpolarized at frequencies as high as 86 GHz. However, recent single-dish observations indicate that Sgr A* may have strong linear polarization at frequencies higher...

  13. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  14. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  15. Fast and Simple Discriminative Analysis of Anthocyanins-Containing Berries Using LC/MS Spectral Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kwon, Yong Soo; Kim, Ho Kyong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-09-01

    Anthocyanins are potent antioxidant agents that protect against many degenerative diseases; however, they are unstable because they are vulnerable to external stimuli including temperature, pH and light. This vulnerability hinders the quality control of anthocyanin-containing berries using classical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical methodologies based on UV or MS chromatograms. To develop an alternative approach for the quality assessment and discrimination of anthocyanin-containing berries, we used MS spectral data acquired in a short analytical time rather than UV or MS chromatograms. Mixtures of anthocyanins were separated from other components in a short gradient time (5 min) due to their higher polarity, and the representative MS spectrum was acquired from the MS chromatogram corresponding to the mixture of anthocyanins. The chemometric data from the representative MS spectra contained reliable information for the identification and relative quantification of anthocyanins in berries with good precision and accuracy. This fast and simple methodology, which consists of a simple sample preparation method and short gradient analysis, could be applied to reliably discriminate the species and geographical origins of different anthocyanin-containing berries. These features make the technique useful for the food industry. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Haptic Discrimination of Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Femke E.; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2014-01-01

    While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive) and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices. PMID:25116638

  17. Haptic discrimination of distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke E van Beek

    Full Text Available While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices.

  18. Differential response to circularly polarized light by the jewel scarab beetle Chrysina gloriosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Parrish; Cummings, Molly

    2010-05-01

    Circularly polarized light is rare in the terrestrial environment, and cuticular reflections from scarab beetles are one of the few natural sources. Chrysina gloriosa LeConte 1854, a scarab beetle found in montane juniper forests of the extreme southwestern United States and northern Mexico, are camouflaged in juniper foliage; however, when viewed with right circularly polarizing filters, the beetles exhibit a stark black contrast. Given the polarization-specific changes in the appearance of C. gloriosa, we hypothesized that C. gloriosa can detect circularly polarized light. We tested for phototactic response and differential flight orientation of C. gloriosa toward different light stimuli. Chrysina gloriosa exhibited (a) positive phototaxis, (b) differential flight orientation between linear and circularly polarized light stimuli of equal intensities, and (c) discrimination between circularly polarized and unpolarized lights of different intensities consistent with a model of circular polarization sensitivity based on a quarter-wave plate. These results demonstrate that C. gloriosa beetles respond differentially to circularly polarized light. In contrast, Chrysina woodi Horn 1885, a close relative with reduced circularly polarized reflection, exhibited no phototactic discrimination between linear and circularly polarized light. Circularly polarized sensitivity may allow C. gloriosa to perceive and communicate with conspecifics that remain cryptic to predators, reducing indirect costs of communication.

  19. A vertebrate retina with segregated colour and polarization sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novales Flamarique, Iñigo

    2017-09-13

    Besides colour and intensity, some invertebrates are able to independently detect the polarization of light. Among vertebrates, such separation of visual modalities has only been hypothesized for some species of anchovies whose cone photoreceptors have unusual ultrastructure that varies with retinal location. Here, I tested this hypothesis by performing physiological experiments of colour and polarization discrimination using the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax Optic nerve recordings showed that the ventro-temporal (VT), but not the ventro-nasal (VN), retina was polarization sensitive, and this coincided with the exclusive presence of polarization-sensitive photoreceptors in the VT retina. Spectral (colour) sensitivity recordings from the VN retina indicated the contribution of two spectral cone mechanisms to the optic nerve response, whereas only one contributed to the VT retina. This was supported by the presence of only one visual pigment in the VT retina and two in the VN retina, suggesting that only the VN retina was associated with colour sensitivity. Behavioural tests further demonstrated that anchovies could discriminate colour and the polarization of light using the ventral retina. Thus, in analogy with the visual system of some invertebrates, the northern anchovy has a retina with segregated retinal pathways for colour and polarization vision. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP 4 . A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  1. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D' Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R,; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; J.; Severino, F.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP{sup 4}. A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  2. Sentiment Polarity Analysis based multi-dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jian; Zhou, Yanquan

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for Chinese online reviews, which identifies sentiment polarity. To determine the sentence is negative or positive, we extracted opinion words and identified their opinion targets by CRFs and establish the absolute emotional dictionary (AbED), the relative emotional dictionary (ReED), the field of emotional dictionary (FiED) and the field of targets and opinion words dictionary (TfED). With those emotional dictionary, negative dictionary and modified dictionary, we achieved an effective algorithm to discriminate sentiment polarity by multi-string pattern matching algorithm. For evaluation, we used car online reviews, hotel online reviews and computer online reviews which annotated positive or negative. Experimental results show that our proposed method has made a higher precision and recall rate.

  3. Optimum filter-based discrimination of neutrons and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, Moslem; Prenosil, Vaclav; Cvachovec, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    An optimum filter-based method for discrimination of neutrons and gamma-rays in a mixed radiation field is presented. The existing filter-based implementations of discriminators require sample pulse responses in advance of the experiment run to build the filter coefficients, which makes them less practical. Our novel technique creates the coefficients during the experiment and improves their quality gradually. Applied to several sets of mixed neutron and photon signals obtained through different digitizers using stilbene scintillator, this approach is analyzed and its discrimination quality is measured. (authors)

  4. Corelli: Efficient single crystal diffraction with elastic discrimination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we discuss the potential of the cross-correlation technique for efficient measurement of single crystal diffuse scattering with energy discrimination, as will be implemented in a novel instrument, Corelli. Utilizing full experiment simulations, we show that this technique readily leads up to a fifty-fold gain in efficiency, ...

  5. Discrimination against Muslim American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This descriptive qualitative study complements the few existing studies on Muslim American adolescents by obtaining in-depth description of the discrimination they encounter. The sample was 14 Muslim American adolescents who participated in one of two gender-specific focus groups about their discrimination experiences. Findings identified school settings as rife with discrimination toward Muslims, portrayed Muslim girls as at risk for harassment by strangers in public places, and illustrated how Muslim youth cope with discrimination. The study findings sensitize school nurses to the nature of the problem and provide direction for intervention.

  6. Institutional discrimination in Paediatric hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. ATUDOREI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social discrimination stands for one of the phenomena that social policies attempt to counteract by legislation, with a view to impeding its effects. Nevertheless, at institutional level, the decisions perpetuate and encourage discrimination, being practically a norm in an abnormal situation. Abnormality is represented by a series of deficiencies falling within the scope of perverse effects. Having analyzed institutional policies in the field of child health, we have identified a series of issues that fall under social discrimination. The paper submits the reasons for institutional discrimination in paediatric hospitals. The purpose of the research is to identify the discriminated persons and to report the repercussions of institutional discrimination at social level.

  7. Our Polar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2009-01-01

    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  8. Terahertz polarization imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Van der Marel, W.A.M.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method to measure the polarization state of a terahertz pulse by using a modified electrooptic sampling setup. To illustrate the power of this method, we show two examples in which the knowledge of the polarization of the terahertz pulse is essential for interpreting the results:

  9. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  10. Polar Science Is Cool!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Children are fascinated by the fact that polar scientists do research in extremely cold and dangerous places. In the Arctic they might be viewed as lunch by a polar bear. In the Antarctic, they could lose toes and fingers to frostbite and the wind is so fast it can rip skin off. They camp on ice in continuous daylight, weeks from any form of…

  11. Precision Polarization of Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elise; Barron-Palos, Libertad; Couture, Aaron; Crawford, Christopher; Chupp, Tim; Danagoulian, Areg; Estes, Mary; Hona, Binita; Jones, Gordon; Klein, Andi; Penttila, Seppo; Sharma, Monisha; Wilburn, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Determining polarization of a cold neutron beam to high precision is required for the next generation neutron decay correlation experiments at the SNS, such as the proposed abBA and PANDA experiments. Precision polarimetry measurements were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the goal of determining the beam polarization to the level of 10-3 or better. The cold neutrons from FP12 were polarized using optically polarized ^3He gas as a spin filter, which has a highly spin-dependent absorption cross section. A second ^ 3He spin filter was used to analyze the neutron polarization after passing through a resonant RF spin rotator. A discussion of the experiment and results will be given.

  12. Optically polarized 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements. PMID:29503479

  13. Optically polarized 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements.

  14. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  15. Cloud Masking and Surface Temperature Distribution in the Polar Regions Using AVHRR and other Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Joey C.

    1995-01-01

    Surface temperature is one of the key variables associated with weather and climate. Accurate measurements of surface air temperatures are routinely made in meteorological stations around the world. Also, satellite data have been used to produce synoptic global temperature distributions. However, not much attention has been paid on temperature distributions in the polar regions. In the polar regions, the number of stations is very sparse. Because of adverse weather conditions and general inaccessibility, surface field measurements are also limited. Furthermore, accurate retrievals from satellite data in the region have been difficult to make because of persistent cloudiness and ambiguities in the discrimination of clouds from snow or ice. Surface temperature observations are required in the polar regions for air-sea-ice interaction studies, especially in the calculation of heat, salinity, and humidity fluxes. They are also useful in identifying areas of melt or meltponding within the sea ice pack and the ice sheets and in the calculation of emissivities of these surfaces. Moreover, the polar regions are unique in that they are the sites of temperature extremes, the location of which is difficult to identify without a global monitoring system. Furthermore, the regions may provide an early signal to a potential climate change because such signal is expected to be amplified in the region due to feedback effects. In cloud free areas, the thermal channels from infrared systems provide surface temperatures at relatively good accuracies. Previous capabilities include the use of the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite which was launched in 1978. Current capabilities include the use of the Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aboard NOAA satellites. Together, these two systems cover a span of 16 years of thermal infrared data. Techniques for retrieving surface temperatures with these sensors in the polar regions have

  16. The polarized platypus polarized neutron reflectometry made possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saerbeck, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The magnetic moment of the neutron, together with it's highly penetrating non destructive manner, make polarized neutron reflectometry an excellent tool to study magnetic phenomena across surfaces and interfaces of thin films. Unlike other magnetometry techniques which ordinarily yield only average magnetization values or, in case of probes with higher spatial resolution (e.g. electron microscopy or scanning tunnelling microscopy), show a high surface sensitivity, PNR together with magnetic x-ray scattering provides the ability to spatially resolve vector magnetization well beneath the surface [1] The ability to obtain vector magnetization profiles across interfaces and surfaces of thin films and multilayers offers the intriguing possibility to study systematically magnetic configurations and magnetic exchange interactions through intervening layers. In this paper we present the performance of the new polarization system installed on the time of flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS at ANSTO's Bragg Institute. The spin state of the neutrons is polarized and analysed by spatial separation of different neutron spin states using polarizing Fe/Si supermirrors before, and after the sample stage. The supermirrors have a large wavelength acceptance bandwidth of 3 A to 12 A. To control the desired spin direction of the incoming and reflected beam from the sample, two sets of RF spin flippers are installed. In the free space between the spin flippers and the sample stage the neutron spin direction is maintained by two sets of magnetic guide field coils. The new sample environment for studies of magnetic samples includes a 1 T electromagnet and a closed cycle refrigerator which gives access to a temperature range from 4K to 3 50 K .

  17. A dynamically polarized hydrogen and deuterium target at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polarized electron beams have been successfully used at Jefferson Lab for over a year. The authors now report the successful achievement of polarized targets for nuclear and particle physics experiments using the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)technique. The technique involves initial irradiation of frozen ammonia crystals (NH 3 and ND 3 ) using the electron beam from the new Free Electron Laser (FEL) facility at Jefferson Lab, and transferring the crystals to a special target holder for use in Experimental Halls. By subjecting the still ionized and frozen ammonia crystals to a strong magnetic field and suitably tuned RF, the high electron polarization is transmitted to the nucleus thus achieving target polarization. Details of the irradiation facility, the target holder, irradiation times, ionized crystal shelf life, and achieved polarization are discussed

  18. Genetic discrimination: international perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlowski, M; Taylor, S; Bombard, Y

    2012-01-01

    Genetic discrimination (GD) is a complex, multifaceted ethical, psychosocial, and legal phenomenon. It is defined as the differential treatment of asymptomatic individuals or their relatives on the basis of their real or assumed genetic characteristics. This article presents an overview of GD within the contemporary international context. It describes the concept of GD and its contextual features, reviews research evidence regarding people's experiences of GD and the impact of GD within a range of domains, and provides an overview of legal and policy responses to GD that have emerged globally. We argue that GD is a significant and internationally established phenomenon that requires multilevel responses to ensure social justice and equitable outcomes for all citizens. Future research should monitor GD and its impacts within the community as well as institutions and should evaluate the effectiveness of legislative, policy, community education, and systemic responses.

  19. Manifold Partition Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Zhou; Shiliang Sun

    2017-04-01

    We propose a novel algorithm for supervised dimensionality reduction named manifold partition discriminant analysis (MPDA). It aims to find a linear embedding space where the within-class similarity is achieved along the direction that is consistent with the local variation of the data manifold, while nearby data belonging to different classes are well separated. By partitioning the data manifold into a number of linear subspaces and utilizing the first-order Taylor expansion, MPDA explicitly parameterizes the connections of tangent spaces and represents the data manifold in a piecewise manner. While graph Laplacian methods capture only the pairwise interaction between data points, our method captures both pairwise and higher order interactions (using regional consistency) between data points. This manifold representation can help to improve the measure of within-class similarity, which further leads to improved performance of dimensionality reduction. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of the polarized forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks at SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serbo, V.V.

    1997-07-01

    This thesis presents a direct measurement of the parity-violating parameter A b using the Left-Right Forward-Backward asymmetry of b anti b pair production at the Z 0 pole. The measurement was done at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) using data from the SLAC Large Detector (SLD). The authors take advantage of the high polarization of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) electron beam. To identify heavy flavor decays of the Z 0 , they use a b-tag based on the topological reconstruction of the mass of the B vertex. Discrimination between the b and anti b quark directions is provided by a self-calibrating jet-charge technique. This technique allows calibration of the analyzing power from data and gives a much reduced model dependence. Based on the 1994--95 (1993) sample of 100,000 (50,000) Z 0 decays recorded with an electron beam polarization of e > = 77% (63%), they have obtained A b = 0.911 ± 0.045(stat) ± 0.045(syst). This value is in good agreement with the Standard Model

  2. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kégl Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1–9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1 we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2, since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1. Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5. We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems

  3. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  4. [Fluorescence polarization immunoassay of ractopamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, E A; Shpakova, N A; Zherdev, A V; Kiu, L; Xu, C; Eremin, S A; Dzantiev, B B

    2016-01-01

    A technique was developed for fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) of ractopamine, a toxic low molecular weight nonsteroidal growth regulator belonging to the most controlled contaminants of food products of animal origin. The assay is based on the competition between a sample containing ractopamine and ractopamine–fluorophore conjugate for binding to antibodies. The competition is monitored via changes in the degree of fluorescence polarization for plane-polarized excitation light, which differs for the free and antibody-bound forms of the conjugate. The optimal assay conditions were established, ensuring a high accuracy and minimal detection limit. The developed assay demonstrated a detection limit of 1 ng/mL and a range of detectable concentrations of 2.3–50 ng/mL, which met the requirements of sanitary control. The duration of the analysis was 10 min. The possible application of the developed FPIA was demonstrated with testing of turkey meat. The speed and simplicity of the proposed assay define its efficiency as a screening tool for safety of foods.

