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Sample records for polarization density matrix

  1. Off-diagonal helicity density matrix elements for vector mesons produced in polarized e+e- processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Murgia, F.; Quintairos, P.

    1999-04-01

    Final state q q-bar interactions give origin to non zero values of the off-diagonal element ρ 1,-1 of the helicity density matrix of vector mesons produced in e + e - annihilations, as confirmed by recent OPAL data on φ, D * and K * 's. New predictions are given for ρ 1,-1 of several mesons produced at large x E and small p T - i.e. collinear with the parent jet - in the annihilation of polarized 3 + and 3 - , the results depend strongly on the elementary dynamics and allow further non trivial tests of the standard model. (author)

  2. Polarization observables in the longitudinal basis for pseudo-scalar meson photoproduction using a density matrix approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biplab Dey, Michael E. McCracken, David G. Ireland, Curtis A. Meyer

    2011-05-01

    The complete expression for the intensity in pseudo-scalar meson photoproduction with a polarized beam, target, and recoil baryon is derived using a density matrix approach that offers great economy of notation. A Cartesian basis with spins for all particles quantized along a single direction, the longitudinal beam direction, is used for consistency and clarity in interpretation. A single spin-quantization axis for all particles enables the amplitudes to be written in a manifestly covariant fashion with simple relations to those of the well-known CGLN formalism. Possible sign discrepancies between theoretical amplitude-level expressions and experimentally measurable intensity profiles are dealt with carefully. Our motivation is to provide a coherent framework for coupled-channel partial-wave analysis of several meson photoproduction reactions, incorporating recently published and forthcoming polarization data from Jefferson Lab.

  3. Self-consistent embedding of density-matrix renormalization group wavefunctions in a density functional environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Neugebauer, Johannes; Knecht, Stefan; Keller, Sebastian; Ma, Yingjin; Reiher, Markus

    2015-01-28

    We present the first implementation of a density matrix renormalization group algorithm embedded in an environment described by density functional theory. The frozen density embedding scheme is used with a freeze-and-thaw strategy for a self-consistent polarization of the orbital-optimized wavefunction and the environmental densities with respect to each other.

  4. Hartree--Fock density matrix equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, L.; Frishberg, C.

    1976-01-01

    An equation for the Hartree--Fock density matrix is discussed and the possibility of solving this equation directly for the density matrix instead of solving the Hartree--Fock equation for orbitals is considered. Toward that end the density matrix is expanded in a finite basis to obtain the matrix representative equation. The closed shell case is considered. Two numerical schemes are developed and applied to a number of examples. One example is given where the standard orbital method does not converge while the method presented here does

  5. Density matrix technique for groundstate calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croo de Jongh, du M.S.L.; Doumen, J.M.; Leeuwen, van J.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The density matrix approach is a technique to calculate the lowest eigenvalue of a large matrix such as occurring in quantum mechanical systems. So far the method works very well for systems with a linear structure. The limitations for a planar structure, from critical correlations and from

  6. Alternative dimensional reduction via the density matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, C. A.; Cornwall, J. M.; da Silva, A. J.

    2001-07-01

    We give graphical rules, based on earlier work for the functional Schrödinger equation, for constructing the density matrix for scalar and gauge fields in equilibrium at finite temperature T. More useful is a dimensionally reduced effective action (DREA) constructed from the density matrix by further functional integration over the arguments of the density matrix coupled to a source. The DREA is an effective action in one less dimension which may be computed order by order in perturbation theory or by dressed-loop expansions; it encodes all thermal matrix elements. We term the DREA procedure alternative dimensional reduction, to distinguish it from the conventional dimensionally reduced field theory (DRFT) which applies at infinite T. The DREA is useful because it gives a dimensionally reduced theory usable at any T including infinity, where it yields the DRFT, and because it does not and cannot have certain spurious infinities which sometimes occur in the density matrix itself or the conventional DRFT; these come from ln T factors at infinite temperature. The DREA can be constructed to all orders (in principle) and the only regularizations needed are those which control the ultraviolet behavior of the zero-T theory. An example of spurious divergences in the DRFT occurs in d=2+1φ4 theory dimensionally reduced to d=2. We study this theory and show that the rules for the DREA replace these ``wrong'' divergences in physical parameters by calculable powers of ln T; we also compute the phase transition temperature of this φ4 theory in one-loop order. Our density-matrix construction is equivalent to a construction of the Landau-Ginzburg ``coarse-grained free energy'' from a microscopic Hamiltonian.

  7. Jones matrix treatment for optical Fourier processors with structured polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ignacio; Iemmi, Claudio; Campos, Juan; Yzuel, Maria J

    2011-02-28

    We present a Jones matrix method useful to analyze coherent optical Fourier processors employing structured polarization. The proposed method is a generalization of the standard classical optical Fourier transform processor, but considering vectorial spatial functions with two complex components corresponding to two orthogonal linear polarizations. As a result we derive a Jones matrix that describes the polarization output in terms of two vectorial functions defining respectively the structured polarization input and the generalized polarization impulse response. We apply the method to show and analyze an experiment in which a regular scalar diffraction grating is converted into equivalent polarization diffraction gratings by means of an appropriate polarization filtering. The technique is further demonstrated to generate arbitrary structured polarizations. Excellent experimental results are presented.

  8. Density Matrix Renormalization Group for Dummies

    OpenAIRE

    De Chiara, G.; Rizzi, M.; Rossini, D.; Montangero, S.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the Density Matrix Renormalization Group algorithms for time dependent and time independent Hamiltonians. This paper is a brief but comprehensive introduction to the subject for anyone willing to enter in the field or write the program source code from scratch.

  9. Modulus design multiwavelength polarization microscope for transmission Mueller matrix imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jialing; He, Honghui; Chen, Zhenhua; Wang, Ye; Ma, Hui

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a polarization microscope based on a commercial transmission microscope. We replace the halogen light source by a collimated LED light source module of six different colors. We use achromatic polarized optical elements that can cover the six different wavelength ranges in the polarization state generator (PSG) and polarization state analyzer (PSA) modules. The dual-rotating wave plate method is used to measure the Mueller matrix of samples, which requires the simultaneous rotation of the two quarter-wave plates in both PSG and PSA at certain angular steps. A scientific CCD detector is used as the image receiving module. A LabView-based software is developed to control the rotation angels of the wave plates and the exposure time of the detector to allow the system to run fully automatically in preprogrammed schedules. Standard samples, such as air, polarizers, and quarter-wave plates, are used to calibrate the intrinsic Mueller matrix of optical components, such as the objectives, using the eigenvalue calibration method. Errors due to the images walk-off in the PSA are studied. Errors in the Mueller matrices are below 0.01 using air and polarizer as standard samples. Data analysis based on Mueller matrix transformation and Mueller matrix polarization decomposition is used to demonstrate the potential application of this microscope in pathological diagnosis. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  10. Modulus design multiwavelength polarization microscope for transmission Mueller matrix imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jialing; He, Honghui; Chen, Zhenhua; Wang, Ye; Ma, Hui

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a polarization microscope based on a commercial transmission microscope. We replace the halogen light source by a collimated LED light source module of six different colors. We use achromatic polarized optical elements that can cover the six different wavelength ranges in the polarization state generator (PSG) and polarization state analyzer (PSA) modules. The dual-rotating wave plate method is used to measure the Mueller matrix of samples, which requires the simultaneous rotation of the two quarter-wave plates in both PSG and PSA at certain angular steps. A scientific CCD detector is used as the image receiving module. A LabView-based software is developed to control the rotation angels of the wave plates and the exposure time of the detector to allow the system to run fully automatically in preprogrammed schedules. Standard samples, such as air, polarizers, and quarter-wave plates, are used to calibrate the intrinsic Mueller matrix of optical components, such as the objectives, using the eigenvalue calibration method. Errors due to the images walk-off in the PSA are studied. Errors in the Mueller matrices are below 0.01 using air and polarizer as standard samples. Data analysis based on Mueller matrix transformation and Mueller matrix polarization decomposition is used to demonstrate the potential application of this microscope in pathological diagnosis.

  11. Polarization Charge Density in Strained Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Noah

    Graphene, the world's first truly two-dimensional material, is unique for having an electronic structure described by an effective Lorentz invariant theory. One important consequence is that the ratio or Coulomb energy to kinetic energy is a constant, depending only on conditions within the lattice rather than on the average charge density as in a typical Galilean invariant material. Given this unusual property, a natural question would be how do phenomena, such as screening of a Coulomb impurity, happen in graphene? Moreover, how does the addition of uniaxial strain enhance or diminish this behavior? Here I discuss our work to calculate the charge density distribution in a lattice of strained graphene under the effect of an external Coulomb impurity. Graphene can have its band structure significantly altered by the application of uniaxial strain. Two cases are here explored: relatively weak strain at some finite chemical potential, and extreme strain with zero chemical potential. In the first system, the strain induces elliptic Dirac cones, engendering some inherent directionality to graphene's electronic properties that did not exist before. This anisotropy manifests itself in the polarization function, and so too in the screening charge density. A finite chemical potential in this case is necessary for any screening to take place in graphene since, without it, there are no electron states near the Fermi level to polarize. Both in the strained and unstrained case, decaying oscillations known as Friedel oscillations are observed. The result of strain is a multifaceted anisotropy of the charge distribution: the amplitude, frequency, and the position of the first peak in the oscillations are each varied depending on the direction one observes. In the second system, extreme strain in graphene leads to a merging of Dirac cones, yielding a transition to a new energy spectrum. This band structure is unusual in that it becomes quadratic along the direction of strain

  12. Coherence and Polarization of Polarization Speckle Generated by Depolarizers and Their Changes through Complex ABCD Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Lee, Tim K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research work on speckle patterns indicates a variation of the polarization state during propagation and its nonuniformly spatial distribution. The preliminary step for the investigation of this polarization speckle is the generation of the corresponding field. In this paper, a kind of spe...... of coherence (DoC). and degree of polarization (DoP) P. The changes of the coherence and polarization when the speckle field propagates through any optical system are analysed within the framework of the complex ABCD-matrix theory....

  13. Smad4 regulates growth plate matrix production and chondrocyte polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Amanda T; Berthet, Ellora; Cantu, Andrea; Laird, Diana J; Alliston, Tamara

    2017-03-15

    Smad4 is an intracellular effector of the TGFβ family that has been implicated in Myhre syndrome, a skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, brachydactyly and stiff joints. The TGFβ pathway also plays a critical role in the development, organization and proliferation of the growth plate, although the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Skeletal phenotypes in Myhre syndrome overlap with processes regulated by the TGFβ pathway, including organization and proliferation of the growth plate and polarity of the chondrocyte. We used in vitro and in vivo models of Smad4 deficiency in chondrocytes to test the hypothesis that deregulated TGFβ signaling leads to aberrant extracellular matrix production and loss of chondrocyte polarity. Specifically, we evaluated growth plate chondrocyte polarity in tibiae of Col2-Cre +/- ;Smad4 fl/fl mice and in chondrocyte pellet cultures. In vitro and in vivo , Smad4 deficiency decreased aggrecan expression and increased MMP13 expression. Smad4 deficiency disrupted the balance of cartilage matrix synthesis and degradation, even though the sequential expression of growth plate chondrocyte markers was intact. Chondrocytes in Smad4-deficient growth plates also showed evidence of polarity defects, with impaired proliferation and ability to undergo the characteristic changes in shape, size and orientation as they differentiated from resting to hypertrophic chondrocytes. Therefore, we show that Smad4 controls chondrocyte proliferation, orientation, and hypertrophy and is important in regulating the extracellular matrix composition of the growth plate. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Smad4 regulates growth plate matrix production and chondrocyte polarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda T. Whitaker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Smad4 is an intracellular effector of the TGFβ family that has been implicated in Myhre syndrome, a skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, brachydactyly and stiff joints. The TGFβ pathway also plays a critical role in the development, organization and proliferation of the growth plate, although the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Skeletal phenotypes in Myhre syndrome overlap with processes regulated by the TGFβ pathway, including organization and proliferation of the growth plate and polarity of the chondrocyte. We used in vitro and in vivo models of Smad4 deficiency in chondrocytes to test the hypothesis that deregulated TGFβ signaling leads to aberrant extracellular matrix production and loss of chondrocyte polarity. Specifically, we evaluated growth plate chondrocyte polarity in tibiae of Col2-Cre+/−;Smad4fl/fl mice and in chondrocyte pellet cultures. In vitro and in vivo, Smad4 deficiency decreased aggrecan expression and increased MMP13 expression. Smad4 deficiency disrupted the balance of cartilage matrix synthesis and degradation, even though the sequential expression of growth plate chondrocyte markers was intact. Chondrocytes in Smad4-deficient growth plates also showed evidence of polarity defects, with impaired proliferation and ability to undergo the characteristic changes in shape, size and orientation as they differentiated from resting to hypertrophic chondrocytes. Therefore, we show that Smad4 controls chondrocyte proliferation, orientation, and hypertrophy and is important in regulating the extracellular matrix composition of the growth plate.

  15. Single-particle density matrix of liquid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakarchuk, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The density single-particle matrix in the coordinate notation was calculated based on the expression for the interacting Bose-particle N system density matrix. Under the low temperatures the mentioned matrix in the first approximation enables to reproduce the Bogoliubov theory results. In the classical terms the mentioned theory enables to reproduce the results of the theory of the classical fluids in the approximation of the chaotic phases. On the basis of the density single-particle matrix one managed to obtain the function of the pulse distribution of the particles, the Bose-liquid average kinetic energy, and to study the Bose-Einstein condensation phenomenon [ru

  16. Reduced density matrix functional theory at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldsiefen, Tim

    2012-10-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) is highly successful in many fields of research. There are, however, areas in which its performance is rather limited. An important example is the description of thermodynamical variables of a quantum system in thermodynamical equilibrium. Although the finite-temperature version of DFT (FT-DFT) rests on a firm theoretical basis and is only one year younger than its brother, groundstate DFT, it has been successfully applied to only a few problems. Because FT-DFT, like DFT, is in principle exact, these shortcomings can be attributed to the difficulties of deriving valuable functionals for FT-DFT. In this thesis, we are going to present an alternative theoretical description of quantum systems in thermal equilibrium. It is based on the 1-reduced density matrix (1RDM) of the system, rather than on its density and will rather cumbersomly be called finite-temperature reduced density matrix functional theory (FT-RDMFT). Its zero-temperature counterpart (RDMFT) proved to be successful in several fields, formerly difficult to address via DFT. These fields include, for example, the calculation of dissociation energies or the calculation of the fundamental gap, also for Mott insulators. This success is mainly due to the fact that the 1RDM carries more directly accessible ''manybody'' information than the density alone, leading for example to an exact description of the kinetic energy functional. This sparks the hope that a description of thermodynamical systems employing the 1RDM via FT-RDMFT can yield an improvement over FT-DFT. Giving a short review of RDMFT and pointing out difficulties when describing spin-polarized systems initiates our work. We then lay the theoretical framework for FT-RDMFT by proving the required Hohenberg-Kohn-like theorems, investigating and determining the domain of FT-RDMFT functionals and by deriving several properties of the exact functional. Subsequently, we present a perturbative method to

  17. Reduced density matrix functional theory at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldsiefen, Tim

    2012-10-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is highly successful in many fields of research. There are, however, areas in which its performance is rather limited. An important example is the description of thermodynamical variables of a quantum system in thermodynamical equilibrium. Although the finite-temperature version of DFT (FT-DFT) rests on a firm theoretical basis and is only one year younger than its brother, groundstate DFT, it has been successfully applied to only a few problems. Because FT-DFT, like DFT, is in principle exact, these shortcomings can be attributed to the difficulties of deriving valuable functionals for FT-DFT. In this thesis, we are going to present an alternative theoretical description of quantum systems in thermal equilibrium. It is based on the 1-reduced density matrix (1RDM) of the system, rather than on its density and will rather cumbersomly be called finite-temperature reduced density matrix functional theory (FT-RDMFT). Its zero-temperature counterpart (RDMFT) proved to be successful in several fields, formerly difficult to address via DFT. These fields include, for example, the calculation of dissociation energies or the calculation of the fundamental gap, also for Mott insulators. This success is mainly due to the fact that the 1RDM carries more directly accessible ''manybody'' information than the density alone, leading for example to an exact description of the kinetic energy functional. This sparks the hope that a description of thermodynamical systems employing the 1RDM via FT-RDMFT can yield an improvement over FT-DFT. Giving a short review of RDMFT and pointing out difficulties when describing spin-polarized systems initiates our work. We then lay the theoretical framework for FT-RDMFT by proving the required Hohenberg-Kohn-like theorems, investigating and determining the domain of FT-RDMFT functionals and by deriving several properties of the exact functional. Subsequently, we present a perturbative method to iteratively construct

  18. Correlation between the Flux Density and Polarization for Flat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, using the preliminary database of the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO) at the radio frequencies, we calculated the weighted polarization at 8 GHz and investigated the correlation between the polarization and the flux density for 92 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). We found ...

  19. Current density functional theory for optical spectra : A polarization functional

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeij, P.L. de; Kootstra, F.; Berger, J.A.; Leeuwen, R. van; Snijders, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to calculate optical spectra, which for the first time uses a polarization dependent functional within current density functional theory (CDFT), which was proposed by Vignale and Kohn. This polarization dependent functional includes exchange-correlation (xc)

  20. Molecular density functional theory of water including density-polarization coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2016-06-22

    We present a three-dimensional molecular density functional theory of water derived from first-principles that relies on the particle's density and multipolar polarization density and includes the density-polarization coupling. This brings two main benefits: (i) scalar density and vectorial multipolar polarization density fields are much more tractable and give more physical insight than the full position and orientation densities, and (ii) it includes the full density-polarization coupling of water, that is known to be non-vanishing but has never been taken into account. Furthermore, the theory requires only the partial charge distribution of a water molecule and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the Fourier components of the longitudinal and transverse dielectric susceptibilities.

  1. A J matrix engine for density functional theory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.A.; Head-Gordon, M.

    1996-01-01

    We introduce a new method for the formation of the J matrix (Coulomb interaction matrix) within a basis of Cartesian Gaussian functions, as needed in density functional theory and Hartree endash Fock calculations. By summing the density matrix into the underlying Gaussian integral formulas, we have developed a J matrix open-quote open-quote engine close-quote close-quote which forms the exact J matrix without explicitly forming the full set of two electron integral intermediates. Several precomputable quantities have been identified, substantially reducing the number of floating point operations and memory accesses needed in a J matrix calculation. Initial timings indicate a speedup of greater than four times for the (pp parallel pp) class of integrals with speedups increasing to over ten times for (ff parallel ff) integrals. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Spin polarization in high density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providênci, Constanca

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the occurrence of a ferromagnetic phase transition in high density hadronic matter (e.g., in the interior of a neutron star). This could be induced by a four-fermion interaction analogous to the one which is responsible for chiral symmetry breaking in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model...... the so-called 2 flavor super-conducting phase to the ferromagnetic phase arises. The color-flavor-locked phase may be completely hidden by the FP....

  3. Factorization of the coherency matrix of polarization optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J R; Le Gratiet, Aymeric; Diaspro, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    We show that the coherency matrix associated with a general depolarizing Mueller matrix can be factorized into the product of a matrix, the coherency matrix factor, and its conjugate transpose. The coherency matrix factor contains all the information in the Mueller matrix, and directly shows useful properties in an illustrative fashion. Propagation through a nondeterministic uniform medium is analyzed. Some examples for simple systems are shown, and an experimental Mueller matrix is considered. The coherency matrix and the coherency matrix factor can be diagonalized, even if the Mueller matrix cannot.

  4. Correlation between the Flux Density and Polarization for Flat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    blazars, which show high and variable polarization, rapid variable flux density over different time scales (Fan 2005). Blazars consist of flat spectrum radio quasars. (FSRQs) and BL Lacertae objects (BLs). FSRQs are quite similar to BLs except for their emission line feature with FSRQs showing strong emission lines while.

  5. Correlation between the Flux Density and Polarization for Flat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Guangzhou Vocational College of Technology & Business, Guangzhou, China. 4Center for Astrophysics ... blazars, which show high and variable polarization, rapid variable flux density over different time scales (Fan ... emission lines while. BLs show very weak emission line feature or have only non-emission lines. The.

  6. CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF MUELLER MATRIX PATTERNS FOR POLARIZATION SCATTERING MODEL OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E DU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a model to describe polarized photon scattering in biological tissues. In this model, tissues are simplified to a mixture of scatterers and surrounding medium. There are two types of scatterers in the model: solid spheres and infinitely long solid cylinders. Variables related to the scatterers include: the densities and sizes of the spheres and cylinders, the orientation and angular distribution of cylinders. Variables related to the surrounding medium include: the refractive index, absorption coefficient and birefringence. In this paper, as a development we introduce an optical activity effect to the model. By comparing experiments and Monte Carlo simulations, we analyze the backscattering Mueller matrix patterns of several tissue-like media, and summarize the different effects coming from anisotropic scattering and optical properties. In addition, we propose a possible method to extract the optical activity values for tissues. Both the experimental and simulated results show that, by analyzing the Mueller matrix patterns, the microstructure and optical properties of the medium can be obtained. The characteristic features of Mueller matrix patterns are potentially powerful tools for studying the contrast mechanisms of polarization imaging for medical diagnosis.

  7. QUANTUM SIMULATION OF REACTION DYNAMICS BY DENSITY-MATRIX EVOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BERENDSEN, HJC; MAVRI, J

    1993-01-01

    A density matrix evolution(DME) method to simulate the dynamics of quantum systems embedded in a classical environment is presented. The method is applicable when the quantum dynamical degrees of freedom can be described in a Hilbert space of limited dimensionality. The method is applied to the case

  8. Auxiliary Density Matrix Methods for Hartree-Fock Exchange Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidon, Manuel; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost

    2010-08-10

    The calculation of Hartree-Fock exchange (HFX) is computationally demanding for large systems described with high-quality basis sets. In this work, we show that excellent performance and good accuracy can nevertheless be obtained if an auxiliary density matrix is employed for the HFX calculation. Several schemes to derive an auxiliary density matrix from a high-quality density matrix are discussed. Key to the accuracy of the auxiliary density matrix methods (ADMM) is the use of a correction based on standard generalized gradient approximations for HFX. ADMM integrates seamlessly in existing HFX codes and, in particular, can be employed in linear scaling implementations. Demonstrating the performance of the method, the effect of HFX on the structure of liquid water is investigated in detail using Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations (300 ps) of a system of 64 molecules. Representative for large systems are calculations on a solvated protein (Rubredoxin), for which ADMM outperforms the corresponding standard HFX implementation by approximately a factor 20.

  9. Proliferative effects of apical, but not basal, matrix metalloproteinase-7 activity in polarized MDCK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrell, Permila C.; McCawley, Lisa J.; Fingleton, Barbara; McIntyre, J. Oliver; Matrisian, Lynn M.

    2005-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is primarily expressed in glandular epithelium. Therefore, its mechanism of action may be influenced by its regulated vectorial release to either the apical and/or basolateral compartments, where it would act on its various substrates. To gain a better understanding of where MMP-7 is released in polarized epithelium, we have analyzed its pattern of secretion in polarized MDCK cells expressing stably transfected human MMP-7 (MDCK-MMP-7), and HCA-7 and Caco2 human colon cancer cell lines. In all cell lines, latent MMP-7 was secreted to both cellular compartments, but was 1.5- to 3-fold more abundant in the basolateral compartment as compared to the apical. However, studies in the MDCK system demonstrated that MMP-7 activity was 2-fold greater in the apical compartment of MDCK-MMP-7 HIGH -polarized monolayers, which suggests the apical co-release of an MMP-7 activator. In functional assays, MMP-7 over-expression increased cell saturation density as a result of increased cell proliferation with no effect on apoptosis. Apical MMP-7 activity was shown to be responsible for the proliferative effect, which occurred, as demonstrated by media transfer experiments, through cleavage of an apical substrate and not through the generation of a soluble factor. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the importance of MMP-7 secretion in relation to its mechanism of action when expressed in a polarized epithelium

  10. Magnesium Matrix Composite Foams—Density, Mechanical Properties, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Cho

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Potential of widespread industrial applications of magnesium has been realized in recent years. A variety of magnesium alloy matrix composites are now being studied for mechanical properties. Since magnesium is the lightest structural metal, it can replace aluminum in existing applications for further weight savings. This review presents an overview of hollow particle filled magnesium matrix syntactic composite foams. Fly ash cenospheres are the most commonly used hollow particles for such applications. Fly ash cenospheres primarily have alumino-silicate composition and contain a large number of trace elements, which makes it challenging to study the interfacial reactions and microstructure in these composites. Microstructures of commonly studied AZ and ZC series magnesium alloys and their syntactic foams are discussed. Although only a few studies are available on these materials because of the nascent stage of this field, a comparison with similar aluminum matrix syntactic foams has provided insight into the properties and weight saving potential of magnesium matrix composites. Analysis shows that the magnesium matrix syntactic foams have higher yield strength at the same level of density compared to most other metal matrix syntactic foams. The comparison can guide future work and set goals that need to be achieved through materials selection and processing method development.

  11. Estimating the spectrum of a density matrix with LOCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballester, Manuel A

    2006-01-01

    The problem of estimating the spectrum of a density matrix is considered. Other problems, such as bipartite pure state entanglement, can be reduced to spectrum estimation. A local operations and classical communication (LOCC) measurement strategy is shown which is asymptotically optimal. This means that, for a very large number of copies, it becomes unnecessary to perform collective measurements which should be more difficult to implement in practice

  12. Metal-insulator transition in disordered systems from the one-body density matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Resta, Raffaele; Souza, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    systems. In particular, for noninteracting systems the geometrical marker can be obtained from the configurational average of the norm-squared one-body density matrix, which can be calculated within open as well as periodic boundary conditions. This is in sharp contrast to a classification based......The insulating state of matter can be probed by means of a ground state geometrical marker, which is closely related to the modern theory of polarization (based on a Berry phase). In the present work we show that this marker can be applied to determine the metal-insulator transition in disordered...

  13. Excitation energies from range-separated time-dependent density and density matrix functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernal, Katarzyna

    2012-05-14

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) in the adiabatic formulation exhibits known failures when applied to predicting excitation energies. One of them is the lack of the doubly excited configurations. On the other hand, the time-dependent theory based on a one-electron reduced density matrix functional (time-dependent density matrix functional theory, TD-DMFT) has proven accurate in determining single and double excitations of H(2) molecule if the exact functional is employed in the adiabatic approximation. We propose a new approach for computing excited state energies that relies on functionals of electron density and one-electron reduced density matrix, where the latter is applied in the long-range region of electron-electron interactions. A similar approach has been recently successfully employed in predicting ground state potential energy curves of diatomic molecules even in the dissociation limit, where static correlation effects are dominating. In the paper, a time-dependent functional theory based on the range-separation of electronic interaction operator is rigorously formulated. To turn the approach into a practical scheme the adiabatic approximation is proposed for the short- and long-range components of the coupling matrix present in the linear response equations. In the end, the problem of finding excitation energies is turned into an eigenproblem for a symmetric matrix. Assignment of obtained excitations is discussed and it is shown how to identify double excitations from the analysis of approximate transition density matrix elements. The proposed method used with the short-range local density approximation (srLDA) and the long-range Buijse-Baerends density matrix functional (lrBB) is applied to H(2) molecule (at equilibrium geometry and in the dissociation limit) and to Be atom. The method accounts for double excitations in the investigated systems but, unfortunately, the accuracy of some of them is poor. The quality of the other

  14. Decay of autoionizing states in time-dependent density functional and reduced density matrix functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, Varun; Brics, Martins; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Autoionizing states are inaccessible to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) using known, adiabatic Kohn-Sham (KS) potentials. We determine the exact KS potential for a numerically exactly solvable model Helium atom interacting with a laser field that is populating an autoionizing state. The exact single-particle density of the population in the autoionizing state corresponds to that of the energetically lowest quasi-stationary state in the exact KS potential. We describe how this exact potential controls the decay by a barrier whose height and width allows for the density to tunnel out and decay with the same rate as in the ab initio time-dependent Schroedinger calculation. However, devising a useful exchange-correlation potential that is capable of governing such a scenario in general and in more complex systems is hopeless. As an improvement over TDDFT, time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory has been proposed. We are able to obtain for the above described autoionization process the exact time-dependent natural orbitals (i.e., the eigenfunctions of the exact, time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix) and study the potentials that appear in the equations of motion for the natural orbitals and the structure of the two-body density matrix expanded in them.

  15. Thermospheric density structures over the polar regions observed with CHAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schlegel

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the unexpected detection of considerable structure in high latitude thermospheric densities, as derived from an accelerometer onboard the CHAMP satellite. The width of the structures, which can either be maxima or minima, varies between a few hundred km and 2000 km. The amplitudes of these density extrema can reach 50% of ambient. Maxima cluster around 75° (N and S, while minima are found closer to the poles. In a magnetic latitude-magnetic local time frame the maxima are found mainly around the cusp region. Overall, the observed structures somewhat resemble so-called density cells previously found in model calculations. However the models generate their cells around 140–300 km altitude and show little, if any remnant at 400 km or above. This has to be contrasted with the fact that the CHAMP observations were obtained near 430 km altitude. We have explored Joule heating as a possible mechanism for the generation of the structures, at least in density enhancement regions, using Hall currents measured on CHAMP and simultaneous incoherent scatter measurements with EISCAT. However, the electric fields were usually quite small during the period of observation, making the quest for an explanation for the structures all the more challenging. Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Thermospheric dynamics – Magnetospheric physics (Polar cap phenomena – Atmospheric composition and structure (Pressure, density, and temperature

  16. Molecular density functional theory of water including density–polarization coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Lévy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We present a three-dimensional molecular density functional theory of water derived fromfirst-principles that relies on the particle’s density and multipolar polarization density andincludes the density–polarization coupling. This brings two main benefits: (i) scalar densityand vectorial multipolar polarization density fields are much more tractable and give morephysical insight than the full position and orientation densities, and (ii) it includes the fulldensity–pola...

  17. The density matrix renormalization group and nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittel, S.; Thakur, B. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Sandulescu, N. [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 76900 Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-12-15

    We briefly review the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) method and its potential use in large-scale nuclear shell-model calculations. We propose the use of angular-momentum-conserving variant of the method (the JDMRG) and report the first test results of such an approach for the nucleus {sup 48}Cr The positive results of these calculations have motivated us to search for an even more efficient means of implementing the DMRG strategy and the status of these efforts is also described. (Author)

  18. Density matrix embedding in an antisymmetrized geminal power bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Welborn, Matthew; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Density matrix embedding theory (DMET) has emerged as a powerful tool for performing wave function-in-wave function embedding for strongly correlated systems. In traditional DMET, an accurate calculation is performed on a small impurity embedded in a mean field bath. Here, we extend the original DMET equations to account for correlation in the bath via an antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) wave function. The resulting formalism has a number of advantages. First, it allows one to properly treat the weak correlation limit of independent pairs, which DMET is unable to do with a mean-field bath. Second, it associates a size extensive correlation energy with a given density matrix (for the models tested), which AGP by itself is incapable of providing. Third, it provides a reasonable description of charge redistribution in strongly correlated but non-periodic systems. Thus, AGP-DMET appears to be a good starting point for describing electron correlation in molecules, which are aperiodic and possess both strong and weak electron correlation

  19. Correlation density matrices for one-dimensional quantum chains based on the density matrix renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muender, W; Weichselbaum, A; Holzner, A; Delft, Jan von; Henley, C L

    2010-01-01

    A useful concept for finding numerically the dominant correlations of a given ground state in an interacting quantum lattice system in an unbiased way is the correlation density matrix (CDM). For two disjoint, separated clusters, it is defined to be the density matrix of their union minus the direct product of their individual density matrices and contains all the correlations between the two clusters. We show how to extract from the CDM a survey of the relative strengths of the system's correlations in different symmetry sectors and the nature of their decay with distance (power law or exponential), as well as detailed information on the operators carrying long-range correlations and the spatial dependence of their correlation functions. To achieve this goal, we introduce a new method of analysing the CDM, termed the dominant operator basis (DOB) method, which identifies in an unbiased fashion a small set of operators for each cluster that serve as a basis for the dominant correlations of the system. We illustrate this method by analysing the CDM for a spinless extended Hubbard model that features a competition between charge density correlations and pairing correlations, and show that the DOB method successfully identifies their relative strengths and dominant correlators. To calculate the ground state of this model, we use the density matrix renormalization group, formulated in terms of a variational matrix product state (MPS) approach within which subsequent determination of the CDM is very straightforward. In an extended appendix, we give a detailed tutorial introduction to our variational MPS approach for ground state calculations for one-dimensional quantum chain models. We present in detail how MPSs overcome the problem of large Hilbert space dimensions in these models and describe all the techniques needed for handling them in practice.

  20. Polarization-free generators and the S-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchers, H.J.; Buchholz, D.; Schroer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Polarization-free generators, i.e. ''interacting'' Heisenberg operators which are localized in wedge-shaped regions of Minkowski space and generate single particle states from the vacuum, are a novel tool in the analysis and synthesis of two-dimensional integrable quantum field theories. In the present article, the status of these generators is analyzed in a general setting. It is shown that such operators exist in any theory and in any number of spacetime dimensions. But in more than two dimensions they have rather delicate domain properties in the presence of interaction. If, for example, they are defined and temperate on a translation-invariant, dense domain, then the underlying theory yields only trivial scattering. In two-dimensional theories, these domain properties are consistent with non-trivial interaction, but they exclude particle production. Thus the range of applications of polarization-free generators seems to be limited to the realm of two-dimensional theories. (orig.)

  1. Meaning and magnitude of the reduced density matrix cumulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, Matthias; Köhn, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Within the framework of a generalized normal ordering (GNO), invented by Mukherjee [1], the reduced density matrix cumulants of the (multiconfigurational) reference wave function play a central role, as they arise directly from the contraction rules. The extended Wick theorem allows contractions of an arbitrary number of active annihilators and creators through a cumulant of corresponding rank. Because the cumulant rank truncates naturally only at the number of active spin orbitals, practical applications of the GNO concept seem to rely on a fast convergence of the cumulant series, allowing one to neglect cumulants with high rank. By computing cumulant norms for selected systems (and up to rank 16), we demonstrate that the cumulants decay approximately exponentially with increasing rank for single reference cases, while the convergence is generally slower for multireference cases. When strong left-right correlation is present as in the singlet state of a dissociated N2 molecule, even the cumulant with maximum rank, λ12 ≈ -1.5 for a CAS(6, 6), is not negligible per se. Besides reporting numerical results, the authors reformulate the theory of reduced density matrices and their cumulants using a notation that is particularly easy to handle, highlighting the close connection to conventional statistics. From this statistical approach, a simple interpretation of reduced density matrices and cumulants follows, according to which an n-body cumulant is a measure for the correlation between the occupation numbers of n spin orbitals. This interpretation is also valid for cumulants with ranks exceeding the number of electrons in the system.

  2. Imaging linear and circular polarization features in leaves with complete Mueller matrix polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patty, C H Lucas; Luo, David A; Snik, Frans; Ariese, Freek; Buma, Wybren Jan; Ten Kate, Inge Loes; van Spanning, Rob J M; Sparks, William B; Germer, Thomas A; Garab, Győző; Kudenov, Michael W

    2018-03-09

    Spectropolarimetry of intact plant leaves allows to probe the molecular architecture of vegetation photosynthesis in a non-invasive and non-destructive way and, as such, can offer a wealth of physiological information. In addition to the molecular signals due to the photosynthetic machinery, the cell structure and its arrangement within a leaf can create and modify polarization signals. Using Mueller matrix polarimetry with rotating retarder modulation, we have visualized spatial variations in polarization in transmission around the chlorophyll a absorbance band from 650 nm to 710 nm. We show linear and circular polarization measurements of maple leaves and cultivated maize leaves and discuss the corresponding Mueller matrices and the Mueller matrix decompositions, which show distinct features in diattenuation, polarizance, retardance and depolarization. Importantly, while normal leaf tissue shows a typical split signal with both a negative and a positive peak in the induced fractional circular polarization and circular dichroism, the signals close to the veins only display a negative band. The results are similar to the negative band as reported earlier for single macrodomains. We discuss the possible role of the chloroplast orientation around the veins as a cause of this phenomenon. Systematic artefacts are ruled out as three independent measurements by different instruments gave similar results. These results provide better insight into circular polarization measurements on whole leaves and options for vegetation remote sensing using circular polarization. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. LCD panel characterization by measuring full Jones matrix of individual pixels using polarization-sensitive digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongchan; Yu, Hyeonseung; Park, Jung-Hoon; Park, YongKeun

    2014-10-06

    We present measurements of the full Jones matrix of individual pixels in a liquid-crystal display (LCD) panel. Employing a polarization-sensitive digital holographic microscopy based on Mach-Zehnder interferometry, the complex amplitudes of the light passing through individual LCD pixels are precisely measured with respect to orthogonal bases of polarization states, from which the full Jones matrix components of individual pixels are obtained. We also measure the changes in the Jones matrix of individual LCD pixels with respect to an applied bias. In addition, the complex optical responses of a LCD panel with respect to arbitrary polarization states of incident light were characterized from the measured Jones matrix.

  4. Reduced density-matrix functional theory: Correlation and spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sabatino, S; Berger, J A; Reining, L; Romaniello, P

    2015-07-14

    In this work, we explore the performance of approximations to electron correlation in reduced density-matrix functional theory (RDMFT) and of approximations to the observables calculated within this theory. Our analysis focuses on the calculation of total energies, occupation numbers, removal/addition energies, and spectral functions. We use the exactly solvable Hubbard dimer at 1/4 and 1/2 fillings as test systems. This allows us to analyze the underlying physics and to elucidate the origin of the observed trends. For comparison, we also report the results of the GW approximation, where the self-energy functional is approximated, but no further hypothesis is made concerning the approximations of the observables. In particular, we focus on the atomic limit, where the two sites of the dimer are pulled apart and electrons localize on either site with equal probability, unless a small perturbation is present: this is the regime of strong electron correlation. In this limit, using the Hubbard dimer at 1/2 filling with or without a spin-symmetry-broken ground state allows us to explore how degeneracies and spin-symmetry breaking are treated in RDMFT. We find that, within the used approximations, neither in RDMFT nor in GW, the signature of strong correlation is present, when looking at the removal/addition energies and spectral function from the spin-singlet ground state, whereas both give the exact result for the spin-symmetry broken case. Moreover, we show how the spectroscopic properties change from one spin structure to the other.

  5. Reduced density-matrix functional theory: Correlation and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Sabatino, S.; Romaniello, P. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, IRSAMC, Université Toulouse III–Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France and ETSF (France); Berger, J. A. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique Quantiques, IRSAMC, Université Toulouse III–Paul Sabatier, CNRS, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France and ETSF (France); Reining, L. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA-DSM, 91128 Palaiseau, France and ETSF (France)

    2015-07-14

    In this work, we explore the performance of approximations to electron correlation in reduced density-matrix functional theory (RDMFT) and of approximations to the observables calculated within this theory. Our analysis focuses on the calculation of total energies, occupation numbers, removal/addition energies, and spectral functions. We use the exactly solvable Hubbard dimer at 1/4 and 1/2 fillings as test systems. This allows us to analyze the underlying physics and to elucidate the origin of the observed trends. For comparison, we also report the results of the GW approximation, where the self-energy functional is approximated, but no further hypothesis is made concerning the approximations of the observables. In particular, we focus on the atomic limit, where the two sites of the dimer are pulled apart and electrons localize on either site with equal probability, unless a small perturbation is present: this is the regime of strong electron correlation. In this limit, using the Hubbard dimer at 1/2 filling with or without a spin-symmetry-broken ground state allows us to explore how degeneracies and spin-symmetry breaking are treated in RDMFT. We find that, within the used approximations, neither in RDMFT nor in GW, the signature of strong correlation is present, when looking at the removal/addition energies and spectral function from the spin-singlet ground state, whereas both give the exact result for the spin-symmetry broken case. Moreover, we show how the spectroscopic properties change from one spin structure to the other.

  6. The finite temperature density matrix and two-point correlations in the antiferromagnetic XXZ chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhmann, Frank; Hasenclever, Nils P.; Seel, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    We derive finite temperature versions of integral formulae for the two-point correlation functions in the antiferromagnetic XXZ chain. The derivation is based on the summation of density matrix elements characterizing a finite chain segment of length m. On this occasion we also supply a proof of the basic integral formula for the density matrix presented in an earlier publication.

  7. Interplay between spin polarization and color superconductivity in high density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2013-01-01

    Here, it is suggested that a four-point interaction of the tensor type may lead to spin polarization in quark matter at high density. It is found that the two-flavor superconducting phase and the spin polarized phase correspond to distinct local minima of a certain generalized thermodynamical...... potential. It follows that a transition from one to the other phase occurs, passing through true minima with both a spin polarization and a color superconducting gap. It is shown that the quark spin polarized phase is realized at rather high density, while the two-flavor color superconducting phase...

  8. Two-body density matrix for closed s-d shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, S.S.; Kadrev, D.N.; Antonov, A.N.; Stoitsov, M.V.

    2000-01-01

    The two-body density matrix for 4 He, 16 O and 40 Ca within the Low-order approximation of the Jastrow correlation method is considered. Closed analytical expressions for the two-body density matrix, the center of mass and relative local densities and momentum distributions are presented. The effects of the short-range correlations on the two-body nuclear characteristics are investigated. (orig.)

  9. Increased extracellular matrix density decreases MCF10A breast cell acinus formation in 3D culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Amanda; Yang, Chih-Chao; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Dean, Delphine; Deitch, Sandy; Burg, Karen J L; Dréau, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes to the generation and dynamic of normal breast tissue, in particular to the generation of polarized acinar and ductal structures. In vitro 3D culture conditions, including variations in the composition of the ECM, have been shown to directly influence the formation and organization of acinus-like and duct-like structures. Furthermore, the density of the ECM appears to also play a role in the normal mammary tissue and tumour formation. Here we show that the density of the ECM directly influences the number, organization and function of breast acini. Briefly, non-malignant human breast MCF10A cells were incubated in increasing densities of a Matrigel®-collagen I matrix. Elastic moduli near and distant to the acinus structures were measured by atomic force microscopy, and the number of acinus structures was determined. Immunochemistry was used to investigate the expression levels of E-cadherin, laminin, matrix metalloproteinase-14 and ß-casein in MCF10A cells. The modulus of the ECM was significantly increased near the acinus structures and the number of acinus structures decreased with the increase in Matrigel-collagen I density. As evaluated by the expression of laminin, the organization of the acinus structures present was altered as the density of the ECM increased. Increases in both E-cadherin and MMP14 expression by MCF10A cells as ECM density increased were also observed. In contrast, MCF10A cells expressed lower ß-casein levels as the ECM density increased. Taken together, these observations highlight the key role of ECM density in modulating the number, organization and function of breast acini. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Orbital functionals in density-matrix- and current-density-functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbig, N.

    2006-05-15

    Density-Functional Theory (DFT), although widely used and very successful in the calculation of several observables, fails to correctly describe strongly correlated materials. In the first part of this work we, therefore, introduce reduced-densitymatrix- functional theory (RDMFT) which is one possible way to treat electron correlation beyond DFT. Within this theory the one-body reduced density matrix (1- RDM) is used as the basic variable. Our main interest is the calculation of the fundamental gap which proves very problematic within DFT. In order to calculate the fundamental gap we generalize RDMFT to fractional particle numbers M by describing the system as an ensemble of an N and an N+1 particle system (with N{<=}M{<=}N+1). For each fixed particle number, M, the total energy is minimized with respect to the natural orbitals and their occupation numbers. This leads to the total energy as a function of M. The derivative of this function with respect to the particle number has a discontinuity at integer particle number which is identical to the gap. In addition, we investigate the necessary and sufficient conditions for the 1- RDM of a system with fractional particle number to be N-representable. Numerical results are presented for alkali atoms, small molecules, and periodic systems. Another problem within DFT is the description of non-relativistic many-electron systems in the presence of magnetic fields. It requires the paramagnetic current density and the spin magnetization to be used as basic variables besides the electron density. However, electron-gas-based functionals of current-spin-density-functional Theory (CSDFT) exhibit derivative discontinuities as a function of the magnetic field whenever a new Landau level is occupied, which makes them difficult to use in practice. Since the appearance of Landau levels is, intrinsically, an orbital effect it is appealing to use orbital-dependent functionals. We have developed a CSDFT version of the optimized

  11. Polar cap hot patches: Enhanced density structures different from the classical patches in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.-H.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Jayachandran, P. T.; Moen, J.; Lockwood, M.; Zhang, Y.-L.; Foster, J. C.; Zhang, S.-R.; Wang, Y.; Themens, D. R.; Zhang, B.-C.; Xing, Z. Y.

    2017-08-01

    Based on in situ and ground-based observations, a new type of "polar cap hot patch" has been identified that is different from the classical polar cap enhanced density structure (cold patches). Comparing with the classical polar cap patches, which are transported from the dayside sunlit region with dense and cold plasma, the polar cap hot patches are associated with particle precipitations (therefore field-aligned currents), ion upflows, and flow shears. The hot patches may have the same order of density enhancement as classical patches in the topside ionosphere, suggesting that the hot patches may be produced by transported photoionization plasma into flow channels. Within the flow channels, the hot patches have low-energy particle precipitation and/or ion upflows associated with field-aligned currents and flow shears. Corresponding Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal scintillation measurements indicate that hot patches may produce slightly stronger radio signal scintillation in the polar cap region than classical patches. A new type of polar cap patches, "polar cap hot patches," is identified to differentiate enhanced density structures from classical patches. Hot patches are associated with particle precipitations, ion upflows, field-aligned currents, and shear flows in the polar cap. Hot patches may lead to slightly stronger ionospheric scintillations of GNSS signals in the polar cap region than classical patches.

  12. On the theory of pyro- and ferroelectrics: Dipole moment density and polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskii, V. I.; Gorbatsevich, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    The physical origin of the ambiguity related to the dependence of the polarization on the choice of the unit cell in a crystal is established in the framework of classical electrodynamics. It is shown that the electric polarization of a crystal is determined not only by the charge distribution in the unit cell (dipole moment density) but also by the microscopic mechanism of symmetry breaking in the polar phase. An approach to the calculation of the polarization invariant with respect to the choice of the unit cell is suggested. It is demonstrated that the dependence of the polarization on the mechanism of formation of the polar phase exists in the "modern topological theory" of polarization too.

  13. Solvent density mode instability in non-polar solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Chemical, Biological and Macromolecular Sciences, S. N. Bose National. Centre for Basic Sciences, ... upon excitation mainly drives the solvent reorganization [12,13]. However, the. Stokes shifts ..... process [17] where a solvent density mode with momentum q is scattered to another density mode of ...

  14. Spin transfer matrix formulation and snake resonances for polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepikian, S.

    1986-01-01

    The polarization of a spin polarized proton beam in a circular accelerator is described by a spin transfer matrix. Using this method, they investigate three problems: (1) the crossing of multiple spin resonances, (2) resonance jumping and (3) an accelerator with Siberian snakes. When crossing two (or more) spin resonances, there are no analytic solutions available. However, they can obtain analytic expressions if the two spin resonances are well separated (nonoverlapping) or very close together (overlapping). Between these two extremes they resort to numerical solution of the spin equations. Resonance jumping can be studied using the tools developed for analyzing the cross of multiple spin resonances. These theoretical results compare favorably with experimental results obtained from the AGS at Brookhaven. For large accelerators, resonance jumping becomes impractical and other methods such as Siberian snakes must be used to keep the beam spin polarized. An accelerator with Siberian snakes and isolated spin resonances can be described with a spin transfer matrix. From this, they find a new type of spin depolarizing resonance, called snake resonances

  15. Ultra-Low-Density (ULD) Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Phase I SBIR proposal seeks to demonstrate a new class of ultra-low-density (ULD) polymer matrix composites of high specific modulus and specific strength...

  16. Development of edge effects around experimental ecosystem hotspots is affected by edge density and matrix type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological edge effects are sensitive to landscape context. In particular, edge effects can be altered by matrix type and by the presence of other nearby edges. We experimentally altered patch configurations in an African savanna to determine how edge density and matrix type influence edge effect de...

  17. Fabrication, polarization, and characterization of PVDF matrix composites for integrated structural load sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghiashtiani, Ghazaleh; Greminger, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this work is to evaluate a new carbon fiber reinforced composite structure with integrated sensing capabilities. In this composite structure, the typical matrix material used for carbon fiber reinforced composites is replaced with the thermoplastic polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF). Since PVDF has piezoelectric properties, it enables the structure to be used for integrated load sensing. In addition, the electrical conductivity property of the carbon fabric is harnessed to form the electrodes of the integrated sensor. In order to prevent the carbon fiber electrodes from shorting to each other, a thin Kevlar fabric layer is placed between the two carbon fiber electrode layers as a dielectric. The optimal polarization parameters were determined using a design of experiments approach. Once polarized, the samples were then used in compression and tensile tests to determine the effective d 33 and d 31 piezoelectric coefficients. The degree of polarization of the PVDF material was determined by relating the effective d 33 coefficient of the composite to the achieved d 33 of the PVDF component of the composite using a closed form expression. Using this approach, it was shown that optimal polarization of the composite material results in a PVDF component d 33 of 3.2 pC N −1 . Moreover, the Young’s modulus of the composite structure has been characterized. (paper)

  18. Manifestly Hermitian semiclassical expansion for the one-particle density matrix of a two-dimensional Fermi gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencheikh, K.; van Zyl, B. P.; Berkane, K.

    2016-08-01

    The semiclassical ℏ expansion of the one-particle density matrix for a two-dimensional Fermi gas is calculated within the Wigner transform method of B. Grammaticos and A. Voros [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 123, 359 (1979), 10.1016/0003-4916(79)90343-9], originally developed in the context of nuclear physics. The method of Grammaticos and Voros has the virtue of preserving both the Hermiticity and idempotency of the density matrix to all orders in the ℏ expansion. As a topical application, we use our semiclassical expansion to go beyond the local-density approximation for the construction of the total dipole-dipole interaction energy functional of a two-dimensional, spin-polarized dipolar Fermi gas. We find a finite, second-order gradient correction to the Hartree-Fock energy, which takes the form ɛ (∇ρ ) 2/√{ρ } , with ɛ being small (|ɛ |≪1 ) and negative. We test the quality of the corrected energy by comparing it with the exact results available for harmonic confinement. Even for small particle numbers, the gradient correction to the dipole-dipole energy provides a significant improvement over the local-density approximation.

  19. Modeling optical and UV polarization of AGNs. III. From uniform-density to clumpy regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, F.; Goosmann, R. W.; Gaskell, C. M.

    2015-05-01

    Context. A growing body of evidence suggests that some, if not all, scattering regions of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are clumpy. The inner AGN components cannot be spatially resolved with current instruments and must be studied by numerical simulations of observed spectroscopy and polarization data. Aims: We run radiative transfer models in the optical/UV for a variety of AGN reprocessing regions with different distributions of clumpy scattering media. We obtain geometry-sensitive polarization spectra and images to improve our previous AGN models and their comparison with the observations. Methods: We use the latest public version 1.2 of the Monte Carlo code stokes presented in the first two papers of this series to model AGN reprocessing regions of increasing morphological complexity. We replace previously uniform-density media with up to thousands of constant-density clumps. We couple a continuum source to fragmented equatorial scattering regions, polar outflows, and toroidal obscuring dust regions and investigate a wide range of geometries. We also consider different levels of fragmentation in each scattering region to evaluate the importance of fragmentation for the net polarization of the AGN. Results: In comparison with uniform-density models, equatorial distributions of gas and dust clouds result in grayer spectra and show a decrease in the net polarization percentage at all lines of sight. The resulting polarization position angle depends on the morphology of the clumpy structure, with extended tori favoring parallel polarization while compact tori produce orthogonal polarization position angles. In the case of polar scattering regions, fragmentation increases the net polarization unless the cloud filling factor is small. A complete AGN model constructed from the individual, fragmented regions can produce low polarization percentages (<2%), with a parallel polarization angle for observer inclinations up to 70° for a torus half opening angle of 60°. For

  20. Solvent density mode instability in non-polar solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this region produces time scales, one in the range of 1–2 ps and the other in the range of ≥10 ps for f = 4 as reported earlier [17]. Note also that both the values of f (f = 4) and density for which these two time scales are predicted are very close to the solute–solvent systems for which the experiments have reported multiple ...