  5. Perceived discrimination: why applicants and employees expect and perceive discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghazaleh, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation we have investigated perceptions of discrimination. We have shown discrimination exists in the eyes of applicants and employees and especially when from an ethnic minority group. There are psychological variables that influence these perceptions differently for minority and

  6. Propagation of polarized light in turbid media: simulated animation sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Gang; Wang, Lihong V.

    2000-01-01

    A time-resolved Monte Carlo technique was used to simulate the propagation of polarized light in turbid media. Calculated quantities include the reflection Mueller matrices, the transmission Mueller matrices, and the degree of polarization (DOP). The effects of the polarization state of the incident light and of the size of scatterers on the propagation of DOP were studied. Results are shown in animation sequences.

  7. Legal capacity and biomedicine: Biomedical discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Radenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.

  8. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina R Sutin

    Full Text Available Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08 and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97 than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  9. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  10. Polarization at the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Stanford Linear collider was designed to accommodate polarized electron beams. Longitudinally polarized electrons colliding with unpolarized positrons at a center of mass energy near the Z/sup 0/ mass can be used as novel and sensitive probes of the electroweak process. A gallium arsenide based photon emission source will provide a beam of longitudinally polarized electrons of about 45 percent polarization. A system of bend magnets and a superconducting solenoid will be used to rotate the spins so that the polarization is preserved while the 1.21 GeV electrons are stored in the damping ring. Another set of bend magnets and two superconducting solenoids orient the spin vectors so that longitudinal polarization of the electrons is achieved at the collision point with the unpolarized positrons. A system to monitor the polarization based on Moller and Compton scattering will be used. Nearly all major components have been fabricated and tested. Subsystems of the source and polarimeters have been installed, and studies are in progress. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Using tri-axial accelerometers to identify wild polar bear behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Anthony M.; Rode, Karyn D.; Cutting, A.; Owen, M.A.; Jensen, S.; Ware, J.V.; Robbins, C.T.; Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.; Obbard, M.E.; Middel, K.R.; Thiemann, G.W.; Williams, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Tri-axial accelerometers have been used to remotely identify the behaviors of a wide range of taxa. Assigning behaviors to accelerometer data often involves the use of captive animals or surrogate species, as their accelerometer signatures are generally assumed to be similar to those of their wild counterparts. However, this has rarely been tested. Validated accelerometer data are needed for polar bears Ursus maritimus to understand how habitat conditions may influence behavior and energy demands. We used accelerometer and water conductivity data to remotely distinguish 10 polar bear behaviors. We calibrated accelerometer and conductivity data collected from collars with behaviors observed from video-recorded captive polar bears and brown bears U. arctos, and with video from camera collars deployed on free-ranging polar bears on sea ice and on land. We used random forest models to predict behaviors and found strong ability to discriminate the most common wild polar bear behaviors using a combination of accelerometer and conductivity sensor data from captive or wild polar bears. In contrast, models using data from captive brown bears failed to reliably distinguish most active behaviors in wild polar bears. Our ability to discriminate behavior was greatest when species- and habitat-specific data from wild individuals were used to train models. Data from captive individuals may be suitable for calibrating accelerometers, but may provide reduced ability to discriminate some behaviors. The accelerometer calibrations developed here provide a method to quantify polar bear behaviors to evaluate the impacts of declines in Arctic sea ice.

  12. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  13. Polar Sea Ice Monitoring Using HY-2A Scatterometer Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A sea ice detection algorithm based on Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis is developed to segment sea ice and open water for the Ku-band scatterometer onboard the China’s Hai Yang 2A Satellite (HY-2A/SCAT. Residual classification errors are reduced through image erosion/dilation techniques and sea ice growth/retreat constraint methods. The arctic sea-ice-type classification is estimated via a time-dependent threshold derived from the annual backscatter trends based on previous HY-2A/SCAT derived sea ice extent. The extent and edge of the sea ice obtained in this study is compared with the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS sea ice concentration data and the Sentinel-1 SAR imagery for verification, respectively. Meanwhile, the classified sea ice type is compared with a multi-sensor sea ice type product based on data from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT and SSMIS. Results show that HY-2A/SCAT is powerful in providing sea ice extent and type information, while differences in the sensitivities of active/passive products are found. In addition, HY-2A/SCAT derived sea ice products are also proved to be valuable complements for existing polar sea ice data products.

  14. Polarized scintillator targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.

    2000-05-01

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as "live" polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  15. Polarized scintillator targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, B. van den E-mail: vandenbrandt@psi.ch; Bunyatova, E.I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S

    2000-05-21

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as 'live' polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  16. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  17. Perceived discrimination in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iris Andriessen; Henk Fernee; Karin Wittebrood

    2014-01-01

    Only available in electronic version There is no systematic structure in the Netherlands for mapping out the discrimination experiences of different groups in different areas of society. As in many other countries, discrimination studies in the Netherlands mostly focus on the experiences

  18. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  19. THE HIGH COST OF DISCRIMINATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROPER, ELMO

    ON THE BASIS OF EMPLOYEE SURVEYS AND IN-PLANT RESEARCH, THE TOTAL COST OF DISCRIMINATION TO AMERICAN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY IN ACTUAL DOLLARS IS ESTIMATED AT ROUGHLY $30 BILLION ANNUALLY. DISCRIMINATION IN INDUSTRY BEGINS AT THE HIRING GATE WHERE MINORITY GROUPS ARE REFUSED EMPLOYMENT BECAUSE OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, NATIONALITY, POLITICAL…

  20. Price Discrimination in Academic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Patrick; Merz, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of price discrimination (charging different prices to different customers for same product) for 89 academic journals in 6 disciplines reveals: incidence of price discrimination rose between 1974 and 1984, increase in mean institutional (library) subscription price exceeded increase in mean individual subscription price. Journal list…

  1. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  2. Endophilia or exophobia: beyond discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feld, J.F.; Salamanca Acosta, N.; Hamermesh, D.

    2013-01-01

    The immense literature on discrimination treats outcomes as relative: One group suffers compared to another. But does a difference arise because agents discriminate against others—are exophobic—or because they favor their own kind—are endophilic? This difference matters, as the relative importance

  3. Polarization measurement in the COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, K; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Görtz, S; Hasegawa, T; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Le Goff, J M; Magnon, A; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Matsuda, T

    2004-01-01

    Continuous wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to determine the target polarization in the COMPASS experiment. The system is made of the so-called Liverpool Q-meters, Yale-cards, and VME modules for data taking and system controlling. In 2001 the NMR coils were embedded in the target material, while in 2002 and 2003 the coils were mounted on the outer surface of the target cells to increase the packing factor of the material. Though the error of the measurement became larger with the outer coils than with the inner coils, we have performed stable measurements throughout the COMPASS run time for 3 years. The maximum polarization was +57% and -53% as the average in the target cells.

  4. Grazing incidence polarized neutron scattering in reflection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the year 1980, polarized neutron scattering technique came into being as an ana- lytic tool to measure the ... The discovery of antiferromagnetic coupling was critical to the discovery of GMR, pro- viding as it did ..... Here we consider the incident wave vector ki making an angle αi in the x–z plane while the scattered ...

  5. Cool Polar Bears: Dabbing on the Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jean

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her second-graders created their cool polar bears. The students used the elements of shape and texture to create the bears. They used Monet's technique of dabbing paint so as to give the bear some texture on his fur.

  6. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy: Three-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of the modern understanding of orientational order in liquid crystals (LCs) is based on polarizing microscopy (PM). A PM image bears only two-dimensional (2D) information, integrating the 3D pattern of optical birefringence over the path of light. Recently, we proposed a technique to image 3D director patterns by ...

  7. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy: Three-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Much of the modern understanding of orientational order in liquid crystals (LCs) is based on polarizing microscopy (PM). A PM image bears only two-dimensional (2D) information, integrating the 3D pattern of optical birefringence over the path of light. Recently, we proposed a technique to image 3D director ...

  8. KEK/NAGOYA/SLAC: Highly polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the push by the Japanese KEK Laboratory, in collaboration with university groups and overseas laboratories, to develop new techniques for the future Japan electronpositron collider (JLC), a recent achievement is a significant increase in the efficient yield of highly polarized electrons

  9. Children's perceptions of gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears Brown, Christia; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2004-09-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the gender of the perpetrator (i.e., teacher) were manipulated. Results indicated that older children were more likely than younger children to make attributions to discrimination when contextual information suggested that it was likely. Girls (but not boys) were more likely to view girls than boys as victims of discrimination, and children with egalitarian gender attitudes were more likely to perceive discrimination than were their peers. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  10. Dual Polarized Waveguide Phased Array for SAR Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, K.K.; Visser, H.J.; Keizer, W.P.M.N.; Turner, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    A modal technique is employed to evaluate the suitability of a square waveguide element for use in a dual polarized phased array. The element is found to possess low active reflection coefficient and high cross-polar isolation over the bandwith and scan volume that are typically required for SAR

  11. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (pdiscrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  12. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  13. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...

  14. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  15. Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Di; Ding, Chuntao; Xu, Jinliang; Wang, Shangguang

    2018-01-18

    The Internet of Things (IoT) generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification) is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA). It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  16. Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA. It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  17. Timing, Remembering, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargisson, Rebecca J; White, K. Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    Four pigeons were first trained in a timing procedure. In one condition, each trial began with the presentation of an X on the center key, followed by a delay (short or long), after which two side keys were lit. If the delay was short, pecks to the red side key were reinforced. If the delay was long, pecks to the green side key were reinforced. In a second condition, the opposite contingencies applied following presentation of a square on the center key. Choice responses were then tested at 10 time intervals ranging from short to long (1 to 4 s and 4 to 7 s in different conditions). The two timing conditions were combined to create a remembering condition in which correct responding depended upon discrimination of both the sample stimulus (X or square) and the delay interval (short or long). Choices varied systematically across delay in timing conditions, but in remembering conditions, accurate choice at the training delays did not initially generalize to intermediate delays. However, with prolonged training in the remembering task, the response pattern began to resemble that of the timing conditions. Generalization gradients were asymmetrical, in accordance with Weber's Law, in that greater generalization occurred with longer delays than with shorter delays. PMID:17345949

  18. Efficient polarization analysis for focusing neutron instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahn, Jochen; Glavic, Artur

    2017-06-01

    Polarized neutrons are a powerful probe to investigate magnetism in condensed matter on length scales from single atomic distances to micrometers. With the ongoing advancement of neutron optics, that allow to transport beams with increased divergence, the demands on neutron polarizes and analyzers have grown as well. The situation becomes especially challenging for new instruments at pulsed sources, where a large wavelength band needs to be polarized to make efficient use of the time structure of the beam. Here we present a polarization analysis concept for highly focused neutron beams that is based on transmission supermirrors that are bend in the shape of equiangular spirals. The method allows polarizations above 95% and good transmission, without negative impact on other beam characteristics. An example of a compact polarizing device already tested on the AMOR reflectometer is presented as well as the concept for the next generation implementation of the technique that will be installed on the Estia instrument being build for the European Spallation Source.

  19. Top polarization, forward-backward asymmetry and new physics

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debajyoti; Rindani, Saurabh D; Saha, Pratishruti

    2011-01-01

    We consider how the measurement of top polarization at the Tevatron can be used to characterise and discriminate among different new physics models that have been suggested to explain the anomalous top forward-backward asymmetry reported at the Tevatron. This has the advantage of catching the essence of the parity violating effect characteristic to the different suggested new physics models. Other observables constructed from these asymmetries are shown to be useful in discriminating between the models, even after taking into account the statistical errors. Finally, we discuss some signals at the 7 TeV LHC.

  20. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  1. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  2. Ultracold Polar Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0005 Ultracold Polar Molecules Jeremy Hutson UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM Final Report 04/01/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-Jan-2010 to 14-Jul-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Report on Grant FA8655-10-1-3033 on Ultracold Polar Molecules 5a...formation of ultracold 87RbCs molecules in their rovibrational ground state by magnetoassociation followed by STIRAP, resulting in 14 papers acknowledging

  3. Studying Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence with Synchrotron Polarization Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Fu; Lazarian, Alex; Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, Jungyeon

    2016-07-01

    We test a new technique for studying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence suggested by Lazarian & Pogosyan, using synthetic observations of synchrotron polarization. This paper focuses on a one-point statistics, which is termed polarization frequency analysis, that is characterized by the variance of polarized emission as a function of the square of the wavelength along a single line of sight. We adopt the ratio η of the standard deviation of the line-of-sight turbulent magnetic field to the line-of-sight mean magnetic field to depict the level of turbulence. When this ratio is large (η \\gg 1), which characterizes a region dominated by turbulent field, or small (η ≲ 0.2), which characterizes a region dominated by the mean field, we obtain the polarization variance \\propto {λ }-2 or \\propto {λ }-2-2m, respectively. At small η, I.e., in the region dominated by the mean field, we successfully recover the turbulent spectral index from the polarization variance. We find that our simulations agree well with the theoretical prediction of Lazarian & Pogosyan. With existing and upcoming data cubes from the Low-Frequency Array for Radio Astronomy (LOFAR) and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), this new technique can be applied to study the magnetic turbulence in the Milky Way and other galaxies.

  4. Hsp Polarization Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bless, Robert

    1991-07-01

    This proposal defines the procedure for determining the instrumental polarization of the polarimetric IDT (IDT#1, POL) on the HSP. 1 of 2 unpolarized standard stars wil be observed using various filter-polarizer combinations. These observations will permit the instrumental polarization to be calibrated. The instrumental polarization must be determined to a high precision in order to vectoriallly remove it from HSP polarization observations to determine the actual astronomical polarization. Final run of proposal will look at one of 2 possible stars previously observed to get another look at the throughput. Revision History: Mark H. Slovak 8/30/88 Translated to V2 proposal instructions (RPSS V6.2) S. Laurent 1/20/89 Updated: Sally Laurent 2/24/89, 3/20/89, 4/13/89, 5/12/89 Modified: P. Stanley 1/15/90 - change to use CTA selected targets only; Fixes for aberration problem - SALM 7/30/90; Based on SV/HSP 1386. New submission changed targets and revised scheduling strategy. Revised: 26 Aug 92 J. Dolan, L. Walter, P. Reppert want to re-run the proposal (3985) one last time to bring down errors.

  5. The application of pulse shape discrimination in NE 213 to neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L.J.; Scott, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a zero-crossing pulse shape discrimination technique to distinguish protons from alpha particles in NE 213 is described, and a theoretical analysis is performed to predict the zero crossing characteristics. It is shown that, irrespective of the particular method of pulse shape discrimination employed, the pulse shape at low energies no longer uniquely determines the particle type for electrons, protons, alpha particles or 12 C nuclei, and the general limitations of pulse shape discrimination in NE 213 are deduced. The use of an alpha discrimination technique is then discribed, enabling neutron spectra to be unfolded from the measured detector response using a differential code. (orig.)

  6. The temperature dependence of pulse shape discrimination with NE213 scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, R.B.; Sharaf, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the pulse shape discrimination between neutrons and gamma rays has been investigated for two scintillation counters using NE213 liquid scintillator. One counter used the zero cross-over timing technique of pulse shape discrimination and showed no significant temperature dependence over the range 35 to -8 0 C. The other used the space charge saturation technique of pulse shape discrimination and showed a marked temperature dependence. The findings are compared with previously published contradictory results. The influence of temperature on the gain of the detectors is found to be more important than the influence on the pulse shape discrimination. (orig.)

  7. Novel technique for spatially resolved imaging of molecular bond orientations using x-ray birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, John P., E-mail: john.sutter@diamond.ac.uk; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Collins, Stephen P. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Harris, Kenneth D. M., E-mail: HarrisKDM@cardiff.ac.uk; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R.; Kariuki, Benson M. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Palmer, Benjamin A. [Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl St., Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2016-07-27

    Birefringence has been observed in anisotropic materials transmitting linearly polarized X-ray beams tuned close to an absorption edge of a specific element in the material. Synchrotron bending magnets provide X-ray beams of sufficiently high brightness and cross section for spatially resolved measurements of birefringence. The recently developed X-ray Birefringence Imaging (XBI) technique has been successfully applied for the first time using the versatile test beamline B16 at Diamond Light Source. Orientational distributions of the C–Br bonds of brominated “guest” molecules within crystalline “host” tunnel structures (in thiourea or urea inclusion compounds) have been studied using linearly polarized incident X-rays near the Br K-edge. Imaging of domain structures, changes in C–Br bond orientations associated with order-disorder phase transitions, and the effects of dynamic averaging of C–Br bond orientations have been demonstrated. The XBI setup uses a vertically deflecting high-resolution double-crystal monochromator upstream from the sample and a horizontally deflecting single-crystal polarization analyzer downstream, with a Bragg angle as close as possible to 45°. In this way, the ellipticity and rotation angle of the polarization of the beam transmitted through the sample is measured as in polarizing optical microscopy. The theoretical instrumental background calculated from the elliptical polarization of the bending-magnet X-rays, the imperfect polarization discrimination of the analyzer, and the correlation between vertical position and photon energy introduced by the monochromator agrees well with experimental observations. The background is calculated analytically because the region of X-ray phase space selected by this setup is sampled inefficiently by standard methods.

  8. Timbre discrimination in musical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, J M

    1978-08-01

    Most research on timbre perception has studied isolated tones. This study compares timbre discrimination of isolated tones with discrimination in various musical contexts, both single-voiced and multivoiced. Twelve different contexts were used (four isolated tonal comparisons, four single-voice musical patterns, and four multivoice patterns). Listerners judged whether the timbre remained the same or changed during the trial. Two possible versions of any instrumental timbre differed in the physical information used in their synthesis. Three instrumental timbres were tested in all contexts: clarinet, trumpet, and bassoon. The effects of context upon discrimination varied across instruments. The clarinet and trumpet versions were best discriminated in isolated contexts, with discrimination progressively worse in single-voice and multivoice patterns. The bassoon versions were best discriminated in the single-voice patterns, with equal discrimination in the isolated and multivoice cases. It is suggested that these results were due to pronounced physical differences observed between the spectra of the two versions of the bassoon that were not apparent between the versions of the clarinet or trumpet.

  9. Hybrid scintillators for neutron discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Patrick L; Cordaro, Joseph G; Anstey, Mitchell R; Morales, Alfredo M

    2015-05-12

    A composition capable of producing a unique scintillation response to neutrons and gamma rays, comprising (i) at least one surfactant; (ii) a polar hydrogen-bonding solvent; and (iii) at least one luminophore. A method including combining at least one surfactant, a polar hydrogen-bonding solvent and at least one luminophore in a scintillation cell under vacuum or an inert atmosphere.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of convection in laser-polarized xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, R. W.; Tseng, C. H.; Wong, G. P.; Cory, D. G.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of the flow and diffusion of laser-polarized xenon (129Xe) gas undergoing convection above evaporating laser-polarized liquid xenon. The large xenon NMR signal provided by the laser-polarization technique allows more rapid imaging than one can achieve with thermally polarized gas-liquid systems, permitting shorter time-scale events such as rapid gas flow and gas-liquid dynamics to be observed. Two-dimensional velocity-encoded imaging shows convective gas flow above the evaporating liquid xenon, and also permits the measurement of enhanced gas diffusion near regions of large velocity variation.

  11. Polarization coupling of vector Bessel–Gaussian beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Ryushi; Kozawa, Yuichi; Sato, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    We report polarization coupling of radial and azimuthal electric field components of a vector light beam as predicted by the fact that the vector Helmholtz equation is expressed as coupled differential equations in cylindrical coordinates. To clearly observe the polarization variation of a beam as it propagates, higher order transverse modes of a vector Bessel–Gaussian beam were generated by a gain distribution modulation technique, which created a narrow ring-shaped gain region in a Nd:YVO 4 crystal. The polarization coupling was confirmed by the observation that the major polarization component of a vector Bessel–Gaussian beam alternates between radial and azimuthal components along with the propagation. (paper)

  12. An Integrated Imaging Detector of Polarization and Spectral Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, D. M.; Thompson, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of image detector has been designed to simultaneously analyze the polarization of light at all picture elements in a scene. The Integrated Dual Imaging Detector (IDID) consists of a polarizing beamsplitter bonded to a charge-coupled device (CCD), with signal-analysis circuitry and analog-to-digital converters, all integrated on a silicon chip. It should be capable of 1:10(exp 4) polarization discrimination. The IDID should simplify the design and operation of imaging polarimeters and spectroscopic imagers used, for example, in atmospheric and solar research. Innovations in the IDID include (1) two interleaved 512 x 1024-pixel imaging arrays (one for each polarization plane); (2) large dynamic range (well depth of 10(exp 6) electrons per pixel); (3) simultaneous readout of both images at 10 million pixels per second each; (4) on-chip analog signal processing to produce polarization maps in real time; (5) on-chip 10-bit A/D conversion. When used with a lithium-niobate Fabry-Perot etalon or other color filter that can encode spectral information as polarization, the IDID can collect and analyze simultaneous images at two wavelengths. Precise photometric analysis of molecular or atomic concentrations in the atmosphere is one suggested application. When used in a solar telescope, the IDID will charge the polarization, which can then be converted to maps of the vector magnetic fields on the solar surface.

  13. Two Notes on Discrimination and Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    1998-01-01

    1. It turns out that the Oaxaca-Blinder wage decomposition is inadequate when it comes to calculation of separate contributions for indicator variables. The contributions are not robust against a change of reference group. I extend the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to handle this problem. 2. The p....... The paper suggests how to use the logit model to decompose the gender difference in the probability of an occurrence. The technique is illustrated by an analysis of discrimination in child labor in rural Zambia....

  14. All-optical phase discrimination using SOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Mark J; Webb, Roderick P; Manning, Robert J

    2013-11-04

    We describe the first experimental demonstration of a novel all-optical phase discrimination technique, which can separate the two orthogonal phase components of a signal onto different frequencies. This method exploits nonlinear mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) to separate a 10.65 Gbaud QPSK signal into two 10.65 Gb/s BPSK signals which are then demodulated using a delay interferometer (DI). Eye diagrams and spectral measurements verify correct operation and a conversion efficiency greater than 9 dB is observed on both output BPSK channels when compared with the input QPSK signal.

  15. Frequency and Polarization Diversity Jamming of Communications in Urban Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ulama, Tuncay

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate how to exploit frequency and polarization techniques in reducing the effects of jamming against UAV relay communication links in an urban warfare environment...

  16. Colour discrimination ellipses in choroideremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Immanuel P; Jolly, Jasleen K; Dominik Fischer, M; Simunovic, Matthew P

    2018-02-05

    The purpose of this study was to characterise alterations in colour discrimination in a cohort of patients with choroideremia prior to gene therapy, using a test previously validated for use in patients with retinal dystrophies. We tested 20 eyes of 10 patients with a diagnosis of choroideremia and an age-matched cohort of 10 eyes of 10 normal controls using the "Cambridge Colour Test" (CCT), in which subjects are required to distinguish the gap in a C presented in one of 4 orientations in a Stilling-type array. Colour discrimination was probed along eight axes in the CIE L*u*v* colour space, and the resulting data were plotted in the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram and fitted with least-squares ellipses. Subsequently, we estimated the achromatic area for each subject by calculating the area of the resultant discrimination ellipse and calculated sensitivity thresholds along relevant colour confusion axes. Colour discrimination-as quantified by log 10 of the ellipse area expressed in square 1/1000th 2 units in CIE 1976-was 2.26 (range 1.82 to 2.67) for normal subjects and 3.85 (range 2.35 to 5.41) for choroideremia patients. There was a statistically significant correlation between both achromatic area and red-green colour discrimination at the CCT and BCVA, and to a lesser degree between blue colour discrimination at the CCT and BCVA. The majority of ellipses in choroideremia were aligned close to the tritan axis, and loss of sensitivity was significantly larger in the tritan direction than in the red-green. The majority of our patients demonstrated greater loss in tritan discrimination than in red-green colour discrimination using the CCT. There was a significant correlation between achromatic area and BCVA. In keeping with our current understanding of the machinery of colour vision, there was a significant correlation between BCVA and colour discrimination thresholds, which was stronger for red-green colour discrimination, than for tritan colour discrimination. We

  17. Structural Discrimination and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for structural discrimination to be woven into the fabric of autonomous vehicle developments, which remain underexplored and undiscussed. The prospect for structural discrimination arises as a result of the coordinated modes of autonomous vehicle behaviour...... discrimination looms with the possibility of crash optimisation impulses in which a protective shield is cast over those individuals in which society may have a vested interest in prioritising or safeguarding. A stark dystopian scenario is introduced to sketch the contours whereby personal beacons signal...

  18. Sex Discrimination in Education: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, B.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews various perspectives on sex discrimination in schools and colleges, presents case studies of sex discrimination in the English educational system, and distinguishes between sex discrimination and gender forming. Journal availability: see SO 507 421. (DB)

  19. The evolution of tensor polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Lee, S.Y.; Ratner, L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the equation of motion for the vector polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization is derived. The evolution equation for the tensor polarization is studied in the presence of an isolate spin resonance and in the presence of a spin rotor, or snake

  20. Dispersing surface-modified imogolite nanotubes in polar and non-polar solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Brant, Jonathan A.

    2018-02-01

    Furthering the development of nanocomposite structures, namely membranes for water treatment applications, requires that methods be developed to ensure nanoparticle dispersion in polar and non-polar solvents, as both are widely used in associated synthesis techniques. Here, we report on a two-step method to graft polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and a one-step method for octadecylphosphonic acid (OPA), onto the outer surfaces of imogolite nanotubes. The goal of these approaches was to improve and maintain nanotube dispersion in polymer compatible polar and non-polar solvents. The PVP coating modified the imogolite surface charge from positive to weakly negative at pH ≤ 9; the OPA made it weakly positive at acidic pH values to negative at pH ≥ 7. The PVP surface coating stabilized the nanotubes through steric hindrance in polar protic, dipolar aprotic, and chloroform. In difference to the PVP, the OPA surface coating allowed the nanotubes to be dispersed in n-hexane and chloroform, but not in the polar solvents. The lack of miscibility in the polar solvents, as well as the better dispersion in n-hexane, was attributed to the stronger hydrophobicity of the OPA polymer relative to the PVP. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Polarization division multiple access with polarization modulation for LOS wireless communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Bin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we discuss a potential multiple access and modulation scheme based on polarized states (PS of electromagnetic (EM waves for line-of-sight (LOS communications. The proposed scheme is theoretic different from the existing polar modulation for EDGE and WCDMA systems. We propose the detailed bit representation (modulation and multiple access scheme using PS. Because of the inflexibility of polarization information in the time and frequency domains, as well as independence of frequency and space, the polarization information can be used independently for wireless communications, i.e., another independent resource domain that can be utilized. Due to the independence between the PS and the specific features of signals (such as waveform, bandwidth and data rate, the discussed polarization division multiple access (PDMA and polarization modulation (PM are expected to improve the spectrum utilization effectively. It is proved that the polarization filtering technique can be adopted in the PDMA-PM wireless communications to separate the multiuser signals and demodulate the bit information representing by PS for desired user. Some theoretical analysis is done to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme, and the simulation results are made to evaluate the performance of the suggested system.

  2. Real-time polarization mode dispersion monitoring system for a multiple-erbium-doped fiber amplifier, dense wavelength division multiplexing optical fiber transmission by amplified spontaneous emission modulation and acousto-optic tunable fiber scanning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Bao-Jang; Tarn, Chen-Wen

    2009-03-01

    Without interruption or affecting the transmission of ordinary payload channels, we propose a real time polarization mode dispersion (PMD) monitoring system for long-haul, multiple erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical fiber transmission using modulated amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of one of the EDFAs as the supervisory (SV) signal source. An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) at the receiver side is adopted to scan the spectrum of the transmitted ASE SV signal. Using the fixed-analyzer method, PMDs of different wavelength bands that range from 1545 to 1580 nm of a DWDM fiber-optic communication system can be found by adaptively changing the radio frequency of the AOTF. The resolution and the measuring range of the proposed monitoring system can be significantly improved by cascading the AOTFs at the receiver side.

  3. Characterization of spatial polarization fluctuations in scattered field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Singh, Rakesh; Naik, Dinesh N; Itou, Hitoshi; Miyamoto, Yoko; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    We extend the concept of Poincare vector correlations for the characterization of spatial polarization fluctuations of scattered fields. Spatial (rather than temporal) dynamics of polarization in the scattered field is investigated experimentally by detecting instantaneous polarization with a specially designed polarization interferometer. Use of the Poincare-vector correlation in characterization is demonstrated by determining polarization dynamics of three different cases of scattered fields. This confirms usefulness of the proposed technique in diagnosis of scatterers. Under the condition of spatial ergodicity and Gaussian statistics of the scattered field, we replace the ensemble average of the instantaneous field with the space average, and estimate generalized Stokes parameters (GSPs) of the polarization speckles. Results of GSPs are used to obtain spatial correlation of the Poincare vectors. (paper)

  4. Polarized Electrons at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously.initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented.

  5. Polarized electrons at Jefferson laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously. Initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented

  6. Advances in spectral inversion of time-domain induced polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    The extraction of spectral information in the inversion process of time-domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) data is changing the use of the TDIP method. Data interpretation is evolving from a qualitative description of the subsurface, able only to discriminate the presence of contrasts in charg......The extraction of spectral information in the inversion process of time-domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) data is changing the use of the TDIP method. Data interpretation is evolving from a qualitative description of the subsurface, able only to discriminate the presence of contrasts...... in chargeability parameters, towards a quantitative analysis of the investigated media, which allows for detailed soil- and rock-type characterization. In this work a review of the recent advances in spectral inversion of TDIP data is presented, in terms of: supported IP parameterizations; modelling of transmitter...