  1. Detection of Matrix Crack Density of CFRP using an Electrical Potential Change Method with Multiple Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoroki, Akira; Omagari, Kazuomi

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) laminates are adopted for fuel tank structures of next generation space rockets or automobiles. Matrix cracks may cause fuel leak or trigger fatigue damage. A monitoring system of the matrix crack density is required. The authors have developed an electrical resistance change method for the monitoring of delamination cracks in CFRP laminates. Reinforcement fibers are used as a self-sensing system. In the present study, the electric potential method is adopted for matrix crack density monitoring. Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to investigate the possibility of monitoring matrix crack density using multiple electrodes mounted on a single surface of a specimen. The FEA reveals the matrix crack density increases electrical resistance for a target segment between electrodes. Experimental confirmation was also performed using cross-ply laminates. Eight electrodes were mounted on a single surface of a specimen using silver paste after polishing of the specimen surface with sandpaper. The two outermost electrodes applied electrical current, and the inner electrodes measured electric voltage changes. The slope of electrical resistance during reloading is revealed to be an appropriate index for the detection of matrix crack density.

  2. Links between matrix bulk density, macropore characteristics and hydraulic behavior of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, Sheela; Møldrup, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    various macropore. In Silstrup soils, in which the macroporosity and matrix bulk density were well correlated, variation in air permeability and 5% tracer arrival time, a measure of preferential flow through soils, could be explained by macroporosity and the interconnectivity of macropores in soils....... However, in Faardrup soils macroporosity and matrix bulk density were weakly correlated. Though macroporosity and interconnectivity of macropores could explain some variation in the hydraulic behavior of a few samples from Faardrup, the preferential flow behavior was observed to be primarily influenced...... resolution X-ray CT and linked them with laboratory measurements of air permeability and leaching experiment. In addition to macropore characteristics, we also quantified the CT-number of the matrix as a measure of the bulk density of the matrix, i.e., excluding macropores in the soil. Soils from the two...

  3. Density matrix renormalization group with efficient dynamical electron correlation through range separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik D.; Knecht, Stefan; Kielberg, Jesper Skau

    2015-01-01

    We present a new hybrid multiconfigurational method based on the concept of range-separation that combines the density matrix renormalization group approach with density functional theory. This new method is designed for the simultaneous description of dynamical and static electroncorrelation...... effects in multiconfigurational electronic structure problems....

  4. Matrix density effects on the mechanical properties of SiC fiber-reinforced silicon nitride matrix properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Kiser, Lames D.

    1990-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties were measured for SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride composites (SiC/RBSN) of different densities. The composites consisted of approx. 30 vol percent uniaxially aligned 142 micron diameter SiC fibers (Textron SCS-6) in a reaction-bonded Si3N4 matrix. The composite density was varied by changing the consolidation pressure during RBSN processing and by hot isostatically pressing the SiC/RBSN composites. Results indicate that as the consolidation pressure was increased from 27 to 138 MPa, the average pore size of the nitrided composites decreased from 0.04 to 0.02 microns and the composite density increased from 2.07 to 2.45 gm/cc. Nonetheless, these improvements resulted in only small increases in the first matrix cracking stress, primary elastic modulus, and ultimate tensile strength values of the composites. In contrast, HIP consolidation of SiC/RBSN resulted in a fully dense material whose first matrix cracking stress and elastic modulus were approx. 15 and 50 percent higher, respectively, and ultimate tensile strength values were approx. 40 percent lower than those for unHIPed SiC/RBSN composites. The modulus behavior for all specimens can be explained by simple rule-of-mixture theory. Also, the loss in ultimate strength for the HIPed composites appears to be related to a degradation in fiber strength at the HIP temperature. However, the density effect on matrix fracture strength was much less than would be expected based on typical monolithic Si3N4 behavior, suggesting that composite theory is indeed operating. Possible practical implications of these observations are discussed.

  5. Exact many-body dynamics with stochastic one-body density matrix evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.

    2004-05-01

    In this article, we discuss some properties of the exact treatment of the many-body problem with stochastic Schroedinger equation (SSE). Starting from the SSE theory, an equivalent reformulation is proposed in terms of quantum jumps in the density matrix space. The technical details of the derivation a stochastic version of the Liouville von Neumann equation are given. It is shown that the exact Many-Body problem could be replaced by an ensemble of one-body density evolution, where each density matrix evolves according to its own mean-field augmented by a one-body noise. (author)

  6. Bond index: relation to second-order density matrix and charge fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambiagi, M.S. de; Giambiagi, M.; Jorge, F.E.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that, in the same way as the atomic charge is an invariant built from the first-order density matrix, the closed-shell generalized bond index is an invariant associated with the second-order reduced density matrix. The active charge of an atom (sum of bond indices) is shown to be the sum of all density correlation functions between it and the other atoms in the molecule; similarly, the self-charge is the fluctuation of its total charge. (Author) [pt

  7. Size and density of East Greenland polar bear (Ursus maritimus) skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bechshoft, Thea Ø.; Rigét, Frank F.

    2013-01-01

    density (BMD) in 87 East Greenland male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in the time period of 1892-2010. The purpose of the study was to investigate if these measures are potential candidates as indicators for stress associated with climate change and long-range transported toxic industrial...... polar bear skulls continue in order to further explore how CBL and BMD reflect individual and population response upon exposure to environmental stress. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Spin density matrix elements in exclusive ρ 0 electroproduction on 1H and 2H targets at 27.5 GeV beam energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Bonomo, C.; Borissov, A.; Brüll, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; de Leo, R.; Demey, M.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; di Nezza, P.; Dreschler, J.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Funel, A.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Grebeniouk, O.; Gregor, I. M.; Guler, H.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hesselink, W. H. A.; Hill, G.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Hristova, I.; Iarygin, G.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Kravchenko, P.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lamb, R.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.-R.; Ma, B.-Q.; Maiheu, B.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manaenkov, S. I.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Mexner, V.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Pickert, N.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rock, S. E.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, J. E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Streit, J.; Tait, P.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P. B.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van Haarlem, Y.; van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Vogel, C.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, H.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.

    2009-08-01

    Spin Density Matrix Elements (SDMEs) describing the angular distribution of exclusive ρ 0 electroproduction and decay are determined in the HERMES experiment with 27.6 GeV beam energy and unpolarized hydrogen and deuterium targets. Eight (fifteen) SDMEs that are related (unrelated) to the longitudinal polarization of the beam are extracted in the kinematic region 1exchange amplitudes; these amplitudes are naturally generated with a quark-exchange mechanism.

  9. Truncation scheme of time-dependent density-matrix approach II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohyama, Mitsuru [Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Schuck, Peter [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Laboratoire de Physique et de Modelisation des Milieux Condenses, CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)

    2017-09-15

    A truncation scheme of the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy for reduced density matrices, where a three-body density matrix is approximated by two-body density matrices, is improved to take into account a normalization effect. The truncation scheme is tested for the Lipkin model. It is shown that the obtained results are in good agreement with the exact solutions. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear reactivity indices in the context of spin polarized density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Carlos; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Fuentealba, Patricio

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the nuclear reactivity indices of density functional theory have been generalized to the spin polarized case and their relationship to electron spin polarized indices has been established. In particular, the spin polarized version of the nuclear Fukui function has been proposed and a finite difference approximation has been used to evaluate it. Applications to a series of triatomic molecules demonstrate the ability of the new functions to predict the geometrical changes due to a change in the spin multiplicity. The main equations in the different ensembles have also been presented

  11. Effects of polarity, hydrophobicity, and density of ionic liquids on cellulose solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mitsuru; Kuroda, Kosuke; Sato, Daiki; Kunimura, Haruhito; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-28

    We have synthesised novel ionic liquids (ILs) to show both cellulose dissolution ability and LCST-type phase transition after mixing with water. To realise both polar and hydrophobic properties, tetraalkylphosphonium cations and a series of carboxylate anions were employed to assume hydrophobic and highly polar properties, respectively. Effects of their alkyl chain length on the water compatibility and cellulose solubility of the corresponding ILs were systematically examined. We succeeded in synthesising novel ILs which dissolve cellulose and separable with water at moderate temperature. Through the present study, we have clarified that not only polarity but also density of ILs is an important factor in designing the ILs for cellulose dissolution.

  12. Large plasma density enhancements occurring in the northern polar region during the 6 April 2000 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2014-06-01

    We focus on the ionospheric response of northern high-latitude region to the 6 April 2000 superstorm and aim to investigate how the storm-enhanced density (SED) plume plasma became distributed in the regions of auroral zone and polar cap plus to study the resultant ionospheric features and their development. Multi-instrument observational results combined with model-generated, two-cell convection maps permitted identifying the high-density plasma's origin and the underlying plasma transportation processes. Results show the plasma density feature of polar cap enhancement (PCE; 600 × 103 i+/cm3) appearing for 7 h during the main phase and characterized by increases reaching up to 6 times of the quiet time values. Meanwhile, strong westward convections ( 17,500 m/s) created low plasma densities in a wider region of the dusk cell. Oppositely, small ( 750 m/s) but rigorous westward drifts drove the SED plume plasma through the auroral zone, wherein plasma densities doubled. As the SED plume plasma traveled along the convection streamlines and entered the polar cap, a continuous enhancement of the tongue of ionization (TOI) developed under steady convection conditions. However, convection changes caused slow convections and flow stagnations and thus segmented the TOI feature by locally depleting the plasma in the affected regions of the auroral zone and polar cap. From the strong correspondence of polar cap potential drop and subauroral polarization stream (SAPS), we conclude that the SAPS E-field strength remained strong, and under its prolonged influence, the SED plume provided a continuous supply of downward flowing high-density plasma for the development and maintenance of PCEs.

  13. Nanofiber density determines endothelial cell behavior on hydrogel matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, Fernanda V., E-mail: fernanda@intelab.ufsc.br [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Rambo, Carlos R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Dias, Paulo F. [Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetics, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Porto, Luismar M. [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2013-12-01

    When cultured under static conditions, bacterial cellulose pellicles, by the nature of the polymer synthesis that involves molecular oxygen, are characterized by two distinct surface sides. The upper surface is denser in fibers (entangled) than the lower surface that shows greater surface porosity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to exploit how the microarchitecture (i.e., surface porosity, fiber network structure, surface topology, and fiber density) of bacterial cellulose pellicle surfaces influence cell–biomaterial interaction and therefore cell behavior. Adhesion, cell ingrowth, proliferation, viability and cell death mechanisms were evaluated on the two pellicle surface sides. Cell behavior, including secondary necrosis, is influenced only by the microarchitecture of the surface, since the biomaterial is extremely pure (constituted of cellulose and water only). Cell–cellulose fiber interaction is the determinant signal in the cell–biomaterial responses, isolated from other frequently present interferences such as protein and other chemical traces usually present in cell culture matrices. Our results suggest that microarchitecture of hydrogel materials might determine the performance of biomedical products, such as bacterial cellulose tissue engineering constructs (BCTECs). - Highlights: • Topography of BC pellicle is relevant to determine endothelial cells' fate. • Cell–biomaterial response is affected by the topography of BC-pellicle surface. • Endothelial cells exhibit different behavior depending on the BC topography. • Apoptosis and necrosis of endothelial cells were affected by the BC topography.

  14. Nanofiber density determines endothelial cell behavior on hydrogel matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berti, Fernanda V.; Rambo, Carlos R.; Dias, Paulo F.; Porto, Luismar M.

    2013-01-01

    When cultured under static conditions, bacterial cellulose pellicles, by the nature of the polymer synthesis that involves molecular oxygen, are characterized by two distinct surface sides. The upper surface is denser in fibers (entangled) than the lower surface that shows greater surface porosity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to exploit how the microarchitecture (i.e., surface porosity, fiber network structure, surface topology, and fiber density) of bacterial cellulose pellicle surfaces influence cell–biomaterial interaction and therefore cell behavior. Adhesion, cell ingrowth, proliferation, viability and cell death mechanisms were evaluated on the two pellicle surface sides. Cell behavior, including secondary necrosis, is influenced only by the microarchitecture of the surface, since the biomaterial is extremely pure (constituted of cellulose and water only). Cell–cellulose fiber interaction is the determinant signal in the cell–biomaterial responses, isolated from other frequently present interferences such as protein and other chemical traces usually present in cell culture matrices. Our results suggest that microarchitecture of hydrogel materials might determine the performance of biomedical products, such as bacterial cellulose tissue engineering constructs (BCTECs). - Highlights: • Topography of BC pellicle is relevant to determine endothelial cells' fate. • Cell–biomaterial response is affected by the topography of BC-pellicle surface. • Endothelial cells exhibit different behavior depending on the BC topography. • Apoptosis and necrosis of endothelial cells were affected by the BC topography

  15. The Negele-Vautherin Density Matrix Expansion Applied to the Gogny Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobaczewski, J. [Warsaw University; Carlsson, B. G. [University of Jyvaskyla; Kortelainen, Erno M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    We use the Negele-Vautherin density matrix expansion to derive local density approximation for the interaction composed of arbitrary finite-range central, spin-orbit, and tensor components. Terms that are absent in the original Negele-Vautherin approach owing to the angle averaging of the density matrix are fixed by requiring gauge invariance of the energy density. We obtain the Kohn-Sham interaction energies in all spin-isospin channels, including the exchange terms, expressed as functions of the local densities and their derivatives up to second (next to leading) order. We illustrate the method by determining the coupling constants of the Skyrme functional or Skyrme force that correspond to the finite-range Gogny central force. The resulting self-consistent solutions reproduce the Gogny-force binding energies and radii within the precision of 1-2%.

  16. Correlation Matrix Renormalization Theory: Improving Accuracy with Two-Electron Density-Matrix Sum Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Liu, J; Yao, Y X; Wu, P; Wang, C Z; Ho, K M

    2016-10-11

    We recently proposed the correlation matrix renormalization (CMR) theory to treat the electronic correlation effects [Phys. Rev. B 2014, 89, 045131 and Sci. Rep. 2015, 5, 13478] in ground state total energy calculations of molecular systems using the Gutzwiller variational wave function (GWF). By adopting a number of approximations, the computational effort of the CMR can be reduced to a level similar to Hartree-Fock calculations. This paper reports our recent progress in minimizing the error originating from some of these approximations. We introduce a novel sum-rule correction to obtain a more accurate description of the intersite electron correlation effects in total energy calculations. Benchmark calculations are performed on a set of molecules to show the reasonable accuracy of the method.

  17. Explicit treatment of N-body correlations within a density-matrix formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shun-Jin, W.; Cassing, W.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear many-body problem is reformulated in the density-matrix approach such that n-body correlations are separated out from the reduced density matrix rho/sub n/. A set of equations for the time evolution of the n-body correlations c/sub n/ is derived which allows for physically transparent truncations with respect to the order of correlations. In the stationary limit (c/sub n/ = 0) a restriction to two-body correlations yields a generalized Bethe-Goldstone equation a restriction to body correlations yields generalized Faddeev equations in the density-matrix formulation. Furthermore it can be shown that any truncation of the set of equations (c/sub n/ = 0, n>m) is compatible with conservation laws, a quality which in general is not fulfilled if higher order correlations are treated perturbatively

  18. Time-dependent density-functional and reduced density-matrix methods for few electrons: Exact versus adiabatic approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbig, N.; Fuks, J.I.; Tokatly, I.V.; Appel, H.; Gross, E.K.U.; Rubio, A.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We solve a 1D N-electron system, with N small, by mapping it onto an N-dimensional one-electron problem. We compare the exact solutions to the results from adiabatic density and density matrix functionals for different physical situations. Highlights: ► Static and dynamical correlations. ► Memory dependence of exchange-correlation functionals in TDDFT. ► Linear and non-linear response. ► Laser-induced population control. - Abstract: To address the impact of electron correlations in the linear and non-linear response regimes of interacting many-electron systems exposed to time-dependent external fields, we study one-dimensional (1D) systems where the interacting problem is solved exactly by exploiting the mapping of the 1D N-electron problem onto an N-dimensional single electron problem. We analyze the performance of the recently derived 1D local density approximation as well as the exact-exchange orbital functional for those systems. We show that the interaction with an external resonant laser field shows Rabi oscillations which are detuned due to the lack of memory in adiabatic approximations. To investigate situations where static correlations play a role, we consider the time-evolution of the natural occupation numbers associated to the reduced one-body density matrix. Those studies shed light on the non-locality and time-dependence of the exchange and correlation functionals in time-dependent density and density-matrix functional theories.

  19. Penile density and globally used chemicals in Canadian and Greenland polar bears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dyck, Markus; Rigét, Frank F

    2015-01-01

    -range dispersed and to biomagnify to very high concentrations in the tissues of Arctic apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). A major concern relating to EDCs is their effects on vital organ-tissues such as bone and it is possible that EDCs represent a more serious challenge to the species......' survival than the more conventionally proposed prey reductions linked to climate change. We therefore analyzed penile bone mineral density (BMD) as a key phenotype for reproductive success in 279 polar bear samples born 1990-2000 representing eight polar bear subpopulations. Since EDC concentrations were...... not available from the same specimens, we compared BMD with published literature information on EDC concentrations. Latitudinal and longitudinal BMD and EDC gradients were clearly observed, with Western Hudson bears having the highest BMD and lowest EDCs, and North East Greenland polar bears carrying the lowest...

  20. Spin polarization versus color–flavor locking in high-density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that spin polarization with respect to each flavor in three-flavor quark matter occurs instead of color–flavor locking at high baryon density by using the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model with four-point tensor-type interaction. Also, it is indicated that the order of phase transition between...... the color–flavor-locked phase and the spin-polarized phase is the first order by means of second-order perturbation theory.......It is shown that spin polarization with respect to each flavor in three-flavor quark matter occurs instead of color–flavor locking at high baryon density by using the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model with four-point tensor-type interaction. Also, it is indicated that the order of phase transition between...

  1. Spin density measurement of water-bridged Co-dimer using polarized neutrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard-Møller, Emil; Overgaard, Jacob; Chilton, Nick

    present an experimentally determined spin density using polarized neutron diffraction in a simple water-bridged cobalt dimer [Co2(H2O)(piv)4(Hpiv)2(py)2] which is known to have a small ferromagnetic coupling between the spin centers. Visualizing the SDD could get us one step further in understanding...

  2. Spin-polarized versus chiral condensate in quark matter at finite temperature and density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providencia, Joao

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the spin-polarized condensate appears in quark matter at high baryon density and low temperature due to the tensor-type four-point interaction in the Nambu-Jona-Lasiniotype model as a low-energy effective theory of quantum chromodynamics. It is indicated within this low...

  3. Isospin constraints between three cross sections and two polarization density matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Doncel, M G; Minnaert, P

    1972-01-01

    The authors give the relation which isospin conservation imposes between the three cross sections and two polarization density matrices, for three reactions related by two isospin channels. It is valid for arbitrary spin and for spin correlations. Its application to the most usual cases of spin 1 and /sup 3///sub 2/ is given. (6 refs).

  4. Structure of the first order reduced density matrix in three electron systems: A generalized Pauli constraints assisted study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophilou, Iris; Lathiotakis, Nektarios N.; Helbig, Nicole

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the structure of the one-body reduced density matrix of three electron systems, i.e., doublet and quadruplet spin configurations, corresponding to the smallest interacting system with an open-shell ground state. To this end, we use configuration interaction (CI) expansions of the exact wave function in Slater determinants built from natural orbitals in a finite dimensional Hilbert space. With the exception of maximally polarized systems, the natural orbitals of spin eigenstates are generally spin dependent, i.e., the spatial parts of the up and down natural orbitals form two different sets. A measure to quantify this spin dependence is introduced and it is shown that it varies by several orders of magnitude depending on the system. We also study the ordering issue of the spin-dependent occupation numbers which has practical implications in reduced density matrix functional theory minimization schemes, when generalized Pauli constraints (GPCs) are imposed and in the form of the CI expansion in terms of the natural orbitals. Finally, we discuss the aforementioned CI expansion when there are GPCs that are almost "pinned."

  5. Cathodic Polarization Coats Titanium Based Implant Materials with Enamel Matrix Derivate (EMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Frank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a bioactive surface coating that enhances bone healing and bone growth is a strong focus of on-going research for bone implant materials. Enamel matrix derivate (EMD is well documented to support bone regeneration and activates growth of mesenchymal tissues. Thus, it is a prime candidate for coating of existing implant surfaces. The aim of this study was to show that cathodic polarization can be used for coating commercially available implant surfaces with an immobilized but functional and bio-available surface layer of EMD. After coating, XPS revealed EMD-related bindings on the surface while SIMS showed incorporation of EMD into the surface. The hydride layer of the original surface could be activated for coating in an integrated one-step process that did not require any pre-treatment of the surface. SEM images showed nano-spheres and nano-rods on coated surfaces that were EMD-related. Moreover, the surface roughness remained unchanged after coating, as it was shown by optical profilometry. The mass peaks observed in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS analysis confirmed the integrity of EMD after coating. Assessment of the bioavailability suggested that the modified surfaces were active for osteoblast like MC3M3-E1 cells in showing enhanced Coll-1 gene expression and ALP activity.

  6. Evolution of Mars’ Northern Polar Seasonal CO2 deposits: variations in surface brightness and bulk density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Christopher P.; Titus, Timothy N.

    2015-01-01

    Small scale variations of seasonal ice are explored at different geomorphic units on the Northern Polar Seasonal Cap (NPSC). We use seasonal rock shadow measurements, combined with visible and thermal observations, to calculate density over time. The coupling of volume density and albedo allows us to determine the microphysical state of the seasonal CO2 ice. We find two distinct endmembers across the NPSC: 1) Snow deposits may anneal to form an overlying slab layer that fractures. These low density deposits maintain relatively constant densities over springtime. 2) Porous slab deposits likely anneal rapidly in early spring and fracture in late spring. These high density deposits dramatically increase in density over time. The endmembers appear to be correlated with latitude.

  7. Reduced one-body density matrix of Tonks–Girardeau gas at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiao-Chen; Hao Ya-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    With thermal Bose–Fermi mapping method, we investigate the Tonks–Girardeau gas at finite temperature. It is shown that at low temperature, the Tonks gas displays the Fermi-like density profiles, and with the increase in temperature, the Tonks gas distributes in wider region. The reduced one-body density matrix is diagonal dominant in the whole temperature region, and the off-diagonal elements shall vanish rapidly with the deviation from the diagonal part at high temperature. (paper)

  8. 3-D time-domain induced polarization tomography: a new approach based on a source current density formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soueid Ahmed, A.; Revil, A.

    2018-04-01

    Induced polarization (IP) of porous rocks can be associated with a secondary source current density, which is proportional to both the intrinsic chargeability and the primary (applied) current density. This gives the possibility of reformulating the time domain induced polarization (TDIP) problem as a time-dependent self-potential-type problem. This new approach implies a change of strategy regarding data acquisition and inversion, allowing major time savings for both. For inverting TDIP data, we first retrieve the electrical resistivity distribution. Then, we use this electrical resistivity distribution to reconstruct the primary current density during the injection/retrieval of the (primary) current between the current electrodes A and B. The time-lapse secondary source current density distribution is determined given the primary source current density and a distribution of chargeability (forward modelling step). The inverse problem is linear between the secondary voltages (measured at all the electrodes) and the computed secondary source current density. A kernel matrix relating the secondary observed voltages data to the source current density model is computed once (using the electrical conductivity distribution), and then used throughout the inversion process. This recovered source current density model is in turn used to estimate the time-dependent chargeability (normalized voltages) in each cell of the domain of interest. Assuming a Cole-Cole model for simplicity, we can reconstruct the 3-D distributions of the relaxation time τ and the Cole-Cole exponent c by fitting the intrinsic chargeability decay curve to a Cole-Cole relaxation model for each cell. Two simple cases are studied in details to explain this new approach. In the first case, we estimate the Cole-Cole parameters as well as the source current density field from a synthetic TDIP data set. Our approach is successfully able to reveal the presence of the anomaly and to invert its Cole

  9. Collagen Matrix Density Drives the Metabolic Shift in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A. Morris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased breast density attributed to collagen I deposition is associated with a 4–6 fold increased risk of developing breast cancer. Here, we assessed cellular metabolic reprogramming of mammary carcinoma cells in response to increased collagen matrix density using an in vitro 3D model. Our initial observations demonstrated changes in functional metabolism in both normal mammary epithelial cells and mammary carcinoma cells in response to changes in matrix density. Further, mammary carcinoma cells grown in high density collagen matrices displayed decreased oxygen consumption and glucose metabolism via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle compared to cells cultured in low density matrices. Despite decreased glucose entry into the TCA cycle, levels of glucose uptake, cell viability, and ROS were not different between high and low density matrices. Interestingly, under high density conditions the contribution of glutamine as a fuel source to drive the TCA cycle was significantly enhanced. These alterations in functional metabolism mirrored significant changes in the expression of metabolic genes involved in glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and the serine synthesis pathway. This study highlights the broad importance of the collagen microenvironment to cellular expression profiles, and shows that changes in density of the collagen microenvironment can modulate metabolic shifts of cancer cells.

  10. Harmonic oscillator thermal density matrix: First-order differential equations for the position representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Gil, L. F.; Walser, R.

    2018-01-01

    A first-order partial differential equation is derived whose solution enables us to find straightforwardly the off-diagonal matrix elements in the position representation of the harmonic oscillator density operator. This approach constitutes an alternative to techniques that require advanced knowledge of mathematical and quantum mechanical results.

  11. A density matrix renormalization group study of low-lying excitations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Symmetrized density-matrix-renormalization-group calculations have been carried out, within Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian, to explore the nature of the ground and low-lying excited states of long polythiophene oligomers. We have exploited 2 symmetry and spin parity of the system to obtain excited states of ...

  12. Response calculations with an independent particle system with an exact one-particle density matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbertz, K.J.H.; Gritsenko, O.V.; Baerends, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    We use the natural orbitals to define an independent particle system, from which the exact one-particle density matrix can be obtained with an ensemble of degenerate determinantal ground states. Also defining explicit phases for the orbitals, and admitting functionals that are dependent on those

  13. TREATMENT OF NONADIABATIC TRANSITIONS BY DENSITY-MATRIX EVOLUTION AND MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAVRI, J; BERENDSEN, HJC

    1994-01-01

    A density matrix evolution (DME) method (H.J.C. Berendsen and J. Mavri, J. Phys. Chem., 97 (1993) 13469) to simulate the dynamics of quantum systems embedded in a classical environment is presented. The DME method allows treatment of nonadiabatic transitions. As numerical examples the collinear

  14. Polar-solvation classical density-functional theory for electrolyte aqueous solutions near a wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshavsky, Vadim; Marucho, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    A precise description of the structural and dielectric properties of liquid water is critical to understanding the physicochemical properties of solutes in electrolyte solutions. In this article, a mixture of ionic and dipolar hard spheres is considered to account for water crowding and polarization effects on ionic electrical double layers near a uniformly charged hard wall. As a unique feature, solvent hard spheres carrying a dipole at their centers were used to model water molecules at experimentally known concentration, molecule size, and dipolar moment. The equilibrium ionic and dipole density profiles of this electrolyte aqueous model were calculated using a polar-solvation classical density-functional theory (PSCDFT). These profiles were used to calculate the charge density distribution, water polarization, dielectric permittivity function, and mean electric potential profiles as well as differential capacitance, excess adsorptions, and wall-fluid surface tension. These results were compared with those corresponding to the pure dipolar model and unpolar primitive solvent model of electrolyte aqueous solutions to understand the role that water crowding and polarization effects play on the structural and thermodynamic properties of these systems. Overall, PSCDFT predictions are in agreement with available experimental data. PMID:27176352

  15. Metallicity at interphase boundaries due to polar catastrophe induced by charge density discontinuity

    KAUST Repository

    Albar, Arwa

    2018-02-09

    The electronic properties of interphase boundaries are of basic importance for most materials, particularly when those properties deviate strongly from the bulk behavior. We introduce a mechanism that can result in metallicity at stoichiometric interphase boundaries between semiconductors based on the idea of polar catastrophe, which is usually considered only in the context of heterostructures. To this end, we perform ab initio calculations within density functional theory to investigate the electronic states at stoichiometric SnO/SnO2 (110) interphase boundaries. In this system, one would not expect polar catastrophe to have a role according to state-of-the-art theory because the interface lacks formal charge discontinuity. However, we observe the formation of a hole gas between the semiconductors SnO and SnO2. To explain these findings, we provide a generalized theory based on the idea that the charge density discontinuity between SnO and SnO2, a consequence of lattice mismatch, drives a polar catastrophe scenario. As a result, SnO/SnO2 (110) interphase boundaries can develop metallicity depending on the grain size. The concept of metallicity due to polar catastrophe induced by charge density discontinuity is of general validity and applies to many interphase boundaries with lattice mismatch.

  16. Hardness and softness reactivity kernels within the spin-polarized density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro, Eduardo; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Generalized hardness and softness reactivity kernels are defined within a spin-polarized density-functional theory (SP-DFT) conceptual framework. These quantities constitute the basis for the global, local (i.e., r-position dependent), and nonlocal (i.e., r and r ' -position dependents) indices devoted to the treatment of both charge-transfer and spin-polarization processes in such a reactivity framework. The exact relationships between these descriptors within a SP-DFT framework are derived and the implications for chemical reactivity in such context are outlined

  17. Variational density matrix method for warm, condensed matter: Application to dense hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Militzer, Burkhard; Pollock, E. L.

    2000-01-01

    A variational principle for optimizing thermal density matrices is introduced. As a first application, the variational many-body density matrix is written as a determinant of one-body density matrices, which are approximated by Gaussians with the mean, width, and amplitude as variational parameters. The method is illustrated for the particle in an external field problem, the hydrogen molecule and dense hydrogen where the molecular, the dissociated, and the plasma regime are described. Structural and thermodynamic properties (energy, equation of state, and shock Hugoniot) are presented. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  18. Response calculations with an independent particle system with an exact one-particle density matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbertz, K J H; Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

    2010-07-02

    We use the natural orbitals to define an independent particle system, from which the exact one-particle density matrix can be obtained with an ensemble of degenerate determinantal ground states. Also defining explicit phases for the orbitals, and admitting functionals that are dependent on those phases, time-dependent equations for the orbitals and occupation numbers are obtained from an action principle. The wrong polarizability and lack of double excitations of straightforward adiabatic time-dependent density matrix functional theory are then corrected, and the important symmetry χ(ω)=χ{*}(-ω), lost in previous ad hoc improvements, is restored. The extension of the response calculations beyond the occupied-virtual pairs, which are the only ones admitted in time-dependent density functional theory, leads to greatly improved response properties.

  19. Contraction relations for Grassmann products of reduced density matrices and implications for density matrix reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, John M.; Harriman, John E.

    2002-01-01

    We consider, for systems of indistinguishable fermions, approximate reconstruction of the three- and four-particle reduced density matrices (RDMs) from the one- and two-particle RDMs, γ and Γ. Our ansatz for reconstructing the four-particle RDM is the linear combination a(Γ and Γ)+b(γ and γ and Γ)+c(γ and γ and γ and γ), where '' and '' denotes the antisymmetrized (Grassmann) product. This is a generalization of reconstruction functionals employed recently to perform direct RDM calculations without wave functions via the contracted Schroedinger equation. Here we consider relationships between the parameters a, b, and c that are required in order for the reconstruction functionals to respect the hierarchy of contraction relations between RDMs. To this end we establish several general theorems concerning contractions of antisymmetrized tensor products of γ, Γ, and various products thereof. The accuracy of proposed reconstruction functionals is evaluated using accurate density matrices for the ground state of Be

  20. Reduced scattering-matrix algorithm for high-density plasmonic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchon, Patrick; Pardo, Fabrice; Haïdar, Riad; Vincent, Grégory; Pelouard, Jean-Luc

    2010-10-01

    We describe a method to compute S-matrix interface terms using a selection of eigenmodes. When solving the modal equation, the computation of left and right eigenvectors leads to rectangular eigenmodes matrices. Expressions of S-matrix interface terms are then expressed so as to allow for a significant reduction of the computation cost. The reduction is even further decreased in the case of the B-spline modal method, which deals with sparse matrices. Its convergence is illustrated on a high-density plasmonic structure and compared to a full modal method.

  1. Polarization Potential Has No Effect on Maximum Current Density Produced by Halotolerant Bioanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel González-Muñoz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Halotolerant bioanodes are considered an attractive alternative in microbial electrochemical systems, as they can operate under higher conductive electrolytes, in comparison with traditional wastewater and freshwater bioanodes. The dependency between energetic performance and polarization potential has been addressed in several works; however the vast majority discusses its effect when wastewater or freshwater inocula are employed, and fewer reports focus on inocula from highly-saline environments. Moreover, the effect of the polarization potential on current production is not fully understood. To determine if the polarization potential has a significant effect on current production, eight bioanodes were grown by chronoamperometry at positive and negative potentials relative to the reference electrode (+0.34 V/SHE and −0.16 V/SHE, in a three-electrode set-up employing sediments from a hyperhaline coastal lagoon. The maximum current density obtained was the same, despite the differences in the applied potential. Our findings indicate that even if differences in organic matter removal and coulombic efficiency are obtained, the polarization potential had no statistically significant effect on overall current density production.

  2. Thermal inertia and radar reflectivity of the Martian north polar ERG: Low-density aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    The north polar layered deposits on Mars appear to be the source of the dark material that comprises the north polar erg. The physical properties and chemical composition of the erg material therefore have important implications for the origin and evolution of the Martian layered deposits. Viking bistatic radar and infrared thermal mapping (IRTM) data indicate that the bulk density of the erg material is lower than that of the average Martian surface. These data are consistent with hypotheses involving formation of filamentary sublimation residue (FSR) particles from erosion of the layered deposits. The color and albedo of the erg and of the layered deposits, and the presence of magnetic material on Mars, suggest that the dark material is composed of low-density aggregates of magnetic dust grains, perhaps similar to FSR particles created in laboratory experiments.

  3. The density matrix renormalization group method. Application to the EPP model of a cyclic polyene chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fano, G.; Ortolani, F.; Ziosi, L.

    1997-10-01

    The density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method introduced by White for the study of strongly interacting electron systems is reviewed; the method is variational and considers a system of localized electrons as the union of two adjacent fragments A,B. A density matrix ρ is introduced, whose eigenvectors corresponding to the largest eigenvalues are the most significant, the most probable states of A in the presence of B; these states are retained, while states corresponding to small eigenvalues of ρ are neglected. It is conjectured that the decreasing behaviour of the eigenvalues is gaussian. The DMRG method is tested on the Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian of a cyclic polyene (CH) N up to N = 34. A Hilbert space of dimension 5. x 10 18 is explored. The ground state energy is 10 -3 eV within the full Cl value in the case N = 18. The DMRG method compares favourably also with coupled cluster approximations. The unrestricted Hartree-Fock solution (which presents spin density waves) is briefly reviewed, and a comparison is made with the DMRG energy values. Finally, the spin-spin and density-density correlation functions are computed; the results suggest that the antiferromagnetic order of the exact solution does not extend up to large distances but exists locally. No charge density waves are present. (author)

  4. Quarkonium polarization and the long distance matrix elements hierarchies using jet substructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lin; Shrivastava, Prashant

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the quarkonium production mechanisms in jets at the LHC, using the fragmenting jet functions (FJF) approach. Specifically, we discuss the jet energy dependence of the J /ψ production cross section at the LHC. By comparing the cross sections for the different NRQCD production channels (1S0[8], 3S1[8], 3PJ[8], and 3cripts>S1[1]), we find that at fixed values of energy fraction z carried by the J /ψ , if the normalized cross section is a decreasing function of the jet energy, in particular for z >0.5 , then the depolarizing 1S0[8] must be the dominant channel. This makes the prediction made in [Baumgart et al., J. High Energy Phys. 11 (2014) 003, 10.1007/JHEP11(2014)003] for the FJF's also true for the cross section. We also make comparisons between the long distance matrix elements extracted by various groups. This analysis could potentially shed light on the polarization properties of the J /ψ production in high pT region.

  5. The "JK-only" approximation in density matrix functional and wave function theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmar, Christian

    2004-12-15

    Various energy functionals applying the "JK-only" approximation which leads to two-index two-electron integrals instead of four-index two-electron integrals in the electron-electron interaction term of the electronic energy are presented. Numerical results of multiconfiguration self-consistent field calculations for the best possible "JK-only" wave function are compared to those obtained from the pair excitation multiconfiguration self-consistent (PEMCSCF) method and two versions of density matrix functional theory. One of these is derived making explicit use of some necessary conditions for N representability of the second-order density matrix. It is shown that this method models the energy functional based on the best possible "JK-only" wave function with good accuracy. The calculations also indicate that only a minor fraction of the total correlation energy is incorporated by "JK-only" approaches for larger molecules. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics

  6. Prospects for Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations in the Density Matrix Expansion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinu; Dyhdalo, Alex; Bogner, Scott; Furnstahl, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Recently, a microscopically based nuclear energy density functional was derived by applying the Density Matrix Expansion (DME) to the Hartree-Fock energy obtained from chiral effective field theory (χEFT) two- and three-nucleon interactions. The Hartree-Fock approach cannot contain the full many-body correlations. Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) theory gives an improved definition of the one-body potential U by replacing the interaction by a reaction matrix G. The central result of modern renormalization theory is that a general RG decoupling generates an infinite series of counterterms consistent with the input interaction. Then we can apply the DME at Hartree-Fock level with long-range χEFT interactions and zero-range contact interactions to model BHF correlations. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1614460 and the NUCLEI SciDAC Collaboration under Department of Energy Grant DE-SC0008533.

  7. Development of high-polarization Fe/Ge neutron polarizing supermirror: Possibility of fine-tuning of scattering length density in ion beam sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, R.; Yamazaki, D.; Akutsu, K.; Hanashima, T.; Miyata, N.; Aoki, H.; Takeda, M.; Soyama, K.

    2018-04-01

    The multilayer structure of Fe/Si and Fe/Ge systems fabricated by ion beam sputtering (IBS) was investigated using X-ray and polarized neutron reflectivity measurements and scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The obtained result revealed that the incorporation of sputtering gas particles (Ar) in the Ge layer gives rise to a marked reduction in the neutron scattering length density (SLD) and contributes to the SLD contrast between the Fe and Ge layers almost vanishing for spin-down neutrons. Bundesmann et al. (2015) have shown that the implantation of primary Ar ions backscattered at the target is responsible for the incorporation of Ar particles and that the fraction increases with increasing ion incidence angle and increasing polar emission angle. This leads to a possibility of fine-tuning of the SLD for the IBS, which is required to realize a high polarization efficiency of a neutron polarizing supermirror. Fe/Ge polarizing supermirror with m = 5 fabricated under the same condition showed a spin-up reflectivity of 0.70 at the critical momentum transfer. The polarization was higher than 0.985 for the qz range where the correction for the polarization inefficiencies of the beamline works properly. The result of the polarized neutron reflectivity measurement suggests that the "magnetically-dead" layers formed at both sides of the Fe layer, together with the SLD contrast, play a critical role in determining the polarization performance of a polarizing supermirror.

  8. Obtaining Hartree-Fock and density functional theory doubly excited states with Car-Parrinello density matrix search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenkel; Isborn, Christine M.; Li, Xiaosong

    2009-11-01

    The calculation of doubly excited states is one of the major problems plaguing the modern day excited state workhorse methodology of linear response time dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and density function theory (TDDFT). We have previously shown that the use of a resonantly tuned field within real-time TDHF and TDDFT is able to simultaneously excite both the α and β electrons to achieve the two-electron excited states of minimal basis H2 and HeH+ [C. M. Isborn and X. Li, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 204107 (2008)]. We now extend this method to many electron systems with the use of our Car-Parrinello density matrix search (CP-DMS) with a first-principles fictitious mass method for wave function optimization [X. Li, C. L. Moss, W. Liang, and Y. Feng, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 234115 (2009)]. Real-time TDHF/TDDFT is used during the application of the laser field perturbation, driving the electron density toward the doubly excited state. The CP-DMS method then converges the density to the nearest stationary state. We present these stationary state doubly excited state energies and properties at the HF and DFT levels for H2, HeH+, lithium hydride, ethylene, and butadiene.

  9. Testing the density matrix expansion against ab initio calculations of trapped neutron drops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogner, S. K. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Hergert, H. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Furnstahl, R. J. [Ohio State University; Kortelainen, Erno M [ORNL; Stoitsov, M. V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Maris, Pieter [Iowa State University; Vary, J. P. [Iowa State University

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic input to a universal nuclear energy density functional can be provided through the density matrix expansion (DME), which has recently been revived and improved. Several DME implementation strategies are tested for neutron drop systems in harmonic traps by comparing to Hartree-Fock (HF) and ab initio no-core full configuration (NCFC) calculations with a model interaction (Minnesota potential). The new DME with exact treatment of Hartree contributions is found to best reproduce HF results and supplementing the functional with fit Skyrme-like contact terms shows systematic improvement toward the full NCFC results.

  10. Reduced density matrix embedding. General formalism and inter-domain correlation functional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernal, Katarzyna

    2016-08-03

    An embedding method for a one-electron reduced density matrix (1-RDM) is proposed. It is based on partitioning of 1-RDM into domains and describing each domain in the effective potential of the other ones. To assure N-representability of the total 1-RDM N-representability and strong-orthogonality conditions are imposed on the domains. The total energy is given as a sum of single-domain energies and domain-domain electron interaction contributions. Higher than two-body inter-domain interaction terms are neglected. The two-body correlation terms are approximated by deriving inter-domain correlation from couplings of density fluctuations of two domains at a time. Unlike in most density embedding methods kinetic energy is treated exactly and it is not required that densities pertaining to the domains are only weakly overlapping. We propose to treat each domain by a corrected perfect-pairing functional. On a few examples it is shown that the embedding reduced density matrix functional method (ERDMF) yields excellent results for molecules that are well described by a single Lewis structure even if strong static intra-domain or dynamic inter-domain correlation effects must be accounted for.

  11. Hybrid reconstruction of quantum density matrix: when low-rank meets sparsity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kezhi; Zheng, Kai; Yang, Jingbei; Cong, Shuang; Liu, Xiaomei; Li, Zhaokai

    2017-12-01

    Both the mathematical theory and experiments have verified that the quantum state tomography based on compressive sensing is an efficient framework for the reconstruction of quantum density states. In recent physical experiments, we found that many unknown density matrices in which people are interested in are low-rank as well as sparse. Bearing this information in mind, in this paper we propose a reconstruction algorithm that combines the low-rank and the sparsity property of density matrices and further theoretically prove that the solution of the optimization function can be, and only be, the true density matrix satisfying the model with overwhelming probability, as long as a necessary number of measurements are allowed. The solver leverages the fixed-point equation technique in which a step-by-step strategy is developed by utilizing an extended soft threshold operator that copes with complex values. Numerical experiments of the density matrix estimation for real nuclear magnetic resonance devices reveal that the proposed method achieves a better accuracy compared to some existing methods. We believe that the proposed method could be leveraged as a generalized approach and widely implemented in the quantum state estimation.

  12. Matrix density effects on the mechanical properties of SiC/RBSN composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Kiser, James D.

    1990-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties were measured for SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride composites (SiC/RBSN) of different densities. The composites consisted of approx. 30 vol percent uniaxially aligned 142 micron diameter SiC fibers (Textron SCS-6) in a reaction-bonded Si3N4 matrix. The composite density was varied by changing the consolidation pressure during RBSN processing and by hot isostatically pressing the SiC/RBSN composites. Results indicate that as the consolidation pressure was increased from 27 to 138 MPa, the average pore size of the nitrided composites decreased from 0.04 to 0.02 microns and the composite density increased from 2.07 to 2.45 gm/cc. Nonetheless, these improvements resulted in only small increases in the first matrix cracking stress, primary elastic modulus, and ultimate tensile strength values of the composites. In contrast, HIP consolidation of SiC/RBSN resulted in a fully dense material whose first matrix cracking stress and elastic modulus were approx. 15 and 50 percent higher, respectively, and ultimate tensile strength values were approx. 40 percent lower than those for unHIPed SiC/RBSN composites. The modulus behavior for all specimens can be explained by simple rule-of-mixture theory. Also, the loss in ultimate strength for the HIPed composites appears to be related to a degradation in fiber strength at the HIP temperature. However, the density effect on matrix fracture strength was much less than would be expected based on typical monolithic Si3N4 behavior, suggesting that composite theory is indeed operating. Possible practical implications of these observations are discussed.

  13. A density matrix renormalization group study of low-lying excitations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Density-matrix renormalization: A new numerical method in physics (Lecture notes in physics) (Berlin: Springer). 42. Ramasesha S, Pati S K, Krishnamurthy H R, Shuai Z and Brédas J L 1996 Phys. Rev. B54 7598. 43. Ohno K 1964 Theor. Chem. Acta 2 219. 44. Callomon J H, Hirota E, Kuchitsu K, Lafferty W J,. Maki A G and ...

  14. Off-diagonal helicity density matrix elements for vector mesons produced at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Bertini, M.; Quintairos, P.

    1997-05-01

    Final state q q-bar interactions may give origin to non zero values of the off-diagonal element ρ 1 of the helicity density matrix of vector mesons produced in e + e - annihilations, as confirmed by recent OPAL data on φ and D * 's. Predictions are given for ρ1,-1 of several mesons produced at large z and small PT, collinear with the parent jet; the values obtained for θ and D * are in agreement with data. (author)

  15. On-the-Fly Computation of Frontal Orbitals in Density Matrix Expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruchinina, Anastasia; Rudberg, Elias; Rubensson, Emanuel H

    2018-01-09

    We propose a method for computation of frontal (homo and lumo) orbitals in recursive polynomial expansion algorithms for the density matrix. Such algorithms give a computational cost that increases only linearly with system size for sufficiently sparse systems, but a drawback compared to the traditional diagonalization approach is that molecular orbitals are not readily available. Our method is based on the idea to use the polynomial of the density matrix expansion as an eigenvalue filter giving large separation between eigenvalues around homo and lumo [ Rubensson et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2008 , 128 , 176101 ]. This filter is combined with a shift-and-square (folded spectrum) method to move the desired eigenvalue to the end of the spectrum. In this work we propose a transparent way to select recursive expansion iteration and shift for the eigenvector computation that results in a sharp eigenvalue filter. The filter is obtained as a byproduct of the density matrix expansion, and there is no significant additional cost associated either with its construction or with its application. This gives a clear-cut and efficient eigenvalue solver that can be used to compute homo and lumo orbitals with sufficient accuracy in a small fraction of the total recursive expansion time. Our algorithms make use of recent homo and lumo eigenvalue estimates that can be obtained at negligible cost [ Rubensson et al. SIAM J. Sci. Comput . 2014 , 36 , B147 ]. We illustrate our method by performing self-consistent field calculations for large scale systems.

  16. Imaging of fast moving electron-density structures in the polar cap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Mitchell

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The imaging of fast-moving electron-density structures in the polar cap presents a unique set of challenges that are not encountered in other ionospheric imaging problems. GPS observations of total electron content in the polar cap are sparse compared to other regions in the Northern Hemisphere. Furthermore, the slow relative motion of the satellites across the sky complicates the problem since the velocity of the plasma can be large in comparison and traditional approaches could result in image blurring. This paper presents a Kalman-filter based method that incorporates a forward projection of the solution based on a model plasma drift velocity field. This is the first time that the plasma motion, rather than just integrations of electron density, has been used in an ionospheric imaging algorithm. The motion is derived from the Weimer model of the electric field. It is shown that this novel approach to the implementation of a Kalman filter provides a detailed view of the polar cap ionosphere under severe storm conditions. A case study is given for the October 2003 Halloween storm where verification is provided by incoherent scatter radars.

  17. Microscopically-Based Energy Density Functionals for Nuclei Using the Density Matrix Expansion. I: Implementation and Pre-Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoitsov, M. V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kortelainen, Erno M [ORNL; Bogner, S. K. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Duguet, T. [CEA, Saclay, France; Furnstahl, R. J. [Ohio State University; Gebremariam, B. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Schunck, N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2010-01-01

    In a recent series of papers, Gebremariam, Bogner, and Duguet derived a microscopically-based nuclear energy density functional by applying the Density Matrix Expansion (DME) to the Hartree-Fock energy obtained from chiral effective field theory (EFT) two- and three-nucleon interactions. Due to the structure of the chiral interactions, each coupling in the DME functional is given as the sum of a coupling constant arising from zero-range contact interactions and a coupling function of the density arising from the finite-range pion exchanges. Since the contact contributions have essentially the same structure as those entering empirical Skyrme functionals, a microscopically guided Skyrme phenomenology has been suggested in which the contact terms in the DME functional are released for optimization to finite-density observables to capture short-range correlation energy contributions from beyond Hartree-Fock. The present paper is the first attempt to assess the ability of the newly suggested DME functional, which has a much richer set of density dependencies than traditional Skyrme functionals, to generate sensible and stable results for nuclear applications. The results of the first proof-of-principle calculations are given, and numerous practical issues related to the implementation of the new functional in existing Skyrme codes are discussed. Using a restricted singular value decomposition (SVD) optimization procedure, it is found that the new DME functional gives numerically stable results and exhibits a small but systematic reduction in {chi}^{2} compared to standard Skyrme functionals, thus justifying its suitability for future global optimizations and large-scale calculations.

  18. Occurrence Locations, Dipole Tilt Angle Effects, and Plasma Cloud Drift Paths of Polar Cap Neutral Density Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. S.; Sutton, E. K.; Huang, C. Y.; Cooke, D. L.

    2018-02-01

    Polar cap neutral density anomaly (PCNDA) with large mass density enhancements over the background has been frequently observed in the polar cap during magnetic storms. By tracing field lines to the magnetosphere from the polar ionosphere, we divide the polar cap into two regions, an open field line (OFL) region with field lines connecting to the magnetopause boundary and a distant tail field line (TFL) region threaded with magnetotail lobe field lines. A statistical study of neutral density observed by the Challenging Minisatellite Payload satellite during major magnetic storms with Dst atmospheric disturbance could be generated in the nightside polar cap. From the PCNDA size and speed of sound at 400 km, we derive an initial energy deposition duration for producing traveling atmospheric disturbance in the range from 0.5 to 2.5 hr.