  7. Polar low monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, Leonid; Zabolotskikh, Elizaveta; Mitnik, Leonid

    2010-05-01

    Polar lows are intense mesoscale atmospheric low pressure weather systems, developing poleward of the main baroclinic zone and associated with high surface wind speeds. Small size and short lifetime, sparse in-situ observations in the regions of their development complicate polar low study. Our knowledge of polar lows and mesocyclones has come almost entirely during the period of satellite remote sensing since, by virtue of their small horizontal scale, it was rarely possible to analyse these lows on conventional weather charts using only the data from the synoptic observing network. However, the effects of intense polar lows have been felt by coastal communities and seafarers since the earliest times. These weather systems are thought to be responsible for the loss of many small vessels over the centuries, although the nature of the storms was not understood and their arrival could not be predicted. The actuality of the polar low research is stipulated by their high destructive power: they are a threat to such businesses as oil and gas exploration, fisheries and shipping. They could worsen because of global warming: a shrinking of sea ice around the North Pole, which thawed to its record minimum in the summer of 2007, is likely to give rise to more powerful storms that form only over open water and can cause hurricane-strength winds. Therefore, study of polar lows, their timely detection, tracking and forecasting represents a challenge for today meteorology. Satellite passive microwave data, starting from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) onboard Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite, remain invaluable source of regularly available remotely sensed data to study polar lows. The sounding in this spectral range has several advantages in comparison with observations in visible and infrared ranges and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data: independence on day time and clouds, regularity and high temporal resolution in Polar Regions. Satellite

  8. Polarized protons at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    The Physics case is presented for the use of polarized protons at RHIC for one or two months each year. This would provide a facility with polarizations of approx-gt 50% high luminosity ∼2.0 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , the possibility of both longitudinal and transverse polarization at the interaction regions, and frequent polarization reversal for control of systematic errors. The annual integrated luminosity for such running (∼10 6 sec per year) would be ∫ Ldt = 2 x 10 38 cm -2 -- roughly 20 times the total luminosity integrated in ∼ 10 years of operation of the CERN Collider (∼10 inverse picobarns, 10 37 cm -2 ). This facility would be unique in the ability to perform parity-violating measurements and polarization test of QCD. Also, the existence of p-p collisions in a new energy range would permit the study of ''classical'' reactions like the total cross section and elastic scattering, etc., and serve as a complement to measurements from p-bar p colliders. 11 refs

  9. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  10. Discrimination of chromosome by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masubuchi, Masanori

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes discrimination of chromosome by autoradiography. In this method, the difference in DNA synthetic phase between each chromosome was used as a standard, and the used chromosome was in metaphase, as morphological characteristics were markedly in this phase. Cell cycle and autoradiography with 3 H-thymidine were also examined. In order to discriminate chromosome by autoradiography, it was effective to utilize the labelled pattern in late DNA synthetic phase, where asynchronous replication of chromosome appeared most obviously. DNA synthesis in chromosome was examined in each DNA synthetic phase by culturing the chromosome after the treatment with 3 H-thymidine and altering the time to prepare chromosome specimen. Discrimination of chromosome in plants and animals by autoradiography was also mentioned. It was noticed as a structural and functional discrimination of chromosome to observe amino acid uptake into chromosome protein and to utilize the difference in labelled pattern between the sites of chromosome. (K. Serizawa)

  11. Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...

  12. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ending Sex Discrimination in Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, William J.

    1980-01-01

    The controversy surrounding the sex discrimination suit, brought seven years ago by a University of Minnesota chemist, is discussed as it relates to the current court decision in which the plaintiff was awarded $100,000.00. (Author/SA)

  14. A Study of Polarization in Hyperon Production Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, David McDill [Minnesota U.

    1995-01-01

    The polarization of $\\Xi^-$ and $\\Omega^-$ hyperons produced from both polarized and unpolarized neutral particle beams has been studied. The unpolarized neutral beam production studies are the first measurements made using this production technique. The neutral beam consisted of neutrons, $\\Lambda^0$s, $\\Xi^0$s, $K^0$s, and photons. No polarization was observed in the sample of 1.4 x $10^7 \\Xi^-$s produced by an unpolarized neutral beam. For n-s produced by an unpolarized neutral beam, a sample of 1.7 x $10^5$ events with an average momentum of 394. GeV/c had a polarization of +0.044 $\\pm$ 0.008 and a sample of 5 x 104 events with an average momentum of 304. GeV /c had a polarization of +0.036 $\\pm$ 0.015. The polarization of 7.1 x $10^5 \\Xi^- s$ produced by a polarized neutral beam was -0.118±0.004 at an average momentum of 393. GeV/c. 1.8 x $10^4 \\Omega^- s$ produced by the polarized neutral beam had a polarization of -0.069 $\\pm$ 0.023 at an average momentum of 394. GeV /c. The measurements for production from a polarized neutral beam are in agreement with a previous measurement.

  15. In-line Fiber Polarizer

    OpenAIRE

    Perumalsamy, Priya

    1998-01-01

    Polarizers and polarization devices are important components in fiber optic communication and sensor systems. There is a growing need for efficient low loss components that are compatible with optical fibers. An all fiber in-line polarizer is a more desirable alternative that could be placed at appropriate intervals along communication links. An in-line fiber polarizer was fabricated and tested. The in-line fiber polarizer operates by coupling optical energy propagatin...

  16.  Optimizing relational algebra operations using discrimination-based joins and lazy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz

    We show how to implement in-memory execution of the core re- lational algebra operations of projection, selection and cross-product eciently, using discrimination-based joins and lazy products. We introduce the notion of (partitioning) discriminator, which par- titions a list of values according...... to a specied equivalence relation on keys the values are associated with. We show how discriminators can be dened generically, purely functionally, and eciently (worst-case linear time) on top of the array-based basic multiset discrimination algorithm of Cai and Paige (1995). Discriminators provide the basis...... the selection operation to recognize on the y whenever it is applied to a cross-product, in which case it can choose an ecient discrimination-based equijoin implementation. The techniques subsume most of the optimization techniques based on relational algebra equalities, without need for a query preprocessing...

  17. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  18. Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring

    OpenAIRE

    Doris Weichselbaumer

    2000-01-01

    Little research has been done to examine discrimination against gays and lesbians in the labor market. Badgett (1995) conducted the only previous study investigating labor market outcomes of gays and lesbians using a random data set. However, due to the structure of the data, the wage differential between heterosexuals and gays and lesbians that is found can not be directly assigned to employer discrimination. Some gays and lesbians might deploy passing strategies to hide their sexual orienta...

  19. Discrimination and Equality of Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ignacio García-Pérez; Antonio Villar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a measure of social discrimination based on the principle of equality of opportunity. According to this principle we only have to care about the inequality derived from people’s differential circumstances (and not about outcome differences due to people’s diverse degree of effort). We propose approaching the measurement of group discrimination as the “welfare loss” attributed to the inequality between social groups of similar characteristics. We also provide an empirical a...

  20. [Research on the Thermal Infrared Polarization Properties of Fresh Snow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-ting; Li, Zhao-liang; Tang, Bo-hui; Sun, Wei-qi; Zhao, Yun-sheng

    2015-07-01

    Snow can directly affect the surface energy balance and climate change and has a significant impact on human life and production. It is therefore of great significance to study the fresh snow emission spectroscopy properties by using the thermal infrared Polarization technique. This can provide a basis for quantitative thermal infrared remote sensing monitoring of snow as well as a deeper understanding of global warming and appropriate countermeasures. This paper focuses on the investigation of the thermal infrared polarization properties of the fresh snow. The results show that the thermal emissive polarization properties of fresh snow depend significantly on the wavelengths (channels) and view angles used to measure them. Four channels are considered in this study, their spectral response ranges are 8-14 microm for channel 1 (CH1), 11.5-12.5 microm for channel 2 (CH2), 10.3-11.5 microm for channel 3 (CH) and 8.2-9.2 microm for channel 4 (CH4). The snow polarized radiance (L) and its polarized brightness temperature (T) manifest as L(CH1) >L(CH3) > L(CH4) > L(CH2) and T(CH4) > T(CH1) > T(CH2) > TCH3, respectively, while the degree of polarization (P) manifests as P0 > P30 > P40 > P20 > P0 > P50 where the subscript of P denotes the view angle. The maximum of both L and T occurs at the view angle of 50 degree and polarization angle of 90 degree while their minimum appears at the view angle of 30 degree and polarization angle of 75 degree for each channel. In addition, the results show that: CH3 is more appropriate for better investigation of the emissive polarization properties of snow. Linear relationship is found between the fresh snow polarized T and the polarization angle with the coefficient of determination larger than 0.77 for all four channels. The polarized brightness temperature of the fresh snow is found to be increased about 0.003 K per polarization angle within 0-135 degree. The degree of polarization of snow is almost independent of the channels we

  1. Unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chefles, Anthony; Kitagawa, Akira; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Twamley, Jason

    2007-01-01

    We address the problem of unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators. The general theory of unambiguous discrimination among unitary operators is extended with this application in mind. We prove that entanglement with an ancilla cannot assist any discrimination strategy for commuting unitary operators. We also obtain a simple, practical test for the unambiguous distinguishability of an arbitrary set of unitary operators on a given system. Using this result, we prove that the unambiguous distinguishability criterion is the same for both standard and minimal oracle operators. We then show that, except in certain trivial cases, unambiguous discrimination among all standard oracle operators corresponding to integer functions with fixed domain and range is impossible. However, we find that it is possible to unambiguously discriminate among the Grover oracle operators corresponding to an arbitrarily large unsorted database. The unambiguous distinguishability of standard oracle operators corresponding to totally indistinguishable functions, which possess a strong form of classical indistinguishability, is analysed. We prove that these operators are not unambiguously distinguishable for any finite set of totally indistinguishable functions on a Boolean domain and with arbitrary fixed range. Sets of such functions on a larger domain can have unambiguously distinguishable standard oracle operators, and we provide a complete analysis of the simplest case, that of four functions. We also examine the possibility of unambiguous oracle operator discrimination with multiple parallel calls and investigate an intriguing unitary superoperator transformation between standard and entanglement-assisted minimal oracle operators

  2. An internal polarized 3He target for electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, L.H.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; DeSchepper, D.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Milner, R.G.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Pate, S.F.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Shin, T.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA

    1995-01-01

    We describe an internal polarized 3 He target currently under construction which will be used in several electron storage ring experiments. The target is based on the technique of metastability exchange laser optical pumping, where the polarized atoms flow into a cryogenically-cooled storage cell. This novel technique allows for high precision measurements where the beam interacts with the pure atomic species. Both the HERMES experiment at DESY and the BLAST detector at the MIT Bates Laboratory will use the polarized 3 He target in their measurements. Details of the target system, including the provisions needed to incorporate the target into the electron storage ring, are presented. (orig.)

  3. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signa...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice.......This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...

  4. Physics of polarized targets

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    For developing, building and operating solid polarized targets we need to understand several fields of physics that have seen sub stantial advances during the last 50 years. W e shall briefly review a selection of those that are important today. These are: 1) quantum statistical methods to describe saturation and relaxation in magnetic resonance; 2) equal spin temperature model for dy namic nuclear polarization; 3 ) weak saturation during NMR polarization measurement; 4 ) refrigeration using the quantum fluid properties of helium isotopes. These, combined with superconducting magnet technologies, permit today to reach nearly complete pola rization of almost any nuclear spins. Targets can be operated in frozen spin mode in rather low and inhomogeneous field of any orientation, and in DNP mode in beams of high intensity. Beyond such experiments of nuclear and particle physics, applications a re also emerging in macromolecular chemistry and in magnetic resonance imaging. This talk is a tribute to Michel Borghini...

  5. No More Polarization, Please!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mia Reinholt

    The organizational science literature on motivation has for long been polarized into two main positions; the organizational economic position focusing on extrinsic motivation and the organizational behavior position emphasizing intrinsic motivation. With the rise of the knowledge economy...... and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on motivation, acknowledging the co-existence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, the possible interaction...... between the two as well as different types of motivations filling in the gap between the two polar types, is urgently needed in the organizational science literature. By drawing on the research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation conducted in social psychology and combining this with contributions from...

  6. Polarized source upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, T.B.; Rummel, R.L.; Carter, E.P.; Westerfeldt, C.R.; Lovette, A.W.; Edwards, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The decision was made this past year to move the Lamb-shift polarized ion source which was first installed in the laboratory in 1970. The motivation was the need to improve the flexibility of spin-axis orientation by installing the ion source with a new Wien-filter spin precessor which is capable of rotating physically about the beam axis. The move of the polarized source was accomplished in approximately two months, with the accelerator being turned off for experiments during approximately four weeks of this time. The occasion of the move provided the opportunity to rewire completely the entire polarized ion source frame and to rebuild approximately half of the electronic chassis on the source. The result is an ion source which is now logically wired and carefully documented. Beams obtained from the source are much more stable than those previously available

  7. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  8. Polarization of the cosmic background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubin, P.M.

    1980-03-01

    The results and technique of a measurement of the linear polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation are discussed. The ground-based experiment utilizes a single horn (7 0 beam width) Dicke-type microwave polarimeter operating at 33 GHz (9.1 mm). Data taken between May 1978 and February 1980 from both the northern hemisphere (Berkeley Lat. = 38 0 N) and the southern hemisphere (Lima Lat. = 12 0 S) show the radiation to be essentially unpolarized over all areas surveyed. For the 38 0 declination data the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component is 0.3 mK for the average and 12 and 24 hour periods. Fitting all data gives the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component of 0.3 mK for spherical harmonics through third order. Constraints on various cosmological models are discussed in light of these limits

  9. Upgrading the AGS polarized beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    Although present techniques for crossing depolarizing resonances in circular accelerators work, they are very time-consuming to implement and were only able to provide about a 40% polarized beam at 22 GeV in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). We propose to install a partial ''Siberian Snake'' solenoid in the AGS to eliminate the need to correct imperfection resonances and to make other modifications in our intrinsic resonance correctors. This will allow us to reach an energy of 25 GeV with 70% polarization and will enable the AGS to be an efficient injector of polarized protons into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), as well as being able to carry on a fixed-target program with minimum set-up time. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. TLC and 31P-NMR analysis of low polarity phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; MacKenzie, Andrew; Scott, Dawn

    2009-04-01

    High-performance TLC and (31)P-NMR were assessed as methods of observing the presence of numerous low polarity phospholipids: bis-phosphatidic acid (BPA), semi-lyso bis-phosphatidic acid (SLBPA), N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE), N-(1,1-dimethyl-3-oxo-butyl)-phosphatidylethanolamine (diacetone adduct of PE, DOBPE), N-acetyl PE, phosphatidylmethanol (PM), phosphatidylethanol (PEt), phosphatidyl-n-propanol (PP), phosphatidyl-n-butanol (PB). Both techniques are non-discriminative and do not require the prior isolation of individual lipids. It appears that 2D TLC is superior to (31)P NMR in the analysis of low polarity phospholipids. All phosphatidylalcohols were well separated by 2D TLC. However, some compounds which can present difficulty in separation by 2D-TLC (e.g., SLBPA and NAPE; or DOBPE and N-acetyl PE) were easily distinguished using (31)P NMR so the methods are complimentary. A disadvantage of 2D TLC is that Rf values can vary with different brands and batches of TLC plates. The chemical shifts of (31)P NMR were less variable, and so a library of standards may not be necessary for peak identification. Another advantage of (31)P NMR is the ease of quantification of phospholipids. The applicability of the methods was tested on natural extracts of fish brain and cabbage stem.

  11. Dark Polar Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    20 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired during northern summer in December 2004, shows dark, windblown sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars. A vast sea of sand dunes nearly surrounds the north polar cap. These landforms are located near 80.3oN, 144.1oW. Light-toned features in the image are exposures of the substrate that underlies the dune field. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  12. Imaging with Polarized Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kardjilov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their zero charge, neutrons are able to pass through thick layers of matter (typically several centimeters while being sensitive to magnetic fields due to their intrinsic magnetic moment. Therefore, in addition to the conventional attenuation contrast image, the magnetic field inside and around a sample can be visualized by detecting changes of polarization in a transmitted beam. The method is based on the spatially resolved measurement of the cumulative precession angles of a collimated, polarized, monochromatic neutron beam that traverses a magnetic field or sample.

  13. The polar mesosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Ray; Murphy, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The mesosphere region, which lies at the edge of space, contains the coldest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, with summer temperatures as low as minus 130 °C. In this extreme environment ice aerosol layers have appeared since the dawn of industrialization—whose existence may arguably be linked to human influence—on yet another layer of the Earth's fragile atmosphere. Ground-based and space-based experiments conducted in the Arctic and Antarctic during the International Polar Year (IPY) aim to address limitations in our knowledge and to advance our understanding of thermal and dynamical processes at play in the polar mesosphere

  14. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  15. AGS polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Sluyters, T.

    1985-01-01

    The AGS polarized H - source is now operational. During a month-long experimental physics run in July 1984, pulses equivalent to 15 μA x 300 μs (approx. 3 x 10 10 protons) were injected into the RFQ preaccelerator. Beam polarization, measured at 200 MeV, was approx. 75%. After the run, a program to increase the H - yield of the source was begun and significant progress has been made. The H - current is now frequently 20 to 30 μA. A description of the source and some details of our operating experience are given. We also briefly describe the improvement program

  16. Tensor Target Polarization at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G

    2014-10-27

    The first measurements of tensor observables in $\\pi \\vec{d}$ scattering experiments were performed in the mid-80's at TRIUMF, and later at SIN/PSI. The full suite of tensor observables accessible in $\\pi \\vec{d}$ elastic scattering were measured: $T_{20}$, $T_{21}$, and $T_{22}$. The vector analyzing power $iT_{11}$ was also measured. These results led to a better understanding of the three-body theory used to describe this reaction. %Some measurements were also made in the absorption and breakup channels. A direct measurement of the target tensor polarization was also made independent of the usual NMR techniques by exploiting the (nearly) model-independent result for the tensor analyzing power at 90$^\\circ _{cm}$ in the $\\pi \\vec{d} \\rightarrow 2p$ reaction. This method was also used to check efforts to enhance the tensor polarization by RF burning of the NMR spectrum. A brief description of the methods developed to measure and analyze these experiments is provided.

  17. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, W; Mayeda, K; Myers, S; Pasyanos, M; Rodgers, A; Sicherman, A; Walter, W

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  18. The physics of polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    This course is intended to give a description of the basic physical concepts which underlie the study and the interpretation of polarization phenomena. Apart from a brief historical introduction (Sect. 1), the course is organized in three parts. A first part (Sects. 2 - 6) covers the most relevant facts about the polarization phenomena that are typically encountered in laboratory applications and in everyday life. In Sect. 2, the modern description of polarization in terms of the Stokes parameters is recalled, whereas Sect. 3 is devoted to introduce the basic tools of laboratory polarimetry, such as the Jones calculus and the Mueller matrices. The polarization phenomena which are met in the reflection and refraction of a beam of radiation at the separation surface between two dielectrics, or between a dielectric and a metal, are recalled in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 gives an introduction to the phenomena of dichroism and of anomalous dispersion and Sect. 6 summarizes the polarization phenomena that are commonly encountered in everyday life. The second part of this course (Sects. 7-14) deals with the description, within the formalism of classical physics, of the spectro-polarimetric properties of the radiation emitted by accelerated charges. Such properties are derived by taking as starting point the Liénard and Wiechert equations that are recalled and discussed in Sect. 7 both in the general case and in the non-relativistic approximation. The results are developed to find the percentage polarization, the radiation diagram, the cross-section and the spectral characteristics of the radiation emitted in different phenomena particularly relevant from the astrophysical point of view. The emission of a linear antenna is derived in Sect. 8. The other Sections are devoted to Thomson scattering (Sect. 9), Rayleigh scattering (Sect. 10), Mie scattering (Sect. 11), bremsstrahlung radiation (Sect. 12), cyclotron radiation (Sect. 13), and synchrotron radiation (Sect. 14

  19. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  20. Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Kirk

    2008-01-01

    'Project Title: Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Photons' DOE Contract Number: FG02-04ER41355 Principal Investigator: Prof. Kirk McDonald Period of Performance: 09/10/2004 thru 08/31/2006 This award was to fund Princeton's activity on SLAC experiment E166, 'Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Positrons' which was performed at SLAC during June and September 2005. Princeton U. fabricated a magnetic spectrometer for this experiment, and participated in the commissioning, operation, and analysis of the experiment, for which Prof. McDonald was a co-spokesperson. The experiment demonstrated that an intense positron beam with 80% longitudinal polarization could be generated by conversion of MeVenergy circularly polarized photons in a thin target, which photons were generated by passage of high-energy electrons through a helical undulator. This technique has since been adopted as the baseline for the polarized positron source of the proposed International Linear Collider. Results of the experiment have been published in Physical Review Letters, vol 100, p 210801 (2008) (see attached .pdf file), and a longer paper is in preparation.

  1. Research of digital constant fraction discriminator in PET system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Yaoyao; Hu Xuanhou; Wu Jianping; Wang Peilin; Li Xiaohui; Li Daowu; Li Ke; Wei Long

    2012-01-01

    The research on digital constant fraction discriminator of spike pulse signal in PET detector is introduced. Based on FPGA technique, rapid signal's time information is extracted via DCFD algorithm after a high-speed ADC digitization. Experiment results show that time resolution of DCFD is 772 ps, which meets the requirement of time measurement in PET system well. (authors)

  2. Statistical analysis of agarwood oil compounds in discriminating the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing and improving the discrimination technique is the main aim to determine or grade the good quality of agarwood oil. In this paper, all statistical works were performed via SPSS software. Two parameters involved are abundance of compound (%) and quality of t agarwood oil either low or high quality. The result ...

  3. A face recognition algorithm based on multiple individual discriminative models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    Abstract—In this paper, a novel algorithm for facial recognition is proposed. The technique combines the color texture and geometrical configuration provided by face images. Landmarks and pixel intensities are used by Principal Component Analysis and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis to associa...... as an accurate and robust tool for facial identification and unknown detection....

  4. Laser - Polarized HE-3 Target Used for a Precision Measurement of the Neutron Spin Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romalis, M

    2003-11-05

    two methods, one relying on traditional NMR techniques and the other on the shift of the Rb Zeeman resonance frequency due to the {sup 3}He polarization. To calibrate the frequency shift polarimetry, we performed an accurate measurement of a Rb-{sup 3}He spin exchange parameter, significantly improving on previous results. A part of the thesis is devoted to the analysis of the high energy data. We present an algorithm for electron-pion discrimination based on the lateral shape of their shower in the electromagnetic calorimeter. The calculation of the radiative corrections to the deep inelastic scattering and, especially, their effect on the experimental errors is also discussed. The last chapter is devoted to the interpretation of our results in the framework of perturbative QCD. We present a physically intuitive description of the ambiguities arising in Next to Leading Order (NLO) analysis of the spin structure functions. Using such analysis we describe the implications of our data.

  5. ESR and related experiments in spin-polarized atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yperen, G.H. van.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis deals with some experiments in (gaseous) spin-polarized atomic hydrogen. One uses the expression 'stabilized' atomic hydrogen, meaning that by choosing suitable conditions one can suppress the tendency of atoms to recombine into H 2 molecules, such that the lifetime of the atomic state is extended by many orders of magnitude. Research is focused at the study of processes that determine the decay rate of polarized H samples, with the ultimate goal of preparing samples of sufficiently high density and at low enough temperature to observe experimentally the behaviour of the (degenerate) quantum gas. ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) appears to be a very suitable measurement technique to study the properties of polarized H. This work describes the introduction of ESR as detection technique, and the first results of an experiment in polarized H using this technique. (orig.)

  6. Toward precision polarimetry of dense polarized {sup 3}He targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romalis, M.V.; Bogorad, P.L.; Cates, G.D.; Kumar, K.S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Chupp, T.E.; Coulter, K.P.; Smith, T.B.; Welsh, R. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hughes, E.W. [California Inst. of Technol., Pasadena, CA (United States); Johnson, J.R. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Thompson, A.K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gainesville, MD 20899 (United States)

    1998-01-11

    We describe several new measurement and analysis techniques used to determine the polarization of the {sup 3}He target in a recently completed measurement of the neutron spin structure function g{sup n}{sub 1} at SLAC (E-154). The polarization was determined using two independent methods. The first method used a standard technique of adiabatic fast passage, calibrated by a measurement of Boltzmann polarization in a sample of water. We describe several systematic effects affecting this calibration procedure. The second method used a shift of the Rb Zeeman resonance frequency due to the polarization of {sup 3}He. Implementation and calibration of this technique are discussed in detail. Finally, the density of {sup 3}He in the cell was measured using two independent methods, one of them based on the pressure broadening of Rb D{sub 1} and D{sub 2} lines due to {sup 3}He. (orig.). 21 refs.

  7. Circularly Polarized Microwave Antenna Element with Very Low Off-Axis Cross-Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greem. David; DuToit, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to improve off-axis cross-polarization performance and ease of assembly of a circularly polarized microwave antenna element. To ease assembly, the initial design requirement of Hexweb support for the internal circuit part, as well as the radiating disks, was eliminated. There is a need for different plating techniques to improve soldering. It was also desirable to change the design to eliminate soldering as well as the need to use the Hexweb support. Thus, a technique was developed to build the feed without using solder, solving the lathing and soldering issue. Internal parts were strengthened by adding curvature to eliminate Hexweb support, and in the process, the new geometries of the internal parts opened the way for improving the off-axis cross-polarization performance as well. The radiating disks curvatures were increased for increased strength, but it was found that this also improved crosspolarization. Optimization of the curvatures leads to very low off-axis cross-polarization. The feed circuit was curved into a cylinder for improved strength, eliminating Hexweb support. An aperture coupling feed mechanism eliminated the need for feed pins to the disks, which would have required soldering. The aperture coupling technique also improves cross-polarization performance by effectively exciting the radiating disks very close to the antenna s central axis of symmetry. Because of the shape of the parts, it allowed for an all-aluminum design bolted together and assembled with no solder needed. The advantage of a solderless design is that the reliability is higher, with no single-point failure (solder), and no need for special plating techniques in order to solder the unit together. The shapes (curved or round) make for a more robust build without extra support materials, as well as improved offaxis cross-polarization.

  8. Lobbying and political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Ursprung, Heinrich W.

    2002-01-01

    Standard spatial models of political competition give rise to equilibria in which the competing political parties or candidates converge to a common position. In this paper I show how political polarization can be generated in models that focus on the nexus between pre-election interest group lobbying and electoral competition.

  9. Polarization of Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.

    1957-01-01

    The numerical results for the polarization of Bremsstrahlung are presented. The multiple scattering of electrons in the target is taken into account. The angular-and photon energy dependences are seen on the curves for an incident 25 MeV electron energy. (Author) [fr

  10. DESY: HERA polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The new HERA electron-proton collider at DESY in Hamburg achieved the first luminosity for electron-proton collisions on 19 October last year. Only one month later, on 20 November, HERA passed another important milestone with the observation of transverse electron polarization

  11. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  12. Graphics of polar figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  13. The color of polarization in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, H.A.; Osofsky, M.S.; Lechter, W.L.; Pande, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for the identification of individual anisotropic grains in a heterogeneous and opaque material involves the observation of grain color in reflected light through crossed polarizers (color of polarization). Such colors are generally characteristic of particular phases. When grains of many members of the class of hole carrier cuprate superconductors are so viewed at room temperature with a 'daylight' source, a characteristic color of polarization is observed. This color was studied in many of these cuprate superconductors and a strong correlation was found between color and the existence of superconductivity. Two members were also examined of the electron cuprate superconductors and it was found that they possess the same color of polarization as the hole carrier cuprate superconductors so far examined. The commonality of the characteristic color regardless of charge carrier indicates that the presence of this color is independent of carrier type. The correlation of this color with the existence of superconductivity in the cuprate superconductors suggests that the origin of the color relates to the origin of superconductivity. Photometric techniques are also discussed

  14. Exponential local discriminant embedding and its application to face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornaika, Fadi; Bosaghzadeh, Alireza

    2013-06-01

    Local discriminant embedding (LDE) has been recently proposed to overcome some limitations of the global linear discriminant analysis method. In the case of a small training data set, however, LDE cannot directly be applied to high-dimensional data. This case is the so-called small-sample-size (SSS) problem. The classical solution to this problem was applying dimensionality reduction on the raw data (e.g., using principal component analysis). In this paper, we introduce a novel discriminant technique called "exponential LDE" (ELDE). The proposed ELDE can be seen as an extension of LDE framework in two directions. First, the proposed framework overcomes the SSS problem without discarding the discriminant information that was contained in the null space of the locality preserving scatter matrices associated with LDE. Second, the proposed ELDE is equivalent to transforming original data into a new space by distance diffusion mapping (similar to kernel-based nonlinear mapping), and then, LDE is applied in such a new space. As a result of diffusion mapping, the margin between samples belonging to different classes is enlarged, which is helpful in improving classification accuracy. The experiments are conducted on five public face databases: Yale, Extended Yale, PF01, Pose, Illumination, and Expression (PIE), and Facial Recognition Technology (FERET). The results show that the performances of the proposed ELDE are better than those of LDE and many state-of-the-art discriminant analysis techniques.

  15. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program, directly...

  16. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except in...

  17. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination complaint...

  18. Unambiguous discrimination of mixed quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Feng Yuan; Ying Mingsheng

    2006-01-01

    The problem of unambiguous discrimination between mixed quantum states is addressed by isolating the part of each mixed state which has no contribution to discrimination and by employing the strategy of set discrimination of pure states. A necessary and sufficient condition of unambiguous mixed state discrimination is presented. An upper bound of the efficiency is also derived

  19. Rotational Linear Discriminant Analysis Using Bayes Rule for Dimensionality Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Sharma; Kuldip K. Paliwal

    2006-01-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) finds an orientation that projects high dimensional feature vectors to reduced dimensional feature space in such a way that the overlapping between the classes in this feature space is minimum. This overlapping is usually finite and produces finite classification error which is further minimized by rotational LDA technique. This rotational LDA technique rotates the classes individually in the original feature space in a manner that enables further reduction ...

  20. Orienting Asymmetric Molecules by Laser Fields with Twisted Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershnabel, E.; Averbukh, I. Sh.

    2018-02-01

    We study interaction of generic asymmetric molecules with laser fields having twisted polarization, using a pair of strong time-delayed short laser pulses with crossed linear polarizations as an example. We show that such an excitation not only provides unidirectional rotation of the most polarizable molecular axis, but also induces a directed torque along this axis, which results in a transient orientation of the molecules. The asymmetric molecules are chiral in nature and different molecular enantiomers experience the orienting action in opposite directions causing out-of-phase oscillations of their dipole moments. The resulting microwave radiation was recently suggested to be used for analysis or discrimination of chiral molecular mixtures. We reveal the mechanism behind this laser-induced orientation effect, show that it is classical in nature, and envision further applications of light with twisted polarization.

  1. A field technique for rapid lithological discrimination and ore mineral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work illustrates the efficiency of field spectroscopy for rapid identification of minerals in ore body, alteration zone and host rocks. The adopted procedure involves collection of field spectra, their processing for noise, spectral matching and spectral un-mixing with selected library end-members. Average weighted spectral ...

  2. A field technique for rapid lithological discrimination and ore mineral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work illustrates the efficiency of field spectroscopy for rapid identification of minerals in ore body, alteration zone and host rocks. The adopted procedure involves collection of field spectra, their pro- cessing for noise, spectral matching and spectral un-mixing with selected library end-members. Average weighted ...

  3. A field technique for rapid lithological discrimination and ore mineral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The adopted procedure involves collection of field spectra, their pro- cessing for noise ... (2000–16,000 nm), vibration processes involving stretching ... for accuracy using petrography and geochemical analyses. 2. Study area. The Mamandur Polymetal Deposit (figure 1) is bounded by northern latitudes 11. ◦. 52 to 12. ◦. 01.

  4. Characteristics of volume polarization holography with linear polarization light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jinliang; Wu, An'an; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jue; Lin, Xiao; Tan, Xiaodi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    Volume polarization holographic recording in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ-PMMA) photopolymer with linear polarized light is obtained. The characteristics of the volume polarization hologram are experimentally investigated. It is found that beyond the paraxial approximation the polarization states of the holographic reconstruction light are generally different from the signal light. Based on vector wave theoretical analyses and material properties, the special exposure condition for correctly holographic reconstruction is obtained and experimentally demonstrated.