  19. Penile density and globally used chemicals in Canadian and Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Dyck, Markus; Rigét, Frank F; Beck Jensen, Jens-Erik; Hyldstrup, Lars; Letcher, Robert J; Gustavson, Kim; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Dietz, Rune

    2015-02-01

    Industrially produced chemicals have been a major environmental concern across our entire Globe since the onset of rapid industrial development around the early 1900. Many of the substances being used are known to be endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and are also known to be long-range dispersed and to biomagnify to very high concentrations in the tissues of Arctic apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). A major concern relating to EDCs is their effects on vital organ-tissues such as bone and it is possible that EDCs represent a more serious challenge to the species' survival than the more conventionally proposed prey reductions linked to climate change. We therefore analyzed penile bone mineral density (BMD) as a key phenotype for reproductive success in 279 polar bear samples born 1990-2000 representing eight polar bear subpopulations. Since EDC concentrations were not available from the same specimens, we compared BMD with published literature information on EDC concentrations. Latitudinal and longitudinal BMD and EDC gradients were clearly observed, with Western Hudson bears having the highest BMD and lowest EDCs, and North East Greenland polar bears carrying the lowest BMD and highest EDCs. A BMD vs. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) regression analysis showed that BMD decreased as a function of the eight subpopulations' PCB concentrations and this relationship was close to being significant (p=0.10, R(2)=0.39). Risk quotient (RQ) estimation demonstrated that PCBs could be in a range that may lead to disruption of normal reproduction and development. It is therefore likely that EDCs directly affect development and bone density in polar bears. Canadian bears had in general the best health and the North East Greenland subpopulation being at the highest risk of having negative health effects. While reductions in BMD is in general unhealthy, reductions in penile BMD could lead to increased risk of species extinction because of mating and subsequent

  20. Extending the range of real time density matrix renormalization group simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennes, D. M.; Karrasch, C.

    2016-03-01

    We discuss a few simple modifications to time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithms which allow to access larger time scales. We specifically aim at beginners and present practical aspects of how to implement these modifications within any standard matrix product state (MPS) based formulation of the method. Most importantly, we show how to 'combine' the Schrödinger and Heisenberg time evolutions of arbitrary pure states | ψ 〉 and operators A in the evaluation of 〈A〉ψ(t) = 〈 ψ | A(t) | ψ 〉 . This includes quantum quenches. The generalization to (non-)thermal mixed state dynamics 〈A〉ρ(t) =Tr [ ρA(t) ] induced by an initial density matrix ρ is straightforward. In the context of linear response (ground state or finite temperature T > 0) correlation functions, one can extend the simulation time by a factor of two by 'exploiting time translation invariance', which is efficiently implementable within MPS DMRG. We present a simple analytic argument for why a recently-introduced disentangler succeeds in reducing the effort of time-dependent simulations at T > 0. Finally, we advocate the python programming language as an elegant option for beginners to set up a DMRG code.

  1. [Particle Size and Number Density Online Analysis for Particle Suspension with Polarization-Differentiation Elastic Light Scattering Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-kang; Fang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The basic principle of polarization-differentiation elastic light scattering spectroscopy based techniques is that under the linear polarized light incidence, the singlely scattered light from the superficial biological tissue and diffusively scattered light from the deep tissue can be separated according to the difference of polarization characteristics. The novel point of the paper is to apply this method to the detection of particle suspension and, to realize the simultaneous measurement of its particle size and number density in its natural status. We design and build a coaxial cage optical system, and measure the backscatter signal at a specified angle from a polystyrene microsphere suspension. By controlling the polarization direction of incident light with a linear polarizer and adjusting the polarization direction of collected light with another linear polarizer, we obtain the parallel polarized elastic light scattering spectrum and cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum. The difference between the two is the differential polarized elastic light scattering spectrum which include only the single scattering information of the particles. We thus compare this spectrum to the Mie scattering calculation and extract the particle size. We then also analyze the cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum by applying the particle size already extracted. The analysis is based on the approximate expressions taking account of light diffusing, from which we are able to obtain the number density of the particle suspension. We compare our experimental outcomes with the manufacturer-provided values and further analyze the influence of the particle diameter standard deviation on the number density extraction, by which we finally verify the experimental method. The potential applications of the method include the on-line particle quality monitoring for particle manufacture as well as the fat and protein density detection of milk products.

  2. The Density of the North Polar Layered Deposit from Gravity and Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, L.; Lewis, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    The North Polar Layered Deposit (NPLD) of Mars is a vast reservoir of water ice with a volume of 1.14 million km3. Radar data indicates that the ice in the NPLD is extremely pure with dust content between 5 % to 10 %, however the radar data has not been able to put a direct constraint on the density of the NPLD. Here, we localize the gravity and topography signature of the NPLD and place a direct constraint on its density. We performed a grid search by generating admittance spectrum at each latitude and longitude between 75° N to 90° N and 0° E to 360° E, using a spherical cap of angular radius () of 7°, and a harmonic-bandwidth of the localization window Lwin of 37°. A region between Gemina Lingula and Planum Boreum was found to possesss an adequate correlation between gravity and topography. The estimated admittance spectra were compared with synthetic admittance spectra to constrain the load-density and the elastic thickness of the lithosphere. We constructed forward models by assuming that the lithosphere is a thin shell that deforms elastically in response to surface loads. We find that the bulk density of the NPLD ranges between 1000 to 1100 kg.m-3. Assuming a grain density of 3000 kg.m-3 for dust, the NPLD region within our localized window can contain dust content between 3 - 8 %, which is in an excellent agreement with the radar data.

  3. Consolidation of titanium matrix composites to maximum density by different hot pressing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montealegre Melendez, I.; Neubauer, E.; Danninger, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this present work, TiMMCs were manufactured through conventional and inductive hot pressing techniques. The starting materials were two titanium based powders as metal matrices, and two types of reinforcements, carbon nanofibres and nano-micro-boron particles. After several manufacturing runs with varying parameters, especially, optimized hot pressing parameters, the titanium compacts were characterized. Density and hardness measurements, chemical analyses and microstructural studies were conducted. The two objectives of this work were achieved. On one hand the influence, in the properties of TiMMCs, of the starting materials as matrix powder and reinforcements was determined. Higher content of impurities from the starting materials affected the hardness and the microstructure of the composites, independently of the manufacturing process. On another hand, the study of variations of the manufacturing process as temperature of consolidation and soaking time was reported. Higher densification was obtained at higher consolidation temperature; however, reaction between the matrix and the carbonaceous reinforcement was detected.

  4. Comment on "Nonuniqueness of algebraic first-order density-matrix functionals"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, O. V.

    2018-02-01

    Wang and Knowles (WK) [Phys. Rev. A 92, 012520 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.012520] have given a counterexample to the conventional in reduced density-matrix functional theory representation of the second-order reduced density matrix (2RDM) Γi j ,k l in the basis of the natural orbitals as a function Γi j ,k l(n ) of the orbital occupation numbers (ONs) ni. The observed nonuniqueness of Γi j ,k l for prototype systems of different symmetry has been interpreted as the inherent inability of ON functions to reproduce the 2RDM, due to the insufficient information contained in the 1RDM spectrum. In this Comment, it is argued that, rather than totally invalidating Γi j ,k l(n ) , the WK example exposes its symmetry dependence which, as well as the previously established analogous dependence in density functional theory, is demonstrated with a general formulation based on the Levy constrained search.

  5. Spin Density Matrix Elements in exclusive production of ω mesons at Hermes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianski B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spin density matrix elements have been determined for exclusive ω meson production on hydrogen and deuterium targets, in the kinematic region of 1.0 < Q2 < 10.0 GeV2, 3.0 < W < 6.3 GeV and –t' < 0.2 GeV2. The data, from which SDMEs are determined, were accumulated with the HERMES forward spectrometer during the running period of 1996 to 2007 using the 27.6 GeV electron or positron beam of HERA. A sizable contribution of unnatural parity exchange amplitudes is found for exclusive ω meson production.

  6. Charge-constrained auxiliary-density-matrix methods for the Hartree–Fock exchange contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlot, Patrick; Izsak, Robert; Borgoo, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Three new variants of the auxiliary-density-matrix method (ADMM) of Guidon, Hutter, and VandeVondele [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 6, 2348 (2010)] are presented with the common feature thatthey have a simplified constraint compared with the full orthonormality requirement of the earlier ADMM1 method....... All ADMM variants are tested for accuracy and performance in all-electron B3LYP calculations with several commonly used basis sets. The effect of the choice of the exchange functional for the ADMM exchange–correction term is also investigated....

  7. A parton shower based on factorization of the quantum density matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2014-01-01

    We present rst results from a new parton shower event generator, DEDUCTOR. Anticipating a need for an improved treatment of parton color and spin, the structure of the generator is based on the quantum density matrix in color and spin space. So far, DEDUCTOR implements only a standard spin-averaged treatment of spin in parton splittings. Although DEDUCTOR implements an improved treatment of color, in this paper we present results in the standard leading color approximation so that we can compare to the generator PYTHIA. The algorithms used incorporate a virtuality based shower ordering parameter and massive initial state bottom and charm quarks.

  8. Polarized Moessbauer transitions in mixed hyperfine interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.; Tarina, D.

    1975-01-01

    A contribution to the theory of elliptical polarization in the Moessbauer effect for transitions between mixed nuclear states is reported. A relation between the two-dimensional complex vector parameterization and the photon polarization density matrix was used in describing changes in the polarization of the gamma-ray involved. (A.K.)

  9. Magnetized Reverse Shock: Density-fluctuation-induced Field Distortion, Polarization Degree Reduction, and Application to GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Wei; Zhang Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Li Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Stone, James M., E-mail: deng@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: hli@lanl.gov, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The early optical afterglow emission of several gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) shows a high linear polarization degree (PD) of tens of percent, suggesting an ordered magnetic field in the emission region. The light curves are consistent with being of a reverse shock (RS) origin. However, the magnetization parameter, σ , of the outflow is unknown. If σ is too small, an ordered field in the RS may be quickly randomized due to turbulence driven by various perturbations so that the PD may not be as high as observed. Here we use the “Athena++” relativistic MHD code to simulate a relativistic jet with an ordered magnetic field propagating into a clumpy ambient medium, with a focus on how density fluctuations may distort the ordered magnetic field and reduce PD in the RS emission for different σ values. For a given density fluctuation, we discover a clear power-law relationship between the relative PD reduction and the σ value of the outflow. Such a relation may be applied to estimate σ of the GRB outflows using the polarization data of early afterglows.

  10. Fock-Matrix Corrections in Density Functional Theory and Use in Embedded Mean-Field Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kaito; Miller, Thomas F; Manby, Frederick R

    2016-12-13

    We introduce Fock-corrected density functional theory (FCDFT), a semiempirical minimal-basis method part way between density-functional tight binding (DFTB) and DFT. FCDFT contains DFTB-like Fock-matrix contributions calculated using simple pairwise formulas and Slater-Koster transformations, but it also contains the full Kohn-Sham treatment of Coulombic electrostatics. The resulting method is better suited than either minimal-basis DFT or DFTB for modeling the low-level subsystem in embedded mean-field theory (EMFT), improving upon the former by correcting for basis-set incompleteness and upon the latter by properly accounting for electrostatics. EMFT calculations using DFT-in-FCDFT have much smaller errors in orbital energies, dipole moments, and reaction energies than our previous DFT-in-DFT calculations.

  11. Local Approximation of the Correlation Energy Functional in the Density Matrix Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Koji

    2002-02-01

    A local approximation formula of the correlation energy functional Ec in terms of the first-order reduced density matrix (1-RDM) is presented. With the contracted Schrödinger equation the principal dependence of Ec on the natural occupation numbers ni is identified. Using the effective mass theory, Ec is expressed as a functional of the local density and the local variable, J = Σi(ni(1-ni)) \\|ϕi\\|2, where ϕi are the natural spin orbitals. This local approximation satisfies the homogeneous coordinate scaling relation, gives the exact result for a one-electron system, and is almost free from the exchange energy error. It reproduced about 90% of the correlation energies of atoms and molecules.

  12. Development of an polarization sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and it utilization on the Mueller matrix determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raele, Marcus Paulo

    2009-01-01

    This study approached theoretical and experimental aspects related with the development of a polarization sensitive, Fourier domain, optical coherence tomography system (PS-FD-OCT) and its utilization on the Mueller Matrix determination. This work began with a bibliographic revision, which describes since the early studies to the actual state of the art of the technique. The mathematical formalism of Fourier domain low coherence interferometry and light polarization was performed as well. Studies based on numerical simulations, of three different algorithm types, responsible to recover the scattering profile, were done. The implemented algorithms were: Direct Fourier Transform, Interpolation and zero-filling. By the end of the simulation study, was possible to conclude that the algorithm zero-filling 2N presented better characteristics when compared with the others. In the experimental part, firstly different OCT setups were assembled and measurements were done in order to verify aspects related with the theory. Then, using a polymeric sample, birefringence images were performed, which allowed determining the sample birefringence quantitatively. Finally, images taken of different polarization states were collected, and through then images related with the Mueller Matrix elements were calculated, which were analyzed individually. (author)

  13. Assessment of density matrix methods for linear scaling electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudberg, Elias; Rubensson, Emanuel H

    2011-02-23

    Purification and minimization methods for linear scaling computation of the one-particle density matrix for a fixed Hamiltonian matrix are compared. This is done by considering the work needed by each method to achieve a given accuracy in terms of the difference from the exact solution. Numerical tests employing orthogonal as well as non-orthogonal versions of the methods are performed using both element magnitude and cutoff radius based truncation approaches. It is investigated how the convergence speed for the different methods depends on the eigenvalue distribution in the Hamiltonian matrix. An expression for the number of iterations required for the minimization methods studied is derived, taking into account the dependence on both the band gap and the chemical potential. This expression is confirmed by numerical tests. The minimization methods are found to perform at their best when the chemical potential is located near the center of the eigenspectrum. The results indicate that purification is considerably more efficient than the minimization methods studied even when a good starting guess for the minimization is available. In test calculations without a starting guess, purification is more than an order of magnitude more efficient than minimization. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  14. Sodium hydrosulfide prevents myocardial dysfunction through modulation of extracellular matrix accumulation and vascular density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Long; Wang, Xian-Li; Wang, Xi-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2014-12-12

    The aim was to examine the role of exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on cardiac remodeling in post-myocardial infarction (MI) rats. MI was induced in rats by ligation of coronary artery. After treatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an exogenous H2S donor, 56 μM/kg·day) for 42 days, the effects of NaHS on left ventricular morphometric features, echocardiographic parameters, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), type I and type III collagen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD34, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the border zone of infarct area were analyzed to elucidate the protective mechanisms of exogenous H2S on cardiac function and fibrosis. Forty-two days post MI, NaHS-treatment resulted in a decrease in myocardial fibrotic area in association with decreased levels of type I, type III collagen and MMP-9 and improved cardiac function. Meanwhile, NaHS administration significantly increased cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), HO-1, α-SMA, and VEGF expression. This effect was accompanied by an increase in vascular density in the border zone of infarcted myocardium. Our results provided the strong evidences that exogenous H2S prevented cardiac remodeling, at least in part, through inhibition of extracellular matrix accumulation and increase in vascular density.

  15. Quantum Stochastic Trajectories: The Fokker-Planck-Bohm Equation Driven by the Reduced Density Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzini, Francesco; Moro, Giorgio J

    2018-03-15

    The quantum molecular trajectory is the deterministic trajectory, arising from the Bohm theory, that describes the instantaneous positions of the nuclei of molecules by assuring the agreement with the predictions of quantum mechanics. Therefore, it provides the suitable framework for representing the geometry and the motions of molecules without neglecting their quantum nature. However, the quantum molecular trajectory is extremely demanding from the computational point of view, and this strongly limits its applications. To overcome such a drawback, we derive a stochastic representation of the quantum molecular trajectory, through projection operator techniques, for the degrees of freedom of an open quantum system. The resulting Fokker-Planck operator is parametrically dependent upon the reduced density matrix of the open system. Because of the pilot role played by the reduced density matrix, this stochastic approach is able to represent accurately the main features of the open system motions both at equilibrium and out of equilibrium with the environment. To verify this procedure, the predictions of the stochastic and deterministic representation are compared for a model system of six interacting harmonic oscillators, where one oscillator is taken as the open quantum system of interest. The undeniable advantage of the stochastic approach is that of providing a simplified and self-contained representation of the dynamics of the open system coordinates. Furthermore, it can be employed to study the out of equilibrium dynamics and the relaxation of quantum molecular motions during photoinduced processes, like photoinduced conformational changes and proton transfers.

  16. Sodium Hydrosulfide Prevents Myocardial Dysfunction through Modulation of Extracellular Matrix Accumulation and Vascular Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Long Pan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to examine the role of exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S on cardiac remodeling in post-myocardial infarction (MI rats. MI was induced in rats by ligation of coronary artery. After treatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an exogenous H2S donor, 56 μM/kg·day for 42 days, the effects of NaHS on left ventricular morphometric features, echocardiographic parameters, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9, type I and type III collagen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, CD34, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA in the border zone of infarct area were analyzed to elucidate the protective mechanisms of exogenous H2S on cardiac function and fibrosis. Forty-two days post MI, NaHS-treatment resulted in a decrease in myocardial fibrotic area in association with decreased levels of type I, type III collagen and MMP-9 and improved cardiac function. Meanwhile, NaHS administration significantly increased cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE, HO-1, α-SMA, and VEGF expression. This effect was accompanied by an increase in vascular density in the border zone of infarcted myocardium. Our results provided the strong evidences that exogenous H2S prevented cardiac remodeling, at least in part, through inhibition of extracellular matrix accumulation and increase in vascular density.

  17. Polarization-interference Jones-matrix mapping of biological crystal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, O. G.; Dubolazov, O. V.; Pidkamin, L. Y.; Sidor, M. I.; Pavlyukovich, N.; Pavlyukovich, O.

    2018-01-01

    The paper consists of two parts. The first part presents short theoretical basics of the method of Jones-matrix mapping with the help of reference wave. It was provided experimentally measured coordinate distributions of modulus of Jones-matrix elements of polycrystalline film of bile. It was defined the values and ranges of changing of statistic moments, which characterize such distributions. The second part presents the data of statistic analysis of the distributions of matrix elements of polycrystalline film of urine of donors and patients with albuminuria. It was defined the objective criteria of differentiation of albuminuria.

  18. Quantitative characterization of carbon/carbon composites matrix texture based on image analysis using polarized light microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixian; Qi, Lehua; Song, Yongshan; Hou, Xianghui; Li, Hejun

    2015-10-01

    A quantitative characteristic method was proposed for characterizing the matrix texture of carbon/carbon(C/C) composites, which determined the mechanical and physical properties of C/C composites. Based on the cloud theory that was commonly used for uncertain reasoning and the transformation between quantitative and qualitative characterization, so the relationship between the extinction angle and texture types was built by the cloud models for describing the texture of microstructure, moreover, linguistic controllers were established to analyze the matrix texture in accordance with the features of the polarized light microscope (PLM) image. On this basis, the extinction angle could be calculated from the PLM image of the C/C composites. In contrast to the results of measurement, the errors between calculative values and measured values were maintained 1-2° in basically. Meanwhile, the PLM image of C/C composites was segmented by the component, in particular, the matrix with mixed textures was further segmented by the difference of texture. It means that the quantitative characterization of C/C composites matrix based on single PLM image has been realized. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Protein dynamics governed by interfaces of high polarity and low packing density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Espinosa Angarica

    Full Text Available The folding pathway, three-dimensional structure and intrinsic dynamics of proteins are governed by their amino acid sequences. Internal protein surfaces with physicochemical properties appropriate to modulate conformational fluctuations could play important roles in folding and dynamics. We show here that proteins contain buried interfaces of high polarity and low packing density, coined as LIPs: Light Interfaces of high Polarity, whose physicochemical properties make them unstable. The structures of well-characterized equilibrium and kinetic folding intermediates indicate that the LIPs of the corresponding native proteins fold late and are involved in local unfolding events. Importantly, LIPs can be identified using very fast and uncomplicated computational analysis of protein three-dimensional structures, which provides an easy way to delineate the protein segments involved in dynamics. Since LIPs can be retained while the sequences of the interacting segments diverge significantly, proteins could in principle evolve new functional features reusing pre-existing encoded dynamics. Large-scale identification of LIPS may contribute to understanding evolutionary constraints of proteins and the way protein intrinsic dynamics are encoded.

  20. Generalized nuclear Fukui functions in the framework of spin-polarized density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro, E.; Proft, F. de; Geerlings, P.

    2005-01-01

    An extension of Cohen's nuclear Fukui function is presented in the spin-polarized framework of density-functional theory (SP-DFT). The resulting new nuclear Fukui function indices Φ Nα and Φ Sα are intended to be the natural descriptors for the responses of the nuclei to changes involving charge transfer at constant multiplicity and also the spin polarization at constant number of electrons. These generalized quantities allow us to gain new insights within a perturbative scheme based on DFT. Calculations of the electronic and nuclear SP-DFT quantities are presented within a Kohn-Sham framework of chemical reactivity for a sample of molecules, including H 2 O, H 2 CO, and some simple nitrenes (NX) and phosphinidenes (PX), with X=H, Li, F, Cl, OH, SH, NH 2 , and PH 2 . Results have been interpreted in terms of chemical bonding in the context of Berlin's theorem, which provides a separation of the molecular space into binding and antibinding regions

  1. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of High-Density Atomic Hydrogen in Solid Mixtures of Molecular Hydrogen Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheludiakov, S.; Ahokas, J.; Järvinen, J.; Zvezdov, D.; Vainio, O.; Lehtonen, L.; Vasiliev, S.; Mao, S.; Khmelenko, V. V.; Lee, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    We report on magnetic resonance studies of high-density atomic hydrogen and deuterium in solid hydrogen matrices at temperatures below 1 K. Average concentrations of H atoms ≈3 ×1019 cm-3 are obtained in chemical tunneling reactions of isotope exchange with D atoms. The products of these reactions are closely located pairs of H atoms near D2 molecules with strong exchange interactions. We discovered a dynamic nuclear polarization effect on H atoms created by pumping the center of the H electron spin resonance spectrum, similar to the Overhauser effect in metals. Our results indicate that H atoms may be arranged inside molecular matrices at separations equivalent to local concentrations of 2.6 ×1021 cm-3 . This opens up a way to build a metallic state of atomic hydrogen at zero pressure.

  2. Calculations with off-shell matrix elements, TMD parton densities and TMD parton showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Marcin; van Hameren, Andreas; Jung, Hannes; Kutak, Krzysztof; Sapeta, Sebastian; Serino, Mirko

    2018-02-01

    A new calculation using off-shell matrix elements with TMD parton densities supplemented with a newly developed initial state TMD parton shower is described. The calculation is based on the KaTie package for an automated calculation of the partonic process in high-energy factorization, making use of TMD parton densities implemented in TMDlib. The partonic events are stored in an LHE file, similar to the conventional LHE files, but now containing the transverse momenta of the initial partons. The LHE files are read in by the Cascade package for the full TMD parton shower, final state shower and hadronization from Pythia where events in HEPMC format are produced. We have determined a full set of TMD parton densities and developed an initial state TMD parton shower, including all flavors following the TMD distribution. As an example of application we have calculated the azimuthal de-correlation of high p_t dijets as measured at the LHC and found very good agreement with the measurement when including initial state TMD parton showers together with conventional final state parton showers and hadronization.

  3. Calculations with off-shell matrix elements, TMD parton densities and TMD parton showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Marcin; van Hameren, Andreas; Jung, Hannes; Kutak, Krzysztof; Sapeta, Sebastian; Serino, Mirko

    2018-01-01

    A new calculation using off-shell matrix elements with TMD parton densities supplemented with a newly developed initial state TMD parton shower is described. The calculation is based on the KaTie package for an automated calculation of the partonic process in high-energy factorization, making use of TMD parton densities implemented in TMDlib. The partonic events are stored in an LHE file, similar to the conventional LHE files, but now containing the transverse momenta of the initial partons. The LHE files are read in by the Cascade package for the full TMD parton shower, final state shower and hadronization from Pythia where events in HEPMC format are produced. We have determined a full set of TMD parton densities and developed an initial state TMD parton shower, including all flavors following the TMD distribution. As an example of application we have calculated the azimuthal de-correlation of high [Formula: see text] dijets as measured at the LHC and found very good agreement with the measurement when including initial state TMD parton showers together with conventional final state parton showers and hadronization.

  4. Snapshot Mueller matrix polarimetry by wavelength polarization coding and application to the study of switching dynamics in a ferroelectric liquid crystal cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Jeune B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a snapshot Mueller matrix polarimeter by wavelength polarization coding. This device is aimed at encoding polarization states in the spectral domain through use of a broadband source and high-order retarders. This allows one to measure a full Mueller matrix from a single spectrum whose acquisition time only depends on the detection system aperture. The theoretical fundamentals of this technique are developed prior to validation by experiments. The setup calibration is described as well as optimization and stabilization procedures. Then, it is used to study, by time-resolved Mueller matrix polarimetry, the switching dynamics in a ferroelectric liquid crystal cell.

  5. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  6. A New Method for Simulating Power Flow Density Focused by a Silicon Lens Antenna Irradiated with Linearly Polarized THz Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Apriono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A terahertz system uses dielectric lens antennas for focusing and collimating beams of terahertz wave radiation. Linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation has been widely applied in the terahertz system. Therefore, an accurate method for analyzing the power flow density in the dielectric lens antenna irradiated with the linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation is important to design the terahertz systems. In optics, ray-tracing method has been used to calculate the power flow density by a number density of rays. In this study, we propose a method of ray-tracing combined with Fresnel’s transmission, including transmittance and polarization of the terahertz wave radiation to calculate power flow density in a Silicon lens antenna. We compare power flow density calculated by the proposed method with the regular ray-tracing method. When the Silicon lens antenna is irradiated with linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation, the proposed method calculates the power flow density more accurately than the regular ray-tracing.

  7. Idempotent Dirac density matrix for ten-electron central field inhomogeneous electron liquids in terms of electron- and kinetic energy-densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.

    2006-08-01

    A differential equation for the Dirac density matrix γ(r, r'), given ground-state electron- and kinetic energy-densities, has been derived by March and Suhai for one- and two-level occupancy. For ten-electron spin-compensated spherical systems, it is shown here that γ ≡ γ[ρ, t g ] where ρ and t g are electron- and kinetic energy-densities. The philosophy of March and Suhai is confirmed beyond two-level filling. An important byproduct of the present approach is an explicit expression for the one-body potential of DFT in terms of the p-shell electron density. (author)

  8. Self-consistent RPA and the time-dependent density matrix approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuck, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay (France); CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Milieux Condenses, Grenoble (France); Tohyama, M. [Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    The time-dependent density matrix (TDDM) or BBGKY (Bogoliubov, Born, Green, Kirkwood, Yvon) approach is decoupled and closed at the three-body level in finding a natural representation of the latter in terms of a quadratic form of two-body correlation functions. In the small amplitude limit an extended RPA coupled to an also extended second RPA is obtained. Since including two-body correlations means that the ground state cannot be a Hartree-Fock state, naturally the corresponding RPA is upgraded to Self-Consistent RPA (SCRPA) which was introduced independently earlier and which is built on a correlated ground state. SCRPA conserves all the properties of standard RPA. Applications to the exactly solvable Lipkin and the 1D Hubbard models show good performances of SCRPA and TDDM. (orig.)

  9. Lectures on light nonlinear and quantum optics using the density matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Rand, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    This book bridges the gap between introductory quantum mechanics and the research front of modern optics and scientific fields that make use of light. While suitable as a reference for the specialist in quantum optics, it also targets non-specialists from other disciplines who need to understand light and its uses in research. It introduces a single analytic tool, the density matrix, to analyze complex optical phenomena encountered in traditional as well as cross-disciplinary research. It moves swiftly in a tight sequence from elementary to sophisticated topics in quantum optics, including optical tweezers, laser cooling, coherent population transfer, optical magnetism, electromagnetically induced transparency, squeezed light, and cavity quantum electrodynamics. A systematic approach starts with the simplest systems—stationary two-level atoms—then introduces atomic motion, adds more energy levels, and moves on to discuss first-, second-, and third-order coherence effects that are the basis for analyzing n...

  10. Active-space N-representability constraints for variational two-particle reduced density matrix calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenvi, Neil; Izmaylov, Artur F

    2010-11-19

    The ground-state energy of a system of fermions can be calculated by minimizing a linear functional of the two-particle reduced density matrix (2-RDM) if an accurate set of N-representability conditions is applied. In this Letter we introduce a class of linear N-representability conditions based on exact calculations on a reduced active space. Unlike wave-function-based approaches, the 2-RDM methodology allows us to combine information from calculations on different active spaces. By adding active-space constraints, we can iteratively improve our estimate for the ground-state energy. Applying our methodology to a 1D Hubbard model yields a significant improvement over traditional 2-positivity constraints with the same computational scaling.

  11. Quantum phase transition by employing trace distance along with the density matrix renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Da-Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo

    2015-01-01

    We use an alternative method to investigate the quantum criticality at zero and finite temperature using trace distance along with the density matrix renormalization group. It is shown that the average correlation measured by the trace distance between the system block and environment block in a DMRG sweep is able to detect the critical points of quantum phase transitions at finite temperature. As illustrative examples, we study spin-1 XXZ chains with uniaxial single-ion-type anisotropy and the Heisenberg spin chain with staggered coupling and external magnetic field. It is found that the trace distance shows discontinuity at the critical points of quantum phase transition and can be used as an indicator of QPTs

  12. Density-matrix simulation of small surface codes under current and projected experimental noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T. E.; Tarasinski, B.; DiCarlo, L.

    2017-09-01

    We present a density-matrix simulation of the quantum memory and computing performance of the distance-3 logical qubit Surface-17, following a recently proposed quantum circuit and using experimental error parameters for transmon qubits in a planar circuit QED architecture. We use this simulation to optimize components of the QEC scheme (e.g., trading off stabilizer measurement infidelity for reduced cycle time) and to investigate the benefits of feedback harnessing the fundamental asymmetry of relaxation-dominated error in the constituent transmons. A lower-order approximate calculation extends these predictions to the distance-5 Surface-49. These results clearly indicate error rates below the fault-tolerance threshold of the surface code, and the potential for Surface-17 to perform beyond the break-even point of quantum memory. However, Surface-49 is required to surpass the break-even point of computation at state-of-the-art qubit relaxation times and readout speeds.

  13. Density-matrix renormalization-group study of current and activity fluctuations near nonequilibrium phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Mieke; Hooyberghs, Jef; Vanderzande, Carlo

    2009-02-01

    Cumulants of a fluctuating current can be obtained from a free-energy-like generating function, which for Markov processes equals the largest eigenvalue of a generalized generator. We determine this eigenvalue with the density-matrix renormalization group for stochastic systems. We calculate the variance of the current in the different phases, and at the phase transitions, of the totally asymmetric exclusion process. Our results can be described in the terms of a scaling ansatz that involves the dynamical exponent z . We also calculate the generating function of the dynamical activity (total number of configuration changes) near the absorbing-state transition of the contact process. Its scaling properties can be expressed in terms of known critical exponents.

  14. Dietary fat composition, food matrix and relative polarity modulate the micellarization and intestinal uptake of carotenoids from vegetables and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashurabad, Purna Chandra; Palika, Ravindranadh; Jyrwa, Yvette Wilda; Bhaskarachary, K; Pullakhandam, Raghu

    2017-02-01

    Dietary fat increases carotenoid bioavailability by facilitating their transfer to the aqueous micellar fraction during digestion. However, the specific effect of both quantity and type of dietary fat required for optimal carotenoid absorption remained unexplored. In the present study, the effect of amount and type of vegetable oils on carotenoid micellarization from carrot, spinach, drumstick leaves and papaya using in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model have been assessed. Although, dietary fat (0.5-10% w/w) significantly increased the micellarization of carotenoids from all the test foods, the extent of increase was determined by the food matrix (papaya > drumstick = spinach > carrot) and polarity of carotenoids (lutein > β-carotene = α-carotene > lycopene). Among the dietary fats tested the carotenoid micellarization was twofold to threefold higher with dietary fat rich in unsaturated fatty acids (olive oil = soybean oil = sunflower oil) compared to saturated fatty acids (peanut oil = palm oil > coconut oil). Intestinal cell uptake of lutein exceeded that of β-carotene from micellar fraction of spinach leaves digested with various oils. However, cellular uptake of β-carotene is depended on the carotenoid content in micellar fraction rather than the type of fat used. Together these results suggest that food matrix, polarity of carotenoids and type of dietary fat determines the extent of carotenoid micellarization from vegetables and fruits.

  15. Construction of environment states in quantum-chemical density-matrix renormalization group calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Gerrit; Reiher, Markus

    2006-01-21

    The application of the quantum-chemical density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm is cumbersome for complex electronic structures with many active orbitals. The high computational cost is mainly due to the poor convergence of standard DMRG calculations. A factor which affects the convergence behavior of the calculations is the choice of the start-up procedure. In this start-up step matrix representations of operators have to be calculated in a guessed many-electron basis of the DMRG environment block. Different possibilities for the construction of these basis states exist, and we first compare four procedures to approximate the environment states using Slater determinants explicitly. These start-up procedures are applied to DMRG calculations on a sophisticated test system: the chromium dimer. It is found that the converged energies and the rate of convergence depend significantly on the choice of the start-up procedure. However, since already the most simple start-up procedure, which uses only the Hartree-Fock determinant, is comparatively good, Slater determinants, in general, appear not to be a good choice as approximate environment basis states for convergence acceleration. Based on extensive test calculations it is demonstrated that the computational cost can be significantly reduced if the number of total states m is successively increased. This is done in such a way that the environment states are built up stepwise from system states of previous truncated DMRG sweeps for slowly increasing m values.

  16. Optical excitation and electron relaxation dynamics at semiconductor surfaces: a combined approach of density functional and density matrix theory applied to the silicon (001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecking, N.

    2007-11-05

    In this work a new theoretical formalism is introduced in order to simulate the phononinduced relaxation of a non-equilibrium distribution to equilibrium at a semiconductor surface numerically. The non-equilibrium distribution is effected by an optical excitation. The approach in this thesis is to link two conventional, but approved methods to a new, more global description: while semiconductor surfaces can be investigated accurately by density-functional theory, the dynamical processes in semiconductor heterostructures are successfully described by density matrix theory. In this work, the parameters for density-matrix theory are determined from the results of density-functional calculations. This work is organized in two parts. In Part I, the general fundamentals of the theory are elaborated, covering the fundamentals of canonical quantizations as well as the theory of density-functional and density-matrix theory in 2{sup nd} order Born approximation. While the formalism of density functional theory for structure investigation has been established for a long time and many different codes exist, the requirements for density matrix formalism concerning the geometry and the number of implemented bands exceed the usual possibilities of the existing code in this field. A special attention is therefore attributed to the development of extensions to existing formulations of this theory, where geometrical and fundamental symmetries of the structure and the equations are used. In Part II, the newly developed formalism is applied to a silicon (001)surface in a 2 x 1 reconstruction. As first step, density-functional calculations using the LDA functional are completed, from which the Kohn-Sham-wave functions and eigenvalues are used to calculate interaction matrix elements for the electron-phonon-coupling an the optical excitation. These matrix elements are determined for the optical transitions from valence to conduction bands and for electron-phonon processes inside the

  17. A Density-Dependent Switch Drives Stochastic Clustering and Polarization of Signaling Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilkine, Alexandra; Angenent, Sigurd B.; Wu, Lani F.; Altschuler, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Positive feedback plays a key role in the ability of signaling molecules to form highly localized clusters in the membrane or cytosol of cells. Such clustering can occur in the absence of localizing mechanisms such as pre-existing spatial cues, diffusional barriers, or molecular cross-linking. What prevents positive feedback from amplifying inevitable biological noise when an un-clustered “off” state is desired? And, what limits the spread of clusters when an “on” state is desired? Here, we show that a minimal positive feedback circuit provides the general principle for both suppressing and amplifying noise: below a critical density of signaling molecules, clustering switches off; above this threshold, highly localized clusters are recurrently generated. Clustering occurs only in the stochastic regime, suggesting that finite sizes of molecular populations cannot be ignored in signal transduction networks. The emergence of a dominant cluster for finite numbers of molecules is partly a phenomenon of random sampling, analogous to the fixation or loss of neutral mutations in finite populations. We refer to our model as the “neutral drift polarity model.” Regulating the density of signaling molecules provides a simple mechanism for a positive feedback circuit to robustly switch between clustered and un-clustered states. The intrinsic ability of positive feedback both to create and suppress clustering is a general mechanism that could operate within diverse biological networks to create dynamic spatial organization. PMID:22102805

  18. A density-dependent switch drives stochastic clustering and polarization of signaling molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Jilkine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Positive feedback plays a key role in the ability of signaling molecules to form highly localized clusters in the membrane or cytosol of cells. Such clustering can occur in the absence of localizing mechanisms such as pre-existing spatial cues, diffusional barriers, or molecular cross-linking. What prevents positive feedback from amplifying inevitable biological noise when an un-clustered "off" state is desired? And, what limits the spread of clusters when an "on" state is desired? Here, we show that a minimal positive feedback circuit provides the general principle for both suppressing and amplifying noise: below a critical density of signaling molecules, clustering switches off; above this threshold, highly localized clusters are recurrently generated. Clustering occurs only in the stochastic regime, suggesting that finite sizes of molecular populations cannot be ignored in signal transduction networks. The emergence of a dominant cluster for finite numbers of molecules is partly a phenomenon of random sampling, analogous to the fixation or loss of neutral mutations in finite populations. We refer to our model as the "neutral drift polarity model." Regulating the density of signaling molecules provides a simple mechanism for a positive feedback circuit to robustly switch between clustered and un-clustered states. The intrinsic ability of positive feedback both to create and suppress clustering is a general mechanism that could operate within diverse biological networks to create dynamic spatial organization.

  19. Density-matrix-functional calculations for matter in strong magnetic fields: Ground states of heavy atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Yngvason, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    We report on a numerical study of the density matrix functional introduced by Lieb, Solovej, and Yngvason for the investigation of heavy atoms in high magnetic fields. This functional describes exactly the quantum mechanical ground state of atoms and ions in the limit when the nuclear charge Z...... and the electron number N tend to infinity with N/Z fixed, and the magnetic field B tends to infinity in such a way that B/Z4/3→∞. We have calculated electronic density profiles and ground-state energies for values of the parameters that prevail on neutron star surfaces and compared them with results obtained...... by other methods. For iron at B=1012 G the ground-state energy differs by less than 2% from the Hartree-Fock value. We have also studied the maximal negative ionization of heavy atoms in this model at various field strengths. In contrast to Thomas-Fermi type theories atoms can bind excess negative charge...

  20. Reconstructive approaches to one- and two-electron density matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, John Michael

    Novel computational methods for electronic structure theory are explored, in which the fundamental variable is either the one- or the two-electron reduced density matrix (1- or 2-RDM), rather than the electronic wavefunction. A unifying theme among these methods is density matrix reconstruction, that is, decoupling approximations that express higher-order density matrices as functionals of lower-order ones. On the 2-RDM side, a connected (extensive) version of the Contracted Schrodinger Equation (CSE) is developed, in which the basic unknowns are the RDM cumulants through order four. Reconstruction functionals that neglect the 3- and 4-RDM cumulants are examined and revealed to be significantly less accurate than suggested by previous minimal-basis results. Exact 3-RDM cumulants for some four-electron systems are calculated and found to be comparable in importance to unconnected products of lower-order cumulants. Decoupling approximations for the 3- and 4-RDM cumulants are developed based upon a renormalized, diagrammatic perturbation theory for the three- and four-particle Green's functions, in which the effective, pairwise interaction is extracted from the two-particle cumulant. Diagram rules suitable for both the time-dependent and time-independent versions of this perturbation theory are derived. Reconstructive approaches to natural orbital (1-RDM) functional theory are also examined, wherein the 2-RDM is parametrized in terms of the natural orbitals and their (generally fractional) occupancies. It is demonstrated, at the theorem level, that proposed "corrected Hartree" and "corrected Hartree-Fock" natural orbital functionals necessarily violate positivity of the 2-RDM, which is closely related to their failure to respect antisymmetry. Calculations demonstrate that negative eigenvalues of the 2-RDM are associated with a large, stabilizing (but ultimately spurious) contribution to the energy. Nevertheless, a partially self-interaction-corrected version of the

  1. Current-induced spin polarization in InGaAs and GaAs epilayers with varying doping densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Kovac, M.; Huang, S.; Del Gaudio, D.; Occena, J.; Goldman, R. S.; Raimondi, R.; Sih, V.

    2017-11-01

    The current-induced spin polarization and momentum-dependent spin-orbit field were measured in InxGa1 -xAs epilayers with varying indium concentrations and silicon doping densities. Samples with higher indium concentrations and carrier concentrations and lower mobilities were found to have larger electrical spin generation efficiencies. Furthermore, current-induced spin polarization was detected in GaAs epilayers despite the absence of measurable spin-orbit fields, indicating that the extrinsic contributions to the spin-polarization mechanism must be considered. Theoretical calculations based on a model that includes extrinsic contributions to the spin dephasing and the spin Hall effect, in addition to the intrinsic Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling, are found to reproduce the experimental finding that the crystal direction with the smaller net spin-orbit field has larger electrical spin generation efficiency and are used to predict how sample parameters affect the magnitude of the current-induced spin polarization.

  2. Spin-memory loss due to spin-orbit coupling at ferromagnet/heavy-metal interfaces: Ab initio spin-density matrix approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolui, Kapildeb; Nikolić, Branislav K.

    2017-12-01

    Spin-memory loss (SML) of electrons traversing ferromagnetic-metal/heavy-metal (FM/HM), FM/normal-metal (FM/NM), and HM/NM interfaces is a fundamental phenomenon that must be invoked to explain consistently large numbers of spintronic experiments. However, its strength extracted by fitting experimental data to phenomenological semiclassical theory, which replaces each interface by a fictitious bulk diffusive layer, is poorly understood from a microscopic quantum framework and/or materials properties. Here we describe an ensemble of flowing spin quantum states using spin-density matrix, so that SML is measured like any decoherence process by the decay of its off-diagonal elements or, equivalently, by the reduction of the magnitude of polarization vector. By combining this framework with density functional theory, we examine how all three components of the polarization vector change at Co/Ta, Co/Pt, Co/Cu, Pt/Cu, and Pt/Au interfaces embedded within Cu/FM/HM/Cu vertical heterostructures. In addition, we use ab initio Green's functions to compute spectral functions and spin textures over FM, HM, and NM monolayers around these interfaces which quantify interfacial spin-orbit coupling and explain the microscopic origin of SML in long-standing puzzles, such as why it is nonzero at the Co/Cu interface; why it is very large at the Pt/Cu interface; and why it occurs even in the absence of disorder, intermixing and magnons at the interface.

  3. Boolean Matching Filters Based on Row and Column Weights of Reed–Muller Polarity Coefficient Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chip-Hong Chang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we have shown, by means of the EXOR Ternary Decision Diagram that the number of literals and product terms of the Fixed Polarity Reed–Muller (FPRM expansions can be used to fully classify all Boolean functions in NP equivalent class and NPN equivalent class, respectively. Efficient graph based algorithms to compute the complete weight vectors have been presented. The proof and computation method has led to the derivation of a set of characteristic signatures that has low probability of aliasing when used as the Boolean matching filters in library mapping.

  4. Response calculations based on an independent particle system with the exact one-particle density matrix: excitation energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbertz, K J H; Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

    2012-03-07

    Adiabatic response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) suffers from the restriction to basically an occupied → virtual single excitation formulation. Adiabatic time-dependent density matrix functional theory allows to break away from this restriction. Problematic excitations for TDDFT, viz. bonding-antibonding, double, charge transfer, and higher excitations, are calculated along the bond-dissociation coordinate of the prototype molecules H(2) and HeH(+) using the recently developed adiabatic linear response phase-including (PI) natural orbital theory (PINO). The possibility to systematically increase the scope of the calculation from excitations out of (strongly) occupied into weakly occupied ("virtual") natural orbitals to larger ranges of excitations is explored. The quality of the PINO response calculations is already much improved over TDDFT even when the severest restriction is made, to virtually the size of the TDDFT diagonalization problem (only single excitation out of occupied orbitals plus all diagonal doubles). Further marked improvement is obtained with moderate extension to allow for excitation out of the lumo and lumo+1, which become fractionally occupied in particular at longer distances due to left-right correlation effects. In the second place the interpretation of density matrix response calculations is elucidated. The one-particle reduced density matrix response for an excitation is related to the transition density matrix to the corresponding excited state. The interpretation of the transition density matrix in terms of the familiar excitation character (single excitations, double excitations of various types, etc.) is detailed. The adiabatic PINO theory is shown to successfully resolve the problematic cases of adiabatic TDDFT when it uses a proper PI orbital functional such as the PILS functional. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  5. Linear scaling density matrix perturbation theory for basis-set-dependent quantum response calculations: an orthogonal formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Anders M N; Weber, Valéry

    2007-08-14

    Linear scaling density matrix perturbation theory [A. M. N. Niklasson and M. Challacombe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 193001 (2004)] is extended to basis-set-dependent quantum response calculations for a nonorthogonal basis set representation. The generalization is achieved by a perturbation-dependent congruence transform, derived from the factorization of the inverse overlap matrix, which transforms the generalized eigenvalue problem to an orthogonal, standard form. With this orthogonalization transform the basis-set-dependent perturbation in the overlap matrix is included in the orthogonalized Hamiltonian, which is expanded in orders of the perturbation. In this way density matrix perturbation theory developed for an orthogonal representation can be applied also to basis-set-dependent response calculations. The method offers an alternative to the previous solution of the basis-set-dependent response problem, based on a nonorthogonal generalization of the density matrix perturbation theory, where the calculations are performed within a purely nonorthogonal setting [A. M. N. Niklasson et al., J. Chem. Phys. 123, 44107 (2005)].

  6. Avoiding the 4-index transformation in one-body reduced density matrix functional calculations for separable functionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbertz, K.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    One of the major computational bottlenecks in one-body reduced density matrix (1RDM) functional theory is the evaluation of approximate 1RDM functionals and their derivatives. The reason is that more advanced approximate functionals are almost exclusively defined in the natural orbital basis, so a

  7. Determining the mass density of a hydrocarbon matrix in thin-film nanocomposites by ion-beam techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chechenin, N. G.; Chernykh, P. N.; Kulikauskas, V. S.; Pei, Y.; Vainshtein, D.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2007-01-01

    An approach based on ion-beam analysis, including Rutherford backscattering, nuclear backscattering, and elastic recoil detection, for determining the partial mass density of a hydrocarbon matrix in nanocomposites is proposed and applied to the nc-TiC/a-C:H thin-film coating material.

  8. Tuning the polarization-induced free hole density in nanowires graded from GaN to AlN

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; Carnevale, Santino D.; Kent, Thomas F.; Yang, Fan; McComb, David W.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2014-01-01

    We report a systematic study of p-type polarization induced doping in graded AlGaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on silicon wafers by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The composition gradient in the p-type base is varied in a set of samples from 0.7 %Al/nm to 4.95 %Al/nm corresponding to negative bound polarization charge densities of 2.2x10^18 cm^-3 to 1.6x10^19 cm^-3. Capacitance measurements and energy band modeling reveal that for gradients greater than or equal to 1.30 %Al/...

  9. Applications of density matrix in the fractional quantum mechanics: Thomas-Fermi model and Hohenberg-Kohn theorems revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    The many-body space fractional quantum system is studied using the density matrix method. We give the new results of the Thomas-Fermi model, obtain the quantum pressure of the free electron gas. We also show the validity of the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems in the space fractional quantum mechanics and generalize the density functional theory to the fractional quantum mechanics. -- Highlights: → Thomas-Fermi model under the framework of fractional quantum mechanics is studied. → We show the validity of the HK theorems in the space fractional quantum mechanics. → The density functional theory is generalized to the fractional quantum mechanics.

  10. Storm-enhanced plasma density and polar tongue of ionization development during the 15 May 2005 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the ionosphere's global response to the 15 May 2005 superstorm in terms of storm evolution and ionospheric electrodynamics. Our aim is to study the global distribution of plasma and the resultant large-scale ionospheric features including the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA), storm-enhanced density (SED), and polar tongue of ionization (TOI). We have combined multi-instrument ionospheric data, solar and terrestrial magnetic data, and polar convection maps. Results reveal the prompt penetration of the interplanetary electric field to the polar region and then to the equator with a dusk-to-dawn polarity during the initial phase and with a dawn-to-dusk polarity during the main phase. This drove during the initial phase a weak eastward equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in the American sector at nighttime and a weak westward EEJ in the Indian-Australian sector at daytime. During the main phase, these EEJs intensified and changed polarities. SED and polar TOI development was observed prior to and during the initial phase at evening-premidnight hours over North America and during the main phase in the south at afternoon-evening hours in the Australian sector. During the main phase and early in the recovery phase, the EIA-SED structure was well formed in the Asian longitude sector. Then, polar TOI development was absent in the north because of the long distance from the magnetic pole but was supported in the south because of the closeness of daytime cusp and magnetic pole. Thus, the EIA-SED-TOI structure developed twice but each time in a different longitude sector and with different characteristics.

  11. Effect of smoking on the gingival capillary density: assessment of gingival capillary density with orthogonal polarization spectral imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, J. A.; Mathura, K. R.; Harkisoen, S.; van den Akker, H. P.; Ince, C.

    2005-01-01

    Microvascular changes because of smoking are frequently presumed in models because of the negative effect of smoking portrayed on the microcirculation. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke might lead to a decrease in gingival capillary density. Capillary density was assessed with orthogonal

  12. A matrix-based approach to solving the inverse Frobenius-Perron problem using sequences of density functions of stochastically perturbed dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaokai; Coca, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The paper introduces a matrix-based approach to estimate the unique one-dimensional discrete-time dynamical system that generated a given sequence of probability density functions whilst subjected to an additive stochastic perturbation with known density.

  13. Reply to "Comment on "Nonuniqueness of algebraic first-order density-matrix functionals" "

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Knowles, Peter J.

    2018-02-01

    It is shown that symmetry considerations do not alter the conclusions of our original work [Phys. Rev. A 92, 012520 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.012520], and that there exists an example of an electronic system for which at several geometries the one-matrix eigenvalues are identical, but the two-matrix spectrum is not. It is still therefore the case that JK and related functionals that depend on the one-matrix eigenvalues to model the two-matrix cannot be made arbitrarily accurate.

  14. Modeling and spectral simulation of matrix-isolated molecules by density functional calculations: a case study on formic acid dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fumiyuki

    2010-12-07

    The supermolecule approach has been used to model molecules embedded in solid argon matrix, wherein interaction between the guest and the host atoms in the first solvation shell is evaluated with the use of density functional calculations. Structural stability and simulated spectra have been obtained for formic acid dimer (FAD)-Ar(n) (n = 21-26) clusters. The calculations at the B971∕6-31++G(3df,3pd) level have shown that the tetrasubstitutional site on Ar(111) plane is likely to incorporate FAD most stably, in view of consistency with the matrix shifts available experimentally.

  15. Impact of Molecular Orientation and Packing Density on Electronic Polarization in the Bulk and at Surfaces of Organic Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Ryno, Sean

    2016-05-16

    The polarizable environment surrounding charge carriers in organic semiconductors impacts the efficiency of the charge transport process. Here, we consider two representative organic semiconductors, tetracene and rubrene, and evaluate their polarization energies in the bulk and at the organic-vacuum interface using a polarizable force field that accounts for induced-dipole and quadrupole interactions. Though both oligoacenes pack in a herringbone motif, the tetraphenyl substituents on the tetracene backbone of rubrene alter greatly the nature of the packing. The resulting change in relative orientations of neighboring molecules is found to reduce the bulk polarization energy of holes in rubrene by some 0.3 eV when compared to tetracene. The consideration of model organic-vacuum interfaces highlights the significant variation in the electrostatic environment for a charge carrier at a surface although the net change in polarization energy is small; interestingly, the environment of a charge even just one layer removed from the surface can be viewed already as representative of the bulk. Overall, it is found that in these herringbone-type layered crystals the polarization energy has a much stronger dependence on the intralayer packing density than interlayer packing density.