  5. Experiments with Fermilab polarized proton and polarized antiproton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize activities concerning the Fermilab polarized beams. They include a brief description of the polarized-beam facility, measurements of beam polarization by polarimeters, asymmetry measurements in the π degree production at high p perpendicular and in the Λ (Σ degree), π ± , π degree production at large x F , and Δσ L (pp, bar pp) measurements. 18 refs

  6. NUCLEON POLARIZATION IN 3-BODY MODELS OF POLARIZED LI-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHELLINGERHOUT, NW; KOK, LP; COON, SA; ADAM, RM

    1993-01-01

    Just as He-3 --> can be approximately characterized as a polarized neutron target, polarized Li-6D has been advocated as a good isoscalar nuclear target for the extraction of the polarized gluon content of the nucleon. The original argument rests upon a presumed ''alpha + deuteron'' picture of Li-6,

  7. Electrode polarization vs. Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars interfacial polarization in dielectric spectra of materials: Characteristic frequencies and scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, M.; Levchenko, V.; Boiteux, G.; Seytre, G.; Kallel, A.; Serghei, A.

    2015-05-01

    The characteristic frequencies of electrode polarization and of interfacial polarization effects in dielectric spectra of ionic liquids and of polymer bi-layers are determined and systematically analyzed, based on dielectric measurements by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy, numerical simulations, and analytical calculations. It is shown that, to a large extent, identical scaling laws can be derived for these two dielectric phenomena taking place at external and internal interfaces. Surprisingly, a fundamentally different behavior concerning the interrelation between the characteristic frequencies is found. This brings direct evidence that different manifestations of the phenomenon of electrical polarization can be discriminated by examining the inter-relation governing their characteristic frequencies, which can be of significant importance in disseminating the nature of different contributions appearing in the dielectric spectra of complex materials. Based on our analysis, we derive a new formula, valid for both electrode polarization and interfacial polarization effects, that allows one to determine the conductivity value from the frequency position of the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars peak. An excellent agreement between experiment and calculations is obtained. The formula can be used, furthermore, to estimate the thickness of the interfacial layers formed due to electrode polarization effects. Values in the order of several nanometers, increasing with decreasing temperature, are reported.

  8. THE JURIDICAL PROTECTION ON GLOBAL DISCRIMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTINA OTOVESCU FRĂSIE

    2012-01-01

    In this study I wished to evidence the main juridical documents referring to discrimination, adopted world wide by the United Nations Organization. Thus, can be identified several types of definitions concerning the discrimination against women, the race discrimination, the torture etc. within the analyzed documents. The democratic countries have laws that punish the discrimination, but, unfortunately, there are discrimination phenomena for example regarding the ethnicity, the gender, the lan...

  9. Achieving non-discrimination in data release

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lu; Wu, Yongkai; Wu, Xintao

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination discovery and prevention/removal are increasingly important tasks in data mining. Discrimination discovery aims to unveil discriminatory practices on the protected attribute (e.g., gender) by analyzing the dataset of historical decision records, and discrimination prevention aims to remove discrimination by modifying the biased data before conducting predictive analysis. In this paper, we show that the key to discrimination discovery and prevention is to find the meaningful par...

  10. Ethnic Discrimination in Education: The Swiss Case

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Bauer; George Sheldon

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the role that discrimination plays in the educational marginalization of foreign youth commonly observed in European countries with a long guestworker tradition. Economic theory offers two basic explanations for discrimination of this form: taste-based discrimination arising from personal prejudices and statistical discrimination stemming from ability uncertainty. Which theory applies in reality has important policy implications. If taste-based discrimination is the so...

  11. Discriminator with a small hysteresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol'ko, E.V.; Suvorov, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The electric circuitry of a discriminator is described which comprises a current shaping circuit, a tunnel diode and a shunting circuit. The novel shunting circuit design ensures a small hysteresis and quick response of the system as a whole. The shunting circuit employs two n-p-n and p-n-p type transistors, their emitters being interconnected and the bases being coupled to voltage dividers. A diagram is presented to illustrate the function of the tunnel diode - shunting circuit combination. The discriminator has the following characteristics: hysteresis about 5%, response time about 15 nsec., attenuation factor about 3. The discriminator is useful for forming pulses having a duration equal to the threshold exceeding time

  12. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used with a...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc).......In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...

  13. Geomagnetic polarity transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ronald T.; McFadden, Phillip L.

    1999-05-01

    The top of Earth's liquid outer core is nearly 2900 km beneath Earth's surface, so we will never be able to observe it directly. This hot, dense, molten iron-rich body is continuously in motion and is the source of Earth's magnetic field. One of the most dynamic manifestations at Earth's surface of this fluid body is, perhaps, a reversal of the geomagnetic field. Unfortunately, the most recent polarity transition occurred at about 780 ka, so we have never observed a transition directly. It seems that a polarity transition spans many human lifetimes, so no human will ever witness the phenomenon in its entirety. Thus we are left with the tantalizing prospect that paleomagnetic records of polarity transitions may betray some of the secrets of the deep Earth. Certainly, if there are systematics in the reversal process and they can be documented, then this will reveal substantial information about the nature of the lowermost mantle and of the outer core. Despite their slowness on a human timescale, polarity transitions occur almost instantaneously on a geological timescale. This rapidity, together with limitations in the paleomagnetic recording process, prohibits a comprehensive description of any reversal transition both now and into the foreseeable future, which limits the questions that may at this stage be sensibly asked. The natural model for the geomagnetic field is a set of spherical harmonic components, and we are not able to obtain a reliable model for even the first few harmonic terms during a transition. Nevertheless, it is possible, in principle, to make statements about the harmonic character of a geomagnetic polarity transition without having a rigorous spherical harmonic description of one. For example, harmonic descriptions of recent geomagnetic polarity transitions that are purely zonal can be ruled out (a zonal harmonic does not change along a line of latitude). Gleaning information about transitions has proven to be difficult, but it does seem

  14. Polarization sensitive changes in the human macula associated with normal aging and age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanNasdale, Dean Allan, Jr.

    2011-12-01

    The human macula occupies a relatively small, but crucial retinal area, as it is the location responsible for our most acute spatial vision and best color discrimination. Localizing important landmarks in the retina is difficult even in normal eyes where morphological inter-individual variability is high. This becomes even more challenging in the presence of sight-threatening pathology. With respect to the human macula, there remains a significant gap in the understanding of normal structure and function. Even less is known about the pathological mechanisms that occur in sight-threatening diseases including age-related macular degeneration. Because relatively little is known about normal aging changes, it is also difficult to differentiate those changes from changes associated with retinal disease. To better understand normal and pathological changes in the macula, imaging techniques using specific optical signatures are required. Structural features in the macula can be distinguished based on their intrinsic properties using specific light/tissue interactions. Because of the high degree of structural regularity in the macula, polarization sensitive imaging is potentially a useful tool for evaluating the morphology and integrity of the cellular architecture for both normal individuals and those affected by disease. In our investigations, we used polarization sensitive imaging to determining normal landmarks that are important clinically and for research investigations. We found that precision and accuracy in localizing the central macula was greatly improved through the use of polarization sensitive imaging. We also found that specific polarization alterations can be used to demonstrate systematic changes as a function of age, disproportionately affecting the central macular region. When evaluating patients with age-related macular degeneration, we found that precision and accuracy of localizing the central macula was also improved, even when significant pathology

  15. Polarized electron beams at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1992-11-01

    SLAC has successfully accelerated high energy polarized electrons for the Stanford Linear Collider and fixed polarized nuclear target experiments. The polarized electron beams at SLAC use a gallium arsenide (GaAlAs for E-142) photon emission source to provide the beam of polarized electrons with polarization of approximately 28% (41% for E-142). While the beam emittance is reduced in the damping ring for SLC operation a system of bend magnets and superconducting solenoids preserve and orient the spin direction for maximum longitudinal polarization at the collision point. The electron polarization is monitored with a Compton scattering polarimeter, and was typically 22% at the e+e- collision point for the 1992 run. Improvements are discussed to increase the source polarization and to reduce the depolarization effects between the source and the collision point

  16. Analytical polarization calculations beyond SLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made between the theories of Bell and Leinaas and of Derbenev and Kondratenko for the spin polarization in electron storage rings. A calculation of polarization in HERA using the program SMILE of Mane is presented

  17. Regularized generalized eigen-decomposition with applications to sparse supervised feature extraction and sparse discriminant analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2015-01-01

    , and it is formulated as a generalized eigenvalue problem. Thus RGED can be applied to effectively extract sparse features and calculate sparse discriminant directions for all variants of Fisher discriminant criterion based models. Particularly, RGED can be applied to matrix-based and even tensor-based discriminant...... techniques, for instance, 2D-Linear Discriminant Analysis (2D-LDA). Furthermore, an iterative algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers is developed. The algorithm approximately solves RGED with monotonically decreasing convergence and at an acceptable speed for results of modest...

  18. Discriminative learning for speech recognition

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiadong

    2008-01-01

    In this book, we introduce the background and mainstream methods of probabilistic modeling and discriminative parameter optimization for speech recognition. The specific models treated in depth include the widely used exponential-family distributions and the hidden Markov model. A detailed study is presented on unifying the common objective functions for discriminative learning in speech recognition, namely maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum classification error, and minimum phone/word error. The unification is presented, with rigorous mathematical analysis, in a common rational-functio

  19. two-group discriminant problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Loucopoulos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed-integer programming model (MIP incorporating prior probabilities for the two-group discriminant problem is presented. Its classificatory performance is compared against that of Fisher's linear discrimininant function (LDF and Smith's quadradic discriminant function (QDF for simulated data from normal and nonnormal populations for different settings of the prior probabilities of group membership. The proposed model is shown to outperform both LDF and QDF for most settings of the prior probabilities when the data are generated from nonnormal populations but underperforms the parametric models for data generated from normal populations.

  20. Employment Discrimination against LGBT Utahns

    OpenAIRE

    Rosky, Clifford; Mallory, Christy; Smith, Jenni; Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes data from a 2010 survey on the employment experiences of 939 LGBT people living in Utah.  The study found that 44% of LGB people and 66% of transgender people in Utah have experienced employment discrimination.  The data showed that employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity currently occurs in Utah, with close to 30% of LGB respondents and 45% of transgender respondents reporting that they experienced some form of workplace harassment on a w...

  1. Imaging of human breast tissue using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Y.; Gautam, M.; Divakar Rao, K.; Swami, M. K.; Gupta, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    We report a study on the use of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) for discriminating malignant (invasive ductal carcinoma), benign (fibroadenoma) and normal (adipocytes) breast tissue sites. The results show that while conventional OCT, that utilizes only the intensity of light back-scattered from tissue microstructures, is able to discriminate breast tissues as normal (adipocytes) and abnormal (malignant and benign) tissues, PS-OCT helps in discriminating between malignant and benign tissue sites also. The estimated values of birefringence obtained from the PSOCT imaging show that benign breast tissue samples have significantly higher birefringence as compared to the malignant tissue samples.

  2. Learned pattern recognition using synthetic-discriminant-functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, David A.; Ennis, David J.

    1986-01-01

    A method of using synthetic-discriminant-functions to facilitate learning in a pattern recognition system is discussed. Learning is accomplished by continually adding images to the training set used for synthetic discriminant functions (SDF) construction. Object identification is performed by efficiently searching a library of SDF filters for the maximum optical correlation. Two library structures are discussed - binary tree and multilinked graph - along with maximum ascent, back-tracking, perturbation, and simulated annealing searching techniques. By incorporating the distortion invariant properties of SDFs within a library structure, a robust pattern recognition system can be produced.

  3. On Determinants of Political Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Grechyna, Daryna

    2015-01-01

    Political polarization has been shown to significantly influence a country's economic performance. However, little is known about the drivers of political polarization. In this article, we aim to identify the main determinants of political polarization using Bayesian Model Averaging to overcome the problem of model uncertainty. We find that the level of trust within a country and the degree of income inequality are the most robust determinants of political polarization.

  4. Polarized electrogowdy spacetimes censored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nungesser, Ernesto, E-mail: ernesto.nungesser@aei.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-05-01

    A sketch of the proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this it is seen that the results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.

  5. Polarization induced doped transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  6. Polar bears, Ursus maritimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Stirling, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Polar bears are the largest of the eight species of bears found worldwide and are covered in a pigment-free fur giving them the appearance of being white. They are the most carnivorous of bear species consuming a high-fat diet, primarily of ice-associated seals and other marine mammals. They range throughout the circumpolar Arctic to the southernmost extent of seasonal pack ice.

  7. Polarized advanced fuel reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The d- 3 He reaction has the same spin dependence as the d-t reaction. It produces no neutrons, so that if the d-d reactivity could be reduced, it would lead to a neutron-lean reactor. The current understanding of the possible suppression of the d-d reactivity by spin polarization is discussed. The question as to whether a suppression is possible is still unresolved. Other advanced fuel reactions are briefly discussed. 11 refs

  8. On polarization in biomembranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchi, Karis Amata

    close to physiological conditions, making these effects biologically relevant. In this work, we consider the case of asymmetric membranes which can display spontaneous polarization in the absence of a field. Close to the phase transition, we find that the membrane displays piezoelectric, flexoelectric...... on different geometries point in the direction of a flexoelectric mechanism behind current rectification in lipid bilayers. Finally, we suggest that our updated equivalent circuit should be included in the interpretation of elctrophysiological data....

  9. Multifrequency Behaviour of Polars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Reinsch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cataclysmic variables emit over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper I will review observations of polars in relevant passbands obtained during the last decade and will discuss their diagnostical potential to access the physics of the main components within the binary systems. This will include a discussion of intrinsic source variability and the quest for simultaneous multi-frequency observations.

  10. Measurement of spin observables using a storage ring with polarized beam and polarized internal gas target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.; Miller, M.A.; Smith, A.; Hansen, J.; Bloch, C.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Ent, R.; Goodman, C.D.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jones, C.E.; Korsch, W.; Leuschner, M.; Lorenzon, W.; Marchlenski, D.; Meyer, H.O.; Milner, R.G.; Neal, J.S.; Pancella, P.V.; Pate, S.F.; Pitts, W.K.; von Przewoski, B.; Rinckel, T.; Sowinski, J.; Sperisen, F.; Sugarbaker, E.; Tschalaer, C.; Unal, O.; Zhou, Z.

    1993-01-01

    We report the first measurement of analyzing powers and spin correlation parameters using a storage ring with both beam and internal target polarized. Spin observables were measured for elastic scattering of 45 and 198 MeV protons from polarized 3 He nuclei in a new laser-pumped internal gas target at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility Cooler Ring. Scattered protons and recoil 3 He nuclei were detected in coincidence with large acceptance plastic scintillators and silicon detectors. The internal-target technique demonstrated in this experiment has broad applicability to the measurement of spin-dependent scattering in nuclear and particle physics

  11. Unbiased determination of polarized parton distributions and their uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.; Guffanti, Alberto; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rojo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    We present a determination of a set of polarized parton distributions (PDFs) of the nucleon, at next-to-leading order, from a global set of longitudinally polarized deep-inelastic scattering data: NNPDFpol1.0. The determination is based on the NNPDF methodology: a Monte Carlo approach, with neural networks used as unbiased interpolants, previously applied to the determination of unpolarized parton distributions, and designed to provide a faithful and statistically sound representation of PDF uncertainties. We present our dataset, its statistical features, and its Monte Carlo representation. We summarize the technique used to solve the polarized evolution equations and its benchmarking, and the method used to compute physical observables. We review the NNPDF methodology for parametrization and fitting of neural networks, the algorithm used to determine the optimal fit, and its adaptation to the polarized case. We finally present our set of polarized parton distributions. We discuss its statistical properties, ...