  16. Tuning the polarization-induced free hole density in nanowires graded from GaN to AlN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golam Sarwar, A. T. M.; Carnevale, Santino D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Kent, Thomas F.; Yang, Fan; McComb, David W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Myers, Roberto C., E-mail: myers.1079@osu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-01-19

    We report a systematic study of p-type polarization-induced doping in graded AlGaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on silicon wafers by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The composition gradient in the p-type base is varied in a set of samples from 0.7%Al/nm to 4.95%Al/nm corresponding to negative bound polarization charge densities of 2.2 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3} to 1.6 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}. Capacitance measurements and energy band modeling reveal that for gradients greater than or equal to 1.30%Al/nm, the deep donor concentration is negligible and free hole concentrations roughly equal to the bound polarization charge density are achieved up to 1.6 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} at a gradient of 4.95%Al/nm. Accurate grading lengths in the p- and n-side of the pn-junction are extracted from scanning transmission electron microscopy images and are used to support energy band calculation and capacitance modeling. These results demonstrate the robust nature of p-type polarization doping in nanowires and put an upper bound on the magnitude of deep donor compensation.

  17. Tuning the polarization-induced free hole density in nanowires graded from GaN to AlN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golam Sarwar, A. T. M.; Carnevale, Santino D.; Kent, Thomas F.; Yang, Fan; McComb, David W.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2015-01-01

    We report a systematic study of p-type polarization-induced doping in graded AlGaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on silicon wafers by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The composition gradient in the p-type base is varied in a set of samples from 0.7%Al/nm to 4.95%Al/nm corresponding to negative bound polarization charge densities of 2.2 × 1018 cm-3 to 1.6 × 1019 cm-3. Capacitance measurements and energy band modeling reveal that for gradients greater than or equal to 1.30%Al/nm, the deep donor concentration is negligible and free hole concentrations roughly equal to the bound polarization charge density are achieved up to 1.6 × 1019 cm-3 at a gradient of 4.95%Al/nm. Accurate grading lengths in the p- and n-side of the pn-junction are extracted from scanning transmission electron microscopy images and are used to support energy band calculation and capacitance modeling. These results demonstrate the robust nature of p-type polarization doping in nanowires and put an upper bound on the magnitude of deep donor compensation.

  18. Spin polarization driven by a charge-density wave in monolayer 1T−TaS2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun

    2014-08-06

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer T-phase TaS2. We demonstrate that a charge-density wave is energetically favorable at low temperature, similar to bulk 1T-TaS2. Electron-phonon coupling is found to be essential for the lattice reconstruction. The charge-density wave results in a strong localization of the electronic states near the Fermi level and consequently in spin polarization, transforming the material into a magnetic semiconductor with enhanced electronic correlations. The combination of inherent spin polarization with a semiconducting nature distinguishes the monolayer fundamentally from the bulk compound as well as from other two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Monolayer T-phase TaS2 therefore has the potential to enable two-dimensional spintronics. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  19. Time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory applied to laser-driven, correlated two-electron dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brics, Martins; Kapoor, Varun; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with known and practicable exchange-correlation potentials does not capture highly correlated electron dynamics such as single-photon double ionization, autoionization, or nonsequential ionization. Time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory (TDRDMFT) may remedy these problems. The key ingredients in TDRDMFT are the natural orbitals (NOs), i.e., the eigenfunctions of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM), and the occupation numbers (OCs), i.e., the respective eigenvalues. The two-body reduced density matrix (2-RDM) is then expanded in NOs, and equations of motion for the NOs can be derived. If the expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM were known exactly, the problem at hand would be solved. In practice, approximations have to be made. We study the prospects of TDRDMFT following a top-down approach. We solve the exact two-electron time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a model Helium atom in intense laser fields in order to study highly correlated phenomena such as the population of autoionizing states or single-photon double ionization. From the exact wave function we calculate the exact NOs, OCs, the exact expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM, and the exact potentials in the equations of motion. In that way we can identify how many NOs and which level of approximations are necessary to capture such phenomena.

  20. Polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering from spin-density-wave modulation in chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsumi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    We present a polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering in pure chromium. Satellite reflections are observed at +/-Q and +/-2Q, where Q is the modulation wave vector of an itinerant spin-density-wave. The first and second harmonics are confirmed to have magnetic and charge origin, respectively, by means of polarimetry without using an analyzer crystal. This alternative technique eliminates intolerable intensity loss at an analyzer by utilizing the sample crystal also as an analyzer crystal

  1. Knot Undulator to Generate Linearly Polarized Photons with Low on-Axis Power Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, S.

    2009-01-01

    Heat load on beamline optics is a serious problem to generate pure linearly polarized photons in the third generation synchrotron radiation facilities. For permanent magnet undulators, this problem can be overcome by a figure-8 operating mode. But there is still no good method to tackle this problem for electromagnetic elliptical undulators. Here, a novel operating mode is suggested, which can generate pure linearly polarized photons with very low on-axis heat load. Also the available minimum photon energy of linearly polarized photons can be extended much by this method.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinase 7 restrains Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric inflammation and premalignant lesions in the stomach by altering macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowiak, M S; Noto, J M; Piazuelo, M B; Hardbower, D M; Romero-Gallo, J; Delgado, A; Chaturvedi, R; Correa, P; Wilson, K T; Peek, R M

    2015-04-02

    Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Although the specific mechanisms by which this pathogen induces carcinogenesis have not been fully elucidated, high-expression interleukin (IL)-1β alleles are associated with increased gastric cancer risk among H. pylori-infected persons. In addition, loss of matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) increases mucosal inflammation in mouse models of epithelial injury, and we have shown that gastric inflammation is increased in H. pylori-infected MMP7(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. In this report, we define mechanisms that underpin such responses and extend these results into a genetic model of MMP7 deficiency and gastric cancer. Wild-type (WT) or MMP7(-/-) C57BL/6 mice were challenged with broth alone as an uninfected control or the H. pylori strain PMSS1. All H. pylori-challenged mice were successfully colonized. As expected, H. pylori-infected MMP7(-/-) C57BL/6 mice exhibited a significant increase in gastric inflammation compared with uninfected or infected WT C57BL/6 animals. Loss of MMP7 resulted in M1 macrophage polarization within H. pylori-infected stomachs, as assessed by Luminex technology and immunohistochemistry, and macrophages isolated from infected MMP7-deficient mice expressed significantly higher levels of the M1 macrophage marker IL-1β compared with macrophages isolated from WT mice. To extend these findings into a model of gastric cancer, hypergastrinemic WT INS-GAS or MMP7(-/-) INS-GAS mice were challenged with H. pylori strain PMSS1. Consistent with findings in the C57BL/6 model, H. pylori-infected MMP7-deficient INS-GAS mice exhibited a significant increase in gastric inflammation compared with either uninfected or infected WT INS-GAS mice. In addition, the incidence of gastric hyperplasia and dysplasia was significantly increased in H. pylori-infected MMP7(-/-) INS-GAS mice compared with infected WT INS-GAS mice, and loss of MMP7 promoted M1 macrophage polarization. These

  3. Development of the Tagger Microscope & Analysis of Spin Density Matrix Elements in gamma-p -> phi-p for the GlueX Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Alexander E. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-31

    The quark model has been successful in classifying the spectrum of mesons observed since the 1960s, however, it fails to explain some of the measured bound states. Lattice QCD predictions have shown that an excited gluonic field may contribute to the quantum numbers of the bound state and form hybrid mesons, qq-bar-g, where g is a constituent gluon. It is possible for some hybrids to possess quantum numbers forbidden by the quark model and are known as \\smoking gun" hybrids due to their lack of mixing with conventional qq-bar states. The GlueX photoproduction experiment at Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA is designed to study hybrid mesons and to map their spectrum. A 12 GeV electron beam produces 9 GeV linearly polarized photons via coherent bremsstrahlung in a diamond radiator which are incident on a liquid H2 target. In order to determine the photon energy, the use of a tagging spectrometer which measures the energy of the post-bremsstrahlung electron is required. The tagger microscope is a scintillating fiber detector designed to measure the energy of electrons corresponding to the polarized photons. The main focus of this work is the design and construction of the tagger microscope electronics as well as the calibration of the microscope within the experiment. Additionally, the analysis of the reaction gamma-p -> phi-p, where phi (1020) -> K+K-, is discussed. This analysis provides a high-level calibration for GlueX in regards to understanding the acceptance and sensitivity of the detectors to mesons with strange quark content. By studying the phi with linearly polarized photons, information on the production mechanism can be extracted. The measurement of the phi spin-density matrix elements are shown and compared with past data which are found to be in agreement.

  4. Long Polar Fimbriae of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Bind to Extracellular Matrix Proteins ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, Mauricio J.; Cantero, Lidia; Vidal, Roberto; Botkin, Douglas J.; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2011-01-01

    Adherence to intestinal cells is a key process in infection caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Several adhesion factors that mediate the binding of EHEC to intestinal cells have been described, but the receptors involved in their recognition are not fully characterized. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins might act as receptors involved in the recognition of enteric pathogens, including EHEC. In this study, we sought to characterize the binding of EHEC O157:H7 to ECM proteins commonly present in the intestine. We found that EHEC prototype strains as well as other clinical isolates adhered more abundantly to surfaces coated with fibronectin, laminin, and collagen IV. Further characterization of this phenotype, by using antiserum raised against the LpfA1 putative major fimbrial subunit and by addition of mannose, showed that a reduced binding of EHEC to ECM proteins was observed in a long polar fimbria (lpf) mutant. We also found that the two regulators, H-NS and Ler, had an effect in EHEC Lpf-mediated binding to ECM, supporting the roles of these tightly regulated fimbriae as adherence factors. Purified Lpf major subunit bound to all of the ECM proteins tested. Finally, increased bacterial adherence was observed when T84 cells, preincubated with ECM proteins, were infected with EHEC. Taken together, these findings suggest that the interaction of Lpf and ECM proteins contributes to the EHEC colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21708988

  5. A simple method of extracting the polarization charge density in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure from current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü Yuan-Jie; Lin Zhao-Jun; Yu Ying-Xia; Meng Ling-Guo; Cao Zhi-Fang; Luan Chong-Biao; Wang Zhan-Guo

    2012-01-01

    An Ni Schottky contact on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is fabricated. The flat-band voltage for the Schottky contact on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is obtained from the forward current—voltage characteristics. With the measured capacitance—voltage curve and the flat-band voltage, the polarization charge density in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is investigated, and a simple formula for calculating the polarization charge density is obtained and analyzed. With the approach described in this paper, the obtained polarization charge density agrees well with the one calculated by self-consistently solving Schrodinger's and Poisson's equations

  6. Dependence of matrix effect on ionization polarity during LC-ESI-MS analysis of derivatized amino acids in some natural samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldekop, Maarja-Liisa; Rebane, Riin; Herodes, Koit

    2017-10-01

    Matrix effect, the influence of co-eluting components on the ionization efficiency of the analyte, affects the trueness and precision of the LC-ESI-MS analysis. Derivatization can reduce or eliminate matrix effect, for example, diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (DEEMM) derivatives have shown less matrix effect compared to other derivatives. Moreover, the use of negative ion mode can further reduce matrix effect. In order to investigate the combination of derivatization and different ionization modes, an LC-ESI-MS/MS method using alternating positive/negative ion mode was developed and validated. The analyses in positive and negative ion modes had comparable limit of quantitation values. The influence of ESI polarity on matrix effect was investigated during the analysis of 22 DEEMM-derivatized amino acids in herbal extracts and honeys. Sample dilution approach was used for the evaluation of the presence of matrix effect. Altogether, 4 honeys and 11 herbal extracts were analyzed, and the concentrations of 22 amino acids in the samples are presented. In the positive ion mode, matrix effect was observed for several amino acid derivatives and the matrix effect was stronger in honey samples compared to the herbal extracts. The negative ion mode was free from matrix effect, with only few exceptions in honeys (average relative standard deviation over all analytes and matrices was 8%; SD = 7%). The matrix effect was eliminated in the positive ion mode by sample dilution and agreement between concentrations from the two ion modes was achieved for most amino acids. In conclusion, it was shown that the combination of derivatization and negative ion mode can be a powerful tool for minimizing matrix effect in more complicated applications.

  7. Ab initio calculations versus polarized neutron diffraction for the spin density of free radicals

    CERN Document Server

    Ressouche, E

    2003-01-01

    The determination of the magnetization distribution using polarized neutron diffraction has played a key role during the last twenty years in the field of molecular magnetism. This distribution can also be obtained by first principle ab initio calculations. Such calculations always rely on approximations and the question that arises is to know whether the obtained results are reliable enough to represent accurately the properties of these molecules. The comparison between polarized neutron experimental results and ab initio calculations has turned to provide stringent tests for these methods. In the resent article a comparison between experimental and theoretical results is made and is illustrated by examples based on magnetic free radicals. (author)

  8. Electronic coupling matrix elements from charge constrained density functional theory calculations using a plane wave basis set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, Harald; Blumberger, Jochen

    2010-12-28

    We present a plane wave basis set implementation for the calculation of electronic coupling matrix elements of electron transfer reactions within the framework of constrained density functional theory (CDFT). Following the work of Wu and Van Voorhis [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164105 (2006)], the diabatic wavefunctions are approximated by the Kohn-Sham determinants obtained from CDFT calculations, and the coupling matrix element calculated by an efficient integration scheme. Our results for intermolecular electron transfer in small systems agree very well with high-level ab initio calculations based on generalized Mulliken-Hush theory, and with previous local basis set CDFT calculations. The effect of thermal fluctuations on the coupling matrix element is demonstrated for intramolecular electron transfer in the tetrathiafulvalene-diquinone (Q-TTF-Q(-)) anion. Sampling the electronic coupling along density functional based molecular dynamics trajectories, we find that thermal fluctuations, in particular the slow bending motion of the molecule, can lead to changes in the instantaneous electron transfer rate by more than an order of magnitude. The thermal average, ()(1/2)=6.7 mH, is significantly higher than the value obtained for the minimum energy structure, |H(ab)|=3.8 mH. While CDFT in combination with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals describes the intermolecular electron transfer in the studied systems well, exact exchange is required for Q-TTF-Q(-) in order to obtain coupling matrix elements in agreement with experiment (3.9 mH). The implementation presented opens up the possibility to compute electronic coupling matrix elements for extended systems where donor, acceptor, and the environment are treated at the quantum mechanical (QM) level.

  9. Polarized matrix infrared spectra of cyclopentadienone: observations, calculations, and assignment for an important intermediate in combustion and biomass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Thomas K; Scheer, Adam M; Nimlos, Mark R; Robichaud, David J; Daily, John W; Stanton, John F; Ellison, G Barney

    2014-01-30

    A detailed vibrational analysis of the infrared spectra of cyclopentadienone (C5H4═O) in rare gas matrices has been carried out. Ab initio coupled-cluster anharmonic force field calculations were used to guide the assignments. Flash pyrolysis of o-phenylene sulfite (C6H4O2SO) was used to provide a molecular beam of C5H4═O entrained in a rare gas carrier. The beam was interrogated with time-of-flight photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS), confirming the clean, intense production of C5H4═O. Matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy coupled with 355 nm polarized UV for photoorientation and linear dichroism experiments was used to determine the symmetries of the vibrations. Cyclopentadienone has 24 fundamental vibrational modes, Γvib = 9a1 ⊕ 3a2 ⊕ 4b1 ⊕ 8b2. Using vibrational perturbation theory and a deperturbation-diagonalization method, we report assignments of the following fundamental modes (cm(-1)) in a 4 K neon matrix: the a1 modes of X̃ (1)A1 C5H4═O are found to be ν1 = 3107, ν2 = (3100, 3099), ν3 = 1735, ν5 = 1333, ν7 = 952, ν8 = 843, and ν9 = 651; the inferred a2 modes are ν10 = 933, and ν11 = 722; the b1 modes are ν13 = 932, ν14 = 822, and ν15 = 629; the b2 fundamentals are ν17 = 3143, ν18 = (3078, 3076) ν19 = (1601 or 1595), ν20 = 1283, ν21 = 1138, ν22 = 1066, ν23 = 738, and ν24 = 458. The modes ν4 and ν6 were too weak to be detected, ν12 is dipole-forbidden and its position cannot be inferred from combination and overtone bands, and ν16 is below our detection range (calculations, assigned as two quantum transitions, and used to assign some of the weak and infrared inactive fundamental vibrations.

  10. Polarization versus Temperature in Pyridinium Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, V. V.; Prezhdo, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic polarization and charge transfer effects play a crucial role in thermodynamic, structural, and transport properties of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). These nonadditive interactions constitute a useful tool for tuning physical chemical behavior of RTILs. Polarization and charge...... electronic density description for a cationanion pair. Atom-centered density matrix propagation molecular dynamics, supplemented by a weak coupling to an external bath, is used to simulate the temperature impact on system properties. We show that, quite surprisingly, nonadditivity in the cationanion...

  11. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases, low density lipoprotein oxidisability and soluble adhesion molecules after a glucose load in Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Jackie

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute hyperglycaemia is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in Type 2 diabetes which may be mediated through increased oxidative damage to plasma low density lipoprotein, and in vitro, high glucose concentrations promote proatherogenic adhesion molecule expression and matrix metalloproteinase expression. Methods We examined these atherogenic risk markers in 21 subjects with Type 2 diabetes and 20 controls during an oral 75 g glucose tolerance test. Plasma soluble adhesion molecule concentrations [E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1], plasma matrix metalloproteinases [MMP-3 and 9] and plasma LDL oxidisability were measured at 30 minute intervals. Results In the diabetes group, the concentrations of all plasma soluble adhesion molecules fell promptly [all p Conclusions A glucose load leads to a rapid fall in plasma soluble adhesion molecule concentrations in Type 2 diabetes and controls, perhaps reflecting reduced generation of soluble from membrane forms during enhanced leukocyte – endothelial adhesion or increased hepatic clearance, without changes in plasma matrix metalloproteinase concentrations or low density lipoprotein oxidisability. These in vivo findings are in contrast with in vitro data.

  12. Gamow-Jordan vectors and non-reducible density operators from higher-order S-matrix poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, A.; Loewe, M.; Maxson, S.; Patuleanu, P.; Puentmann, C.; Gadella, M.

    1997-01-01

    In analogy to Gamow vectors that are obtained from first-order resonance poles of the S-matrix, one can also define higher-order Gamow vectors which are derived from higher-order poles of the S-matrix. An S-matrix pole of r-th order at z R =E R -iΓ/2 leads to r generalized eigenvectors of order k=0,1,hor-ellipsis,r-1, which are also Jordan vectors of degree (k+1) with generalized eigenvalue (E R -iΓ/2). The Gamow-Jordan vectors are elements of a generalized complex eigenvector expansion, whose form suggests the definition of a state operator (density matrix) for the microphysical decaying state of this higher-order pole. This microphysical state is a mixture of non-reducible components. In spite of the fact that the k-th order Gamow-Jordan vectors has the polynomial time-dependence which one always associates with higher-order poles, the microphysical state obeys a purely exponential decay law. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. One-Photon Absorption Properties from a Hybrid Polarizable Density Embedding/Complex Polarization Propagator Approach for Polarizable Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hršak, Dalibor; Nørby, Morten Steen; Coriani, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    We present a formulation of the polarizable density embedding (PDE) method in combination with the complex polarization propagator (CPP) method for the calculation of absorption spectra of molecules in solutions. The method is particularly useful for the calculation of near-edge X-ray absorption...... fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra. We compare the performance of PDE-CPP with the previously formulated polarizable embedding (PE)-CPP model for the calculation of the NEXAFS spectra of adenine, formamide, glycine, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in water at the carbon and nitrogen K-edges, as well...

  14. Very high cell density perfusion of CHO cells anchored in a non-woven matrix-based bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Stobbe, Per; Silvander, Christian Orrego; Chotteau, Véronique

    2015-11-10

    Recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells producing IgG monoclonal antibody were cultivated in a novel perfusion culture system CellTank, integrating the bioreactor and the cell retention function. In this system, the cells were harbored in a non-woven polyester matrix perfused by the culture medium and immersed in a reservoir. Although adapted to suspension, the CHO cells stayed entrapped in the matrix. The cell-free medium was efficiently circulated from the reservoir into- and through the matrix by a centrifugal pump placed at the bottom of the bioreactor resulting in highly homogenous concentrations of the nutrients and metabolites in the whole system as confirmed by measurements from different sampling locations. A real-time biomass sensor using the dielectric properties of living cells was used to measure the cell density. The performances of the CellTank were studied in three perfusion runs. A very high cell density measured as 200 pF/cm (where 1 pF/cm is equivalent to 1 × 10(6)viable cells/mL) was achieved at a perfusion rate of 10 reactor volumes per day (RV/day) in the first run. In the second run, the effect of cell growth arrest by hypothermia at temperatures lowered gradually from 37 °C to 29 °C was studied during 13 days at cell densities above 100 pF/cm. Finally a production run was performed at high cell densities, where a temperature shift to 31 °C was applied at cell density 100 pF/cm during a production period of 14 days in minimized feeding conditions. The IgG concentrations were comparable in the matrix and in the harvest line in all the runs, indicating no retention of the product of interest. The cell specific productivity was comparable or higher than in Erlenmeyer flask batch culture. During the production run, the final harvested IgG production was 35 times higher in the CellTank compared to a repeated batch culture in the same vessel volume during the same time period. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Classical and quantum theories of the polarization bremsstrahlung in the local electron density model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astapenko, V.A.; Bureeva, L.A.; Lisitsa, V.S.

    2000-01-01

    Classical and quantum theories of polarization bremsstrahlung in a statistical (Thomas-Fermi) potential of complex atoms and ions are developed. The basic assumptions of the theories correspond to the approximations employed earlier in classical and quantum calculations of ordinary bremsstrahlung in a static potential. This makes it possible to study on a unified basis the contribution of both channels in the radiation taking account of their interference. The classical model makes it possible to obtain simple universal formulas for the spectral characteristics of the radiation. The theory is applied to electrons with moderate energies, which are characteristic for plasma applications, specifically, radiation from electrons on the argon-like ion KII at frequencies close to its ionization potential. The computational results show the importance of taking account of the polarization channel of the radiation for plasma with heavy ions

  16. Polarization dependence of the spin-density-wave excitations in single-domain chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Roessli, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France); Sternlieb, B.J. [Brookhaven (United States); Lorenzo, E. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France); Werner, S.A. [Missouri (United States)

    1997-09-01

    A polarized neutron scattering experiment has been performed with a single-Q, single domain sample of chromium in a magnetic field of 4 T. It is confirmed that the longitudinal fluctuations are enhanced for small energy transfers and that the spin wave modes with {delta}S parallel to Q and {delta}S perpendicular to Q are similar. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  17. Molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations of matrix deposition. II. Absolute site structure assignment for porphyrin in xenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrychenko, Alexander; Gorski, Alexander; Waluk, Jacek

    2004-12-15

    Molecular dynamics calculations reveal that the main trapping site for porphyrin embedded in a xenon matrix corresponds to a hexagonal cavity formed after removal of seven host atoms. Tautomerization involving two inner hydrogen atoms leads to two trans forms that interact differently with the matrix cage. Therefore, both electronic and infrared spectra are split into doublets. Comparison of the experimentally observed splitting patterns with the results of density functional theory calculations that explicitly include the nearest xenon atoms allows assigning each spectral feature to one of two different configurations of the chromophore inside the xenon cavity. The main factor responsible for the splittings is a distortion of the molecular skeleton from a squarelike towards rectangular geometry. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics

  18. Symmetry-adapted density matrix renormalization group calculations of the primary excited states of poly(para-phenylene vinylene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursill, Robert J; Barford, William

    2009-06-21

    The Pariser-Parr-Pople model of pi-conjugated electrons is solved by a three-block, symmetry-adapted density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method for the light emitting polymer, poly(para-phenylene vinylene). The energies of the primary excited states are calculated. There is excellent agreement between theory and experiment when solid state screening is incorporated into the model parameters, enabling us to make an identification of the origin of the key spectroscopic features. Appendices describe important technical aspects of the three-block DMRG approach: Local Hilbert space efficiency and its relation to the matrix product formulation of the DMRG; an efficient computational procedure for constructing symmetry-adapted states for DMRG calculations; and correct superblock state targeting to ensure good convergence of the method.

  19. Global matrix of thermospheric density values for selected solar/geomagnetic conditions and spacecraft orbital attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Presented are selected thermospheric/exospheric global mean and extreme density values computed between 130 and 1100 km altitude. These values were generated from the MSFC/J70 reference orbital atmospheric model using different input conditions of solar flux and geomagnetic index, ranging from low to peak. Typical magnitudes of day-night density changes are presented, as an example, for use in space vehicle orbital analyses.

  20. Spin orbit coupling for molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group calculations: Application to g-tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemelt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Spin Orbit Coupling (SOC) is introduced to molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. In the presented scheme, one first approximates the electronic ground state and a number of excited states of the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) Hamiltonian with the aid of the DMRG algorithm. Owing to the spin-adaptation of the algorithm, the total spin S is a good quantum number for these states. After the non-relativistic DMRG calculation is finished, all magnetic sublevels of the calculated states are constructed explicitly, and the SOC operator is expanded in the resulting basis. To this end, spin orbit coupled energies and wavefunctions are obtained as eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the full Hamiltonian matrix which is composed of the SOC operator matrix and the BO Hamiltonian matrix. This treatment corresponds to a quasi-degenerate perturbation theory approach and can be regarded as the molecular equivalent to atomic Russell-Saunders coupling. For the evaluation of SOC matrix elements, the full Breit-Pauli SOC Hamiltonian is approximated by the widely used spin-orbit mean field operator. This operator allows for an efficient use of the second quantized triplet replacement operators that are readily generated during the non-relativistic DMRG algorithm, together with the Wigner-Eckart theorem. With a set of spin-orbit coupled wavefunctions at hand, the molecular g-tensors are calculated following the scheme proposed by Gerloch and McMeeking. It interprets the effective molecular g-values as the slope of the energy difference between the lowest Kramers pair with respect to the strength of the applied magnetic field. Test calculations on a chemically relevant Mo complex demonstrate the capabilities of the presented method

  1. Spin orbit coupling for molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group calculations: Application to g-tensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemelt, Michael

    2015-07-28

    Spin Orbit Coupling (SOC) is introduced to molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. In the presented scheme, one first approximates the electronic ground state and a number of excited states of the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) Hamiltonian with the aid of the DMRG algorithm. Owing to the spin-adaptation of the algorithm, the total spin S is a good quantum number for these states. After the non-relativistic DMRG calculation is finished, all magnetic sublevels of the calculated states are constructed explicitly, and the SOC operator is expanded in the resulting basis. To this end, spin orbit coupled energies and wavefunctions are obtained as eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the full Hamiltonian matrix which is composed of the SOC operator matrix and the BO Hamiltonian matrix. This treatment corresponds to a quasi-degenerate perturbation theory approach and can be regarded as the molecular equivalent to atomic Russell-Saunders coupling. For the evaluation of SOC matrix elements, the full Breit-Pauli SOC Hamiltonian is approximated by the widely used spin-orbit mean field operator. This operator allows for an efficient use of the second quantized triplet replacement operators that are readily generated during the non-relativistic DMRG algorithm, together with the Wigner-Eckart theorem. With a set of spin-orbit coupled wavefunctions at hand, the molecular g-tensors are calculated following the scheme proposed by Gerloch and McMeeking. It interprets the effective molecular g-values as the slope of the energy difference between the lowest Kramers pair with respect to the strength of the applied magnetic field. Test calculations on a chemically relevant Mo complex demonstrate the capabilities of the presented method.

  2. Dynamical mean-field theory, density-matrix embedding theory, and rotationally invariant slave bosons: A unified perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayral, Thomas; Lee, Tsung-Han; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2017-12-01

    We present a unified perspective on dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), density-matrix embedding theory (DMET), and rotationally invariant slave bosons (RISB). We show that DMET can be regarded as a simplification of the RISB method where the quasiparticle weight is set to unity. This relation makes it easy to transpose extensions of a given method to another: For instance, a temperature-dependent version of RISB can be used to derive a temperature-dependent free-energy formula for DMET.

  3. Individual effects of seasonal changes, visitor density, and concurrent bear behavior on stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Krista R; Harrison, Michelle L; Size, Daniele D; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be detrimental to their welfare. These behaviors can be reduced through enrichment programs but are often not completely eliminated, so identifying potential triggers is important. The present study investigated the influences of seasonal changes, visitor density, and concurrent bear activity on stereotypical behaviors exhibited by 3 captive polar bears at the Toronto Zoo. All bears exhibited these behaviors; however, individual differences were found in duration and form. The male exhibited less stereotypical behavior during spring, and the females exhibited less stereotypical behavior during winter. An increase in visitor density was associated with more stereotypical behavior in 1 female but less stereotypical behavior in the other 2 bears. All bears engaged in more stereotypical behaviors when the other bears were inactive, and 1 female engaged in more stereotypical behaviors when the other bears were out of sight. Further, when conspecifics were active, all bears engaged in less stereotypical behaviors. Given the variability among individual bears, future enrichment programs must be tailored to the needs of individuals to maximize efficacy.

  4. Drifting field-aligned density structures in the night-side polar cap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Santolík, Ondřej; Persoon, A. M.; Gurnett, D. A.; Décréau, P. M. E.; Pickett, J. S.; Maršálek, O.; Maksimovic, M.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (2005), L06106-1 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0832; GA MŠk ME 650; GA MŠk 1P05ME811 Grant - others: NASA (US) NAG5-9974; NASA (US) NNG04GB98G; NSF(US) 0307319; ESA PECS(XE) 98025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Magnetospheric Physics * Plasma convection * Plasma waves and instabilities * Polar cap phenomena * Magnetospheric configuration and dynamics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.491, year: 2005

  5. Communication: Novel quantum states of electron spins in polycarbenes from ab initio density matrix renormalization group calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Wataru; Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi

    2010-09-07

    An investigation into spin structures of poly(m-phenylenecarbene), a prototype of magnetic organic molecules, is presented using the ab initio density matrix renormalization group method. It is revealed by achieving large-scale multireference calculations that the energy differences between high-spin and low-spin states (spin-gaps) of polycarbenes decrease with increasing the number of carbene sites. This size-dependency of the spin-gaps strikingly contradicts the predictions with single-reference methods including density functional theory. The wave function analysis shows that the low-spin states are beyond the classical spin picture, namely, much of multireference character, and thus are manifested as strongly correlated quantum states. The size dependence of the spin-gaps involves an odd-even oscillation, which cannot be explained by the integer-spin Heisenberg model with a single magnetic-coupling constant.

  6. Small scale density variations of electrons and charged particles in the vicinity of polar mesosphere summer echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present small scale variations of electron number densities and particle charge number densities measured in situ in the presence of polar mesosphere summer echoes. It turns out that the small scale fluctuations of electrons and negatively charged particles show a strong anticorrelation down to the smallest scales observed. Comparing these small scale structures with the simultaneously measured radar signal to noise profile, we find that the radar profile is well described by the power spectral density of both electrons and charged particles at the radar half wavelength (=the Bragg scale. Finally, we consider the shape of the power spectra of the observed plasma fluctuations and find that both charged particles and electrons show spectra that can be explained in terms of either neutral air turbulence acting on the distribution of a low diffusivity tracer or the fossil remnants of a formerly active turbulent region. All these results are consistent with the theoretical ideas by Rapp and Lübken (2003 suggesting that PMSE can be explained by a combination of active and fossil neutral air turbulence acting on the large and heavy charged aerosol particles which are subsequently mirrored in the electron number density distribution that becomes visible to a VHF radar when small scale fluctuations are present.

  7. Density induced phase transitions in the Schwinger model. A study with matrix product states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, Mari Carmen; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kuehn, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2017-02-15

    We numerically study the zero temperature phase structure of the multiflavor Schwinger model at nonzero chemical potential. Using matrix product states, we reproduce analytical results for the phase structure for two flavors in the massless case and extend the computation to the massive case, where no analytical predictions are available. Our calculations allow us to locate phase transitions in the mass-chemical potential plane with great precision and provide a concrete example of tensor networks overcoming the sign problem in a lattice gauge theory calculation.

  8. Influence of Hemp Fibers Pre-processing on Low Density Polyethylene Matrix Composites Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukle, S.; Vidzickis, R.; Zelca, Z.; Belakova, D.; Kajaks, J.

    2016-04-01

    In present research with short hemp fibres reinforced LLDPE matrix composites with fibres content in a range from 30 to 50 wt% subjected to four different pre-processing technologies were produced and such their properties as tensile strength and elongation at break, tensile modulus, melt flow index, micro hardness and water absorption dynamics were investigated. Capillary viscosimetry was used for fluidity evaluation and melt flow index (MFI) evaluated for all variants. MFI of fibres of two pre-processing variants were high enough to increase hemp fibres content from 30 to 50 wt% with moderate increase of water sorption capability.

  9. Response calculations based on an independent particle system with the exact one-particle density matrix: polarizabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbertz, K J H; Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

    2014-05-14

    Recently, we have demonstrated that the problems finding a suitable adiabatic approximation in time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix functional theory can be remedied by introducing an additional degree of freedom to describe the system: the phase of the natural orbitals [K. J. H. Giesbertz, O. V. Gritsenko, and E. J. Baerends, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 013002 (2010); K. J. H. Giesbertz, O. V. Gritsenko, and E. J. Baerends, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 174119 (2010)]. In this article we will show in detail how the frequency-dependent response equations give the proper static limit (ω → 0), including the perturbation in the chemical potential, which is required in static response theory to ensure the correct number of particles. Additionally we show results for the polarizability for H2 and compare the performance of two different two-electron functionals: the phase-including Löwdin-Shull functional and the density matrix form of the Löwdin-Shull functional.

  10. Effects of increased collagen-matrix density on the mechanical properties and in vivo absorbability of hydroxyapatite-collagen composites as artificial bone materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunoki, Shunji [Life Science Group, Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, 2-11-1 Fukasawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-0081 (Japan); Sugiura, Hiroaki; Kondo, Eiji; Yasuda, Kazunori [Department of Sports Medicine and Joint Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-15 Nishi-7, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 Japan (Japan); Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo, E-mail: yunoki.shunji@iri-tokyo.jp [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, 2-12-1-S7-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increased collagen-matrix density on the mechanical properties and in vivo absorbability of porous hydroxyapatite (HAp)-collagen composites as artificial bone materials. Seven types of porous HAp-collagen composites were prepared from HAp nanocrystals and dense collagen fibrils. Their densities and HAp/collagen weight ratios ranged from 122 to 331 mg cm{sup -3} and from 20/80 to 80/20, respectively. The flexural modulus and strength increased with an increase in density, reaching 2.46 {+-} 0.48 and 0.651 {+-} 0.103 MPa, respectively. The porous composites with a higher collagen-matrix density exhibited much higher mechanical properties at the same densities, suggesting that increasing the collagen-matrix density is an effective way of improving the mechanical properties. It was also suggested that other structural factors in addition to collagen-matrix density are required to achieve bone-like mechanical properties. The in vivo absorbability of the composites was investigated in bone defects of rabbit femurs, demonstrating that the absorption rate decreased with increases in the composite density. An exhaustive increase in density is probably limited by decreases in absorbability as artificial bones.

  11. Sublimation of new matrix candidates for high spatial resolution imaging mass spectrometry of lipids: enhanced information in both positive and negative polarities after 1,5-diaminonapthalene deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aurélien; Charbonneau, Jade Laveaux; Fournaise, Erik; Chaurand, Pierre

    2012-02-21

    Matrix sublimation has demonstrated to be a powerful approach for high-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging of lipids, providing very homogeneous solvent-free deposition. This work presents a comprehensive study aiming to evaluate current and novel matrix candidates for high spatial resolution MALDI imaging mass spectrometry of lipids from tissue section after deposition by sublimation. For this purpose, 12 matrices including 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), sinapinic acid (SA), α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), 2,6-dihydroxyacetphenone (DHA), 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP), 3-hydroxypicolinic acid (3-HPA), 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (DMAN), 1,8,9-anthracentriol (DIT), 1,5-diaminonapthalene (DAN), p-nitroaniline (NIT), 9-aminoacridine (9-AA), and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) were investigated for lipid detection efficiency in both positive and negative ionization modes, matrix interferences, and stability under vacuum. For the most relevant matrices, ion maps of the different lipid species were obtained from tissue sections at high spatial resolution and the detected peaks were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. First proposed for imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) after sublimation, DAN has demonstrated to be of high efficiency providing rich lipid signatures in both positive and negative polarities with high vacuum stability and sub-20 μm resolution capacity. Ion images from adult mouse brain were generated with a 10 μm scanning resolution. Furthermore, ion images from adult mouse brain and whole-body fish tissue sections were also acquired in both polarity modes from the same tissue section at 100 μm spatial resolution. Sublimation of DAN represents an interesting approach to improve information with respect to currently employed matrices providing a deeper analysis of the lipidome by IMS.

  12. The localization-delocalization matrix and the electron-density-weighted connectivity matrix of a finite graphene nanoribbon reconstructed from kernel fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Matthew J; Matta, Chérif F; Massa, Lou; Huang, Lulu

    2014-11-26

    Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and chemical graph theory, merged in the localization-delocalization matrices (LDMs) and the electron-density-weighted connectivity matrices (EDWCM), are shown to benefit in computational speed from the kernel energy method (KEM). The LDM and EDWCM quantum chemical graph matrices of a 66-atom C46H20 hydrogen-terminated armchair graphene nanoribbon, in 14 (2×7) rings of C2v symmetry, are accurately reconstructed from kernel fragments. (This includes the full sets of electron densities at 84 bond critical points and 19 ring critical points, and the full sets of 66 localization and 4290 delocalization indices (LIs and DIs).) The average absolute deviations between KEM and directly calculated atomic electron populations, obtained from the sum of the LIs and half of the DIs of an atom, are 0.0012 ± 0.0018 e(-) (∼0.02 ± 0.03%) for carbon atoms and 0.0007 ± 0.0003 e(-) (∼0.01 ± 0.01%) for hydrogen atoms. The integration errors in the total electron population (296 electrons) are +0.0003 e(-) for the direct calculation (+0.0001%) and +0.0022 e(-) for KEM (+0.0007%). The accuracy of the KEM matrix elements is, thus, probably of the order of magnitude of the combined precision of the electronic structure calculation and the atomic integrations. KEM appears capable of delivering not only the total energies with chemical accuracy (which is well documented) but also local and nonlocal properties accurately, including the DIs between the fragments (crossing fragmentation lines). Matrices of the intact ribbon, the kernels, the KEM-reconstructed ribbon, and errors are available as Supporting Information .

  13. Spin polarization in high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; Da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2016-01-01

    In high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field, possible phases are investigated by using the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with tensor-type four-point interaction between quarks, as well as the axial-vector-type four-point interaction. In the tensor-type interact......In high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field, possible phases are investigated by using the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with tensor-type four-point interaction between quarks, as well as the axial-vector-type four-point interaction. In the tensor...... phase appears in the wide range of the quark chemical potential. In both the interactions, the quark mass in zero and small chemical potential regions increases which indicates that the chiral symmetry breaking is enhanced, namely the magnetic catalysis occurs....

  14. Clean-up and matrix effect in LC-MS/MS analysis of food of plant origin for high polar herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczyński, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    This study reports an innovative and sensitive procedure for analysis of difficult high polar herbicides (HPH) in diverse foods of plant origin. The QuPPe (Quick Polar Pesticides) method followed by determination by LC-MS/MS was modified. Chromatographic conditions, extraction, clean-up, and matrix effect were studied. Several liquid chromatography stationary and mobile phases were evaluated, and it was found that hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) gives good retention and sensitivity. An acidified methanol-water mixture was used as an effective extraction solvent of eleven HPH. Dispersive solid-phase clean-up sorbents (C18, GCB, Florisil, chitosan and graphene) were evaluated. The efficiency of the method was examined using data on recovery, precision and matrix effects. High extraction yields were achieved, and recoveries were within the 64-97% range with relative standard deviations <20% for all HPH in all commodities. Low matrix effects were observed when graphene was used during clean-up of onion extract and when chitosan was used for wheat, potato and pea extract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Visualization of polarized membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase activity in live cells by fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, Mingxing; Lu, Shaoying; Li, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Jing; Seong, Jihye; Giepmans, Ben N. G.; Shyy, John Y. -J.; Weiss, Stephen J.; Wang, Yingxiao

    2008-01-01

    Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) plays a critical role in cancer cell biology by proteolytically remodeling the extracellular matrix. Utilizing fluorescence resonance energy transfer ( FRET) imaging, we have developed a novel biosensor, with its sensing element anchoring at the

  16. Development and application of a 2-electron reduced density matrix approach to electron transport via molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Erik P.; Mazziotti, David A.; Seideman, Tamar

    2017-11-01

    Can an electronic device be constructed using only a single molecule? Since this question was first asked by Aviram and Ratner in the 1970s [Chem. Phys. Lett. 29, 277 (1974)], the field of molecular electronics has exploded with significant experimental advancements in the understanding of the charge transport properties of single molecule devices. Efforts to explain the results of these experiments and identify promising new candidate molecules for molecular devices have led to the development of numerous new theoretical methods including the current standard theoretical approach for studying single molecule charge transport, i.e., the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism (NEGF). By pairing this formalism with density functional theory (DFT), a wide variety of transport problems in molecular junctions have been successfully treated. For some systems though, the conductance and current-voltage curves predicted by common DFT functionals can be several orders of magnitude above experimental results. In addition, since density functional theory relies on approximations to the exact exchange-correlation functional, the predicted transport properties can show significant variation depending on the functional chosen. As a first step to addressing this issue, the authors have replaced density functional theory in the NEGF formalism with a 2-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) method, creating a new approach known as the NEGF-RDM method. 2-RDM methods provide a more accurate description of electron correlation compared to density functional theory, and they have lower computational scaling compared to wavefunction based methods of similar accuracy. Additionally, 2-RDM methods are capable of capturing static electron correlation which is untreatable by existing NEGF-DFT methods. When studying dithiol alkane chains and dithiol benzene in model junctions, the authors found that the NEGF-RDM predicts conductances and currents that are 1-2 orders of magnitude below

  17. Migrational polarization in high-current density molten salt electrochemical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunstein, J.; Vallet, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Electrochemical flux equations based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes have been derived in terms of experimental transport coefficients for binary molten salt mixtures analogous to those proposed for high temperature batteries and fuel cells. The equations and some numerical solutions indicate steady state composition gradients of significant magnitude. The effects of migrational separation must be considered along with other melt properties in the characterization of electrode behavior, melt composition, operating temperatures and differences of phase stability, wettability and other physicochemical properties at positive and negative electrodes of high current density devices with mixed electrolytes.

  18. Invertibility of retarded response functions for Laplace transformable potentials: Application to one-body reduced density matrix functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbertz, K J H

    2015-08-07

    A theorem for the invertibility of arbitrary response functions is presented under the following conditions: the time dependence of the potentials should be Laplace transformable and the initial state should be a ground state, though it might be degenerate. This theorem provides a rigorous foundation for all density-functional-like theories in the time-dependent linear response regime. Especially for time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix (1RDM) functional theory, this is an important step forward, since a solid foundation has currently been lacking. The theorem is equally valid for static response functions in the non-degenerate case, so can be used to characterize the uniqueness of the potential in the ground state version of the corresponding density-functional-like theory. Such a classification of the uniqueness of the non-local potential in ground state 1RDM functional theory has been lacking for decades. With the aid of presented invertibility theorem presented here, a complete classification of the non-uniqueness of the non-local potential in 1RDM functional theory can be given for the first time.

  19. Electrical characterization of polymer matrix — TiO2 filler composites through isothermal polarization / depolarization currents and I-V tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakas, Ilias; Triantis, Dimos; Hloupis, George; Moutzouris, Konstantinos

    2014-04-01

    Specimens of polymer matrix — ceramic TiO2 filler composites were prepared. The contribution of the filler content on the electrical conductivity and energy storage properties of the samples was examined. I-V and Isothermal Polarization/Depolarization Current (IPC/IDC) measurements were conducted. Dc conductivity values directly calculated from the I-V curves exhibited excellent agreement with corresponding values derived from the IPC/IDC recordings. Standard models were employed for fitting the IPC/IDC data. In specific, the short and the very long depolarization times were fitted by use of power laws of different slopes, while the intermediate depolarization times were fitted as a sum of three exponential decays. The present study reveals a strong dependence of the depolarization and polarization processes, as well as of the dc conductivity, on the filler concentration.

  20. Near-surface bulk densities of asteroids derived from dual-polarization radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkki, A.; Taylor, P. A.; Zambrano-Marin, L. F.; Howell, E. S.; Nolan, M. C.; Lejoly, C.; Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Aponte, B. A.

    2017-09-01

    We present a new method to constrain the near-surface bulk density and surface roughness of regolith on asteroid surfaces using planetary radar measurements. The number of radar observations has increased rapidly during the last five years, allowing us to compare and contrast the radar scattering properties of different small-body populations and compositional types. This provides us with new opportunities to investigate their near-surface physical properties such as the chemical composition, bulk density, porosity, or the structural roughness in the scale of centimeters to meters. Because the radar signal can penetrate into a planetary surface up to a few decimeters, radar can reveal information that is hidden from other ground-based methods, such as optical and infrared measurements. The near-surface structure of asteroids and comets in centimeter-to-meter scale is essential information for robotic and human space missions, impact threat mitigation, and understanding the history of these bodies as well as the formation of the whole Solar System.

  1. Progress on Complex Langevin simulations of a finite density matrix model for QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, Jacques [Univ. of Regensburg (Germany). Inst. for Theorectical Physics; Glesaan, Jonas [Swansea Univ., Swansea U.K.; Verbaarschot, Jacobus [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretische Physik

    2018-04-01

    We study the Stephanov model, which is an RMT model for QCD at finite density, using the Complex Langevin algorithm. Naive implementation of the algorithm shows convergence towards the phase quenched or quenched theory rather than to intended theory with dynamical quarks. A detailed analysis of this issue and a potential resolution of the failure of this algorithm are discussed. We study the effect of gauge cooling on the Dirac eigenvalue distribution and time evolution of the norm for various cooling norms, which were specifically designed to remove the pathologies of the complex Langevin evolution. The cooling is further supplemented with a shifted representation for the random matrices. Unfortunately, none of these modifications generate a substantial improvement on the complex Langevin evolution and the final results still do not agree with the analytical predictions.

  2. Some features of excited states density matrix calculation and their pairing relations in conjugated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambiagi, M.S. de; Giambiagi, M.

    1982-01-01

    Direct PPP-type calculations of self-consistent (SC) density matrices for excited states are described and the corresponding 'thawn' molecular orbitals (MO) are discussed. Special attention is addressed to particular solutions arising in conjugated systems of a certain symmetry, and to their chemical implications. The U(2) and U(3) algebras are applied respectively to the 4-electron and 6-electron cases: a natural separation of excited states in different cases follows. A simple approach to the convergence problem for excited states is given. The complementarity relations, an alternative formulation of the pairing theorem valid for heteromolecules and non-alternant systems, allow some fruitful experimental applications. Together with the extended pairing relations shown here, they may help to rationalize general trends. (Author) [pt

  3. The tensor hypercontracted parametric reduced density matrix algorithm: coupled-cluster accuracy with O(r(4)) scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenvi, Neil; van Aggelen, Helen; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao; Schwerdtfeger, Christine; Mazziotti, David

    2013-08-07

    Tensor hypercontraction is a method that allows the representation of a high-rank tensor as a product of lower-rank tensors. In this paper, we show how tensor hypercontraction can be applied to both the electron repulsion integral tensor and the two-particle excitation amplitudes used in the parametric 2-electron reduced density matrix (p2RDM) algorithm. Because only O(r) auxiliary functions are needed in both of these approximations, our overall algorithm can be shown to scale as O(r(4)), where r is the number of single-particle basis functions. We apply our algorithm to several small molecules, hydrogen chains, and alkanes to demonstrate its low formal scaling and practical utility. Provided we use enough auxiliary functions, we obtain accuracy similar to that of the standard p2RDM algorithm, somewhere between that of CCSD and CCSD(T).

  4. Solving the Multi-site and Multi-orbital Dynamical Mean Field Theory Using Density Matrix Renormalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriel Núñez Fernández

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We implement an efficient numerical method to calculate response functions of complex impurities based on the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG and use it as the impurity-solver of the Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DMFT. This method uses the correction vector to obtain precise Green's functions on the real frequency axis at zero temperature. By using a self-consistent bath configuration with very low entanglement, we take full advantage of the DMRG to calculate dynamical response functions paving the way to treat large effective impurities such as those corresponding to multi-orbital interacting models and multi-site or multi-momenta clusters. This method leads to reliable calculations of non-local self energies at arbitrary dopings and interactions and at any energy scale.

  5. Avoiding the 4-index transformation in one-body reduced density matrix functional calculations for separable functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbertz, Klaas J H

    2016-08-03

    One of the major computational bottlenecks in one-body reduced density matrix (1RDM) functional theory is the evaluation of approximate 1RDM functionals and their derivatives. The reason is that more advanced approximate functionals are almost exclusively defined in the natural orbital basis, so a 4-index transformation of the two-electron integrals appears to be unavoidable. I will show that this is not the case and that so-called separable functionals can be evaluated much more efficiently, i.e. only at cubic cost in the basis size. Since most approximate functionals are actually separable, this new algorithm is an important development to make 1RDM functional theory calculations feasible for large electronic systems.

  6. Correlation between Microvascular Density and Matrix Metalloproteinase 11 Expression in Prostate Cancer Tissues: a Preliminary Study in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanharat, Nongnuch; Tuamsuk, Panya

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major concern of public health. Microvascular density (MVD) is one of the prognostic markers for various solid cancers. Matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11) plays an important role in angiogenesis and changes in its expression level are known to be associated with tumor progression and clinical outcome. To investigate the relationship between MVD and MMP11 expression in prostatic adenocarcinoma tissues. The expression levels of MMP11 and MVD were analyzed immunohistochemically for 50 specimens of prostatic adenocarcinoma. MMP11 was mainly expressed in stromal cells but rarely seen in epithelial cells. Mean MVD was 36/mm2, and it was correlated significantly only with bone metastases. MVD was also significantly correlated with MMP11 expression (r=0.29, p=0.044). MMP11 may alter the stromal microenvironment of prostate cancer to stimulate tumor angiogenesis.

  7. Comparison of the iterated equation of motion approach and the density matrix formalism for the quantum Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalthoff, Mona; Keim, Frederik; Krull, Holger; Uhrig, Götz S.

    2017-05-01

    The density matrix formalism and the equation of motion approach are two semi-analytical methods that can be used to compute the non-equilibrium dynamics of correlated systems. While for a bilinear Hamiltonian both formalisms yield the exact result, for any non-bilinear Hamiltonian a truncation is necessary. Due to the fact that the commonly used truncation schemes differ for these two methods, the accuracy of the obtained results depends significantly on the chosen approach. In this paper, both formalisms are applied to the quantum Rabi model. This allows us to compare the approximate results and the exact dynamics of the system and enables us to discuss the accuracy of the approximations as well as the advantages and the disadvantages of both methods. It is shown to which extent the results fulfill physical requirements for the observables and which properties of the methods lead to unphysical results.

  8. Efficient density matrix renormalization group algorithm to study Y junctions with integer and half-integer spin

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Manoranjan

    2016-02-03

    An efficient density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm is presented and applied to Y junctions, systems with three arms of n sites that meet at a central site. The accuracy is comparable to DMRG of chains. As in chains, new sites are always bonded to the most recently added sites and the superblock Hamiltonian contains only new or once renormalized operators. Junctions of up to N=3n+1≈500 sites are studied with antiferromagnetic (AF) Heisenberg exchange J between nearest-neighbor spins S or electron transfer t between nearest neighbors in half-filled Hubbard models. Exchange or electron transfer is exclusively between sites in two sublattices with NA≠NB. The ground state (GS) and spin densities ρr=⟨Szr⟩ at site r are quite different for junctions with S=1/2, 1, 3/2, and 2. The GS has finite total spin SG=2S(S) for even (odd) N and for MG=SG in the SG spin manifold, ρr>0(<0) at sites of the larger (smaller) sublattice. S=1/2 junctions have delocalized states and decreasing spin densities with increasing N. S=1 junctions have four localized Sz=1/2 states at the end of each arm and centered on the junction, consistent with localized states in S=1 chains with finite Haldane gap. The GS of S=3/2 or 2 junctions of up to 500 spins is a spin density wave with increased amplitude at the ends of arms or near the junction. Quantum fluctuations completely suppress AF order in S=1/2 or 1 junctions, as well as in half-filled Hubbard junctions, but reduce rather than suppress AF order in S=3/2 or 2 junctions.

  9. Polarization Dependent Bulk-sensitive Valence Band Photoemission Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations: Part I. 3d Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shigenori; Hamada, Ikutaro

    2017-12-01

    The X-ray polarization dependent valence band HAXPES spectra of 3d transition metals (TMs) of Ti-Zn were measured to investigate the orbital resolved electronic structures by utilizing that the fact the photoionization cross-section of the atomic orbitals strongly depends on the experimental geometry. We have calculated the HAXPES spectra, which correspond to the cross-section weighted densities of states (CSW-DOSs), where the DOSs were obtained by the density functional theory calculations, and we have determined the relative photoionization cross-sections of the 4s and 4p orbitals to the 3d orbital in the 3d TMs. The experimentally obtained bulk-sensitive 3d and 4s DOSs were good agreement with the calculated DOSs in Ti, V, Cr, and Cu. In contrast, the deviations between the experimental and calculated 3d DOSs for Mn, Fe, Co, Ni were found, suggesting that the electron correlation plays an important role in the electronic structures for these materials.

  10. Nonperturbative vacuum polarization effects in two-dimensional supercritical Dirac-Coulomb system I. Vacuum charge density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, A.; Sveshnikov, K.; Voronina, Yu.

    2018-01-01

    Based on the original combination of analytical methods, computer algebra tools and numerical calculations, proposed recently in Refs. 1-3, the nonperturbative vacuum polarization effects in the 2+1D supercritical Dirac-Coulomb system with Z > Zcr,1 are explored. Both the vacuum charge density ρV P(r→) and vacuum energy ℰV P are considered. The main result of the work is that in the overcritical region ℰV P turns out to be a rapidly decreasing function ˜-ηeffZ3/R with ηeff > 0 and R being the size of the external Coulomb source. Due to a lot of details of calculation the whole work is divided into two parts I and II. In the present part I, we consider the evaluation and behavior of the vacuum density ρV P, which further is used in part II for evaluation of the vacuum energy, with emphasis on the renormalization, convergence of the partial expansion for ρV P and behavior of the integral induced charge QV P in the overcritical region.

  11. Comparison of the surface ion density of silica gel evaluated via spectral induced polarization versus acid-base titration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Na; Moysey, Stephen M. J.; Powell, Brian A.; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios

    2016-12-01

    Surface complexation models are widely used with batch adsorption experiments to characterize and predict surface geochemical processes in porous media. In contrast, the spectral induced polarization (SIP) method has recently been used to non-invasively monitor in situ subsurface chemical reactions in porous media, such as ion adsorption processes on mineral surfaces. Here we compare these tools for investigating surface site density changes during pH-dependent sodium adsorption on a silica gel. Continuous SIP measurements were conducted using a lab scale column packed with silica gel. A constant inflow of 0.05 M NaCl solution was introduced to the column while the influent pH was changed from 7.0 to 10.0 over the course of the experiment. The SIP measurements indicate that the pH change caused a 38.49 ± 0.30 μS cm- 1 increase in the imaginary conductivity of the silica gel. This increase is thought to result from deprotonation of silanol groups on the silica gel surface caused by the rise in pH, followed by sorption of Na+ cations. Fitting the SIP data using the mechanistic model of Leroy et al. (Leroyet al., 2008), which is based on the triple layer model of a mineral surface, we estimated an increase in the silica gel surface site density of 26.9 × 1016 sites m- 2. We independently used a potentiometric acid-base titration data for the silica gel to calibrate the triple layer model using the software FITEQL and observed a total increase in the surface site density for sodium sorption of 11.2 × 1016 sites m- 2, which is approximately 2.4 times smaller than the value estimated using the SIP model. By simulating the SIP response based on the calibrated surface complexation model, we found a moderate association between the measured and estimated imaginary conductivity (R2 = 0.65). These results suggest that the surface complexation model used here does not capture all mechanisms contributing to polarization of the silica gel captured by the SIP data.

  12. A photoemission moments model using density functional and transfer matrix methods applied to coating layers on surfaces: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kevin L.; Finkenstadt, Daniel; Shabaev, Andrew; Lambrakos, Samuel G.; Moody, Nathan A.; Petillo, John J.; Yamaguchi, Hisato; Liu, Fangze

    2018-01-01

    Recent experimental measurements of a bulk material covered with a small number of graphene layers reported by Yamaguchi et al. [NPJ 2D Mater. Appl. 1, 12 (2017)] (on bialkali) and Liu et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 041607 (2017)] (on copper) and the needs of emission models in beam optics codes have lead to substantial changes in a Moments model of photoemission. The changes account for (i) a barrier profile and density of states factor based on density functional theory (DFT) evaluations, (ii) a Drude-Lorentz model of the optical constants and laser penetration depth, and (iii) a transmission probability evaluated by an Airy Transfer Matrix Approach. Importantly, the DFT results lead to a surface barrier profile of a shape similar to both resonant barriers and reflectionless wells: the associated quantum mechanical transmission probabilities are shown to be comparable to those recently required to enable the Moments (and Three Step) model to match experimental data but for reasons very different than the assumption by conventional wisdom that a barrier is responsible. The substantial modifications of the Moments model components, motivated by computational materials methods, are developed. The results prepare the Moments model for use in treating heterostructures and discrete energy level systems (e.g., quantum dots) proposed for decoupling the opposing metrics of performance that undermine the performance of advanced light sources like the x-ray Free Electron Laser. The consequences of the modified components on quantum yield, emittance, and emission models needed by beam optics codes are discussed.

  13. Theory of open quantum systems with bath of electrons and phonons and spins: many-dissipaton density matrixes approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, YiJing

    2014-02-07

    This work establishes a strongly correlated system-and-bath dynamics theory, the many-dissipaton density operators formalism. It puts forward a quasi-particle picture for environmental influences. This picture unifies the physical descriptions and algebraic treatments on three distinct classes of quantum environments, electron bath, phonon bath, and two-level spin or exciton bath, as their participating in quantum dissipation processes. Dynamical variables for theoretical description are no longer just the reduced density matrix for system, but remarkably also those for quasi-particles of bath. The present theoretical formalism offers efficient and accurate means for the study of steady-state (nonequilibrium and equilibrium) and real-time dynamical properties of both systems and hybridizing environments. It further provides universal evaluations, exact in principle, on various correlation functions, including even those of environmental degrees of freedom in coupling with systems. Induced environmental dynamics could be reflected directly in experimentally measurable quantities, such as Fano resonances and quantum transport current shot noise statistics.

  14. Response function of an HPGe detector simulated through MCNP 4A varying the density and chemical composition of the matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal A, B.; Mireles G, F.; Quirino T, L.; Pinedo, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    In the area of the Radiological Safety it is required of a calibrated detection system in energy and efficiency for the determination of the concentration in activity in samples that vary in chemical composition and by this in density. The area of Nuclear Engineering requires to find the grade of isotopic enrichment of the uranium of the Sub-critic Nuclear Chicago 9000 Mark. Given the experimental importance that has the determination from the curves of efficiency to the effects of establishing the quantitative results, is appealed to the simulation of the response function of the detector used in the Regional Center of Nuclear Studies inside the range of energy of 80 keV to 1400 keV varying the density of the matrix and the chemical composition by means of the application of the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A. The obtained results in the simulation of the response function of the detector show a grade of acceptance in the range from 500 to 1400 keV energy, with a smaller percentage discrepancy to 10%, in the range of low energy that its go from 59 to 400 keV, the percentage discrepancy varies from 17% until 30%, which is manifested in the opposing isotopic relationship for 5 fuel rods of the Sub critic nuclear assemble. (Author)

  15. Vector meson production from a polarized nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, M.

    2007-04-01

    We provide a framework to analyze the electroproduction process ep→epρ with a polarized target, writing the angular distribution of the ρ decay products in terms of spin density matrix elements that parameterize the hadronic subprocess γ * p → ρp. Using the helicity basis for both photon and meson, we find a representation in which the expressions for a polarized and unpolarized target are related by simple substitution rules. (orig.)

  16. Persistent organic pollutants and penile bone mineral density in East Greenland and Canadian polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during 1996-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard-Petersen, Tobias; Langebæk, Rikke; Rigét, Frank F

    2018-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are long-range transported to the Arctic via atmospheric and oceanic currents, where they biomagnify to high concentrations in the tissues of apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). A major concern of POP exposure is their physiological effects...... on vital organ-tissues posing a threat to the health and survival of polar bears. Here we examined the relationship between selected POPs and baculum bone mineral density (BMD) in the East Greenland and seven Canadian subpopulations of polar bears. BMD was examined in 471 bacula collected between years...... 1996-2015 while POP concentrations in adipose tissue were determined in 67-192 of these individuals collected from 1999 to -2015. A geographical comparison showed that baculum BMD was significantly lowest in polar bears from East Greenland (EG) when compared to Gulf of Boothia (GB), Southern Hudson (SH...

  17. Linear-scaling fixed-node diffusion quantum Monte Carlo: accounting for the nodal information in a density matrix-based scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2008-04-07

    A reformulation of the fixed-node diffusion quantum Monte Carlo method (FN-DQMC) in terms of the N-particle density matrix is presented, which allows us to reduce the computational effort to linear for the evaluation of the local energy. The reformulation is based on our recently introduced density matrix-based approach for a linear-scaling variational QMC method [J. Kussmann et al., Phys. Rev. B. 75, 165107 (2007)]. However, within the latter approach of using the positive semi-definite N-particle trial density (rhoN T(R)=mid R:Psi(T)(R)mid R:(2)), the nodal information of the trial function is lost. Therefore, a straightforward application to the FN-DQMC method is not possible, in which the sign of the trial function is usually traced in order to confine the random walkers to their nodal pockets. As a solution, we reformulate the FN-DQMC approach in terms of off-diagonal elements of the N-particle density matrix rhoN T(R;R'), so that the nodal information of the trial density matrix is obtained. Besides all-electron moves, a scheme to perform single-electron moves within N-PDM QMC is described in detail. The efficiency of our method is illustrated for exemplary calculations.

  18. Development of a poly(dimethylacrylamide) based matrix material for solid phase high density peptide array synthesis employing a laser based material transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridder, Barbara [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Foertsch, Tobias C. [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Welle, Alexander [Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mattes, Daniela S. [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bojnicic-Kninski, Clemens M. von; Loeffler, Felix F.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Meier, Michael A.R., E-mail: m.a.r.meier@kit.edu [Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Breitling, Frank, E-mail: frank.breitling@kit.edu [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • New matrix material for peptide array synthesis from a ‘solid solvent’. • Resolution was increased with possible spot densities of up to 20.000 spots per cm{sup 2}. • The coupling depth and the effectiveness of washing steps analyzed by ToF-SIMS. • Adaptations and custom changes of the matrix material are possible. - Abstract: Poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) based matrix materials were developed for laser-based in situ solid phase peptide synthesis to produce high density arrays. In this specific array synthesis approach, amino acid derivatives are embedded into a matrix material, serving as a “solid” solvent material at room temperature. Then, a laser pulse transfers this mixture to the target position on a synthesis slide, where the peptide array is synthesized. Upon heating above the glass transition temperature of the matrix material, it softens, allowing diffusion of the amino acid derivatives to the synthesis surface and serving as a solvent for peptide bond formation. Here, we synthesized PDMA six-arm star polymers, offering the desired matrix material properties, using atom transfer radical polymerization. With the synthesized polymers as matrix material, we structured and synthesized arrays with combinatorial laser transfer. With densities of up to 20,000 peptide spots per cm{sup 2}, the resolution could be increased compared to the commercially available standard matrix material. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry experiments revealed the penetration behavior of an amino acid derivative into the prepared acceptor synthesis surface and the effectiveness of the washing protocols.

  19. Experimental determination of the real elements of the density matrix of H(n=3) atoms produced in 20--100-keV collisions of H+ on Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, N.; Gibson, N.D.; Risley, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    In continuation of our previous work, charge transfer processes occurring in protons on rare-gas-atom collisions have been investigated. Diagonal and real off-diagonal coherence elements of the density matrix for H(n=3) atoms produced in 20--100-keV electron-capture collisions with Kr atoms are experimentally determined by analyzing the Balmer-α light from the decay of H atoms from the (n=3) state to the (n=2) state. The intensity and polarization of the emitted light are measured as functions of an axially symmetric electric field in the collision region. These data are fitted to a numerical model of the H atom in an electric field in order to extract density-matrix elements. The results are compared to previous studies of H + on He and Ar. The collisionally produced dipole moment of the H(n=3) atom decreases for increasing atomic number of the rare-gas target atoms, which indicates that the final phase of the collision process is not essential for the formation of the dipole moment. This physical picture is further supported by our alignment data. Absolute cross sections for charge transfer to the 3s, 3p, and 3d levels are presented as well

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase 7 restrains Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric inflammation and premalignant lesions in the stomach by altering macrophage polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Krakowiak, MS; Noto, JM; Piazuelo, MB; Hardbower, DM; Romero-Gallo, J; Delgado, A; Chaturvedi, R; Correa, P; Wilson, KT; Peek, RM

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Although the specific mechanisms by which this pathogen induces carcinogenesis have not been fully elucidated, high-expression interleukin (IL)-1β alleles are associated with increased gastric cancer risk among H. pylori-infected persons. In addition, loss of matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) increases mucosal inflammation in mouse models of epithelial injury, and we have shown that gastric inflammation is...

  1. Retrieving simulated volcanic, desert dust and sea-salt particle properties from two/three-component particle mixtures using UV-VIS polarization lidar and T matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. David

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During transport by advection, atmospheric nonspherical particles, such as volcanic ash, desert dust or sea-salt particles experience several chemical and physical processes, leading to a complex vertical atmospheric layering at remote sites where intrusion episodes occur. In this paper, a new methodology is proposed to analyse this complex vertical layering in the case of a two/three-component particle external mixtures. This methodology relies on an analysis of the spectral and polarization properties of the light backscattered by atmospheric particles. It is based on combining a sensitive and accurate UV-VIS polarization lidar experiment with T-matrix numerical simulations and air mass back trajectories. The Lyon UV-VIS polarization lidar is used to efficiently partition the particle mixture into its nonspherical components, while the T-matrix method is used for simulating the backscattering and depolarization properties of nonspherical volcanic ash, desert dust and sea-salt particles. It is shown that the particle mixtures' depolarization ratio δ p differs from the nonspherical particles' depolarization ratio δns due to the presence of spherical particles in the mixture. Hence, after identifying a tracer for nonspherical particles, particle backscattering coefficients specific to each nonspherical component can be retrieved in a two-component external mixture. For three-component mixtures, the spectral properties of light must in addition be exploited by using a dual-wavelength polarization lidar. Hence, for the first time, in a three-component external mixture, the nonsphericity of each particle is taken into account in a so-called 2β + 2δ formalism. Applications of this new methodology are then demonstrated in two case studies carried out in Lyon, France, related to the mixing of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash with sulfate particles (case of a two-component mixture and to the mixing of dust with sea-salt and water-soluble particles

  2. When combined X-ray and polarized neutron diffraction data challenge high-level calculations: spin-resolved electron density of an organic radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voufack, Ariste Bolivard; Claiser, Nicolas; Lecomte, Claude; Pillet, Sébastien; Pontillon, Yves; Gillon, Béatrice; Yan, Zeyin; Gillet, Jean Michel; Marazzi, Marco; Genoni, Alessandro; Souhassou, Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Joint refinement of X-ray and polarized neutron diffraction data has been carried out in order to determine charge and spin density distributions simultaneously in the nitronyl nitroxide (NN) free radical Nit(SMe)Ph. For comparison purposes, density functional theory (DFT) and complete active-space self-consistent field (CASSCF) theoretical calculations were also performed. Experimentally derived charge and spin densities show significant differences between the two NO groups of the NN function that are not observed from DFT theoretical calculations. On the contrary, CASSCF calculations exhibit the same fine details as observed in spin-resolved joint refinement and a clear asymmetry between the two NO groups.

  3. High performance computing of density matrix renormalization group method for 2-dimensional model. Parallelization strategy toward peta computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Susumu; Igarashi, Ryo; Machida, Masahiko; Imamura, Toshiyuki; Okumura, Masahiko; Onishi, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    We parallelize the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method, which is a ground-state solver for one-dimensional quantum lattice systems. The parallelization allows us to extend the applicable range of the DMRG to n-leg ladders i.e., quasi two-dimension cases. Such an extension is regarded to bring about several breakthroughs in e.g., quantum-physics, chemistry, and nano-engineering. However, the straightforward parallelization requires all-to-all communications between all processes which are unsuitable for multi-core systems, which is a mainstream of current parallel computers. Therefore, we optimize the all-to-all communications by the following two steps. The first one is the elimination of the communications between all processes by only rearranging data distribution with the communication data amount kept. The second one is the avoidance of the communication conflict by rescheduling the calculation and the communication. We evaluate the performance of the DMRG method on multi-core supercomputers and confirm that our two-steps tuning is quite effective. (author)

  4. Full Quantum Dynamics Simulation of a Realistic Molecular System Using the Adaptive Time-Dependent Density Matrix Renormalization Group Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Sun, Ke-Wei; Luo, Zhen; Ma, Haibo

    2018-01-18

    The accurate theoretical interpretation of ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy experiments relies on full quantum dynamics simulations for the investigated system, which is nevertheless computationally prohibitive for realistic molecular systems with a large number of electronic and/or vibrational degrees of freedom. In this work, we propose a unitary transformation approach for realistic vibronic Hamiltonians, which can be coped with using the adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (t-DMRG) method to efficiently evolve the nonadiabatic dynamics of a large molecular system. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this approach with an example of simulating the exciton dissociation process within an oligothiophene/fullerene heterojunction, indicating that t-DMRG can be a promising method for full quantum dynamics simulation in large chemical systems. Moreover, it is also shown that the proper vibronic features in the ultrafast electronic process can be obtained by simulating the two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectrum by virtue of the high computational efficiency of the t-DMRG method.

  5. Exploiting the spatial locality of electron correlation within the parametric two-electron reduced-density-matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePrince, A. Eugene; Mazziotti, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The parametric variational two-electron reduced-density-matrix (2-RDM) method is applied to computing electronic correlation energies of medium-to-large molecular systems by exploiting the spatial locality of electron correlation within the framework of the cluster-in-molecule (CIM) approximation [S. Li et al., J. Comput. Chem. 23, 238 (2002); J. Chem. Phys. 125, 074109 (2006)]. The 2-RDMs of individual molecular fragments within a molecule are determined, and selected portions of these 2-RDMs are recombined to yield an accurate approximation to the correlation energy of the entire molecule. In addition to extending CIM to the parametric 2-RDM method, we (i) suggest a more systematic selection of atomic-orbital domains than that presented in previous CIM studies and (ii) generalize the CIM method for open-shell quantum systems. The resulting method is tested with a series of polyacetylene molecules, water clusters, and diazobenzene derivatives in minimal and nonminimal basis sets. Calculations show that the computational cost of the method scales linearly with system size. We also compute hydrogen-abstraction energies for a series of hydroxyurea derivatives. Abstraction of hydrogen from hydroxyurea is thought to be a key step in its treatment of sickle cell anemia; the design of hydroxyurea derivatives that oxidize more rapidly is one approach to devising more effective treatments.

  6. Assessment of various natural orbitals as the basis of large active space density-matrix renormalization group calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingjin; Ma, Haibo

    2013-06-14

    It is well-known that not only the orbital ordering but also the choice of the orbitals itself as the basis may significantly influence the computational efficiency of density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. In this study, for assessing the efficiency of using various natural orbitals (NOs) as the DMRG basis, we performed benchmark DMRG calculations with different bases, which included the NOs obtained by various traditional electron correlation methods, as well as NOs acquired from preliminary moderate DMRG calculations (e.g., preserved states less than 500). The tested systems included N2, transition metal Cr2 systems, as well as 1D hydrogen polyradical chain systems under equilibrium and dissociation conditions and 2D hydrogen aggregates. The results indicate that a good compromise between the requirement for low computational costs of acquiring NOs and the demand for high efficiency of NOs as the basis of DMRG calculations may be very dependent on the studied systems' diverse electron correlation characteristics and the size of the active space. It is also shown that a DMRG-complete active space configuration interaction (DMRG-CASCI) calculation in a basis of carefully chosen NOs can provide a less expensive alternative to the standard DMRG-complete active space self-consistent field (DMRG-CASSCF) calculation and avoid the convergence difficulties of orbital optimization for large active spaces. The effect of different NO ordering schemes on DMRG-CASCI calculations is also discussed.

  7. Density matrix renormalization group study of a three-orbital Hubbard model with spin-orbit coupling in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Nitin; Herbrych, Jacek; Nocera, Alberto; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Moreo, Adriana; Reboredo, F. A.; Dagotto, Elbio

    2017-10-01

    Using the density matrix renormalization group technique we study the effect of spin-orbit coupling on a three-orbital Hubbard model in the (t2g) 4 sector and in one dimension. Fixing the Hund coupling to a robust value compatible with some multiorbital materials, we present the phase diagram varying the Hubbard U and spin-orbit coupling λ , at zero temperature. Our results are shown to be qualitatively similar to those recently reported using the dynamical mean-field theory in higher dimensions, providing a robust basis to approximate many-body techniques. Among many results, we observe an interesting transition from an orbital-selective Mott phase to an excitonic insulator with increasing λ at intermediate U . In the strong U coupling limit, we find a nonmagnetic insulator with an effective angular momentum 〈(Jeff)2〉≠0 near the excitonic phase, smoothly connected to the 〈(Jeff)2〉=0 regime. We also provide a list of quasi-one-dimensional materials where the physics discussed in this paper could be realized.

  8. The hole spectral function and the relationship between overlap functions, natural orbitals and the one-body density matrix in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.N.; Stoitsov, M.V.; Gaidarov, M.K.; Dimitrova, S.S.; Hodgson, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    A method to calculate the hole spectral function in the discrete part of the spectrum is suggested within the natural orbital representation of the one-body density matrix of the A-nucleon system using its relationship with the overlap functions of the eigenstates in the (A-1)-nucleon system. (author)

  9. The maximal excess charge for a family of density-matrix-functional theories including Hartree-Fock and Müller theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehle, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    We will give a proof that the maximal excess charge for an atom described by a family of density-matrix-functionals, which includes Hartree-Fock and Müller theories, is bounded by a universal constant. We will use the new technique introduced by Frank et al. [preprint arXiv:1608.05625 (2016)].

  10. INFLUENCE OF SOLVENT ON INTRAMOLECULAR PROTON-TRANSFER IN HYDROGEN MALONATE - MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS SIMULATION STUDY OF TUNNELING BY DENSITY-MATRIX EVOLUTION AND NONEQUILIBRIUM SOLVATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAVRI, J; BERENDSEN, HJC; VANGUNSTEREN, WF

    1993-01-01

    A density matrix evolution (DME) method (Berendsen, H. J. C.; Mavri, J. J. Phys. Chem. the preceding paper in this issue) in combination with classical molecular dynamics simulation was applied to calculate the rate of proton tunneling in the intramolecular double-well hydrogen bond of hydrogen

  11. CALCULATION OF THE PROTON-TRANSFER RATE USING DENSITY-MATRIX EVOLUTION AND MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS - INCLUSION OF THE PROTON EXCITED-STATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAVRI, J; BERENDSEN, HJC

    1995-01-01

    The methodology for treatment of proton transfer processes by density matrix evolution (DME) with inclusion of many excited states is presented. The DME method (Berendsen, H. J. C.; Mavri, J. J. Phys. Chem. 1993, 97, 13464) that simulates the dynamics of quantum systems embedded in a classical

  12. Serpin E2 promotes breast cancer metastasis by remodeling the tumor matrix and polarizing tumor associated macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Tatiana; Bonapace, Laura; MacDonald, Gwen; Kondo, Shunya; Ebersbach, Hilmar; Fayard, Bérengère; Doelemeyer, Arno; Coissieux, Marie-May; Heideman, Marinus R.; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Hynes, Nancy E.; Wyckoff, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular serine protease inhibitor serpinE2 is overexpressed in breast cancer and has been shown to foster metastatic spread. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that serpinE2 creates tumor-promoting conditions in the tumor microenvironment (TME) by affecting extracellular matrix remodeling. Using two different breast cancer models, we show that blocking serpinE2, either by knock-down (KD) in tumor cells or in response to a serpinE2 binding antibody, decreases metastatic disseminati...

  13. Polarization, excited states, trans-cis properties and anisotropy of thermal and electrical conductivity of the 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline in PVA matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Siyamak; Filippovich, Liudmila; Sheikhi, Masoome; Kumar, Rakesh; Dikusar, Evgenij; Yahyaei, Hooriye; Muravsky, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, Polarization, Excited States, Trans-Cis (E → Z) Isomerization Properties and Anisotropy of Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of the 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix were studied. DFT, UV/Vis, IR-Spectroscopies and Indicator Method were used for Determination of Thermal Conductivity of polymer films. The absorption spectra of the 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline in dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent and in aqueous medium were calculated. The nature of absorption peaks of the 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline in the UV/Vis spectral regions were interpreted. The solvent effect on the absorption spectrum of the 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline has established. The molecular HOMO-LUMO, excitation energies and oscillator strengths for E and Z isomers of the 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline have also been calculated and presented. Optical Properties of the PVA-films containing 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline have been also investigated. Polarizing Efficiency (PE) of obtained PVA-film is 98-99% at Stretching Degree (Rs) 3.5. Anisotropy of thermal and electrical conductivity of PVA-films containing E and Z isomers of the 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline was also measured and discussed.

  14. The evolution of tensor polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Lee, S.Y.; Ratner, L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the equation of motion for the vector polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization is derived. The evolution equation for the tensor polarization is studied in the presence of an isolate spin resonance and in the presence of a spin rotor, or snake

  15. Persistent organic pollutants, skull size and bone density of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland 1892-2015 and Svalbard 1964-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard-Petersen, Tobias; Langebæk, Rikke; Rigét, Frank F

    2018-01-01

    We investigated skull size (condylobasal length; CBL) and bone mineral density (BMD) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland (n = 307) and Svalbard (n = 173) sampled during the period 1892–2015 in East Greenland and 1964–2004 at Svalbard. Adult males from East Greenland showed...... that the skull size of adult East Greenland females was negatively correlated with collection year 1892–2015 (linear regression: p = 0.06). No temporal change was found for BMD or skull size in Svalbard polar bears (ANOVA: all p > 0.05) nor was there any significant difference in BMD between Svalbard and East...... Greenland subpopulations. Skull size was larger in polar bears from Svalbard than from East Greenland (two-way ANOVA: p = 0.003). T-scores reflecting risk of osteoporosis showed that adult males from both East Greenland and Svalbard are at risk of developing osteopenia. Finally, when correcting for age...

  16. Persistent organic pollutants, skull size and bone density of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland 1892-2015 and Svalbard 1964-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugaard-Petersen, Tobias; Langebæk, Rikke; Rigét, Frank F; Letcher, Robert J; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Bech; Bechshoft, Thea; Wiig, Øystein; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Pertoldi, Cino; Lorenzen, Eline D; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian

    2018-04-01

    We investigated skull size (condylobasal length; CBL) and bone mineral density (BMD) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland (n = 307) and Svalbard (n = 173) sampled during the period 1892-2015 in East Greenland and 1964-2004 at Svalbard. Adult males from East Greenland showed a continuous decrease in BMD from 1892 to 2015 (linear regression: p 0.05) nor was there any significant difference in BMD between Svalbard and East Greenland subpopulations. Skull size was larger in polar bears from Svalbard than from East Greenland (two-way ANOVA: p = 0.003). T-scores reflecting risk of osteoporosis showed that adult males from both East Greenland and Svalbard are at risk of developing osteopenia. Finally, when correcting for age and sex, BMD in East Greenland polar bears increased with increasing concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) i.e. ΣPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), ΣHCH (hexachlorohexane), HCB (hexachlorobenzene) and ΣPBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) while skull size increased with ΣHCH concentrations all in the period 1999-2014 (multiple linear regression: all p < 0.05, n = 175). The results suggest that environmental changes over time, including exposure to POPs, may affect bone density and size of polar bears. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transfer Matrix for Obliquely Incident Electromagnetic Waves Propagating in One Dimension Plasma Photonic Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Bin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the electromagnetic theory and by using an analytical technique-the transfer matrix method, the obliquely incident electromagnetic waves propagating in one-dimension plasma photonic crystals is studied. The dispersion relations for both the P-polarization waves and S-polarization waves, depending on the plasma density, plasma thickness and period, are discussed. (basic plasma phenomena)

  18. β-Dystroglycan cleavage by matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 disturbs aquaporin-4 polarization and influences brain edema in acute cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W; Zhao, X; Chen, H; Zhong, D; Jin, J; Qin, Q; Zhang, H; Ma, S; Li, G

    2016-06-21

    Dystroglycan (DG) is widely expressed in various tissues, and throughout the cerebral microvasculature. It consists of two subunits, α-DG and β-DG, and the cleavage of the latter by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 underlies a number of physiological and pathological processes. However, the involvement of MMP-2/-9-mediated β-DG cleavage in cerebral ischemia remains uncertain. In astrocytes, DG is crucial for maintaining the polarization of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which plays a role in the regulation of cytotoxic and vasogenic edema. The present study aimed to explore the effects of MMP-2/-9-mediated β-DG cleavage on AQP4 polarization and brain edema in acute cerebral ischemia. A model of cerebral ischemia was established via permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in male C57BL/6 mice. Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemical staining, immunofluorescent staining, electron microscopy, and light microscopy were used. Captopril was applied as a selective MMP-2/-9 inhibitor. Recombinant mouse MMP (rmMMP)-2 and -9 were used in an in vitro cleavage experiment. The present study demonstrated evidence of β-DG cleavage by MMP-2/-9 in pMCAO mouse brains; this cleavage was implicated in AQP4 redistribution and brain edema in cerebral ischemia. In addition, captopril exacerbated cytotoxic edema and ameliorated vasogenic edema at 24h after pMCAO, and alleviated brain edema and neurological deficit at 48h and 72h. In conclusion, this study provides novel insight into the effects of MMP-2/-9-mediated β-DG cleavage in acute cerebral ischemia. Such findings might facilitate the development of a therapeutic strategy for the optimization of MMP-2/-9 targeted treatment in cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  20. Persistent organic pollutants and penile bone mineral density in East Greenland and Canadian polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during 1996-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugaard-Petersen, Tobias; Langebæk, Rikke; Rigét, Frank F; Dyck, Markus; Letcher, Robert J; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Bech; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian

    2018-03-06

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are long-range transported to the Arctic via atmospheric and oceanic currents, where they biomagnify to high concentrations in the tissues of apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). A major concern of POP exposure is their physiological effects on vital organ-tissues posing a threat to the health and survival of polar bears. Here we examined the relationship between selected POPs and baculum bone mineral density (BMD) in the East Greenland and seven Canadian subpopulations of polar bears. BMD was examined in 471 bacula collected between years 1996-2015 while POP concentrations in adipose tissue were determined in 67-192 of these individuals collected from 1999 to -2015. A geographical comparison showed that baculum BMD was significantly lowest in polar bears from East Greenland (EG) when compared to Gulf of Boothia (GB), Southern Hudson (SH) and Western Hudson (WH) Bay subpopulations (all p bears as a reference group gave a T-score of -1.44 which indicate risk of osteopenia. Concentrations of ΣPCB 74 (polychlorinated biphenyls), ΣDDT 3 (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes), p,p'-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), ΣHCH 3 (hexachlorohexane) and α-HCH was significantly highest in EG bears while ΣPBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), BDE-47 and BDE-153 was significantly highest in SH bears (all p polar bears despite the positive statistical correlations of BMD vs. POPs. Other important factors such as nutritional status, body mass and body condition was not available for the statistical modelling. Since on-going environmental changes are known to affect these, future studies need to incorporate nutritional, endocrine and genetic parameters to further understand how POP exposure may disrupt bone homeostasis and affect baculum BMD across polar bear subpopulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ab initio density functional theory study of non-polar (101¯0), (112¯0) and semipolar (202¯1) GaN surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutombo, P.; Romanyuk, O.

    2014-01-01

    The atomic structures of non-polar GaN(101 ¯ 0), (112 ¯ 0) and semipolar GaN(202 ¯ 1), (202 ¯ 1 ¯ ) surfaces were studied using ab initio calculations within density functional theory. The bulk-like truncated (1 × 1) structure with buckled Ga-N or Ga-Ga dimers was found stable on the non-polar GaN(101 ¯ 0) surface in agreement with previous works. Ga-N heterodimers were found energetically stable on the GaN(112 ¯ 0)-(1 × 1) surface. The formation of vacancies and substitution site defects was found unfavorable for non-polar GaN surfaces. Semipolar GaN(202 ¯ 1)-(1 × 1) surface unit cells consist of non-polar (101 ¯ 0) and semipolar (101 ¯ 1) nano-facets. The (101 ¯ 1) nano-facets consist of two-fold coordinated atoms, which form N-N dimers within a (2 × 1) surface unit cell on a GaN(202 ¯ 1) surface. Dimers are not formed on the GaN(202 ¯ 1 ¯ ) surface. The stability of the surfaces with single (101 ¯ 0) or (101 ¯ 1) nano-facets was analyzed. A single non-polar (101 ¯ 0)-(1 × 1) nano-facet was found stable on the GaN(202 ¯ 1) surface, but unstable on the GaN(202 ¯ 1 ¯ ) surface. A single (101 ¯ 1) nano-facet was found unstable. Semipolar GaN surfaces with (202 ¯ 1) and (202 ¯ 1 ¯ ) polarity can be stabilized with a Ga overlayer at Ga-rich experimental conditions.

  2. Multispin correlations and pseudo-thermalization of the transient density matrix in solid-state NMR: free induction decay and magic echo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven W.; Oganesyan, Vadim; Boutis, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum unitary evolution typically leads to thermalization of generic interacting many-body systems. There are very few known general methods for reversing this process, and we focus on the magic echo, a radio-frequency pulse sequence known to approximately “rewind” the time evolution of dipolar coupled homonuclear spin systems in a large magnetic field. By combining analytic, numerical, and experimental results we systematically investigate factors leading to the degradation of magic echoes, as observed in reduced revival of mean transverse magnetization. Going beyond the conventional analysis based on mean magnetization we use a phase encoding technique to measure the growth of spin correlations in the density matrix at different points in time following magic echoes of varied durations and compare the results to those obtained during a free induction decay (FID). While considerable differences are documented at short times, the long-time behavior of the density matrix appears to be remarkably universal among the types of initial states considered – simple low order multispin correlations are observed to decay exponentially at the same rate, seeding the onset of increasingly complex high order correlations. This manifestly athermal process is constrained by conservation of the second moment of the spectrum of the density matrix and proceeds indefinitely, assuming unitary dynamics. PMID:23710125

  3. Tailoring electronic structure of α-AlH3 to enhance spin polarization: Insights from density functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Lin; Dong, Shengjie; Zhou, Baozeng; Sun, Lili; Zhao, Hui; Wu, Ping

    2017-09-01

    The effects of 3d transition metals doping on the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of aluminum hydride were investigated based on spin-polarized first-principles calculations. The studies indicated that V, Cr, Mn, and Fe doping could produce polarization of high-spin state, while Co and Ni doping would induce polarization of low-spin state. It was found that the magnetic ground state depended on the distance between two substitutions and the long-range ferromagnetic coupling was achieved upon doping V, Mn, and Fe. The present work indicated that the introduced 3d-block dopants could tailor aluminum hydride into either a potential half-metallic or n-type magnetic semiconductor by tuning the valence electrons of the impurities. The main findings of this work pointed out the possibilities of the applications of hydrides in future hydride electronics and spintronics.

  4. Comparing lightning polarity and cloud microphysical properties over regions of high ground flash density in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, LA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find a correlation between lightning polarity and microphysical properties of a storm cloud, for events where large amounts of lightning damage have occured and/or there has been a reported lightning-related fatality....

  5. The density of collagen fiber in alveolus mandibular bone of rabbit after augmentation with powder demineralized bone matrix post incisivus extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina TC. Tandelilin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The bone defect due to tooth extraction contributes the most cases reported in the aspects of oral surgery. The defect can be preventively managed by adding powder bone matrix intended for augmentation which eventually induces the formation of new bones. This hard tissue wound healing is preceded by the presence of collagen fibers. The aim of this study was to determine the density of collagen fiber in the alveolus mandibular bone of rabbit which was augmented using powder demineralized bone matrix (DBM post incisivus extraction. Twenty four male rabbits aged 2.5–3 months weighed 900–1,100 grams were randomly divided into two groups. The treated rabbits were augmented with DBM after the incisivus extraction on mandible. The mucosa was then sutured. On the other hand, the controlled rabbits received similar treatments with those of the treated rabbits except there was no augmentation of DBM. Decapitation of treated and controlled rabbits was made on day 5, 7, 10, and 14 days post surgery, each with three rabbits. Mandibles were cut, decalcified, and imbedded in paraffin block. The staining was done using Mallory. Significant differences in the density of collagen were noted on day 10 and 14 post surgery, indicating that powder demineralized bone matrix successfully induced the stimulation of collagen.

  6. The physics of polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    ). Finally, the third part (Sects. 15-19) is devoted to give a sketch of the theory of the generation and transfer of polarized radiation in spectral lines. After a general introduction to the argument (Sect. 15), the concepts of density-matrix and of atomic polarization are illustrated in Sect. 16. In Sect. 17, a parallelism is established, within the framework of the theory of stellar atmospheres, between the usual formalism, which neglects polarization phenomena, and the more involved formalism needed for the interpretation of spectro-polarimetric observations. Some consequences of the radiative transfer equations for polarized radiation, pointing to the importance of dichroism phenomena in establishing the amplification condition via stimulated emission, are discussed in Sect. 18. The last section (Sect. 19) is devoted to introduce the problem of finding a self-consistent solution of the radiative transfer equations for polarized radiation and of the statistical equilibrium equations for the density matrix (non-LTE of the 2nd kind).

  7. Nonorthogonal orbital based N-body reduced density matrices and their applications to valence bond theory. I. Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted excited valence bond wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In this series, the n-body reduced density matrix (n-RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals and their applications to ab initio valence bond (VB) methods are presented. As the first paper of this series, Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions are explicitly provided by means of nonorthogonal orbital based RDM approach. To this end, a more generalized Wick's theorem, called enhanced Wick's theorem, is presented both in arithmetical and in graphical forms, by which the deduction of expressions for the matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions is dramatically simplified, and the matrix elements are finally expressed in terms of tensor contractions of electronic integrals and n-RDMs of the reference VB self-consistent field wave function. A string-based algorithm is developed for the purpose of evaluating n-RDMs in an efficient way. Using the techniques presented in this paper, one is able to develop new methods and efficient algorithms for nonorthogonal orbital based many-electron theory much easier than by use of the first quantized formulism.

  8. Polarization of Coronal Forbidden Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao; Qu, Zhongquan [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China); Landi Degl’Innocenti, Egidio, E-mail: sayahoro@ynao.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2017-03-20

    Since the magnetic field is responsible for most manifestations of solar activity, one of the most challenging problems in solar physics is the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields, particularly in the outer atmosphere. To this end, it is important to develop rigorous diagnostic tools to interpret polarimetric observations in suitable spectral lines. This paper is devoted to analyzing the diagnostic content of linear polarization imaging observations in coronal forbidden lines. Although this technique is restricted to off-limb observations, it represents a significant tool to diagnose the magnetic field structure in the solar corona, where the magnetic field is intrinsically weak and still poorly known. We adopt the quantum theory of polarized line formation developed in the framework of the density matrix formalism, and synthesize images of the emergent linear polarization signal in coronal forbidden lines using potential-field source-surface magnetic field models. The influence of electronic collisions, active regions, and Thomson scattering on the linear polarization of coronal forbidden lines is also examined. It is found that active regions and Thomson scattering are capable of conspicuously influencing the orientation of the linear polarization. These effects have to be carefully taken into account to increase the accuracy of the field diagnostics. We also found that linear polarization observation in suitable lines can give valuable information on the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona.

  9. Excitation energies with linear response density matrix functional theory along the dissociation coordinate of an electron-pair bond in N-electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meer, R. van; Gritsenko, O. V.; Baerends, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Time dependent density matrix functional theory in its adiabatic linear response formulation delivers exact excitation energies ω α and oscillator strengths f α for two-electron systems if extended to the so-called phase including natural orbital (PINO) theory. The Löwdin-Shull expression for the energy of two-electron systems in terms of the natural orbitals and their phases affords in this case an exact phase-including natural orbital functional (PILS), which is non-primitive (contains other than just J and K integrals). In this paper, the extension of the PILS functional to N-electron systems is investigated. With the example of an elementary primitive NO functional (BBC1) it is shown that current density matrix functional theory ground state functionals, which were designed to produce decent approximations to the total energy, fail to deliver a qualitatively correct structure of the (inverse) response function, due to essential deficiencies in the reconstruction of the two-body reduced density matrix (2RDM). We now deduce essential features of an N-electron functional from a wavefunction Ansatz: The extension of the two-electron Löwdin-Shull wavefunction to the N-electron case informs about the phase information. In this paper, applications of this extended Löwdin-Shull (ELS) functional are considered for the simplest case, ELS(1): one (dissociating) two-electron bond in the field of occupied (including core) orbitals. ELS(1) produces high quality ω α (R) curves along the bond dissociation coordinate R for the molecules LiH, Li 2 , and BH with the two outer valence electrons correlated. All of these results indicate that response properties are much more sensitive to deficiencies in the reconstruction of the 2RDM than the ground state energy, since derivatives of the functional with respect to both the NOs and the occupation numbers need to be accurate

  10. Comparison of Conjugate Gradient Density Matrix Search and Chebyshev Expansion Methods for Avoiding Diagonalization in Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Kevin R.; Daniels, Andrew D.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    1998-01-01

    We report a comparison of two linear-scaling methods which avoid the diagonalization bottleneck of traditional electronic structure algorithms. The Chebyshev expansion method (CEM) is implemented for carbon tight-binding calculations of large systems and its memory and timing requirements compared to those of our previously implemented conjugate gradient density matrix search (CG-DMS). Benchmark calculations are carried out on icosahedral fullerenes from C60 to C8640 and the linear scaling memory and CPU requirements of the CEM demonstrated. We show that the CPU requisites of the CEM and CG-DMS are similar for calculations with comparable accuracy.

  11. Matrix infrared spectra and density functional calculations of the H2CCN and H2CNC radicals produced from CH3CN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han-Gook; Andrews, Lester

    2011-08-11

    The H(2)CCN and H(2)CNC radicals are observed in matrix IR spectra from acetonitrile exposed to radiation from laser ablation of transition metals, whereas cyc-H(2)CCN, another plausible isomer, is not. Density functional frequency calculations and D and (13)C isotopic substitutions substantiate the vibrational assignments. The cyano methyl radical converts to the 95 kJ/mol higher energy isocyano counterpart on uv photolysis. Computations show that the cyclic isomer is a shallow energy minimum between two transition states. Intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations indicate that conversion between the two products is feasible via the cyclic configuration.

  12. Majorana zero modes and long range edge correlation in interacting Kitaev chains: analytic solutions and density-matrix-renormalization-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jian-Jian; Jin, Hui-Ke; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Zhou, Yi

    2018-01-11

    We study Kitaev model in one-dimension with open boundary condition by using exact analytic methods for non-interacting system at zero chemical potential as well as in the symmetric case of Δ = t, and by using density-matrix-renormalization-group method for interacting system with nearest neighbor repulsion interaction. We suggest and examine an edge correlation function of Majorana fermions to characterize the long range order in the topological superconducting states and study the phase diagram of the interating Kitaev chain.

  13. Force Field Benchmark of the TraPPE_UA for Polar Liquids: Density, Heat of Vaporization, Dielectric Constant, Surface Tension, Volumetric Expansion Coefficient, and Isothermal Compressibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Rojas, Edgar; Aguilar-Pineda, Jorge Alberto; Pérez de la Luz, Alexander; de Jesús González, Edith Nadir; Alejandre, José

    2018-02-08

    The transferable potential for a phase equilibria force field in its united-atom version, TraPPE_UA, is evaluated for 41 polar liquids that include alcohols, thiols, ethers, sulfides, aldehydes, ketones, and esters to determine its ability to reproduce experimental properties that were not included in the parametrization procedure. The intermolecular force field parameters for pure components were fit to reproduce experimental boiling temperature, vapor-liquid coexisting densities, and critical point (temperature, density, and pressure) using Monte Carlo simulations in different ensembles. The properties calculated in this work are liquid density, heat of vaporization, dielectric constant, surface tension, volumetric expansion coefficient, and isothermal compressibility. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed in the gas and liquid phases, and also at the liquid-vapor interface. We found that relative error between calculated and experimental data is 1.2% for density, 6% for heat of vaporization, and 6.2% for surface tension, in good agreement with the experimental data. The dielectric constant is systematically underestimated, and the relative error is 37%. Evaluating the performance of the force field to reproduce the volumetric expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility requires more experimental data.

  14. Influence of food matrix on absorption of flavour compounds by linear low-density polyethylene: oil and real food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of oil and food components in real food products on the absorption of four flavour compounds (limonene, decanal, linalool and ethyl 2-methyl butyrate) into linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was studied using a large volume injection GC in vial extraction method. Model food

  15. Influence of food matrix on absorption of flavour compounds by linear low-density polyethylene: proteins and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of oil and food components in real food products on the absorption of four flavour compounds (limonene, decanal, linalool and ethyl 2-methyl butyrate) into linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was studied using a large volume injection GC in vial extraction method. Model food

  16. Dynamic impact response of high-density square honeycombs made of TRIP steel and TRIP matrix composite material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigelt C.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two designs of square-celled metallic honeycomb structures fabricated by a modified extrusion technology based on a powder feedstock were investigated. The strength and ductility of these cellular materials are achieved by an austenitic CrNi (AISI 304 steel matrix particle reinforced by an MgO partially-stabilized zirconia building up their cell wall microstructure. Similar to the mechanical behaviour of the bulk materials, the strengthening mechanism and the martensitic phase transformations in the cell walls are affected by the deformation temperature and the nominal strain rate. The microstructure evolution during quasi-static and dynamic impact compression up to high strain rates of 103 1/s influences the buckling and failure behaviour of the honeycomb structures. In contrast to bending-dominated quasi-isotropic networks like open-celled metal foams, axial compressive loading to the honeycomb’s channels causes membrane stretching as well as crushing of the vertical cell node elements and cell walls. The presented honeycomb materials differ geometrically in their cell wall thickness-to-cell size-ratio. Therefore, the failure behaviour is predominantly controlled by global buckling and torsional-flexural buckling, respectively, accompanied by plastic matrix flow and strengthening of the cell wall microstructure.

  17. Dynamic impact response of high-density square honeycombs made of TRIP steel and TRIP matrix composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehinger, D.; Krüger, L.; Krause, S.; Martin, U.; Weigelt, C.; Aneziris, C. G.

    2012-08-01

    Two designs of square-celled metallic honeycomb structures fabricated by a modified extrusion technology based on a powder feedstock were investigated. The strength and ductility of these cellular materials are achieved by an austenitic CrNi (AISI 304) steel matrix particle reinforced by an MgO partially-stabilized zirconia building up their cell wall microstructure. Similar to the mechanical behaviour of the bulk materials, the strengthening mechanism and the martensitic phase transformations in the cell walls are affected by the deformation temperature and the nominal strain rate. The microstructure evolution during quasi-static and dynamic impact compression up to high strain rates of 103 1/s influences the buckling and failure behaviour of the honeycomb structures. In contrast to bending-dominated quasi-isotropic networks like open-celled metal foams, axial compressive loading to the honeycomb's channels causes membrane stretching as well as crushing of the vertical cell node elements and cell walls. The presented honeycomb materials differ geometrically in their cell wall thickness-to-cell size-ratio. Therefore, the failure behaviour is predominantly controlled by global buckling and torsional-flexural buckling, respectively, accompanied by plastic matrix flow and strengthening of the cell wall microstructure.

  18. Intrinsic Local Constituents of Molecular Electronic Wave Functions.I. Exact Representation of the Density Matrix in Terms of Chemically Deformed and Oriented Atomic Minimal Basis Set Orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Ivanic; Gregory J. Atchity; Klaus Ruedenberg

    2007-02-12

    A coherent, intrinsic, basis-set-independent analysis is developed for the invariants of the first-order density matrix of an accurate molecular electronic wavefunction. From the hierarchical ordering of the natural orbitals, the zeroth-order orbital space is deduced, which generates the zeroth-order wavefunction, typically an MCSCF function in the full valence space. It is shown that intrinsically embedded in such wavefunctions are elements that are local in bond regions and elements that are local in atomic regions. Basis-set-independent methods are given that extract and exhibit the intrinsic bond orbitals and the intrinsic minimal-basis quasi-atomic orbitals in terms of which the wavefunction can be exactly constructed. The quasi-atomic orbitals are furthermore oriented by a basis-set independent method (viz. maximization of the sum of the fourth powers of all off-diagonal density matrix elements) so as to exhibit clearly the chemical interactions. The unbiased nature of the method allows for the adaptation of the localized and directed orbitals to changing geometries.

  19. Measurement of the spin density matrix for the $\\rho^0$, $K^{*0}(892)$ and $\\phi$ produced in $Z^0$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbi, M S; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolenko, M; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pain, R; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Podobnik, T; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Serbelloni, L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siegrist, P; Silvestre, R; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Yi, J; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1997-01-01

    The spin density matrix elements for the $\\rho^0$, K$^{*0}(892)$ and $\\phi$ produced in hadronic Z$^0$ decays are measured in the DELPHI detector. There is no evidence for spin alignment of the K$^{*0}(892)$ and $\\phi$ in the region $x_p \\leq 0.3$ ($x_p = p/p_{beam}$), where $\\rho_{00} = 0.33 \\pm 0.05$ and $\\rho_{00} = 0.30 \\pm 0.04$, respectively. In the fragmentation region, $x_p \\geq 0.4$, there is some indication for spin alignment of the $\\rho^0$ and K$^{*0}(892)$, since $\\rho_{00} = 0.43 \\pm 0.05$ and $\\rho_{00} = 0.46 \\pm 0.08$, respectively. These values are compared with those found in meson-induced hadronic reactions. For the $\\phi$, $\\rho_{00} = 0.30 \\pm 0.04$ for $x_p \\geq 0.4$ and $0.55 \\pm 0.10$ for $x_p \\geq 0.7$. The off-diagonal spin density matrix element $\\rho_{1-1}$ is consistent with zero in all cases.

  20. Path integral density matrix dynamics: a method for calculating time-dependent properties in thermal adiabatic and non-adiabatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habershon, Scott

    2013-09-14

    We introduce a new approach for calculating quantum time-correlation functions and time-dependent expectation values in many-body thermal systems; both electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic cases can be treated. Our approach uses a path integral simulation to sample an initial thermal density matrix; subsequent evolution of this density matrix is equivalent to solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, which we perform using a linear expansion of Gaussian wavepacket basis functions which evolve according to simple classical-like trajectories. Overall, this methodology represents a formally exact approach for calculating time-dependent quantum properties; by introducing approximations into both the imaginary-time and real-time propagations, this approach can be adapted for complex many-particle systems interacting through arbitrary potentials. We demonstrate this method for the spin Boson model, where we find good agreement with numerically exact calculations. We also discuss future directions of improvement for our approach with a view to improving accuracy and efficiency.