  12. A Bionic Polarization Navigation Sensor and Its Calibration Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huijie; Xu, Wujian

    2016-08-03

    The polarization patterns of skylight which arise due to the scattering of sunlight in the atmosphere can be used by many insects for deriving compass information. Inspired by insects' polarized light compass, scientists have developed a new kind of navigation method. One of the key techniques in this method is the polarimetric sensor which is used to acquire direction information from skylight. In this paper, a polarization navigation sensor is proposed which imitates the working principles of the polarization vision systems of insects. We introduce the optical design and mathematical model of the sensor. In addition, a calibration method based on variable substitution and non-linear curve fitting is proposed. The results obtained from the outdoor experiments provide support for the feasibility and precision of the sensor. The sensor's signal processing can be well described using our mathematical model. A relatively high degree of accuracy in polarization measurement can be obtained without any error compensation.

  13. Flexoelectricity and the polarity of complex ferroelastic twin patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Li, Suzhi; Stengel, Massimiliano; Gumbsch, Peter; Ding, Xiangdong

    2016-07-01

    We study, by means of an atomistic toy model, the interplay of ferroelastic twin patterns and electrical polarization. Our molecular dynamics simulations reproduce polarity in straight twin walls as observed experimentally. We show, by making contact with continuum theory, that the effect is governed by linear flexoelectricity. Complex twin patterns, with very high densities of kinks and/or junctions, produce winding structures in the dipolar field, which are reminiscent of polarization vortices. By means of a "cold shearing" technique, we produce patches with high vortex densities; these unexpectedly show a net macroscopic polarization even if neither the original sample nor the applied mechanical perturbation breaks inversion symmetry by itself. These results may explain some puzzling experimental observations of "parasitic" polarity in the paraelectric phase of BaTi O3 and LaAl O3 .

  14. Nonlinear Magnetic Phenomena in Highly Polarized Target Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Yu F

    2007-01-01

    The report introduces and surveys nonlinear magnetic phenomena which have been observed at high nuclear polarizations in polarized targets of the SMC and of the COMPASS collaborations at CERN. Some of these phenomena, namely the frequency modulation eect and the distortion of the NMR line shape, promote the development of the polarized target technique. Others, as the spin-spin cross-relaxation between spin subsystems can be used for the development of quantum statistical physics. New findings bear on an electromagnetic noise and the spectrally resolved radiation from LiD with negatively polarized nuclei detected by low temperature bolometers. These nonlinear phenomena need to be taken into account for achieving the ultimate polarizations.

  15. Polar Business Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Caisse

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Polar business design aims to enable entrepreneurs, managers, consultants, researchers, and business students to better tackle model-based analysis, creation, and transformation of businesses, ventures, and, more generically, collective endeavors of any size and purpose. It is based on a systems-thinking approach that builds on a few interrelated core concepts to create holistic visual frameworks. These core concepts act as poles linked by meaningful dyads, flows, and faces arranged in geometric shapes. The article presents two such polar frameworks as key findings in an ongoing analytic autoethnography: the three-pole Value−Activity−Stakeholder (VAS triquetra and the four-pole Offer−Creation−Character−Stakeholder (OCCS tetrahedron. The VAS triquetra is a more aggregated model of collective endeavors. The OCCS tetrahedron makes a trade-off between a steeper learning curve and deeper, richer representation potential. This article discusses how to use these two frameworks as well as their limits, and explores the potential that polar business design offers for future research.

  16. DISCRIMINATION BY ASSOCIATION IN EUROPEAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuș

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The european law prohibit direct and indirect discrimination and harrasment on grounds of sex, racial or ethnic, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. The question is what is the situation when someone is discriminated on can claim to be the victim of unlawful discrimination because he or she is associated with another person who has the protected characteristic. The the Court of Justice of the European Union’s judgment in Coleman v Attridge Law and Steve Law confirms, for the first time in European law, the existence of the concept of discrimination by association. In this article I examine the implications of this case on all conceps of discrimination concepts of discrimination in European law (direct discrimination, indirect discrimination and harassment. I also examine the application of discrimination by association to grounds other than disability.

  17. Trade Openness and Gender Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Arbache, Jorge Saba; Helena Santos, Marina

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of trade liberalization on gender wage discrimination. The authors employ a simple method that is able to capture the direct impacts of openness at the industry level on the gender wages. The authors find evidence that increasing openness is associated with narrowing wage gap, which results mainly from men’s wages declining. This is consistent with the Be...

  18. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  19. Don't demotivate, discriminate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.A. Kamphorst (Jurjen); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper offers a new theory of discrimination in the workplace. We consider a manager who has to assign two tasks to two employees. The manager has superior information about the employees' abilities. We show that besides an equilibrium where the manager does not

  20. Sex Stereotyping and Sex Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Moira

    1977-01-01

    Although unable to find any evidence to indicate that secondary schools in Canada have or have not made any progress in reducing sex stereotyping or sex discrimination, the author states that the Canadian educational system is aware of its responsibility to uphold non-sexist standards for its young students. Discusses some research done on undoing…

  1. Contextual Advantage for State Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, David; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2018-02-01

    Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.

  2. Sex Discrimination in Employment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.

    The conference on sex discrimination in employment practices was held at the University of California at Los Angeles in cooperation with the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor. Speeches included: (1) "New Legislation--New Action" by Rosalind K. Loring and William Foster, (2) "Compliance Policies and Procedures for Business and Industry" by…

  3. Pulse Shape Discrimination in the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Christopher; Majorana Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is an experiment constructed to search for neutrinoless double-beta decays in germanium-76 and to demonstrate the feasibility to deploy a large-scale experiment in a phased and modular fashion. It consists of two modular arrays of natural and 76Ge-enriched germanium p-type point contact detectors totaling 44.1 kg, located at the 4850' level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, USA. A large effort is underway to analyze the data currently being taken by the DEMONSTRATOR. Key components of this effort are analysis tools that allow for pulse shape discrimination-techniques that significantly reduce background levels in the neutrinoless double-beta decay region of interest. These tools are able to identify and reject multi-site events from Compton scattering as well as events from alpha particle interactions. This work serves as an overview for these analysis tools and highlights the unique advantages that the HPGe p-type point contact detector provides to pulse shape discrimination. This material is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  4. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  5. Facial Affect Recognition Using Regularized Discriminant Analysis-Based Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yuan Shih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel and effective method for facial expression recognition including happiness, disgust, fear, anger, sadness, surprise, and neutral state. The proposed method utilizes a regularized discriminant analysis-based boosting algorithm (RDAB with effective Gabor features to recognize the facial expressions. Entropy criterion is applied to select the effective Gabor feature which is a subset of informative and nonredundant Gabor features. The proposed RDAB algorithm uses RDA as a learner in the boosting algorithm. The RDA combines strengths of linear discriminant analysis (LDA and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA. It solves the small sample size and ill-posed problems suffered from QDA and LDA through a regularization technique. Additionally, this study uses the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to estimate optimal parameters in RDA. Experiment results demonstrate that our approach can accurately and robustly recognize facial expressions.

  6. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared (NIR spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination. Keywords: Near infrared spectroscopy, Herbal medicine, Species authentication, Geographical origin discrimination, Quality control

  7. Social Status Correlates of Reporting Racial Discrimination and Gender Discrimination among Racially Diverse Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning ...

  8. Virtually Shaping the Future of Polar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeseman, J. L.; Koldunov, N. V.; Jochum, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere that started as a result of the International Polar Year (IPY). APECS is leading the way for virtual communication of polar research through several activities: an online Polar Literature Discussion Forum, a Virtual Poster Session, and Communication beyond the conference setting. APECS has created an extensive online discussion forum where researchers share both classic and cutting-edge literature articles and critique techniques that were used by authors, helping to improve methods as well as discover new ways to approach polar research questions. Many researchers present their results as posters at conferences. APECS has taken this process to a new level by creating a format to display previously presented posters online instead of these files simply sitting on a researcher’s hard-drive. Not only are the posters online, a monthly conference call open to hundreds of participants allows researchers to share their work with a new audience - fellow researchers, community members, potential colleagues, policy makers and educators. These calls are recorded and archived online so the next time someone visits the poster, they can hear the researcher describe their work and communicate with the researcher questions they may have, potential ways to collaborate or share different methodologies to improve future endeavors. Peer-reviewed literature articles are the currency of science and APECS has capitalized on this by creating a way for researchers to increase the exposure of their publications beyond the table of contents published by journals. The Polar Literature Discussion Forum is a new way for researchers to share their papers, as well as discuss classic articles. This has become a popular

  9. Enhanced polarization of (11–22) semi-polar InGaN nanorod array structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasiou, M.; Smith, R. M.; Hou, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Y.; Wang, T., E-mail: t.wang@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-05

    By means of a cost effective nanosphere lithography technique, an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure grown on (11–22) semipolar GaN has been fabricated into two dimensional nanorod arrays which form a photonic crystal (PhC) structure. Such a PhC structure demonstrates not only significantly increased emission intensity, but also an enhanced polarization ratio of the emission. This is due to an effective inhibition of the emission in slab modes and then redistribution to the vertical direction, thus minimizing the light scattering processes that lead to randomizing of the optical polarization. The PhC structure is designed based on a standard finite-difference-time-domain simulation, and then optically confirmed by detailed time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The results presented pave the way for the fabrication of semipolar InGaN/GaN based emitters with both high efficiency and highly polarized emission.

  10. Enhanced polarization of (11–22) semi-polar InGaN nanorod array structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanasiou, M.; Smith, R. M.; Hou, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Y.; Wang, T.

    2015-01-01

    By means of a cost effective nanosphere lithography technique, an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure grown on (11–22) semipolar GaN has been fabricated into two dimensional nanorod arrays which form a photonic crystal (PhC) structure. Such a PhC structure demonstrates not only significantly increased emission intensity, but also an enhanced polarization ratio of the emission. This is due to an effective inhibition of the emission in slab modes and then redistribution to the vertical direction, thus minimizing the light scattering processes that lead to randomizing of the optical polarization. The PhC structure is designed based on a standard finite-difference-time-domain simulation, and then optically confirmed by detailed time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The results presented pave the way for the fabrication of semipolar InGaN/GaN based emitters with both high efficiency and highly polarized emission

  11. Development of an embedded instrument for autofocus and polarization alignment of polarization maintaining fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Di; Fang, Qimeng; Huang, Huaibo; Zhao, Zhengqi; Song, Ningfang

    2017-12-01

    The development and implementation of a practical instrument based on an embedded technique for autofocus and polarization alignment of polarization maintaining fiber is presented. For focusing efficiency and stability, an image-based focusing algorithm fully considering the image definition evaluation and the focusing search strategy was used to accomplish autofocus. For improving the alignment accuracy, various image-based algorithms of alignment detection were developed with high calculation speed and strong robustness. The instrument can be operated as a standalone device with real-time processing and convenience operations. The hardware construction, software interface, and image-based algorithms of main modules are described. Additionally, several image simulation experiments were also carried out to analyze the accuracy of the above alignment detection algorithms. Both the simulation results and experiment results indicate that the instrument can achieve the accuracy of polarization alignment <±0.1 deg.

  12. A precision timing discriminator for high density detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turko, B.T.; Smith, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    Most high resolution time measurement techniques require discriminators that accurately make the time arrival of events regardless of their intensity. Constant fraction discriminators or zero-crossing discriminators are generally used. In this paper, the authors describe a zero-crossing discriminator that accurately determines the peak of a quasi-Gaussian waveform by differentiating it and detecting the resulting zero-crossing. Basically, it consists of a fast voltage comparator and tow integrating networks: an RC section and an LR section used in a way that keeps the input impedance purely resistive. A time walk of 100 ps in an amplitude range exceeding 100:1 has been achieved for wave-forms from 1.5 ns to 15 ns FWHM. An arming level discriminator is added to eliminate triggering by noise. Easily implemented in either monolithic or hybrid technology, the circuit is suitable for large multichannel detector systems where size and power dissipation are crucial. Circuit diagrams and typical measured data are also presented

  13. On the polarized beam acceleration in medium energy synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    This lecture note reviews physics of spin motion in a synchrotron, spin depolarization mechanisms of spin resonances, and methods of overcoming the spin resonances during acceleration. Techniques used in accelerating polarized ions in the low/medium energy synchrotrons, such as the ZGS, the AGS, SATURNE, and the KEK PS and PS Booster are discussed. Problems related to polarized proton acceleration with snakes or partial snake are also examined

  14. Real time automatic discriminating of ultrasonic flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhairy Sani; Mohd Hanif Md Saad; Marzuki Mustafa; Mohd Redzwan Rosli

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the real time automatic discriminating of flaws from two categories; i. cracks (planar defect) and ii. Non-cracks (volumetric defect such as cluster porosity and slag) using pulse-echo ultrasound. The raw ultrasonic flaws signal were collected from a computerized robotic plane scanning system over the whole of each reflector as the primary source of data. The signal is then filtered and the analysis in both time and frequency domain were executed to obtain the selected feature. The real time feature analysis techniques measured the number of peaks, maximum index, pulse duration, rise time and fall time. The obtained features could be used to distinguish between quantitatively classified flaws by using various tools in artificial intelligence such as neural networks. The proposed algorithm and complete system were implemented in a computer software developed using Microsoft Visual BASIC 6.0 (author)

  15. Study of n-γ discrimination using QDC for a liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhingan, Akhil; Singh, R.P.; Golda, K.S.; Sugathan, P.; Bhowmik, R.K.; Singh, Hardev

    2006-01-01

    An array of neutron detectors has been recently installed in beam hall II at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. The array currently has 26 neutron detectors with some detectors pooled from SINP, Kolkata. For some in beam test experiments and off line source tests, zero crossing technique has been successfully used for n-γ discrimination, using commercially available pulse shape discriminator module 2160A from Canberra, as well as with in house designed and fabricated pulse shape discriminator module using zero crossing technique

  16. New laser polarization line at the ISOLDE facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, M.; Aschenbrenner, P.; Baranowski, M.; Bissell, M. L.; Gins, W.; Harding, R. D.; Heylen, H.; Neyens, G.; Pallada, S.; Severijns, N.; Velten, Ph; Walczak, M.; Wienholtz, F.; Xu, Z. Y.; Yang, X. F.; Zakoucky, D.

    2017-08-01

    Following a growing interest in spin-polarized beams of radioactive ions, a new laser spin-polarization setup has been installed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The setup is located at the VITO beamline which aims to bring together several experimental techniques using polarized ions allowing for studies in nuclear physics, fundamental interactions, material and life sciences. Intensive design work, which took place in 2016, allowed the installation of the first stage of the polarization line. With this experimental setup, the ion beam can be neutralized, polarized and implanted into a solid sample inside an electromagnet which also hosts β-detectors, where the degree of nuclear spin polarization can be measured. In autumn 2016 the setup was commissioned using short-lived 26Na and 28Na beams which were polarized in the D2 line from their atomic ground state. The previously observed degrees of β asymmetry were reproduced and thus the beamline is now ready for the first physics experiments with spin-polarized radioactive beams.

  17. A 16 channel discriminator VME board with enhanced triggering capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsato, E; Garfagnini, A; Menon, G

    2012-01-01

    Electronics and data acquisition systems used in small and large scale laboratories often have to handle analog signals with varying polarity, amplitude and duration which have to be digitized to be used as trigger signals to validate the acquired data. In the specific case of experiments dealing with ionizing radiation, ancillary particle detectors (for instance plastic scintillators or Resistive Plate Chambers) are used to trigger and select the impinging particles for the experiment. A novel approach using commercial LVDS line receivers as discriminator devices is presented. Such devices, with a proper calibration, can handle positive and negative analog signals in a wide dynamic range (from 20 mV to 800 mV signal amplitude). The clear advantages, with respect to conventional discriminator devices, are reduced costs, high reliability of a mature technology and the possibility of high integration scale. Moreover, commercial discriminator boards with positive input signal and a wide threshold swing are not available on the market. The present paper describes the design and characterization of a VME board capable to handle 16 differential or single-ended input channels. The output digital signals, available independently for each input, can be combined in the board into three independent trigger logic units which provide additional outputs for the end user.

  18. Angular structure of light polarization and singularities in transmittance of nematic liquid crystal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Alexei D.; Vovk, Roman G.; Buinyi, Igor O.; Soskin, Marat S.

    2007-06-01

    We study the angular structure of polarization of light transmitted through a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell by analyzing the polarization state as a function of the incidence angles. Our theoretical results are obtained by evaluating the Stokes parameters that characterize the polarization state of plane waves propagating through the NLC layer at varying direction of incidence. Using the Stokes polarimetry technique we carried out the measurements of the polarization resolved conoscopic patterns emerging after the homeotropically aligned NLC cell illuminated by the convergent light beam. The resulting polarization resolved angular patterns are described both theoretically and experimentally in terms of the polarization singularities such as C-points (points of circular polarization) and L-lines (lines of linear polarization). When the ellipticity of the incident light varies, the angular patterns are found to undergo transformations involving the processes of creation and annihilation of the C-points.

  19. Artificial odor map and discrimination of odorants using the odor separating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imahashi, Masahiro; Miyagi, Kazuki; Takamizawa, Tadashi; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2011-09-01

    In this research, achievement of the odor discrimination was examined. At first, odor separating system was developed which imitates the odor receptive mechanism of biological olfaction. A rough detection of odor becomes possible with this device. Therefore, this device makes it possible to measure the molecular size and the polarity of odorant and discriminate the mixed odor. Then, measuring representative odor molecules belonging to biological glomeruli clusters, odor information is extracted from time course patterns obtained by the system. The extracted features could be used for odor mapping close to the odor map created in the odor receptive mechanism which can classify odor quality by their odor cluster attributes.

  20. Studies on optical pumping cells (OPC) to polarize 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutanu, V.; Rupp, A.

    2004-01-01

    The technique applied at HMI to obtain nuclear-spin-polarized 3 He, used in neutron spin filters (NSFs), is metastability-exchange optical pumping. To prepare efficient NSF, one must highly polarize 3 He nuclei in the optical pumping volume (OPV) and reduce the polarization losses during the compression phase. Great progress has been achieved in reducing of depolarization due to the recent development of both, large polarization preserving piston compressors and long relaxation time filter cells. It is even more important to significantly enhance the 3 He polarization rate during optical pumping in order to increase NSF efficiency. Different cells materials were tested, such as Duran and quartz glass. In order to use the laser light more efficiently and to decrease the risk of 3 He depolarization due to unfavorable reflections, antireflection (AR) coatings were used on cell windows made of quartz glass. They were compared with the ones without coating, made of quartz, Duran and BK7 glass. The comparison of various techniques to mount the windows such as blowing, gluing or molecular diffusion was also conducted. It indicated that the molecular diffusion is the most suitable technique because of a better purity of the gas in the cell and the preservation of the optical flatness of the windows. Cells, for practical reasons each entirely made from the same material (Duran, Quartz glass) with windows mounted using this method, showed the best polarization performance

  1. System for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The system for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target representing the high-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described Q-meter with series connection and a circuit for measuring system resonance characteristic is used for NMR-absorption signal recording. Measuring coil is produced of a strip conductor in order to obtain uniform system sensitivity to polarization state in all target volume and improve signal-to-noise ratio. Polarization measuring system operates ion-line with the M-6000 computer. The total measuring error for the value of free proton polarization in target taking into account the error caused by local depolarization of working substance under irradiation by high-intense photon beam is <= 6%. Long-term application of the described system for measuring the proton polarization in the LUEh-20000 accelerator target used in the pion photoproduction experiments has demonstrated its high reliability

  2. Within centre evaluation of hypercalcaemia discriminant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Conradsen, Knut

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostic hypercalcaemia discriminant functions, discriminating between clinically significant and non-significant hypercalcaemia, were tested 5 years after their development in order to evaluate the impact of time on their diagnostic capacity. Two populations, consisting of 257 and 129 patients...

  3. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited. ...

  4. Polarization-resolved angular patterns of nematic liquid crystal cells: Topological events driven by incident light polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Alexei D.; Vovk, Roman G.; Egorov, Roman I.; Chigrinov, Vladimir G.

    2008-09-01

    We study the angular structure of polarization of light transmitted through a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell by analyzing the polarization state as a function of the incidence angles and the polarization of the incident wave. The polarization-resolved angular (conoscopic) patterns emerging after the NLC cell illuminated by the convergent light beam are described in terms of the polarization singularities such as C points (points of circular polarization) and L lines (lines of linear polarization). For the homeotropically aligned cell, the Stokes polarimetry technique is used to measure the polarization resolved conoscopic patterns at different values of the ellipticity of the incident light, γell(inc) , impinging onto the cell. Using the exact analytical expressions for the transfer matrix we show that variations of the ellipticity, γell(inc) , induce transformations of the angular pattern exhibiting the effect of avoided L -line crossings and characterized by topological events such as creation and annihilation of the C points. The predictions of the theory are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Purification of polar compounds from Radix isatidis using conventional C18 column coupled with polar-copolymerized C18 column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jing; Guo, Zhimou; Xiao, Yuansheng; Wang, Chaoran; Zhang, Xiuli; Liang, Xinmiao

    2010-11-01

    Regarding hydrophilic interaction chromatography and normal phase liquid chromatography, RPLC is another choice used to separate polar compounds with the improvement of polar-modified C18 stationary phase. In this study, a method using conventional C18 column coupled with polar-copolymerized C18 column was successfully developed for the separation and purification of polar compounds from Radix isatidis, which is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). An XTerra MS C18 column was used to fractionate the extract of R. isatidis and a homemade polar-copolymerized C18 column was utilized for the final purification due to its good separation selectivity and high resolution for polar compounds. The established purification system demonstrated good orthogonality for the polar compounds. As a result, ten compounds were purified and three of them were identified as 3-methyl-5-vinyloxazolidin-2-one (compound A), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (compound B) and 3-methylfuran-2-carboxylic acid (compound G) based on the MS, IR and extensive NMR data, respectively. It was demonstrated to be a feasible and powerful technique for the purification of polar compounds under RPLC mode and more chemical information of TCMs will be obtained to interpret the efficiency of TCMs.

  6. Limited taste discrimination in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Scott, Kristin

    2010-08-17

    In the gustatory systems of mammals and flies, different populations of sensory cells recognize different taste modalities, such that there are cells that respond selectively to sugars and others to bitter compounds. This organization readily allows animals to distinguish compounds of different modalities but may limit the ability to distinguish compounds within one taste modality. Here, we developed a behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate directly the tastes that a fly distinguishes. These studies reveal that flies do not discriminate among different sugars, or among different bitter compounds, based on chemical identity. Instead, flies show a limited ability to distinguish compounds within a modality based on intensity or palatability. Taste associative learning, similar to olfactory learning, requires the mushroom bodies, suggesting fundamental similarities in brain mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity. Overall, these studies provide insight into the discriminative capacity of the Drosophila gustatory system and the modulation of taste behavior.

  7. Fairness Testing: Testing Software for Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Galhotra, Sainyam; Brun, Yuriy; Meliou, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    This paper defines software fairness and discrimination and develops a testing-based method for measuring if and how much software discriminates, focusing on causality in discriminatory behavior. Evidence of software discrimination has been found in modern software systems that recommend criminal sentences, grant access to financial products, and determine who is allowed to participate in promotions. Our approach, Themis, generates efficient test suites to measure discrimination. Given a sche...

  8. A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhongming; Xing Shilin; Wang Zhongmin

    1986-01-01

    A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system is described. A detector and a pulse shape discriminator are suitable for the neutron-gamma discriminating system. The influence of the constant fraction discriminator threshold energy on the neutron-gamma resolution properties is shown. The neutron-gamma timing distributions from an 241 Am-Be source, 2.5 MeV neutron beam and 14 MeV neutron beam are presented

  9. Discrimination and Exiting Homelessness among Homeless Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Ayala, George; Rice, Eric; Batterham, Philip; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines how newly homeless adolescents’ discrimination experiences were associated with exiting homelessness after six months. A sample of 262 homeless adolescents, aged 12 to 20 years, were recruited and followed longitudinally (six-month retention rate = 88%). Discrimination was related to being gay, lesbian, or bisexual (LGB). Discrimination from family was related to exiting homelessness. Other than those who were LGB, adolescents who reported discrimination from their familie...

  10. Illustrations of Price Discrimination in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Rascher; Andrew, Schwarz

    2010-01-01

    Price discrimination of this nature, focused on differing degrees of quality, bundled goods, volume discounts, and other forms of second-degree price discrimination, is commonplace in MLB. Indeed, it is safe to say that every single MLB ticket is sold under some form of price discrimination. As teams grow increasingly sophisticated in their pricing strategies, price discrimination is becoming more precise, more wide-spread, and more profitable, while at the same time providing for more oppo...

  11. Distribution-free discriminant analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, T.; Doak, J.

    1997-05-01

    This report describes our experience in implementing a non-parametric (distribution-free) discriminant analysis module for use in a wide range of pattern recognition problems. Issues discussed include performance results on both real and simulated data sets, comparisons to other methods, and the computational environment. In some cases, this module performs better than other existing methods. Nearly all cases can benefit from the application of multiple methods.

  12. Competition, Takeovers and Gender Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Heyman, Fredrik; Svaleryd, Helena; Vlachos, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    Theories of taste-based discrimination predict that competitive pressures will drive discriminatory behaviour out of the market. Using detailed matched employer-employee data, we analyze how firm takeovers and product market competition are related to the gender composition of the firm’s workforce and the gender wage gap. Using a difference-in-difference framework and dealing with several endogeneity concerns, we find that the share of female employees increases as a result of an ownership ch...

  13. Social Hierarchies, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Snellman, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is based on three papers where I examine some aspects of ethnic and gender-based prejudice and discrimination in hierarchical situations. In Paper I, the existence of ethnic hierarchies in Sweden is explored. Both immigrant and ethnic Swedes were asked to report their social distance to a number of ethnic groups represented in their geographical area. The results showed that hierarchies exist in Swedish environments and that they are connected with both ethnic prejudice and partic...

  14. Rationing-Based Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhai Wu; Xianjun Geng; Andrew B. Whinston

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a theory of rationing where rationing functions as an effective mechanism for second degree price discrimination by a monopoly seller. When a seller charges multiple prices on homogenous products to all consumers, supply at the lowest price is limited and rationed among consumers. The supply shortage differentiates products sold at the lowest price and those sold at a higher price. When high-valuation consumers identify themselves at the higher price, the seller may extrac...

  15. Sex Discrimination in Uncertain Times

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This collection of essays arose from a conference held to mark the silver anniversary of the Australian Sex Discrimination Act (1984). The collection has two aims: first; to honour the contributions of both the spirited individuals who valiantly fought for the enactment of the legislation against the odds, and those who championed the new law once it was passed; secondly, to present a stock-take of the Act within the changed socio-political environment of the 21st century. The contributor...

  16. Polar drive on OMEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha P.B.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High-convergence polar-drive experiments are being conducted on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commum. 133, 495 (1997] using triple-picket laser pulses. The goal of OMEGA experiments is to validate modeling of oblique laser deposition, heat conduction in the presence of nonradial thermal gradients in the corona, and implosion energetics in the presence of laser–plasma interactions such as crossed-beam energy transfer. Simulated shock velocities near the equator, where the beams are obliquely incident, are within 5% of experimentally inferred values in warm plastic shells, well within the required accuracy for ignition. High, near-one-dimensional areal density is obtained in warm-plastic-shell implosions. Simulated backlit images of the compressing core are in good agreement with measured images. Outstanding questions that will be addressed in the future relate to the role of cross-beam transfer in polar drive irradiation and increasing the energy coupled into the target by decreasing beam obliquity.

  17. Color discrimination with broadband photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaitmann, Christopher; Garbers, Christian; Wachtler, Thomas; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2013-12-02

    Color vision is commonly assumed to rely on photoreceptors tuned to narrow spectral ranges. In the ommatidium of Drosophila, the four types of so-called inner photoreceptors express different narrow-band opsins. In contrast, the outer photoreceptors have a broadband spectral sensitivity and were thought to exclusively mediate achromatic vision. Using computational models and behavioral experiments, we demonstrate that the broadband outer photoreceptors contribute to color vision in Drosophila. The model of opponent processing that includes the opsin of the outer photoreceptors scored the best fit to wavelength discrimination data. To experimentally uncover the contribution of individual photoreceptor types, we restored phototransduction of targeted photoreceptor combinations in a blind mutant. Dichromatic flies with only broadband photoreceptors and one additional receptor type can discriminate different colors, indicating the existence of a specific output comparison of the outer and inner photoreceptors. Furthermore, blocking interneurons postsynaptic to the outer photoreceptors specifically impaired color but not intensity discrimination. Our findings show that receptors with a complex and broad spectral sensitivity can contribute to color vision and reveal that chromatic and achromatic circuits in the fly share common photoreceptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office of... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT OF 1982, AS AMENDED (JTPA) General Provisions § 34.3 Discrimination... participation in JTPA, be excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of, subjected to discrimination...

  19. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  20. 49 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited: (1...

  1. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b) Specific...

  2. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. ...

  3. 45 CFR 84.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.11 Section 84.11... § 84.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this...

  4. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or segregation...

  5. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  6. 45 CFR 1203.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1203.4 Section 1203.4... OF 1964 § 1203.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this part applies. (b...

  7. 43 CFR 34.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.4 Section 34... DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.4 Discrimination... part applies. (b) Specific actions in which discrimination is prohibited. No person shall directly or...

  8. 45 CFR 1110.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1110.3 Section 1110.3... HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected, to discrimination under...

  9. 24 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  10. 29 CFR 32.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.12 Section 32.12 Labor Office... § 32.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  11. 6 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 21.5 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, any program to...

  12. 14 CFR 380.26 - Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination. 380.26 Section 380.26... REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Requirements Applicable to Charter Operators § 380.26 Discrimination. No charter... unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever. ...

  13. 43 CFR 17.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.3 Section 17... National Origin § 17.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the..., or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies. (b...

  14. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited. (1...

  15. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... discrimination. 1307.5 Section 1307.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.5 Employment discrimination. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  16. 13 CFR 113.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 113.3... Provisions § 113.3 Discrimination prohibited. To the extent not covered or prohibited by part 112 of this... employment decisions shall be made in a manner which ensures that discrimination on the basis of handicap...

  17. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1) A...

  18. Discrimination ability of the Energy score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Tastu, Julija

    as appealing since being proper, we show that its discrimination ability may be limited when focusing on the dependence structure of multivariate probabilistic forecasts. For the case of multivariate Gaussian process, a theoretical upper for such discrimination ability is derived and discussed. This limited...... discrimination ability may eventually get compromised by computational and sampling issues, as dimension increases....

  19. 29 CFR 502.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) General Provisions § 502.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... Department regulation promulgated pursuant to sec. 218 of the INA. (b) Allegations of discrimination against...

  20. 45 CFR 605.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.4 Section 605.4... Provisions § 605.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b...