  1. Meniscal tear evaluation. Comparison of a conventional spin-echo proton density sequence with a fast spin-echo sequence utilizing a 512x358 matrix size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, M.A.; Robinson, P. [Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Grainger, A.J., E-mail: andrew.grainger@leedsth.nhs.u [Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Aim: To determine the sensitivities, specificities, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROCs) for sagittal conventional spin-echo proton density (SE-PD) and fast spin-echo proton density (FSE-PD) sequences in the diagnosis of meniscal tears when compared to arthroscopic findings utilizing increased FSE matrix acquisition size. Method and materials: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 97 knees (194 menisci) were independently and prospectively interpreted by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists over four separate readings at least 3 weeks apart. Readings 1 and 2 included images in all three planes in accordance with the standard protocol with either a SE or FSE sagittal PD, at readings 3 and 4 just the SE or FSE sagittal PD sequences were reported. The FSE sequence was acquired with an increased matrix size, compared to the SE sequence, to provide increased resolution. Menisci were graded for the presence of a tear and statistical analysis to calculate sensitivity and specificity was performed comparing to arthroscopy as the reference standard. ROC analysis for the diagnosis of meniscal tears on the SE and FSE sagittal sequences was also evaluated. Reader concordance for the SE and FSE sequences was calculated. Results: Sixty-seven tears were noted at arthroscopy; 60 were detected on SE and 56 on FSE. The sensitivity and specificity for SE was 90 and 90%, and for FSE was 84 and 94%, respectively, with no significant difference. ROC analysis showed no significant difference between the two sequences and kappa values demonstrated a higher level of reader agreement for the FSE than for the SE reading. Conclusion: Use of a FSE sagittal PD sequence with an increased matrix size provides comparable performance to conventional SE sagittal PD when evaluating meniscal disease with a modern system. The present study indicates an increased level of concordance between readers for the FSE sagittal sequence compared to the conventional SE.

  2. Meniscal tear evaluation. Comparison of a conventional spin-echo proton density sequence with a fast spin-echo sequence utilizing a 512x358 matrix size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, M.A.; Robinson, P.; Grainger, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the sensitivities, specificities, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROCs) for sagittal conventional spin-echo proton density (SE-PD) and fast spin-echo proton density (FSE-PD) sequences in the diagnosis of meniscal tears when compared to arthroscopic findings utilizing increased FSE matrix acquisition size. Method and materials: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 97 knees (194 menisci) were independently and prospectively interpreted by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists over four separate readings at least 3 weeks apart. Readings 1 and 2 included images in all three planes in accordance with the standard protocol with either a SE or FSE sagittal PD, at readings 3 and 4 just the SE or FSE sagittal PD sequences were reported. The FSE sequence was acquired with an increased matrix size, compared to the SE sequence, to provide increased resolution. Menisci were graded for the presence of a tear and statistical analysis to calculate sensitivity and specificity was performed comparing to arthroscopy as the reference standard. ROC analysis for the diagnosis of meniscal tears on the SE and FSE sagittal sequences was also evaluated. Reader concordance for the SE and FSE sequences was calculated. Results: Sixty-seven tears were noted at arthroscopy; 60 were detected on SE and 56 on FSE. The sensitivity and specificity for SE was 90 and 90%, and for FSE was 84 and 94%, respectively, with no significant difference. ROC analysis showed no significant difference between the two sequences and kappa values demonstrated a higher level of reader agreement for the FSE than for the SE reading. Conclusion: Use of a FSE sagittal PD sequence with an increased matrix size provides comparable performance to conventional SE sagittal PD when evaluating meniscal disease with a modern system. The present study indicates an increased level of concordance between readers for the FSE sagittal sequence compared to the conventional SE.

  3. Cortical Matrix Mineral Density Measured Non-invasively in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women and a Woman with Vitamin D Dependent Rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Cherie Y; Zebaze, Roger; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Seeman, Ego

    2018-02-28

    Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) may be due to reduced mineralized bone matrix volume, incomplete secondary mineralization or reduced primary mineralization. As bone biopsy is invasive, we hypothesized that non-invasive image acquisition at high resolution can accurately quantify matrix mineral density (MMD). Quantification of MMD was confined to voxels attenuation photons above 80% of that produced by fully mineralized bone matrix because attenuation at this level is due to variation in mineralization not porosity. To assess accuracy, 9 cadaveric distal radii were imaged at a voxel size of 82 microns using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT, XtremeCT, Scanco Medical AG, Switzerland) and compared with VivaCT 40 (µCT) at 19 microns voxel size. Associations between MMD and porosity were studied in 94 heathy vitamin D replete pre-menopausal, 77 post-menopausal women, and in a 27 year-old woman with vitamin-D Dependent Rickets (VDDR). Microstructure and MMD were quantified using StrAx (StraxCorp, Melbourne, Australia). MMD measured by HR-pQCT and µCT correlated (R = 0.87; p woman with VDDR, MMD was 5.6 SD lower, and porosity was 5.6 SD higher, than the respective trait means in premenopausal women. BMD was reduced (Z scores femoral neck - 4.3 SD, lumbar spine - 3.8 SD). Low radiation HR-pQCT may facilitate non-invasive quantification of bone's MMD and microstructure in health, disease and during treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Matrix infrared spectra and density functional calculations of TiO3 and TiO5 in solid argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu; Zhou, Mingfei

    2008-10-09

    The reaction of titanium monoxide molecules and O2 was studied by using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy as well as theoretical calculations. The titanium monoxide molecule reacts with O2 to form TiO 3 spontaneously on annealing. The TiO3 molecule is characterized to be a side-on bonded peroxo titanium monoxide complex, (eta(2)-O2)TiO, which has a nonplanar Cs symmetry with a 1A' ground state. The (eta(2)-O2)TiO complex can further coordinate another dioxygen to give TiO 5, a disuperoxo titanium monoxide complex, (eta(2)-O2)(2)TiO, which possesses a 3A'' ground state and a nonplanar Cs geometry.

  5. In vivo polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of human burn scars: birefringence quantification and correspondence with histologically determined collagen density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Mariëlle E. H.; Feroldi, Fabio; Vlig, Marcel; de Boer, Johannes F.; van Zuijlen, Paul P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Obtaining adequate information on scar characteristics is important for monitoring their evolution and the effectiveness of clinical treatment. The aberrant type of collagen in scars may give rise to specific birefringent properties, which can be determined using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate a method to quantify the birefringence of the scanned volume and correlate it with the collagen density as measured from histological slides. Five human burn scars were measured in vivo using a handheld probe and custom-made PS-OCT system. The local retardation caused by the tissue birefringence was extracted using the Jones formalism. To compare the samples, histograms of birefringence values of each volume were produced. After imaging, punch biopsies were harvested from the scar area of interest and sent in for histological evaluation using Herovici polychrome staining. Two-dimensional en face maps showed higher birefringence in scars compared to healthy skin. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for the collagen density as measured by histology versus the measured birefringence was calculated at r=0.80 (p=0.105). In conclusion, the custom-made PS-OCT system was capable of in vivo imaging and quantifying the birefringence of human burn scars, and a nonsignificant correlation between PS-OCT birefringence and histological collagen density was found.

  6. Injection-modulated polarity conversion by charge carrier density control via a self-assembled monolayer for all-solution-processed organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jeongkyun; Lee, Taesoo; Kang, Chan-Mo; Kwak, Jeonghun; Lang, Philippe; Horowitz, Gilles; Kim, Hyeok; Lee, Changhee

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrated modulation of charge carrier densities in all-solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) by modifying the injection properties with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The all-solution-processed OFETs based on an n-type polymer with inkjet-printed Ag electrodes were fabricated as a test platform, and the injection properties were modified by the SAMs. Two types of SAMs with different dipole direction, thiophenol (TP) and pentafluorobenzene thiol (PFBT) were employed, modifying the work function of the inkjet-printed Ag (4.9 eV) to 4.66 eV and 5.24 eV with TP and PFBT treatments, respectively. The charge carrier densities were controlled by the SAM treatment in both dominant and non-dominant carrier-channel regimes. This work demonstrates that control of the charge carrier densities can be efficiently achieved by modifying the injection property with SAM treatment; thus, this approach can achieve polarity conversion of the OFETs.

  7. Density and length of stomatal and epidermal cells in "living fossil" trees grown under elevated CO 2 and a polar light regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaya, R.; Llorens, L.; Peñuelas, J.

    2011-07-01

    During the Cretaceous and early Tertiary, when the climate was warm and the atmospheric CO 2 concentration ([CO 2]) was at least double that of the present-day, polar forests populated high latitude landmasses. We investigated the density and length of stomata and other epidermal cells of two deciduous and three evergreen "living fossil" tree species representative of these ancient forests. These tree species were grown in a simulated Cretaceous high latitude environment at either ambient (400 ppmv) or elevated (800 ppmv) [CO 2] during four years. After 4 years growing at elevated [CO 2], the leaf stomatal density and index (percentage of leaf epidermal cells that are stomata) of these plants were similar to those of their counterparts growing at ambient [CO 2]. While the CO 2 enrichment only modified the stomatal pore length in two of the five studied species, it increased significantly the overall length of the epidermal cells of all the species, reducing their density. These results revealed that leaf epidermal cells of these "living fossil" species were more sensitive than stomata to an experimental doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration.

  8. Spatial profiles of electron and metastable atom densities in positive polarity fast ionization waves sustained in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherford, Brandon R.; Barnat, E. V.; Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Fast ionization waves (FIWs), often generated with high voltage pulses over nanosecond timescales, are able to produce large volumes of ions and excited states at moderate pressures. The mechanisms of FIW propagation were experimentally and computationally investigated to provide insights into the manner in which these large volumes are excited. The two-dimensional structure of electron and metastable densities produced by short-pulse FIWs sustained in helium were measured using laser-induced fluorescence and laser collision-induced fluorescence diagnostics for times of 100–120 ns after the pulse, as the pressure was varied from 1 to 20 Torr. A trend of center-peaked to volume-filling to wall-peaked electron density profiles was observed as the pressure was increased. Instantaneous FIW velocities, obtained from plasma-induced emission, ranged from 0.1 to 3 × 10 9  cm s −1 , depending on distance from the high voltage electrode and pressure. Predictions from two-dimensional modeling of the propagation of a single FIW correlated well with the experimental trends in electron density profiles and wave velocity. Results from the model show that the maximum ionization rate occurs in the wavefront, and the discharge continues to propagate forward after the removal of high voltage from the powered electrode due to the potential energy stored in the space charge. As the pressure is varied, the radial distribution of the ionization rate is shaped by changes in the electron mean free path, and subsequent localized electric field enhancement at the walls or on the centerline of the discharge.

  9. Ab initio calculations of optical absorption spectra: solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation within density matrix perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Dario; Lu, Deyu; Galli, Giulia

    2010-10-28

    We describe an ab initio approach to compute the optical absorption spectra of molecules and solids, which is suitable for the study of large systems and gives access to spectra within a wide energy range. In this approach, the quantum Liouville equation is solved iteratively within first order perturbation theory, with a Hamiltonian containing a static self-energy operator. This procedure is equivalent to solving the statically screened Bethe-Salpeter equation. Explicit calculations of single particle excited states and inversion of dielectric matrices are avoided using techniques based on density functional perturbation theory. In this way, full absorption spectra may be obtained with a computational workload comparable to ground state Hartree-Fock calculations. We present results for small molecules, for the spectra of a 1 nm Si cluster in a wide energy range (20 eV), and for a dipeptide exhibiting charge transfer excitations.

  10. Current density and polarization curves for radial flow field patterns applied to PEMFCs (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano-Andrade, S.; Hernandez-Guerrero, A.; Spakovsky, M.R. von; Damian-Ascencio, C.E.; Rubio-Arana, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical solution of the current density and velocity fields of a 3-D PEM radial configuration fuel cell is presented. The energy, momentum and electrochemical equations are solved using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code based on a finite volume scheme. There are three cases of principal interest for this radial model: four channels, eight channels and twelve channels placed in a symmetrical path over the flow field plate. The figures for the current-voltage curves for the three models proposed are presented, and the main factors that affect the behavior of each of the curves are discussed. Velocity contours are presented for the three different models, showing how the fuel cell behavior is affected by the velocity variations in the radial configuration. All these results are presented for the case of high relative humidity. The favorable results obtained for this unconventional geometry seems to indicate that this geometry could replace the conventional commercial geometries currently in use.

  11. Large-distance and long-time asymptotic behavior of the reduced density matrix in the non-linear Schroedinger model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K.

    2010-12-15

    Starting from the form factor expansion in finite volume, we derive the multidimensional generalization of the so-called Natte series for the zero-temperature, time and distance dependent reduced density matrix in the non-linear Schroedinger model. This representation allows one to read-off straightforwardly the long-time/large-distance asymptotic behavior of this correlator. Our method of analysis reduces the complexity of the computation of the asymptotic behavior of correlation functions in the so-called interacting integrable models, to the one appearing in free fermion equivalent models. We compute explicitly the first few terms appearing in the asymptotic expansion. Part of these terms stems from excitations lying away from the Fermi boundary, and hence go beyond what can be obtained by using the CFT/Luttinger liquid based predictions. (orig.)

  12. Linear-scaling density-functional simulations of charged point defects in Al2O3 using hierarchical sparse matrix algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, N D M; Haynes, P D; Mostofi, A A; Payne, M C

    2010-09-21

    We present calculations of formation energies of defects in an ionic solid (Al(2)O(3)) extrapolated to the dilute limit, corresponding to a simulation cell of infinite size. The large-scale calculations required for this extrapolation are enabled by developments in the approach to parallel sparse matrix algebra operations, which are central to linear-scaling density-functional theory calculations. The computational cost of manipulating sparse matrices, whose sizes are determined by the large number of basis functions present, is greatly improved with this new approach. We present details of the sparse algebra scheme implemented in the ONETEP code using hierarchical sparsity patterns, and demonstrate its use in calculations on a wide range of systems, involving thousands of atoms on hundreds to thousands of parallel processes.

  13. PWA with full rank density matrix of the π+π−π− and π−π0π0 systems at VES setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachaev, Igor; Ryabchikov, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Partial Wave Analysis of the π + π − π − and π − π 0 π 0 final states produced by 29GeV/c π − beam on beryllium target is presented. About 42 · 10 6 events for the first system and 22 · 10 6 events for the second one are collected with VES setup. The statistics for 3π neutral is known to be the largest in the world while statistics for 3π charged is next to largest. The t′ range for the analysis is 0 < |t′| < 0.8 GeV 2 /c 2 . The data are analysed using formalism of full rank density matrix. The comparison of the analysis results for two systems is presented.

  14. Photoinduced hydrogen-atom eliminations of 6-hydroxyquinoline and 7-hydroxyquinoline studied by low-temperature matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy and density-functional-theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Masahiko; Nagai, Yuko; Sekiya, Hiroshi; Nakata, Munetaka

    2009-07-23

    Photoreaction mechanisms of 6-hydroxyquinoline (6-HQ) and 7-hydroxyquinoline (7-HQ) in low-temperature argon matrixes have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy and density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations. A comparison of the observed IR spectra of reactants with the corresponding calculated spectral patterns obtained by the DFT method led to the conclusion that the hydrogen atoms in the O-H group of 6-HQ and in that of 7-HQ are selectively located at the outer position against the quinoline ring. When the matrix samples were irradiated upon UV light around 300 nm, IR spectra of unknown chemical species were observed; they were assigned to the photoreaction intermediates, quinolinoxyl radicals and ketene compounds, produced by eliminations of a hydrogen atom and a hydrogen molecule, respectively. In the photoreaction of 7-HQ, a small amount of keto form was also produced by intramolecular hydrogen-atom transfer from oxygen to nitrogen in an argon cage. Kinetic analyses were made by assuming that 5-ketene and 6-ketene were produced from 6-HQ, while 6-ketene and 7-ketene were produced from 7-HQ. The effective rate constants estimated from the absorbance changes of IR bands against irradiation time revealed that the reaction pathway to produce 6-ketene was minor in both HQs, leading to the conclusion that the conformation of reactants, HQs, plays an important role in the photoproduction of ketenes through biradicals in the Wolff rearrangement.

  15. Strong correlation in acene sheets from the active-space variational two-electron reduced density matrix method: effects of symmetry and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Kenley; Greenman, Loren; Gidofalvi, Gergely; Mazziotti, David A

    2011-06-09

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic molecules with importance in several branches of science, including medicine, combustion chemistry, and materials science. The delocalized π-orbital systems in PAHs require highly accurate electronic structure methods to capture strong electron correlation. Treating correlation in PAHs has been challenging because (i) traditional wave function methods for strong correlation have not been applicable since they scale exponentially in the number of strongly correlated orbitals, and (ii) alternative methods such as the density-matrix renormalization group and variational two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) methods have not been applied beyond linear acene chains. In this paper we extend the earlier results from active-space variational 2-RDM theory [Gidofalvi, G.; Mazziotti, D. A. J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 129, 134108] to the more general two-dimensional arrangement of rings--acene sheets--to study the relationship between geometry and electron correlation in PAHs. The acene-sheet calculations, if performed with conventional wave function methods, would require wave function expansions with as many as 1.5 × 10(17) configuration state functions. To measure electron correlation, we employ several RDM-based metrics: (i) natural-orbital occupation numbers, (ii) the 1-RDM von Neumann entropy, (iii) the correlation energy per carbon atom, and (iv) the squared Frobenius norm of the cumulant 2-RDM. The results confirm a trend of increasing polyradical character with increasing molecular size previously observed in linear PAHs and reveal a corresponding trend in two-dimensional (arch-shaped) PAHs. Furthermore, in PAHs of similar size they show significant variations in correlation with geometry. PAHs with the strictly linear geometry (chains) exhibit more electron correlation than PAHs with nonlinear geometries (sheets).

  16. A non-JKL density matrix functional for intergeminal correlation between closed-shell geminals from analysis of natural orbital configuration interaction expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meer, R; Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

    2018-03-14

    Almost all functionals that are currently used in density matrix functional theory have been created by some a priori ansatz that generates approximations to the second-order reduced density matrix (2RDM). In this paper, a more consistent approach is used: we analyze the 2RDMs (in the natural orbital basis) of rather accurate multi-reference configuration interaction expansions for several small molecules (CH 4 , NH 3 , H 2 O, FH, and N 2 ) and use the knowledge gained to generate new functionals. The analysis shows that a geminal-like structure is present in the 2RDMs, even though no geminal theory has been applied from the onset. It is also shown that the leading non-geminal dynamical correlation contributions are generated by a specific set of double excitations. The corresponding determinants give rise to non-JKL (non Coulomb/Exchange like) multipole-multipole dispersive attractive terms between geminals. Due to the proximity of the geminals, these dispersion terms are large and cannot be omitted, proving pure JKL functionals to be essentially deficient. A second correction emerges from the observation that the "normal" geminal-like exchange between geminals breaks down when one breaks multiple bonds. This problem can be fixed by doubling the exchange between bond broken geminals, effectively restoring the often physically correct high-spin configurations on the bond broken fragments. Both of these corrections have been added to the commonly used antisymmetrized product of strongly orthogonal geminals functional. The resulting non-JKL functional Extended Löwdin-Shull Dynamical-Multibond is capable of reproducing complete active space self-consistent field curves, in which one active orbital is used for each valence electron.

  17. Application of the Ursell-Mayer method in the theory of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, S.; Radelja, T.

    1981-01-01

    Employing the Ursell-Mayer method and Ljolje semi-free gas model analytic relations describing ground state properties (energy, pressure, compressibility, sound velocity, radial distribution function and one-particle density matrix) of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen were derived. The expressions are valid up to density 2 10 26 atoms/m 3 . It was found out that at density of 2 10 26 atoms/m 3 the condensation of particle in momentum space is 88% (at absolute zero). (orig.)

  18. New Vistas on the Anionic Polymerization of Styrene in Non-Polar Solvents by Means of Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Morita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The elementary processes of anionic styrene polymerization in the gas phase and in cyclohexane were studied using M062X (a recently developed density functional theory (DFT method combined with the 6-31+G(d basis sets, in order to clarify the complicated phenomena caused by the association of the active chain-ends and elucidate the details of the polymerization mechanism. Three types of HSt2Li (a model structure of polystyryllithium chain-ends were obtained; the well-known first structure in which Li is coordinated to the side chain, the second structure in which Li is coordinated to the phenyl ring, (both without the penultimate unit coordination, and the third structure in which Li is coordinated to both the chain-end unit and the penultimate styrene unit. Although the third HSt2Li is the most stable as expected, the free energy for the transition state of its reaction with styrene is higher than those for the other two transition states due to its steric hindrance. The free energy for the transition state of the reaction of the second HSt2Li with styrene is the lowest, suggesting that the route through it is the predominant reaction path. The penultimate unit effect, slower addition of styrene to HSt2Li than to HStLi, is attributed to coordination of the penultimate styrene units of the polystyryllithium dimer (one of the starting materials to its Li atoms. The calculated enthalpy for the reaction barrier of the second HSt2Li with styrene in cyclohexane was found to agree with the observed apparent activation energy in benzene.

  19. Cu–Ni core–shell nanoparticles: structure, stability, electronic, and magnetic properties: a spin-polarized density functional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wangqiang@njtech.edu.cn; Wang, Xinyan; Liu, Jianlan; Yang, Yanhui [Nanjing Tech University, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Institute of Advanced Synthesis (IAS) (China)

    2017-02-15

    Bimetallic core–shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) have attracted great interest not only because of their superior stability, selectivity, and catalytic activity but also due to their tunable properties achieved by changing the morphology, sequence, and sizes of both core and shell. In this study, the structure, stability, charge transfer, electronic, and magnetic properties of 13-atom and 55-atom Cu and Cu–Ni CSNPs were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that Ni@Cu CSNPs with a Cu surface shell are more energetically favorable than Cu@Ni CSNPs with a Ni surface shell. Interestingly, three-shell Ni@Cu{sub 12}@Ni{sub 42} is more stable than two-shell Cu{sub 13}@Ni{sub 42}, while two-shell Ni{sub 13}@Cu{sub 42} is more stable than three-shell Cu@Ni{sub 12}@Cu{sub 42}. Analysis of Bader charge illustrates that the charge transfer increases from Cu core to Ni shell in Cu@Ni NPs, while it decreases from Ni core to Cu shell in Ni@Cu NPs. Furthermore, the charge transfer results that d-band states have larger shift toward the Fermi level for the Ni@Cu CSNPs with Cu surface shell, while the Cu@Ni CSNPs with Ni surface shell have similar d-band state curves and d-band centers with the monometallic Ni NPs. In addition, the Cu–Ni CSNPs possess higher magnetic moment when the Ni atoms aggregated at core region of CSNPs, while having lower magnetic moment when the Ni atoms segregate on surface region. The change of the Cu atom location in CSNPs has a weak effect on the total magnetic moment. Our findings provide useful insights for the design of bimetallic core–shell catalysts.

  20. Analysis of electron-correlation effects in strongly correlated systems (N2 and N2+ ) by applying the density-matrix renormalization-group method and quantum information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmle, Christian; Paulus, Beate; Legeza, Örs

    2018-02-01

    The dissociation of N2 and N2 + has been studied by using the ab initio density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) method. Accurate potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been obtained for the electronic ground states of N2 (X1 Σg+ ) and N2+ (X2 Σg+ ) as well as for the N2+ excited state B2 Σu+ . Inherent to the DMRG approach, the eigenvalues of the reduced density matrix (ρ ) and their correlation functions are at hand. Thus we can apply quantum information theory directly and investigate how the wave function changes along the PES and depict differences between the different states. Moreover, by characterizing quantum entanglement between different pairs of orbitals and analyzing the reduced density matrix, we achieved a better understanding of the multireference character featured by these systems.

  1. An on-line normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography method for the rapid detection of radical scavengers in non-polar food matrixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Klift, van der E.J.C.; Janssen, H.G.; Beek, van T.A.

    2009-01-01

    An on-line method for the rapid pinpointing of radical scavengers in non-polar mixtures like vegetable oils was developed. To avoid problems with dissolving the sample, normal-phase chromatography on bare silica gel was used with mixtures of hexane and methyl tert-butyl ether as the eluent. The high

  2. Mechanism for odd-electron anion generation of dihydroxybenzoic acid isomers in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry with density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagaki, Tohru; Takeuchi, Michika; Watanabe, Takehiro; Sugahara, Kohtaro; Takeuchi, Takae

    2016-12-30

    Proton and radical are transferred between matrices and matrix and analyte in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and these transfers drive ionization of analytes. The odd-electron anion [M-2H] •- was generated in dihydroxybenzoic acids (DHBs) and the ion abundance of the 2,5-DHB was the highest among six DHB isomers. We were interested in the mechanism of the ion generation of the odd-electron anion. The observed [M-2H] •- and [M-3H] - ions, which were generated with the hydrogen radical removed from the phenolic hydroxyl groups (OH) in DHB isomers, were analyzed using negative-ion MALDI-MS. The enthalpy for ion generation and their stable structures were calculated using the density functional theory (DFT) calculation program Gaussian 09 with the B3LYP functional and the 6-31+G(d) basis set. The number of observed [M-2H] •- and [M-3H] - ions of the DHB isomers was dependent on the positions of the phenolic OH groups in the DHB isomers because the carboxy group interacts with the ortho OH group due to neighboring group participation, as confirmed from the stable structures of the [M-2H] •- anions calculated with the Gaussian 09 program. The DHB isomers were placed into three categories according to the number of the ions. Odd-electron anions ([M-2H] •- ) and [M-2H • -H] - ([M-3H] - ) ions were generated from DHB isomers due to removal of the hydrogen radical from the phenolic groups. The enthalpy for ion generation revealed that ion formation proceeds via a two-step pathway through the [M-M] - ion as an intermediate. © 2016 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. On the relations between proton influx and D-region electron densities during the polar-cap absorption event of 28-29 October 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations by incoherent-scatter radar have been applied to explore relationships between the fluxes of incident protons and the resulting D-region electron densities during a polar-cap radio-absorption event. Using proton flux data from a GOES geosynchronous satellite, the energy band having the greatest influence at a selected height is estimated by a process of trial and error, and empirical relationships are defined. The height profiles of the effective recombination coefficient are determined for day and night, and the transition over the evening twilight is investigated for the height range 60-70 km.

    The results show that the day-night change is confined to heights below 80 km, night-time values at the lower levels being consistent with a balance between negative ions and electrons controlled by 3-body attachment and collisional detachment. The daytime results confirm that, contrary to the prediction of some chemical models, a square-law continuity equation may be strictly applied. It is confirmed that, as previously reported, the timing of the sunset change varies with altitude.

  4. On the relations between proton influx and D-region electron densities during the polar-cap absorption event of 28-29 October 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations by incoherent-scatter radar have been applied to explore relationships between the fluxes of incident protons and the resulting D-region electron densities during a polar-cap radio-absorption event. Using proton flux data from a GOES geosynchronous satellite, the energy band having the greatest influence at a selected height is estimated by a process of trial and error, and empirical relationships are defined. The height profiles of the effective recombination coefficient are determined for day and night, and the transition over the evening twilight is investigated for the height range 60-70 km. The results show that the day-night change is confined to heights below 80 km, night-time values at the lower levels being consistent with a balance between negative ions and electrons controlled by 3-body attachment and collisional detachment. The daytime results confirm that, contrary to the prediction of some chemical models, a square-law continuity equation may be strictly applied. It is confirmed that, as previously reported, the timing of the sunset change varies with altitude.

  5. Solvent Dependence of (14)N Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Chemical Shielding Constants as a Test of the Accuracy of the Computed Polarization of Solute Electron Densities by the Solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Raphael F; Marenich, Aleksandr V; Cramer, Christopher J; Truhlar, Donald G

    2009-09-08

    Although continuum solvation models have now been shown to provide good quantitative accuracy for calculating free energies of solvation, questions remain about the accuracy of the perturbed solute electron densities and properties computed from them. Here we examine those questions by applying the SM8, SM8AD, SMD, and IEF-PCM continuum solvation models in combination with the M06-L density functional to compute the (14)N magnetic resonance nuclear shieldings of CH3CN, CH3NO2, CH3NCS, and CH3ONO2 in multiple solvents, and we analyze the dependence of the chemical shifts on solvent dielectric constant. We examine the dependence of the computed chemical shifts on the definition of the molecular cavity (both united-atom models and models based on superposed individual atomic spheres) and three kinds of treatments of the electrostatics, namely the generalized Born approximation with the Coulomb field approximation, the generalized Born model with asymmetric descreening, and models based on approximate numerical solution schemes for the nonhomogeneous Poisson equation. Our most systematic analyses are based on the computation of relative (14)N chemical shifts in a series of solvents, and we compare calculated shielding constants relative to those in CCl4 for various solvation models and density functionals. While differences in the overall results are found to be reasonably small for different solvation models and functionals, the SMx models SM8, and SM8AD, using the same cavity definitions (which for these models means the same atomic radii) as those employed for the calculation of free energies of solvation, exhibit the best agreement with experiment for every functional tested. This suggests that in addition to predicting accurate free energies of solvation, the SM8 and SM8AD generalized Born models also describe the solute polarization in a manner reasonably consistent with experimental (14)N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Models based on the

  6. Can Density Matrix Embedding Theory with the Complete Activate Space Self-Consistent Field Solver Describe Single and Double Bond Breaking in Molecular Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hung Q; Bernales, Varinia; Gagliardi, Laura

    2018-03-13

    Density matrix embedding theory (DMET) [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 2012, 109, 186404] has been demonstrated as an efficient wave-function-based embedding method to treat extended systems. Despite its success in many quantum lattice models, the extension of DMET to real chemical systems has been tested only on selected cases. Herein, we introduce the use of the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method as a correlated impurity solver for DMET, leading to a method called CAS-DMET. We test its performance in describing the dissociation of H-H single bonds in a H 10 ring model system and an N═N double bond in azomethane (CH 3 -N═N-CH 3 ) and pentyldiazene (CH 3 (CH 2 ) 4 -N═NH). We find that the performance of CAS-DMET is comparable to CASSCF with different active space choices when single-embedding DMET corresponding to only one embedding problem for the system is used. When multiple embedding problems are used for the system, the CAS-DMET is in good agreement with CASSCF for the geometries around the equilibrium, but not in equal agreement at bond dissociation.

  7. Density matrix renormalization group simulations of SU(N ) Heisenberg chains using standard Young tableaus: Fundamental representation and comparison with a finite-size Bethe ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataf, Pierre; Mila, Frédéric

    2018-04-01

    We develop an efficient method to perform density matrix renormalization group simulations of the SU(N ) Heisenberg chain with open boundary conditions taking full advantage of the SU(N ) symmetry of the problem. This method is an extension of the method previously developed for exact diagonalizations and relies on a systematic use of the basis of standard Young tableaux. Concentrating on the model with the fundamental representation at each site (i.e., one particle per site in the fermionic formulation), we have benchmarked our results for the ground-state energy up to N =8 and up to 420 sites by comparing them with Bethe ansatz results on open chains, for which we have derived and solved the Bethe ansatz equations. The agreement for the ground-state energy is excellent for SU(3) (12 digits). It decreases with N , but it is still satisfactory for N =8 (six digits). Central charges c are also extracted from the entanglement entropy using the Calabrese-Cardy formula and agree with the theoretical values expected from the SU (N) 1 Wess-Zumino-Witten conformal field theories.

  8. The polarization evolution of electromagnetic waves as a diagnostic method for a motional plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokhi, Alireza; Mehdian, Hassan; Hajisharifi, Kamal; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2017-12-01

    The polarization evolution of electromagnetic (EM) radiation propagating through an electron beam-ion channel system is studied in the presence of self-magnetic field. Solving the fluid-Maxwell equations to obtain the medium dielectric tensor, the Stokes vector-Mueller matrix approach is employed to determine the polarization of the launched EM wave at any point in the propagation direction, applying the space-dependent Mueller matrix on the initial polarization vector of the wave at the plasma-vacuum interface. Results show that the polarization evolution of the wave is periodic in space along the beam axis with the specified polarization wavelength. Using the obtained results, a novel diagnostic method based on the polarization evolution of the EM waves is proposed to evaluate the electron beam density and velocity. Moreover, to use the mentioned plasma system as a polarizer, the fraction of the output radiation power transmitted through a motional plasma crossed with the input polarization is calculated. The results of the present investigation will greatly contribute to design a new EM amplifier with fixed polarization or EM polarizer, as well as a new diagnostic approach for the electron beam system where the polarimetric method is employed.

  9. Polarization Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Fressengeas, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The physics of polarization optics *Polarized light propagation *Partially polarized light; DEA; After a brief introduction to polarization optics, this lecture reviews the basic formalisms for dealing with it: Jones Calculus for totally polarized light and Stokes parameters associated to Mueller Calculus for partially polarized light.

  10. Human RPE Stem Cells Grown into Polarized RPE Monolayers on a Polyester Matrix Are Maintained after Grafting into Rabbit Subretinal Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V. Stanzel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is being developed as a cell-replacement therapy for age-related macular degeneration. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived RPE are currently translating toward clinic. We introduce the adult human RPE stem cell (hRPESC as an alternative RPE source. Polarized monolayers of adult hRPESC-derived RPE grown on polyester (PET membranes had near-native characteristics. Trephined pieces of RPE monolayers on PET were transplanted subretinally in the rabbit, a large-eyed animal model. After 4 days, retinal edema was observed above the implant, detected by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT and fundoscopy. At 1 week, retinal atrophy overlying the fetal or adult transplant was observed, remaining stable thereafter. Histology obtained 4 weeks after implantation confirmed a continuous polarized human RPE monolayer on PET. Taken together, the xeno-RPE survived with retained characteristics in the subretinal space. These experiments support that adult hRPESC-derived RPE are a potential source for transplantation therapies.

  11. Design of geometry, synthesis, spectroscopic (FT-IR, UV/Vis, excited state, polarization) and anisotropy (thermal conductivity and electrical) properties of new synthesized derivatives of (E,E)-azomethines in colored stretched poly (vinyl alcohol) matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Siyamak; Sheikhi, Masoome; Filippovich, Liudmila; Dikusar, Evgenij; Yahyaei, Hooriye; Kumar, Rakesh; Khaleghian, Mehrnoosh

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, the molecular structures of two new azomethine dyes: have been predicted and investigated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) in dimethylformamide (DMF). The geometries of the azomethine dyes were optimized by B3LYP/6-31+G* level of theory. The electronic spectra of these azomethine dyes in a DMF solvent was carried out by using TD-B3LYP/6-31+G* method. After quantum-chemical calculations two new azomethine dyes for optoelectronic applications were synthesized. FT-IR spectra of the title compounds are recorded and discussed. The computed absorption spectral data of the azomethine dyes are in good agreement with the experimental data, thus allowing an assignment of the UV/Vis spectra. On the basis of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and the new synthesized azomethine dyes polarizing films for visible region of spectrum were developed. The main optical parameters of the polarizing PVA-films (Transmittance, Polarization Efficiency and Dichroic Ratio) have been measured and discussed. Anisotropy of thermal and electrical conductivity of the PVA-films have been studied and explained.

  12. Effects of astigmatism on spectra, coherence and polarization of stochastic electromagnetic beams passing through an astigmatic optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liuzhan; Sun, Mengle; Ding, Chaoliang; Zhao, Zhiguo; Lü, Baida

    2009-04-27

    Analytical formulas for the cross-spectral density matrix of stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (EGSM) beams passing through an astigmatic optical system are derived. We show both analytically and by numerical examples the effects of astigmatism on spectra, coherence and polarization of stochastic electromagnetic EGSM beams propagating through an astigmatic lens. A comparison with the aberration-free case is made, and shows that the astigmatism has significant effect on the spectra, coherence and polarization.

  13. Quantum entropy and polarization measurements of the two-photon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanian, Moorad; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.

    2018-02-01

    We consider the bipartite state of a two-photon polarization system and obtain the exact analytical expression for the von Neumann entropy in the particular case of a five-parameter polarization density matrix. We investigate and graphically illustrate the dependence of the entropy on these five parameters, in particular, the existence of exotic, transition from exotic to nonexotic, and nonexotic states, where the quantum conditional entropy is negative, both positive and negative, and positive, respectively. We study the "cooling" or "heating" effect that follows from the reduced density of photon 2 when a measurement is performed on photon 1.

  14. Polarization, alignment, and orientation in atomic collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Nils

    2017-01-01

    This book covers polarization, alignment, and orientation effects in atomic collisions induced by electron, heavy particle, or photon impact. The first part of the book presents introductory chapters on light and particle polarization, experimental and computational methods, and the density matrix and state multipole formalism. Examples and exercises are included. The second part of the book deals with case studies of electron impact and heavy particle excitation, electron transfer, impact ionization, and autoionization. A separate chapter on photo-induced processes by new-generation light sources has been added. The last chapter discusses related topics and applications. Part III includes examples of charge clouds and introductory summaries of selected seminal papers of tutorial value from the early history of the field (1925 – 1975). The book is a significant update to the previous (first) edition, particularly in experimental and computational methods, the inclusion of key results obtained during the pas...

  15. Hanle-Zeeman Scattering Matrix for Magnetic Dipole Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megha, A.; Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Sankarasubramanian, K., E-mail: megha@iiap.res.in, E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in, E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in, E-mail: sankar@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bengaluru 560 034 (India)

    2017-06-01

    The polarization of the light that is scattered by the coronal ions is influenced by the anisotropic illumination from the photosphere and the magnetic field structuring in the solar corona. The properties of the coronal magnetic fields can be well studied by understanding the polarization properties of coronal forbidden emission lines that arise from magnetic dipole ( M 1) transitions in the highly ionized atoms that are present in the corona. We present the classical scattering theory of the forbidden lines for a more general case of arbitrary-strength magnetic fields. We derive the scattering matrix for M 1 transitions using the classical magnetic dipole model of Casini and Lin and applying the scattering matrix approach of Stenflo. We consider a two-level atom model and neglect collisional effects. The scattering matrix so derived is used to study the Stokes profiles formed in coronal conditions in those regions where the radiative excitations dominate collisional excitations. To this end, we take into account the integration over a cone of an unpolarized radiation from the solar disk incident on the scattering atoms. Furthermore, we also integrate along the line of sight to calculate the emerging polarized line profiles. We consider radial and dipole magnetic field configurations and spherically symmetric density distributions. For our studies we adopt the atomic parameters corresponding to the [Fe xiii] 10747 Å coronal forbidden line. We also discuss the nature of the scattering matrix for M 1 transitions and compare it with that for the electric dipole ( E 1) transitions.

  16. Observation of Fermi Arc Surface States Induced by Organic Memristive/Memcapacitive Devices with a Double-Helical Polarized Single-Wall Nanotube Membrane for Direct Chelating with Matrix Matelloproteinase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. CHEN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Matrix Matelloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 plays a key role in many diseases. A new type of dual-functioning device was developed for fast, direct ultrasensitive detection of MMP-2. We report a memristive/memcapacitive device with vertex double-helical polarized biomimetic protein nanotubules forming double membranes with potential gradient mimicking mitochondria’s inner double membrane has developed. We also report Fermi arcs with nodes on the surface of the nanostructured membrane was observed at the first time by using a 3D real-time - energy-current dynamic mapping method based on data obtained from the Cyclic Voltammetry (CV method. The memristive/memcapacitive device comprises a cross- linked organic polymer having single-wall cross-bar polarized nanotube self-assembling membrane (SAM on a gold chip, under an applied potential, a pair of vertex double- helical circular current flow induced the Fermi arcs states occurrence and these Fermi arcs promoted a direct chelating with zinc ions of the MMP-2 to become possible without any antibody, tracer, or reagent used at room temperature was accomplished. We observed the pair of Dirac Cones became alignment and strengthened with each other in the presence of MMP-2 compared without MMP-2. The MMP-2 can be detected with ag/mL level sensitivity and the value of Detection of Limits (DOL reached orders of magnitude lower than published reports with simplified procedures by a Chronoamperometry (CA method and a Double Step Chronopotentiometry (DSCPO method using NIST SRM 965A standard human serum, respectively. The results show a feasible application for developing the commercial fast and real-time MMP monitoring devices for various diseases.

  17. Ab initio density functional theory study of non-polar (10-10), (11-20) and semipolar {20-21} GaN surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mutombo, Pingo; Romanyuk, Olexandr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 20 (2014), "203508-1"-"203508-5" ISSN 0021-8979 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101201 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : non-polar GaN * semipolar GaN * surface reconstructions * DFT Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2014

  18. Matrix theory selected topics and useful results

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal

    1989-01-01

    Matrices and operations on matrices ; determinants ; elementary operations on matrices (continued) ; eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization of normal matrices ; functions of a matrix ; positive definiteness, various polar forms of a matrix ; special matrices ; matrices with quaternion elements ; inequalities ; generalised inverse of a matrix ; domain of values of a matrix, location and dispersion of eigenvalues ; symmetric functions ; integration over matrix variables ; permanents of doubly stochastic matrices ; infinite matrices ; Alexander matrices, knot polynomials, torsion numbers.

  19. Commissioning and modification of the low temperature scanning polarization microscope (TTSPM) and imaging of the local magnetic flux density distribution in superconducting niobium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenzweig, Matthias Sebastian Peter

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation is separated into two different parts, which will be presented in the following. Part I of the dissertation is about the commissioning and the modification of the ''low-temperature scanning polarization microscope'' which was designed in a previous dissertation of Stefan Guenon [1]. A scanning polarization microscope has certain advantages compared to conventional polarization microscopes. With a scanning polarization microscope it is easily possible to achieve a high illumination intensity, which is important to realize a high signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, the confocal design of the scanning polarization microscope improves the resolution of the microscope by a factor of 1.4. Normally, it is not necessary to post-process the images by means of differential frame method to eliminate the contrast of non-magnetic origin. In contrast to conventional polarization microscopes the low-temperature scanning polarization microscope is able to image electronic transport properties via beam-induced voltage variation in addition to the magneto-optical effects. In this dissertation, it was possible to demonstrate the performance capability of the scanning polarization microscope at room temperature as well as at low temperatures. The investigation of the polar Kerr-effect has been carried out with a BaFe 12 O 19 -test sample whereas the measurements of the longitudinal Kerr-effect have been carried out with an in-plane magnetized acceleration sensor. Furthermore, an independent room temperature construction for out-of-plane measurements in a magnetic field up to 1 Tesla has been designed and implemented within the framework of a diploma thesis, supervised by the author of this dissertation. Using this construction, it was possible to gain experimental results regarding the interlayer exchange coupling between iron-terbium alloys (Fe 1-x Tb x ) and cobalt-platinum multilayers (vertical stroke Co/Pt vertical stroke n ). Indeed, it has been

  20. Spin exchange in polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewoski, B. von; Meyer, H.O.; Balewski, J.; Doskow, J.; Ibald, R.; Pollock, R.E.; Rinckel, T.; Wellinghausen, A.; Whitaker, T.J.; Daehnick, W.W.; Haeberli, W.; Schwartz, B.; Wise, T.; Lorentz, B.; Rathmann, F.; Pancella, P.V.; Saha, Swapan K.; Thoerngren-Engblom, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the vector and tensor polarization of an atomic deuterium target as a function of the target density. The polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell. For this experiment, the atomic beam source was operated without rf transitions, in order to avoid complications from the unknown efficiency of these transitions. In this mode, the atomic beam is vector and tensor polarized and both polarizations can be measured simultaneously. We used a 1.2-cm-diam and 27-cm-long storage cell, which yielded an average target density between 3 and 9x10 11 at/cm 3 . We find that the tensor polarization decreases with increasing target density while the vector polarization remains constant. The data are in quantitative agreement with the calculated effect of spin exchange between deuterium atoms at low field

  1. Explaining Air and Water Transport in Undisturbed Soils By X-Ray CT Derived Macroporosity and CT- Number-Derived Matrix Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Katuwal, Sheela; Møldrup, Per

    ), and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat). The CT number of the matrix (CTmatrix) was obtained from the CT scans by calculating the average CT number of the voxels in the greyscale image excluding macropores and rocks. CTmatrix was the best predictor of the five percent arrival time (t0.05) which...

  2. Partial Polarization in Interfered Plasmon Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martínez Vara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the polarization features for plasmon fields generated by the interference between two elemental surface plasmon modes, obtaining a set of Stokes parameters which allows establishing a parallelism with the traditional polarization model. With the analysis presented, we find the corresponding coherence matrix for plasmon fields incorporating to the plasmon optics the study of partial polarization effects.

  3. Long-term culture of rat hippocampal neurons at low density in serum-free medium: combination of the sandwich culture technique with the three-dimensional nanofibrous hydrogel PuraMatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Ai; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    The primary culture of neuronal cells plays an important role in neuroscience. There has long been a need for methods enabling the long-term culture of primary neurons at low density, in defined serum-free medium. However, the lower the cell density, the more difficult it is to maintain the cells in culture. Therefore, we aimed to develop a method for long-term culture of neurons at low density, in serum-free medium, without the need for a glial feeder layer. Here, we describe the work leading to our determination of a protocol for long-term (>2 months) primary culture of rat hippocampal neurons in serum-free medium at the low density of 3×10(4) cells/mL (8.9×10(3) cells/cm2) without a glial feeder layer. Neurons were cultured on a three-dimensional nanofibrous hydrogel, PuraMatrix, and sandwiched under a coverslip to reproduce the in vivo environment, including the three-dimensional extracellular matrix, low-oxygen conditions, and exposure to concentrated paracrine factors. We examined the effects of varying PuraMatrix concentrations, the timing and presence or absence of a coverslip, the timing of neuronal isolation from embryos, cell density at plating, medium components, and changing the medium or not on parameters such as developmental pattern, cell viability, neuronal ratio, and neurite length. Using our method of combining the sandwich culture technique with PuraMatrix in Neurobasal medium/B27/L-glutamine for primary neuron culture, we achieved longer neurites (≥3,000 µm), greater cell viability (≥30%) for 2 months, and uniform culture across the wells. We also achieved an average neuronal ratio of 97%, showing a nearly pure culture of neurons without astrocytes. Our method is considerably better than techniques for the primary culture of neurons, and eliminates the need for a glial feeder layer. It also exhibits continued support for axonal elongation and synaptic activity for long periods (>6 weeks).

  4. Polarized atomic orbitals for linear scaling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghold, Gerd; Parrinello, Michele; Hutter, Jürg

    2002-02-01

    We present a modified version of the polarized atomic orbital (PAO) method [M. S. Lee and M. Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9085 (1997)] to construct minimal basis sets optimized in the molecular environment. The minimal basis set derives its flexibility from the fact that it is formed as a linear combination of a larger set of atomic orbitals. This approach significantly reduces the number of independent variables to be determined during a calculation, while retaining most of the essential chemistry resulting from the admixture of higher angular momentum functions. Furthermore, we combine the PAO method with linear scaling algorithms. We use the Chebyshev polynomial expansion method, the conjugate gradient density matrix search, and the canonical purification of the density matrix. The combined scheme overcomes one of the major drawbacks of standard approaches for large nonorthogonal basis sets, namely numerical instabilities resulting from ill-conditioned overlap matrices. We find that the condition number of the PAO overlap matrix is independent from the condition number of the underlying extended basis set, and consequently no numerical instabilities are encountered. Various applications are shown to confirm this conclusion and to compare the performance of the PAO method with extended basis-set calculations.

  5. Electronic Absorption Spectra of Neutral Perylene (C20H12), Terrylene (C30H16), and Quaterrylene (C40H20) and their Positive and Negative Ions: Ne Matrix-Isolation Spectroscopy and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasinski, Thomas M.; Weisman, Jennifer L.; Lee, Timothy J.; Salama, Farid; Head-Gordon, Martin; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a full experimental and theoretical study of an interesting series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the oligorylenes. The absorption spectra of perylene, terrylene and quaterrylene in neutral, cationic and anionic charge states are obtained by matrix-isolation spectroscopy in Ne. The experimental spectra are dominated by a bright state that red shifts with growing molecular size. Excitation energies and state symmetry assignments are supported by calculations using time dependent density functional theory methods. These calculations also provide new insight into the observed trends in oscillator strength and excitation energy for the bright states: the oscillator strength per unit mass of carbon increases along the series.

  6. Surface Tension of Binary Mixtures Including Polar Components Modeled by the Density Gradient Theory Combined with the PC-SAFT Equation of State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinš, Václav; Planková, Barbora; Hrubý, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 5 (2013), s. 792-812 ISSN 0195-928X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/11/P046; GA ČR GA101/09/1633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : chemical polarity * gradient theory * surface tension Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.623, year: 2013 http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/s10765-012-1207-z

  7. Morphological appearance, content of extracellular matrix and vascular density of lung metastases predicts permissiveness to infiltration by adoptively transferred natural killer and T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Q.; Goding, S.; Hagenaars, M.

    2006-01-01

    . Analyses of tumors for extracellular matrix (ECM) components and PECAM-1(+) vasculature, revealed that the I-R lesions are hypovascularized and contain very little laminin, collagen and fibronectin. In contrast, the I-P loose tumors are well-vascularized and they contain high amounts of ECM components...... infiltration by activated NK and T cells correlates with the presence of ECM components and PECAM-1(+) vasculature in the malignant tissue. Thus, analysis of the distribution of ECM and vasculature in tumor biopsies may help select patients most likely to benefit from cellular adoptive immunotherapy....

  8. Effect of Burnable Absorbers on Inert Matrix Fuel Performance and Transuranic Burnup in a Low Power Density Light-Water Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Recktenwald

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Zirconium dioxide has received particular attention as a fuel matrix because of its ability to form a solid solution with transuranic elements, natural radiation stability and desirable mechanical properties. However, zirconium dioxide has a lower coefficient of thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide and this presents an obstacle to the deployment of these fuels in commercial reactors. Here we show that axial doping of a zirconium dioxide based fuel with erbium reduces power peaking and fuel temperature. Full core simulations of a modified AP1000 core were done using MCNPX 2.7.0. The inert matrix fuel contained 15 w/o transuranics at its beginning of life and constituted 28% of the assemblies in the core. Axial doping reduced power peaking at startup by more than ~23% in the axial direction and reduced the peak to average power within the core from 1.80 to 1.44. The core was able to remain critical between refueling while running at a simulated 2000 MWth on an 18 month refueling cycle. The results show that the reactor would maintain negative core average reactivity and void coefficients during operation. This type of fuel cycle would reduce the overall production of transuranics in a pressurized water reactor by 86%.

  9. Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel N

    2003-01-01

    Mathematically rigorous introduction covers vector and matrix norms, the condition-number of a matrix, positive and irreducible matrices, much more. Only elementary algebra and calculus required. Includes problem-solving exercises. 1968 edition.

  10. Vibrational excitation of cyclopropane by electron impact: An experimental test of the discrete-momentum-representation theory with density-functional-theory approximation of polarization and correlation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čurík, Roman; Čársky, Petr; Allan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 6 (2012), 062709 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10046; GA ČR GAP208/11/0452 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Angular range * Density functionals * Electron impact Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.042, year: 2012

  11. Coherence matrix of plasmonic beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We consider monochromatic electromagnetic beams of surface plasmon-polaritons created at interfaces between dielectric media and metals. We theoretically study non-coherent superpositions of elementary surface waves and discuss their spectral degree of polarization, Stokes parameters, and the for...... of the spectral coherence matrix. We compare the polarization properties of the surface plasmonspolaritons as three-dimensional and two-dimensional fields concluding that the latter is superior....

  12. Enhanced sheet carrier densities in polarization controlled AlInN/AlN/GaN/InGaN field-effect transistor on Si (111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hennig

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on GaN based field-effect transistor (FET structures exhibiting sheet carrier densities of n = 2.9 1013 cm−2 for high-power transistor applications. By grading the indium-content of InGaN layers grown prior to a conventional GaN/AlN/AlInN FET structure control of the channel width at the GaN/AlN interface is obtained. The composition of the InGaN layer was graded from nominally xIn = 30 % to pure GaN just below the AlN/AlInN interface. Simulations reveal the impact of the additional InGaN layer on the potential well width which controls the sheet carrier density within the channel region of the devices. Benchmarking the InxGa1−xN/GaN/AlN/Al0.87In0.13N based FETs against GaN/AlN/AlInN FET reference structures we found increased maximum current densities of ISD = 1300 mA/mm (560 mA/mm. In addition, the InGaN layer helps to achieve broader transconductance profiles as well as reduced leakage currents.

  13. Temperature dependent electron Lande g-factor and interband matrix element in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, Jens; Doehrmann, Stefanie; Haegele, Daniel; Oestreich, Michael [Institute for Solid State Physics, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University Hannover (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    High precision measurements of the electron Lande g-factor in GaAs are presented using spin quantum beat spectroscopy at low excitation densities and temperatures ranging from 2.6 to 300 K. Influences of nuclear spin polarization at low temperatures have been fully compensated. Comparing these measurements with available data for the temperature dependent effective mass reveals an unexpected strong temperature dependence of the interband matrix element and resolves a long lasting discrepancy between experiment and kp - theory. The strong decrease of the interband matrix element with increasing temperature is explained by phonon induced fluctuations of the interatomic spacing and adiabatic following of the electrons.

  14. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  15. Geometric phase from dielectric matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    2005-10-01

    The dielectric property of the anisotropic optical medium is found by considering the polarized photon as two component spinor of spherical harmonics. The Geometric Phase of a polarized photon has been evaluated in two ways: the phase two-form of the dielectric matrix through a twist and the Pancharatnam phase (GP) by changing the angular momentum of the incident polarized photon over a closed triangular path on the extended Poincare sphere. The helicity in connection with the spin angular momentum of the chiral photon plays the key role in developing these phase holonomies. (author)

  16. Polarimetry with azimuthally polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sande, Juan Carlos González; Piquero, Gemma; Santarsiero, Massimo

    2018-03-01

    Nonuniformly polarized light can be used for Mueller polarimetry of homogeneous linear samples. In this work, a set up based on using azimuthally polarized input light and a modified commercial light polarimeter is proposed and developed. With this set up, a Mueller submatrix of a sample can be obtained by measuring the Stokes parameters at only three different positions across the output beam section. Symmetry constraints for linear deterministic samples allow the complete Mueller matrix to be deduced for this kind of specimens. The experimental results obtained for phase plates and for a linear polarizer confirm the validity of the proposed method.

  17. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2015-01-01

    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass

  18. Selective optical scattering characterisation of tissue malignancy using Mueller matrix polarimetry: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathima, Adeeba; Sujatha, N.

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative Mueller polarimetry optically characterizes a medium and is reflected upon by the ultrastructural changes in it. Tissue morphology changes occur during advent of diseases like cancer neoplasia. This alters the Mueller matrix characterizing the tissue as an optical element. The nucleus size undergoes an approximate doubling during the development of cancer. Cell crowding during cancer increases the number density of the nuclei per unit volume. Modeling the cell nuclei as main scattering centers, a systematic computational study on how Mueller matrix elements vary for an increase in scatterer size and number density is performed. Simulation on polarized light transport of wavelength 633nm through a slab of size 3 mm comprising of spherical scatterers in a medium of refractive index 1.33 is carried out. Light propagation is modeled using Monte Carlo method and meridian plane method is adopted for tracking the polarization state change. The stokes vector of the outgoing light is tracked to calculate the Mueller matrix images of the light backscattered from the slab. The Mueller matrix elements as well as depolarization factors are derived. The depolarization index increases with scatterer size. Along with nucleus size, change in the cell number density is also expected in the different stages of the cancer growth. Volume fraction of the scatterers in medium is varied as an indicator of this number density change. Behavior of Mueller matrix with respect to change in scattering coefficient due to variation in scatterer size and volume fraction is studied. It is observed that the depolarization index derived from Mueller matrix has selective discrimination towards the change in scattering coefficient caused due to size change and volume fraction change respectively.

  19. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  20. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica L; Streuli, Charles H

    2014-08-01

    Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell-matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical-basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Differences in bone mineral density, markers of bone turnover and extracellular matrix and daily life muscular activity among patients with recent motor-incomplete versus motor-complete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostovski, E; Hjeltnes, N; Eriksen, E F; Kolset, S O; Iversen, P O

    2015-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to severe bone loss, but the associated mechanisms are poorly described in incomplete SCI individuals. The purpose of the study is to compare alterations in bone mineral density (BMD) and serum biomarkers of bone turnover in recent motor-incomplete to -complete SCI men, as well as to describe their physical activity and spasticity. We studied 31 men with acute SCI. Whole-body DXA scans, serum biomarkers and self-reported activity and spasticity were examined 1 and/or 3 and 12 months after the injury. We observed a decrease in proximal femur BMD (p bone loss 12 months after injury and exhibited increased bone resorption throughout the first year after the injury. Compared with complete SCI men, incomplete SCI men show attenuated bone resorption. Our pooled data show increased turnover of extracellular matrix after injury and that increased exercise before and after injury correlated with reduced bone loss.

  2. Multiple Interfacial Fe3O4@BaTiO3/P(VDF-HFP) Core-Shell-Matrix Films with Internal Barrier Layer Capacitor (IBLC) Effects and High Energy Storage Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Fu, Qiuyun; Xue, Fei; Tang, Xiahui; Zhou, Dongxiang; Tian, Yahui; Wang, Geng; Wang, Chaohong; Gou, Haibo; Xu, Lei

    2017-11-22

    Flexible nanocomposites composed of high dielectric constant fillers and polymer matrix have shown great potential for electrostatic capacitors and energy storage applications. To obtain the composited material with high dielectric constant and high breakdown strength, multi-interfacial composited particles, which composed of conductive cores and insulating shells and possessed the internal barrier layer capacitor (IBLC) effect, were adopted as fillers. Thus, Fe 3 O 4 @BaTiO 3 core-shell particles were prepared and loaded into the poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) polymer matrix. As the mass fraction of core-shell fillers increased from 2.5 wt % to 30 wt %, the dielectric constant of the films increased, while the loss tangent remained at a low level (energy storage density of 7.018 J/cm 3 was measured at 2350 kV/cm, which shows significant enhancement than those of the pure P(VDF-HFP) films and analogous composited films with converse insulating-conductive core-shell fillers. A Maxwell-Wagner capacitor model was also adopted to interpret the efficiency of IBLC effects on the suppressed loss tangent and the superior breakdown strength. This work explored an effective approach to prepare dielectric nanocomposites for energy storage applications experimentally and theoretically.

  3. Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Theory With Polarization Drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Hahm, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    A set of the electrostatic toroidal gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and the Poisson equation, which explicitly includes the polarization drift, is derived systematically by using Lie-transform method. The polarization drift is introduced in the gyrocenter equations of motion, and the corresponding polarization density is derived. Contrary to the wide-spread expectation, the inclusion of the polarization drift in the gyrocenter equations of motion does not affect the expression for the polarization density significantly. This is due to modification of the gyrocenter phase-space volume caused by the electrostatic potential [T. S. Hahm, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4658 (1996)].

  4. Optically pumped polarized H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    The current status and future prospects for the optically pumped polarized H - ion source are discussed. At the present time H - ion currents of 60 μA and with a polarization of 65% have been produced. The ion current and polarization can be increased significantly if the optically pumped Na charge exchange target density and polarization can be increased. Studies of wall surfaces that permit many bounces before depolarizing the Na electron spin and studies of radiation trapping in optically pumped Na indicate that the Na target density and polarization can be increased substantially. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Optimization of High Temperature and Pressurized Steam Modified Wood Fibers for High-Density Polyethylene Matrix Composites Using the Orthogonal Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The orthogonal design method was used to determine the optimum conditions for modifying poplar fibers through a high temperature and pressurized steam treatment for the subsequent preparation of wood fiber/high-density polyethylene (HDPE composites. The extreme difference, variance, and significance analyses were performed to reveal the effect of the modification parameters on the mechanical properties of the prepared composites, and they yielded consistent results. The main findings indicated that the modification temperature most strongly affected the mechanical properties of the prepared composites, followed by the steam pressure. A temperature of 170 °C, a steam pressure of 0.8 MPa, and a processing time of 20 min were determined as the optimum parameters for fiber modification. Compared to the composites prepared from untreated fibers, the tensile, flexural, and impact strength of the composites prepared from modified fibers increased by 20.17%, 18.5%, and 19.3%, respectively. The effect on the properties of the composites was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. When the temperature, steam pressure, and processing time reached the highest values, the composites exhibited the best mechanical properties, which were also well in agreement with the results of the extreme difference, variance, and significance analyses. Moreover, the crystallinity and thermal stability of the fibers and the storage modulus of the prepared composites improved; however, the hollocellulose content and the pH of the wood fibers decreased.

  6. Surface modification of carbon nanotubes using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to improve mechanical properties of nanocomposite based polymer matrix: Experimental and Density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed Mashhadzadeh, A.; Fereidoon, Ab.; Ghorbanzadeh Ahangari, M.

    2017-10-01

    In current study we combined theoretical and experimental studies to evaluate the effect of functionalization and silanization on mechanical behavior of polymer-based/CNT nanocomposites. Epoxy was selected as thermoset polymer, polypropylene and poly vinyl chloride were selected as thermoplastic polymers. The whole procedure is divided to two sections . At first we applied density functional theory (DFT) to analyze the effect of functionalization on equilibrium distance and adsorption energy of unmodified, functionalized by sbnd OH group and silanized epoxy/CNT, PP/CNT and PVC/CNT nanocomposites and the results showed that functionalization increased adsorption energy and reduced the equilibrium distance in all studied nanocomposites and silanization had higher effect comparing to OH functionalizing. Then we prepared experimental samples of all mentioned nanocomposites and tested their tensile and flexural strength properties. The obtained results showed that functionalization increased the studied mechanical properties in all evaluated nanocomposites. Finally we compared the results of experimental and theoretical sections with each other and estimated a suitable agreement between these parts.

  7. Development of an polarization sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and it utilization on the Mueller matrix determination; Desenvolvimento de um sistema de tomografia por coerencia optica no dominio de Fourier sensivel a polarizacao e sua utilizacao na determinacao das matrizes de Mueller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raele, Marcus Paulo

    2009-07-01

    This study approached theoretical and experimental aspects related with the development of a polarization sensitive, Fourier domain, optical coherence tomography system (PS-FD-OCT) and its utilization on the Mueller Matrix determination. This work began with a bibliographic revision, which describes since the early studies to the actual state of the art of the technique. The mathematical formalism of Fourier domain low coherence interferometry and light polarization was performed as well. Studies based on numerical simulations, of three different algorithm types, responsible to recover the scattering profile, were done. The implemented algorithms were: Direct Fourier Transform, Interpolation and zero-filling. By the end of the simulation study, was possible to conclude that the algorithm zero-filling 2N presented better characteristics when compared with the others. In the experimental part, firstly different OCT setups were assembled and measurements were done in order to verify aspects related with the theory. Then, using a polymeric sample, birefringence images were performed, which allowed determining the sample birefringence quantitatively. Finally, images taken of different polarization states were collected, and through then images related with the Mueller Matrix elements were calculated, which were analyzed individually. (author)

  8. Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  9. Effects of astigmatism on spectra and polarization of aberrant electromagnetic nonuniformly correlated beams in turbulent ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Miaomiao; Zhao, Daomu

    2014-12-01

    Analytical formulas are derived, for the cross spectral density matrix of electromagnetic nonuniformly correlated (EMUNC) beams, with astigmatic aberration propagating through oceanic turbulence. We investigate the effects of astigmatism on the spectral density, and the spectral degree of polarization, in great detail. It can be seen that, unlike for an aberration-free case, the lateral shifted intensity maximum (of an astigmatic EMUNC beam) does not return back to the on-axis position, after propagating at sufficiently large distances in the turbulence. Furthermore, in the far-zone, the deviation of its maximum value (from the optical axis) gradually increases, in accordance with growing propagation distance.

  10. Response function of an HPGe detector simulated through MCNP 4A varying the density and chemical composition of the matrix; Funcion respuesta de un detector HPGe simulada mediante MCNP 4A variando la densidad y composicion quimica de la matriz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal A, B.; Mireles G, F.; Quirino T, L.; Pinedo, J.L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: bleal79@yahoo.com.mx

    2005-07-01

    In the area of the Radiological Safety it is required of a calibrated detection system in energy and efficiency for the determination of the concentration in activity in samples that vary in chemical composition and by this in density. The area of Nuclear Engineering requires to find the grade of isotopic enrichment of the uranium of the Sub-critic Nuclear Chicago 9000 Mark. Given the experimental importance that has the determination from the curves of efficiency to the effects of establishing the quantitative results, is appealed to the simulation of the response function of the detector used in the Regional Center of Nuclear Studies inside the range of energy of 80 keV to 1400 keV varying the density of the matrix and the chemical composition by means of the application of the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A. The obtained results in the simulation of the response function of the detector show a grade of acceptance in the range from 500 to 1400 keV energy, with a smaller percentage discrepancy to 10%, in the range of low energy that its go from 59 to 400 keV, the percentage discrepancy varies from 17% until 30%, which is manifested in the opposing isotopic relationship for 5 fuel rods of the Sub critic nuclear assemble. (Author)

  11. Statistics of polarization speckle: theory versus experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on the statistical properties of polarization speckle, described by stochastic Stokes parameters fluctuating in space. Based on the Gaussian assumption for the random electric field components and polar-interferometer, we investigated theoretically...... and experimentally the statistics of Stokes parameters of polarization speckle, including probability density function of Stokes parameters with the spatial degree of polarization, autocorrelation of Stokes vector and statistics of spatial derivatives for Stokes parameters....

  12. Polarity governed selective amplification of through plane proton shuttling in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Manu; Chattanahalli Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Raja Kottaichamy, Alagar; Pottachola Shafi, Shahid; Gaikwad, Pramod; Makri Nimbegondi Kotresh, Harish; Ottakam Thotiyl, Musthafa

    2017-03-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) anisotropically conducts protons with directional dominance of in plane ionic transport (σ IP) over the through plane (σ TP). In a typical H 2 -O 2 fuel cell, since the proton conduction occurs through the plane during its generation at the fuel electrode, it is indeed inevitable to selectively accelerate GO's σ TP for advancement towards a potential fuel cell membrane. We successfully achieved ∼7 times selective amplification of GO's σ TP by tuning the polarity of the dopant molecule in its nanoporous matrix. The coexistence of strongly non-polar and polar domains in the dopant demonstrated a synergistic effect towards σ TP with the former decreasing the number of water molecules coordinated to protons by ∼3 times, diminishing the effects of electroosmotic drag exerted on ionic movements, and the latter selectively accelerating σ TP across the catalytic layers by bridging the individual GO planes via extensive host guest H-bonding interactions. When they are decoupled, the dopant with mainly non-polar or polar features only marginally enhances the σ TP, revealing that polarity factors contribute to fuel cell relevant transport properties of GO membranes only when they coexist. Fuel cell polarization and kinetic analyses revealed that these multitask dopants increased the fuel cell performance metrics of the power and current densities by ∼3 times compared to the pure GO membranes, suggesting that the functional group factors of the dopants are of utmost importance in GO-based proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  13. Matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewig, E

    1959-01-01

    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  14. Carbon nanotube fiber terahertz polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, Ahmed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Young, Colin C. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Heimbeck, Martin S. [Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Everitt, Henry O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Pasquali, Matteo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kono, Junichiro, E-mail: kono@rice.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2016-04-04

    Conventional, commercially available terahertz (THz) polarizers are made of uniformly and precisely spaced metallic wires. They are fragile and expensive, with performance characteristics highly reliant on wire diameters and spacings. Here, we report a simple and highly error-tolerant method for fabricating a freestanding THz polarizer with nearly ideal performance, reliant on the intrinsically one-dimensional character of conduction electrons in well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The polarizer was constructed on a mechanical frame over which we manually wound acid-doped CNT fibers with ultrahigh electrical conductivity. We demonstrated that the polarizer has an extinction ratio of ∼−30 dB with a low insertion loss (<0.5 dB) throughout a frequency range of 0.2–1.1 THz. In addition, we used a THz ellipsometer to measure the Müller matrix of the CNT-fiber polarizer and found comparable attenuation to a commercial metallic wire-grid polarizer. Furthermore, based on the classical theory of light transmission through an array of metallic wires, we demonstrated the most striking difference between the CNT-fiber and metallic wire-grid polarizers: the latter fails to work in the zero-spacing limit, where it acts as a simple mirror, while the former continues to work as an excellent polarizer even in that limit due to the one-dimensional conductivity of individual CNTs.

  15. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  16. Matrix superpotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Anatoly G.; Karadzhov, Yuri

    2011-07-01

    We present a collection of matrix-valued shape invariant potentials which give rise to new exactly solvable problems of SUSY quantum mechanics. It includes all irreducible matrix superpotentials of the generic form W=kQ+\\frac{1}{k} R+P, where k is a variable parameter, Q is the unit matrix multiplied by a real-valued function of independent variable x, and P and R are the Hermitian matrices depending on x. In particular, we recover the Pron'ko-Stroganov 'matrix Coulomb potential' and all known scalar shape invariant potentials of SUSY quantum mechanics. In addition, five new shape invariant potentials are presented. Three of them admit a dual shape invariance, i.e. the related Hamiltonians can be factorized using two non-equivalent superpotentials. We find discrete spectrum and eigenvectors for the corresponding Schrödinger equations and prove that these eigenvectors are normalizable.

  17. Polarization properties of optical phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauranen, Martti; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Malcuit, Michelle S.; Boyd, Robert W.

    1989-08-01

    We develop a semiclassical theory of the polarization properties of phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing. The theory includes the effects of saturation by the pump waves. We solve the density-matrix equations of motion in steady state for a nonlinear medium consisting of stationary atoms with a ground and excited state connected by two-photon transitions. As an illustration of the general results, we consider an S0-->S0 two-photon transition, which is known to lead to perfect polarization conjugation in the limit of third-order theory. We show that the fidelity of the polarization-conjugation process is degraded for excessively large pump intensities. The degradation can occur both due to transfer of population to the excited state and due to nonresonant Stark shifts. Theoretical results are compared to those of a recent experiment [Malcuit, Gauthier, and Boyd, Opt. Lett. 13, 663 (1988)].

  18. The optics of secondary polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Polarized protons can be produced by the parity-violating decay of either lambda or sigma hyperons. A secondary bema of polarized protons can then be produced without the difficult procedure of accelerating polarized protons. The preservation of the polarization while the protons are being transmitted to a final focus places stringent limitations on the optics of the beam line. The equations of motion of a polarized particle in a magnetic field have been solved to first order for quadrupole and dipole magnets. The lowest order terms indicate that the polarization vector will be restored to its original direction upon passage through a magnetic system if the momentum vector is unaltered. Higher-order terms may be derived by an expansion in commutators of the rotation matrix and its longitudinal derivative. The higher-order polarization rotation terms then arise from the non-commutivity of the rotation matrices by large angles in three-dimensional space. 5 refs., 3 figs

  19. A matrix contraction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael; Grant, John

    2018-03-01

    We consider a stochastic process in which independent identically distributed random matrices are multiplied and where the Lyapunov exponent of the product is positive. We continue multiplying the random matrices as long as the norm, ɛ, of the product is less than unity. If the norm is greater than unity we reset the matrix to a multiple of the identity and then continue the multiplication. We address the problem of determining the probability density function of the norm, \

  20. Matrix thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Evnin, Oleg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Nguyen, Kévin [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  1. Political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.

    2007-01-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  2. Political polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2007-05-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  3. Scalar relativistic calculations of hyperfine coupling constants using ab initio density matrix renormalization group method in combination with third-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess transformation: case studies on 4d transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Lan, Tran; Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi

    2015-01-13

    We have developed a new computational scheme for high-accuracy prediction of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant (HFCC) of heavy molecules, accounting for the high-level electron correlation effects, as well as the scalar-relativistic effects. For electron correlation, we employed the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method in conjunction with a complete active space model. The orbital-optimization procedure was employed to obtain the optimized orbitals required for accurately determining the isotropic HFCC. For the scalar-relativistic effects, we initially derived and implemented the Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) hyperfine coupling operators up to the third order (DKH3) by using the direct transformation scheme. A set of 4d transition-metal radicals consisting of Ag atom, PdH, and RhH2 were chosen as test cases. Good agreement between the isotropic HFCC values obtained from DMRG/DKH3 and experiment was archived. Because there are no available gas-phase values for PdH and RhH2 radicals in the literature, the results from the present high-level theory may serve as benchmark data.

  4. An investigation into the photochemistry of, and the electrochemically induced CO-loss from, [(CO)(5)MC(OMe)Me](M = Cr or W) using low-temperature matrix isolation, picosecond infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and time-dependent density functional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McMahon, S.; Amirjalayer, S.; Buma, W.J.; Halpin, Y.; Long, C.; Rooney, A.D.; Woutersen, S.; Pryce, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    The photophysics and photochemistry of [(CO)(5)MC(OMe)Me] (M = Cr or W) were investigated using pico-second time-resolved infrared spectroscopy (M = Cr or W), low-temperature matrix isolation techniques (M = Cr), and time-dependent density functional calculations (M = Cr or W). These studies provide

  5. Polarized Z boson production in eN and e+e- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoletnij, I.V.

    1982-01-01

    The article deals with investigation of the e + e - → e + e - Z processes and in the framework of parton model with investigation of the eN → eZx interaction in lower order by weak and electromagnetic interaction constants at energies essentially exceeding the Z boson production threshold in the case of low angles of electron scattering. It is shown that in this field the processes under consideration are described by Feynman similar diagrams. The density matrix of Z-boson formed in c. m. s. of initial positron (quark) and virtual photon is calculated as electron scattering angle function in a laboratory system and invariant values. Its dependence on initial electron polarization has been found. The formula expressing the said density matrix only through the invariant variables is given. Besides, the contribution of the above processes in structural functions is calculated

  6. The Reciprocal Pascal Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The reciprocal Pascal matrix is the Hadamard inverse of the symmetric Pascal matrix. We show that the ordinary matrix inverse of the reciprocal Pascal matrix has integer elements. The proof uses two factorizations of the matrix of super Catalan numbers.

  7. Matrix inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Xingzhi

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this monograph is to report on recent developments in the field of matrix inequalities, with emphasis on useful techniques and ingenious ideas. Among other results this book contains the affirmative solutions of eight conjectures. Many theorems unify or sharpen previous inequalities. The author's aim is to streamline the ideas in the literature. The book can be read by research workers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

  8. Non-uniformity calibration for MWIR polarization imagery obtained with integrated microgrid polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Zheng; Shi, Ze-Lin; Feng, Bin; Hui, Bin; Zhao, Yao-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Integrating microgrid polarimeters on focal plane array (FPA) of an infrared detector causes non-uniformity of polarization response. In order to reduce the effect of polarization non-uniformity, this paper constructs an experimental setup for capturing raw flat-field images and proposes a procedure for acquiring non-uniform calibration (NUC) matrix and calibrating raw polarization images. The proposed procedure takes the incident radiation as a polarization vector and offers a calibration matrix for each pixel. Both our matrix calibration and two-point calibration are applied to our mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) polarization imaging system with integrated microgrid polarimeters. Compared with two point calibration, our matrix calibration reduces non-uniformity by 30 40% under condition of flat-field data test with polarization. The ourdoor scene observation experiment indicates that our calibration can effectively reduce polarization non-uniformity and improve the image quality of our MWIR polarization imaging system.

  9. Development of a Predictive Model for the Long-Term Stability Assessment of Drug-In-Adhesive Transdermal Films Using Polar Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives as Carrier/Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenevas-Paule, Clémence; Wolff, Hans-Michael; Ashton, Mark; Schubert, Martin; Dodou, Kalliopi

    2017-05-01

    Drug crystallization in transdermal drug delivery systems is a critical quality defect. The impact of drug load and hydration on the physical stability of polar (acrylic) drug-in-adhesive (DIA) films was investigated with the objective to identify predictive formulation parameters with respect to drug solubility and long-term stability. Medicated acrylic films were prepared over a range of drug concentrations below and above saturation solubility and were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, polarized microscopy, and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) analysis. Physical stability of medicated films was monitored over 4 months under different storage conditions and was dependent on solubility parameters, Gibbs free energy for drug phase transition from the amorphous to the crystalline state, and relative humidity. DVS data, for assessing H-bonding capacity experimentally, were essential to predict physical stability at different humidities and were used together with Gibbs free energy change and the Hoffman equation to develop a new predictive thermodynamic model to estimate drug solubility and stability in DIA films taking into account relative humidity. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Role of work hardening characteristics of matrix alloys in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strengthening of particulate reinforced metal–matrix composites is associated with a high dislocation density in the matrix due to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the reinforcement and the matrix. While this is valid, the role of work hardening characteristics of the matrix alloys in strengthening of ...

  12. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    1997-01-01

    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  13. Small-angle neutron scattering investigations of magnetic nanostructures and interfaces using polarized neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenmann, Albrecht

    2001-03-01

    Using polarized neutrons, the relative contrasts for small-angle scattering are strongly modified which allows a precise evaluation of magnetization, density and composition profiles at surfaces and interfaces of nanoscaled materials. In Co ferrofluids, the magnetic core behaves as a non-interacting single domain. The core is encapsulated by a shell of surfactant molecules which was found to be impenetrable for the solvent. In soft magnetic Fe-Si-B-(Nb,Cu) and Fe-Nb-B alloys, the presence of a weak magnetic interface between ferromagnetic nanocrystals and amorphous matrix has been demonstrated which breaks the exchange interactions.

  14. Matrix pentagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4) matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  15. Matrix pentagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4 matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  16. Thermal stability of tunneling spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, C.H.; Kohlhepp, J.T.; Paluskar, P.V.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Jonge, W.J.M. de

    2005-01-01

    We present a study of the thermal stability of tunneling spin polarization in Al/AlOx/ferromagnet junctions based on the spin-polarized tunneling technique, in which the Zeeman-split superconducting density of states in the Al electrode is used as a detector for the spin polarization. Thermal robustness of the polarization, which is of key importance for the performance of magnetic tunnel junction devices, is demonstrated for post-deposition anneal temperatures up to 500 o C with Co and Co 90 Fe 10 top electrodes, independent of the presence of an FeMn layer on top of the ferromagnet

  17. The S-matrix for systems with bound states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijgrok, Th.W.

    A unitary S-matrix is defined for a system of three particles, two of which can form a bound state. It is shown how for elastic scattering the polarization of the bound state must be taken into account.

  18. Far-from-Equilibrium Quantum Magnetism with Ultracold Polar Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Kaden R. A.; Manmana, Salvatore R.; Foss-Feig, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria

    2013-02-01

    Recent theory has indicated how to emulate tunable models of quantum magnetism with ultracold polar molecules. Here we show that present molecule optical lattice experiments can accomplish three crucial goals for quantum emulation, despite currently being well below unit filling and not quantum degenerate. The first is to verify and benchmark the models proposed to describe these systems. The second is to prepare correlated and possibly useful states in well-understood regimes. The third is to explore many-body physics inaccessible to existing theoretical techniques. Our proposal relies on a nonequilibrium protocol that can be viewed either as Ramsey spectroscopy or an interaction quench. The proposal uses only routine experimental tools available in any ultracold molecule experiment. To obtain a global understanding of the behavior, we treat short times pertubatively, develop analytic techniques to treat the Ising interaction limit, and apply a time-dependent density matrix renormalization group to disordered systems with long range interactions.

  19. Precessing deuteron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.; Volkov, V.I.; Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M.; Plis, Yu.A.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the acceleration in the Nuclotron of deuterons polarized in the horizontal plane is considered. This horizontal polarization is named precessing polarization. The effects of the main magnetic field and synchrotron oscillations are included. The precessing polarization is supposed to be used in studying the polarization parameters of the elastic dp back-scattering and other experiments

  20. Covariance matrix estimation for stationary time series

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Han; Wu, Wei Biao

    2011-01-01

    We obtain a sharp convergence rate for banded covariance matrix estimates of stationary processes. A precise order of magnitude is derived for spectral radius of sample covariance matrices. We also consider a thresholded covariance matrix estimator that can better characterize sparsity if the true covariance matrix is sparse. As our main tool, we implement Toeplitz [Math. Ann. 70 (1911) 351–376] idea and relate eigenvalues of covariance matrices to the spectral densities or Fourier transforms...

  1. Polarization transfer in x-ray transitions due to photoionization in highly charged copper-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kun; Chen, Zhan-Bin; Xie, Lu-You; Dong, Chen-Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Using the density matrix theory and the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method, the 3{d}3/2 subshell photoionization of highly charged ions is studied, together with their subsequent radiative decay. The effects of polarization transfer on the linear polarization and angular distribution of the 3{d}94{s}2{}2{D}3/2\\to 3{d}104p{}2{P}1/2 characteristic line photoemission for selected Cu-like Zn+, Ba27+, {{{W}}}45+, and {{{U}}}63+ ions are investigated. Our results show that the polarization transfer, arising from the originally polarized incident light, may lead to a considerable change in the alignment parameters and the polarization properties of the radiation, the character of which is highly sensitive to the initial photon polarization, yet virtually independent of the photon energy. These characteristics are very similar to those of the electron bremsstrahlung process reported by Märtin et al (2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 264801). The present results are compared with available experimental results and show a good quantitative agreement.

  2. Polare maskuliniteter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Anne Hauan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper my aim is to read and understand the journal of Gerrit de Veer from the last journey of William Barents to the Arctic Regions in 1596 and the journal of captain Junge on his hunting trip from Tromsø to Svalbard in 1834.It is nearly 240 years between this to voyages. The first journal is known as the earliest report from the arctic era. Gerrit de Veer adds instructive copper engravings to his text and give us insight in the crews meeting with this new land. Captain Junges journal is found together with his dead crew in a house in a fjord nearby Ny-Ålesund and has no drawings, but word. Both of these journals may be read as sources of the knowledge and understanding of the polar region. They might also unveil the ideas of how to deal with and survive under the challenges that is given. In addition one can ask if the sources can tell us more about how men describe their challenges. Can the way they expressed themselves in the journals give us an understanding of masculinity? And not least help us to create good questions of the change in the ideas of masculinities which is said to follow the change in understanding of the wilderness.

  3. Differential cross sections and polarization observables from CLAS K⁎ photoproduction and the search for new N⁎ states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Anisovich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction γp→K⁎+Λ was measured using the CLAS detector for photon energies between the threshold and 3.9 GeV at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. For the first time, spin-density matrix elements have been extracted for this reaction. Differential cross sections, spin density matrix elements, and the Λ recoil polarization are compared with theoretical predictions using the BnGa partial wave analysis. The main result is the evidence for significant contributions from N(18951/2− and N(21001/2+ to the reaction. Branching ratios for decays into K⁎Λ for these resonances and further resonances are reported.

  4. Random matrix model for disordered conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a random matrix ensemble where real, positive semi-definite matrix elements, , are log-normal distributed, exp ⁡ [ − log 2 ⁡ ( x ) ] . We show that the level density varies with energy, , as 2/(1 + ) for large , in the unitary family, consistent with the expectation for disordered conductors. The two-level ...

  5. Polarized photon transport through fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jonathan; Persons, Christopher M.; DeSilva, Robert; Kirkland, James H.; Finney, Greg A.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Hokr, Brett H.

    2017-09-01

    Anyone who has driven through fog understands the detrimental effect scattering can have on your ability to see. When light interacts with a scattering center, in this case a fog droplet, it is scattered into a new direction, ultimately turning the world around you into a dull gray haze. In some fogs, visibility can be less than 100 meters. It would be possible to see through turbid media like fog if you can separate the scattered light from the unscattered, or ballistic, light; however, we must understand the light transport properties of the atmosphere to determine the optimum scheme. Here, we present an end-to-end simulation for polarized light transport through fog. Our approach can be summarized in three steps: compute the Mueller matrix for a single scattering interaction, ensemble average a distribution of sizes and shapes, and solve the light transport using a Monte Carlo simulation. For small spherical particles, such as fog, we use Mie theory to calculate the single scattering Mueller matrix, but this approach can be generalized to non-spherical particles using ray tracing for large particles or a T-matrix approach for smaller particles. Through this simulation, we are able to determine a backscattering Mueller matrix and a forward scattering Mueller matrix response function for the atmosphere as a function of position and detection angle.

  6. Corrosion and Erosion-Corrosion Processes of Metal-Matrix Composites in Slurry Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, J. F.; Neville, A.; Kapur, N.; Gnanavelu, A.

    2012-03-01

    The corrosion and erosion-corrosion (EC) processes of four metal-matrix composites (MMCs) in a simulated cooling water environment have been assessed in this article. The MMCs consisted of two Ni-base and two Fe-base matrices alloyed with different concentrations of chromium, molybdenum, boron, silicon, and carbon; the matrices were reinforced with tungsten carbide (WC) particles. The corrosion behavior has been investigated using a combination of potentiostatic polarization and post-tests surface analysis. The EC processes were studied by in situ electrochemical techniques measuring the current density and corrosion potential response at different slurry temperatures and sand content. At static conditions it was found that as the temperature increased, there was a transition from a homogeneous corrosion of the matrix to an interfacial corrosion mechanism. The Ni-base MMCs showed a better corrosion resistance and interestingly a highly alloyed matrix did not significantly improved MMC's corrosion resistance. In the in situ EC tests, the Fe-base MMCs showed a constant increase in the current density at all sand contents. Whereas, significant changes were not observed in the Ni-base MMCs below 0.5 g/L. Although sand content had an effect on the monitored current density (the current increased as the sand content increased) this effect was less pronounced above 3 g/L.

  7. Non-ionic detergent Triton X-114 Based vortex- synchronized matrix solid-phase dispersion method for the simultaneous determination of six compounds with various polarities from Forsythiae Fructus by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Kunze; Li, Jin; Tian, Fei; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2018-02-20

    A simple nonionic detergent - based vortex- synchronized matrix solid-phase dispersion (ND-VSMSPD) method was developed to extract bioactive compounds in Forsythiae Fructus coupled with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Nonionic detergent Triton 114 was firstly used as a green elution reagent in vortex- synchronized MSPD procedure. The optimum parameters were investigated to attain the best results, including Florisil as sorbent, 2mL 10% (v/v) nonionic detergent Triton X-114 as the elution reagent, 1:1 of sample/sorbent ratio, grinding for 3min, and whirling for 2min. The recoveries of the six compounds in Forsythiae Fructus were in the range of 95-104% (RSD vortex- synchronized MSPD, which required lower sample, reagent and time, were higher than the normal MSPD and the traditional ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Consequently, this developed vortex- synchronized MSPD coupled with simple UHPLC method could be efficiently applies to extract and analyze the target compounds in real Forsythiae Fructus samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Unlocking the Full Potential of Extragalactic Lyα through Its Polarization Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Marius B.; Gronke, Max; Dijkstra, Mark; Hayes, Matthew

    2018-04-01

    Lyα is a powerful astrophysical probe. Not only is it ubiquitous at high redshifts, it is also a resonant line, making Lyα photons scatter. This scattering process depends on the physical conditions of the gas through which Lyα propagates, and these conditions are imprinted on observables such as the Lyα spectrum and its surface brightness profile. In this work, we focus on a less-used observable capable of probing any scattering process: polarization. We implement the density matrix formalism of polarization into the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code tlac. This allows us to treat it as a quantum mechanical process where single photons develop and lose polarization from scatterings in arbitrary gas geometries. We explore static and expanding ellipsoids, biconical outflows, and clumpy multiphase media. We find that photons become increasingly polarized as they scatter and diffuse into the wings of the line profiles, making scattered Lyα polarized in general. The degree and orientation of Lyα polarization depends on the kinematics and distribution of the scattering H I gas. We find that it generally probes spatial or velocity space asymmetries and aligns itself tangentially to the emission source. We show that the mentioned observables, when studied separately, can leave similar signatures for different source models. We conclude by revealing how a joint analysis of the Lyα spectra, surface brightness profiles, and polarization can break these degeneracies and help us extract unique physical information on galaxies and their environments from their strongest, most prominent emission line.

  9. Modulation of electromagnetic fields by a depolarizer of random polarizer array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The statistical properties of the electric fields with random changes of the polarization state in space generated by a depolarizer are investigated on the basis of the coherence matrix. The depolarizer is a polarizer array composed of a multitude of contiguous square cells of polarizers with ran......The statistical properties of the electric fields with random changes of the polarization state in space generated by a depolarizer are investigated on the basis of the coherence matrix. The depolarizer is a polarizer array composed of a multitude of contiguous square cells of polarizers...... with randomly distributed polarization angles, where the incident fields experience a random polarization modulation after passing through the depolarizer. The propagation of the modulated electric fields through any quadratic optical system is examined within the framework of the complex ABCD matrix to show...

  10. Field theory of polar continua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, C.

    1988-01-01

    A Lagrangian density in the polar space X 1+3+3 depending of the potentials and their derivativs and of the fluxes is introduced. The potentials are then the mechanical and electromagnetic potentials, the potentials of gravity and in the polar space X 1+3+3 the components of affine connection. The fluxes are essentially the tangential motors of the mechanical and electromagnetic world-lines multiplied with the density of mass and electric charge. The Hamilton principle gives, with the in variational calculus usual integrations by part, here done via the theorem of Gauss, the equations of motion and the field equations. The conditions of integrability for these equations are discussed. (author)

  11. Polar drive on OMEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha P.B.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High-convergence polar-drive experiments are being conducted on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commum. 133, 495 (1997] using triple-picket laser pulses. The goal of OMEGA experiments is to validate modeling of oblique laser deposition, heat conduction in the presence of nonradial thermal gradients in the corona, and implosion energetics in the presence of laser–plasma interactions such as crossed-beam energy transfer. Simulated shock velocities near the equator, where the beams are obliquely incident, are within 5% of experimentally inferred values in warm plastic shells, well within the required accuracy for ignition. High, near-one-dimensional areal density is obtained in warm-plastic-shell implosions. Simulated backlit images of the compressing core are in good agreement with measured images. Outstanding questions that will be addressed in the future relate to the role of cross-beam transfer in polar drive irradiation and increasing the energy coupled into the target by decreasing beam obliquity.

  12. Part I. Corrosion studies of continuous alumina fiber reinforced aluminum-matrix composites. Part II. Galvanic corrosion between continuous alumina fiber reinforced aluminum-matrix composites and 4340 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun

    Part I. The corrosion performance of continuous alumina fiber reinforced aluminum-matrix composites (CF-AMCs) was investigated in both the laboratory and field environments by comparing them with their respective monolithic matrix alloys, i.e., pure Al, A1-2wt%Cu T6, and Al 6061 T6. The corrosion initiation sites were identified by monitoring the changes in the surface morphology. Corrosion current densities and pH profiles at localized corrosion sites were measured using the scanning-vibrating electrode technique and the scanning ion-selective electrode technique, respectively. The corrosion damage of the materials immersed in various electrolytes, as well as those exposed in a humidity chamber and outdoor environments, was evaluated. Potentiodynamic polarization behavior was also studied. The corrosion initiation for the composites in 3.15 wt% NaCl occurred primarily around the Fe-rich intermetallic particles, which preferentially existed around the fiber/matrix interface on the composites. The corrosion initiation sites were also caused by physical damage (e.g., localized deformation) to the composite surface. At localized corrosion sites, the buildup of acidity was enhanced by the formation of micro-crevices resulting from fibers left in relief as the matrix corroded. The composites that were tested in exposure experiments exhibited higher corrosion rates than their monolithic alloys. The composites and their monolithic alloys were subjected to pitting corrosion when anodically polarized in the 3.15 wt% NaCl, while they passivated when anodically polarized in 0.5 M Na2SO4. The experimental results indicated that the composites exhibited inferior corrosion resistance compared to their monolithic matrix alloys. Part II. Galvanic corrosion studies were conducted on CF-AMCs coupled to 4340 steel since CF-AMCs have low density and excellent mechanical properties and are being considered as potential jacketing materials for reinforcing steel gun barrels. Coupled and

  13. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  14. Matrix models with γstring>0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzban, C.; Viswanathan, R.R.

    1990-12-01

    Within the framework of c = 1 matrix models, we consider multi-matrix models. A connection is established between a D-dimensional gas of fermions (bosons) for odd (even) values of D. A statistical mechanical analysis yields the scaling law for the free energy, and hence the susceptibility exponents for the various models. The exponents turn out to be positive for the multi-matrix models, suggesting that these could represent models of 2 d-gravity coupled to c>1 matter. Whereas in the c=1 case the density of states itself diverges as one approaches the critical point, in the D-matrix models various derivatives of the density of states diverge, with the order of the derivative depending on D. This qualitatively different behaviour of the density of states could be a signal of the conjectured ''phase transition'' at c=1. (author). 14 refs

  15. Solar Illumination Control of the Polar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, L.; Maggiolo, R.; De Keyser, J.; André, M.; Eriksson, A. I.; Haaland, S.; Li, K.; Poedts, S.

    2017-11-01

    Polar wind outflow is an important process through which the ionosphere supplies plasma to the magnetosphere. The main source of energy driving the polar wind is solar illumination of the ionosphere. As a result, many studies have found a relation between polar wind flux densities and solar EUV intensity, but less is known about their relation to the solar zenith angle at the ionospheric origin, certainly at higher altitudes. The low energy of the outflowing particles and spacecraft charging means it is very difficult to measure the polar wind at high altitudes. We take advantage of an alternative method that allows estimations of the polar wind flux densities far in the lobes. We analyze measurements made by the Cluster spacecraft at altitudes from 4 up to 20 RE. We observe a strong dependence on the solar zenith angle in the ion flux density and see that both the ion velocity and density exhibit a solar zenith angle dependence as well. We also find a seasonal variation of the flux density.

  16. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  17. Unoccupied density of states of La2–xSrxNiO4+δ studied by polarization-dependent x-ray-absorption spectroscopy and bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, P.; Elp, J. van; Sawatzky, G.A.; Fujimori, A.; Hosoya, S.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen 1s x-ray-absorption measurements of La2–xSrxNiO4+δ (0≤x≤1.15) are presented, together with O 1s polarization-dependent x-ray absorption on single-crystal La1.85Sr0.15NiO4. It is concluded that the charge-compensating holes have mainly oxygen 2p character. The Ni 3d9 final states reached

  18. Long-Term Culture of Rat Hippocampal Neurons at Low Density in Serum-Free Medium: Combination of the Sandwich Culture Technique with the Three-Dimensional Nanofibrous Hydrogel PuraMatrix

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Ai; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    The primary culture of neuronal cells plays an important role in neuroscience. There has long been a need for methods enabling the long-term culture of primary neurons at low density, in defined serum-free medium. However, the lower the cell density, the more difficult it is to maintain the cells in culture. Therefore, we aimed to develop a method for long-term culture of neurons at low density, in serum-free medium, without the need for a glial feeder layer. Here, we describe the work leadin...

  19. Uncertainties of atmospheric polarimetric measurements with sun-sky radiometers induced by errors of relative orientations of polarizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Li, Zhengqiang; Li, Kaitao; Sun, Bin; Wu, Yanke; Xu, Hua; Xie, Yisong; Goloub, Philippe; Wendisch, Manfred

    2018-04-01

    In this study errors of the relative orientations of polarizers in the Cimel polarized sun-sky radiometers are measured and introduced into the Mueller matrix of the instrument. The linearly polarized light with different polarization directions from 0° to 180° (or 360°) is generated by using a rotating linear polarizer in front of an integrating sphere. Through measuring the referential linearly polarized light, the errors of relative orientations of polarizers are determined. The efficiencies of the polarizers are obtained simultaneously. By taking the error of relative orientation into consideration in the Mueller matrix, the accuracies of the calculated Stokes parameters, the degree of linear polarization, and the angle of polarization are remarkably improved. The method may also apply to other polarization instruments of similar types.

  20. Inclusive J/{psi} photoproduction and polarization at HERA in the k{sub T}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics

    2010-12-15

    We investigate the inclusive photoproduction of J/{psi} mesons at HERA within the framework of the k{sub T} -factorization QCD approach. Our consideration is based on the color singlet model supplemented with the relevant off-shell matrix elements and the CCFM and KMR unintegrated gluon densities in a proton and in a photon. Both the direct and resolved photon contributions are taken into account. Our predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations. Special attention is put on the J/{psi} polarization parameters {lambda} and {nu} which are sensitive to the production dynamics. (orig.)

  1. Polar patterns of driven filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Volker; Weber, Christoph; Semmrich, Christine; Frey, Erwin; Bausch, Andreas R

    2010-09-02

    The emergence of collective motion exhibited by systems ranging from flocks of animals to self-propelled microorganisms to the cytoskeleton is a ubiquitous and fascinating self-organization phenomenon. Similarities between these systems, such as the inherent polarity of the constituents, a density-dependent transition to ordered phases or the existence of very large density fluctuations, suggest universal principles underlying pattern formation. This idea is followed by theoretical models at all levels of description: micro- or mesoscopic models directly map local forces and interactions using only a few, preferably simple, interaction rules, and more macroscopic approaches in the hydrodynamic limit rely on the systems' generic symmetries. All these models characteristically have a broad parameter space with a manifold of possible patterns, most of which have not yet been experimentally verified. The complexity of interactions and the limited parameter control of existing experimental systems are major obstacles to our understanding of the underlying ordering principles. Here we demonstrate the emergence of collective motion in a high-density motility assay that consists of highly concentrated actin filaments propelled by immobilized molecular motors in a planar geometry. Above a critical density, the filaments self-organize to form coherently moving structures with persistent density modulations, such as clusters, swirls and interconnected bands. These polar nematic structures are long lived and can span length scales orders of magnitudes larger than their constituents. Our experimental approach, which offers control of all relevant system parameters, complemented by agent-based simulations, allows backtracking of the assembly and disassembly pathways to the underlying local interactions. We identify weak and local alignment interactions to be essential for the observed formation of patterns and their dynamics. The presented minimal polar-pattern-forming system

  2. Supersymmetry in random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieburg, Mario

    2010-05-04

    I study the applications of supersymmetry in random matrix theory. I generalize the supersymmetry method and develop three new approaches to calculate eigenvalue correlation functions. These correlation functions are averages over ratios of characteristic polynomials. In the first part of this thesis, I derive a relation between integrals over anti-commuting variables (Grassmann variables) and differential operators with respect to commuting variables. With this relation I rederive Cauchy- like integral theorems. As a new application I trace the supermatrix Bessel function back to a product of two ordinary matrix Bessel functions. In the second part, I apply the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation to arbitrary rotation invariant ensembles of real symmetric and Hermitian self-dual matrices. This extends the approach for unitarily rotation invariant matrix ensembles. For the k-point correlation functions I derive supersymmetric integral expressions in a unifying way. I prove the equivalence between the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and the superbosonization formula. Moreover, I develop an alternative mapping from ordinary space to superspace. After comparing the results of this approach with the other two supersymmetry methods, I obtain explicit functional expressions for the probability densities in superspace. If the probability density of the matrix ensemble factorizes, then the generating functions exhibit determinantal and Pfaffian structures. For some matrix ensembles this was already shown with help of other approaches. I show that these structures appear by a purely algebraic manipulation. In this new approach I use structures naturally appearing in superspace. I derive determinantal and Pfaffian structures for three types of integrals without actually mapping onto superspace. These three types of integrals are quite general and, thus, they are applicable to a broad class of matrix ensembles. (orig.)

  3. Supersymmetry in random matrix theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieburg, Mario

    2010-01-01

    I study the applications of supersymmetry in random matrix theory. I generalize the supersymmetry method and develop three new approaches to calculate eigenvalue correlation functions. These correlation functions are averages over ratios of characteristic polynomials. In the first part of this thesis, I derive a relation between integrals over anti-commuting variables (Grassmann variables) and differential operators with respect to commuting variables. With this relation I rederive Cauchy- like integral theorems. As a new application I trace the supermatrix Bessel function back to a product of two ordinary matrix Bessel functions. In the second part, I apply the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation to arbitrary rotation invariant ensembles of real symmetric and Hermitian self-dual matrices. This extends the approach for unitarily rotation invariant matrix ensembles. For the k-point correlation functions I derive supersymmetric integral expressions in a unifying way. I prove the equivalence between the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and the superbosonization formula. Moreover, I develop an alternative mapping from ordinary space to superspace. After comparing the results of this approach with the other two supersymmetry methods, I obtain explicit functional expressions for the probability densities in superspace. If the probability density of the matrix ensemble factorizes, then the generating functions exhibit determinantal and Pfaffian structures. For some matrix ensembles this was already shown with help of other approaches. I show that these structures appear by a purely algebraic manipulation. In this new approach I use structures naturally appearing in superspace. I derive determinantal and Pfaffian structures for three types of integrals without actually mapping onto superspace. These three types of integrals are quite general and, thus, they are applicable to a broad class of matrix ensembles. (orig.)

  4. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of 3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the 3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the 3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neutrons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the 3 He for spin-polarizing the 3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the 3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with 3 He to spin-polarize the 3 He atoms

  6. Synthesis of a polar ordered oxynitride perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapoo, Rajasekarakumar; Ahart, Muhtar; Somayazulu, Maddury; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Meng, Yue; Konopkova, Zuzana; Hemley, Russell J.; Cohen, R. E.

    2017-06-01

    For decades, numerous attempts have been made to produce polar oxynitride perovskites, where some of the oxygen is replaced by nitrogen, but a polar ordered oxynitride has never been demonstrated. Caracas and Cohen [Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 092902 (2007), 10.1063/1.2776370] studied possible ordered polar oxynitrides within density-functional theory (DFT) and found a few candidates that were predicted to be insulating and at least metastable. YSi O2N stood out with huge predicted polarization and nonlinear optic coefficients. In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of perovskite-structured YSi O2N by using a combination of a diamond-anvil cell and in situ laser-heating techniques. Subsequent in situ x-ray diffraction, second-harmonic generation, and Raman-scattering measurements confirm that it is polar and a strong nonlinear optical material, with structure and properties similar to those predicted by DFT.

  7. Synthesis of a polar ordered oxynitride perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadapoo, Rajasekarakumar; Ahart, Muhtar; Somayazulu, Maddury; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Meng, Yue; Konopkova, Zuzana; Hemley, Russell J.; Cohen, R. E.

    2017-06-01

    For decades, numerous attempts have been made to produce polar oxynitride perovskites, where some of the oxygen is replaced by nitrogen, but a polar ordered oxynitride has never been demonstrated. Caracas and Cohen [Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 092902 (2007)] studied possible ordered polar oxynitrides within density-functional theory (DFT) and found a few candidates that were predicted to be insulating and at least metastable. YSi O 2 N stood out with huge predicted polarization and nonlinear optic coefficients. In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of perovskite-structured YSi O 2 N by using a combination of a diamond-anvil cell and in situ laser-heating techniques. Subsequent in situ x-ray diffraction, second-harmonic generation, and Raman-scattering measurements confirm that it is polar and a strong nonlinear optical material, with structure and properties similar to those predicted by DFT.

  8. COMPOSITION OF FOWLPOX VIRUS AND INCLUSION MATRIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RANDALL, C C; GAFFORD, L G; DARLINGTON, R W; HYDE, J

    1964-04-01

    Randall, Charles C. (University of Mississippi School of Medicine, Jackson), Lanelle G. Gafford, Robert W. Darlington, and James M. Hyde. Composition of fowlpox virus and inclusion matrix. J. Bacteriol. 87:939-944. 1964.-Inclusion bodies of fowlpox virus infection are especially favorable starting material for the isolation of virus and inclusion matrix. Electron micrographs of viral particles and matrix indicated a high degree of purification. Density-gradient centrifugation of virus in cesium chloride and potassium tartrate was unsatisfactory because of inactivation, and clumping or disintegration. Chemical analyses of virus and matrix revealed significant amounts of lipid, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid, but no ribonucleic acid or carbohydrate. Approximately 47% of the weight of the virus and 83% of the matrix were extractable in chloroform-methanol. The lipid partitions of the petroleum ether extracts were similar, except that the phospholipid content of the matrix was 2.2 times that of the virus. Viral particles were sensitive to diethyl ether and chloroform.

  9. Optically pumped electron spin polarized targets for use in the production of polarized ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    The production of relatively dense electron spin polarized alkali metal vapor targets by optical pumping with intense cw dye lasers is discussed. The target density and electron spin polarization depend on the dye laser intensity and bandwidth, the magnetic field at the target, and the electron spin depolarization time. For example in a magnetic field of 1.5 x 10 3 G, and using 1 W dye laser with a bandwidth of 10 10 Hz one can construct an electron spin polarized Na vapor target with a target thickness of 1.6 x 10 13 atoms/cm 2 and an average electron spin polarization of about 90% even though the Na atoms are completely depolarized at every wall collision. Possible uses of the electron spin polarized targets for the production of intense beams of polarized H - or 3 He - ions are discussed. (orig.)

  10. RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODELING OF THE ENIGMATIC SCATTERING POLARIZATION IN THE SOLAR Na i D{sub 1} LINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belluzzi, Luca [Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno, CH-6605 Locarno Monti (Switzerland); Bueno, Javier Trujillo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Degl’Innocenti, Egidio Landi [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The modeling of the peculiar scattering polarization signals observed in some diagnostically important solar resonance lines requires the consideration of the detailed spectral structure of the incident radiation field as well as the possibility of ground level polarization, along with the atom's hyperfine structure and quantum interference between hyperfine F-levels pertaining either to the same fine structure J-level, or to different J-levels of the same term. Here we present a theoretical and numerical approach suitable for solving this complex non-LTE radiative transfer problem. This approach is based on the density-matrix metalevel theory (where each level is viewed as a continuous distribution of sublevels) and on accurate formal solvers of the transfer equations and efficient iterative methods. We show an application to the D-lines of Na i, with emphasis on the enigmatic D{sub 1} line, pointing out the observable signatures of the various physical mechanisms considered. We demonstrate that the linear polarization observed in the core of the D{sub 1} line may be explained by the effect that one gets when the detailed spectral structure of the anisotropic radiation responsible for the optical pumping is taken into account. This physical ingredient is capable of introducing significant scattering polarization in the core of the Na i D{sub 1} line without the need for ground-level polarization.

  11. Layered magnets: polarized neutron reflection studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, H.; Schreyer, A. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentalphysik/Festkoerperphysik, Bochum (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectivity measurements from extended surfaces, thin films and superlattices provide information on the chemical profile parallel to the film normal, including film thicknesses, average composition and interfacial roughness parameters. Reflectivity measurements with polarized neutrons are particularly powerful for analyzing the magnetic density profiles in thin films and superlattices in addition to chemical profiles. The basic theory of polarized neutron reflectivity is provided, followed by some examples and more recent applications concerning polarized neutron reflectivity studies from exchange coupled Fe/Cr superlattices. (author) 5 figs., 13 refs.

  12. Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry study of chiral nanocrystalline cellulose films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Galván, Arturo; Muñoz-Pineda, Eloy; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.; Santos, Moliria V.; Järrendahl, Kenneth; Arwin, Hans

    2018-02-01

    Chiral nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) free-standing films were prepared through slow evaporation of aqueous suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals in a nematic chiral liquid crystal phase. Mueller matrix (MM) spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to study the polarization and depolarization properties of the chiral films. In the reflection mode, the MM is similar to the matrices reported for the cuticle of some beetles reflecting near circular left-handed polarized light in the visible range. The polarization properties of light transmitted at normal incidence for different polarization states of incident light are discussed. By using a differential decomposition of the MM, the structural circular birefringence and dichroism of a NCC chiral film are evaluated.

  13. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live......In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  14. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  15. Efficiency criterion for teleportation via channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Wei Zha

    Full Text Available In this paper, three kinds of coefficient matrixes (channel matrix, measurement matrix, collapsed matrix associated with the pure state for teleportation are presented, the general relation among channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix is obtained. In addition, a criterion for judging whether a state can be teleported successfully is given, depending on the relation between the number of parameter of an unknown state and the rank of the collapsed matrix. Keywords: Channel matrix, Measurement matrix, Collapsed matrix, Teleportation

  16. Estimating Allee dynamics before they can be observed: polar bears as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter K Molnár

    Full Text Available Allee effects are an important component in the population dynamics of numerous species. Accounting for these Allee effects in population viability analyses generally requires estimates of low-density population growth rates, but such data are unavailable for most species and particularly difficult to obtain for large mammals. Here, we present a mechanistic modeling framework that allows estimating the expected low-density growth rates under a mate-finding Allee effect before the Allee effect occurs or can be observed. The approach relies on representing the mechanisms causing the Allee effect in a process-based model, which can be parameterized and validated from data on the mechanisms rather than data on population growth. We illustrate the approach using polar bears (Ursus maritimus, and estimate their expected low-density growth by linking a mating dynamics model to a matrix projection model. The Allee threshold, defined as the population density below which growth becomes negative, is shown to depend on age-structure, sex ratio, and the life history parameters determining reproduction and survival. The Allee threshold is thus both density- and frequency-dependent. Sensitivity analyses of the Allee threshold show that different combinations of the parameters determining reproduction and survival can lead to differing Allee thresholds, even if these differing combinations imply the same stable-stage population growth rate. The approach further shows how mate-limitation can induce long transient dynamics, even in populations that eventually grow to carrying capacity. Applying the models to the overharvested low-density polar bear population of Viscount Melville Sound, Canada, shows that a mate-finding Allee effect is a plausible mechanism for slow recovery of this population. Our approach is generalizable to any mating system and life cycle, and could aid proactive management and conservation strategies, for example, by providing a priori

  17. Estimating Allee dynamics before they can be observed: polar bears as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Péter K; Lewis, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E

    2014-01-01

    Allee effects are an important component in the population dynamics of numerous species. Accounting for these Allee effects in population viability analyses generally requires estimates of low-density population growth rates, but such data are unavailable for most species and particularly difficult to obtain for large mammals. Here, we present a mechanistic modeling framework that allows estimating the expected low-density growth rates under a mate-finding Allee effect before the Allee effect occurs or can be observed. The approach relies on representing the mechanisms causing the Allee effect in a process-based model, which can be parameterized and validated from data on the mechanisms rather than data on population growth. We illustrate the approach using polar bears (Ursus maritimus), and estimate their expected low-density growth by linking a mating dynamics model to a matrix projection model. The Allee threshold, defined as the population density below which growth becomes negative, is shown to depend on age-structure, sex ratio, and the life history parameters determining reproduction and survival. The Allee threshold is thus both density- and frequency-dependent. Sensitivity analyses of the Allee threshold show that different combinations of the parameters determining reproduction and survival can lead to differing Allee thresholds, even if these differing combinations imply the same stable-stage population growth rate. The approach further shows how mate-limitation can induce long transient dynamics, even in populations that eventually grow to carrying capacity. Applying the models to the overharvested low-density polar bear population of Viscount Melville Sound, Canada, shows that a mate-finding Allee effect is a plausible mechanism for slow recovery of this population. Our approach is generalizable to any mating system and life cycle, and could aid proactive management and conservation strategies, for example, by providing a priori estimates of minimum

  18. Polarized Moessbauer transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the emission, absorption and scattering of polarized gamma rays are reviewed for a general case of combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions; various possibilities of obtaining polarized gamma sources are described and examples are given of the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with polarized gamma rays in solving problems of solid state physics. (A.K.)

  19. Extended biorthogonal matrix polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Shehata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials for commutative matrices were first introduced by Varma and Tasdelen in [22]. The main aim of this paper is to extend the properties of the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials of Varma and Tasdelen and certain generating matrix functions, finite series, some matrix recurrence relations, several important properties of matrix differential recurrence relations, biorthogonality relations and matrix differential equation for the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k and K(A,B n (x, k are discussed. For the matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k, various families of bilinear and bilateral generating matrix functions are constructed in the sequel.

  20. A matrix lower bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grcar, Joseph F.

    2002-02-04

    A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.

  1. Matrix completion by deep matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jicong; Cheng, Jieyu

    2018-02-01

    Conventional methods of matrix completion are linear methods that are not effective in handling data of nonlinear structures. Recently a few researchers attempted to incorporate nonlinear techniques into matrix completion but there still exists considerable limitations. In this paper, a novel method called deep matrix factorization (DMF) is proposed for nonlinear matrix completion. Different from conventional matrix completion methods that are based on linear latent variable models, DMF is on the basis of a nonlinear latent variable model. DMF is formulated as a deep-structure neural network, in which the inputs are the low-dimensional unknown latent variables and the outputs are the partially observed variables. In DMF, the inputs and the parameters of the multilayer neural network are simultaneously optimized to minimize the reconstruction errors for the observed entries. Then the missing entries can be readily recovered by propagating the latent variables to the output layer. DMF is compared with state-of-the-art methods of linear and nonlinear matrix completion in the tasks of toy matrix completion, image inpainting and collaborative filtering. The experimental results verify that DMF is able to provide higher matrix completion accuracy than existing methods do and DMF is applicable to large matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear reaction matrix calculations with a shell-model Q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, B.R.; McCarthy, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Das Barrett-Hewitt-McCarthy (BHM) method for calculating the nuclear reaction matrix G is used to compute shell-model matrix elements for A = 18 nuclei. The energy denominators in intermediate states containing one unoccupied single-particle (s.p.) state and one valence s.p. state are treated correctly, in contrast to previous calculations. These corrections are not important for valence-shell matrix elements but are found to lead to relatively large changes in cross-shell matrix elements involved in core-polarization diagrams. (orig.) [de

  3. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  4. Generalized density-functional theory: Conquering the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 117; Issue 5. Generalized density-functional theory: Conquering the -representability problem with exact functionals for the electron pair density and the second-order reduced density matrix. Paul W Ayers Mel Levy. Volume 117 Issue 5 September 2005 pp 507-514 ...

  5. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...

  6. Transition Matrix Cluster Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Yevick, David; Lee, Yong Hwan

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate that a series of simple procedures for increasing the efficiency of transition matrix calculations can be realized by integrating the standard single-spin reversal transition matrix method with global cluster inversion techniques.

  7. The Matrix Cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices.......Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices....

  8. Development of optical-pumping polarized deuteron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamae, Tadaaki; Yokokawa, Tamio; Nishikawa, Itaru; Abe, Kazuhiro; Konno, Osamu; Nakagawa, Itaru; Sugawara, Masumi; Tanaka, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Miyase, Haruhisa; Tsubota, Hiroaki

    1998-01-01

    An optical-pumping system of rubidium atoms for a laser-driven polarized deuteron target was constructed. The density and polarization of the rubidium atoms were measured using Faraday rotation. The rotation angle was determined within an error of 0.01 deg. Our preliminary result showed a polarization of 0.4 at a gas thickness of 4x10 13 atoms/cm 2

  9. Stochastic Matrix Factorization

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers a restriction to non-negative matrix factorization in which at least one matrix factor is stochastic. That is, the elements of the matrix factors are non-negative and the columns of one matrix factor sum to 1. This restriction includes topic models, a popular method for analyzing unstructured data. It also includes a method for storing and finding pictures. The paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions on the observed data such that the factorization is unique. I...

  10. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz

    2011-01-01

    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

  11. Polarization-dependent aluminum metasurface operating at 450 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Zhu, Xiaolong; Carstensen, Marcus S

    2015-01-01

    We report on a polarization-dependent plasmonic aluminum-based high-density metasurface operating at blue wavelengths. The fabricated sub-wavelength structures, tailored in size and geometry, possess strong, localized, plasmonic resonances able to control linear polarization. Best performance...

  12. Matrix infrared spectra and density functional calculations for new iso-halomethanes: CHCl2-Cl, CHFCl-Cl, CFCl2-Cl, CHBr2-Br, and CBr3-Br in solid argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han-Gook; Andrews, Lester

    2013-08-01

    Laser ablation of transition metals for reactions with halocarbons to produce new metal bearing molecules also exposed these samples to laser plume radiation and its resulting photochemistry. Investigations with CCl4 also produced several known neutral and charged intermediate species, including the iso-tetrachloromethane CCl3-Cl observed in previous work and identified by the Maier group. CHCl2-Cl, CHFCl-Cl, and CFCl2-Cl, photoisomers of CHCl3, CHFCl2, and CFCl3, were also identified in matrix IR spectra. The new C-X bonds are shorter than those of the reactants, and the Cl atom that is weakly bonded to the residual Cl atom forms an unusually strong C-Cl bond. NBO analysis reveals substantial C═Cl double-bond character, and the weak Cl···Cl bond is largely ionic. Therefore, the CHX2-X species can be represented as HXC═X(δ+)···X(δ-). Ionic properties are revealed for CCl3-Cl, which has an average C-Cl bond length near the median for the CCl3 radical and cation and a natural charge of +0.49 for the CCl3 subunit. IRC computations reproduce smooth interconversion between the reactants and products, and the transition state is energetically close to the product, which is consistent with its disappearance on visible irradiation.

  13. Relationship of Quantum Entanglement to Density Functional Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal, A. K.; Rendell, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    The maximum von Neumann entropy principle subject to given constraints of mean values of some physical observables determines the density matrix. Similarly the stationary action principle in the case of time-dependent (dissipative) situations under similar constraints yields the density matrix. The free energy and measures of entanglement are expressed in terms of such a density matrix and thus define respective functionals of the mean values. In the light of several model calculations, it is...

  14. Vortex phase-induced changes of the statistical properties of a partially coherent radially polarized beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lina; Chen, Yahong; Liu, Xianlong; Liu, Lin; Cai, Yangjian

    2016-06-27

    Partially coherent radially polarized (PCRP) beam was introduced and generated in recent years. In this paper, we investigate the statistical properties of a PCRP beam embedded with a vortex phase (i.e., PCRP vortex beam). We derive the analytical formula for the cross-spectral density matrix of a PCRP vortex beam propagating through a paraxial ABCD optical system and analyze the statistical properties of a PCRP vortex beam focused by a thin lens. It is found that the statistical properties of a PCRP vortex beam on propagation are much different from those of a PCRP beam. The vortex phase induces not only the rotation of the beam spot, but also the changes of the beam shape, the degree of polarization and the state of polarization. We also find that the vortex phase plays a role of resisting the coherence-induced degradation of the intensity distribution and the coherence-induced depolarization. Furthermore, we report experimental generation of a PCRP vortex beam for the first time. Our results will be useful for trapping and rotating particles, free-space optical communications and detection of phase object.

  15. Sensitivity enhancement by multiple-contact cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, J.; Hirschinger, J.

    2017-08-01

    Multiple-contact cross-polarization (MC-CP) is applied to powder samples of ferrocene and L-alanine under magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions. The method is described analytically through the density matrix formalism. The combination of a two-step memory function approach and the Anderson-Weiss approximation is found to be particularly useful to derive approximate analytical solutions for single-contact Hartmann-Hahn CP (HHCP) and MC-CP dynamics under MAS. We show that the MC-CP sequence requiring no pulse-shape optimization yields higher polarizations at short contact times than optimized adiabatic passage through the HH condition CP (APHH-CP) when the MAS frequency is comparable to the heteronuclear dipolar coupling, i.e., when APHH-CP through a single sideband matching condition is impossible or difficult to perform. It is also shown that the MC-CP sideband HH conditions are generally much broader than for single-contact HHCP and that efficient polarization transfer at the centerband HH condition can be reintroduced by rotor-asynchronous multiple equilibrations-re-equilibrations with the proton spin bath. Boundary conditions for the successful use of the MC-CP experiment when relying on spin-lattice relaxation for repolarization are also examined.

  16. Direct variational determination of the two-electron reduced density matrix for doubly occupied-configuration-interaction wave functions: The influence of three-index N-representability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Oña, Ofelia B.; Honoré, Eduardo M.; Poelmans, Ward; Van Neck, Dimitri; Bultinck, Patrick; De Baerdemacker, Stijn

    2018-01-01

    This work proposes the variational determination of two-electron reduced density matrices corresponding to the ground state of N-electron systems within the doubly occupied-configuration-interaction methodology. The P, Q, and G two-index N-representability conditions have been extended to the T1 and T2 (T2') three-index ones and the resulting optimization problem has been addressed using a standard semidefinite program. We report results obtained from the doubly occupied-configuration-interaction method, from the two-index constraint variational procedure and from the two- and three-index constraint variational treatment. The discussion of these results along with a study of the computational cost demanded shows the usefulness of our proposal.

  17. [Review] Polarization and Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, Sascha

    2014-02-01

    Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/γ wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astronomical masers, pulsars, galactic magnetic fields, gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and cosmic microwave background radiation.

  18. Novel entries in a fungal biofilm matrix encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowski, Robert; Westler, William M; Lacmbouh, Ghislain Ade; Marita, Jane M; Bothe, Jameson R; Bernhardt, Jörg; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Fontaine, Joël; Sanchez, Hiram; Hatfield, Ronald D; Ntambi, James M; Nett, Jeniel E; Mitchell, Aaron P; Andes, David R

    2014-08-05

    Virulence of Candida is linked with its ability to form biofilms. Once established, biofilm infections are nearly impossible to eradicate. Biofilm cells live immersed in a self-produced matrix, a blend of extracellular biopolymers, many of which are uncharacterized. In this study, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the matrix manufactured by Candida albicans both in vitro and in a clinical niche animal model. We further explore the function of matrix components, including the impact on drug resistance. We uncovered components from each of the macromolecular classes (55% protein, 25% carbohydrate, 15% lipid, and 5% nucleic acid) in the C. albicans biofilm matrix. Three individual polysaccharides were identified and were suggested to interact physically. Surprisingly, a previously identified polysaccharide of functional importance, β-1,3-glucan, comprised only a small portion of the total matrix carbohydrate. Newly described, more abundant polysaccharides included α-1,2 branched α-1,6-mannans (87%) associated with unbranched β-1,6-glucans (13%) in an apparent mannan-glucan complex (MGCx). Functional matrix proteomic analysis revealed 458 distinct activities. The matrix lipids consisted of neutral glycerolipids (89.1%), polar glycerolipids (10.4%), and sphingolipids (0.5%). Examination of matrix nucleic acid identified DNA, primarily noncoding sequences. Several of the in vitro matrix components, including proteins and each of the polysaccharides, were also present in the matrix of a clinically relevant in vivo biofilm. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis demonstrated interaction of aggregate matrix with the antifungal fluconazole, consistent with a role in drug impedance and contribution of multiple matrix components. Importance: This report is the first to decipher the complex and unique macromolecular composition of the Candida biofilm matrix, demonstrate the clinical relevance of matrix components, and show that multiple matrix components are needed

  19. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-09-28

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  20. Polarization in Sagittarius A*

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Geoffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    We summarize the current state of polarization observations of Sagittarius A*, the compact radio source and supermassive black hole candidate in the Galactic Center. These observations are providing new tools for understanding accretion disks, jets and their environments. Linear polarization observations have shown that Sgr A* is unpolarized at frequencies as high as 86 GHz. However, recent single-dish observations indicate that Sgr A* may have strong linear polarization at frequencies higher...

  1. Polarization effects in the reaction e++e-→ρ++ρ- and determination of the ρ-meson form factors in the time-like region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamuscin, C.; Gakh, G. I.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.

    2007-01-01

    The electron positron annihilation reaction into four-pion production has been studied, through the channel e + +e - →ρ+ρ. The differential (and total) cross sections and various polarization observables for this reaction have been calculated in terms of the electromagnetic form factors of the corresponding γ*ρρ current. The elements of the spin-density matrix of the ρ meson were also calculated. Numerical estimations have been done, with the help of phenomenological form factors obtained in the spacelike region of the momentum transfer squared and analytically extended to the timelike region

  2. QCD Analysis of Polarized Scattering Data and New Polarized Parton Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Boettcher, H.

    2002-01-01

    In this talk results from a new QCD analysis in Leading (LO) and Next-to-Leading (NLO) Order are presented. New parametrizations of the polarized quark and gluon densities are derived together with parametrizations of their fully correlated 1σ error bands. Furthermore the value of α s (M 2 Z ) is determined. Finally a number of low moments of the polarized parton densities are compared with results from lattice simulations. All details of the analysis are given in J. Bluemlein, H. Boettcher, Nucl. Phys. B636, 225 (2002). (author)

  3. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  4. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  5. Mechanisms Affecting Population Density in Fragmented Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Tischendorf

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a factorial simulation experiment to analyze the relative importance of movement pattern, boundary-crossing probability, and mortality in habitat and matrix on population density, and its dependency on habitat fragmentation, as well as inter-patch distance. We also examined how the initial response of a species to a fragmentation event may affect our observations of population density in post-fragmentation experiments. We found that the boundary-crossing probability from habitat to matrix, which partly determines the emigration rate, is the most important determinant for population density within habitat patches. The probability of crossing a boundary from matrix to habitat had a weaker, but positive, effect on population density. Movement behavior in habitat had a stronger effect on population density than movement behavior in matrix. Habitat fragmentation and inter-patch distance may have a positive or negative effect on population density. The direction of both effects depends on two factors. First, when the boundary-crossing probability from habitat to matrix is high, population density may decline with increasing habitat fragmentation. Conversely, for species with a high matrix-to-habitat boundary-crossing probability, population density may increase with increasing habitat fragmentation. Second, the initial distribution of individuals across the landscape: we found that habitat fragmentation and inter-patch distance were positively correlated with population density when individuals were distributed across matrix and habitat at the beginning of our simulation experiments. The direction of these relationships changed to negative when individuals were initially distributed across habitat only. Our findings imply that the speed of the initial response of organisms to habitat fragmentation events may determine the direction of observed relationships between habitat fragmentation and population density. The time scale of post

  6. An investigation into the photochemistry of, and the electrochemically induced CO-loss from, [(CO)5MC(OMe)Me](M = Cr or W) using low-temperature matrix isolation, picosecond infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and time-dependent density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Suzanne; Amirjalayer, Saeed; Buma, Wybren J; Halpin, Yvonne; Long, Conor; Rooney, A Denise; Woutersen, Sander; Pryce, Mary T

    2015-09-21

    The photophysics and photochemistry of [(CO)5MC(OMe)Me] (M = Cr or W) were investigated using picosecond time-resolved infrared spectroscopy (M = Cr or W), low-temperature matrix isolation techniques (M = Cr), and time-dependent density functional calculations (M = Cr or W). These studies provide unambiguous evidence for the photochemical formation of a long-lived, 18-electron metallaketene species capable of acting as a synthetically useful intermediate. For the Cr complex, an intermediate metallacyclopropanone singlet excited state was detected on the reaction path to the metallaketene species. This metallacyclopropanone excited state species has a lifetime of less than 100 ps and a characteristic bridging carbonyl band at 1770 cm(-1). The tungsten ketene species was also detected but in contrast to the chromium system, this forms directly from a low-lying triplet excited state. The electrochemical release of CO showed a greater efficiency for the chromium complex when compared to the tungsten.

  7. Estimating Terra MODIS Polarization Effect Using Ocean Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Andrew E.; Brinkmann, Jake; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Terra MODIS has been known since pre-launch to have polarization sensitivity, particularly in shortest-wavelength bands 8 and 9. On-orbit reflectance trending of pseudo-invariant sites show a variation in reflectance as a function of band and scan mirror angle of incidence consistent with time-dependent polarization effects from the rotating double-sided scan mirror. The MODIS Characterization Support Team [MCST] estimates the Mueller matrix trending from this variation as observed from a single desert site, but this effect is not included in Collection 6 [C6] calibration. Here we extend the MCSTs current polarization sensitivity monitoring to two ocean sites distributed over latitude to helpestimate the uncertainties in the derived Mueller matrix. The Mueller matrix elements derived for polarization-sensitive Band 8 for a given site are found to be fairly insensitive to surface brdf modeling. The site-to-site variation is a measure of the uncertainty in the Mueller estimation.Results for band 8 show that the polarization correction reduces mirror-side striping by up to 50% and reduces the instrument polarization effect on reflectance time series of an ocean target.

  8. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP 4 . A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  9. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D' Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R,; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; J.; Severino, F.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP{sup 4}. A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  10. Parallelism in matrix computations

    CERN Document Server

    Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...

  11. Our Polar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2009-01-01

    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  12. Terahertz polarization imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Van der Marel, W.A.M.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method to measure the polarization state of a terahertz pulse by using a modified electrooptic sampling setup. To illustrate the power of this method, we show two examples in which the knowledge of the polarization of the terahertz pulse is essential for interpreting the results:

  13. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  14. Polar Science Is Cool!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Children are fascinated by the fact that polar scientists do research in extremely cold and dangerous places. In the Arctic they might be viewed as lunch by a polar bear. In the Antarctic, they could lose toes and fingers to frostbite and the wind is so fast it can rip skin off. They camp on ice in continuous daylight, weeks from any form of…

  15. Flexoelectricity and the polarity of complex ferroelastic twin patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Li, Suzhi; Stengel, Massimiliano; Gumbsch, Peter; Ding, Xiangdong

    2016-07-01

    We study, by means of an atomistic toy model, the interplay of ferroelastic twin patterns and electrical polarization. Our molecular dynamics simulations reproduce polarity in straight twin walls as observed experimentally. We show, by making contact with continuum theory, that the effect is governed by linear flexoelectricity. Complex twin patterns, with very high densities of kinks and/or junctions, produce winding structures in the dipolar field, which are reminiscent of polarization vortices. By means of a "cold shearing" technique, we produce patches with high vortex densities; these unexpectedly show a net macroscopic polarization even if neither the original sample nor the applied mechanical perturbation breaks inversion symmetry by itself. These results may explain some puzzling experimental observations of "parasitic" polarity in the paraelectric phase of BaTi O3 and LaAl O3 .

  16. Polarized dependence of nonlinear susceptibility in a single layer graphene system in infrared region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solookinejad, G., E-mail: ghsolooki@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of a single-layer graphene nanostructure driven by a weak probe light and an elliptical polarized coupling field is discussed theoretically. The Landau levels of graphene can be separated in infrared or terahertz regions under the strong magnetic field. Therefore, by using the density matrix formalism in quantum optic, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of the medium can be derived. It is demonstrated that by adjusting the elliptical parameter, one can manipulate the linear and nonlinear absorption as well as Kerr nonlinearity of the medium. It is realized that the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity can be possible with zero linear absorption and nonlinear amplification at some values of elliptical parameter. Our results may be having potential applications in quantum information science based on Nano scales devices.

  17. Polarization-gradient laser cooling as a way to create strongly localized structures for atom lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudnikov, O. N.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Tumaikin, A. M.; Yudin, V. I.

    2007-01-01

    Generally, conditions for deep sub-Doppler laser cooling do not match conditions for strong atomic localization, that takes place in a deeper optical potential and leads to higher temperature. Moreover, for a given detuning in a deep optical potential the secular approximation, which is frequently used for a quantum description of laser cooling, fails. Here we investigate the atomic localization in optical potential, using a full quantum approach for atomic density matrix beyond the secular approximation. It is shown that laser cooling in a deep optical potential, created by a light field with polarization gradients, can be used as an alternative method for the formation of high contrast spatially localized structures of atoms for the purposes of atom lithography and atomic nanofabrication. Finally, we analyze possible limits for the width and contrast of localized atomic structures that can be reached in this type of light mask

  18. Precision Polarization of Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elise; Barron-Palos, Libertad; Couture, Aaron; Crawford, Christopher; Chupp, Tim; Danagoulian, Areg; Estes, Mary; Hona, Binita; Jones, Gordon; Klein, Andi; Penttila, Seppo; Sharma, Monisha; Wilburn, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Determining polarization of a cold neutron beam to high precision is required for the next generation neutron decay correlation experiments at the SNS, such as the proposed abBA and PANDA experiments. Precision polarimetry measurements were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the goal of determining the beam polarization to the level of 10-3 or better. The cold neutrons from FP12 were polarized using optically polarized ^3He gas as a spin filter, which has a highly spin-dependent absorption cross section. A second ^ 3He spin filter was used to analyze the neutron polarization after passing through a resonant RF spin rotator. A discussion of the experiment and results will be given.

  19. Optically polarized 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements. PMID:29503479

  20. Optically polarized 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements.

  1. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  2. Polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging system for endobronchial imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Feroldi, Fabio; de Lange, Joop; Daniels, Johannes M A; Grünberg, Katrien; de Boer, Johannes F

    2015-02-09

    A polarization sensitive endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging (PS-OFDI) system with a motorized distal scanning catheter is demonstrated. It employs a passive polarization delay unit to multiplex two orthogonal probing polarization states in depth, and a polarization diverse detection unit to detect interference signal in two orthogonal polarization channels. Per depth location four electro-magnetic field components are measured that can be represented in a complex 2x2 field matrix. A Jones matrix of the sample is derived and the sample birefringence is extracted by eigenvalue decomposition. The condition of balanced detection and the polarization mode dispersion are quantified. A complex field averaging method based on the alignment of randomly pointing field phasors is developed to reduce speckle noise. The variation of the polarization states incident on the tissue due to the circular scanning and catheter sheath birefringence is investigated. With this system we demonstrated imaging of ex vivo chicken muscle, in vivo pig lung and ex vivo human lung specimens.

  3. Matrix strings in weakly curved background fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiappa, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    We investigate further the recent proposal for the form of the Matrix theory action in weak background fields. We perform DVV reduction to the multiple D0-brane action in order to find the Matrix string theory action for multiple fundamental strings in curved but weak NSNS and RR backgrounds. This matrix sigma model gives a definite prescription on how to deal with RR fields with an explicit spacetime dependence in Type II string theory. We do this both via the 9-11 flip and the chain of T and S dualities, and further check on their equivalence explicitly. In order to do so, we also discuss the implementation of S-duality in the operators of the 2-dimensional worldvolume supersymmetric gauge theory describing the Type IIB D-string. We compare the result to the known Green-Schwarz sigma model action (for one string), and use this comparison in order to discuss about possible, non-linear background curvature corrections to the Matrix string action (involving many strings), and therefore to the Matrix theory action. We illustrate the nonabelian character of our action with an example involving multiple fundamental strings in a nontrivial RR flux, where the strings are polarized into a noncommutative configuration. This corresponds to a dielectric type of effect on fundamental strings

  4. The polar cliff in the morning sector of the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Prölss

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available By "polar cliff" we mean the steep increase in the ionization density observed in the morning sector of the polar ionosphere. Here the properties of this remarkable feature are investigated. The data set consists of electron density and temperature measurements obtained by the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite. Only data recorded in the Northern Hemisphere winter are considered (solar zenith angle ≥ 90°. We find that for moderately disturbed conditions, the foot of the polar cliff is located below 60° invariant latitude. Here, within about 4°, the density increases by a factor of 4, on average. The actual location of the polar cliff depends primarily on the level of geomagnetic activity, its associated density increase on geographic longitude and altitude. As to the longitudinal variations, they are attributed to asymmetries in the background ionization density at middle latitudes. Using a superposed epoch type of averaging procedure, mean latitudinal profiles of the polar cliff and the associated electron temperature changes are derived. Since these differ significantly from those derived for the afternoon/evening sector, we conclude that the subauroral ionospheric trough does not extend into the morning sector. As to the origin of the polar cliff in the morning sector, local auroral particle precipitation should play only a secondary role.

  5. Ceramic Matrix Composite Environmental Barrier Coating Durability Model, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the power density of advanced engines increases, the need for new materials that are capable of higher operating temperatures, such as ceramic matrix composites...

  6. Ceramic Matrix Composite Environmental Barrier Coating Durability Model, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the power density of advanced engines increases, the need for new materials that are capable of higher operating temperatures, such as ceramic matrix composites...

  7. Modern Nondestructive Test Methods for Army Ceramic Matrix Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strand, Douglas J

    2008-01-01

    .... Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are potentially good high-temperature structural materials because of their low density, high elastic moduli, high strength, and for those with weak interfaces, surprisingly good damage tolerance...

  8. Polarization at the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Stanford Linear collider was designed to accommodate polarized electron beams. Longitudinally polarized electrons colliding with unpolarized positrons at a center of mass energy near the Z/sup 0/ mass can be used as novel and sensitive probes of the electroweak process. A gallium arsenide based photon emission source will provide a beam of longitudinally polarized electrons of about 45 percent polarization. A system of bend magnets and a superconducting solenoid will be used to rotate the spins so that the polarization is preserved while the 1.21 GeV electrons are stored in the damping ring. Another set of bend magnets and two superconducting solenoids orient the spin vectors so that longitudinal polarization of the electrons is achieved at the collision point with the unpolarized positrons. A system to monitor the polarization based on Moller and Compton scattering will be used. Nearly all major components have been fabricated and tested. Subsystems of the source and polarimeters have been installed, and studies are in progress. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  10. Unitarity of CKM Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Saleem, M

    2002-01-01

    The Unitarity of the CKM matrix is examined in the light of the latest available accurate data. The analysis shows that a conclusive result cannot be derived at present. Only more precise data can determine whether the CKM matrix opens new vistas beyond the standard model or not.

  11. Probability matrix decomposition models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, E.; DeBoeck, P.; Mechelen, I. van

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a class of models for two-way matrices with binary entries of 0 and 1. First, we consider Boolean matrix decomposition, conceptualize it as a latent response model (LRM) and, by making use of this conceptualization, generalize it to a larger class of matrix decomposition

  12. Triangularization of a Matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ). From this one can see that this equality is als9 true for diagonalizable matrices; just note that eSAs-. 1 = SeAS-I. Finally, the equality car- ries over to all matrices since both sides are continuous functions of a matrix and every matrix is a limit ...

  13. Polarized scintillator targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.

    2000-05-01

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as "live" polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  14. Polarized scintillator targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, B. van den E-mail: vandenbrandt@psi.ch; Bunyatova, E.I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S

    2000-05-21

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as 'live' polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  15. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  16. Fuzzy vulnerability matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge H.; Rivera, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called vulnerability matrix is used in the evaluation part of the probabilistic safety assessment for a nuclear power plant, during the containment event trees calculations. This matrix is established from what is knows as Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. This matrix is usually established with numerical values obtained with traditional arithmetic using the set theory. The representation of this matrix with fuzzy numbers is much more adequate, due to the fact that the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement are better represented with linguistic variables, such as 'highly probable', 'probable', 'impossible', etc. In the present paper a methodology to obtain a Fuzzy Vulnerability Matrix is presented, starting from the recommendations on the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. (author)

  17. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing...... such comparisons, matrix generation, and the composition of proximity measures, are introduced and discussed. In this second part, the authors introduce and thoroughly demonstrate two related matrix comparison techniques the Mantel test and Procrustes analysis, respectively. These techniques can compare...... and evaluate the degree of monotonicity between different proximity measures or their ordination results. In common with these techniques is the application of permutation procedures to test hypotheses about matrix resemblances. The choice of technique is related to the validation at hand. In the case...

  18. Polarization measurement in the COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, K; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Görtz, S; Hasegawa, T; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Le Goff, J M; Magnon, A; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Matsuda, T

    2004-01-01

    Continuous wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to determine the target polarization in the COMPASS experiment. The system is made of the so-called Liverpool Q-meters, Yale-cards, and VME modules for data taking and system controlling. In 2001 the NMR coils were embedded in the target material, while in 2002 and 2003 the coils were mounted on the outer surface of the target cells to increase the packing factor of the material. Though the error of the measurement became larger with the outer coils than with the inner coils, we have performed stable measurements throughout the COMPASS run time for 3 years. The maximum polarization was +57% and -53% as the average in the target cells.

  19. Backscattering and negative polarization of agglomerate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Evgenij; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Hart, Matthew; Eversole, Jay; Videen, Gorden

    2003-09-01

    We used the discrete dipole approximation to study the backscattering of agglomerate particles consisting of oblong monomers. We varied the aspect ratio of the monomers from approximately 1 (sphere) to 4, while we kept the total particle volume equivalent to that of an x = 10 sphere for m = 1.59 + i0 and 1.50 + i0 and considered two values of agglomerate packing density: rho = 0.25 and rho = 0.1. We found that these particles do not display a prominent brightness opposition effect but do produce significant negative polarization over a range of near-backscattering angles. Increasing the monomers' aspect ratio can make the negative polarization much more prominent. We have noted also that decreasing m and p can reduce the amplitude of the negative polarization for these particles.

  20. Ratios of helicity amplitudes for exclusive ρ{sup 0} electroproduction on transversely polarized protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Justus-Liebig Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); University of Michigan, Randall Laboratory of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Akopov, N.; Elbakian, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Marukyan, H.; Petrosyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z.; Borissov, A.; Deconinck, W.; Holler, Y.; Rostomyan, A.; Zihlmann, B. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Aschenauer, E.C.; Nowak, W.D. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Augustyniak, W.; Marianski, B.; Trzcinski, A.; Zupranski, P. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Belostotski, S.; Kisselev, A.; Manaenkov, S.I.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Leningrad Region (Russian Federation); Blok, H.P. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bryzgalov, V.; Ivanilov, A.; Korotkov, V.; Salomatin, Y. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Capitani, G.P.; De Sanctis, E.; Muccifora, V.; Reolon, A.R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Ciullo, G.; Lenisa, P.; Pappalardo, L.L.; Statera, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Universita di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy); Contalbrigo, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); De Leo, R.; Lagamba, L.; Vilardi, I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Dueren, M. [Justus-Liebig Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Ellinghaus, F. [University of Colorado, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Boulder, CO (United States); Felawka, L. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, Gruppo Collegato Sanita, Rome (Italy); Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Gavrilov, G. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Leningrad Region (Russian Federation); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Goloskokov, S.V.; Shutov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Jackson, H.E.; Reimer, P.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, Argonne, IL (United States); Joosten, S. [Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gent (Belgium); University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); Kaiser, R.; Lehmann, I.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B. [University of Glasgow, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Karyan, G. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Kozlov, V.; Terkulov, A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kravchenko, P. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Leningrad Region (Russian Federation); Kroll, P.; Schaefer, A. [Universitaet Regensburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Regensburg (Germany); Lapikas, L. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lorenzon, W. [University of Michigan, Randall Laboratory of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Miyachi, Y.; Shibata, T.A. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Movsisyan, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Nass, A.; Rith, K. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Riedl, C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); Ryckbosch, D.; Tytgat, M.; Haarlem, Y. van [Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gent (Belgium); Schnell, G. [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (Spain); Basque Foundation for Science, IKERBASQUE, Bilbao (Spain); Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gent (Belgium); Truty, R. [University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); Hulse, C. van [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (Spain); Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gent (Belgium); Yaschenko, S. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Collaboration: The HERMES Collaboration

    2017-06-15

    Exclusive ρ{sup 0}-meson electroproduction is studied by the HERMES experiment, using the 27.6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron/positron beam of HERA and a transversely polarized hydrogen target, in the kinematic region 1.0 GeV{sup 2} < Q{sup 2} < 7.0 GeV{sup 2}, 3.0 GeV < W < 6.3 GeV, and -t{sup '} < 0.4 GeV{sup 2}. Using an unbinned maximum-likelihood method, 25 parameters are extracted. These determine the real and imaginary parts of the ratios of several helicity amplitudes describing ρ{sup 0}-meson production by a virtual photon. The denominator of those ratios is the dominant amplitude, the nucleon-helicity-non-flip amplitude F{sub 0(1)/(2)0(1)/(2)}, which describes the production of a longitudinal ρ{sup 0}-meson by a longitudinal virtual photon. The ratios of nucleon-helicity-non-flip amplitudes are found to be in good agreement with those from the previous HERMES analysis. The transverse target polarization allows for the first time the extraction of ratios of a number of nucleon-helicity-flip amplitudes to F{sub 0(1)/(2)0(1)/(2)}. Results obtained in a handbag approach based on generalized parton distributions taking into account the contribution from pion exchange are found to be in good agreement with these ratios. Within the model, the data favor a positive sign for the π - ρ transition form factor. By also exploiting the longitudinal beam polarization, a total of 71 ρ{sup 0} spin-density matrix elements is determined from the extracted 25 parameters, in contrast to only 53 elements as directly determined in earlier analyses. (orig.)

  1. Coherence approach to neutron polarization propagation in instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, V.O.; Van Well, A.A.; Plomp, J.

    2008-01-01

    The propagation of the mutual coherence function is a well known method to describe the effects of neutron’s propagation through scattering instruments. This method is extended with the description of the coherence matrix to account for neutron polarization effects and its propagation through an

  2. Analyzing the propagation behavior of coherence and polarization degrees of a phase-locked partially coherent radial flat-topped array laser beam in underwater turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Fatemeh Dabbagh; Yousefi, Masoud

    2016-08-10

    In this research, based on an analytical expression for cross-spectral density (CSD) matrix elements, coherence and polarization properties of phase-locked partially coherent flat-topped (PCFT) radial array laser beams propagating through weak oceanic turbulence are analyzed. Spectral degrees of coherence and polarization are analytically calculated using CSD matrix elements. Also, the effective width of spatial degree of coherence (EWSDC) is calculated numerically. The simulation is done by considering the effects of source parameters (such as radius of the array setup's circle, effective width of the spectral degree of coherence, and wavelength) and turbulent ocean factors (such as the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid and relative strength of temperature and salinity fluctuations, Kolmogorov micro-scale, and rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature) in detail. Results indicate that any change in the amount of turbulence factors that increase the turbulence power reduces the EWSDC significantly and causes the reduction in the degree of polarization, and occurs at shorter propagation distances but with smaller magnitudes. In addition, being valid for all conditions, the degradation rate of the EWSDC of Gaussian array beams are more in comparison with the PCFT ones. The simulation and calculation results are shown by graphs.

  3. Investigation of the state of polarization of light in a single-mode fiber waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, S. M.; Kreopalov, V. I.; Listvin, V. N.; Glavatskikh, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis is made of the polarization anisotropy of a single-mode fiber with a twisted elliptic core. The Jones matrix is obtained and the complex function of the state of polarization of light in a fiber is investigated. The results are reported of measurements of the linear and circular birefringence of a borosilicate single-mode glass fiber.

  4. Development of polarized negative hydrogen ion source with resonant charge-exchange plasma ionizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A. S.; Esin, S. K.; Netchaeva, L. P.; Turbabin, A. V.; Vasil'Ev, G. A.

    2001-06-01

    Polarized negative hydrogen ion beam with peak current of 2.5 mA has been obtained from an atomic beam-type polarized ion source of Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow. The intensity improvement has been achieved due to increase of efficiency of conversion of polarized hydrogen atoms into polarized negative ions. New converter for production of deuterium plasma with high density of unpolarized negative ions is described. Limitations of the method and possible improvements are discussed. .

  5. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  6. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...

  7. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  8. Asymmetric bistable reflection and polarization switching in a magnetic nonlinear multilayer structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuz, Vladimir R.; Novitsky, Denis V.; Prosvirnin, Sergey L.

    2014-01-01

    , while light reflected from the other side has its polarization unchanged. Using the nonlinear transfer matrix calculations in the frequency domain, it is demonstrated that defect resonances in the nonlinear reflection spectra undergo bending, resulting in polarization bistability of reflected light....... This bistability is shown to result in abrupt switching between linear polarization of the output reflected light when the input intensity is varied. This switching is confirmed in finite-difference time-domain simulations, and its hysteresis character is established....

  9. Rigorous vectorial modeling for polarized illumination and projection pupil in OPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaolin; Song, Hua; Lucas, Kevin; Ward, Brian; Shiely, James

    2008-05-01

    source, this modeling approach unifies optical simulations of unpolarized, partially polarized, and completely polarized illuminations. The polarization aberration imposed by the projection lens pupil is modeled via Jones matrix format, and it is applicable to arbitrary polarization aberrations imposed by any components in the lithography system that can be characterized in Jones matrix format. Numerical experiments were performed to study CD impact from illumination polarization and projection lens pupil polarization aberrations, and up to several nanometers impact on optical proximity effect (OPE) was observed, which is not negligible given the extremely stringent CD error budget at 45nm node and beyond. Based on an experimentally measured Jones matrix pupil which intrinsically provides a much better approximation to the physical scanner projection pupil, we propose a more physics-centric methodology to evaluate the optical model accuracy of OPC simulator.

  10. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  11. Ultracold Polar Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0005 Ultracold Polar Molecules Jeremy Hutson UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM Final Report 04/01/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-Jan-2010 to 14-Jul-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Report on Grant FA8655-10-1-3033 on Ultracold Polar Molecules 5a...formation of ultracold 87RbCs molecules in their rovibrational ground state by magnetoassociation followed by STIRAP, resulting in 14 papers acknowledging

  12. The nuclear reaction matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenciglowa, E.M.; Kung, C.L.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Osnes, E.; and Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794)

    1976-01-01

    Different definitions of the reaction matrix G appropriate to the calculation of nuclear structure are reviewed and discussed. Qualitative physical arguments are presented in support of a two-step calculation of the G-matrix for finite nuclei. In the first step the high-energy excitations are included using orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states, and in the second step the low-energy excitations are added in, using harmonic oscillator intermediate states. Accurate calculations of G-matrix elements for nuclear structure calculations in the Aapprox. =18 region are performed following this procedure and treating the Pauli exclusion operator Q 2 /sub p/ by the method of Tsai and Kuo. The treatment of Q 2 /sub p/, the effect of the intermediate-state spectrum and the energy dependence of the reaction matrix are investigated in detail. The present matrix elements are compared with various matrix elements given in the literature. In particular, close agreement is obtained with the matrix elements calculated by Kuo and Brown using approximate methods

  13. Nuclear reaction matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenciglowa, E.M.; Kung, C.L.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Osnes, E.

    1975-01-01

    Different definitions of the reaction matrix G appropriate to the calculation of nuclear structure are reviewed and discussed. Qualitative physical arguments are presented in support of a two-step calculation of the G-matrix for finite nuclei. In the first step the high-energy excitations are included using orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states, and in the second step the low-energy excitations are added in, using harmonic oscillator intermediate states. Accurate calculations of G-matrix elements for nuclear structure calculations in the A approximately 18 region are performed following this procedure and treating the Pauli exclusion operator Q/sub 2p/ by the method of Tsai and Kuo. The treatment of Q/sub 2p/, the effect of the intermediate-state spectrum and the energy dependence of the reaction matrix are investigated in detail. The present matrix elements are compared with various matrix elements given in the literature. In particular, close argument is obtained with the matrix elements calculated by Kuo and Brown using approximate methods

  14. Hsp Polarization Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bless, Robert

    1991-07-01

    This proposal defines the procedure for determining the instrumental polarization of the polarimetric IDT (IDT#1, POL) on the HSP. 1 of 2 unpolarized standard stars wil be observed using various filter-polarizer combinations. These observations will permit the instrumental polarization to be calibrated. The instrumental polarization must be determined to a high precision in order to vectoriallly remove it from HSP polarization observations to determine the actual astronomical polarization. Final run of proposal will look at one of 2 possible stars previously observed to get another look at the throughput. Revision History: Mark H. Slovak 8/30/88 Translated to V2 proposal instructions (RPSS V6.2) S. Laurent 1/20/89 Updated: Sally Laurent 2/24/89, 3/20/89, 4/13/89, 5/12/89 Modified: P. Stanley 1/15/90 - change to use CTA selected targets only; Fixes for aberration problem - SALM 7/30/90; Based on SV/HSP 1386. New submission changed targets and revised scheduling strategy. Revised: 26 Aug 92 J. Dolan, L. Walter, P. Reppert want to re-run the proposal (3985) one last time to bring down errors.

  15. Polar ocean stratification in a cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Daniel M; Jaccard, Samuel L; Haug, Gerald H

    2004-03-04

    The low-latitude ocean is strongly stratified by the warmth of its surface water. As a result, the great volume of the deep ocean has easiest access to the atmosphere through the polar surface ocean. In the modern polar ocean during the winter, the vertical distribution of temperature promotes overturning, with colder water over warmer, while the salinity distribution typically promotes stratification, with fresher water over saltier. However, the sensitivity of seawater density to temperature is reduced as temperature approaches the freezing point, with potential consequences for global ocean circulation under cold climates. Here we present deep-sea records of biogenic opal accumulation and sedimentary nitrogen isotopic composition from the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean and the Southern Ocean. These records indicate that vertical stratification increased in both northern and southern high latitudes 2.7 million years ago, when Northern Hemisphere glaciation intensified in association with global cooling during the late Pliocene epoch. We propose that the cooling caused this increased stratification by weakening the role of temperature in polar ocean density structure so as to reduce its opposition to the stratifying effect of the vertical salinity distribution. The shift towards stratification in the polar ocean 2.7 million years ago may have increased the quantity of carbon dioxide trapped in the abyss, amplifying the global cooling.

  16. Cern DD4424 ROM Diode Matrix

    CERN Multimedia

    A diode matrix is an extremely low-density form of read-only memory. It's one of the earliest forms of ROMs (dating back to the 1950s). Each bit in the ROM is represented by the presence or absence of one diode. The ROM is easily user-writable using a soldering iron and pair of wire cutters.This diode matrix board is a floppy disk boot ROM for a PDP-11, and consists of 32 16-bit words. When you access an address on the ROM, the circuit returns the represented data from that address.

  17. A Diode Matrix model M792

    CERN Multimedia

    A diode matrix is an extremely low-density form of read-only memory. It's one of the earliest forms of ROMs (dating back to the 1950s). Each bit in the ROM is represented by the presence or absence of one diode. The ROM is easily user-writable using a soldering iron and pair of wire cutters.This diode matrix board is a floppy disk boot ROM for a PDP-11, and consists of 32 16-bit words. When you access an address on the ROM, the circuit returns the represented data from that address.

  18. N-matrix completion problem

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, C. Mendes; Torregrosa, Juan R.; Urbano, Ana M.

    2003-01-01

    An n x n matrix is called an N-matrix if all principal minors are negative. In this paper, we are interested in N-matrix completion problems, that is, when a partial N-matrix hás an N-matrix completion. In general, a combinatorially or non-combinatorially symmetric partial N-matrix does not have an N-matrix completion. Here we prove that a combinatorially symmetric partial N-matrix has an N-matrix completion if the graph of its specified entries is a 1-chordal graph. We also prove that there ...

  19. Polarization of a stored electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.

    1981-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation by a point charge is a familiar subject in classical electrodynamics. Perhaps less familiar are some quantum mechanical corrections to the classical results. Some of those quantum aspects of synchrotron radiation are described. One of the quantum effects leads to the expectation that electrons in a storage ring will polarize themselves to 92% - a surprisingly high value. A semi-classical derivation of the quantum effects is given. An effort has been made to minimize the need of using quantum mechanics. Results are put together to derive a final expression of beam polarization. Conditions under which the expected 92% polarization is destroyed are found and attributed to depolarization resonances. The various depolarization mechanisms are first illustrated by an idealized example and then systematically treated by a matrix formalism. It is shown that the strength of depolarization is specified by a key quantity called the spin chromaticity. Finally as an application of the obtained results, an estimate of the achievable level of beam polarization for two existing electron storage rings, SPEAR and PEP, is given.

  20. Elementary matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eves, Howard

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri