WorldWideScience

Sample records for polarization corrected temperature

  1. Correction of polarization error in scanned array weather radar antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, C.; Hoogeboom, P.; Russchenberg, H.; Wang, T.; Dong, J.; Wang, X.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the polarization error correction of dual-polarized planar scanned array weather radar in alternately transmitting and simultaneously receiving (ATSR) mode is analyzed. A method based on point correction and a method taking the complete array patterns into account are discussed. To

  2. Polarization versus Temperature in Pyridinium Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, V. V.; Prezhdo, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic polarization and charge transfer effects play a crucial role in thermodynamic, structural, and transport properties of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). These nonadditive interactions constitute a useful tool for tuning physical chemical behavior of RTILs. Polarization and charge...... electronic density description for a cationanion pair. Atom-centered density matrix propagation molecular dynamics, supplemented by a weak coupling to an external bath, is used to simulate the temperature impact on system properties. We show that, quite surprisingly, nonadditivity in the cationanion...

  3. Temperature corrected-calibration of GRACE's accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnacao, J.; Save, H.; Siemes, C.; Doornbos, E.; Tapley, B. D.

    2017-12-01

    Since April 2011, the thermal control of the accelerometers on board the GRACE satellites has been turned off. The time series of along-track bias clearly show a drastic change in the behaviour of this parameter, while the calibration model has remained unchanged throughout the entire mission lifetime. In an effort to improve the quality of the gravity field models produced at CSR in future mission-long re-processing of GRACE data, we quantify the added value of different calibration strategies. In one approach, the temperature effects that distort the raw accelerometer measurements collected without thermal control are corrected considering the housekeeping temperature readings. In this way, one single calibration strategy can be consistently applied during the whole mission lifetime, since it is valid to thermal the conditions before and after April 2011. Finally, we illustrate that the resulting calibrated accelerations are suitable for neutral thermospheric density studies.

  4. Direct Observation of Room-Temperature Polar Ordering in Colloidal GeTe Nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polking, Mark J.; Zheng, Haimei; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Milliron, Delia J.; Chan, Emory; Caldwell, Marissa A.; Raoux, Simone; Kisielowski, Christian F.; Ager, Joel W. III; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Alivisatos, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Ferroelectrics and other materials that exhibit spontaneous polar ordering have demonstrated immense promise for applications ranging from non-volatile memories to microelectromechanical systems. However, experimental evidence of polar ordering and effective synthetic strategies for accessing these materials are lacking for low-dimensional nanomaterials. Here, we demonstrate the synthesis of size-controlled nanocrystals of the polar material germanium telluride (GeTe) using colloidal chemistry and provide the first direct evidence of room-temperature polar ordering in nanocrystals less than 5 nm in size using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman studies demonstrate a sizeable polar distortion and a reversible size-dependent polar phase transition in these nanocrystals. The stability of polar ordering in solution-processible nanomaterials suggests an economical avenue to Tbit/in2-density non-volatile memory devices and other applications.

  5. Temperature corrections, supersymmetric effective potentials and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binetruy, P.; Gaillard, M.K.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1985-01-01

    We calculate the one-loop temperature corrections to general potentials in N=1 supergravity, and study the conditions under which a new inflationary scenario is possible. The results are sensitive to the total number N of chiral superfields. For large N, we find that in 'hidden sector' models supersymmetry must be broken at a scale governed by the energy density of the false vacuum: msub(3/2) > or approx. 2√8π μ 2 /Msub(p), where μ approx.= (10 -3 -10 -4 )Msub(p) in typical inflationary scenarios. We also discuss an alternative picture where inflation occurs at the preonic level, before the preon-confining phase transition. (orig.)

  6. Effect of temperature on polarization reversal of strontium-doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of temperature on polarization reversal of strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate ceramics was studied. The piezoelectric properties viz. dielectric constant and piezoelectric coupling coefficient, were used for polarization reversal characteristic. These properties and apparent coercive field weremeasured during ...

  7. Investigation of temperature correction for tire/pavement noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Volpe Center Acoustics Facility, in support of the Federal Highway Administration, : investigated the influence of temperature on tire/pavement noise in order to provide guidance on correcting for temperature variations in measured sound levels. ...

  8. Calculation of the QED correction to the recoil proton polarization by the electron structure function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasev, A.V.; Akushevich, I.; Merenkov, N.P.

    2000-01-01

    The recoil proton polarization for the quasielastic electron-proton scattering is represented as a contraction of the electron structure and the hard part of the polarization dependent contribution into cross-section. The calculation of the hard part with first order radiative correction is performed. The obtained representation includes the leading radiative corrections in all orders of perturbation theory and the main part of the second order next-to-leading ones

  9. Correcting systematic errors in high-sensitivity deuteron polarization measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantjes, N. P. M.; Dzordzhadze, V.; Gebel, R.; Gonnella, F.; Gray, F. E.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Imig, A.; Kruithof, W. L.; Lazarus, D. M.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Messi, R.; Moricciani, D.; Morse, W. M.; Noid, G. A.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Ozben, C. S.; Prasuhn, D.; Sandri, P. Levi; Semertzidis, Y. K.; da Silva e Silva, M.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stockhorst, H.; Venanzoni, G.; Versolato, O. O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports deuteron vector and tensor beam polarization measurements taken to investigate the systematic variations due to geometric beam misalignments and high data rates. The experiments used the In-Beam Polarimeter at the KVI-Groningen and the EDDA detector at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY

  10. QED corrections in deep-inelastic scattering from tensor polarized deuteron target

    CERN Document Server

    Gakh, G I

    2001-01-01

    The QED correction in the deep inelastic scattering from the polarized tensor of the deuteron target is considered. The calculations are based on the covariant parametrization of the deuteron quadrupole polarization tensor. The Drell-Yan representations in the electrodynamics are used for describing the radiation real and virtual particles

  11. Inclusion of temperature dependent shell corrections in Landau ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nium isotopes [7]. However, it is possible to evaluate shell corrections at finite temperatures more accurately [8,9] i.e. ÆF = (E T S) (E TS). In this paper we will focus on the method which we use to evaluate the shell corrections at finite temperature and the consequences of incorporating this method in our calculations. 223 ...

  12. Artefact Correction in MRI Temperature Mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shmatukha, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis describes techniques that can be used to reduce or eliminate artefacts arising due to magnetic field disturbances and/or motion in temperature maps obtained by the Proton Resonance Frequency Shift (PRFS) method of MRI temperature mapping. The first chapter describes a hardware

  13. Automated general temperature correction method for dielectric soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilaratne, R. G. C. Jeewantinie; Lu, Minjiao

    2017-08-01

    An effective temperature correction method for dielectric sensors is important to ensure the accuracy of soil water content (SWC) measurements of local to regional-scale soil moisture monitoring networks. These networks are extensively using highly temperature sensitive dielectric sensors due to their low cost, ease of use and less power consumption. Yet there is no general temperature correction method for dielectric sensors, instead sensor or site dependent correction algorithms are employed. Such methods become ineffective at soil moisture monitoring networks with different sensor setups and those that cover diverse climatic conditions and soil types. This study attempted to develop a general temperature correction method for dielectric sensors which can be commonly used regardless of the differences in sensor type, climatic conditions and soil type without rainfall data. In this work an automated general temperature correction method was developed by adopting previously developed temperature correction algorithms using time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements to ThetaProbe ML2X, Stevens Hydra probe II and Decagon Devices EC-TM sensor measurements. The rainy day effects removal procedure from SWC data was automated by incorporating a statistical inference technique with temperature correction algorithms. The temperature correction method was evaluated using 34 stations from the International Soil Moisture Monitoring Network and another nine stations from a local soil moisture monitoring network in Mongolia. Soil moisture monitoring networks used in this study cover four major climates and six major soil types. Results indicated that the automated temperature correction algorithms developed in this study can eliminate temperature effects from dielectric sensor measurements successfully even without on-site rainfall data. Furthermore, it has been found that actual daily average of SWC has been changed due to temperature effects of dielectric sensors with a

  14. Discussion on data correction for Polarization Analysis with a 3He spin filter analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Earl; Salhi, Zahir; Kentzinger, Emmanuel; Mattauch, Stefan; Ioffe, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Fully polarized neutron reflectometry and grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering are effective methods to explore magnetic structures on the nm to μm length scales. This paper is an outline of how to fully correct for the polarization analysis (PA) inefficiencies of such an instrument and to determine the error contributions of the neutron polarizer and analyzer. This discussion considers the exact case of the polarization analysis instrumentation used on the MARIA neutron reflectometer at the MLZ or for a general polarized neutron scattering instrument using at least one 3He neutron spin filter that has the capability for adiabatic fast passage nuclear magnetic resonance flipping of the 3He polarization. This paper will work to build a conceptual understanding of how the inefficiencies of neutron polarization elements affect measured data in order to stress and encourage the application of PA corrections and to help perform successful measurements. Then, using data from a fully polarized neutron reflectometer test measurement we show how it is possible to recover signals on the order of, or even smaller than, the inefficiencies, or bleed-through, of the neutron polarization devices used.

  15. QCD corrections to decay-lepton polar and azimuthal angular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    QCD corrections, have presumed an accurate reconstruction of the spin, and are generally not concerned with decay distributions. ..... The result does not depend on the value of f1L, as we will see soon. The decay helicity amplitudes in the t rest ..... to a fair degree of accuracy for ╘s = 400. GeV. In figures 3a–c we show the ...

  16. Nimbus-5 ESMR Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) data set consists of gridded brightness temperature arrays for the Arctic and Antarctic, spanning 11...

  17. Inclusion of temperature dependent shell corrections in Landau ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Landau theory used for studying hot rotating nuclei usually uses zero temperature Strutinsky smoothed total energy for the temperature dependent shell corrections. This is replaced in this work by the temperature dependent Strutinsky smoothed free energy. Our results show that this replacement has only marginal effect for ...

  18. Physical properties of the spin Hamiltonian on honeycomb lattice samples with Kekulé and vacuum polarization corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ricardo Spagnuolo; Konstantinova, Elena; Belich, Humberto; Helayël-Neto, José Abdalla

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic and thermodynamical properties of a system of spins in a honeycomb lattice, such as magnetization, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat, in a low-temperature regime are investigated by considering the effects of a Kekulé scalar exchange and QED vacuum polarization corrections to the interparticle potential. The spin lattice calculations are carried out by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We present a number of comparative plots of all the physical quantities we have considered and a detailed analysis is presented to illustrate the main features and the variation profiles of the properties with the applied external magnetic field and temperature.

  19. Room Temperature Memory for Few Photon Polarization Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchak, Connor; Mittiga, Thomas; Jordan, Bertus; Nazami, Mehdi; Nolleke, Christian; Figueroa, Eden

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a room temperature quantum memory device based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency capable of reliably storing and retrieving polarization qubits on the few photon level. Our system is realized in a vapor of 87Rb atoms utilizing a Λ-type energy level scheme. We create a dual-rail storage scheme mediated by an intense control field to allow storage and retrieval of any arbitrary polarization state. Upon retrieval, we employ a filtering system to sufficiently remove the strong pump field, and subject retrieved light states to polarization tomography. To date, our system has produced signal-to-noise ratios near unity with a memory fidelity of >80 % using coherent state qubits containing four photons on average. Our results thus demonstrate the feasibility of room temperature systems for the storage of single-photon-level photonic qubits. Such room temperature systems will be attractive for future long distance quantum communication schemes.

  20. Temperature-Corrected Model of Turbulence in Hot Jet Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Pao, S. Paul; Massey, Steven J.; Elmiligui, Alaa

    2007-01-01

    An improved correction has been developed to increase the accuracy with which certain formulations of computational fluid dynamics predict mixing in shear layers of hot jet flows. The CFD formulations in question are those derived from the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations closed by means of a two-equation model of turbulence, known as the k-epsilon model, wherein effects of turbulence are summarized by means of an eddy viscosity. The need for a correction arises because it is well known among specialists in CFD that two-equation turbulence models, which were developed and calibrated for room-temperature, low Mach-number, plane-mixing-layer flows, underpredict mixing in shear layers of hot jet flows. The present correction represents an attempt to account for increased mixing that takes place in jet flows characterized by high gradients of total temperature. This correction also incorporates a commonly accepted, previously developed correction for the effect of compressibility on mixing.

  1. Atmospheric correction for sea surface temperature retrieval from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The interpretation and validation of satellite measure- ments of SST from both polar-orbiting and geo- stationary satellites is affected by the presence of the oceanic skin layer (see, e.g., Katsaros 1980;. Keywords. Retrieval; sea surface temperature; Kalpana satellite; TRMM/TMI; water vapour fields. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 120, No.

  2. Assessment of polarization correction impact on the calibration of Terra MODIS reflective solar bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aisheng; Angal, Amit; Geng, Xu; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2017-09-01

    The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched in 1999 on Terra and 2002 on Aqua spacecraft respectively, is a scanning radiometer that covers a wavelength range from 0.4 μm to 14.4 μm and scans the Earth over an angular range from -55° to +55°. After a few years in the Terra mission, it became extremely challenging to characterize the changes in the sensor gain and response versus scan angle (RVS) at short wavelengths due to significant degradation and increased polarization sensitivity. To better characterize the system-level degradation, the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) developed an enhanced approach in Collection-6 (C6) L1B algorithm by supplementing the on-board calibration data with the Earth-scene response trends at various scan angles obtained from the pseudo-invariant desert sites. However, the trends at short wavelengths experienced significant impact due to the increased polarization sensitivity, especially at the end of scan. In this study, a polarization correction algorithm developed by MCST is applied to the Terra MODIS RSB response trends obtained from the desert sites. The trends after polarization correction are used to derive the gain and RVS based on the existing MODIS C6 calibration algorithm. Impact of the polarization correction is examined for gain, RVS and their fitting uncertainties over the entire mission. The results of this study provide useful information on how to further improve accuracy and stability of the calibrated L1B product.

  3. Spin temperatures under dynamic polarization in a one-dimensional system, the TANOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjhoux, Yves.

    1974-01-01

    A quantitative model of Tanol submitted to dynamic polarization has been developed. The spin systems are described using a network of interconnected reservoirs. The model involves six (or ten) Zeeman nuclear reservoirs mutually coupled by nuclear-nuclear dipole interactions and coupled to electron spins by hyperfine interactions. When the electronic line is saturated, different nuclear temperatures appear in the molecule. These temperatures have been calculated as a function of the magnetic field orientation against the crystallographic axes. Experimental results are correctly reproduced. A quantitative agreement is obtained for the anisotropy of total polarization. The calculation also shows that, in certain directions, positive and negative spin temperatures simultaneously appear, that explains the complex shape of the signals observed. Nuclear relaxation processes involving two electron spins of the same exchange chain are taken into account for the calculation. The different possible chain directions (a, a+c, or c vectors) were envisaged. Only the c-vector hypothesis succeeded in interpreting experimental results [fr

  4. Investigation of focusing and correcting aberrations with binary amplitude and polarization modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Peter; Li, Yunqi; Dorrer, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the focusing and correcting wavefront aberration of an optical wave using binary amplitude and polarization modulation. Focusing is performed by selectively modulating the field in different zones of the pupil to obtain on-axis constructive interference at a given distance. The conventional Soret zone plate (binary amplitude profile) is expanded to a polarization Soret zone plate with twice the focusing efficiency. Binary pixelated devices that approximate the sinusoidal transmission profile of a Gabor zone plate by spatial dithering are also investigated with amplitude and polarization modulation. Wavefront aberrations are corrected by modulation of the field in the pupil plane to prevent destructive interference in the focal plane of an ideal focusing element. Polarization modulation improves the efficiency obtained by amplitude-only modulation, with a gain that depends on the aberration. Experimental results obtained with Cr-on-glass devices for amplitude modulation and liquid crystal devices operating in the Mauguin condition for polarization modulation are in very good agreement with simulations.

  5. Vector Sky Glint Corrections for Above Surface Retrieval of the Subsurface Polarized Light Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilerson, A.; Foster, R.; McGilloway, A.; Ibrahim, A.; El-habashi, A.; Carrizo, C.; Ahmed, S.

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the underwater light field is fundamental to determining the health of the world's oceans and coastal regions. For decades, traditional remote sensing retrieval methods that rely solely on the spectral intensity of the water-leaving light have provided indicators of marine ecosystem health. As the demand for retrieval accuracy rises, use of the polarized nature of light as an additional remote sensing tool is becoming necessary. In order to observe the underwater polarized light field from above the surface (for ship, shore, or satellite applications), a method of correcting the above water signal for the effects of polarized surface-reflected skylight is needed. For three weeks in July-August 2014, the NASA Ship Aircraft Bio-Optical Research (SABOR) cruise continuously observed the polarized radiance of the ocean and the sky using a HyperSAS-POL system. The system autonomously tracks the Sun position and the heading of the research vessel in order to maintain a fixed relative solar azimuth angle (i.e. ±90°) and therefore avoid the specular reflection of the sunlight. Additionally, in-situ inherent optical properties (IOPs) were continuously acquired using a set of instrument packages modified for underway measurement, hyperspectral radiometric measurements were taken manually at all stations, and an underwater polarimeter was deployed when conditions permitted. All measurements, above and below the sea surface, were combined and compared in an effort to first develop a glint (sky + Sun) correction scheme for the upwelling polarized signal from a wind-driven ocean surface and compare with one assuming that the ocean surface is flat. Accurate retrieval of the subsurface vector light field is demonstrated through comparisons with polarized radiative transfer codes and direct measurements made by the underwater polarimeter.

  6. Gibbons-Hawking temperature corrected by quantum cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Je-An; Kim, Sang Pyo; Shen, Che-Min

    We explore a quantum cosmology description of the de Sitter (dS) radiation and its back-reaction to a dS space, inherent in the wave function of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for pure gravity with a cosmological constant. We first investigate the quantum Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmological model and then consider the possible effects of inhomogeneities of the universe on the dS radiation. In both the cases we obtain the modified Friedmann equation, including the back-reaction from spacetime fluctuations, and the quantum-corrected Gibbons-Hawking (GH) temperature. It is shown that the quantum correction increases the GH temperature with the increment characterized by the ratio of the dS scale to the Planck scale.

  7. Quantum Mechanical Corrections to Simulated Shock Hugoniot Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, N; Reed, E; Fried, L E

    2009-07-17

    The authors present a straightforward method for the inclusion of quantum nuclear vibrational effects in molecular dynamics calculations of shock Hugoniot temperatures. Using a grueneisen equation of state and a quasi-harmonic approximation to the vibrational energies, they derive a simple, post-processing method for calculation of the quantum corrected Hugoniot temperatures. They have used our novel technique on ab initio simulations of both shock compressed water and methane. Our results indicate significantly closer agreement with all available experimental temperature data for these two systems. Our formalism and technique can be easily applied to a number of different shock compressed molecular liquids or covalent solids, and has the potential to decrease the large uncertainties inherent in many experimental Hugoniot temperature measurements of these systems.

  8. Corrections to nucleon spin structure asymmetries measured on nuclear polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondon, O.A.

    1999-01-01

    The nucleon spin structure functions have been extracted from measurements of asymmetries in deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons on polarized nuclei. The polarized nuclei present in practical targets: H, 2 H, 3 He, 14 N, 15 N, 6 Li, and 7 Li, are, with the exception of hydrogen, systems of bound nucleons, some of which can attain significant degrees of alignment. All the aligned nucleons contribute to the asymmetries. The contributions of each nuclear species to the asymmetry have to be carefully determined, before a reliable value for the net nucleon asymmetry is obtained. For this purpose, the spin component of the nuclear angular momentum for every nuclear state and the probability of each state have to be known with sufficient accuracy. In this paper I discuss the basic corrections used to estimate the contributions of the different nuclei, with emphasis on the A=6 and 7 Li isotopes present in the Li 2 H polarized target used during SLAC Experiment 155 to study the deuteron spin structure. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  9. Methods of Attenuation Correction for Dual-Wavelength and Dual-Polarization Weather Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, R.; Liao, L.

    2007-01-01

    In writing the integral equations for the median mass diameter and number concentration, or comparable parameters of the raindrop size distribution, it is apparent that the forms of the equations for dual-polarization and dual-wavelength radar data are identical when attenuation effects are included. The differential backscattering and extinction coefficients appear in both sets of equations: for the dual-polarization equations, the differences are taken with respect to polarization at a fixed frequency while for the dual-wavelength equations, the differences are taken with respect to frequency at a fixed polarization. An alternative to the integral equation formulation is that based on the k-Z (attenuation coefficient-radar reflectivity factor) parameterization. This-technique was originally developed for attenuating single-wavelength radars, a variation of which has been applied to the TRMM Precipitation Radar data (PR). Extensions of this method have also been applied to dual-polarization data. In fact, it is not difficult to show that nearly identical equations are applicable as well to dualwavelength radar data. In this case, the equations for median mass diameter and number concentration take the form of coupled, but non-integral equations. Differences between this and the integral equation formulation are a consequence of the different ways in which attenuation correction is performed under the two formulations. For both techniques, the equations can be solved either forward from the radar outward or backward from the final range gate toward the radar. Although the forward-going solutions tend to be unstable as the attenuation out to the range of interest becomes large in some sense, an independent estimate of path attenuation is not required. This is analogous to the case of an attenuating single-wavelength radar where the forward solution to the Hitschfeld-Bordan equation becomes unstable as the attenuation increases. To circumvent this problem, the

  10. Exchange corrections in a low-temperature plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Robin; Zamanian, Jens; Brodin, Gert

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the exchange corrections to linear electrostatic wave propagation in a plasma using a quantum kinetic formalism. Specifically, we have considered the zero-temperature limit. In order to simplify the calculations we have focused on the long-wavelength limit, i.e., wavelengths much longer than the de Broglie wavelength. For the case of ion-acoustic waves we have calculated the exchange correction both to the damping rate and the real part of the frequency. For Langmuir waves the frequency shift due to exchange effects is found. Our results are compared with the frequency shifts deduced from commonly used exchange potentials which are computed from density-functional theory.

  11. SHUTTER-LESS TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT CORRECTION FOR UNCOOLED THERMAL CAMERA UNDER FAST CHANGING FPA TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional temperature-dependant correction methods for uncooled cameras are not so valid for images under the condition of fast changing FPA temperature as usual, therefore, a shutter-less temperature-dependant correction method is proposed here to compensate for these errors and stabilize camera's response only related to the object surface temperature. Firstly, sequential images are divided into the following three categories according to the changing speed of FPA temperature: stable (0°C/min, relatively stable (<0.5°C/min, unstable (>0.5°C/min. Then all of the images are projected into the same level using a second order polynomial relation between FPA temperatures and gray values from stable images. Next, a third order polynomial relation between temporal differences of FPA temperatures and the above corrected images is implemented to eliminate the deviation caused by fast changing FPA temperature. Finally, radiometric calibration is applied to convert image gray values into object temperature values. Experiment results show that our method is more effective for fast changing FPA temperature data than FLIR GEV.

  12. A Model-Based Temperature-Prediction Method by Temperature-Induced Spectral Variation and Correction of the Temperature Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qhi-xiao; Peng, Si-long; Shan, Peng; Bi, Yi-ming; Tang, Liang; Xie, Qiong

    2015-05-01

    In the present paper, a new model-based method was proposed for temperature prediction and correction. First, a temperature prediction model was obtained from training samples; then, the temperature of test samples were predicted; and finally, the correction model was used to reduce the nonlinear effects of spectra from temperature variations. Two experiments were used to verify the proposed method, including a water-ethanol mixture experiment and a ternary mixture experiment. The results show that, compared with classic method such as continuous piecewise direct standardization (CPDS), our method is efficient for temperature correction. Furthermore, the temperatures of test samples are not necessary in the proposed method, making it easier to use in real applications.

  13. Wall temperature measurements using a thermal imaging camera with temperature-dependent emissivity corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaid, Chloe; Zhang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    A methodology is presented whereby the relationship between temperature and emissivity for fused quartz has been used to correct the temperature values of a quartz impingement plate detected by an SC3000 thermal imaging camera. The methodology uses an iterative method using the initial temperature (obtained by assuming a constant emissivity) to find the emissivity values which are then put into the thermal imaging software and used to find the subsequent temperatures, which are used to find the emissivities, and so on until converged. This method is used for a quartz impingement plate that has been heated under various flame conditions, and the results are compared. Radiation losses from the plate are also calculated, and it is shown that even a slight change in temperature greatly affects the radiation loss. It is a general methodology that can be used for any wall material whose emissivity is a function of temperature

  14. Corrections to MODIS Terra Calibration and Polarization Trending Derived from Ocean Color Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Gerhard; Eplee, Robert E.; Franz, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    Remotely sensed ocean color products require highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances, on the order of 0.5% or better. Due to incidents both prelaunch and on-orbit, meeting this requirement has been a consistent problem for the MODIS instrument on the Terra satellite, especially in the later part of the mission. The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) has developed an approach to correct the TOA radiances of MODIS Terra using spatially and temporally averaged ocean color products from other ocean color sensors (such as the SeaWiFS instrument on Orbview-2 or the MODIS instrument on the Aqua satellite). The latest results suggest that for MODIS Terra, both linear polarization parameters of the Mueller matrix are temporally evolving. A change to the functional form of the scan angle dependence improved the quality of the derived coefficients. Additionally, this paper demonstrates that simultaneously retrieving polarization and gain parameters improves the gain retrieval (versus retrieving the gain parameter only).

  15. Near-Real-Time DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Near-Real-Time DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperature product provides near-real-time brightness temperatures for both the Northern and...

  16. On the temperature dependence of the spontaneous polarization of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismailzade, I.G.; Ismailov, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    The temperature dependence of spontaneous polarization Psub(s)(T) of LiNbO 3 and LiTaO 3 ferroelectrics is studied by the precision X-ray diffraction method up to the Curie temperature - 1140 and 650 deg C, respectively. It is shown that for LiTaO 3 a deviation from continuous variation of spontaneous polarization with temperature is observed, expressing itself more disticntly at temperatures corresponding to intermediate ferroelectric phase transitions. The Psub(s)(T) obtained has whown that up to 210 deg C the value of LiNbO 3 spontaneous polarization practically remains constant and it decreases with the temperature increase, and near the phase transition temperature (transition of the first order) Psub(s)(T) is 40% of spontaneous polarization at room temperature. As in the case of lithium tantalate stepwise changes of Psub(s)(T) for LiNbO 3 are observed

  17. Intercomparison of attenuation correction algorithms for single-polarized X-band radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengfeld, K.; Berenguer, M.; Sempere Torres, D.

    2018-03-01

    Attenuation due to liquid water is one of the largest uncertainties in radar observations. The effects of attenuation are generally inversely proportional to the wavelength, i.e. observations from X-band radars are more affected by attenuation than those from C- or S-band systems. On the other hand, X-band radars can measure precipitation fields in higher temporal and spatial resolution and are more mobile and easier to install due to smaller antennas. A first algorithm for attenuation correction in single-polarized systems was proposed by Hitschfeld and Bordan (1954) (HB), but it gets unstable in case of small errors (e.g. in the radar calibration) and strong attenuation. Therefore, methods have been developed that restrict attenuation correction to keep the algorithm stable, using e.g. surface echoes (for space-borne radars) and mountain returns (for ground radars) as a final value (FV), or adjustment of the radar constant (C) or the coefficient α. In the absence of mountain returns, measurements from C- or S-band radars can be used to constrain the correction. All these methods are based on the statistical relation between reflectivity and specific attenuation. Another way to correct for attenuation in X-band radar observations is to use additional information from less attenuated radar systems, e.g. the ratio between X-band and C- or S-band radar measurements. Lengfeld et al. (2016) proposed such a method based isotonic regression of the ratio between X- and C-band radar observations along the radar beam. This study presents a comparison of the original HB algorithm and three algorithms based on the statistical relation between reflectivity and specific attenuation as well as two methods implementing additional information of C-band radar measurements. Their performance in two precipitation events (one mainly convective and the other one stratiform) shows that a restriction of the HB is necessary to avoid instabilities. A comparison with vertically pointing

  18. Description of corrections on electrode polarization impedance using isopotential interface factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Alexander Gomez Sanchez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an equation and define the Isopotential Interface Factor (IIF to quantify the contribution of electrode polarization impedance in two tetrapolar electrode shapes. The first tetrapolar electrode geometry shape was adjacent and the second axial concentric, both probes were made of stainless steel (AISI 304. The experiments were carried out with an impedance analyzer (Solartron 1260 using a frequency range between 0.1 Hz and 8 MHz. Based on a theoretical simplification, the experimental results show a lower value of the IIF in the axial concentric tetrapolar electrode system which caused a lower correction of interface value. The higher value of the IIF in the adjacent electrode system was KEEI (1Hz, 0.28 mS/cm = 1.41 and decreased when the frequency and conductance were increased, whereas in the axial concentric electrode system was KEEI (1Hz, 0.28 mS/cm = 0.08. The average isopotential interface factor throughout the whole range of conductivities and frequencies was 0.23 in the adjacent electrode system and 0.02 in the axial concentric electrode system. The index of inherent electrical anisotropy (IEA was used to present an analysis of electrical anisotropy of biceps brachii muscle in vitro using the corrections of both tetrapolar electrode systems. A higher IEA was present in lower frequency where the variation below 1 kHz was 15 % in adjacent electrode configuration and 26 % in the axial concentric probe with respect to full range. The IIF is then shown that it can be used to describe the quality of an electrode system.

  19. Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence polarization of ordered III-V semiconductor alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prutskij, T.; Makarov, N.; Attolini, G.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the linear polarization of the photoluminescence (PL) emission of atomically ordered GaInAsP and GaInP alloys with different ordering parameters in the temperature range from 10 to 300 K. The epitaxial layers of these alloys were grown on GaAs and Ge (001) substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. The polarization of the PL emission propagating along different crystallographic axes depends on the value of biaxial strain in the layer and changes with temperature. We calculated the PL polarization patterns for different propagation directions as a function of biaxial strain using an existing model developed for ternary atomically ordered III-V alloys. Comparing the calculated PL polarization patterns with those obtained experimentally, we separated the variation of the PL polarization due to change of biaxial strain with temperature.

  20. [Study on temperature correctional models of quantitative analysis with near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Chen, Hua-cai; Chen, Xing-dan

    2005-06-01

    Effect of enviroment temperature on near infrared spectroscopic quantitative analysis was studied. The temperature correction model was calibrated with 45 wheat samples at different environment temperaturs and with the temperature as an external variable. The constant temperature model was calibated with 45 wheat samples at the same temperature. The predicted results of two models for the protein contents of wheat samples at different temperatures were compared. The results showed that the mean standard error of prediction (SEP) of the temperature correction model was 0.333, but the SEP of constant temperature (22 degrees C) model increased as the temperature difference enlarged, and the SEP is up to 0.602 when using this model at 4 degrees C. It was suggested that the temperature correctional model improves the analysis precision.

  1. Ice Surface Temperature Variability in the Polar Regions and the Relationships to 2 Meter Air Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, J.; Madsen, K. S.; Englyst, P. N.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the surface and near surface air temperature from models or observations in the Polar Regions is challenging due to the extreme conditions and the lack of in situ observations. The errors in near surface temperature products are typically larger than for other regions of the world, and the potential for using Earth Observations is large. As part of the EU project, EUSTACE, we have developed empirical models for the relationship between the satellite observed skin ice temperatures and 2m air temperatures. We use the Arctic and Antarctic Sea and sea ice Surface Temperatures from thermal Infrared satellite sensors (AASTI) reanalysis to estimate daily surface air temperature over land ice and sea ice for the Arctic and the Antarctic. Large efforts have been put into collecting and quality controlling in situ observations from various data portals and research projects. The reconstruction is independent of numerical weather prediction models and thus provides an important alternative to modelled air temperature estimates. The new surface air temperature data record has been validated against more than 58.000 independent in situ measurements for the four surface types: Arctic sea ice, Greenland ice sheet, Antarctic sea ice and Antarctic ice sheet. The average correlations are 92-97% and average root mean square errors are 3.1-3.6°C for the four surface types. The root mean square error includes the uncertainty of the in-situ measurement, which ranges from 0.5 to 2°C. A comparison with ERA-Interim shows a consistently better performance of the satellite based air temperatures than the ERA-Interim for the Greenland ice sheet, when compared against observations not used in any of the two estimates. This is encouraging and demonstrates the values of these products. In addition, the procedure presented here works on satellite observations that are available in near real time and this opens up for a near real time estimation of the surface air temperature over

  2. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity and... NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you may correct NOX emissions for the effects of intake-air humidity or temperature. Use the NOX intake...

  3. Atmospheric correction for sea surface temperature retrieval from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Retrieval of Kalpana SST (K-SST) has been carried out for every half-hourly acquisition of Kalpana data for the year 2008 to cover whole annual cycle of SST over Indian Ocean (IO). Validation of the retrieved corrected SST has been carried out using near-simultaneous observations of ship and buoys datasets covering ...

  4. Nonlinear Corrections to Temperature in Computer Simulations of Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    at low temperatures, In Die Kunst of Phonons, eds. T. Paszkiewicz and K. Rapcewicz, Springer Verlag, 1994; pp. 105-112. 29 Schiener, B.; Böhmer, R...Time-dependent specific heat of crystals and glasses at low temperatures, pgs. 105-112 in Die Kunst of Phonons, eds. T. Paszkiewicz and K

  5. Fast and Simple Method for Evaluation of Polarization Correction to Propagation Constant of Arbitrary Order Guided Modes in Optical Fibers with Arbitrary Refractive Index Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Bourdine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents fast and simple method for evaluation of polarization correction to scalar propagation constant of arbitrary order guided modes propagating over weakly guiding optical fibers. Proposed solution is based on earlier on developed modified Gaussian approximation extended for analysis of weakly guiding optical fibers with arbitrary refractive index profile in the core region bounded by single solid outer cladding. Some results are presented that illustrate the decreasing of computational error during the estimation of propagation constant when polarization corrections are taken into account. Analytical expressions for the first and second derivatives of polarization correction are derived and presented.

  6. DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NSIDC produces daily gridded brightness temperature data from orbital swath data generated by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) aboard the Defense...

  7. Nimbus-5 ESMR Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) data set consists of gridded brightness temperature arrays for the Arctic and Antarctic, spanning 11...

  8. On the Frequency Correction in Temperature-Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Glass Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, J.C.; Allan, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) is based on conventional DSC but with a sinusoidally modulated temperature path. Simulations of TMDSC signals were performed for Corning EAGLE XG® glass over a wide range of modulation frequencies. Our results reveal that the frequen...... correction. The resulting glass transition temperature from the frequency corrected reversing heat flow is thereby shown to be independent of frequency.......Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) is based on conventional DSC but with a sinusoidally modulated temperature path. Simulations of TMDSC signals were performed for Corning EAGLE XG® glass over a wide range of modulation frequencies. Our results reveal that the frequency...

  9. Measurement of proton and nitrogen polarization in ammonia and a test of equal spin temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, B; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; De Botton, N R; Bradamante, Franco; Bradtke, C; Bravar, A; Bültmann, S; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Dreshpande, A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Dutz, H; Eichblatt, S; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gehring, R; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Haft, K; Harmsen, J; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiselev, Yu F; Kok, E; Krämer, Dietrich; Kröger, W; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Litmaath, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Martin, A; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Nassalski, J P; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Parks, D P; Pereira da Costa, H D; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Plückthun, M; Polec, J; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Rädel, G; Reicherz, G; Rijllart, A; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Tessarotto, F; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K

    1998-01-01

    The 1996 data taking of the SMC experiment used polarized protons to measure the spin dependent structure function $g_1$ of the proton. Three liters of solid granular ammonia were irradiated at the Bonn electron linac in order to create the paramagnetic radicals which are needed for polarizing the protons. Proton polarizations of $\\pm(90\\pm2.5)\\,\\%$ were routinely reached. An analysis based on a theoretical line-shape for spin-1 systems with large quadrupolar broadening was developed which allowed the nitrogen polarization in the ammonia to be determined with a 10\\,\\% relative error. The measured quadrupolar coupling constant of $^{14}$N agrees well with earlier extrapolated values. The polarization of the nitrogen nuclei was measured as a function of the proton polarization in order to provide a test of the equal spin temperature (EST) hypothesis. It was found to be closely valid under the dynamic nuclear polarization conditions with which the protons are polarized. Large deviations from EST could be induced...

  10. Responses of invertebrates to temperature and water stress: A polar perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everatt, Matthew J; Convey, Pete; Bale, Jeffrey S; Worland, M Roger; Hayward, Scott A L

    2015-12-01

    As small bodied poikilothermic ectotherms, invertebrates, more so than any other animal group, are susceptible to extremes of temperature and low water availability. In few places is this more apparent than in the Arctic and Antarctic, where low temperatures predominate and water is unusable during winter and unavailable for parts of summer. Polar terrestrial invertebrates express a suite of physiological, biochemical and genomic features in response to these stressors. However, the situation is not as simple as responding to each stressor in isolation, as they are often faced in combination. We consider how polar terrestrial invertebrates manage this scenario in light of their physiology and ecology. Climate change is also leading to warmer summers in parts of the polar regions, concomitantly increasing the potential for drought. The interaction between high temperature and low water availability, and the invertebrates' response to them, are therefore also explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental and theoretical analyses of temperature polarization effect in vacuum membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem

    2014-08-13

    This paper discusses the effect of temperature polarization in Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD). The main motivation for using VMD in this work is that this module configuration is much simpler and more suitable for this kind of investigation than the other MD configurations such as Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD). The coupling between heat and mass transfer mechanisms at the feed-membrane interface is presented from a theoretical point of view. In addition, a new simple graphical method and a mathematical model for determining VMD flux are presented. The two methods used in evaluating the extent of temperature polarization effect on water vapor flux (flux sensitivity factors and temperature polarization coefficient (TPC)) are also analyzed and compared. The effect of integrating a heat recovery system in a large scale module on the TPC coefficient has also been studied and presented in this paper. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Nuclear-polarization correction to the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefiodov, A V; Plunien, G; Soff, G

    2002-08-19

    The influence of nuclear polarization on the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions is investigated. Numerical calculations are performed for the K- and L-shell electrons taking into account the dominant virtual nuclear excitations. This determines the ultimate limit for tests of QED utilizing measurements of the bound-electron g factor in highly charged ions.

  13. Nuclear-polarization correction to the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions

    OpenAIRE

    Nefiodov, A. V.; Plunien, G.; Soff, G.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of nuclear polarization on the bound-electron $g$ factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions is investigated. Numerical calculations are performed for the K- and L-shell electrons taking into account the dominant virtual nuclear excitations. This determines the ultimate limit for tests of QED utilizing measurements of the bound-electron $g$ factor in highly charged ions.

  14. Calculation of the Spontaneous Polarization and the Dielectric Constant as a Function of Temperature for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Yurtseven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the spontaneous polarization P is calculated in the ferroelectric phase of KH2PO4 (KDP at atmospheric pressure (TC = 122 K. Also, the dielectric constant ε is calculated at various temperatures in the paraelectric phase of KDP at atmospheric pressure. For this calculation of P and ε, by fitting the observed Raman frequencies of the soft mode, the microscopic parameters of the pure tunnelling model are obtained. In this model, the proton-lattice interaction is not considered and the collective proton mode is identified with the soft-mode response of the system. Our calculations show that the spontaneous polarization decreases continuously in the ferroelectric phase as approaching the transition temperature TC. Also, the dielectric constant decreases with increasing temperature and it diverges in the vicinity of the transition temperature (TC = 122 K for KDP according to the Curie-Weiss law.

  15. The Role of Solvent Polarity on Low-Temperature Methanol Synthesis Catalyzed by Cu Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahoba-Sam, Christian; Olsbye, Unni; Jens, Klaus-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Methanol syntheses at low temperature in a liquid medium present an opportunity for full syngas conversion per pass. The aim of this work was to study the role of solvents polarity on low-temperature methanol synthesis reaction using eight different aprotic polar solvents. A “once through” catalytic system, which is composed of Cu nanoparticles and sodium methoxide, was used for methanol synthesis at 100°C and 20 bar syngas pressure. Solvent polarity rather than the 7–10 nm Cu (and 30 nm Cu on SiO 2 ) catalyst used dictated trend of syngas conversion. Diglyme with a dielectric constant (ε) = 7.2 gave the highest syngas conversion among the eight different solvents used. Methanol formation decreased with either increasing or decreasing solvent ε value of diglyme (ε = 7.2). To probe the observed trend, possible side reactions of methyl formate (MF), the main intermediate in the process, were studied. MF was observed to undergo two main reactions; (i) decarbonylation to form CO and MeOH and (ii) a nucleophilic substitution to form dimethyl ether and sodium formate. Decreasing polarity favored the decarbonylation side reaction while increasing polarity favored the nucleophilic substitution reaction. In conclusion, our results show that moderate polarity solvents, e.g., diglyme, favor MF hydrogenolysis and, hence, methanol formation, by retarding the other two possible side reactions.

  16. Direct Numerical Simulations of Concentration and Temperature Polarization in Direct Contact Membrane Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jincheng; Tilton, Nils

    2017-11-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is a method of desalination with boundary layers that are challenging to simulate. MD is a thermal process in which warm feed and cool distilled water flow on opposite sides of a hydrophobic membrane. The temperature difference causes water to evaporate from the feed, travel through the membrane, and condense in the distillate. Two challenges to MD are temperature and concentration polarization. Temperature polarization represents a reduction in the transmembrane temperature difference due to heat transfer through the membrane. Concentration polarization describes the accumulation of solutes near the membrane. These phenomena reduce filtration and lead to membrane fouling. They are difficult to simulate due to the coupling between the velocity, temperature, and concentration fields on the membrane. Unsteady regimes are particularly challenging because noise at the outlets can pollute the near-membrane flow fields. We present the development of a finite-volume method for the simulation of fluid flow, heat, and mass transport in MD systems. Using the method, we perform a parametric study of the polarization boundary layers, and show that the concentration boundary layer shows self-similar behavior that satisfies power laws for the downstream growth. Funded by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.

  17. Large polarization gradients and temperature-stable responses in compositionally-graded ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Anoop R.; Pandya, Shishir; Qi, Yubo; Hsu, Shang-Lin; Liu, Shi; Nelson, Christopher; Dasgupta, Arvind; Ercius, Peter; Ophus, Colin; Dedon, Liv R.; Agar, Josh C.; Lu, Hongling; Zhang, Jialan; Minor, Andrew M.; Rappe, Andrew M.; Martin, Lane W.

    2017-05-01

    A range of modern applications require large and tunable dielectric, piezoelectric or pyroelectric response of ferroelectrics. Such effects are intimately connected to the nature of polarization and how it responds to externally applied stimuli. Ferroelectric susceptibilities are, in general, strongly temperature dependent, diminishing rapidly as one transitions away from the ferroelectric phase transition (TC). In turn, researchers seek new routes to manipulate polarization to simultaneously enhance susceptibilities and broaden operational temperature ranges. Here, we demonstrate such a capability by creating composition and strain gradients in Ba1-xSrxTiO3 films which result in spatial polarization gradients as large as 35 μC cm-2 across a 150 nm thick film. These polarization gradients allow for large dielectric permittivity with low loss (εr~775, tan δ<0.05), negligible temperature-dependence (13% deviation over 500 °C) and high-dielectric tunability (greater than 70% across a 300 °C range). The role of space charges in stabilizing polarization gradients is also discussed.

  18. Silicon photomultiplier's gain stabilization by bias correction for compensation of the temperature fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorosz, P.; Baszczyk, M.; Glab, S.; Kucewicz, W.; Mik, L.; Sapor, M.

    2013-01-01

    Gain of the silicon photomultiplier is strongly dependent on the value of bias voltage and temperature. This paper proposes a method for gain stabilization just by compensation of temperature fluctuations by bias correction. It has been confirmed that this approach gives good results and the gain can be kept very stable

  19. Charge-Shift Corrected Electronegativities and the Effect of Bond Polarity and Substituents on Covalent-Ionic Resonance Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew M; Laconsay, Croix J; Galbraith, John Morrison

    2017-07-13

    Bond dissociation energies and resonance energies for H n A-BH m molecules (A, B = H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Li, and Na) have been determined in order to re-evaluate the concept of electronegativity in the context of modern valence bond theory. Following Pauling's original scheme and using the rigorous definition of the covalent-ionic resonance energy provided by the breathing orbital valence bond method, we have derived a charge-shift corrected electronegativity scale for H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Li, and Na. Atomic charge shift character is defined using a similar approach resulting in values of 0.42, 1.06, 1.43, 1.62, 1.64, 1.44, 0.46, and 0.34 for H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Li, and Na, respectively. The charge-shift corrected electronegativity values presented herein follow the same general trends as Pauling's original values with the exception of Li having a smaller value than Na (1.57 and 1.91 for Li and Na respectively). The resonance energy is then broken down into components derived from the atomic charge shift character and polarization effects. It is then shown that most of the resonance energy in the charge-shift bonds H-F, H 3 C-F, and Li-CH 3 and borderline charge-shift H-OH is associated with polarity rather than the intrinsic atomic charge-shift character of the bonding species. This suggests a rebranding of these bonds as "polar charge-shift" rather than simply "charge-shift". Lastly, using a similar breakdown method, it is shown that the small effect the substituents -CH 3 , -NH 2 , -OH, and -F have on the resonance energy (<10%) is mostly due to changes in the charge-shift character of the bonding atom.

  20. Saturne II: characteristics of the proton beam, field qualities and corrections, acceleration of the polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laclare, J.-L.

    1978-01-01

    Indicated specifications of Saturne II are summed up: performance of the injection system, quality of the guidance field (magnetic measurements and multipolar corrections), transverse and longitudinal instabilities, characteristics of the beam stored in the machine and of the extracted beam. The problem of depolarization along the acceleration cycle is briefly discussed (1 or 2% between injection and 3 GeV) [fr

  1. Spin-polarized versus chiral condensate in quark matter at finite temperature and density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providencia, Joao

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the spin-polarized condensate appears in quark matter at high baryon density and low temperature due to the tensor-type four-point interaction in the Nambu-Jona-Lasiniotype model as a low-energy effective theory of quantum chromodynamics. It is indicated within this low...

  2. Huge spin-driven polarizations at room temperature in bulk BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Fishman, Randy

    2015-03-01

    Although BiFeO3 is one of the most investigated multiferroics, its magnetoelectricity and spin-driven polarizations are barely understood on an atomistic level. By combining a first-principles approach with a spin-cycloid model, we report hidden but huge spin-driven polarizations at room temperature in bulk BiFeO3. One of the polarizations reaches ~ 0.03 C/m2, which is larger than any other spin-driven polarization in a bulk material by one order of magnitude. By comparing our results with intrinsic measurements such as neutron scattering, Raman spectroscopy, IR directional dichroism, and high magnetic-field measurements, we disentangle all the hidden spin-driven polarizations due to exchange-striction, spin-current, and single-ion-anisotropy. We find that the broken inversion symmetries of the R3c structure of BiFeO3 induce the strong response of the magnetic couplings to an electric field and are responsible for the associated huge spin-driven polarizations. This research is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division and by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy.

  3. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Tile Calorimeter modules stored at CERN. The larger modules belong to the Barrel, whereas the smaller ones are for the two Extended Barrels. (The article was about the completion of the 64 modules for one of the latter.) The photo on the first page of the Bulletin n°26/2002, from 24 July 2002, illustrating the article «The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter gets into shape» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.

  4. PolarCube - A CubeSat to Monitor the Sea Ice and Atmosphere Temperature Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R. L.; Sanders, B.; Gasiewski, A. J.; Periasamy, L.; Gallaher, D. W.; Scambos, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    "PolarCube" is a 3U CubeSat satellite, based on an existing bus design (ALL-STAR) and an Earth-sensing passive microwave instrument to provide atmospheric temperature profile measurements and related sea ice/ice-free ocean detection and mapping. The PolarCube mission will provide the first observations of the 118.7503 GHz O2 resonance from space, and thus on a global basis will advance microwave spectroscopy and extend what has been observed on atmospheric temperature structure at high spatial resolution to global scales. It will significantly improve the spatial resolution of current space borne microwave temperature sounding sensors by a factor of over three, thus providing insight into the thermal structure of the atmosphere within clouds and over Arctic leads. The student engineering design team face many challenges beyond the actual design and construction of PolarCube. Satellite operations, communications, and data management protocols must be developed and tested. Assuming the first CubeSat is successful, we envision orbiting multiple "PolarCube" satellites to increase temporal and spatial observation frequencies. Management of multiple satellites offers new challenges in the areas of orbital configurations for optimal science return, satellite and ground station operational coordination, and science data analysis.

  5. Temperature-Dependent Polarization in Field-Effect Transport and Photovoltaic Measurements of Methylammonium Lead Iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labram, John G; Fabini, Douglas H; Perry, Erin E; Lehner, Anna J; Wang, Hengbin; Glaudell, Anne M; Wu, Guang; Evans, Hayden; Buck, David; Cotta, Robert; Echegoyen, Luis; Wudl, Fred; Seshadri, Ram; Chabinyc, Michael L

    2015-09-17

    While recent improvements in the reported peak power conversion efficiency (PCE) of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells have been truly astonishing, there are many fundamental questions about the electronic behavior of these materials. Here we have studied a set of electronic devices employing methylammonium lead iodide ((MA)PbI3) as the active material and conducted a series of temperature-dependent measurements. Field-effect transistor, capacitor, and photovoltaic cell measurements all reveal behavior consistent with substantial and strongly temperature-dependent polarization susceptibility in (MA)PbI3 at temporal and spatial scales that significantly impact functional behavior. The relative PCE of (MA)PbI3 photovoltaic cells is observed to reduce drastically with decreasing temperature, suggesting that such polarization effects could be a prerequisite for high-performance device operation.

  6. The variability of atmospheric equivalent temperature for radar altimeter range correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Mock, Donald

    1990-01-01

    Two sets of data were used to test the validity of the presently used approximation for radar altimeter range correction due to atmospheric water vapor. The approximation includes an assumption of constant atmospheric equivalent temperature. The first data set includes monthly, three-dimensional, gridded temperature and humidity fields over global oceans for a 10-year period, and the second is comprised of daily or semidaily rawinsonde data at 17 island stations for a 7-year period. It is found that the standard method underestimates the variability of the equivalent temperature, and the approximation could introduce errors of 2 cm for monthly means. The equivalent temperature is found to have a strong meridional gradient, and the highest temporal variabilities are found over western boundary currents. The study affirms that the atmospheric water vapor is a good predictor for both the equivalent temperature and the range correction. A relation is proposed to reduce the error.

  7. Accurate and quantitative polarization-sensitive OCT by unbiased birefringence estimator with noise-stochastic correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaragod, Deepa; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Ikuno, Yasushi; Alonso-Caneiro, David; Yamanari, Masahiro; Fukuda, Shinichi; Oshika, Tetsuro; Hong, Young-Joo; Li, En; Makita, Shuichi; Miura, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-03-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a functional extension of OCT that contrasts the polarization properties of tissues. It has been applied to ophthalmology, cardiology, etc. Proper quantitative imaging is required for a widespread clinical utility. However, the conventional method of averaging to improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast of the phase retardation (or birefringence) images introduce a noise bias offset from the true value. This bias reduces the effectiveness of birefringence contrast for a quantitative study. Although coherent averaging of Jones matrix tomography has been widely utilized and has improved the image quality, the fundamental limitation of nonlinear dependency of phase retardation and birefringence to the SNR was not overcome. So the birefringence obtained by PS-OCT was still not accurate for a quantitative imaging. The nonlinear effect of SNR to phase retardation and birefringence measurement was previously formulated in detail for a Jones matrix OCT (JM-OCT) [1]. Based on this, we had developed a maximum a-posteriori (MAP) estimator and quantitative birefringence imaging was demonstrated [2]. However, this first version of estimator had a theoretical shortcoming. It did not take into account the stochastic nature of SNR of OCT signal. In this paper, we present an improved version of the MAP estimator which takes into account the stochastic property of SNR. This estimator uses a probability distribution function (PDF) of true local retardation, which is proportional to birefringence, under a specific set of measurements of the birefringence and SNR. The PDF was pre-computed by a Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation based on the mathematical model of JM-OCT before the measurement. A comparison between this new MAP estimator, our previous MAP estimator [2], and the standard mean estimator is presented. The comparisons are performed both by numerical simulation and in vivo measurements of anterior and

  8. Spontaneous polarization of a nonstoichiometric ferroelectric NaNO2 at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjasik, S.; Shaldin, Yu.

    2017-10-01

    We report measurements of the temperature dependence of the pyroelectric charge in a nonstoichiometric z-cut sample of sodium nitrite in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. The obtained data are supplemented by the measurements of thermally stimulated depolarization (TSD) in electric fields of different magnitudes and polarities. All the experimental results serve as the basis for constructing the temperature dependence of the spontaneous polarization ΔPs(T,U) and the pyroelectric coefficient γ(U,T) for fixed external stimuli. It is found that the value of ΔPs in the sample of sodium nitrite is negligible at low temperatures, up to 40 K. This indicates (for known experimental values of the linear expansion coefficients) a minor contribution of the sample piezoelectricity to the spontaneous polarization in this temperature range. Starting from T = 75 K, an exponential increase in the contribution to the total charge of the TSD is found only in the defect subsystem of the crystal. Based on the data of physical studies, a crystal-physics model is proposed, which differs from the model presented by Lines and Glass. Due to the splitting of ion positions in all three sublattices upon the transition to the paraelectric phase, NaNO2 crystals can be assigned to the three-dimensional type of ferroelectrics, according to the classification by Abrahams and Keve. This agrees with the estimate of the spontaneous polarization Ps ˜ 0.01 C/m2 given in the paper. This value is significantly different from the data obtained by repolarization of nonstoichiometric samples in strong electric fields up to the phase transition temperature.

  9. Cloud Masking and Surface Temperature Distribution in the Polar Regions Using AVHRR and other Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Joey C.

    1995-01-01

    Surface temperature is one of the key variables associated with weather and climate. Accurate measurements of surface air temperatures are routinely made in meteorological stations around the world. Also, satellite data have been used to produce synoptic global temperature distributions. However, not much attention has been paid on temperature distributions in the polar regions. In the polar regions, the number of stations is very sparse. Because of adverse weather conditions and general inaccessibility, surface field measurements are also limited. Furthermore, accurate retrievals from satellite data in the region have been difficult to make because of persistent cloudiness and ambiguities in the discrimination of clouds from snow or ice. Surface temperature observations are required in the polar regions for air-sea-ice interaction studies, especially in the calculation of heat, salinity, and humidity fluxes. They are also useful in identifying areas of melt or meltponding within the sea ice pack and the ice sheets and in the calculation of emissivities of these surfaces. Moreover, the polar regions are unique in that they are the sites of temperature extremes, the location of which is difficult to identify without a global monitoring system. Furthermore, the regions may provide an early signal to a potential climate change because such signal is expected to be amplified in the region due to feedback effects. In cloud free areas, the thermal channels from infrared systems provide surface temperatures at relatively good accuracies. Previous capabilities include the use of the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite which was launched in 1978. Current capabilities include the use of the Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aboard NOAA satellites. Together, these two systems cover a span of 16 years of thermal infrared data. Techniques for retrieving surface temperatures with these sensors in the polar regions have

  10. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Gorelik, G., & Shackelford, T.K. (2011. Human sexual conflict from molecules to culture. Evolutionary Psychology, 9, 564–587: The authors wish to correct an omission in citation to the existing literature. In the final paragraph on p. 570, we neglected to cite Burch and Gallup (2006 [Burch, R. L., & Gallup, G. G., Jr. (2006. The psychobiology of human semen. In S. M. Platek & T. K. Shackelford (Eds., Female infidelity and paternal uncertainty (pp. 141–172. New York: Cambridge University Press.]. Burch and Gallup (2006 reviewed the relevant literature on FSH and LH discussed in this paragraph, and should have been cited accordingly. In addition, Burch and Gallup (2006 should have been cited as the originators of the hypothesis regarding the role of FSH and LH in the semen of rapists. The authors apologize for this oversight.

  11. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photo on the second page of the Bulletin n°48/2002, from 25 November 2002, illustrating the article «Spanish Visit to CERN» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.   The Spanish delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology), Juan Antonio Rubio, ETT Division Leader at CERN, Manuel Aguilar-Benitez, Spanish Delegate to Council, Manuel Delfino, IT Division Leader at CERN, and Gonzalo León, Secretary-General of Scientific Policy to the Minister.

  12. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Tagler, M. J., and Jeffers, H. M. (2013. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity. Evolutionary Psychology, 11, 821–832: The authors wish to correct values in the originally published manuscript. Specifically, incorrect 95% confidence intervals around the Cohen's d values were reported on page 826 of the manuscript where we reported the within-sex simple effects for the significant Participant Sex × Infidelity Type interaction (first paragraph, and for attitudes toward partner infidelity (second paragraph. Corrected values are presented in bold below. The authors would like to thank Dr. Bernard Beins at Ithaca College for bringing these errors to our attention. Men rated sexual infidelity significantly more distressing (M = 4.69, SD = 0.74 than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 4.32, SD = 0.92, F(1, 322 = 23.96, p < .001, d = 0.44, 95% CI [0.23, 0.65], but there was little difference between women's ratings of sexual (M = 4.80, SD = 0.48 and emotional infidelity (M = 4.76, SD = 0.57, F(1, 322 = 0.48, p = .29, d = 0.08, 95% CI [−0.10, 0.26]. As expected, men rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.44, SD = 0.70 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.66, SD = 1.37, F(1, 322 = 120.00, p < .001, d = 1.12, 95% CI [0.85, 1.39]. Although women also rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.40, SD = 0.62 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.09, SD = 1.10, this difference was not as large and thus in the evolutionary theory supportive direction, F(1, 322 = 72.03, p < .001, d = 0.77, 95% CI [0.60, 0.94].

  13. Low temperature polarized target for spin structure studies of nucleons at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Pesek, Michael

    In presented thesis we describe concept of Deep Inelastic Scattering of leptons on nucleons in context of nucleon spin structure studies. Both polarized and unpolarized cases are discussed and concept of Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distribution Functions (TMD PDF) is introduced. The possibility of TMDs measurement using Semi-inclusive DIS (SIDIS) is described along with related results from COMPASS experiment. The future Drell-Yan programme at COMPASS is briefly mentioned and its importance is presented on the universality test i.e. change of sign of T-odd TMDs when measured in Drell-Yan and SIDIS. The importance of Polarized Target (PT) for spin structure studies is highlighted and principles of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) are given using both Solid effect and spin temperature concept. COMPASS experiment is described in many details with accent given to PT. Finally the thermal equilibrium (TE) calibration procedure is described and carried out for 2010 and 2011 physics runs at COMPASS. The av...

  14. Room-Temperature Single-photon level Memory for Polarization States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchak, Connor; Mittiga, Thomas; Jordaan, Bertus; Namazi, Mehdi; Nölleke, Christian; Figueroa, Eden

    2015-01-01

    An optical quantum memory is a stationary device that is capable of storing and recreating photonic qubits with a higher fidelity than any classical device. Thus far, these two requirements have been fulfilled for polarization qubits in systems based on cold atoms and cryogenically cooled crystals. Here, we report a room-temperature memory capable of storing arbitrary polarization qubits with a signal-to-background ratio higher than 1 and an average fidelity surpassing the classical benchmark for weak laser pulses containing 1.6 photons on average, without taking into account non-unitary operation. Our results demonstrate that a common vapor cell can reach the low background noise levels necessary for polarization qubit storage using single-photon level light, and propels atomic-vapor systems towards a level of functionality akin to other quantum information processing architectures.

  15. Space-variant post-filtering for wavefront curvature correction in polar-formatted spotlight-mode SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doren, Neall Evan

    Wavefront curvature defocus effects occur in spotlight-mode SAR imagery when reconstructed via the well-known polar-formatting algorithm (PFA) under certain imaging scenarios. These include imaging at close range, using a very low radar center frequency, utilizing high resolution, and/or imaging very large scenes. Wavefront curvature effects arise from the unrealistic assumption of strictly planar wavefronts illuminating the imaged scene. This dissertation presents a method for the correction of wavefront curvature defocus effects under these scenarios, concentrating on the generalized, squint-mode imaging scenario and its computational aspects. This correction is accomplished through an efficient one-dimensional, image domain filter applied as a post-processing step to PFA. This post-filter, referred to as SVPF, is precalculated from a theoretical derivation of the wavefront curvature effect and varies as a function of scene location. Prior to SVPF, severe restrictions were placed on the imaged scene size in order to avoid defocus effects under these scenarios when using PFA. The SVPF algorithm eliminates the need for scene size restrictions when wavefront curvature effects are present, correcting for wavefront curvature in broadside as well as squinted collection modes while imposing little additional computational penalty for squinted images. This dissertation covers the theoretical development, implementation and analysis of the generalized, squint-mode SVPF algorithm (of which broadside-mode is a special case) and provides examples of its capabilities and limitations as well as offering guidelines for maximizing its computational efficiency. Tradeoffs between the PFA/SVPF combination and other spotlight-mode SAR image formation techniques are discussed with regard to computational burden, image quality, and imaging geometry constraints. It is demonstrated that other methods fail to exhibit a clear computational advantage over polar-formatting in conjunction

  16. Coulomb-corrected Volkov-type solution for an electron in an intense circularly polarized laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jaroslaw

    2001-04-01

    A simple analytical approximation exists for the wavefunction of an unbound electron interacting both with a strong circularly polarized laser field and an atomic Coulomb potential (Reiss and Krainov 1994 Phys. Rev. A 50 R910). This wavefunction is the Volkov state with a first-order Coulomb correction coming from some perturbative expansion of the potential in the Kramers-Henneberger reference frame. The expansion is valid, if the distance from the centre of the Coulomb force is smaller than the classical radius of motion of a free electron in a plane-wave field. We improve the approximate Coulomb-Volkov wavefunction by including the next term in the perturbative expansion of the atomic potential.

  17. Temperature Compensation for Radiometric Correction of Terrestrial LiDAR Intensity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus F. C. Errington

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Correction of terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR intensity data has been increasingly studied in recent years. The purpose is to obtain additional insight into the scanned environment that is not available from the geometric information alone. Radiometric correction, as the name implies, corrects the received intensity to standard reflectance values in the range of ( 0 , 1 . This correction typically compensates for the dependence of angle and distance. This paper presents an additional compensation for temperature that may be necessary for some LiDAR instruments such as the Faro Focus 3 D X 330 laser scanner. It is also shown that temperature compensation is not necessary for the Riegl VZ–400. Another important contribution of this work is the verification of a previously published radiometric correction in different environments. The correction was applied to two different Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS instruments: a Faro Focus 3 D X 330 and Riegl VZ-400. Overall, the VZ-400, without temperature compensation, produced better results with a Root Mean Square (RMS of the standard deviation of error being 0.053 and a RMS of the mean error of 0.036 compared to 0.069 and 0.046 for the Faro Focus 3 D X 330. It was found, for the case of the Faro device, that the temperature of the instrument played an important role in the accuracy of the results. The proposed temperature compensation method improved the RMS standard deviation of the error by 1.4 times and the RMS of the error by 2.6 times, compared to the uncompensated results.

  18. Spurious Additional Warming Reconstructed From Borehole Temperatures Corrected for the Effect of the Last Glacial Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafanda, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Reconstructions of past ground surface temperature changes from temperature logs conducted in several hundred meter deep boreholes have proved to be a valuable independent source of information on climate variations over the last millennium. The reconstruction techniques have been evolving for more than two decades to extract optimally the climate signal of the last millennium contained in the temperature logs of different length performed in sites with different histories of the Last Glacial Cycle. This paper analyzes the method of the Last Glacial Cycle thermal effect removal from such borehole temperature profiles used by Beltrami et al. (2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL071317) in reconstructing the last 500 year history. I show that the reported results of additional warming in this period reconstructed from the corrected borehole data for North America are an artifact generated by the correction.

  19. Statistical Correction of Air Temperature Forecasts for City and Road Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, Alexander; Petersen, Claus; Sass, Bent; Gilet, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The method for statistical correction of air /road surface temperatures forecasts was developed based on analysis of long-term time-series of meteorological observations and forecasts (from HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model & Road Conditions Model; 3 km horizontal resolution). It has been tested for May-Aug 2012 & Oct 2012 - Mar 2013, respectively. The developed method is based mostly on forecasted meteorological parameters with a minimal inclusion of observations (covering only a pre-history period). Although the st iteration correction is based taking into account relevant temperature observations, but the further adjustment of air and road temperature forecasts is based purely on forecasted meteorological parameters. The method is model independent, e.g. it can be applied for temperature correction with other types of models having different horizontal resolutions. It is relatively fast due to application of the singular value decomposition method for matrix solution to find coefficients. Moreover, there is always a possibility for additional improvement due to extra tuning of the temperature forecasts for some locations (stations), and in particular, where for example, the MAEs are generally higher compared with others (see Gilet et al., 2014). For the city weather applications, new operationalized procedure for statistical correction of the air temperature forecasts has been elaborated and implemented for the HIRLAM-SKA model runs at 00, 06, 12, and 18 UTCs covering forecast lengths up to 48 hours. The procedure includes segments for extraction of observations and forecast data, assigning these to forecast lengths, statistical correction of temperature, one-&multi-days statistical evaluation of model performance, decision-making on using corrections by stations, interpolation, visualisation and storage/backup. Pre-operational air temperature correction runs were performed for the mainland Denmark since mid-April 2013 and shown good results. Tests also showed

  20. Observation of room temperature saturated ferroelectric polarization in Dy substituted BiFeO3 ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Shuxia

    2012-04-06

    High quality Bi1− x Dy x FeO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) ceramics have been fabricated by sintering Dy-doped BiFeO3 (BFO) precursor powders at a low temperature of 780 °C. The magnetic properties of BFO were improved by the introduction of Dy on the Bi-site. More importantly, well saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops and polarization switching currents have been observed at room temperature. A large remnant polarization (2P r) value of 62 μC/cm2 is achieved, which is the highest value reported so far for rare-earth-doped BFO ceramics. Moreover, mechanisms for improved multiferroic properties depending on chemical doping-caused structure evolutions have also been discussed.

  1. Magnetic field induced polarization enhancement in monolayers of tungsten dichalcogenides: effects of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoleński, T.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Goryca, M.; Molas, M. R.; Nogajewski, K.; Faugeras, C.; Potemski, M.; Kossacki, P.

    2018-01-01

    Optical orientation of localized/bound excitons is shown to be effectively enhanced by the application of magnetic fields as low as 20 mT in monolayer WS2. At low temperatures, the evolution of the polarization degree of different emission lines of monolayer WS2 with increasing magnetic fields is analyzed and compared to similar results obtained on a WSe2 monolayer. We study the temperature dependence of this effect up to T=60 K for both materials, focusing on the dynamics of the valley pseudospin relaxation. A rate equation model is used to analyze our data and from the analysis of the width of the polarization dip in magnetic field we conclude that the competition between the dark exciton pseudospin relaxation and the decay of the dark exciton population into the localized states are rather different in these two materials which are representative of the two extreme cases for the ratio of relaxation rate and depolarization rate.

  2. Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Coupled Land-Atmosphere Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Radakovich, Jon D.; daSilva, Arlindo; Todling, Ricardo; Verter, Frances

    2006-01-01

    In an initial investigation, remotely sensed surface temperature is assimilated into a coupled atmosphere/land global data assimilation system, with explicit accounting for biases in the model state. In this scheme, an incremental bias correction term is introduced in the model's surface energy budget. In its simplest form, the algorithm estimates and corrects a constant time mean bias for each gridpoint; additional benefits are attained with a refined version of the algorithm which allows for a correction of the mean diurnal cycle. The method is validated against the assimilated observations, as well as independent near-surface air temperature observations. In many regions, not accounting for the diurnal cycle of bias caused degradation of the diurnal amplitude of background model air temperature. Energy fluxes collected through the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) are used to more closely inspect the surface energy budget. In general, sensible heat flux is improved with the surface temperature assimilation, and two stations show a reduction of bias by as much as 30 Wm(sup -2) Rondonia station in Amazonia, the Bowen ratio changes direction in an improvement related to the temperature assimilation. However, at many stations the monthly latent heat flux bias is slightly increased. These results show the impact of univariate assimilation of surface temperature observations on the surface energy budget, and suggest the need for multivariate land data assimilation. The results also show the need for independent validation data, especially flux stations in varied climate regimes.

  3. OBSERVATIONS OF SIMILARITY THEORY STABILITY CORRECTION TERMS FOR MOMENTUM AND TEMPERATURE, OVER AGRICULTURAL FIELDS AND FORESTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many observations of temperature and wind speed profiles have been taken over "ideal" terrain and analyzed to develop the stability correction terms which are commonly used in the application of similarity theory. Fewer observations have been taken and analyzed in this manner ov...

  4. The Low Temperature Corrections to the Casimir Force Between a Sphere and a Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Michael; Pirozhenko, Irina G.

    We calculate the low temperature corrections to the free energy for a sphere in front of a plane. First, the scalar field obeying Dirichet or Neumann boundary conditions is considered. Second, the electromagnetic field is studied, the sphere being perfectly conducting and being a dielectric ball with both, constant permittivity and permittivity of the plasma model.

  5. Scalable effective-temperature reduction for quantum annealers via nested quantum annealing correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2018-02-01

    Nested quantum annealing correction (NQAC) is an error-correcting scheme for quantum annealing that allows for the encoding of a logical qubit into an arbitrarily large number of physical qubits. The encoding replaces each logical qubit by a complete graph of degree C . The nesting level C represents the distance of the error-correcting code and controls the amount of protection against thermal and control errors. Theoretical mean-field analyses and empirical data obtained with a D-Wave Two quantum annealer (supporting up to 512 qubits) showed that NQAC has the potential to achieve a scalable effective-temperature reduction, Teff˜C-η , with 0 learning applications. Since we demonstrate that NQAC achieves error correction via a reduction of the effective-temperature of the quantum annealing device, our results address the problem of the "temperature scaling law for quantum annealers," which requires the temperature of quantum annealers to be reduced as problems of larger sizes are attempted to be solved.

  6. Space-Variant Post-Filtering for Wavefront Curvature Correction in Polar-Formatted Spotlight-Mode SAR Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOREN,NEALL E.

    1999-10-01

    Wavefront curvature defocus effects occur in spotlight-mode SAR imagery when reconstructed via the well-known polar-formatting algorithm (PFA) under certain imaging scenarios. These include imaging at close range, using a very low radar center frequency, utilizing high resolution, and/or imaging very large scenes. Wavefront curvature effects arise from the unrealistic assumption of strictly planar wavefronts illuminating the imaged scene. This dissertation presents a method for the correction of wavefront curvature defocus effects under these scenarios, concentrating on the generalized: squint-mode imaging scenario and its computational aspects. This correction is accomplished through an efficient one-dimensional, image domain filter applied as a post-processing step to PF.4. This post-filter, referred to as SVPF, is precalculated from a theoretical derivation of the wavefront curvature effect and varies as a function of scene location. Prior to SVPF, severe restrictions were placed on the imaged scene size in order to avoid defocus effects under these scenarios when using PFA. The SVPF algorithm eliminates the need for scene size restrictions when wavefront curvature effects are present, correcting for wavefront curvature in broadside as well as squinted collection modes while imposing little additional computational penalty for squinted images. This dissertation covers the theoretical development, implementation and analysis of the generalized, squint-mode SVPF algorithm (of which broadside-mode is a special case) and provides examples of its capabilities and limitations as well as offering guidelines for maximizing its computational efficiency. Tradeoffs between the PFA/SVPF combination and other spotlight-mode SAR image formation techniques are discussed with regard to computational burden, image quality, and imaging geometry constraints. It is demonstrated that other methods fail to exhibit a clear computational advantage over polar-formatting in conjunction

  7. Carrier and polarization dynamics in monolayer MoS2: temperature and power dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaszek, Bernhard; Lagarde, D.; Bouet, L.; Amand, T.; Marie, X.; Zhu, C. R.; Liu, B. L.; Tan, P. H.

    2014-03-01

    In monolayer (ML) MoS2 optical transitions across the direct bandgap are governed by chiral selection rules, allowing optical k-valley initialization. Here we present the first time resolved photoluminescence (PL) polarization measurements in MoS2 MLs, providing vital information on the electron valley dynamics. Using quasi-resonant excitation of the A-exciton transitions, we can infer that the PL decays within τ ~= 4ps. The PL polarization of Pc ~ 60 % remains nearly constant in time for experiments from 4K - 300K, a necessary condition for the success of future Valley Hall experiments. τ does not vary significantly over this temperature range. This is surprising when considering the decrease of Pc in continuous wave experiments when going from 4K to 300K reported in the literature. By tuning the laser following the shift of the A-exciton resonance with temperature we are able to recover at 300K ~ 80 % of the polarization observed at 4K. For pulsed laser excitation, we observe a decrease of Pc with increasing laser power at all temperatures.

  8. Correction of temperature-induced spectral variation by continuous piecewise direct standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfert; Kok; de Noord OE; Smilde

    2000-04-01

    In process analytical applications it is not always possible to keep the measurement conditions constant. However, fluctuations in external variables such as temperature can have a strong influence on measurement results. For example, nonlinear temperature effects on near-infrared (NIR) spectra may lead to a strongly biased prediction result from multivariate calibration models such as PLS. A new method, called Continuous Piecewise Direct Standardization (CPDS) has been developed for the correction of such external influences. It represents a generalization of the discrete PDS calibration transfer method and is able to adjust for continuous nonlinear influences such as the temperature effects on spectra. It was applied to shortwave NIR spectra of ethanol/water/2-propanol mixtures measured at different temperatures in the range 30-70 degrees C. The method was able to remove, almost completely, the temperature effects on the spectra, and prediction of the mole fractions of the chemical components was close to the results obtained at constant temperature.

  9. Growth and photosynthesis of Chlorella strains from polar, temperate and tropical freshwater environments under temperature stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kok-Keong; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Poong, Sze-Wan; Wong, Chiew-Yen; Phang, Siew-Moi; Beardall, John

    2017-09-01

    Elevated temperatures as a consequence of global warming have significant impacts on the adaptation and survival of microalgae which are important primary producers in many ecosystems. The impact of temperature on the photosynthesis of microalgae is of great interest as the primary production of algal biomass is strongly dependent on the photosynthetic rates in a dynamic environment. Here, we examine the effects of elevated temperature on Chlorella strains originating from different latitudes, namely Antarctic, Arctic, temperate and tropical regions. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used to assess the photosynthetic responses of the microalgae. Rapid light curves (RLCs) and maximum quantum yield (F v/F m) were recorded. The results showed that Chlorella originating from different latitudes portrayed different growth trends and photosynthetic performance. The Chlorella genus is eurythermal, with a broad temperature tolerance range, but with strain-specific characteristics. However, there was a large overlap between the tolerance range of the four strains due to their "eurythermal adaptivity". Changes in the photosynthetic parameters indicated temperature stress. The ability of the four strains to reactivate photosynthesis after inhibition of photosynthesis under high temperatures was also studied. The Chlorella strains were shown to recover in terms of photosynthesis and growth (measured as Chl a) when they were returned to their ambient temperatures. Polar strains showed faster recovery in their optimal temperature compared to that under the ambient temperature from which they were isolated.

  10. Influence of fatty acid composition on the formation of polar glycerides and polar fatty acids in sunflower oils heated at frying temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge, N.

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and high oleic sunflower oils as well as 50% mixture of both of them were heated at different temperatures under well-controlled conditions. Total polar compounds, the main groups of polar glycerides, total polar fatty acids, the main groups of polar fatty acids and the loss of initial fatty acids were quantitated. The most outstanding results demonstrated the primacy of the formation of glyceridic polymerization compounds during heating at high temperatures. After transesterification of the samples dimeric fatty acids was the most significant group of compounds obtained. As expected, linoleic acid was preferentially involved in the formation of polar fatty acids, although the participation of oleic acid became very important at low concentration of linoleic acid. Finally good statistical figures were obtained for the regression of polar fatty acids on polar compounds.

    Aceites de girasol convencional y alto oleico así como una mezcla al 50% de ambos fueron calentados a diferentes temperaturas bajo condiciones controladas. Se cuantificaron los compuestos polares totales, los grupos principales de glicéridos, ácidos grasos polares totales, los grupos principales de ácidos grasos polares y la pérdida de ácidos grasos iniciales. Los resultados más relevantes demostraron la primacía de la formación de compuestos de polimerización glicerídicos durante el calentamiento a altas temperaturas. Después de la transesterificación de las muestras, los ácidos diméricos constituyeron el grupo más significativo de compuestos obtenidos. Como era esperado, el ácido linoleico contribuyó preferentemente en la formación de los ácidos grasos polares, si bien la participación del ácido oleico fue muy importante a bajas concentraciones de ácido linoleico. Finalmente, se obtuvieron buenos resultados estadísticos para la regresión entre ácidos grasos polares y compuestos polares.

  11. 24/7 Solar Minimum Polar Cap and Auroral Ion Temperature Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, Jan J.; Nicolls, Michael; van Eyken, Anthony; Heinselman, Craig; Bilitza, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    During the International Polar Year (IPY) two Incoherent Scatter Radars (ISRs) achieved close to 24/7 continuous observations. This presentation describes their data sets and specifically how they can provide the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) a fiduciary E- and F-region ionosphere description for solar minimum conditions in both the auroral and polar cap regions. The ionospheric description being electron density, ion temperature and electron temperature profiles from as low as 90 km extending to several scale heights above the F-layer peak. The auroral location is Poker Flat in Alaska at 65.1 N latitude, 212.5 E longitude where the NSF s new Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) is located. This location during solar minimum conditions is in the auroral region for most of the day but is at midlatitudes, equator ward of the cusp, for about 4-8 h per day dependent upon geomagnetic activity. In contrast the polar location is Svalbard, at 78.2 N latitude, 16.0 E longitude where the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) is located. For most of the day the ESR is in the Northern Polar Cap with a noon sector passage often through the dayside cusp. Of unique relevance to IRI is that these extended observations have enabled the ionospheric morphology to be distinguished between quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions. During the IPY year, 1 March 2007 - 29 February 2008, about 50 solar wind Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) impacted geospace. Each CIR has a two to five day geomagnetic disturbance that is observed in the ESR and PFISR observations. Hence, this data set also enables the quiet-background ionospheric climatology to be established as a function of season and local time. These two separate climatologies for the ion temperature at an altitude of 300 km are presented and compared with IRI ion temperatures. The IRI ion temperatures are about 200-300 K hotter than the observed values. However, the MSIS neutral temperature at 300 km compares favorably

  12. The breakup of the Southern Hemisphere spring polar ozone and temperature minimums from 1979 to 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Schoeberl, Mark R.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the observations of the polar vortex breakup. The data used in this study consist of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data, and National Meteorological Center (NMC) analyses. The final warming is diagnosed using the difference between zonal means at 80 degrees and 50 degrees S for temperature, ozone, and layer mean temperature. The polar vortex breakup can also be diagnosed by the onset of weak zonal mean zonal winds (i.e., u, overbar denotes a zonal average) at 60 degrees S. Computations of the polar vortex breakdown date using NMC meteorological data and TOMS total ozone data indicate that the breakdown is occurring later in the spring in the lowest portion of the stratosphere. At altitudes above 100 mb, the large interannual variance of the breakdown date renders any trend determination of the breakdown date difficult. Individual plots of TOMS total ozone indicate that the total ozone minimum remains intact for a longer period of time than is observed in earlier years.

  13. Room-Temperature Magnetic Switching of the Electric Polarization in Ferroelectric Nanopillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Shashi; de Sa, Pedro; Cai, Ronggang; Delannay, Laurent; Nysten, Bernard; Piraux, Luc; Jonas, Alain M

    2018-01-23

    Magnetoelectric layers with a strong coupling between ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism offer attractive opportunities for the design of new device architectures such as dual-channel memory and multiresponsive sensors and actuators. However, materials in which a magnetic field can switch an electric polarization are extremely rare, work most often only at very low temperatures, and/or comprise complex materials difficult to integrate. Here, we show that magnetostriction and flexoelectricity can be harnessed to strongly couple electric polarization and magnetism in a regularly nanopatterned magnetic metal/ferroelectric polymer layer, to the point that full reversal of the electric polarization can occur at room temperature by the sole application of a magnetic field. Experiments supported by finite element simulations demonstrate that magnetostriction produces large strain gradients at the base of the ferroelectric nanopillars in the magnetoelectric hybrid layer, translating by flexoelectricity into equivalent electric fields larger than the coercive field of the ferroelectric polymer. Our study shows that flexoelectricity can be advantageously used to create a very strong magnetoelectric coupling in a nanopatterned hybrid layer.

  14. The Systematic Bias of Ingestible Core Temperature Sensors Requires a Correction by Linear Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Hunt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An accurate measure of core body temperature is critical for monitoring individuals, groups and teams undertaking physical activity in situations of high heat stress or prolonged cold exposure. This study examined the range in systematic bias of ingestible temperature sensors compared to a certified and traceable reference thermometer. A total of 119 ingestible temperature sensors were immersed in a circulated water bath at five water temperatures (TEMP A: 35.12 ± 0.60°C, TEMP B: 37.33 ± 0.56°C, TEMP C: 39.48 ± 0.73°C, TEMP D: 41.58 ± 0.97°C, and TEMP E: 43.47 ± 1.07°C along with a certified traceable reference thermometer. Thirteen sensors (10.9% demonstrated a systematic bias > ±0.1°C, of which 4 (3.3% were > ± 0.5°C. Limits of agreement (95% indicated that systematic bias would likely fall in the range of −0.14 to 0.26°C, highlighting that it is possible for temperatures measured between sensors to differ by more than 0.4°C. The proportion of sensors with systematic bias > ±0.1°C (10.9% confirms that ingestible temperature sensors require correction to ensure their accuracy. An individualized linear correction achieved a mean systematic bias of 0.00°C, and limits of agreement (95% to 0.00–0.00°C, with 100% of sensors achieving ±0.1°C accuracy. Alternatively, a generalized linear function (Corrected Temperature (°C = 1.00375 × Sensor Temperature (°C − 0.205549, produced as the average slope and intercept of a sub-set of 51 sensors and excluding sensors with accuracy outside ±0.5°C, reduced the systematic bias to < ±0.1°C in 98.4% of the remaining sensors (n = 64. In conclusion, these data show that using an uncalibrated ingestible temperature sensor may provide inaccurate data that still appears to be statistically, physiologically, and clinically meaningful. Correction of sensor temperature to a reference thermometer by linear function eliminates this systematic bias (individualized functions or ensures

  15. Temperature sensitivity analysis of polarity controlled electrostatically doped tunnel field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Kaushal; Pandey, Sunil; Kondekar, P. N.; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2016-09-01

    The conventional tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) have shown potential to scale down in sub-22 nm regime due to its lower sub-threshold slope and robustness against short-channel effects (SCEs), however, sensitivity towards temperature variation is a major concern. Therefore, for the first time, we investigate temperature sensitivity analysis of a polarity controlled electrostatically doped tunnel field-effect transistor (ED-TFET). Different performance metrics and analog/RF figure-of-merits were considered and compared for both devices, and simulations were performed using Silvaco ATLAS device tool. We found that the variation in ON-state current in ED-TFET is almost temperature independent due to electrostatically doped mechanism, while, it increases in conventional TFET at higher temperature. Above room temperature, the variation in ION, IOFF, and SS sensitivity in ED-TFET are only 0.11%/K, 2.21%/K, and 0.63%/K, while, in conventional TFET the variations are 0.43%/K, 2.99%/K, and 0.71%/K, respectively. However, below room temperature, the variation in ED-TFET ION is 0.195%/K compared to 0.27%/K of conventional TFET. Moreover, it is analysed that the incomplete ionization effect in conventional TFET severely affects the drive current and the threshold voltage, while, ED-TFET remains unaffected. Hence, the proposed ED-TFET is less sensitive towards temperature variation and can be used for cryogenics as well as for high temperature applications.

  16. A reusable temperature-based infrared system image correction IP core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengzhang; Gao, Jin; Li, Chaowei; Sui, Xiubao; Gu, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    Compared with the visible light imaging system, the infrared imaging system is more uncertain and unstable. Visible system is stable and mature, and the image quality less affected by ambient light, temperature, and other factors. The infrared detectors have a more complex process, there are many non-uniformity problems. The image quality has great influence from the environment, and the effect of temperature on the image is most serious. Especially with a closed infrared system, deterioration of image is very obvious with the temperature. The infrared detectors are vastly different, not only do the various manufacturers have different detector performance, but also detectors from the same batch by the same manufacturer; the image changes with the ambient temperature are not the same. In this case, calibration and debug of the image system is very difficult. Even when you get a better result in one system, it's difficult to apply to another system. This paper presents a real-time temperature-based correction algorithm for infrared image, and encapsulate it to configurable parameters, reusable IP core, which is based on Altera's Qsys platform, and use the Avalon-MM and Avalon-ST bus. The image data stream via the IP core by Avalon-ST bus, and the image correction parameters configured by controller through Avalon-MM bus. The IP core read from temperature chip to get ambient temperature, and correct image according to the parameters. The IP core has such a high degree of reusability and portability because compatibility for Qsys platform and using Avalon interface. And people can see the system output results in real time through the adjustable parameters. So this IP core can accelerate the development of product.

  17. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M

    2015-07-17

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Microbial growth in the polar oceans - role of temperature and potential impact of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchman, David L; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G; Ducklow, Hugh

    2009-06-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria are the most abundant organisms on the planet and dominate oceanic biogeochemical cycles, including that of carbon. Their role in polar waters has been enigmatic, however, because of conflicting reports about how temperature and the supply of organic carbon control bacterial growth. In this Analysis article, we attempt to resolve this controversy by reviewing previous reports in light of new data on microbial processes in the western Arctic Ocean and by comparing polar waters with low-latitude oceans. Understanding the regulation of in situ microbial activity may help us understand the response of the Arctic Ocean and Antarctic coastal waters over the coming decades as they warm and ice coverage declines.

  19. Electric field and temperature scaling of polarization reversal in silicon doped hafnium oxide ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dayu; Guan, Yan; Vopson, Melvin M.; Xu, Jin; Liang, Hailong; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin; Mueller, Johannes; Schenk, Tony; Schroeder, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    HfO 2 -based binary lead-free ferroelectrics show promising properties for non-volatile memory applications, providing that their polarization reversal behavior is fully understood. In this work, temperature-dependent polarization hysteresis measured over a wide applied field range has been investigated for Si-doped HfO 2 ferroelectric thin films. Our study indicates that in the low and medium electric field regimes (E < twofold coercive field, 2E c ), the reversal process is dominated by the thermal activation on domain wall motion and domain nucleation; while in the high-field regime (E > 2E c ), a non-equilibrium nucleation-limited-switching mechanism dominates the reversal process. The optimum field for ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) applications was determined to be around 2.0 MV/cm, which translates into a 2.0 V potential applied across the 10 nm thick films

  20. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Durner, George M.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of “ice” bears in summer is unknown, “shore” bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation.

  1. Surface temperatures in the polar regions from Nimbus 7 temperature humidity infrared radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    1994-01-01

    Monthly surface temperatures in the Arctic and Antarctic regions have been derived from the 11.5 micrometer thermal infrared channel of the Nimbus 7 temperature humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) for a whole year in 1979 and for a winter and a summer month from 1980 through 1985. The data set shows interannual variability and provides spatial details that allow identification of temperature patterns over sea ice and ice sheet surfaces. For example, the coldest spot in the southern hemisphere is observed to be consistently in the Antarctic plateau in the southern hemisphere, while that in the northern hemisphere is usually located in Greenland, or one of three other general areas: Siberia, the central Arctic, or the Canadian Archipelago. Also, in the southern hemisphere, the amplitude of the seasonal fluctuation of ice sheet temperatures is about 3 times that of sea ice, while in the northern hemisphere, the corresponding fluctuations for the two surfaces are about the same. The main sources of error in the retrieval are cloud and other atmospheric effects. These were minimized by first choosing the highest radiance value from the set of measurements during the day taken within a 30 km by 30 km grid of each daily map. Then the difference of daily maps was taken and where the difference is greater than a certain threshold (which in this case is 12 C), the data element is deleted. Overall, the monthly maps derived from the resulting daily maps are spatially and temporally consistent, are coherent with the topograph y of the Antarctic continent and the location of the sea ice edge, and are in qualitative agreement with climatological data. Quantitatively, THIR data are in good agreement with Antarctic ice sheet surface air temperature station data with a correlation coefficient of 0.997 and a standard deviation of 2.0 C. The absolute values are not as good over the sea ice edges, but a comparison with Russian 2-m drift station temperatures shows very high correlation

  2. In situ correction of field errors induced by temperature gradient in cryogenic undulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new technique of undulator field correction for cryogenic permanent magnet undulators (CPMUs is proposed to correct the phase error induced by temperature gradient. This technique takes advantage of two important instruments: one is the in-vacuum self-aligned field analyzer with laser instrumentation system to precisely measure the distribution of the magnetic field generated by the permanent magnet arrays placed in vacuum, and the other is the differential adjuster to correct the local variation of the magnet gap. The details of the two instruments are described together with the method of how to analyze the field measurement data and deduce the gap variation along the undulator axis. The correction technique was applied to the CPMU with a length of 1.7 m and a magnetic period of 14 mm. It was found that the phase error induced during the cooling process was attributable to local gap variations of around 30  μm, which were then corrected by the differential adjuster.

  3. Short-Wave Near-Infrared Spectrometer for Alcohol Determination and Temperature Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbo Fu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A multichannel short-wave near-infrared (SW-NIR spectrometer module based on charge-coupled device (CCD detection was designed. The design relied on a tungsten lamp enhanced by light emitting diodes, a fixed grating monochromator and a linear CCD array. The main advantages were high optical resolution and an optimized signal-to-noise ratio (0.24 nm and 500, resp. in the whole wavelength range of 650 to 1100 nm. An application to alcohol determination using partial least squares calibration and the temperature correction was presented. It was found that the direct transfer method had significant systematic prediction errors due to temperature effect. Generalized least squares weighting (GLSW method was utilized for temperature correction. After recalibration, the RMSEP found for the 25°C model was 0.53% v/v and errors of the same order of magnitude were obtained at other temperatures (15, 35 and 40°C. And an 2 better than 0.99 was achieved for each validation set. The possibility and accuracy of using the miniature SW-NIR spectrometer and GLSW transfer calibration method for alcohol determination at different temperatures were proven. And the analysis procedure was simple and fast, allowing a strict control of alcohol content in the wine industry.

  4. Short-Wave Near-Infrared Spectrometer for Alcohol Determination and Temperature Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qingbo; Wang, Jinming; Lin, Guannan; Suo, Hui; Zhao, Chun

    2012-01-01

    A multichannel short-wave near-infrared (SW-NIR) spectrometer module based on charge-coupled device (CCD) detection was designed. The design relied on a tungsten lamp enhanced by light emitting diodes, a fixed grating monochromator and a linear CCD array. The main advantages were high optical resolution and an optimized signal-to-noise ratio (0.24 nm and 500, resp.) in the whole wavelength range of 650 to 1100 nm. An application to alcohol determination using partial least squares calibration and the temperature correction was presented. It was found that the direct transfer method had significant systematic prediction errors due to temperature effect. Generalized least squares weighting (GLSW) method was utilized for temperature correction. After recalibration, the RMSEP found for the 25°C model was 0.53% v/v and errors of the same order of magnitude were obtained at other temperatures (15, 35 and 40°C). And an r 2 better than 0.99 was achieved for each validation set. The possibility and accuracy of using the miniature SW-NIR spectrometer and GLSW transfer calibration method for alcohol determination at different temperatures were proven. And the analysis procedure was simple and fast, allowing a strict control of alcohol content in the wine industry. PMID:22649750

  5. Coronal temperatures, heating, and energy flow in a polar region of the sun at solar maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withbroe, G. L.; Kohl, J. L.; Weiser, H.; Munro, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The profiles of resonantly scattered Lyman-alpha coronal radiation have been used to determine the hydrogen kinetic temperature from 1.5 to 4 solar radius from the center of the polar region of the corona observed in 1980 at solar maximum. Hydrogen temperatures derived from the line profiles were found to decrease with height from 1.2 million K at r = 1.5 solar radii to 600,000 K at r = 4 solar radius. Comparison of the measured kinetic temperatures with predictions from a semiempirical two-fluid model showed evidence of a small amount of heating or a nonthermal contribution to the motions of coronal protons between 1.5 and 4 solar radius. The widths of the profiles confirmed an upper limit of 110 + or - 15 km/s on the rms magnitude of the line-of-sight component of velocities between 1.5 and 4 solar radius. Density measurements obtained in situ in the solar wind in the ecliptic were used to locate the sources of low speed and high-speed winds in the polar region. An eclipse photograph of the corona at solar maximum is provided.

  6. Arctic (and Antarctic) Observing Experiment - an Assessment of Methods to Measure Temperature over Polar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigor, I. G.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Woods, J. E.; Henderson, G. R.; Zook, J.; Marshall, C.; Gallage, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic environment has been undergoing profound changes; the most visible is the dramatic decrease in Arctic sea ice extent (SIE). These changes pose a challenge to our ability to measure surface temperature across the Polar Regions. Traditionally, the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP) and International Programme for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB) have measured surface air temperature (SAT) at 2-m height, which minimizes the ambiguity of measurements near of the surface. Specifically, is the temperature sensor measuring open water, snow, sea ice, or air? But now, with the dramatic decrease in Arctic SIE, increase in open water during summer, and the frailty of the younger sea ice pack, the IABP has had to deploy and develop new instruments to measure temperature. These instruments include Surface Velocity Program (SVP) buoys, which are commonly deployed on the world's ice-free oceans and typically measure sea surface temperature (SST), and the new robust Airborne eXpendable Ice Beacons (AXIB), which measure both SST and SAT. "Best Practice" requires that these instruments are inter-compared, and early results showing differences in collocated temperature measurements of over 2°C prompted the establishment of the IABP Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) buoy test site at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Barrow, Alaska. Preliminary results showed that the color of the hull of SVP buoys introduces a bias due to solar heating of the buoy. Since then, we have recommended that buoys should be painted white to reduce biases in temperature measurements due to different colors of the buoys deployed in different regions of the Arctic or the Antarctic. Measurements of SAT are more robust, but some of the temperature shields are susceptible to frosting. During our presentation we will provide an intercomparison of the temperature measurements at the AOX test site (i.e. high quality DOE/ARM observations compared with

  7. Ion recombination and polarity correction factors for a plane-parallel ionization chamber in a proton scanning beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszka, Małgorzata; Stolarczyk, Liliana; Kłodowska, Magdalena; Kozera, Anna; Krzempek, Dawid; Mojżeszek, Natalia; Pędracka, Anna; Waligórski, Michael Patrick Russell; Olko, Paweł

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effect on charge collection in the ionization chamber (IC) in proton pencil beam scanning (PBS), where the local dose rate may exceed the dose rates encountered in conventional MV therapy by up to three orders of magnitude. We measured values of the ion recombination (k s ) and polarity (k pol ) correction factors in water, for a plane-parallel Markus TM23343 IC, using the cyclotron-based Proteus-235 therapy system with an active proton PBS of energies 30-230 MeV. Values of k s were determined from extrapolation of the saturation curve and the Two-Voltage Method (TVM), for planar fields. We compared our experimental results with those obtained from theoretical calculations. The PBS dose rates were estimated by combining direct IC measurements with results of simulations performed using the FLUKA MC code. Values of k s were also determined by the TVM for uniformly irradiated volumes over different ranges and modulation depths of the proton PBS, with or without range shifter. By measuring charge collection efficiency versus applied IC voltage, we confirmed that, with respect to ion recombination, our proton PBS represents a continuous beam. For a given chamber parameter, e.g., nominal voltage, the value of k s depends on the energy and the dose rate of the proton PBS, reaching c. 0.5% for the TVM, at the dose rate of 13.4 Gy/s. For uniformly irradiated regular volumes, the k s value was significantly smaller, within 0.2% or 0.3% for irradiations with or without range shifter, respectively. Within measurement uncertainty, the average value of k pol , for the Markus TM23343 IC, was close to unity over the whole investigated range of clinical proton beam energies. While no polarity effect was observed for the Markus TM23343 IC in our pencil scanning proton beam system, the effect of volume recombination cannot be ignored. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. Molecular diffusion of stable water isotopes in polar firn as a proxy for past temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Christian; Gkinis, Vasileios; Vinther, Bo M.

    2018-03-01

    Polar precipitation archived in ice caps contains information on past temperature conditions. Such information can be retrieved by measuring the water isotopic signals of δ18O and δD in ice cores. These signals have been attenuated during densification due to molecular diffusion in the firn column, where the magnitude of the diffusion is isotopologue specific and temperature dependent. By utilizing the differential diffusion signal, dual isotope measurements of δ18O and δD enable multiple temperature reconstruction techniques. This study assesses how well six different methods can be used to reconstruct past surface temperatures from the diffusion-based temperature proxies. Two of the methods are based on the single diffusion lengths of δ18O and δD , three of the methods employ the differential diffusion signal, while the last uses the ratio between the single diffusion lengths. All techniques are tested on synthetic data in order to evaluate their accuracy and precision. We perform a benchmark test to thirteen high resolution Holocene data sets from Greenland and Antarctica, which represent a broad range of mean annual surface temperatures and accumulation rates. Based on the benchmark test, we comment on the accuracy and precision of the methods. Both the benchmark test and the synthetic data test demonstrate that the most precise reconstructions are obtained when using the single isotope diffusion lengths, with precisions of approximately 1.0 °C . In the benchmark test, the single isotope diffusion lengths are also found to reconstruct consistent temperatures with a root-mean-square-deviation of 0.7 °C . The techniques employing the differential diffusion signals are more uncertain, where the most precise method has a precision of 1.9 °C . The diffusion length ratio method is the least precise with a precision of 13.7 °C . The absolute temperature estimates from this method are also shown to be highly sensitive to the choice of fractionation factor

  9. Exploring viscosity, polarity and temperature sensitivity of BODIPY-based molecular rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyšniauskas, Aurimas; López-Duarte, Ismael; Duchemin, Nicolas; Vu, Thanh-Truc; Wu, Yilei; Budynina, Ekaterina M; Volkova, Yulia A; Peña Cabrera, Eduardo; Ramírez-Ornelas, Diana E; Kuimova, Marina K

    2017-09-27

    Microviscosity is a key parameter controlling the rate of diffusion and reactions on the microscale. One of the most convenient tools for measuring microviscosity is by fluorescent viscosity sensors termed 'molecular rotors'. BODIPY-based molecular rotors in particular proved extremely useful in combination with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, for providing quantitative viscosity maps of living cells as well as measuring dynamic changes in viscosity over time. In this work, we investigate several new BODIPY-based molecular rotors with the aim of improving on the current viscosity sensing capabilities and understanding how the structure of the fluorophore is related to its function. We demonstrate that due to subtle structural changes, BODIPY-based molecular rotors may become sensitive to temperature and polarity of their environment, as well as to viscosity, and provide a photophysical model explaining the nature of this sensitivity. Our data suggests that a thorough understanding of the photophysics of any new molecular rotor, in environments of different viscosity, temperature and polarity, is a must before moving on to applications in viscosity sensing.

  10. Low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization at 9.4 T with a 30 mW microwave source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert

    2010-06-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can provide large signal enhancements in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) by transfer of polarization from electron spins to nuclear spins. We discuss several aspects of DNP experiments at 9.4 T (400 MHz resonant frequency for (1)H, 264 GHz for electron spins in organic radicals) in the 7-80K temperature range, using a 30 mW, frequency-tunable microwave source and a quasi-optical microwave bridge for polarization control and low-loss microwave transmission. In experiments on frozen glycerol/water doped with nitroxide radicals, DNP signal enhancements up to a factor of 80 are observed (relative to (1)H NMR signals with thermal equilibrium spin polarization). The largest sensitivity enhancements are observed with a new triradical dopant, DOTOPA-TEMPO. Field modulation with a 10 G root-mean-squared amplitude during DNP increases the nuclear spin polarizations by up to 135%. Dependencies of (1)H NMR signal amplitudes, nuclear spin relaxation times, and DNP build-up times on the dopant and its concentration, temperature, microwave power, and modulation frequency are reported and discussed. The benefits of low-temperature DNP can be dramatic: the (1)H spin polarization is increased approximately 1000-fold at 7 K with DNP, relative to thermal polarization at 80K. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of charged particles and their polarity in XLPE by temperature gradient thermally stimulated surface potential measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Kato, Keizo; Kook, Sang-Hoon; Hino, Taro

    1985-01-01

    By the thermally stimulated surface potential measurement with a temperature gradient in the insulator specimen, various information not possible by the uniform heating is obtained. Determination of polarity of the carriers is capable of providing a knowledge on space charge in power cables, for example. For the cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) film as cable insulation, polarity of the carriers trapped in it was determined, thereby demonstrating effectiveness of the method. The determination of polarity of mobile ions forming polarization of the ion space charge was also studied. In the ion C-peak appearing in the thermally stimulated current are involved straight-polarity mobile ions, and in the trap D-peak, hole carriers. (Mori, K.)

  12. Analysis, compensation, and correction of temperature effects on FBG strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, T. C.; Ferguson, S.; Guthrie, D.; Graver, T. W.; Soller, B. J.; Mendez, Alexis

    2013-05-01

    One of the most common fiber optic sensor (FOS) types used are fiber Bragg gratings (FBG), and the most frequently measured parameter is strain. Hence, FBG strain sensors are one of the most prevalent FOS devices in use today in structural sensing and monitoring in civil engineering, aerospace, marine, oil and gas, composites and smart structure applications. However, since FBGs are simultaneously sensitive to both temperature and strain, it becomes essential to utilize sensors that are either fully temperature insensitive or, alternatively, properly temperature compensated to avoid erroneous measurements. In this paper, we introduce the concept of measured "total strain", which is inherent and unique to optical strain sensors. We review and analyze the temperature and strain sensitivities of FBG strain sensors and decompose the total measured strain into thermal and non-thermal components. We explore the differences between substrate CTE and System Thermal Response Coefficients, which govern the type and quality of thermal strain decomposition analysis. Finally, we present specific guidelines to achieve proper temperature-insensitive strain measurements by combining adequate installation, sensor packaging and data correction techniques.

  13. Polarized Raman scattering of epitaxial vanadium dioxide films with low-temperature monoclinic phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Keisuke; Sawa, Akihito

    2017-07-01

    A polarized Raman scattering study was carried out on epitaxial VO2 thin films on MgF2(001) and (110) substrates to investigate the Raman symmetry and tensor elements of the phonon modes of the films in a low-temperature monoclinic phase. From the polarization angular dependence of the Raman intensity, we assigned the phonon modes at 137, 194, 310, 340, 499, 612, and 663 cm-1 to Ag symmetry and the phonon modes at 143, 262, 442, 480, 582, and 820 cm-1 to Bg symmetry. The angular-dependence measurements also revealed that two phonon modes with Ag and Bg symmetries are present at about 224 and 393 cm-1, although only a single peak was observed in the Raman spectra at around these wavenumbers. On the basis of the experimental results, we evaluated the Raman tensors of the identified phonon modes. From the Raman tensors, we found that the atomic displacements of the 194 and 340 cm-1 phonon modes are approximately perpendicular and parallel, respectively, to the V-V dimer direction. This is consistent with a previous theoretical prediction, i.e., these modes are attributable to the tilting motion and the stretching vibration of the V-V dimers, respectively.

  14. Defining the Polar Vortex Edge from a N20: Potential Temperature Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Jost, Hans-Juerg; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Bui, T. Paul; Hurst, Dale F.; Elkins, James W.; Herman, Robert L.; Webster, Christopher R.; Schauffler, Sue M.

    2002-01-01

    A prerequisite to studying phenomena in the winter stratospheric polar vortex is the separation of measurements inside and outside the dynamical barrier of the vortex edge. We describe a technique to accurately determine the inner edge of the vortex boundary region from measurements of potential temperature and a trace gas, such as N2O, and apply it to in situ aircraft and balloon measurements from the SOLVE/THESEO 2000 Arctic campaign. The method may be used to refine the Nash algorithm, which, due to the inherently coarser resolution of potential vorticity on which it is dependent, may misidentify the inner edge by more than 400 km and omit the identification of small, extravortex filaments within the vortex.

  15. A Software Tool for Atmospheric Correction and Surface Temperature Estimation of Landsat Infrared Thermal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Tardy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is an important variable involved in the Earth’s surface energy and water budgets and a key component in many aspects of environmental research. The Landsat program, jointly carried out by NASA and the USGS, has been recording thermal infrared data for the past 40 years. Nevertheless, LST data products for Landsat remain unavailable. The atmospheric correction (AC method commonly used for mono-window Landsat thermal data requires detailed information concerning the vertical structure (temperature, pressure and the composition (water vapor, ozone of the atmosphere. For a given coordinate, this information is generally obtained through either radio-sounding or atmospheric model simulations and is passed to the radiative transfer model (RTM to estimate the local atmospheric correction parameters. Although this approach yields accurate LST data, results are relevant only near this given coordinate. To meet the scientific community’s demand for high-resolution LST maps, we developed a new software tool dedicated to processing Landsat thermal data. The proposed tool improves on the commonly-used AC algorithm by incorporating spatial variations occurring in the Earth’s atmosphere composition. The ERA-Interim dataset (ECMWFmeteorological organization was used to retrieve vertical atmospheric conditions, which are available at a global scale with a resolution of 0.125 degrees and a temporal resolution of 6 h. A temporal and spatial linear interpolation of meteorological variables was performed to match the acquisition dates and coordinates of the Landsat images. The atmospheric correction parameters were then estimated on the basis of this reconstructed atmospheric grid using the commercial RTMsoftware MODTRAN. The needed surface emissivity was derived from the common vegetation index NDVI, obtained from the red and near-infrared (NIR bands of the same Landsat image. This permitted an estimation of LST for the entire

  16. A compact fiber sensor based on the high birefringence polarization maintaining fiber for simultaneous strain and temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Cao, Zhigang; Zhang, Guosheng; Wang, Jian; Lin, Jiping; Yu, Benli

    2017-10-01

    A compact high birefringence polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) sensor for simultaneous strain and temperature measurement is proposed. This sensor is a modal interferometer (MI) sensor which is composed of a segment of high birefringence polarization maintaining fiber. One side of the fiber is spliced to the pigtail of a polarization beam splitter (PBS) with core-offset and axes alignment, the other end is spliced to the standard single-mode fiber (SMF) with core alignment and forms a fiber bubble. In experiments, an optical switch and the PBS are used to generate two orthogonal linear polarized lights. When the two orthogonal linear polarized lights enter the sensing fiber respectively, two different interference spectra will be achieved and own different response to the strain and temperature. Using these properties, the sensor realizes the simultaneous strain and temperature measurement. For 0.01 nm wavelength resolution, the strain and temperature resolution of the sensor are 10 uɛ and 0.285°C, respectively.

  17. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization at low temperature and high magnetic eld for biomedical applications in Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutailler, Florent

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis work was to design, build and optimize a large volume multi-samples DNP (Dynamic Nuclear Polarization) polarizer dedicated to Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging applications. The experimental system is made up of a high magnetic field magnet (3,35 T) in which takes place a cryogenic system with a pumped bath of liquid helium ( 4 He) allowing temperatures lower than 1,2 K. A set of inserts is used for the different steps of DNP: irradiation of the sample by a microwave field (f=94 GHz and P=50 mW), polarization measurement by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance... With this system, up to three samples of 1 mL volume can be polarized to a rate of few per-cents. The system has a long autonomy of four hours, so it can be used for polarizing molecules with a long time constant of polarization. Finally, the possibility to get quasi-simultaneously, after dissolution, several samples with a high rate of polarization opens the way of new applications in biomedical imaging. (author) [fr

  18. Air Temperature Error Correction Based on Solar Radiation in an Economical Meteorological Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingming Sun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature (AT is an extremely vital factor in meteorology, agriculture, military, etc., being used for the prediction of weather disasters, such as drought, flood, frost, etc. Many efforts have been made to monitor the temperature of the atmosphere, like automatic weather stations (AWS. Nevertheless, due to the high cost of specialized AT sensors, they cannot be deployed within a large spatial density. A novel method named the meteorology wireless sensor network relying on a sensing node has been proposed for the purpose of reducing the cost of AT monitoring. However, the temperature sensor on the sensing node can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Previous research has confirmed that there is a close relation between AT and solar radiation (SR. Therefore, this paper presents a method to decrease the error of sensed AT, taking SR into consideration. In this work, we analyzed all of the collected data of AT and SR in May 2014 and found the numerical correspondence between AT error (ATE and SR. This corresponding relation was used to calculate real-time ATE according to real-time SR and to correct the error of AT in other months.

  19. Air Temperature Error Correction Based on Solar Radiation in an Economical Meteorological Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingming; Yan, Shuangshuang; Wang, Baowei; Xia, Li; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hui

    2015-07-24

    Air temperature (AT) is an extremely vital factor in meteorology, agriculture, military, etc., being used for the prediction of weather disasters, such as drought, flood, frost, etc. Many efforts have been made to monitor the temperature of the atmosphere, like automatic weather stations (AWS). Nevertheless, due to the high cost of specialized AT sensors, they cannot be deployed within a large spatial density. A novel method named the meteorology wireless sensor network relying on a sensing node has been proposed for the purpose of reducing the cost of AT monitoring. However, the temperature sensor on the sensing node can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Previous research has confirmed that there is a close relation between AT and solar radiation (SR). Therefore, this paper presents a method to decrease the error of sensed AT, taking SR into consideration. In this work, we analyzed all of the collected data of AT and SR in May 2014 and found the numerical correspondence between AT error (ATE) and SR. This corresponding relation was used to calculate real-time ATE according to real-time SR and to correct the error of AT in other months.

  20. Dominant two-loop corrections to the MSSM finite temperature effective potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, J.R.

    1996-04-01

    We show that two-loop corrections to the finite temperature effective potential in the MSSM can have a dramatic effect on the strength of the electroweak phase transition, making it more strongly first order. The change in the order parameter v/Tc can be as large as 75% of the one-loop daisy improved result. This effect can be decisive to widen the region in parameter space where erasure of the created baryons by sphaleron processes after the transition is suppressed and hence, where electroweak baryogenesis might be successful. We find an allowed region with tan β< or∼4.5 and a Higgs boson with standard couplings and mass below 80 GeV within the reach of LEP II. (orig.)

  1. SuPer-Homogenization (SPH) Corrected Cross Section Generation for High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramazan Sonat [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hummel, Andrew John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hiruta, Hikaru [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The deterministic full core simulators require homogenized group constants covering the operating and transient conditions over the entire lifetime. Traditionally, the homogenized group constants are generated using lattice physics code over an assembly or block in the case of prismatic high temperature reactors (HTR). For the case of strong absorbers that causes strong local depressions on the flux profile require special techniques during homogenization over a large volume. Fuel blocks with burnable poisons or control rod blocks are example of such cases. Over past several decades, there have been a tremendous number of studies performed for improving the accuracy of full-core calculations through the homogenization procedure. However, those studies were mostly performed for light water reactor (LWR) analyses, thus, may not be directly applicable to advanced thermal reactors such as HTRs. This report presents the application of SuPer-Homogenization correction method to a hypothetical HTR core.

  2. Bias Correction for Retrieval of Atmospheric Parameters from the Microwave Humidity and Temperature Sounder Onboard the Fengyun-3C Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiurui He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The microwave humidity and temperature sounder (MWHTS on the Fengyun (FY-3C satellite measures the outgoing radiance from the Earth’s surface and atmospheric constituents. MWHTS, which makes measurements in the isolated oxygen absorption line near 118 GHz and the vicinity of the strong water vapor absorption line around 183 GHz, can provide fine vertical distribution structures of both atmospheric humidity and temperature. However, in order to obtain the accurate soundings of humidity and temperature by physical retrieval methods, the bias between the observed and simulated radiance calculated by the radiative transfer model from the background or first guess profiles must be corrected. In this study, two bias correction methods are developed through the correlation analysis between MWHTS measurements and air mass identified by the first guess profiles of the physical inversion; one is the linear regression correction (LRC, and the other is the neural network correction (NNC, representing the linear and nonlinear relationships between MWHTS measurements and air mass, respectively. The correction methods have been applied to MWHTS observed brightness temperatures over the geographic area (180° W–180° E, 60° S–60° N. The corrected results are evaluated by the probability density function of the differences between corrected observations and simulated values and the root mean square errors (RMSE with respect to simulated observations. The numerical results show that the NNC method has better performance, especially in MWHTS Channels 1 and 7–9, whose peak weight function heights are close to the surface. In order to assess the effects of bias correction methods proposed in this study on the retrieval accuracy, a one-dimensional variational system was built and applied to the MWHTS brightness temperatures to estimate the atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles. The retrieval results also show that NNC has better performance. An

  3. Erratum: Correction to: Rearrangements of Open Magnetic Flux and Formation of Polar Coronal Holes in Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, E. M.; Mordvinov, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Correction to: Solar Phys DOI 10.1007/s11207-017-1200-6 Due to an error during processing the Electronic Supplementary Material (ESM) supplied by the author was not included with the article. Please find in this correction document the reference to the ESM.

  4. The influence of preferred orientation and poling temperature on the polarization switching current in PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Mi; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Zebin; Zhang, Ping [Tianjin University, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin (China); Lan, Kuibo [Tianjin University, School of Microelectronics, Tianjin (China)

    2017-07-15

    In this paper, Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films with different preferred orientation were prepared on platinized silicon substrates by a modified sol-gel method. Our results indicate that the polarization switching current in PZT thin films is dependent on preferred orientation and poling temperature. In our measurements, (111)-oriented PZT has a larger polarization switching current than randomly oriented PZT, and with the increase of the degree of (111) preferred orientation and the poling temperature, the polarization switching current gradually increase. Considering the contact of PZT thin film with electrodes, the space-charged limited conduction (SCLC) combined with domain switching mechanism may be responsible for such phenomena. By analyzing the conduction data, we found the interface-limited Schottky emission (ES) and bulk-limited Poole-Frenkel hopping (PF) are not suitable for our samples. (orig.)

  5. A new estimate of the Khirzhnits corrections to the zero temperature Thomas-Fermi equation-of-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szichman, H.; Krumbein, A.D.; Eliezer, S.

    1984-09-01

    A method is proposed for estimating the zero temperature limit of the Khirzhnits corrections to the Thomas-Fermi equation-of-state by extrapolation of the finite-temperature results. The cold curves so obtained for Ti, Fe, Cu and Ta are compared with experimental results as well as with those calculated using other variations of the Thomas-Fermi model

  6. Revision and necessary correction of the long-term temperature series of Hohenpeissenberg, 1781-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, P.

    2009-10-01

    Having been in use at Hohenpeissenberg from 1781-1841, the Palatina thermometer was found to suffer from a positive bias of 0.5°R (or 0.63°C) as discovered by Lamont following a re-calibration made in 1842. The main reason was due to the composition of the glass used during the early instrumental period. Glass of this period tended to contract over many years due to thermal aftereffects, resulting in a gradual rise of the freezing point position in consequence of the shrinking bulb forming the mercury reservoir. While the problem of the gradually rising zero point was recognised relatively early, the reason was attributed to wrong causes. Around 1880, scientists recognised that the chemical composition of glass might be responsible for the drift of the zero point. New glass types were developed which were free from such effects. Although these facts became known, no correction was applied to the Hohenpeissenberg temperature series when in 1981, the complete 200-year series was published. Most probably this bias is also relevant for other stations, at least those of the network of the Societas Meteorologica Palatina that were supplied with thermometers manufactured in Mannheim. Another problem originates from the different observing times for the period 1879-1900, which were set to 0800, 1400 and 2000 hours instead of 0700, 1400 and 2100 hours before and afterwards. In addition, a new formula to calculate the daily mean was established resulting in the temperature being too low by 0.5°C in that period. The overall trend changes after application of the two necessary corrections. There remain two biases that cannot be quantified without a major detailed study being made: (1) At the start of the observations, the window of the observation room was always kept “open during dry weather”. It is not known how long this practice was remained in use. (2) Lamont also employed an easily melting glass to construct his thermometers which in use between 1841 and 1878. An

  7. Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Profiles of Temperature and Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Blackwell, William

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. AIRS retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to extreme precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 AIRS retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 AIRS Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved temperature and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. Forecasts are against ERA reanalyses.

  8. Finite temperature corrections to tachyon mass in intersecting D-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, Varun [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi,Delhi 110007 (India); Chowdhury, Sudipto Paul [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg,Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Sarkar, Swarnendu [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi,Delhi 110007 (India)

    2017-04-19

    We continue with the analysis of finite temperature corrections to the Tachyon mass in intersecting branes which was initiated in https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2014)063. In this paper we extend the computation to the case of intersecting D3 branes by considering a setup of two intersecting branes in flat-space background. A holographic model dual to BCS superconductor consisting of intersecting D8 branes in D4 brane background was proposed in https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2011.07.011. The background considered here is a simplified configuration of this dual model. We compute the one-loop Tachyon amplitude in the Yang-Mills approximation and show that the result is finite. Analyzing the amplitudes further we numerically compute the transition temperature at which the Tachyon becomes massless. The analytic expressions for the one-loop amplitudes obtained here reduce to those for intersecting D1 branes obtained in https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2014)063 as well as those for intersecting D2 branes.

  9. Finite temperature corrections to tachyon mass in intersecting D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, Varun; Chowdhury, Sudipto Paul; Sarkar, Swarnendu

    2017-01-01

    We continue with the analysis of finite temperature corrections to the Tachyon mass in intersecting branes which was initiated in https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2014)063. In this paper we extend the computation to the case of intersecting D3 branes by considering a setup of two intersecting branes in flat-space background. A holographic model dual to BCS superconductor consisting of intersecting D8 branes in D4 brane background was proposed in https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2011.07.011. The background considered here is a simplified configuration of this dual model. We compute the one-loop Tachyon amplitude in the Yang-Mills approximation and show that the result is finite. Analyzing the amplitudes further we numerically compute the transition temperature at which the Tachyon becomes massless. The analytic expressions for the one-loop amplitudes obtained here reduce to those for intersecting D1 branes obtained in https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2014)063 as well as those for intersecting D2 branes.

  10. Physical Models of Layered Polar Firn Brightness Temperatures from 0.5 to 2 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shurun; Aksoy, Mustafa; Brogioni, Marco; Macelloni, Giovanni; Durand, Michael; Jezek, Kenneth C.; Wang, Tian-Lin; Tsang, Leung; Johnson, Joel T.; Drinkwater, Mark R.; hide

    2015-01-01

    We investigate physical effects influencing 0.5-2 GHz brightness temperatures of layered polar firn to support the Ultra Wide Band Software Defined Radiometer (UWBRAD) experiment to be conducted in Greenland and in Antarctica. We find that because ice particle grain sizes are very small compared to the 0.5-2 GHz wavelengths, volume scattering effects are small. Variations in firn density over cm- to m-length scales, however, cause significant effects. Both incoherent and coherent models are used to examine these effects. Incoherent models include a 'cloud model' that neglects any reflections internal to the ice sheet, and the DMRT-ML and MEMLS radiative transfer codes that are publicly available. The coherent model is based on the layered medium implementation of the fluctuation dissipation theorem for thermal microwave radiation from a medium having a nonuniform temperature. Density profiles are modeled using a stochastic approach, and model predictions are averaged over a large number of realizations to take into account an averaging over the radiometer footprint. Density profiles are described by combining a smooth average density profile with a spatially correlated random process to model density fluctuations. It is shown that coherent model results after ensemble averaging depend on the correlation lengths of the vertical density fluctuations. If the correlation length is moderate or long compared with the wavelength (approximately 0.6x longer or greater for Gaussian correlation function without regard for layer thinning due to compaction), coherent and incoherent model results are similar (within approximately 1 K). However, when the correlation length is short compared to the wavelength, coherent model results are significantly different from the incoherent model by several tens of kelvins. For a 10-cm correlation length, the differences are significant between 0.5 and 1.1 GHz, and less for 1.1-2 GHz. Model results are shown to be able to match the v

  11. Temperature dependence measurements and structural characterization of trimethyl ammonium ionic liquids with a highly polar solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Hofman, T

    2011-08-25

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of an ammonium ionic liquids (ILs) containing acetate, dihydrogen phosphate, and hydrogen sulfate anions with a common cation. To characterize the thermophysical properties of these newly synthesized ILs with the highly polar solvent N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), precise measurements such as densities (ρ) and ultrasonic sound velocities (u) over the whole composition range have been performed at atmospheric pressure and over wide temperature ranges (25-50 °C). The excess molar volume (V(E)) and the deviation in isentropic compressibilities (Δκ(s)) were predicted using these temperature dependence properties as a function of the concentration of ILs. The Redlich-Kister polynomial was used to correlate the results. The ILs investigated in the present study included trimethylammonium acetate [(CH(3))(3)NH][CH(3)COO] (TMAA), trimethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate [(CH(3))(3)NH][H(2)PO(4)] (TMAP), and trimethylammonium hydrogen sulfate [(CH(3))(3)NH][HSO(4)] (TMAS). The intermolecular interactions and structural effects were analyzed on the basis of the measured and the derived properties. In addition, the hydrogen bonding between ILs and DMF has been demonstrated using semiempirical calculations with help of Hyperchem 7. A qualitative analysis of the results is discussed in terms of the ion-dipole, ion-pair interactions, and hydrogen bonding between ILs and DMF molecules and their structural factors. The influence of the anion of the protic IL, namely, acetate (CH(3)COO), dihydrogen phosphate (H(2)PO(4)), and hydrogen sulfate (HSO(4)), on the thermophysical properties is also provided. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Space-variant filtering for correction of wavefront curvature effects in spotlight-mode SAR imagery formed via polar formatting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakowatz, Charles V., Jr.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Thompson, Paul A.; Doren, Neall E.

    1997-07-01

    Wavefront curvature defocus effects can occur in spotlight- mode SAR imagery when reconstructed via the well-known polar formatting algorithm under certain scenarios that include imaging at close range, use of very low center frequency, and/or imaging of very large scenes. The range migration algorithm, also known as seismic migration, was developed to accommodate these wavefront curvature effects. However, the along-track upsampling of the phase history data required of the original version of range migration can in certain instances represent a major computational burden. A more recent version of migration processing, the frequency domain replication and downsampling (FReD) algorithm, obviates the need to upsample, and is accordingly more efficient. In this paper we demonstrate that the combination of traditional polar formatting with appropriate space-variant post- filtering for refocus can be as efficient or even more efficient than FReD under some imaging conditions, as demonstrated by the computer-simulated results in this paper. The post-filter can be pre-calculated from a theoretical derivation of the curvature effect. The conclusion is that the new polar formatting with post filtering algorithm should be considered as a viable candidate for a spotight-mode image formation processor when curvature effects are present.

  13. Temperature dependence of cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization in rotating solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, Michel-Andreas; Orwick-Rydmark, Marcella; Märker, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization exploits electron spin polarization to boost signal-to-noise in magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR, creating new opportunities in materials science, structural biology, and metabolomics studies. Since protein NMR spectra recorded under DNP conditions can show improved...

  14. A sample of depolarization resonance correction from the initial commissioning of the polarized beam at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    A description of the response to correction for several resonances is presented. Different behavior is seen between resonances of the same class, i.e. either intrinsic or imperfection resonances show different behavior within their own genre. A brief description of the facility and present status is also given

  15. Polarization of X rays of multiply charged ions in dense high-temperature plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baronova, EO; Dolgov, AN; Yakubovskii, LK

    2004-01-01

    The development of a method for studying the features of X-ray emission by multiply charged ions in a dense hot plasma is considered. These features are determined by the radiation polarization phenomenon.

  16. Determination of the polarity of carrier traps in γ-irradiated polyethylene by temperature gradient thermally stimulated current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Keizo; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Hino, Taro

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical analysis is made to show that the polarity of carrier traps produced by radiation can be determined based on measurements of temperature gradient thremally stimulated current. Observations are also made on γ-irradiated polyethylene to examine the polarity of carrier traps. Another investigation is conducted to determine whether a space-charge field is generated in the γ-irradiated polyethylene. In the apparatus used, a collecting voltage is applied to a γ-irradiated specimen to heat it under a temperature gradient while the current generated in an enternal circuit is measured. Theoretical examination, conducted concerning this temperature gradient thermally stimulated current, shows that polarity determination is possible under some conditions. Then, observation is actually carried out using γ-irradiated low-density polyethylene films with deposited gold electrodes. Characteristics of initial rise in thermally stimulated current and effects of the collecting voltage are examined. The polyethylene investigated shows a maximum in thermally stimulated current at about 80 deg C, which is found to have relations with electron traps. It is also revealed that space-charge field is not generated in the sample examined. (Nogami, K.)

  17. New equations to calculate temperature correction factors for PO2 in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, H; Ohwada, T; Sato, J; Mizuguchi, T; Hirasawa, H

    1986-01-01

    Effects of hemoglobin concentration (Hb), pH, and body temperature (T) on the relationships between delta log PO2/delta T and PO2 were studied by means of a mathematical model using a Newton-Raphson iteration method. The functions between delta log PO2/delta T and PO2 were affected by the above three factors. New equations considering the effects of Hb, pH, and T were proposed by modifying the equation reported by Severinghaus: delta log PO2/delta T = (L +(U-L)/(A(vPO237)B + 1))(10(-2) where U = 3.15-0.45(7.4-pH37) L = 0.68-0.09(7.4-pH37) A = 5.86(exp10(0.074(T)-0.294(7.4-pH37)-11))((Hb)0.913) B = 6.33(exp10(-0.0051(T)))((Hb)-0.113) + 0.24(7.4-pH37) and vPO237 is virtual PO237 which may exist when PO237 is corrected to standard conditions (pH = 7.4, BE = 0) by the following equations: vPO237 = PO237(exp10(fB(7.4-pH37)-0.0013(BE))) fB = (PO237/26.6)0.08-1.52 where fB is the Bohr factor. The above equations provided values of delta log PO2/delta T which fit closely to those obtained by the complex iteration method with maximum differences of less than 1.3 X 10(-3) at T = 27, indicating that maximum % errors for PO2 at T (PO2T) are less than 3.0% at T = 27 and that our equations can be applied over a wide range of Hb, pH37 and T.

  18. Temperature dependence of low-frequency polarized Raman scattering spectra in TlInS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paucar, Raul; Wakita, Kazuki [Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Shim, YongGu; Mimura, Kojiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka (Japan); Alekperov, Oktay; Mamedov, Nazim [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2017-06-15

    In this work, we examined phase transitions in the layered ternary thallium chalcogenide TlInS{sub 2} by studying the temperature dependence of polarized Raman spectra with the aid of the Raman confocal microscope system. The Raman spectra were measured over the temperature range of 77-320 K (which includes the range of successive phase transitions) in the low-frequency region of 35-180 cm{sup -1}. The optical phonons that showed strong temperature dependence were identified as interlayer vibrations related to phase transitions, while the phonons that showed weak temperature dependence were identified as intralayer vibrations. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Electroweak corrections to photon scattering, polarization and lensing in a gravitational background and the near horizon limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corianò, Claudio; Rose, Luigi Delle; Maglio, Matteo Maria [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento and INFN-Lecce,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Serino, Mirko [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento and INFN-Lecce,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland)

    2015-01-19

    We investigate the semiclassical approach to the lensing of photons in a spherically symmetric gravitational background, starting from Born level and include in our analysis the radiative corrections obtained from the electroweak theory for the graviton/photon/photon vertex. In this approach, the cross section is related to the angular variation of the impact parameter (b), which is then solved for b as a function of the angle of deflection, and measured in horizon units (b{sub h}≡b/(2GM)). Exact numerical solutions for the angular deflection are presented. The numerical analysis shows that perturbation theory in a weak background agrees with the classical Einstein formula for the deflection already at distances of the order of 20 horizon units (∼20 b{sub h}) and it is optimal in the description both of very strong and weak lensings. We show that the electroweak corrections to the cross section are sizeable, becoming very significant for high energy gamma rays. Our analysis covers in energy most of the photon spectrum, from the cosmic microwave background up to very high energy gamma rays, and scatterings with any value of the photon impact parameter. We also study the helicity-flip photon amplitude, which is of O(α{sup 2}) in the weak coupling α, and its massless fermion limit, which involves the exchange of a conformal anomaly pole. The corresponding cross section is proportional to the Born level result and brings to a simple renormalization of Einsten’s formula.

  20. Profile correction to electron temperature and enhancement factor in soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis measurements in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesnic, S.; Diesso, M.; Hill, K.; Holland, A.; Pohl, F.

    1988-01-01

    Because soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis spectra contain chordal information, the electron temperature and the radiation intensity (enhancement factor) measurements do not represent the local values. The correction factors for the electron temperature and the enhancement factor as a function of the temperature and density profile parameters and the energy are obtained. The spectrum distortion due to pulse pileup effects is also evaluated. A set of curves is given from which the distortion of the spectrum can be obtained if the electron temperature, the Be filter thickness, and the electronic parameters of the acquisition system are known. PG 1810,1812 ID 131801CON N X-ray diagnostics TT Profile correction to electron temperature and enhancement factor in soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis measurements in tokamaks AU S. Sesnic, M. Diesso, K. Hill, and A. Holland LO Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 AU F. Pohl LO Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 8046-Garching, Federal Republic of Germany SD (Presented on 16 March 1988) AB Because soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis spectra contain chordal information, the electron temperature and the radiation intensity (enhancement factor) measurements do not represent the local values. The correction factors for the electron temperature and the enhancement factor as a function of the temperature and density profile parameters and the energy are obtained. The spectrum distortion due to pulse pileup effects is also evaluated. A set of curves is given from which the distortion of the spectrum can be obtained if the electron tempe

  1. The α3S corrections to the Bjorken sum rule for polarized electro-production and to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, S.A.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica; Vermaseren, J.A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The next-next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule for deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering and to the Bjorken sum rule for polarized electron-nucleon scattering have been computed. This involved the proper treatment of γ 5 inside the loop integrals with dimensional regularization. It is found that the difference between the two sum rules are entirely due to a class of 6 three loop graphs and is of the order of 1% of the leading QCD term. Hence the Q 2 behavior of both sum rules should be the same if the physics is described adequately by the lower order terms of perturbative QCD. (author). 12 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  2. Polarity influence on the indentation punching of thin {111} GaAs foils at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriarche, G; Largeau, L; Riviere, J P; Bourhis, E Le

    2005-01-01

    Thin {111} GaAs substrates were deformed by a Vickers indenter at 350 deg. C-370 deg. C under loads ranging between 0.4 and 1.9 N. Optical microscopy and interferometry were used to observe the indented and opposite faces of the thin foils and hence to investigate the plastic flow through the samples. Attention was paid to the polarity (A or B) of the specimen surface, as GaAs is known to show a large difference between α and β dislocations mobilities. A model considering the influence of polarity is proposed to describe the material flow throughout thin samples

  3. An Octave/MATLAB® Interface for Rapid Processing of SMOS L1C Full Polarization Brightness Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Saavedra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A tool to process the SMOS microwave radiometer level 1C polarized brightness temperatures data product has been developed. The SMOS L1C science product contains the dual and full (Stokes vector polarization brightness temperatures at L-band for multiple incidence angles. In order to use the L1C product, the measurements are processed by a number of procedures including radio frequency interference (RFI filters, conversion of the polarization plane from the antenna (X- & Y-pol to the Earth’s surface frame (H- & V-pol, and averaging to fixed classes of incidence angles. The software allows for the processing of data for the entire daily half-orbit product, or for specific regions of interest, and can be adapted as a bash-job to process a large number of data files e.g. for time series analysis. This paper describes the tool which was developed in GNU C++ with the capability to be compiled as MEX function to work with Octave or MATLAB® without any source code adjustment. Funding statement: 'Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft' DFG under grant number SI 606/24-1.

  4. Influence of the tilting reflection mirror on the temperature and wind velocity retrieved by a polarizing atmospheric Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunmin; Li, Ying

    2012-09-20

    The principles of a polarizing atmospheric Michelson interferometer are outlined. The tilt of its reflection mirror results in deflection of the reflected beam and affects the intensities of the observed inteferogram. This effect is systematically analyzed. Both rectangular and circular apertures are considered. The theoretical expression of the modulation depth and phase of the interferogram are derived. These parameters vary with the inclination angle of the mirror and the distance between the deflection center and the optical axis and significantly influence the retrieved temperature and wind speed. If the wind and temperature errors are required to be less than 3 m/s and 5 K, the deflection angle must be less than 0.5°. The errors are also dependent on the shape of aperture. If the reflection mirror is deflected in one direction, the temperature error is smaller for a circular aperture (1.3 K) than for a rectangular one (2.6 K), but the wind velocity errors are almost the same (less than 3 m/s). If the deflection center and incident light beam are coincident, the temperature errors are 3 × 10(-4) K and 0.45 K for circular and rectangular apertures, respectively. The wind velocity errors are 1.2 × 10(-3) m/s and 0.06 m/s. Both are small. The result would be helpful for theoretical research and development of the static polarization wind imaging interferometer.

  5. Probing spin-polarized tunneling at high bias and temperature with a magnetic tunnel transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, B.G.; Banerjee, T.; Min, B.C.; Sanderink, Johannes G.M.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic tunnel transistor (MTT) is a three terminal hybrid device that consists of a tunnel emitter, a ferromagnetic (FM) base, and a semiconductor collector. In the MTT with a FM emitter and a single FM base, spin-polarized hot electrons are injected into the base by tunneling. After

  6. Room-temperature saturated ferroelectric polarization in BiFeO3 ceramics synthesized by rapid liquid phase sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.P.; Zhou, L.; Zhang, M.F.; Chen, X.Y.; Liu, J.-M.; Liu, Z.G.

    2004-01-01

    Single-phased ferroelectromagnet BiFeO 3 ceramics with high resistivity were synthesized by a rapid liquid phase sintering technique. Saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops were observed at room temperature in the ceramics sintered at 880 deg. C for 450 s. The spontaneous polarization, remnant polarization, and the coercive field are 8.9 μC/cm 2 , 4.0 μC/cm 2 , and 39 kV/cm, respectively, under an applied field of 100 kV/cm. It is proposed that the formation of Fe 2+ and an oxygen deficiency leading to the higher leakage can be greatly suppressed by the very high heating rate, short sintering period, and liquid phase sintering technique. The latter was also found effective in increasing the density of the ceramics. The sintering technique developed in this work is expected to be useful in synthesizing other ceramics from multivalent or volatile starting materials

  7. Quasi-analytical synthesis of continuous phase correcting structures to increase the directivity of circularly polarized Fabry-Perot resonator antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, Muhammad U.; Esselle, Karu P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a quasi-analytical technique to design a continuous, all-dielectric phase correcting structures (PCSs) for circularly polarized Fabry-Perot resonator antennas (FPRAs). The PCS has been realized by varying the thickness of a rotationally symmetric dielectric block placed above the antenna. A global analytical expression is derived for the PCS thickness profile, which is required to achieve nearly uniform phase distribution at the output of the PCS, despite the non-uniform phase distribution at its input. An alternative piecewise technique based on spline interpolation is also explored to design a PCS. It is shown from both far- and near-field results that a PCS tremendously improves the radiation performance of the FPRA. These improvements include an increase in peak directivity from 22 to 120 (from 13.4 dBic to 20.8 dBic) and a decrease of 3 dB beamwidth from 41.5° to 15°. The phase-corrected antenna also has a good directivity bandwidth of 1.3 GHz, which is 11% of the center frequency

  8. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from USCGC POLAR STAR from 1989-11-02 to 1990-04-11 (NODC Accession 9000089)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water depth and temperature data was collected from ship Polar Star. The data was collected from November 2, 1989 to April 11, 1990 as part of project Deep...

  9. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from USCGC POLAR STAR in the South Pacific Ocean from 1992-11-08 to 1993-04-12 (NODC Accession 9300068)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water depth and temperature data was collected in South Pacific Ocean as part of project Deep Freeze from ship POLAR STAR. The data was collected from November...

  10. 21st Century Trends in Antarctic Temperature and Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) Area in the GEOS Chemistry-Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, M. M.; Newman, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines trends in Antarctic temperature and APSC, a temperature proxy for the area of polar stratospheric clouds, in an ensemble of Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemistry-climate model (CCM) simulations of the 21st century. A selection of greenhouse gas, ozone-depleting substance, and sea surface temperature scenarios is used to test the trend sensitivity to these parameters. One scenario is used to compare temperature trends in two versions of the GEOS CCM. An extended austral winter season is examined in detail. In May, June, and July, the expected future increase in CO2-related radiative cooling drives temperature trends in the Antarctic lower stratosphere. At 50 hPa, a 1.3 K cooling is expected between 2000 and 2100. Ozone levels increase, despite this robust cooling signal and the consequent increase in APSC, suggesting the enhancement of stratospheric transport in future. In the lower stratosphere, the choice of climate change scenarios does not affect the magnitude of the early winter cooling. Midwinter temperature trends are generally small. In October, APSC trends have the same sign as the prescribed halogen trends. That is, there are negative APSC trends in "grealistic future" simulations, where halogen loading decreases in accordance with the Montreal Protocol and CO2 continues to increase. In these simulations, the speed of ozone recovery is not influenced by either the choice of sea surface temperature and greenhouse gas scenarios or by the model version.

  11. Electron-ion temperature ratio estimations in the summer polar mesosphere when subject to HF radio wave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, H.; La Hoz, C.; Havnes, O.; Rietveld, M.

    2014-10-01

    We have inferred the electron temperature enhancements above mesospheric altitudes under Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) conditions when the ionosphere is exposed to artificial HF radio wave heating. The proposed method uses the dependence of the radar cross section on the electron-to-ion temperature ratio to infer the heating factor from incoherent scatter radar (ISR) power measurements above 90 km. Model heating temperatures match our ISR estimations between 90 and 130 km with 0.94 Pearson correlation index. The PMSE strength measured by the MORRO MST radar is about 50% weaker during the heater-on period when the modeled electron-to-ion mesospheric temperature is approximately 10 times greater than the unperturbed value. No PMSE weakening is found when the mesospheric temperature enhancement is by a factor of three or less. The PMSE weakening and its absence are consistent with the modeled mesospheric electron temperatures. This consistency supports to the proposed method for estimating mesospheric electron temperatures achieved by independent MST and ISR radar measurements.

  12. The phenomenology of optically pumped 13C NMR in diamond at 7.05 T: Room temperature polarization, orientation dependence, and the effect of defect concentration on polarization dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eric; Drake, Melanie; Reimer, Jeffrey A.

    2016-03-01

    Room temperature optical illumination of NV- imbibed single crystal diamonds with a 532 nm laser produces 13C polarization enhancements up to 200 times greater than that of the thermal equilibrium value at 7.05 T. We report high field NV- mediated 13C polarization as a function of the number and type (NV- and P1) of defects in commercially available diamonds. Surprisingly, both positive and negative 13C polarizations are observed depending on the orientation of the crystal with respect to the external magnetic field and the electric field vector of the optical illumination. The data reported herein cannot be explained by a previously proposed mechanism.

  13. Correlation between corneal and ambient temperature with particular focus on polar conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slettedal, Jon Klokk; Ringvold, Amund

    2015-08-01

    To examine the relationship between human corneal and environmental temperature. An infrared camera was used to measure the corneal surface temperature in a group of healthy volunteers as well as in an experimental setting with donor corneas and an artificial anterior chamber, employing circulating saline at +37°C. Liquid nitrogen was used to obtain a very low temperature in the experimental setting. High ambient temperature measurements were performed in a sauna. In healthy volunteers, the cornea required at least 20-30 min to adapt to change in ambient temperature. The relationship between corneal and external temperature was relatively linear. At the two extremes, +83°C and -40°C, the corneal temperature was +42°C and +25.1°C, respectively. In the experimental setting, corneal temperature was +24.3°C at air temperature -40°C. A rather stable aqueous humour temperature of +37°C and high thermal conductivity of the corneal tissue prevent corneal frostbite even at extremely low ambient temperatures. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Correcting urban bias in large-scale temperature records in China, 1980-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Tett, S. F. B.; Yan, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Trends in urban fraction around meteorological station were used to quantify the relationship between urban growth and local urban warming rate in temperature records in China. Urban warming rates were estimated by comparing observed temperature trends with those derived from ERA-Interim reanalysis data. With urban expansion surrounding observing stations, daily minimum temperatures were enhanced, and daily maximum temperatures were slightly reduced. On average, a change in urban fraction from 0% to 100% induces additional warming in daily minimum temperature of +1.7 ± 0.3°C; daily maximum temperature changes due to urbanization are -0.4 ± 0.2°C. Based on this, the regional area-weighted average trend of urban-related warming in daily minimum (mean) temperature in eastern China was estimated to be +0.042 ± 0.007 (+0.017 ± 0.003)°C decade-1, representing about 9% (4%) of overall warming trend and reducing the diurnal temperature range by -0.05°C decade-1. No significant relationship was found between background temperature anomalies and the strength of urban warming.

  15. Temperature-corrected postmortem 3-T MR quantification of histopathological early acute and chronic myocardial infarction: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Anders; Baeckmann, John; Berge, Johan; Jackowski, Christian; Warntjes, Marcel; Zech, Wolf-Dieter

    2018-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate if quantitative postmortem cardiac 3-T magnetic resonance (QPMCMR) T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density values of histopathological early acute and chronic myocardial infarction differ to the quantitative values of non-pathologic myocardium and other histopathological age stages of myocardial infarction with regard to varying corpse temperatures. In 60 forensic corpses (25 female, 35 male), a cardiac 3-T MR quantification sequence was performed prior to autopsy and cardiac dissection. Core body temperature was assessed during MR examinations. Focal myocardial signal alterations in synthetically generated MR images were measured for their T1, T2, and proton density (PD) values. Locations of signal alteration measurements in PMCMR were targeted at heart dissection, and myocardial tissue specimens were taken for histologic examinations. Quantified signal alterations in QPMCMR were correlated to their according histologic age stage of myocardial infarction, and quantitative values were corrected for a temperature of 37 °C. In QPMCMR, 49 myocardial signal alterations were detected in 43 of 60 investigated hearts. Signal alterations were diagnosed histologically as early acute (n = 16), acute (n = 10), acute with hemorrhagic component (n = 9), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 11) myocardial infarction. Statistical analysis revealed that based on their temperature-corrected quantitative T1, T2, and PD values, a significant difference between early acute, acute, and chronic myocardial infarction can be determined. It can be concluded that quantitative 3-T postmortem cardiac MR based on temperature-corrected T1, T2, and PD values may be feasible for pre-autopsy diagnosis of histopathological early acute, acute, and chronic myocardial infarction, which needs to be confirmed histologically.

  16. Correction of temperature-induced spectral variation by continuous piecewise direct standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulfert, F.; Kok, W. T.; de Noord, O. E.; Smilde, A. K.

    2000-01-01

    In process analytical applications it is not always possible to keep the measurement conditions constant. However, fluctuations in external variables such as temperature can have a strong influence on measurement results. For example, nonlinear temperature effects on near-infrared (NIR) spectra may

  17. Correcting the Cenozoic δ18O deep-sea temperature record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    2004-01-01

    The oxygen isotope signal in benthic foraminifera from deep-sea cores is mainly determined by deep-ocean temperature and land ice volume. Separating the temperature and ice volume signals is a key step in understanding the evolution of Cenozoic climate. Except for the last few million years,

  18. Correction of temperature-induced spectral variations by loading space standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zeng-Ping; Morris, Julian; Martin, Elaine

    2005-03-01

    With a view to maintaining the validity of multivariate calibration models for chemical processes affected by temperature fluctuations, loading space standardization (LSS) is proposed. Through the application of LSS, multivariate calibration models built at temperatures other than those of the test samples can provide predictions with an accuracy comparable to the results obtained at a constant temperature. Compared with other methods, designed for the same purpose, such as continuous piecewise direct standardization, LSS has the advantages of straightforward implementation and good performance. The methodology was applied to shortwave NIR spectral data sets measured at different temperatures. The results showed that LSS can effectively remove the influence of temperature variations on the spectra and maintain the predictive abilities of the multivariate calibration models.

  19. Enhanced-Resolution SSM/I and AMSR-E Daily Polar Brightness Temperatures, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains enhanced-resolution brightness temperatures produced using the Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR) algorithm developed by the Microwave...

  20. Enhanced-Resolution SSM/I and AMSR-E Daily Polar Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains enhanced-resolution brightness temperatures produced using the Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR) algorithm developed by the Microwave...

  1. Bulk viscous corrections to screening and damping in QCD at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Qianqian [Department of Physics, Guangxi Normal University,Guilin, 541004 (China); Dumitru, Adrian [Department of Natural Sciences, Baruch College, CUNY,17 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); The Graduate School and University Center, The City University of New York,365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Guo, Yun [Department of Physics, Guangxi Normal University,Guilin, 541004 (China); Strickland, Michael [Department of Physics, Kent State University,206B Smith Hall, Kent, OH 44240 (United States)

    2017-01-27

    Non-equilibrium corrections to the distribution functions of quarks and gluons in a hot and dense QCD medium modify the “hard thermal loops” (HTL). The HTLs determine the retarded, advanced, and symmetric (time-ordered) propagators for gluons with soft momenta as well as the Debye screening and Landau damping mass scales. We compute such corrections to a thermal as well as to a non-thermal fixed point. The screening and damping mass scales are sensitive to the bulk pressure and hence to (pseudo-) critical dynamical scaling of the bulk viscosity in the vicinity of a second-order critical point. This could be reflected in the properties of quarkonium bound states in the deconfined phase and in the dynamics of soft gluon fields.

  2. Measurements of the Temperature and E-mode Polarization of the CMB from 500 Square Degrees of SPTpol Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, J. W.; Sayre, J. T.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ade, P. A. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Cho, H-M.; Citron, R.; Moran, C. Corbett; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Haan, T. de; Dobbs, M. A.; Everett, W.; Gallicchio, J.; George, E. M.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N.; Hilton, G. C.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, D.; Lowitz, A.; Manzotti, A.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Montgomery, J.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J. P.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Schaffer, K. K.; Sievers, C.; Smecher, G.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Veach, T.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Wu, W. L. K.; Yefremenko, V.

    2018-01-10

    We present measurements of the $E$-mode polarization angular auto-power spectrum ($EE$) and temperature-$E$-mode cross-power spectrum ($TE$) of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using 150 GHz data from three seasons of SPTpol observations. We now report the $EE$ and $TE$ power spectra over the spherical harmonic multipole range $50 < \\ell \\leq 8000$, and detect the first nine acoustic peaks in the $EE$ spectrum with high signal-to-noise. These measurements are the most sensitive to date of the $EE$ and $TE$ angular polarization power spectra at $\\ell > 1050$ and $\\ell > 1475$, respectively. The observations cover $500\\, \\rm{deg}^2$ of sky, a fivefold increase in area compared to previous SPTpol power spectrum releases, leading to more than a factor of two reduction in bandpower uncertainties. The additional sky coverage increases our sensitivity to the photon-diffusion damping tail of the CMB angular power spectra, which enables tighter constraints on $\\Lambda CDM$ model extensions such as primordial helium content $Y_\\rm{p}$ and effective number of relativistic species $N_\\rm{eff}$. Furthermore, after masking all sources with unpolarized flux $>50$ mJy we place a 95% confidence upper limit on residual polarized point-source power of $D_\\ell < 0.10 \\mu{\\rm K}^2$ at $\\ell=3000$. This limit is a factor of four lower than the previous best upper limit, and suggests that the $EE$ damping tail is brighter than foregrounds to at least $\\ell = 4100$ with modest source masking. Finally, we find cosmological parameter constraints consistent with those for $Planck$ temperature when fitting SPTpol data at $\\ell < 1000$. However, including SPTpol data at $\\ell > 1000$ results in a preference for a higher value of the expansion rate ($H_0 = 71.2 \\pm 2.1\\,\\mbox{km}\\,s^{-1}\\mbox{Mpc}^{-1}$) and a lower value for present-day density fluctuations ($\\sigma_8 = 0.77 \\pm 0.02$). (Abridged).

  3. Aquarius L3 Polar-Gridded Weekly Brightness Temperature and Sea Surface Salinity V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set consists of weekly gridded Level-3 products of Aquarius L-band radiometer brightness temperature (TB) observations and Sea Surface Salinity (SSS)...

  4. Warm layer and cool skin corrections for bulk water temperature measurements for air-sea interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alappattu, Denny P.; Wang, Qing; Yamaguchi, Ryan; Lind, Richard J.; Reynolds, Mike; Christman, Adam J.

    2017-08-01

    The sea surface temperature (SST) relevant to air-sea interaction studies is the temperature immediately adjacent to the air, referred to as skin SST. Generally, SST measurements from ships and buoys are taken at depths varies from several centimeters to 5 m below the surface. These measurements, known as bulk SST, can differ from skin SST up to O(1°C). Shipboard bulk and skin SST measurements were made during the Coupled Air-Sea Processes and Electromagnetic ducting Research east coast field campaign (CASPER-East). An Infrared SST Autonomous Radiometer (ISAR) recorded skin SST, while R/V Sharp's Surface Mapping System (SMS) provided bulk SST from 1 m water depth. Since the ISAR is sensitive to sea spray and rain, missing skin SST data occurred in these conditions. However, SMS measurement is less affected by adverse weather and provided continuous bulk SST measurements. It is desirable to correct the bulk SST to obtain a good representation of the skin SST, which is the objective of this research. Bulk-skin SST difference has been examined with respect to meteorological factors associated with cool skin and diurnal warm layers. Strong influences of wind speed, diurnal effects, and net longwave radiation flux on temperature difference are noticed. A three-step scheme is established to correct for wind effect, diurnal variability, and then for dependency on net longwave radiation flux. Scheme is tested and compared to existing correction schemes. This method is able to effectively compensate for multiple factors acting to modify bulk SST measurements over the range of conditions experienced during CASPER-East.

  5. The Role of C-axis Polarized Phonons in High Temperature Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timusk, T.; Homes, C. C.; Reichardt, W.

    1995-01-01

    We report on the optical conductivity of c-axis phonons in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-σ as a function of doping and temperature. At room temperature the frequencies and strengths of the modes are in good agreement with results from shell models based on neutron scattering. We discuss the apical oxygen mode which becomes asymmetric in underdoped materials and argue, with Burns, that the Au mode shifts from 570 cm -1 to 610 cm -1 for the two-fold coordinated copper sites in the chain layer in oxygen depleted materials. At low temperature there is a large transfer of c-axis phonon oscillator strength from O(4) apical and O (2, 3,) plane bending modes, to a very broad at 400 cm -1

  6. Current sheets with inhomogeneous plasma temperature: Effects of polarization electric field and 2D solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catapano, F.; Zimbardo, G.; Artemyev, A. V.; Vasko, I. Y.

    2015-01-01

    We develop current sheet models which allow to regulate the level of plasma temperature and density inhomogeneities across the sheet. These models generalize the classical Harris model via including two current-carrying plasma populations with different temperature and the background plasma not contributing to the current density. The parameters of these plasma populations allow regulating contributions of plasma density and temperature to the pressure balance. A brief comparison with spacecraft observations demonstrates the model applicability for describing the Earth magnetotail current sheet. We also develop a two dimensional (2D) generalization of the proposed model. The interesting effect found for 2D models is the nonmonotonous profile (along the current sheet) of the magnetic field component perpendicular to the current sheet. Possible applications of the model are discussed

  7. Polarization Pyrometry of Layered Semiconductor Structures under Conditions of Low-Temperature Technological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, I. A.; Shvets, V. A.; Dulin, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Ikusov, D. G.; Uzhakov, I. N.; Rykhlitskii, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    Principal issues of using pyrometry for temperature monitoring in low-temperature processes in the technology of production of semiconductor structures are considered by an example of growing mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) layers on the GaAs substrate by the method of molecular beam epitaxy. Optical and thermophysical models are proposed to describe the processes of radiant heat transfer in a vacuum chamber. Based on these models, it is demonstrated that radiation from the heater and the signal reflected from the chamber walls, which are comparable in magnitude with the measured radiation emitted by the sample, should be taken into account in interpreting data measured by a pyrometer. Methods of useful signal identification are found. Experiments on temperature measurement by a pyrometer mounted on the MCT growth chamber are performed. Results of these experiments are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  8. Method of correction of measured temperature and velocity field in free hot gas jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregor, J.; Jakubová, I.; Mendl, T.; Šenk, J.; Kopecký, Vladimír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, supplement D (2002), s. 601-606 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/20th./. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/1563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma, temperature profile, thermocouple Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  9. A proposed correction of a systematic bias in early instrumental temperature series in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, R.; Jones, P. D.; Hiebl, J.; Frank, D.; Brunetti, M.; Maugeri, M.

    2009-04-01

    The instrumental period in climatology usually is regarded to have started shortly after the mid 19th century. Respective benchmarks are the starting point of the global mean temperature timeseries in the 1850s or the founding of many of the national meteorological services in the following 2 to 3 decades. But there is a considerable and valuable amount of measured climate data decades to a century earlier. The added value of having another century of directly measured climate information is great, particularly as these data bridge the pre-anthropogenic to anthropogenic forcing eras. But the demands on these early instrumental data in terms of their comparability with modern data are increasingly difficult to fulfil progressively back in time. Decreasing network density makes mathematical homogeneity testing and adjusting less reliable and the equipment as well as the measuring and data processing philosophy were in some aspects rather different to the recent one. The proposed contribution shows one of these "early instrumental" (EI) problems and proposes a solution for a region which may be regarded the richest in EI-data globally. Instrumental temperature recording in the Greater Alpine Region (GAR, 4-19°E, 43-49°N) began in the year 1760. Prior to the 1850-1870 period, after which screens of different types protected the instruments, thermometers were insufficiently sheltered from direct sunlight so were normally placed on north-facing walls or windows. It is likely that temperatures recorded in the summer half of the year were biased warm and those in the winter half biased cold, with the summer effect dominating. Because the changeover to screens often occurred at similar times, it has been difficult to determine the scale of the problem through relative homogeneity testing, as all neighbour sites were likely to be similarly affected. This study uses simultaneous measurements taken for eight recent years at the old and modern site at Kremsmünster, Austria

  10. Defining the Polar Vortex Edge Using an N2O: Potential Temperature Correlation Versus the Nash Criterion: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Jost, Hans-Juerg; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Bui, T. Paul; Hurst, Dale F.; Elkins, James W.; Herman, Robert L.; Webster, Christopher R.; Schauffler, Sue M.; hide

    2001-01-01

    A prerequisite to study phenomena in the winter stratospheric polar vortex is the separation of measurements inside and outside the dynamical barrier of the vortex edge. We describe a technique to accurately determine the inner edge of the vortex boundary region from measurements of potential temperature and a trace gas, such as N2O, and apply it to in situ aircraft and balloon measurements from the SOLVE/THESE02000 Arctic campaign. The method may be used to refine the Nash algorithm, which, due to the inherently coarser resolution of potential vorticity on which it is dependent, may misidentify the inner edge by up to 466 km, and omit the identification of small, extra-vortex filaments within the vortex.

  11. Performance and microbial community structure of a polar Arctic Circle aerobic granular sludge system operating at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Muñoz-Palazon, Barbara; Maza-Márquez, Paula; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Vahala, Riku

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the performance and microbial community structure of a polar Arctic Circle aerobic granular sludge (AGS) system operating at low temperature. Thus, an AGS bioreactor was operated at 7, 5 and 3 °C of temperature using a cold-adapted sludge from Lapland. At 5 °C, it yielded acceptable conversion rates, in terms of nitrogen, phosphorous, and organic matter. However, under 3 °C a negligible nitrogen and phosphorous removal performance was observed. Below 5 °C, scanning electron microscopy studies showed a wispy, non-dense and irregular granular structure with a strong outgrowth of filamentous. Moreover, Illumina next-generation sequencing showed a heterogeneous microbial population where SM1K20 (Archaea), Trichosporon domesticum (Fungus), and Zooglea, Arcobacter and Acinetobacter (Bacteria) were the dominant phylotypes. Our study suggests that AGS technologies inoculated with North Pole sludge could be operated, in cold regions for a period longer than 3 months (winter season) under 5 °C of water temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurements of the Temperature and E-mode Polarization of the CMB from 500 Square Degrees of SPTpol Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, J. W.; Sayre, J. T.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ade, P. A. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Cho, H-M.; Citron, R.; Moran, C. Corbett; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Haan, T. de; Dobbs, M. A.; Everett, W.; Gallicchio, J.; George, E. M.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N.; Hilton, G. C.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, D.; Lowitz, A.; Manzotti, A.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Montgomery, J.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J. P.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Schaffer, K. K.; Sievers, C.; Smecher, G.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Veach, T.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Wu, W. L. K.; Yefremenko, V.

    2018-01-10

    We present measurements of the E-mode polarization angular auto-power spectrum (EE) and temperature-E-mode cross-power spectrum (TE) of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using 150 GHz data from three seasons of SPTpol observations. We report the power spectra over the spherical harmonic multipole range 50 < l <= 8000 and detect nine acoustic peaks in the EE spectrum with high signal-to-noise ratio. These measurements are the most sensitive to date of the EE and TE power spectra at l > 1050 and l > 1475, respectively. The observations cover 500 deg(2), a fivefold increase in area compared to previous SPTpol analyses, which increases our sensitivity to the photon diffusion damping tail of the CMB power spectra enabling tighter constraints on Lambda CDM model extensions. After masking all sources with unpolarized flux > 50 mJy, we place a 95% confidence upper limit on residual polarized point-source power of D-l= l(l + 1)C-l/2 pi < 0.107 mu K-2 at l = 3000, suggesting that the EE damping tail dominates foregrounds to at least l = 4050 with modest source masking. We find that the SPTpol data set is in mild tension with the Lambda CDM model (2.1 sigma), and different data splits prefer parameter values that differ at the similar to 1 sigma level. When fitting SPTpol data at l < 1000, we find cosmological parameter constraints consistent with those for Planck temperature. Including SPTpol data at l > 1000 results in a preference for a higher value of the expansion rate (H-0 = 71.3 +/- 2.1 km s(-1) Mpc(-1)) and a lower value for present-day density fluctuations (sigma(8) = 0.77 +/- 0.02).

  13. Temperature Dependence of the Inhibition of Positronium by Chlorine- Substituted Hydrocarbons in Non-Polar Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikander, G.; Mogensen, O.E.; Pedersen, Niels Jørgen

    1984-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectra were measured for solutions of 1,2,3,5-C6H2Cl4 in hexane, toluene, m-xylene and mesitylene, CCl4 in hexane and toluene, and C2HCl3 in n-hexane for concentrations below 1 M and at various temperatures between −30°C and 67°C. The Ps inhibition by C6H2Cl4...... was roughly 14 times stronger at −30°C than at 67°C in toluene, m-xylene, and mesitylene, while that of CCl4 displayed hardly any temperature dependence in hexane and toluene. Previously, the Ps inhibition by C6H2Cl4 in various liquids at 20°C was explained by a competition between electron pick off...

  14. Low temperature thermal properties of pentanol-2 — (A perspective polarized target material)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyatova, E. I.; Sahling, A.; Sahling, S.

    1990-07-01

    The low temperature heat capacity and the long-time energy relaxation of pentanol-1 and pentanol-2 were measured. The results demonstrate that pentanol-1 is crystalline and pentanol-2 is amorphous after cooling with a cooling rate of about 1 K min -1. From the power release data of pentanol-2 the distribution parameter of two-level systems P = 4.1 × 10 44J m -3 was obtained.

  15. Correction of MHS Viscosimetric Constants upon Numerical Simulation of Temperature Induced Degradation Kinetic of Chitosan Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Maria De Benedictis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mark–Houwink–Sakurada (MHS equation allows for estimation of rheological properties, if the molecular weight is known along with good understanding of the polymer conformation. The intrinsic viscosity of a polymer solution is related to the polymer molecular weight according to the MHS equation, where the value of the constants is related to the specific solvent and its concentration. However, MHS constants do not account for other characteristics of the polymeric solutions, i.e., Deacetilation Degree (DD when the solute is chitosan. In this paper, the degradation of chitosan in different acidic environments by thermal treatment is addressed. In particular, two different solutions are investigated (used as solvent acetic or hydrochloric acid with different concentrations used for the preparation of chitosan solutions. The samples were treated at different temperatures (4, 30, and 80 °C and time points (3, 6 and 24 h. Rheological, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Thermal Gravimetric Analyses (TGA were performed in order to assess the degradation rate of the polymer backbones. Measured values of molecular weight have been integrated in the simulation of the batch degradation of chitosan solutions for evaluating MHS coefficients to be compared with their corresponding experimental values. Evaluating the relationship between the different parameters used in the preparation of chitosan solutions (e.g., temperature, time, acid type and concentration, and their contribution to the degradation of chitosan backbone, it is important to have a mathematical frame that could account for phenomena involved in polymer degradation that go beyond the solvent-solute combination. Therefore, the goal of the present work is to propose an integration of MHS coefficients for chitosan solutions that contemplate a deacetylation degree for chitosan systems or a more

  16. Ensemble Kalman filter assimilation of temperature and altimeter data with bias correction and application to seasonal prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Keppenne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To compensate for a poorly known geoid, satellite altimeter data is usually analyzed in terms of anomalies from the time mean record. When such anomalies are assimilated into an ocean model, the bias between the climatologies of the model and data is problematic. An ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF is modified to account for the presence of a forecast-model bias and applied to the assimilation of TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P altimeter data. The online bias correction (OBC algorithm uses the same ensemble of model state vectors to estimate biased-error and unbiased-error covariance matrices. Covariance localization is used but the bias covariances have different localization scales from the unbiased-error covariances, thereby accounting for the fact that the bias in a global ocean model could have much larger spatial scales than the random error.The method is applied to a 27-layer version of the Poseidon global ocean general circulation model with about 30-million state variables. Experiments in which T/P altimeter anomalies are assimilated show that the OBC reduces the RMS observation minus forecast difference for sea-surface height (SSH over a similar EnKF run in which OBC is not used. Independent in situ temperature observations show that the temperature field is also improved. When the T/P data and in situ temperature data are assimilated in the same run and the configuration of the ensemble at the end of the run is used to initialize the ocean component of the GMAO coupled forecast model, seasonal SSH hindcasts made with the coupled model are generally better than those initialized with optimal interpolation of temperature observations without altimeter data. The analysis of the corresponding sea-surface temperature hindcasts is not as conclusive.

  17. Exploring Machine Learning to Correct Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Saux Picart

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning techniques are attractive tools to establish statistical models with a high degree of non linearity. They require a large amount of data to be trained and are therefore particularly suited to analysing remote sensing data. This work is an attempt at using advanced statistical methods of machine learning to predict the bias between Sea Surface Temperature (SST derived from infrared remote sensing and ground “truth” from drifting buoy measurements. A large dataset of collocation between satellite SST and in situ SST is explored. Four regression models are used: Simple multi-linear regression, Least Square Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO, Generalised Additive Model (GAM and random forest. In the case of geostationary satellites for which a large number of collocations is available, results show that the random forest model is the best model to predict the systematic errors and it is computationally fast, making it a good candidate for operational processing. It is able to explain nearly 31% of the total variance of the bias (in comparison to about 24% for the multi-linear regression model.

  18. Elastic scattering of protons by 16O, 40Ca and 208Pb at 200, 500 and 800 MeV: 2, Effects of vacuum polarization and Pauli blocking corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottenstein, N.; Wallace, S.J.; Tjon, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    Dirac impulse approximation predictions for cross sections and spin observables in elastic proton scattering by 40 Ca and 208 Pb at energies of 200, 500 and 800 MeV are presented. The analysis is based on complete sets of Lorentz invariant NN amplitudes determined from a meson exchange model of the nuclear force. Effects of relativistic nuclear densities are explored including estimates of the vacuum polarization corrections based on quantum hadrodynamics. Effects of Pauli blocking are considered using the approximations of Murdock and Horowitz. A good description of the experimental data is obtained over a broad energy range and over a wide variation of nuclear size based on the generalized impulse approximation. Vacuum polarization corrections are found to enhance the agreement between theory and experiment. 18 refs., 8 figs

  19. The effect of the excitation and of the temperature on the photoluminescence circular polarization of AlInAs/AlGaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellami, N. [Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques, La Marsa 2070 (Tunisia); Melliti, A., E-mail: adnenmelliti@yahoo.fr [Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques, La Marsa 2070 (Tunisia); Sahli, A.; Maaref, M.A. [Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques, La Marsa 2070 (Tunisia); Testelin, C. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Campus Boucicaut, Universites Paris 6 et 7, CNRS, UMR7588, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Kuszelewiez, R. [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures, CNRS, UPR 20 (France)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, we present a study of photoluminescence (PL) from AlInAs/AlGaAs quantum dots (QDs) structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Specifically, we describe the effects of the temperature and of the excitation density on the photoluminescence circular polarization. We have found that the circular polarization degree depends on temperature. On the other hand, the study of the excitation density dependent circular polarization PL degree shows that the last increases in the case of the sample of weak dot density. However, in the case of large dot density, it is almost constant in the excitation density range from 0.116 W cm{sup -2} to 9 W cm{sup -2}.

  20. Marine phytoplankton temperature versus growth responses from polar to tropical waters--outcome of a scientific community-wide study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W Boyd

    Full Text Available "It takes a village to finish (marine science these days" Paraphrased from Curtis Huttenhower (the Human Microbiome project The rapidity and complexity of climate change and its potential effects on ocean biota are challenging how ocean scientists conduct research. One way in which we can begin to better tackle these challenges is to conduct community-wide scientific studies. This study provides physiological datasets fundamental to understanding functional responses of phytoplankton growth rates to temperature. While physiological experiments are not new, our experiments were conducted in many laboratories using agreed upon protocols and 25 strains of eukaryotic and prokaryotic phytoplankton isolated across a wide range of marine environments from polar to tropical, and from nearshore waters to the open ocean. This community-wide approach provides both comprehensive and internally consistent datasets produced over considerably shorter time scales than conventional individual and often uncoordinated lab efforts. Such datasets can be used to parameterise global ocean model projections of environmental change and to provide initial insights into the magnitude of regional biogeographic change in ocean biota in the coming decades. Here, we compare our datasets with a compilation of literature data on phytoplankton growth responses to temperature. A comparison with prior published data suggests that the optimal temperatures of individual species and, to a lesser degree, thermal niches were similar across studies. However, a comparison of the maximum growth rate across studies revealed significant departures between this and previously collected datasets, which may be due to differences in the cultured isolates, temporal changes in the clonal isolates in cultures, and/or differences in culture conditions. Such methodological differences mean that using particular trait measurements from the prior literature might introduce unknown errors and bias into

  1. Evidence for surface water ice in the lunar polar regions using reflectance measurements from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and temperature measurements from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Lucey, Paul G.; Lemelin, Myriam; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Aharonson, Oded; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Hayne, Paul O.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Paige, David A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-08-01

    We find that the reflectance of the lunar surface within 5° of latitude of the South Pole increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, near ∼110 K, behavior consistent with the presence of surface water ice. The North polar region does not show this behavior, nor do South polar surfaces at latitudes more than 5° from the pole. This South pole reflectance anomaly persists when analysis is limited to surfaces with slopes less than 10° to eliminate false detection due to the brightening effect of mass wasting, and also when the very bright south polar crater Shackleton is excluded from the analysis. We also find that south polar regions of permanent shadow that have been reported to be generally brighter at 1064 nm do not show anomalous reflectance when their annual maximum surface temperatures are too high to preserve water ice. This distinction is not observed at the North Pole. The reflectance excursion on surfaces with maximum temperatures below 110 K is superimposed on a general trend of increasing reflectance with decreasing maximum temperature that is present throughout the polar regions in the north and south; we attribute this trend to a temperature or illumination-dependent space weathering effect (e.g. Hemingway et al., 2015). We also find a sudden increase in reflectance with decreasing temperature superimposed on the general trend at 200 K and possibly at 300 K. This may indicate the presence of other volatiles such as sulfur or organics. We identified and mapped surfaces with reflectances so high as to be unlikely to be part of an ice-free population. In this south we find a similar distribution found by Hayne et al. (2015) based on UV properties. In the north a cluster of pixels near that pole may represent a limited frost exposure.

  2. Extensive MRO CRISM Observations of 1.27 micron O2 Airglow in Mars Polar Night and Their Comparison to MRO MCS Temperature Profiles and LMD GCM Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Sandor, Brad J.; Wolff, Michael J.; Smith, Michael Doyle; Lefevre, Franck; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Forget, Francois; Murchie, Scott L.; Seelos, Frank P.; Seelos, Kim D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Martian polar night distribution of 1.27 micron (0-0) band emission from O2 singlet delta [O2(1Delta(sub g))] is determined from an extensive set of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectral Mapping (CRISM) limb scans observed over a wide range of Mars seasons, high latitudes, local times, and longitudes between 2009 and 2011. This polar nightglow reflects meridional transport and winter polar descent of atomic oxygen produced from CO2 photodissociation. A distinct peak in 1.27 micron nightglow appears prominently over 70-90NS latitudes at 40-60 km altitudes, as retrieved for over 100 vertical profiles of O2(1Delta(sub g)) 1.27 micron volume emission rates (VER). We also present the first detection of much (x80+/-20) weaker 1.58 micron (0-1) band emission from Mars O2(1Delta(sub g)). Co-located polar night CRISM O2(1Delta(sub g)) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) (McCleese et al., 2008) temperature profiles are compared to the same profiles as simulated by the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) general circulation/photochemical model (e.g., Lefèvre et al., 2004). Both standard and interactive aerosol LMD simulations (Madeleine et al., 2011a) underproduce CRISM O2(1Delta(sub g)) total emission rates by 40%, due to inadequate transport of atomic oxygen to the winter polar emission regions. Incorporation of interactive cloud radiative forcing on the global circulation leads to distinct but insufficient improvements in modeled polar O2(1Delta(sub g)) and temperatures. The observed and modeled anti-correlations between temperatures and 1.27 mm band VER reflect the temperature dependence of the rate coefficient for O2(1Delta(sub g)) formation, as provided in Roble (1995).

  3. Study of the Polarization Behavior of Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ Single Crystals below 350°C to Room Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuhaus, K.; Bernemann, M.; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2016-01-01

    was investigated by mapping the introduced defect gradient and its decay with time using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The generated surface potential gradients were found to have a diameter of up to 1 μm, which is explained by the local ionization of defect associates by the applied high electric field....... Measurements were performed at room temperature and 50°C. The polarization behavior of the Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ single crystals was compared to cyclovoltammetry and polarization-relaxation experiments at T ≤ 350°C and in dry air or nitrogen which were performed using a specially suited AFM (Controlled Atmosphere...

  4. Using Data Mining Techniques to Investigate Relationships between Observed Aircraft Temperature and Relative Humidity Data for Numerical Weather Prediction Model Bias Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCracken, R. F.; Collard, A.

    2016-12-01

    There has been a known issue for the past 40+ years that certain types of commercial aircraft temperature sensors will report temperatures lower due to evaporative cooling effects if the sensor is too wet due to flying through cumulus clouds. Over the years, Aircraft Instrumentation manuals and several studies have investigated this issue and have found that the temperature sensor measures report temperatures that are closer to the web bulb temperature instead of actual temperature, a 1-3°C temperature difference. Most studies are experimental field campaigns, since there are very few moisture observations that are collocated with temperature observations to test and correct for this issue. This issue has begun to be investigated for purposes of bias correction for the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system/Global Forecast System (GFS) models. NOAA/Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) has received several new aircraft datasets, such as the Water Vapor Sensing System (WVSS) and Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) data, which will provide the opportunity to investigate collocated temperature and moisture observations. Initial standard correlation analysis shows moderate correlations between high values of specific humidity and temperature. To investigate further relationships, a data mining algorithm will be utilized. A decision tree utilizing the C4.5 algorithm was generated to illustrate the relationships between temperature, moisture, height and winds. Results from this data mining study will be presented.

  5. Commissioning and modification of the low temperature scanning polarization microscope (TTSPM) and imaging of the local magnetic flux density distribution in superconducting niobium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenzweig, Matthias Sebastian Peter

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation is separated into two different parts, which will be presented in the following. Part I of the dissertation is about the commissioning and the modification of the ''low-temperature scanning polarization microscope'' which was designed in a previous dissertation of Stefan Guenon [1]. A scanning polarization microscope has certain advantages compared to conventional polarization microscopes. With a scanning polarization microscope it is easily possible to achieve a high illumination intensity, which is important to realize a high signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, the confocal design of the scanning polarization microscope improves the resolution of the microscope by a factor of 1.4. Normally, it is not necessary to post-process the images by means of differential frame method to eliminate the contrast of non-magnetic origin. In contrast to conventional polarization microscopes the low-temperature scanning polarization microscope is able to image electronic transport properties via beam-induced voltage variation in addition to the magneto-optical effects. In this dissertation, it was possible to demonstrate the performance capability of the scanning polarization microscope at room temperature as well as at low temperatures. The investigation of the polar Kerr-effect has been carried out with a BaFe 12 O 19 -test sample whereas the measurements of the longitudinal Kerr-effect have been carried out with an in-plane magnetized acceleration sensor. Furthermore, an independent room temperature construction for out-of-plane measurements in a magnetic field up to 1 Tesla has been designed and implemented within the framework of a diploma thesis, supervised by the author of this dissertation. Using this construction, it was possible to gain experimental results regarding the interlayer exchange coupling between iron-terbium alloys (Fe 1-x Tb x ) and cobalt-platinum multilayers (vertical stroke Co/Pt vertical stroke n ). Indeed, it has been

  6. Room-temperature polar order in [NH4][Cd(HCOO)3]--a hybrid inorganic-organic compound with a unique perovskite architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aguirre, L C; Pato-Doldán, B; Stroppa, A; Yáñez-Vilar, S; Bayarjargal, L; Winkler, B; Castro-García, S; Mira, J; Sánchez-Andújar, M; Señarís-Rodríguez, M A

    2015-03-02

    We report on the hybrid inorganic-organic ammonium compound [NH4][Cd(HCOO)3], which displays a most unusual framework structure: instead of the expected 4(9)·6(6) topology, it shows an ABX3 perovskite architecture with the peculiarity and uniqueness (among all the up-to-date reported hybrid metal formates) that the Cd ions are connected only by syn-anti formate bridges, instead of anti-anti ones. This change of the coordination mode of the formate ligand is thus another variable that can provide new possibilities for tuning the properties of these versatile functional metal-organic framework materials. The room-temperature crystal structure of [NH4][Cd(HCOO)3] is noncentrosymmetric (S.G.: Pna21) and displays a polar axis. DFT calculations and symmetry mode analysis show that the rather large polarization arising from the off-center shift of the ammonium cations in the cavities (4.33 μC/cm(2)) is partially canceled by the antiparallel polarization coming from the [Cd(HCOO)3](-) framework, thus resulting in a net polarization of 1.35 μC/cm(2). As shown by second harmonic generation studies, this net polarization can be greatly increased by applying pressure (Pmax = 14 GPa), an external stimulus that, in turn, induces the appearance of new structural phases, as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  7. Estimation and Validation of Land Surface Temperatures from Chinese Second-Generation Polar-Orbit FY-3A VIRR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Hui Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work estimated and validated the land surface temperature (LST from thermal-infrared Channels 4 (10.8 µm and 5 (12.0 µm of the Visible and Infrared Radiometer (VIRR onboard the second-generation Chinese polar-orbiting FengYun-3A (FY-3A meteorological satellite. The LST, mean emissivity and atmospheric water vapor content (WVC were divided into several tractable sub-ranges with little overlap to improve the fitting accuracy. The experimental results showed that the root mean square errors (RMSEs were proportional to the viewing zenith angles (VZAs and WVC. The RMSEs were below 1.0 K for VZA sub-ranges less than 30° or for VZA sub-ranges less than 60° and WVC less than 3.5 g/cm2, provided that the land surface emissivities were known. A preliminary validation using independently simulated data showed that the estimated LSTs were quite consistent with the actual inputs, with a maximum RMSE below 1 K for all VZAs. An inter-comparison using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-derived LST product MOD11_L2 showed that the minimum RMSE was 1.68 K for grass, and the maximum RMSE was 3.59 K for barren or sparsely vegetated surfaces. In situ measurements at the Hailar field site in northeastern China from October, 2013, to September, 2014, were used to validate the proposed method. The result showed that the RMSE between the LSTs calculated from the ground measurements and derived from the VIRR data was 1.82 K.

  8. Resilience to temperature and pH changes in a future climate change scenario in six strains of the polar diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pancic, Marina; Hansen, Per Juel; Tammilehto, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The effects of ocean acidification and increased temperature on physiology of six strains of the polar diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus from Greenland were investigated. Experiments were performed under manipulated pH levels (8.0, 7.7, 7.4, and 7.1) and different temperatures (1, 5, and 8...... C) to simulate changes from present to plausible future levels. Each of the 12 scenarios was run for 7 days, and a significant interaction between temperature and pH on growth was detected. By combining increased temperature and acidification, the two factors counterbalanced each other......, and therefore no effect on the growth rates was found. However, the growth rates increased with elevated temperatures by 20–50% depending on the strain. In addition, a general negative effect of increasing acidification on growth was observed. At pH 7.7 and 7.4, the growth response varied considerably among...

  9. Resilience to temperature and pH changes in a future climate change scenario in six strains of the polar diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pančić, M.; Hansen, Peter Juul; Tammilehto, A.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of ocean acidification and increased temperature on physiology of six strains of the polar diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus from Greenland were investigated. Experiments were performed under manipulated pH levels (8.0, 7.7, 7.4, and 7.1) and different temperatures (1, 5 and 8 °C......) to simulate changes from present to plausible future levels. Each of the 12 scenarios was run for 7 days, and a significant interaction between temperature and pH on growth was detected. By combining increased temperature and acidification, the two factors counterbalanced each other, and therefore no effect...... on the growth rates was found. However, the growth rates increased with elevated temperatures by ∼20–50% depending on the strain. In addition, a general negative effect of increasing acidification on growth was observed. At pH 7.7 and 7.4, the growth response varied considerably among strains. However, a more...

  10. Temperature Data Assimilation with Salinity Corrections: Validation for the NSIPP Ocean Data Assimilation System in the Tropical Pacific Ocean, 1993-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troccoli, Alberto; Rienecker, Michele M.; Keppenne, Christian L.; Johnson, Gregory C.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP) has developed an Ocean data assimilation system to initialize the quasi-isopycnal ocean model used in our experimental coupled-model forecast system. Initial tests of the system have focused on the assimilation of temperature profiles in an optimal interpolation framework. It is now recognized that correction of temperature only often introduces spurious water masses. The resulting density distribution can be statically unstable and also have a detrimental impact on the velocity distribution. Several simple schemes have been developed to try to correct these deficiencies. Here the salinity field is corrected by using a scheme which assumes that the temperature-salinity relationship of the model background is preserved during the assimilation. The scheme was first introduced for a zlevel model by Troccoli and Haines (1999). A large set of subsurface observations of salinity and temperature is used to cross-validate two data assimilation experiments run for the 6-year period 1993-1998. In these two experiments only subsurface temperature observations are used, but in one case the salinity field is also updated whenever temperature observations are available.

  11. Verification of antiferromagnetic exchange coupling at room temperature using polar magneto-optic Kerr effect in thin EuS/Co multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goschew, A., E-mail: alexander.goschew@fu-berlin.de; Scott, M.; Fumagalli, P. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-08-08

    We report on magneto-optic Kerr measurements in polar geometry carried out on a series of thin Co/EuS multilayers on suitable Co/Pd-multilayer substrates. Thin Co/EuS multilayers of a few nanometers individual layer thickness usually have their magnetization in plane. Co/Pd multilayers introduce a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the Co/EuS layers deposited on top, thus making it possible to measure magneto-optic signals in the polar geometry in remanence in order to study exchange coupling. Magneto-optic Kerr-effect spectra and hysteresis loops were recorded in the visible and ultraviolet photon-energy range at room temperature. The EuS contribution to the magneto-optic signal is extracted at 4.1 eV by combining hysteresis loops measured at different photon energies with polar magneto-optic Kerr-effect spectra recorded in remanence and in an applied magnetic field of 2.2 T. The extracted EuS signal shows clear signs of antiferromagnetic coupling of the Eu magnetic moments to the Co layers. This implies that the ordering temperature of at least a fraction of the EuS layers is above room temperature proving that magneto-optic Kerr-effect spectroscopy can be used here as a quasi-element-specific method.

  12. Collar temperature sensor data reveal long-term patterns in southern Beaufort Sea polar bear den distribution on pack ice and land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jay W; Rode, Karyn D.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Smith, T.S.; Wilson, R. R.; Durner, George M.; Fischbach, Anthony; Atwood, Todd C.; Douglas, David

    2017-01-01

    In response to a changing climate, many species alter habitat use. Polar bears Ursus maritimus in the southern Beaufort Sea have increasingly used land for maternal denning. To aid in detecting denning behavior, we developed an objective method to identify polar bear denning events using temperature sensor data collected by satellite-linked transmitters deployed on adult females between 1985 and 2013. We then applied this method to determine whether southern Beaufort Sea polar bears have continued to increase land denning with recent sea-ice loss and examined whether sea-ice conditions affect the distribution of dens between pack-ice and coastal substrates. Because land use in summer and autumn has also increased, we examined potential associations between summering substrate and denning substrate. Statistical process control methods applied to temperature-sensor data identified denning events with 94.5% accuracy in comparison to direct observations (n = 73) and 95.7% accuracy relative to subjective classifications based on temperature, location, and activity sensor data (n = 116). We found an increase in land-based denning during the study period. The frequency of land denning was directly related to the distance that sea ice retreated from the coast. Among females that denned, all 14 that summered on land subsequently denned there, whereas 29% of the 69 bears summering on ice denned on land. These results suggest that denning on land may continue to increase with further loss of sea ice. While the effects that den substrate have on nutrition, energetics, and reproduction are unclear, more polar bears denning onshore will likely increase human-bear interactions.

  13. Two-day Planetary Wave Impact on Austral Polar Mesopause Temperatures: as Revealed by a January Diminution in PMSE above Davis, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. J.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Murphy, D. J.; Holdsworth, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    A new characteristic of the austral summer polar mesopause as revealed by ground MST radar charged ice- aerosol echoes and satellite MLS temperature is reported, that is plausibly linked to the low-latitude easterly wind jet. Four consecutive seasons of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) and mesosphere temperature observations above Davis, Antarctica (geographic: 68.6°S; 78.0°N) exhibit an annual mid-January diminution in PMSE occurrence rate that is correlated with a simultaneous mesopause warming by several degrees. Interestingly, the corresponding mesosphere meridional wind field changes from equatorward to a poleward flow at these times. Although displaying some inter-annual variation in the peak onset time, the mid-January mesopause warming correlates with the peak in the line-of-sight meridional wind and temperature enhancements (both poleward and in altitude) associated with the low-latitude 2-day planetary wave (PW). Periodogram analyses of PMSE and Aura MLS temperatures show the dominance of 5- day PWs throughout the austral summer coupled with pronounced 2-day PWs evident from early January to mid-February. Zonal spectral analyses of Aura MLS temperature records reveal the high-latitude 2-day PWs have zonal wavenumber (s) with both westward (s = -2, -3) and eastward (s = 2, 3) spectral features consistent with the periodogram results. Our polar observations support the evolution of a myriad of prodigy PWs spawned from the westward 2-day PW (s = -3) activity, originating from the low-latitude easterly jet, albeit not previously linked to the reported mid-January diminution of PMSE at southern latitudes.

  14. Polarization-selective three-photon absorption and subsequent photoluminescence in CsPbBr3 single crystal at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. J.; Stoumpos, C. C.; Saouma, F. O.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Jang, J. I.

    2016-05-01

    We report on highly polarization-selective three-photon absorption (3PA) in a Bridgman-grown single crystal of CsPbBr3 oriented along the (112) direction, which is an inorganic counterpart to emerging organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites for solar-cell and optoelectronic applications. The crystal exhibits strong photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature as a direct consequence of 3PA of fundamental radiation. Interestingly, 3PA disappears when the input polarization is parallel to the (-110 ) direction. This 3PA effect is strongest when orthogonal to (-110 ) and the corresponding 3PA coefficient was measured to be γ =0.14 ±0.03 cm3/GW2 under picosecond-pulse excitation at the fundamental wavelength of λ =1200 nm. The laser-induced damage threshold was also determined to be about 20 GW/cm2 at the same wavelength. Based on relative PL intensities upon λ tuning over the entire 3PA range (1100 -1700 nm), we determined the nonlinear optical dispersion of the 3PA coefficient for CsPbBr3, which is consistent with a theoretical prediction. Experimentally observed significant polarization dependence of γ was explained by relevant selection rules. The perovskite is potentially important for nonlinear optical applications owing to its highly efficient 3PA-induced PL response with a sharp on/off ratio by active polarization control.

  15. Fault of the correction factor for pressure and temperature kPT in the atmospheric conditions of Dosimetric Calibration Lab. - LSCD of ININ - Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, Jose T.; Jesus Cejudo, A.; La Cruz H., Daniel de; Tovar M, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    The realization of the operational quantities H*, Hp y/0 H'(0.07) for estimating the effective dose E, usually is done by measuring the air kerma Ka air within the field of ionizing radiation of interest and was subsequently applied appropriate conversion factors for both the quality of radiation and the operational quantity of interest. However, the SSDL in performing the Ka to environmental conditions of ININ (3000 m above sea level, P ∼ 710 hPa) with ionization chambers has found that the pressure correction factor and kPT temperature is not sufficient to correct the change in air density. Indeed, in the case of 60 Co the discrepancy between the measurement of a primary standard graphite walls Ka (BEV CC01 be 131) and a side of the plastic walls (Exradin A12) is on the order of 0.4% for the case of the RX BIPM qualities to 100,135, 180 and 250 kV. It was found that for a camera model 30001 PTW (PMMA graphite wall) is needed an additional correction factor k PT ranging from 0.4% to 1.5%, correction factor calculated by MC simulation. For Sk of 125 I brachytherapy sources was given an additional correction lower in 11% compared to conventional k PT value measured with a well chamber Standard Imaging HDR 1000 plus. Finally, it is in the process of studying the behavior of this additional correction factor to the case of 137 Cs

  16. MEASUREMENTS OF E-MODE POLARIZATION AND TEMPERATURE-E-MODE CORRELATION IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND FROM 100 SQUARE DEGREES OF SPTPOL DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crites, A. T.; Henning, J. W.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aird, K. A.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Cho, H-M.; Citron, R.; Crawford, T. M.; Haan, T. de; Dobbs, M. A.; Everett, W.; Gallicchio, J.; Gao, J.; George, E. M.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Hanson, D.; Harrington, N.; Hilton, G. C.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, D.; Liang, C.; Luong-Van, D.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Montroy, T. E.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J. P.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Smecher, G.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Yefremenko, V.; Zahn, O.

    2015-05-18

    We present measurements of E-mode polarization and temperature-E-mode correlation in the cosmic microwave background using data from the first season of observations with SPTpol, the polarization-sensitive receiver currently installed on the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The observations used in this work cover 100 ${{{\\rm deg} }^{2}}$ of sky with arcminute resolution at 150 GHz. We report the E-mode angular auto-power spectrum (EE) and the temperature-E-mode angular cross-power spectrum (TE) over the multipole range 500 < ℓ ≤ 5000. These power spectra improve on previous measurements in the high-ℓ (small-scale) regime. We fit the combination of the SPTpol power spectra, data from Planck, and previous SPT measurements with a six-parameter ΛCDM cosmological model. We find that the best-fit parameters are consistent with previous results. The improvement in high-ℓ sensitivity over previous measurements leads to a significant improvement in the limit on polarized point-source power: after masking sources brighter than 50 mJy in unpolarized flux at 150 GHz, we find a 95% confidence upper limit on unclustered point-source power in the EE spectrum of ${{D}_{\\ell }}=\\ell (\\ell +1){{C}_{\\ell }}/2\\pi \\lt 0.40\\ \\mu {{{\\rm K}}^{2}}$ at $\\ell =3000$, indicating that future EE measurements will not be limited by power from unclustered point sources in the multipole range $\\ell \\lt 3600$, and possibly much higher in $\\ell .$

  17. Growth of non-polar (11-20 InGaN quantum dots by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy using a two temperature method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Griffiths

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-polar (11-20 InGaN quantum dots (QDs were grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. An InGaN epilayer was grown and subjected to a temperature ramp in a nitrogen and ammonia environment before the growth of the GaN capping layer. Uncapped structures with and without the temperature ramp were grown for reference and imaged by atomic force microscopy. Micro-photoluminescence studies reveal the presence of resolution limited peaks with a linewidth of less than ∼500 μeV at 4.2 K. This linewidth is significantly narrower than that of non-polar InGaN quantum dots grown by alternate methods and may be indicative of reduced spectral diffusion. Time resolved photoluminescence studies reveal a mono-exponential exciton decay with a lifetime of 533 ps at 2.70 eV. The excitonic lifetime is more than an order of magnitude shorter than that for previously studied polar quantum dots and suggests the suppression of the internal electric field. Cathodoluminescence studies show the spatial distribution of the quantum dots and resolution limited spectral peaks at 18 K.

  18. Lattice constants of pure methane and carbon dioxide hydrates at low temperatures. Implementing quantum corrections to classical molecular dynamics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costandy, Joseph; Michalis, Vasileios K.; Economou, Ioannis G., E-mail: i.tsimpanogiannis@qatar.tamu.edu, E-mail: ioannis.economou@qatar.tamu.edu [Chemical Engineering Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N., E-mail: i.tsimpanogiannis@qatar.tamu.edu, E-mail: ioannis.economou@qatar.tamu.edu [Chemical Engineering Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Environmental Research Laboratory, National Center for Scientific Research NCSR “Demokritos,” 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Attikis (Greece); Stubos, Athanassios K. [Environmental Research Laboratory, National Center for Scientific Research NCSR “Demokritos,” 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Attikis (Greece)

    2016-03-28

    We introduce a simple correction to the calculation of the lattice constants of fully occupied structure sI methane or carbon dioxide pure hydrates that are obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulations using the TIP4PQ/2005 water force field. The obtained corrected lattice constants are subsequently used in order to obtain isobaric thermal expansion coefficients of the pure gas hydrates that exhibit a trend that is significantly closer to the experimental behavior than previously reported classical molecular dynamics studies.

  19. Polarization Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Fressengeas, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The physics of polarization optics *Polarized light propagation *Partially polarized light; DEA; After a brief introduction to polarization optics, this lecture reviews the basic formalisms for dealing with it: Jones Calculus for totally polarized light and Stokes parameters associated to Mueller Calculus for partially polarized light.

  20. Bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS with two active electrodes of the same polarity modulates bilateral cognitive processes differentially [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Klein

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is an innovative method to explore the causal structure-function relationship of brain areas. We investigated the specificity of bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS with two active electrodes of the same polarity (e.g., cathodal on both hemispheres applied to intraparietal cortices bilaterally using a combined between- and within-task approach. Regarding between-task specificity, we observed that bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS affected a numerical (mental addition but not a control task (colour word Stroop, indicating a specific influence of tDCS on numerical but not on domain general cognitive processes associated with the bilateral IPS. In particular, the numerical effect of distractor distance was more pronounced under cathodal than under anodal stimulation. Moreover, with respect to within-task specificity we only found the numerical distractor distance effect in mental addition to be modulated by direct current stimulation, whereas the effect of target identity was not affected. This implies a differential influence of bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS on the recruitment of different processing components within the same task (number magnitude processing vs. recognition of familiarity. In sum, this first successful application of bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS with two active electrodes of the same polarity in numerical cognition research corroborates the specific proposition of the Triple Code Model that number magnitude information is represented bilaterally in the intraparietal cortices.

  1. Next-to-leading order corrections to the spin-dependent energy spectrum of hadrons from polarized top quark decay in the general two Higgs doublet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad Moosavi Nejad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, searches for the light and heavy charged Higgs bosons have been done by the ATLAS and the CMS collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC in proton–proton collision. Nevertheless, a definitive search is a program that still has to be carried out at the LHC. The experimental observation of charged Higgs bosons would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model. In the present work, we study the scaled-energy distribution of bottom-flavored mesons (B inclusively produced in polarized top quark decays into a light charged Higgs boson and a massless bottom quark at next-to-leading order in the two-Higgs-doublet model; t(↑→bH+→BH++X. This spin-dependent energy distribution is studied in a specific helicity coordinate system where the polarization vector of the top quark is measured with respect to the direction of the Higgs momentum. The study of these energy distributions could be considered as a new channel to search for the charged Higgs bosons at the LHC. For our numerical analysis and phenomenological predictions, we restrict ourselves to the unexcluded regions of the MSSM mH+−tan⁡β parameter space determined by the recent results of the CMS [13] and ATLAS [14] collaborations.

  2. Temperature dependent polarization reversal mechanism in 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 relaxor ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaum, Julia; Simons, Hugh; Hudspeth, Jessica; Acosta, Matias; Daniels, John E.

    2015-12-01

    The temperature at which the electric field induced long-range ordered ferroelectric state undergoes transition into the short-range ordered relaxor state, TF-R, is commonly defined by the onset of strong dispersion of the dielectric permittivity. However, this combined macroscopic property and structural investigation of the polarization reversal process in the prototypical lead-free relaxor 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 reveals that an applied electric field can trigger depolarization and onset of relaxor-like behavior well below TF-R. The polarization reversal process can as such be described as a combination of (1) ferroelectric domain switching and (2) a reversible phase transition between two polar ferroelectric states mediated by a non-polar relaxor state. Furthermore, the threshold fields of the second, mediated polarization reversal mechanism depend strongly on temperature. These results are concomitant with a continuous ferroelectric to relaxor transition occurring over a broad temperature range, during which mixed behavior is observed. The nature of polarization reversal can be illustrated in electric-field-temperature (E-T) diagrams showing the electric field amplitudes associated with different polarization reversal processes. Such diagrams are useful tools for identifying the best operational temperature regimes for a given composition in actuator applications.

  3. Quantum corrections to the spin-correlation function and the spin-stiffness constant in a two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet at zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, J.; Watabe, A.

    1991-01-01

    Quantum corrections to the longitudinal spin-correlation function and the spin-stiffness constant are calculated up to 1/(2S) 2 in a two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet at zero temperature by using the Holstein-Primakoff transformation. The equal-time longitudinal spin-correlation function is found to compensate almost entirely the reduction caused by the second-order correction in the transverse spin-correlation function, making the spherically averaged correlation function very close to the value given by linear spin-wave theory. In the spin-stiffness constant, a partial cancellation is found between the ''paramagnetic'' and ''diamagnetic'' terms, leading to a small second-order correction

  4. Temperature profile and nutrients data collected using bottle casts from the POLAR DUKE and NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from 10 November 1997 to 12 December 1997 (NODC Accession 0000898)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from the POLAR DUKE and NATHANIEL B. PALMER. Data were...

  5. Temperature profile and nutrients data collected using bottle casts from the POLAR DUKE in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from 08 October 1996 to 06 November 1996 (NODC Accession 0000894)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from POLAR DUKE. Data were collected from 08 October...

  6. Temperature profile and water depth data from BT and XBT casts in the Atlantic Ocean from USCGC POLAR SEA from 14 December 1983 to 06 May 1984 (NODC Accession 8600108)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC POLAR SEA in the Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 14 December...

  7. Temperature profile and nutrients data collected using bottle casts from the POLAR DUKE AND NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from 12 January 1997 to 09 February 1997 (NODC Accession 0000896)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from the POLAR DUKE and NATHANIEL B. PALMER. Data were...

  8. Temperature profile and nutrients data collected using bottle casts from the POLAR DUKE in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from 05 February 1992 to 28 February 1992 (NODC Accession 0000888)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from the POLAR DUKE. Data were collected from 05...

  9. Temperature profile and nutrients data collected using bottle casts from the POLAR DUKE in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from 13 November 1996 to 26 November 1996 (NODC Accession 0000895)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from the POLAR DUKE. Data were collected from 13...

  10. Temperature profile and nutrients data collected using bottle casts from the POLAR DUKE in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from 06 September 1996 to 12 September 1996 (NODC Accession 0000890)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from POLAR DUKE. Data were collected from 06 September...

  11. Effect of polarization Coulomb field scattering on low temperature electron mobility in strained AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Yang, Ming; Luan, Chong-Biao; Wang, Yu-Tang; Lv, Yuan-Jie; Feng, Zhi-Hong

    2016-12-01

    The electron mobility of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with the ratio of the gate length to the drain-to-source distance being less than 1/2 has been studied in the temperature range 100 ˜ 300 K. The measured electron mobility at each testing temperature is obtained by using the capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics measured at the corresponding temperature, and the theoretically calculated temperature-dependent electron mobility is determined by Matthiessen’s law, which includes five kinds of important scattering mechanisms. For the prepared sample, the measured electron mobility with respect to the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density was observed to increase to a peak point first and then decrease at each testing temperature. By comparing the measured electron mobility with the theoretically calculated value, the changing trend of the electron mobility at each testing temperature was found to be mainly determined by polarization Coulomb field (PCF) scattering. Particularly at lower temperature, PCF scattering plays a more significant role in the changing trend of the electron mobility.

  12. Characteristics of volume polarization holography with linear polarization light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jinliang; Wu, An'an; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jue; Lin, Xiao; Tan, Xiaodi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    Volume polarization holographic recording in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ-PMMA) photopolymer with linear polarized light is obtained. The characteristics of the volume polarization hologram are experimentally investigated. It is found that beyond the paraxial approximation the polarization states of the holographic reconstruction light are generally different from the signal light. Based on vector wave theoretical analyses and material properties, the special exposure condition for correctly holographic reconstruction is obtained and experimentally demonstrated.

  13. Determination of alcohol content in beverages using short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy and temperature correction by transfer calibration procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Fernando D; Poppi, Ronei J

    2003-10-01

    This paper reports the utilization of short-wave near-infrared (SW-NIR) transmission spectroscopy for rapid and conclusive analysis of alcoholic content (% v/v) in beverages. This spectral region is interesting because common visible diode array spectrometers can be utilized, reducing time and costs in comparison with traditional near-infrared or mid-infrared instruments. A correction of external temperature influence is necessary, and for this purposes two calibration transfer procedures were compared: piecewise direct standardization (PDS) and orthogonal signal correction (OSC). The RMSEP found for the alcoholic content model at 20 degrees C was 0.13% v/v and, after application of transfer calibration procedures at other temperatures (15, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C) using the model built at 20 degrees C, errors of the same order of magnitude were obtained.

  14. Chromosomal flhB1 gene of the alphaproteobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 is essential for correct assembly of both constitutive polar flagellum and inducible lateral flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip'echeva, Yulia; Shelud'ko, Andrei; Prilipov, Alexei; Telesheva, Elizaveta; Mokeev, Dmitry; Burov, Andrei; Petrova, Lilia; Katsy, Elena

    2018-03-01

    Azospirillum brasilense has the ability of swimming and swarming motility owing to the work of a constitutive polar flagellum and inducible lateral flagella, respectively. The interplay between these flagellar systems is poorly understood. One of the key elements of the flagellar export apparatus is the protein FlhB. Two predicted flhB genes are present in the genome of A. brasilense Sp245 (accession nos. HE577327-HE577333). Experimental evidence obtained here indicates that the chromosomal coding sequence (CDS) AZOBR_150177 (flhB1) of Sp245 is essential for the production of both types of flagella. In an flhB1:: Omegon-Km mutant, Sp245.1063, defects in polar and lateral flagellar assembly and motility were complemented by expressing the wild-type flhB1 gene from plasmid pRK415. It was found that Sp245.1063 lost the capacity for slight but statistically significant decrease in mean cell length in response to transfer from solid to liquid media, and vice versa; in the complemented mutant, this capacity was restored. It was also shown that after the acquisition of the pRK415-harbored downstream CDS AZOBR_150176, cells of Sp245 and Sp245.1063 ceased to elongate on solid media. These initial data suggest that the AZOBR_150176-encoded putative multisensory hybrid sensor histidine kinase-response regulator, in concert with FlhB1, plays a role in morphological response of azospirilla to changes in the hardness of a milieu.

  15. Temperature-corrected emissions of carbon dioxide, 1980-1993: Gross method. Voor temperatuur gecorrigeerde emissies van kooldioxyde, 1980-1993: Bruto methode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonneveld, E.A. (Produktgroep Milieubelasting en -beheer, Sector Milieu, Divisie Landbouw, Nijverheid en Milieu, Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Voorburg (Netherlands))

    1995-01-01

    Based on the yearly gross energy consumption of fossil fuels, a methodology for estimating CO[sub 2] emissions is presented. The methodology includes a correction for consumption and emissions due to differences in outdoor temperatures. The resulting annual emission levels (without the climatic influences) are especially useful as an instrument for policy makers. The uncorrected emissions, based on gross energy consumption, are also presented. 4 tabs., 4 refs.

  16. Segmental equivalent temperature determined by means of a thermal manikin: A method for correcting errors due to incomplete contact of the body with a surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Janieas, N.R.D.J.; Silva, M.C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The segmental equivalent temperature determined by means of a thermal manikin is often correlated with the local thermal sensation of people and is used for indoor environment assessment. It is also used to assess performance of heated/cooled/ventilated car seats, etc. However, the body...... of the thermal manikins used at present is not as flexible as the human body and is divided into body segments with a surface area that differs from that of the human body in contact with a surface. The area of the segment in contact with a surface will depend on the shape and flexibility of the surface....... This will affect the accuracy in determination of the segmental equivalent temperature, and will result in incorrect assessment. This paper presents a method for correction of the segmental equivalent temperature for the above effects. Improvement in determination of the segmental equivalent temperature...

  17. Sensitivity of the atmospheric water cycle to corrections of the sea surface temperature bias over southern Africa in a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Torsten; Haensler, Andreas; Jacob, Daniela

    2017-12-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) have been used to dynamically downscale global climate projections at high spatial and temporal resolution in order to analyse the atmospheric water cycle. In southern Africa, precipitation pattern were strongly affected by the moisture transport from the southeast Atlantic and southwest Indian Ocean and, consequently, by their sea surface temperatures (SSTs). However, global ocean models often have deficiencies in resolving regional to local scale ocean currents, e.g. in ocean areas offshore the South African continent. By downscaling global climate projections using RCMs, the biased SSTs from the global forcing data were introduced to the RCMs and affected the results of regional climate projections. In this work, the impact of the SST bias correction on precipitation, evaporation and moisture transport were analysed over southern Africa. For this analysis, several experiments were conducted with the regional climate model REMO using corrected and uncorrected SSTs. In these experiments, a global MPI-ESM-LR historical simulation was downscaled with the regional climate model REMO to a high spatial resolution of 50 × 50 km2 and of 25 × 25 km2 for southern Africa using a double-nesting method. The results showed a distinct impact of the corrected SST on the moisture transport, the meridional vertical circulation and on the precipitation pattern in southern Africa. Furthermore, it was found that the experiment with the corrected SST led to a reduction of the wet bias over southern Africa and to a better agreement with observations as without SST bias corrections.

  18. An algorithm for temperature correcting substrate moisture measurements: aligning substrate moisture responses with environmental drivers in polytunnel-grown strawberry plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Martin; Janes, Stuart; Jenkins, Malcolm; Nicholl, Chris; Kühn, Karl

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the use of temperature corrected substrate moisture data to improve the relationship between environmental drivers and the measurement of substrate moisture content in high porosity soil-free growing environments such as coir. Substrate moisture sensor data collected from strawberry plants grown in coir bags installed in a table-top system under a polytunnel illustrates the impact of temperature on capacitance-based moisture measurements. Substrate moisture measurements made in our coir arrangement possess the negative temperature coefficient of the permittivity of water where diurnal changes in moisture content oppose those of substrate temperature. The diurnal substrate temperature variation was seen to range from 7° C to 25° C resulting in a clearly observable temperature effect in substrate moisture content measurements during the 23 day test period. In the laboratory we measured the ML3 soil moisture sensor (ThetaProbe) response to temperature in Air, dry glass beads and water saturated glass beads and used a three-phase alpha (α) mixing model, also known as the Complex Refractive Index Model (CRIM), to derive the permittivity temperature coefficients for glass and water. We derived the α value and estimated the temperature coefficient for water - for sensors operating at 100MHz. Both results are good agreement with published data. By applying the CRIM equation with the temperature coefficients of glass and water the moisture temperature coefficient of saturated glass beads has been reduced by more than an order of magnitude to a moisture temperature coefficient of

  19. Co-C Dissociation of Adenosylcobalamin (Coenzyme B-12): Role of Dispersion, Induction Effects, Solvent Polarity, and Relativistic and Thermal Corrections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2014-01-01

    Quantum-chemical cluster modeling is challenged in the limit of large, soft systems by the effects of dispersion and solvent, and well as other physical interactions. Adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl, coenzyme B-12), as one of the most complex cofactors in life, constitutes such a challenge. The cleavage...... of its unique organometallic Co-C bond has inspired multiple studies of this cofactor. This paper reports the fully relaxed potential energy surface of Co-C cleavage of Ado Cbl, including for the first time all side-chain interactions with the dissociating Ado group. Various methods and corrections...

  20. Stratospheric warmings - The quasi-biennial oscillation Ozone Hole in the Antarctic but not the Arctic - Correlations between the Solar Cycle, Polar Temperatures, and an Equatorial Oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Ulf-Peter

    2010-05-15

    This report is a tutorial and overview over some of the complex dynamic phenomena in the polar and equatorial stratosphere, and the unexpected correlation that exists between these and the solar cycle. Sudden stratospheric warmings (stratwarms) occur in the polar stratosphere in winter, but not equally distributed between the two hemispheres. As a result, the ozone hole in the springtime polar stratosphere is much more severe in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere. The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) is a dynamic phenomenon of the equatorial stratosphere. Through processes not fully understood, the phase of the QBO (easterly or westerly) influences the onset of stratwarms. In addition, a correlation between the stratospheric winter temperature over the poles and the solar cycle has been found, but only if the datapoints are ordered by the phase of the QBO. - The best explanations and figures from four recent textbooks are selected, and abstracts of most relevant publications from the six last years are collected, with the most relevant portions for these subjects highlighted. - In addition to being basic science, the understanding of these phenomena is important in the context of the ozone hole, the greenhouse effect, as well as anthropogenic and natural climate change. (author)

  1. Doubling the spectrum of time-domain induced polarization by harmonic de-noising, drift correction, spike removal, tapered gating and data uncertainty estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Per-Ivar; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Larsen, Jakob Juul; Dahlin, Torleif; Auken, Esben

    2016-11-01

    The extraction of spectral information in the inversion process of time-domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) data is changing the use of the TDIP method. Data interpretation is evolving from a qualitative description of the subsurface, able only to discriminate the presence of contrasts in chargeability parameters, towards a quantitative analysis of the investigated media, which allows for detailed soil- and rock-type characterization. Two major limitations restrict the extraction of the spectral information of TDIP data in the field: (i) the difficulty of acquiring reliable early-time measurements in the millisecond range and (ii) the self-potential background drift in the measured potentials distorting the shape of the late-time IP responses, in the second range. Recent developments in TDIP acquisition equipment have given access to full-waveform recordings of measured potentials and transmitted current, opening for a breakthrough in data processing. For measuring at early times, we developed a new method for removing the significant noise from power lines contained in the data through a model-based approach, localizing the fundamental frequency of the power-line signal in the full-waveform IP recordings. By this, we cancel both the fundamental signal and its harmonics. Furthermore, an efficient processing scheme for identifying and removing spikes in TDIP data was developed. The noise cancellation and the de-spiking allow the use of earlier and narrower gates, down to a few milliseconds after the current turn-off. In addition, tapered windows are used in the final gating of IP data, allowing the use of wider and overlapping gates for higher noise suppression with minimal distortion of the signal. For measuring at late times, we have developed an algorithm for removal of the self-potential drift. Usually constant or linear drift-removal algorithms are used, but these algorithms often fail in removing the background potentials present when the electrodes used for

  2. Angle and Polarization Dependent Fluorescence EXAFS Measurements on Al-doped Single Crystal V_2O3 Above and Below the Transition Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, O.; Pfalzer, P.; Schramme, M.; Urbach, J.-P.; Klemm, M.; Horn, S.; Frenkel, A. I.; Denboer, M. L.

    1998-03-01

    We present angle and polarisation dependent flourescence EXAFS measured on Al-doped single crystal V_2O3 below and above the structural phase transition from monoclinic to trigonal. Strong self-absorption distorted the spectra; this was corrected by using the procedure described by Tröger et al. (L. Tröger, D. Arvantis, K. Baberschke, H. Michaelis, U. Grimm, and E. Zschech, Phys. Rev. B,.46), 3238 (1992), generalized to the Lytle detector employed in our work. The spectra show pronounced dependence on the angle between the threefold symmetry axes and the polarization of the incident photons, making it possible to measure the local atomic distances in different directions. We compare our results with the measurements of Frenkel et al. (A. I. Frenkel, E. A. Stern, and F. A. Chudnovsky, Sol. State Comm.102), 637 (1997) on pure V_2O3 They found that locally the monoclinic distortion persists in the trigonal metallic phase.

  3. A high-resolution combined scanning laser and widefield polarizing microscope for imaging at temperatures from 4 K to 300 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M; Guénon, S; Lever, F; Kleiner, R; Koelle, D

    2017-12-01

    Polarized light microscopy, as a contrast-enhancing technique for optically anisotropic materials, is a method well suited for the investigation of a wide variety of effects in solid-state physics, as, for example, birefringence in crystals or the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). We present a microscopy setup that combines a widefield microscope and a confocal scanning laser microscope with polarization-sensitive detectors. By using a high numerical aperture objective, a spatial resolution of about 240 nm at a wavelength of 405 nm is achieved. The sample is mounted on a 4 He continuous flow cryostat providing a temperature range between 4 K and 300 K, and electromagnets are used to apply magnetic fields of up to 800 mT with variable in-plane orientation and 20 mT with out-of-plane orientation. Typical applications of the polarizing microscope are the imaging of the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization via the longitudinal and polar MOKE, imaging of magnetic flux structures in superconductors covered with a magneto-optical indicator film via the Faraday effect, or imaging of structural features, such as twin-walls in tetragonal SrTiO 3 . The scanning laser microscope furthermore offers the possibility to gain local information on electric transport properties of a sample by detecting the beam-induced voltage change across a current-biased sample. This combination of magnetic, structural, and electric imaging capabilities makes the microscope a viable tool for research in the fields of oxide electronics, spintronics, magnetism, and superconductivity.

  4. A robust approach to correct for pronounced errors in temperature measurements by controlling radiation damping feedback fields in solution NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolahan, Stephanie M.; Li, Zhao; Hsu, Chao-Hsiung; Huang, Shing-Jong; Clubb, Robert; Hwang, Lian-Pin; Lin, Yung-Ya

    2014-11-01

    Accurate temperature measurement is a requisite for obtaining reliable thermodynamic and kinetic information in all NMR experiments. A widely used method to calibrate sample temperature depends on a secondary standard with temperature-dependent chemical shifts to report the true sample temperature, such as the hydroxyl proton in neat methanol or neat ethylene glycol. The temperature-dependent chemical shift of the hydroxyl protons arises from the sensitivity of the hydrogen-bond network to small changes in temperature. The frequency separation between the alkyl and the hydroxyl protons are then converted to sample temperature. Temperature measurements by this method, however, have been reported to be inconsistent and incorrect in modern NMR, particularly for spectrometers equipped with cryogenically-cooled probes. Such errors make it difficult or even impossible to study chemical exchange and molecular dynamics or to compare data acquired on different instruments, as is frequently done in biomolecular NMR. In this work, we identify the physical origins for such errors to be unequal amount of dynamical frequency shifts on the alkyl and the hydroxyl protons induced by strong radiation damping (RD) feedback fields. Common methods used to circumvent RD may not suppress such errors. A simple, easy-to-implement solution was demonstrated that neutralizes the RD effect on the frequency separation by a "selective crushing recovery" pulse sequence to equalize the transverse magnetization of both spin species. Experiments using cryoprobes at 500 MHz and 800 MHz demonstrated that this approach can effectively reduce the errors in temperature measurements from about ±4.0 K to within ±0.4 K in general.

  5. Polarization dependence of the electroabsorption in low-temperature grown GaAs for above band-gap energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruff, M.; Streb, D.; Dankowski, S. U.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the electroabsorption in low-temperature grown GaAs by performing room-temperature transmission experiments in the spectral range from 1.3 to 1.9 eV for different electric fields induced by a voltage applied to a metal-semiconductor-metal structure. The devices were separated from...

  6. Influence of Softening Temperature of Azobenzene Polymers and External Electric Field on Diffraction Efficiency of Polarization Holograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolay Davidenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of the diffraction efficiency and recording velocity was found in the films of copolymers 4-((2- nitrophenyl diazeniylphenylmethacrylate with octylmethacrylate at room temperature holographic recording for copolymer with less softening temperature. Effect of strengthening of the diffraction efficiency was observed when charging surface of the films with recorded hologram in crown discharge.

  7. Ultraviolet Rayleigh-Mie lidar with Mie-scattering correction by Fabry-Perot etalons for temperature profiling of the troposphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Dengxin; Uchida, Masaru; Kobayashi, Takao

    2005-03-01

    A Rayleigh-Mie-scattering lidar system at an eye-safe 355-nm ultraviolet wavelength that is based on a high-spectral-resolution lidar technique is demonstrated for measuring the vertical temperature profile of the troposphere. Two Rayleigh signals, which determine the atmospheric temperature, are filtered with two Fabry-Perot etalon filters. The filters are located on the same side of the wings of the Rayleigh-scattering spectrum and are optically constructed with a dual-pass optical layout. This configuration achieves a high rejection rate for Mie scattering and reasonable transmission for Rayleigh scattering. The Mie signal is detected with a third Fabry-Perot etalon filter, which is centered at the laser frequency. The filter parameters were optimized by numerical calculation; the results showed a Mie rejection of approximately -45 dB, and Rayleigh transmittance greater than 1% could be achieved for the two Rayleigh channels. A Mie correction method is demonstrated that uses an independent measure of the aerosol scattering to correct the temperature measurements that have been influenced by the aerosols and clouds. Simulations and preliminary experiments have demonstrated that the performance of the dual-pass etalon and Mie correction method is highly effective in practical applications. Simulation results have shown that the temperature errors that are due to noise are less than 1 K up to a height of 4 km for daytime measurement for 300 W m(-2) sr(-1) microm(-1) sky brightness with a lidar system that uses 200 mJ of laser energy, a 3.5-min integration time, and a 25-cm telescope.

  8. Measurements of the Temperature and E-mode Polarization of the CMB from 500 Square Degrees of SPTpol Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, J. W.; Sayre, J. T.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ade, P. A. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Cho, H.-M.; Citron, R.; Corbett Moran, C.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Everett, W.; Gallicchio, J.; George, E. M.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N.; Hilton, G. C.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, D.; Lowitz, A.; Manzotti, A.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Montgomery, J.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J. P.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Schaffer, K. K.; Sievers, C.; Smecher, G.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Veach, T.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Wu, W. L. K.; Yefremenko, V.

    2018-01-01

    We present measurements of the E-mode polarization angular auto-power spectrum (EE) and temperature–E-mode cross-power spectrum (TE) of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using 150 GHz data from three seasons of SPTpol observations. We report the power spectra over the spherical harmonic multipole range 50 1050 and {\\ell }> 1475, respectively. The observations cover 500 {\\deg }2, a fivefold increase in area compared to previous SPTpol analyses, which increases our sensitivity to the photon diffusion damping tail of the CMB power spectra enabling tighter constraints on ΛCDM model extensions. After masking all sources with unpolarized flux > 50 mJy, we place a 95% confidence upper limit on residual polarized point-source power of {D}{\\ell }={\\ell }({\\ell }+1){C}{\\ell }/2π 1000 results in a preference for a higher value of the expansion rate ({H}0=71.3+/- 2.1 {km} {{{s}}}-1{{Mpc}}-1 ) and a lower value for present-day density fluctuations ({σ }8=0.77+/- 0.02).

  9. Political Correctness--Correct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boase, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of political correctness, its roots and objectives, and its successes and failures in coping with the conflicts and clashes of multicultural campuses. Argues that speech codes indicate failure in academia's primary mission to civilize and educate through talk, discussion, thought,166 and persuasion. (SR)

  10. Tunnel diode amplifiers and their background noise as a function of the polarization point, the temperature, and the bandwidth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozveaminian, K.

    1969-01-01

    The author presents mathematical and graphical methods for the study of the stability of tunnel diode circuits. He gives an application to the realization of three amplifiers. Then he describes a theoretical and experimental investigation of the noise of these amplifiers and of its variations with the bias, the temperature and the bandwidth. (author) [fr

  11. Beam Trajectory Correction for SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Chungming

    2005-01-01

    Automated beam trajectory correction with dipole correctors is developed and tested during the Spallation Neutron Source warm linac commissioning periods. The application is based on the XAL Java framework with newly developed optimization tools. Also, dipole corrector polarities and strengths, and beam position monitor (BPM) polarities were checked by an orbit difference program. The on-line model is used in both the trajectory correction and the orbit difference applications. Experimental data for both applications will be presented.

  12. On the relationship of polar mesospheric cloud ice water content, particle radius and mesospheric temperature and its use in multi-dimensional models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Jensen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of ice layers in the polar summer mesosphere (called polar mesospheric clouds or PMCs is sensitive to background atmospheric conditions and therefore affected by global-scale dynamics. To investigate this coupling it is necessary to simulate the global distribution of PMCs within a 3-dimensional (3-D model that couples large-scale dynamics with cloud microphysics. However, modeling PMC microphysics within 3-D global chemistry climate models (GCCM is a challenge due to the high computational cost associated with particle following (Lagrangian or sectional microphysical calculations. By characterizing the relationship between the PMC effective radius, ice water content (iwc, and local temperature (T from an ensemble of simulations from the sectional microphysical model, the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA, we determined that these variables can be described by a robust empirical formula. The characterized relationship allows an estimate of an altitude distribution of PMC effective radius in terms of local temperature and iwc. For our purposes we use this formula to predict an effective radius as part of a bulk parameterization of PMC microphysics in a 3-D GCCM to simulate growth, sublimation and sedimentation of ice particles without keeping track of the time history of each ice particle size or particle size bin. This allows cost effective decadal scale PMC simulations in a 3-D GCCM to be performed. This approach produces realistic PMC simulations including estimates of the optical properties of PMCs. We validate the relationship with PMC data from the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE.

  13. Non-stationary Bias Correction of Monthly CMIP5 Temperature Projections over China using a Residual-based Bagging Tree Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Lee, C.

    2017-12-01

    The biases in the Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are crucial for understanding future climate changes. Currently, most bias correction methodologies suffer from the assumption that model bias is stationary. This paper provides a non-stationary bias correction model, termed Residual-based Bagging Tree (RBT) model, to reduce simulation biases and to quantify the contributions of single models. Specifically, the proposed model estimates the residuals between individual models and observations, and takes the differences between observations and the ensemble mean into consideration during the model training process. A case study is conducted for 10 major river basins in Mainland China during different seasons. Results show that the proposed model is capable of providing accurate and stable predictions while including the non-stationarities into the modeling framework. Significant reductions in both bias and root mean squared error are achieved with the proposed RBT model, especially for the central and western parts of China. The proposed RBT model has consistently better performance in reducing biases when compared to the raw ensemble mean, the ensemble mean with simple additive bias correction, and the single best model for different seasons. Furthermore, the contribution of each single GCM in reducing the overall bias is quantified. The single model importance varies between 3.1% and 7.2%. For different future scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5), the results from RBT model suggest temperature increases of 1.44 ºC, 2.59 ºC, and 4.71 ºC by the end of the century, respectively, when compared to the average temperature during 1970 - 1999.

  14. On the importance of high-frequency air-temperature fluctuations for spectroscopic corrections of open-path carbon dioxide flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoev, Ivan; Helbig, Manuel; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    A growing number of studies report systematic differences in CO2 flux estimates obtained with the two main types of gas analyzers: compared to eddy-covariance systems based on closed-path (CP) gas analyzers, systems with open-path (OP) gas analyzers systematically overestimate CO2 uptake during daytime periods with high positive sensible heat fluxes, while patterns for differences in nighttime CO2 exchange are less obvious. These biases have been shown to correlate with the sign and the magnitude of the sensible heat flux and to introduce large uncertainties when calculating annual CO2 budgets. In general, CP and OP gas analyzers commonly used to measure the CO2 density in the atmosphere operate on the principle of infrared light absorption approximated by Beer-Lambert's law. Non-dispersive interference-based optical filter elements are used to select spectral bands with strong attenuation of light transmission, characteristic to the gas of interest. The intensity of the light passing through the optical sensing path depends primarily on the amount of absorber gas in the measurement volume. Besides the density of the gas, barometric pressure and air temperature are additional factors affecting the strength and the half-width of the absorption lines. These so-called spectroscopic effects are accounted for by measuring barometric pressure and air temperature in the sensing path and scaling the light-intensity measurements before applying the calibration equation. This approach works well for CP gas analyzers with an intake tube that acts as a low-pass filter on fast air-temperature fluctuations. Low-frequency response temperature sensors in the measurement cell are therefore sufficient to account for spectroscopic temperature effects. In contrast, OP gas analyzers are exposed to high-frequency air-temperature fluctuations associated with the atmospheric surface-layer turbulent heat exchange. If not corrected adequately, these fast air-temperature variations can cause

  15. The atomic structure of polar and non-polar InGaN quantum wells and the green gap problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, C.J., E-mail: colin.humphreys@msm.cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Griffiths, J.T., E-mail: jg641@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Tang, F., E-mail: ft274@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Oehler, F., E-mail: fabrice.oehler@lpn.cnrs.fr [CNRS/C2N, Paris Sud University, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Findlay, S.D., E-mail: scott.findlay@monash.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Zheng, C., E-mail: changlin.zheng@monash.edu [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Etheridge, J., E-mail: joanne.etheridge@mcem.monash.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Martin, T.L., E-mail: tomas.martin@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Bagot, P.A.J., E-mail: paul.bagot@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Moody, M.P., E-mail: michael.moody@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Sutherland, D., E-mail: danny.sutherland@manchester.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Dawson, P., E-mail: philip.dawson@manchester.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Schulz, S., E-mail: stefan.schulz@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings Complex, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland); and others

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • We have studied the atomic structure of polar and non-polar InGaN quantum wells. • The non-polar (11-20) InGaN quantum wells contain indium-rich clusters, unlike the polar (0001) quantum wells. • The electrons and holes in the quantum wells are localised by different mechanisms. - Abstract: We have used high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), aberration-corrected quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy (Q-STEM), atom probe tomography (APT) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the atomic structure of (0001) polar and (11-20) non-polar InGaN quantum wells (QWs). This paper provides an overview of the results. Polar (0001) InGaN in QWs is a random alloy, with In replacing Ga randomly. The InGaN QWs have atomic height interface steps, resulting in QW width fluctuations. The electrons are localised at the top QW interface by the built-in electric field and the well-width fluctuations, with a localisation energy of typically 20 meV. The holes are localised near the bottom QW interface, by indium fluctuations in the random alloy, with a localisation energy of typically 60 meV. On the other hand, the non-polar (11-20) InGaN QWs contain nanometre-scale indium-rich clusters which we suggest localise the carriers and produce longer wavelength (lower energy) emission than from random alloy non-polar InGaN QWs of the same average composition. The reason for the indium-rich clusters in non-polar (11-20) InGaN QWs is not yet clear, but may be connected to the lower QW growth temperature for the (11-20) InGaN QWs compared to the (0001) polar InGaN QWs.

  16. Interactive Effects of Temperature and UV Radiation on Photosynthesis of Chlorella Strains from Polar, Temperate and Tropical Environments: Differential Impacts on Damage and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chiew-Yen; Teoh, Ming-Li; Phang, Siew-Moi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Beardall, John

    2015-01-01

    , suggesting negative effects of global climate change on microalgae inhabiting (circum-) polar regions. For temperate and tropical strains of Chlorella, damage from UVR was independent of temperature but the repair constant increased with increasing temperature, implying an improved ability of these strains to recover from UVR stress under global warming.

  17. In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cobalt Perovskite Surfaces under Cathodic Polarization at High Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.

    2013-08-08

    Heterostructured oxide interfaces have demonstrated enhanced oxygen reduction reaction rates at elevated temperatures (∼500-800 C); however, the physical origin underlying this enhancement is not well understood. By using synchrotron-based in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), we focus on understanding the surface electronic structure, elemental composition, and chemical nature of epitaxial La0.8Sr 0.2CoO3-δ (LSC113), (La 0.5Sr0.5)2CoO4±δ (LSC214), and LSC214-decorated LSC113 (LSC 113/214) thin films as a function of applied electrical potentials (0 to -800 mV) at 520 C and p(O2) of 1 × 10-3 atm. Shifts in the top of the valence band binding energy and changes in the Sr 3d and O 1s spectral components under applied bias reveal key differences among the film chemistries, most notably in the degree of Sr segregation to the surface and quantity of active oxygen sites in the perovskite termination layer. These differences help to identify important factors governing the enhanced activity of oxygen electrocatalysis observed for the LSC113/214 heterostructured surface. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Accurate quantitative CF-LIBS analysis of both major and minor elements in alloys via iterative correction of plasma temperature and spectral intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuxia, ZHAO; Lei, ZHANG; Jiajia, HOU; Yang, ZHAO; Wangbao, YIN; Weiguang, MA; Lei, DONG; Liantuan, XIAO; Suotang, JIA

    2018-03-01

    The chemical composition of alloys directly determines their mechanical behaviors and application fields. Accurate and rapid analysis of both major and minor elements in alloys plays a key role in metallurgy quality control and material classification processes. A quantitative calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) analysis method, which carries out combined correction of plasma temperature and spectral intensity by using a second-order iterative algorithm and two boundary standard samples, is proposed to realize accurate composition measurements. Experimental results show that, compared to conventional CF-LIBS analysis, the relative errors for major elements Cu and Zn and minor element Pb in the copper-lead alloys has been reduced from 12%, 26% and 32% to 1.8%, 2.7% and 13.4%, respectively. The measurement accuracy for all elements has been improved substantially.

  19. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP 4 . A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  20. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D' Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R,; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; J.; Severino, F.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP{sup 4}. A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  1. High-Q energy trapping of temperature-stable shear waves with Lamé cross-sectional polarization in a single crystal silicon waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, R.; Daruwalla, A.; Ayazi, F.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-port electrostatically driven silicon acoustic cavity is implemented that efficiently traps the energy of a temperature-stable eigen-mode with Lamé cross-sectional polarization. Dispersive behavior of propagating and evanescent guided waves in a ⟨100⟩-aligned single crystal silicon waveguide is used to engineer the acoustic energy distribution of a specific shear eigen-mode that is well known for its low temperature sensitivity when implemented in doped single crystal silicon. Such an acoustic energy trapping in the central region of the acoustic cavity geometry and far from substrate obviates the need for narrow tethers that are conventionally used for non-destructive and high quality factor (Q) energy suspension in MEMS resonators; therefore, the acoustically engineered waveguide can simultaneously serve as in-situ self-oven by passing large uniformly distributed DC currents through its body and without any concern about perturbing the mode shape or deforming narrow supports. Such a stable thermo-structural performance besides large turnover temperatures than can be realized in Lamé eigen-modes make this device suitable for implementation of ultra-stable oven-controlled oscillators. 78 MHz prototypes implemented in arsenic-doped single crystal silicon substrates with different resistivity are transduced by in- and out-of-plane narrow-gap capacitive ports, showing high Q of ˜43k. The low resistivity device shows an overall temperature-induced frequency drift of 200 ppm over the range of -20 °C to 80 °C, which is ˜15× smaller compared to overall frequency drift measured for the similar yet high resistivity device in the same temperature range. Furthermore, a frequency tuning of ˜2100 ppm is achieved in high resistivity device by passing 45 mA DC current through its body. Continuous operation of the device under such a self-ovenizing current over 10 days did not induce frequency instability or degradation in Q.

  2. Facility for low-temperature spin-polarized-scanning tunneling microscopy studies of magnetic/spintronic materials prepared in situ by nitride molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenzhi; Foley, Andrew; Alam, Khan; Wang, Kangkang; Liu, Yinghao; Chen, Tianjiao; Pak, Jeongihm; Smith, Arthur R

    2014-04-01

    Based on the interest in, as well as exciting outlook for, nitride semiconductor based structures with regard to electronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic applications, it is compelling to investigate these systems using the powerful technique of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), a technique capable of achieving magnetic resolution down to the atomic scale. However, the delicate surfaces of these materials are easily corrupted by in-air transfers, making it unfeasible to study them in stand-alone ultra-high vacuum STM facilities. Therefore, we have carried out the development of a hybrid system including a nitrogen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy/pulsed laser epitaxy facility for sample growth combined with a low-temperature, spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope system. The custom-designed molecular beam epitaxy growth system supports up to eight sources, including up to seven effusion cells plus a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source, for epitaxially growing a variety of materials, such as nitride semiconductors, magnetic materials, and their hetero-structures, and also incorporating in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction. The growth system also enables integration of pulsed laser epitaxy. The STM unit has a modular design, consisting of an upper body and a lower body. The upper body contains the coarse approach mechanism and the scanner unit, while the lower body accepts molecular beam epitaxy grown samples using compression springs and sample skis. The design of the system employs two stages of vibration isolation as well as a layer of acoustic noise isolation in order to reduce noise during STM measurements. This isolation allows the system to effectively acquire STM data in a typical lab space, which during its construction had no special and highly costly elements included, (such as isolated slabs) which would lower the environmental noise. The design further enables tip exchange and tip coating without

  3. 27-day solar forcing of mesospheric temperature, water vapor and polar mesospheric clouds from the AIM SOFIE and CIPS satellite experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gary; Thurairajah, Brentha; von Savigny, Christian; Hervig, Mark; Snow, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Solar cycle variations of ultraviolet radiation have been implicated in the 11-year and 27-day variations of Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) properties. Both of these variations have been attributed to variable solar ultraviolet heating and photolysis, but no definitive studies of the mechanisms are available. The solar forcing issue is critical toward answering the broader question of whether PMC's have undergone long-term changes, and if so, what is the nature of the responsible long-term climate forcings? One of the principal goals of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere satellite mission was to answer the question: "How does changing solar irradiance affect PMCs and the environment in which they form?" We describe an eight-year data set from the AIM Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE) and the AIM Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) experiment. Together, these instruments provide high-precision measurements of high-latitude summertime temperature (T), water vapor (H2O), and PMC ice properties for the period 2007-present. The complete temporal coverage of the summertime polar cap region for both the primary atmospheric forcings of PMC (T and H2O), together with a continually updated time series of Lyman-alpha solar irradiance, allows an in-depth study of the causes and effects of 27-day PMC variability. The small responses of these variables, relative to larger day-to-day changes from gravity waves, tides, inter-hemispheric coupling, etc. require a careful statistical analysis to isolate the solar influence. We present results for the 27-day responses of T, H2O and PMC for a total of 15 PMC seasons, (30 days before summer solstice to 60 days afterward, for both hemispheres). We find that the amplitudes and phase relationships are not consistent with the expected mechanisms of solar UV heating and photolysis - instead we postulate a primarily dynamical response, in which a periodic vertical wind heats/cools the upper mesosphere, and modulates PMC

  4. Facility for low-temperature spin-polarized-scanning tunneling microscopy studies of magnetic/spintronic materials prepared in situ by nitride molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wenzhi; Foley, Andrew; Alam, Khan; Wang, Kangkang; Liu, Yinghao; Chen, Tianjiao; Pak, Jeongihm; Smith, Arthur R.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the interest in, as well as exciting outlook for, nitride semiconductor based structures with regard to electronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic applications, it is compelling to investigate these systems using the powerful technique of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), a technique capable of achieving magnetic resolution down to the atomic scale. However, the delicate surfaces of these materials are easily corrupted by in-air transfers, making it unfeasible to study them in stand-alone ultra-high vacuum STM facilities. Therefore, we have carried out the development of a hybrid system including a nitrogen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy/pulsed laser epitaxy facility for sample growth combined with a low-temperature, spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope system. The custom-designed molecular beam epitaxy growth system supports up to eight sources, including up to seven effusion cells plus a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source, for epitaxially growing a variety of materials, such as nitride semiconductors, magnetic materials, and their hetero-structures, and also incorporating in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction. The growth system also enables integration of pulsed laser epitaxy. The STM unit has a modular design, consisting of an upper body and a lower body. The upper body contains the coarse approach mechanism and the scanner unit, while the lower body accepts molecular beam epitaxy grown samples using compression springs and sample skis. The design of the system employs two stages of vibration isolation as well as a layer of acoustic noise isolation in order to reduce noise during STM measurements. This isolation allows the system to effectively acquire STM data in a typical lab space, which during its construction had no special and highly costly elements included, (such as isolated slabs) which would lower the environmental noise. The design further enables tip exchange and tip coating without

  5. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DUAL POLARIZATION RADIOMETER GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual Polarization Radiometer GCPEx dataset includes brightness temperature measurements at frequencies 90 GHz (not polarized) and 150 GHz...

  6. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DUAL POLARIZATION RADIOMETER GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual Polarization Radiometer GCPEx dataset provides brightness temperature measurements at frequencies 90 GHz (not polarized) and 150 GHz...

  7. Molecular Weiss domain polarization in piezoceramics to diaphragm, cantilever and channel construction in low-temperature-cofired ceramics for micro-fluidic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, P.K.; Ahmad, S.; Grimme, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the efforts made to study the process of comminution to Weiss domain polarization and phase transition in piezoceramics together with the versatility of low-temperature-cofired ceramics-based devices and components for their ready adoption for typical applications in the area of micro-fluidics. A conceptual micro-fluidic module has been presented and few unit entities necessary for its realization have been described. The purpose of these entities is to position the sensors and actuators by using piezoelectric materials. Investigations are performed to make useful constructions like diaphragms and cantilevers for laying the sensing elements, cavities for burying the electronic chip devices, and channels for fluid transportation. In order to realize these constructions, the basic step involves machining of circular, straight line, rectangular and square-shaped structure in the green ceramic tapes followed by lamination and firing with post-machining in some cases. The diaphragm and cavity includes one or more un-machined layer stacked together with several machined layers with rectangular or square slits. The cantilever is an extension of the diaphragm creation process with inclusion of a post-machining step. The channel essentially consists of a machined green ceramic layer sandwiched between an un-machined and a partially machined layer. The fabrication for all the above constructions has been exemplified and the details have been discussed

  8. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  9. A Study of Spatial Soil Moisture Estimation Using a Multiple Linear Regression Model and MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data Corrected by Conditional Merging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunggil Jung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to estimate spatial soil moisture in South Korea (99,000 km2 from January 2013 to December 2015 using a multiple linear regression (MLR model and the Terra moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS land surface temperature (LST and normalized distribution vegetation index (NDVI data. The MODIS NDVI was used to reflect vegetation variations. Observed precipitation was measured using the automatic weather stations (AWSs of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA, and soil moisture data were recorded at 58 stations operated by various institutions. Prior to MLR analysis, satellite LST data were corrected by applying the conditional merging (CM technique and observed LST data from 71 KMA stations. The coefficient of determination (R2 of the original LST and observed LST was 0.71, and the R2 of corrected LST and observed LST was 0.95 for 3 selected LST stations. The R2 values of all corrected LSTs were greater than 0.83 for total 71 LST stations. The regression coefficients of the MLR model were estimated seasonally considering the five-day antecedent precipitation. The p-values of all the regression coefficients were less than 0.05, and the R2 values were between 0.28 and 0.67. The reason for R2 values less than 0.5 is that the soil classification at each observation site was not completely accurate. Additionally, the observations at most of the soil moisture monitoring stations used in this study started in December 2014, and the soil moisture measurements did not stabilize. Notably, R2 and root mean square error (RMSE in winter were poor, as reflected by the many missing values, and uncertainty existed in observations due to freezing and mechanical errors in the soil. Thus, the prediction accuracy is low in winter due to the difficulty of establishing an appropriate regression model. Specifically, the estimated map of the soil moisture index (SMI can be used to better understand the severity of droughts with the

  10. The effects of vacuum polarization on thermonuclear reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Added to the pure Coulomb potential, the contribution from vacuum polarization increases the barrier, reducing the wave function (u) for reacting nuclei within the range of nuclear forces. The cross section and reaction rate are then reduced accordingly by a factor proportional to u squared. The effect is treated by evaluating the vacuum polarization potential as a small correction to the Coulomb term, then computing u in a WKB formulation. The calculation is done analytically employing the small r power-series expansion for the Uehling potential to express the final result in terms of convenient parameters. At a temperature of 1.4 x 10 to the 7th K the (negative) correction is 1.3 percent for the fundamental fusion process p + p yields d + e(+) + nu.

  11. Sensitivity of Satellite-Based Skin Temperature to Different Surface Emissivity and NWP Reanalysis Sources Demonstrated Using a Single-Channel, Viewing-Angle-Corrected Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, B. R.; Minnis, P.; Yost, C. R.; Chee, T.; Palikonda, R.

    2015-12-01

    Single-channel algorithms for satellite thermal-infrared- (TIR-) derived land and sea surface skin temperature (LST and SST) are advantageous in that they can be easily applied to a variety of satellite sensors. They can also accommodate decade-spanning instrument series, particularly for periods when split-window capabilities are not available. However, the benefit of one unified retrieval methodology for all sensors comes at the cost of critical sensitivity to surface emissivity (ɛs) and atmospheric transmittance estimation. It has been demonstrated that as little as 0.01 variance in ɛs can amount to more than a 0.5-K adjustment in retrieved LST values. Atmospheric transmittance requires calculations that employ vertical profiles of temperature and humidity from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Selection of a given NWP model can significantly affect LST and SST agreement relative to their respective validation sources. Thus, it is necessary to understand the accuracies of the retrievals for various NWP models to ensure the best LST/SST retrievals. The sensitivities of the single-channel retrievals to surface emittance and NWP profiles are investigated using NASA Langley historic land and ocean clear-sky skin temperature (Ts) values derived from high-resolution 11-μm TIR brightness temperature measured from geostationary satellites (GEOSat) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR). It is shown that mean GEOSat-derived, anisotropy-corrected LST can vary by up to ±0.8 K depending on whether CERES or MODIS ɛs sources are used. Furthermore, the use of either NOAA Global Forecast System (GFS) or NASA Goddard Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for the radiative transfer model initial atmospheric state can account for more than 0.5-K variation in mean Ts. The results are compared to measurements from the Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD), an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ground

  12. Accuracy and precision of polar lower stratospheric temperatures from reanalyses evaluated from A-Train CALIOP and MLS, COSMIC GPS RO, and the equilibrium thermodynamics of supercooled ternary solutions and ice clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Alyn; Santee, Michelle L.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the accuracy and precision of polar lower stratospheric temperatures (100-10 hPa during 2008-2013) reported in several contemporary reanalysis datasets comprising two versions of the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA and MERRA-2), the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55), the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-I), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (NCEP-CFSR). We also include the Goddard Earth Observing System model version 5.9.1 near-real-time analysis (GEOS-5.9.1). Comparisons of these datasets are made with respect to retrieved temperatures from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) temperatures, and independent absolute temperature references defined by the equilibrium thermodynamics of supercooled ternary solutions (STSs) and ice clouds. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations of polar stratospheric clouds are used to determine the cloud particle types within the Aura MLS geometric field of view. The thermodynamic calculations for STS and the ice frost point use the colocated MLS gas-phase measurements of HNO3 and H2O. The estimated bias and precision for the STS temperature reference, over the 68 to 21 hPa pressure range, are 0.6-1.5 and 0.3-0.6 K, respectively; for the ice temperature reference, they are 0.4 and 0.3 K, respectively. These uncertainties are smaller than those estimated for the retrieved MLS temperatures and also comparable to GPS RO uncertainties (bias 0.7 K) in the same pressure range. We examine a case study of the time-varying temperature structure associated with layered ice clouds formed by orographic gravity waves forced by flow over the Palmer Peninsula and

  13. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2015-01-01

    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass

  14. Direct emissivity measurements on liquids and corrections to multi-color pyrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Schiffman, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Optical pyrometry provides a means for non-contact temperature measurements whose accuracy depends on the accuracy with which specimen emittance is known. Two methods for obtaining the required emittance data are discussed in which the emittance is determined from measurements of the wavelength or polarization dependence of light emitted by the specimen. The spectral technique, multi-color pyrometry, yields apparent values for specimen emittance and temperature from emitted intensity measurements at two or more wavelengths. Emittance corrections cannot be eliminated by increasing the number of spectral intensity measurements required by an n-color pyrometer. Even if this were possible, the accuracy of temperature measurements by n-color pyrometry decreases with n such that pyrometers that require four intensity measurements would be impractical. In contrast, emittance values and corrections for one-color pyrometers can be accurately measured by the polarized light technique. The polarized light technique involves measurement of the degree of polarization for light emitted at an angle of 45 deg to the specimen normal. The reflectivities (r) for light polarized parallel (p) and normal (n) to the plane of emission are related by r(p) = r(n) squared. This leads to a simple relation between the intensity ratio for light emitted in the two polarized states and the emittance, i.e., e(n) = 2 - I(p)/I(n). The true specimen temperature is also obtained if absolute intensities are measured. Delvelopment of the polarized light technique in combination with one-color optical pyrometry is recommended to achieve accurate non-contact temperature measurements on liquids.

  15. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  16. Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  17. temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Polt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In-situ X-ray diffraction was applied to isotactic polypropylene with a high volume fraction of α-phase (α-iPP while it has been compressed at temperatures below and above its glass transition temperature Tg. The diffraction patterns were evaluated by the Multi-reflection X-ray Profile Analysis (MXPA method, revealing microstructural parameters such as the density of dislocations and the size of coherently scattering domains (CSD-size. A significant difference in the development of the dislocation density was found compared to compression at temperatures above Tg, pointing at a different plastic deformation mechanism at these temperatures. Based on the individual evolutions of the dislocation density and CSD-size observed as a function of compressive strain, suggestions for the deformation mechanisms occurring below and above Tg are made.

  18. Improvement of room temperature electric polarization and ferrimagnetic properties of Co{sub 1.25}Fe{sub 1.75}O{sub 4} ferrite by heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, R.N., E-mail: rnbhowmik.phy@pondiuni.edu.in [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, R.V. Nagar, Kalapet, Pondicherry 605014 (India); Sinha, A.K. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2017-01-01

    We report the improvement of electric and magnetic properties of the chemical routed samples of Co{sub 1.25}Fe{sub 1.75}O{sub 4} ferrite. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the cubic spinel structure in all samples. Raman spectroscopy provided the information of mixed-type cubic spinel structure, where Co{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions order both in octahedral and tetrahedral sites. The thermal heat treatment has brought a systematic change in electric polarization and magnetic parameters. At a critical annealing temperature (T{sub AN}) of 800 °C, the sample has shown the highest magnetic coercivity ~596 Oe and relatively large squareness ~0.5. The electrical conductivity, dielectric loss and dielectric constant have decreased with increase of T{sub AN}. The dielectric constant becomes stable for T{sub AN} above 800 °C. The samples annealed in the temperature range 900–1000 °C have shown a good signature of ferroelectric polarization, although it is under saturation value and leakage of polarization due to conductive effect is observed. This work shows the scope of the improvement of electric polarization due to capacitive effect on increasing the annealing temperature of as-prepared Co ferrite sample. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Co{sub 1.25}Fe{sub 1.75}O{sub 4} ferrite have been prepared in alkaline medium. • Room temperature ferrimagnetism is confirmed in all samples. • Nanoparticles have been annealed to tailor magnetic and ferroelectric properties. • Some of the samples showed good signature of ferroelectric properties. • Role of conductive effect and capacitive effect understood.

  19. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  20. On an Inequality Concerning the Polar Derivative of a Polynomial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we present a correct proof of an -inequality concerning the polar derivative of a polynomial with restricted zeros. We also extend Zygmund's inequality to the polar derivative of a polynomial.

  1. On an inequality concerning the polar derivative of a polynomial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we present a correct proof of an -inequality concerning the polar derivative of a polynomial with restricted zeros. We also extend Zygmund's inequality to the polar derivative of a polynomial.

  2. The polar mesosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Ray; Murphy, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The mesosphere region, which lies at the edge of space, contains the coldest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, with summer temperatures as low as minus 130 °C. In this extreme environment ice aerosol layers have appeared since the dawn of industrialization—whose existence may arguably be linked to human influence—on yet another layer of the Earth's fragile atmosphere. Ground-based and space-based experiments conducted in the Arctic and Antarctic during the International Polar Year (IPY) aim to address limitations in our knowledge and to advance our understanding of thermal and dynamical processes at play in the polar mesosphere

  3. Author Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundle, D S; Löscher, C R; Krahmann, G

    2018-01-01

    A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.......A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper....

  4. Thermodynamic description of equilibria in mixed fluids (H 2O-non-polar gas) over a wide range of temperature (25-700°C) and pressure (1-5000 bars)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinfiev, Nikolai; Zotov, Alexander

    1999-07-01

    A new method for computing complicated equilibria in hydrothermal mixed fluids, H 2O-non-polar gas, is proposed. The computation algorithm is based on the electrostatic approach for the interaction between aqueous species and H 2O. The approach uses the SUPCRT92 database and the HKF format and may be considered as an application of the revised HKF model for mixed H 2O-non-polar gas fluids. Thermodynamic properties of dissolved gases at high temperatures and pressures are calculated using the Redlich-Kwong approach. Dielectric permittivity of the mixed solvent is estimated by the modified Kirkwood equation. The proposed approach is validated using available experimental data on the dissociation constants of H 2O and NaCl and the solubility of both covalent and ion crystals (SiO 2, AgCl, Ag 2SO 4, Ca(OH) 2, CaCO 3) in H 2O-non-polar component (dioxane, Ar, CO 2) mixtures. Predicted and experimental data are in close agreement over a wide range of P- T- xgas conditions (up to 500°C, 4 kbar and 0.25-0.3 mole fraction of non-polar gas). It is also shown how the computation method can be applied to estimate the Born parameters of aqueous species. The proposed approach enables not only examination of isolated reactions, but the study of equilibria of whole systems. Thus, it allows modelling of mixed natural fluids.

  5. Physics of polarized targets

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    For developing, building and operating solid polarized targets we need to understand several fields of physics that have seen sub stantial advances during the last 50 years. W e shall briefly review a selection of those that are important today. These are: 1) quantum statistical methods to describe saturation and relaxation in magnetic resonance; 2) equal spin temperature model for dy namic nuclear polarization; 3 ) weak saturation during NMR polarization measurement; 4 ) refrigeration using the quantum fluid properties of helium isotopes. These, combined with superconducting magnet technologies, permit today to reach nearly complete pola rization of almost any nuclear spins. Targets can be operated in frozen spin mode in rather low and inhomogeneous field of any orientation, and in DNP mode in beams of high intensity. Beyond such experiments of nuclear and particle physics, applications a re also emerging in macromolecular chemistry and in magnetic resonance imaging. This talk is a tribute to Michel Borghini...

  6. Correct Models

    OpenAIRE

    Blacher, René

    2010-01-01

    Ce rapport complete les deux rapports précédents et apporte une explication plus simple aux résultats précédents : à savoir la preuve que les suites obtenues sont aléatoires.; In previous reports, we have show how to transform a text $y_n$ in a random sequence by using functions of Fibonacci $T_q$. Now, in this report, we obtain a clearer result by proving that $T_q(y_n)$ has the IID model as correct model. But, it is necessary to define correctly a correct model. Then, we study also this pro...

  7. POLARIZED LINE FORMATION IN NON-MONOTONIC VELOCITY FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N., E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in, E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bengaluru 560034 (India)

    2016-12-10

    For a correct interpretation of the observed spectro-polarimetric data from astrophysical objects such as the Sun, it is necessary to solve the polarized line transfer problems taking into account a realistic temperature structure, the dynamical state of the atmosphere, a realistic scattering mechanism (namely, the partial frequency redistribution—PRD), and the magnetic fields. In a recent paper, we studied the effects of monotonic vertical velocity fields on linearly polarized line profiles formed in isothermal atmospheres with and without magnetic fields. However, in general the velocity fields that prevail in dynamical atmospheres of astrophysical objects are non-monotonic. Stellar atmospheres with shocks, multi-component supernova atmospheres, and various kinds of wave motions in solar and stellar atmospheres are examples of non-monotonic velocity fields. Here we present studies on the effect of non-relativistic non-monotonic vertical velocity fields on the linearly polarized line profiles formed in semi-empirical atmospheres. We consider a two-level atom model and PRD scattering mechanism. We solve the polarized transfer equation in the comoving frame (CMF) of the fluid using a polarized accelerated lambda iteration method that has been appropriately modified for the problem at hand. We present numerical tests to validate the CMF method and also discuss the accuracy and numerical instabilities associated with it.

  8. Political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.

    2007-01-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  9. Political polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2007-05-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  10. Polarization at LEP. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, G.; Altarelli, G.; Blondel, A.; Coignet, G.; Keil, E.; Plane, D.E.; Treille, D.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains a collection of papers covering the most important part of studies carried out by five study groups in view of a programme of experiments with polarized beams at LEP, the Large Electron-Positron collider under construction at CERN. The emphasis is on precision measurements at the Z peak. Such measurements are shown to be of considerable theoretical interest as well as very clean from the point of view of theoretical and experimental uncertainties. The measurement of the beam polarization can certainly be performed with sufficient accuracy, thanks to the availability of both e + and e - beam polarization. The normalization of the data taken with different beam helicities poses certain constraints that are described. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the possibility of providing longitudinally polarized beams in the LEP machine: The design of new wigglers and spin rotators, the study of correction procedures and results of numerical simulations are presented. (orig.)

  11. Remotely sensed soil temperatures beneath snow-free skin-surface using thermal observations from tandem polar-orbiting satellites: An analytical three-time-scale model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhan, Wenfeng; Zhou, Ji; Ju, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    ), which represents the instantaneous temperature; and the weather-change temperature cycle (WTC), which is divided into two parts to represent both the daily-averaged (WTCavg) and the instantaneous temperature (WTCinst). The DTC and WTCinst were further parameterized into four undetermined variables...

  12. Polar low monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, Leonid; Zabolotskikh, Elizaveta; Mitnik, Leonid

    2010-05-01

    passive microwave data make it possible to retrieve several important atmospheric and oceanic parameters inside the polar lows, such as sea surface wind speed, water vapour content in the atmosphere, total liquid water content in the clouds and others, providing not only qualitative image of a vortex, but also quantitative information about these severe events, constituting a promising tool for their study and monitoring. An approach for detection and tracking of polar lows is developed utilizing the data from two sensors: SSM/I onboard DMSP and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) onboard Aqua satellite. This approach consists of two stages. At the first stage total atmospheric water vapor fields are retrieved from SSM/I and AMSRE-E measurement data using precise Arctic polar algorithms, developed at NIERSC. These algorithms are applicable over open water. They have high retrieval accuracies under a wide range of environmental conditions. Algorithms are based on numerical simulation of brightness temperatures and their inversion by means of Neural Networks. At the second stage the vortex structures are detected in these fields, polar lows are identified and tracked and some of their parameters are calculated. A few case studies are comprehensively conducted based on SSM/I and AMSRE-E measurements and using other satellite data including visible, infrared and SAR images, QuickScat Scatterometer wind fields, surface analysis maps and re-analysis data, which demonstrated the advantages of satellite passive microwave data usage in the polar low studies.

  13. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachsbart, Friederike; Dose, Janina; Gentschew, Liljana

    2018-01-01

    The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Robert Häsler, which was incorrectly given as Robert Häesler. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article....

  14. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Blaser, Martin J.; Thorsen, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    The originally published version of this Article contained an incorrect version of Figure 3 that was introduced following peer review and inadvertently not corrected during the production process. Both versions contain the same set of abundance data, but the incorrect version has the children...

  15. A new backscatter lidar for the whole-year study of temperatures and clouds in the polar stratosphere and mesosphere; Ein neues Rueckstreu-Lidar zur ganzjaehrigen Untersuchung von Temperaturen und Wolkenphaenomenen in der polaren Strato- und Mesosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.P.

    2000-01-01

    Temperatures in the polar middle atmosphere can fall to extremely low values leading to cloud formation in otherwise cloud-free regions: in summer near the mesopause i.e. noctiluent clouds (NLC) and in winter in the lower stratosphere, i.e. polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). Both clouds are environmentally important, PSCs in the ozone problem and NLCs as early indicators of climate change. To investigate these clouds and to measure temperature profiles the atmospheric physics group set up a backscatter lidar on the Esrange in northern Sweden. Based on our experience with a lidar in Norway the mechanics and optics were redesigned to allow for simultaneous measurements of the depolarization of the backscattered light, three colour measurements and measurements in daylight. A numerical simulation of the daylight filter characteristics suggests that the presently used tuning method should be replaced. The first measurements with this new lidar design on the Esrange were obtained in January 1997. PSCs were observed on 19 days from January to March. Surprisingly, PSCs of type 2 were detected several times even when though synoptic stratospheric temperatures were too warm for such clouds to exist. Temperatures in the lee of the Scandinavian mountains had been lowered by internal waves sufficiently to generate PSC type 2 clouds. Among the previous PSC-observations in January 1995 when the lidar was located on the Norwegian island Andoeya was a singular PSC of type 2 on on January 14, 1995, which had a surface area density two orders of magnitudes higher than typically assumed in theoretical models describing ozone depletion. (orig.)

  16. Correction note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Correction note for Sanders, M., Calam, R., Durand, M., Liversidge, T. and Carmont, S. A. (2008), Does self-directed and web-based support for parents enhance the effects of viewing a reality television series based on the Triple P - Positive Parenting Programme?. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49: 924-932. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01901.x. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Surfactant: Low Temperature Magic Angle Spinning 13C and 29Si NMR Enhanced by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafon, Olivier [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Thankamony, Aany S. Lilly [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Kokayashi, Takeshi [Ames Laboratory; Carnevale, Diego [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Vitzthum, Veronika [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Slowing, Igor I. [Ames Laboratory; Kandel, Kapil [Ames Laboratory; Vezin, Herve [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Amoureux, Jean-Paul [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory

    2012-12-21

    We show that dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be used to enhance NMR signals of 13C and 29Si nuclei located in mesoporous organic/inorganic hybrid materials, at several hundreds of nanometers from stable radicals (TOTAPOL) trapped in the surrounding frozen disordered water. The approach is demonstrated using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN), functionalized with 3-(N-phenylureido)propyl (PUP) groups, filled with the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The DNP-enhanced proton magnetization is transported into the mesopores via 1H–1H spin diffusion and transferred to rare spins by cross-polarization, yielding signal enhancements εon/off of around 8. When the CTAB molecules are extracted, so that the radicals can enter the mesopores, the enhancements increase to εon/off ≈ 30 for both nuclei. A quantitative analysis of the signal enhancements in MSN with and without surfactant is based on a one-dimensional proton spin diffusion model. The effect of solvent deuteration is also investigated.

  18. Polar heating in Saturn's thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. A. Smith

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A 3-D numerical global circulation model of the Kronian thermosphere has been used to investigate the influence of polar heating. The distributions of temperature and winds resulting from a general heat source in the polar regions are described. We show that both the total energy input and its vertical distribution are important to the resulting thermal structure. We find that the form of the topside heating profile is particularly important in determining exospheric temperatures. We compare our results to exospheric temperatures from Voyager occultation measurements (Smith et al., 1983; Festou and Atreya, 1982 and auroral H3+ temperatures from ground-based spectroscopic observations (e.g. Miller et al., 2000. We find that a polar heat source is consistent with both the Smith et al. determination of T∞~400 K at ~30° N and auroral temperatures. The required heat source is also consistent with recent estimates of the Joule heating rate at Saturn (Cowley et al., 2004. However, our results show that a polar heat source can probably not explain the Festou and Atreya determination of T∞~800 K at ~4° N and the auroral temperatures simultaneously. Keywords. Ionosphere (Planetary ionosphere – Magnetospherica physics (Planetary magnetospheres – Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (Thermospheric dynamics

  19. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  20. System for measuring of proton polarization in polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkach, A.Ya.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kuz'menko, V.S.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement system of proton polarization in the target, which uses the method of nuclear magnetic resonance is described. To record the signal of NMR-absorption a parallel Q-meter of voltage with analogous subtraction of resonance characteristics of measurement circuit is used. To obtain gradual sensitivity of the system to polarization state in the whole volume of the target the measurement coils is made of tape conductor. The analysis and mathematical modelling of Q-meter are carried out. Corrections for nonlinearity and dispersion are calculated. Key diagrams of the main electron blocks of Q-meter are presented. The system described operates on line with the M6000 computer. Total error of measurement of polarization value of free protons in the target does not exceed 6% [ru

  1. Study of temperature dependent local structure by polarized Cu K-edge EXAFS measurements on La sub 2 sub - sub x Sr sub x CuO sub 4 (x=0.105, 0.13, 0.20)

    CERN Document Server

    Saini, N L; Bianconi, A; Oyanagi, H; Ito, T; Oka, K

    2003-01-01

    We have studied temperature dependent local structure of superconducting La sub 2 sub - sub x Sr sub x CuO sub 4 (0.105, 0.13, 0.20) single crystals by Cu K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements with polarization parallel to the in-plane Cu-O bonds. We find that, while underdoped crystals (x=0.105, 0.13) show anomalous temperature dependence, similar to the case of optimally doped system (x=0.15), overdoped crystal (x=0.20) does not reveal such anomaly. Correlated Debye-Waller factor (DWF) of the Cu-O bonds (distance broadening) has been used as an order parameter to determine characteristic local displacements in the CuO sub 2 plane. The amplitude of temperature dependent step-like increase in the DWF at low temperature decreases with increasing doping. It has been discussed that decreasing electron-lattice interaction with increasing doping, shown by angle resolved photoemission measurements, is closely related to the evolving anomalous local CuO sub 2 distortion and charge inho...

  2. Pre-processing in biochemometrics: correction for path-length and temperature effects of water in FTIR bio-spectroscopy by EMSC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Harald; Bruun, Susanne Wrang; Adt, I.

    2006-01-01

    are modelled and removed, in order to avoid having to wait for N-2 purging. Variations in the infrared spectroscopy (IR) spectrum of water with temperature are described in terms of two model component spectra. These additive water variations are quantified and eliminated by Extended Multiplicative Signal...

  3. Temperature-dependency analysis and correction methods of in-situ power-loss estimation for crystalline silicon modules undergoing potential-induced degradation stress testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method of in-situ characterization of the photovoltaic module power at standard test conditions using superposition of the dark current-voltage (I-V) curve measured at elevated stress temperature during potential-induced degradation (PID) testing. PID chamber studies were performed o...

  4. Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss (Polar SWIFT version 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Rex, Markus

    2017-07-01

    The Polar SWIFT model is a fast scheme for calculating the chemistry of stratospheric ozone depletion in polar winter. It is intended for use in global climate models (GCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs) to enable the simulation of mutual interactions between the ozone layer and climate. To date, climate models often use prescribed ozone fields, since a full stratospheric chemistry scheme is computationally very expensive. Polar SWIFT is based on a set of coupled differential equations, which simulate the polar vortex-averaged mixing ratios of the key species involved in polar ozone depletion on a given vertical level. These species are O3, chemically active chlorine (ClOx), HCl, ClONO2 and HNO3. The only external input parameters that drive the model are the fraction of the polar vortex in sunlight and the fraction of the polar vortex below the temperatures necessary for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Here, we present an update of the Polar SWIFT model introducing several improvements over the original model formulation. In particular, the model is now trained on vortex-averaged reaction rates of the ATLAS Chemistry and Transport Model, which enables a detailed look at individual processes and an independent validation of the different parameterizations contained in the differential equations. The training of the original Polar SWIFT model was based on fitting complete model runs to satellite observations and did not allow for this. A revised formulation of the system of differential equations is developed, which closely fits vortex-averaged reaction rates from ATLAS that represent the main chemical processes influencing ozone. In addition, a parameterization for the HNO3 change by denitrification is included. The rates of change of the concentrations of the chemical species of the Polar SWIFT model are purely chemical rates of change in the new version, whereas in the original Polar SWIFT model, they included a transport effect caused by the

  5. POLARIZED BEAMS: 2 - Partial Siberian Snake rescues polarized protons at Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haixin

    1994-01-01

    To boost the level of beam polarization (spin orientation), a partial 'Siberian Snake' was recently used to overcome imperfection depolarizing resonances in the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). This 9-degree spin rotator recently permitted acceleration with no noticeable polarization loss. The intrinsic AGS depolarizing resonances (which degrade the polarization content) had been eliminated by betatron tune jumps, but the imperfection resonances were compensated by means of harmonic orbit corrections. However, at high energies these orbit corrections are difficult and tedious and a Siberian Snake became an attractive alternative

  6. Physics results from polarized DIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, G. P.

    1998-01-01

    We have extracted polarized nucleon distributions from recent data at CERN, SLAC and DESY. The flavor-dependent valence and sea quark spin distributions are determined for each experiment. We take into account possible differences in the up and down sea distributions, and assume that the strange sea contribution is suppressed by mass effects. Physics results determined from different experiments are compared, including higher order corrections

  7. Physics results from polarized DIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, G. P.

    1998-03-23

    We have extracted polarized nucleon distributions from recent data at CERN, SLAC and DESY. The flavor-dependent valence and sea quark spin distributions are determined for each experiment. We take into account possible differences in the up and down sea distributions, and assume that the strange sea contribution is suppressed by mass effects. Physics results determined from different experiments are compared, including higher order corrections.

  8. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, M; Baum, G; Doshita, N; Finger, M Jr; Gautheron, F; Goertz, St; Hasegawa, T; Heckmann, J; Hess, Ch; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Y; Koivuniemi, J; Kondo, K; Le Goff, J-M; Magnon, A; Marchand, C; Matsuda, T; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Srnka, A

    2006-01-01

    The spin structure of the nucleons is investigated in deep inelastic scattering of a polarized muon beam and a polarized nucleon target in the COMPASS experiment at CERN since 2001. To achieve high luminosities a large solid polarized target is used. The COMPASS polarized target consists of a high cooling power $^{3}$He/$^{4}$He dilution refrigerator capable to maintain working temperature of the target material at about 50mK, a superconducting solenoid and dipole magnet system for longitudinal and transversal magnetic field on the target material, respectively, target cells containing polarizable material, microwave cavities and high power microwave radiation systems for dynamic nuclear polarization and the nuclear magnetic resonance system for nuclear spin polarization measurements. During 2001–2004 experiments superconducting magnet system with opening angle $\\pm$69 mrad, polarized target holder with two target cells and corresponding microwave and NMR systems have been used. For the data taking from 200...

  9. Features of chlorophyll fluorescence transients can be used to investigate low temperature induced effects on photosystem II of algal lichens from polar regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mishra, Anamika; Hajek, J.; Tuháčková, T.; Barták, M.; Mishra, Kumud

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2015), s. 99-111 ISSN 1805-0689 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Rhizoplaca melanophtalma * Umbilicaria antarctica * Xanthoria elegans * temperature stress Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. The evolution of the englacial temperature distribution in the superimposed ice zone of a polar ice cap during a summer season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuell, W.; Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to provide more insight into the processes affecting the evolution of the englacial temperature distribution at a non-temperate location on a glacier. Measurements were made in the top 10 m of the ice at the summit of Laika Ice Cap (Canadian Arctic)

  11. Influence of temperature on the hydrogen evolution reaction on stainless steels in LiBr solution by means of polarization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinon Pina, V.; Igual-Munoz, A.; Garcia-Anton, J. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. ETSI Industriales, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Lithium Bromide aqueous solutions used as absorbent in refrigeration machines can cause serious corrosion problems which also facilitate the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in the cathodic regions. Hydrogen formation is an important problem in the operating conditions of adsorption machines because they operate under low pressure conditions. Hydrogen generation makes pressure to increase and as a consequence efficiency decreases. Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) are iron-based alloys with a two-phase microstructure: austenite and delta ferrite in approximately similar percentages. DSS find increasing use as an alternative to austenitic stainless steels, particularly where aggressive anions such as bromide are present in high concentrations. The objective of the present work is to study the effect of temperature on the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) of two different stainless steels, Austenitic and Duplex steels, using different electrochemical techniques: Open Circuit Potential (OCP), potentiodynamic and galvano-static measurements and image digital analysis. The HER was studied in 992 g/l LiBr at three different temperatures (25, 50 and 75 C). The results showed that the electrocatalytic activity for the HER increased with temperature. The energy consumption for hydrogen generation on Austenitic Stainless Steel, UNS N08031, is lower than on Duplex Stainless Steel, EN 1.4462, at the studied temperatures. (authors)

  12. Polar-Graded Multiferroic SrMnO3 Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Roger; Maurel, Laura; Langenberg, Eric; Lupini, Andrew R; Algarabel, Pedro A; Pardo, José A; Magén, César

    2016-04-13

    Engineering defects and strains in oxides provides a promising route for the quest of thin film materials with coexisting ferroic orders, multiferroics, with efficient magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature. Precise control of the strain gradient would enable custom tailoring of the multiferroic properties but presently remains challenging. Here we explore the existence of a polar-graded state in epitaxially strained antiferromagnetic SrMnO3 thin films, whose polar nature was predicted theoretically and recently demonstrated experimentally. By means of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy we map the polar rotation of the ferroelectric polarization with atomic resolution, both far from and near the domain walls, and find flexoelectricity resulting from vertical strain gradients. The origin of this particular strain state is a gradual distribution of oxygen vacancies across the film thickness, according to electron energy loss spectroscopy. Herein we present a chemistry-mediated route to induce polar rotations in oxygen-deficient multiferroic films, resulting in flexoelectric polar rotations and with potentially enhanced piezoelectricity.

  13. Precessing deuteron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.; Volkov, V.I.; Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M.; Plis, Yu.A.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the acceleration in the Nuclotron of deuterons polarized in the horizontal plane is considered. This horizontal polarization is named precessing polarization. The effects of the main magnetic field and synchrotron oscillations are included. The precessing polarization is supposed to be used in studying the polarization parameters of the elastic dp back-scattering and other experiments

  14. Superconducting polarizing magnet for a movable polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchenko, N.G.; Bartenev, V.D.; Blinov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    The superconducting polarizing magnet was constructed for the JINR (Dubna) movable polarized target (MPT) with working volume 200 mm long and 30 mm in diameter. The magnet provides a polarizing magnetic field up to 6 T in the centre with the uniformity of 4.5 x 10 -4 in the working volume of the target. The magnet contains a main solenoidal winding 558 mm long and 206/144 mm in diameters, and compensating and correcting winding placed at its ends. The windings are made of a NbTi wire, impregnated with the epoxy resin and placed in the horizontal cryostat. The diameter of the 'warm' aperture of the magnet cryostat is 96 mm. The design and technology of the magnet winding are described. Results of the magnetic field map measurements, using a NMR-magnetometer are given. A similar magnet constructed at DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay (France), represented a model for the present development. The MPT array is installed in the beam line of polarized neutrons produced by break-up of polarized deuterons extracted from the synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies (LHE), JINR (Dubna)

  15. Accumulation of fatty acids in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoAcarboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Luis A; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae.

  16. Pre-processing in biochemometrics: correction for path-length and temperature effects of water in FTIR bio-spectroscopy by EMSC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Harald; Bruun, Susanne Wrang; Adt, I.

    2006-01-01

    The term 'biochemometrics' is proposed. Methodology is presented for simplifying high-resolution phenotyping measurements, in terms of multivariate modelling methods in order to stabilise FTIR bio-spectroscopy data. Irrelevant gas contributions from water vapour and CO2 in the instrument light pa...... at different temperatures are tested successfully in independent water samples as well as in the in vivo monitoring of Candida albicans growing and decaying on the ATR crystal of the same instrument....

  17. Spontaneous growth of polarizing refractory metal ‘nano-fins’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, M. C.; Gentle, A. R.; Arnold, M. D.; Cortie, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    Traditional polymer polarizers degrade in harsh environments and at high temperatures, reducing the polarization effect. In contrast, polarizers produced with refractory metals have vastly improved thermal stability and resistance to harsh environments but are expensive to fabricate. Here we demonstrate prototype refractory metal wire grid polarizers produced by co-sputtering molybdenum and aluminum under specific conditions. Removal of the aluminum through selective dissolution enables the nanostructure array to transmit light. The polarization spans 500–1100 nm and the extinction ratio significantly increases to >100. Possessing broadband polarization and sufficient extinction ratios, the new polarizing film has potential applications in coatings for sunglasses, windows, pyrometers, scientific instruments, and LCD panels.

  18. Advanced hardware design for error correcting codes

    CERN Document Server

    Coussy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This book provides thorough coverage of error correcting techniques. It includes essential basic concepts and the latest advances on key topics in design, implementation, and optimization of hardware/software systems for error correction. The book’s chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in this field. Topics include evolution of error correction techniques, industrial user needs, architectures, and design approaches for the most advanced error correcting codes (Polar Codes, Non-Binary LDPC, Product Codes, etc). This book provides access to recent results, and is suitable for graduate students and researchers of mathematics, computer science, and engineering. • Examines how to optimize the architecture of hardware design for error correcting codes; • Presents error correction codes from theory to optimized architecture for the current and the next generation standards; • Provides coverage of industrial user needs advanced error correcting techniques.

  19. Polare maskuliniteter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Anne Hauan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper my aim is to read and understand the journal of Gerrit de Veer from the last journey of William Barents to the Arctic Regions in 1596 and the journal of captain Junge on his hunting trip from Tromsø to Svalbard in 1834.It is nearly 240 years between this to voyages. The first journal is known as the earliest report from the arctic era. Gerrit de Veer adds instructive copper engravings to his text and give us insight in the crews meeting with this new land. Captain Junges journal is found together with his dead crew in a house in a fjord nearby Ny-Ålesund and has no drawings, but word. Both of these journals may be read as sources of the knowledge and understanding of the polar region. They might also unveil the ideas of how to deal with and survive under the challenges that is given. In addition one can ask if the sources can tell us more about how men describe their challenges. Can the way they expressed themselves in the journals give us an understanding of masculinity? And not least help us to create good questions of the change in the ideas of masculinities which is said to follow the change in understanding of the wilderness.

  20. Free radicals and polarized targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyatova, E. I.

    2004-06-01

    Many free radicals were added to organic compounds in search of high proton and deuteron polarizations. Few found practical application. A short review is presented, and special attention is given to some stable nitroxyl radicals which have lately been admixed to organic compounds solid at room temperature, in particular to scintillators.

  1. Free radicals and polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunyatova, E.I. E-mail: bunyatel@nusun.jinr.ru

    2004-06-21

    Many free radicals were added to organic compounds in search of high proton and deuteron polarizations. Few found practical application. A short review is presented, and special attention is given to some stable nitroxyl radicals which have lately been admixed to organic compounds solid at room temperature, in particular to scintillators.

  2. Solar zenith angle dependence of plasma density and temperature in the polar cap ionosphere and low-altitude magnetosphere during geomagnetically quiet periods at solar maximum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kitamura, N.; Ogawa, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Terada, N.; Ono, T.; Shinbori, A.; Kumamoto, A.; Truhlík, Vladimír; Šmilauer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 116, - (2011), A08227/1-A08227/13 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/2086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : MASS-SPECTROMETER OBSERVATIONS * ELECTRON-TEMPERATURE * HIGH-LATITUDE * ION OUTFLOWS * F-REGION Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.021, year: 2011 http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2011/2011JA016631.shtml

  3. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    OpenAIRE

    He Ji-Huan; Wang Qing-Li; Sun Jie

    2011-01-01

    A polar bear (Ursus maritimus) has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  4. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  5. QCD Corrections to Heavy Quarkonium Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artoisenet, P.

    2008-08-01

    I discuss J/ψ and Υ production at the Tevatron. Working in the framework of NRQCD, I review the current theoretical status. Motivated by the polarization puzzle at the Tevatron, I present the brand-new computation of higher-order αs corrections to the color-singlet production and discuss the impact of these corrections both on the differential cross section and on the polarization of the quarkonium state. I finally comment on the relative importance of the various transitions that feed quarkonium hadroproduction.

  6. EPU correction scheme study at the CLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertwistle, Drew, E-mail: drew.bertwistle@lightsource.ca; Baribeau, C.; Dallin, L.; Chen, S.; Vogt, J.; Wurtz, W. [Canadian Light Source Inc. 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2V3 (Canada)

    2016-07-27

    The Canadian Light Source (CLS) Quantum Materials Spectroscopy Center (QMSC) beamline will employ a novel double period (55 mm, 180 mm) elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU) to produce photons of arbitrary polarization in the soft X-ray regime. The long period and high field of the 180 mm period EPU will have a strong dynamic focusing effect on the storage ring electron beam. We have considered two partial correction schemes, a 4 m long planar array of BESSY-II style current strips, and soft iron L-shims. In this paper we briefly consider the implementation of these correction schemes.

  7. QCD Corrections to Heavy Quarkonium Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artoisenet, P.

    2008-01-01

    I discuss J/ψ and Υ production at the Tevatron. Working in the framework of NRQCD, I review the current theoretical status. Motivated by the polarization puzzle at the Tevatron, I present the brand-new computation of higher-order α s corrections to the color-singlet production and discuss the impact of these corrections both on the differential cross section and on the polarization of the quarkonium state. I finally comment on the relative importance of the various transitions that feed quarkonium hadroproduction

  8. Polarization in free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadichev, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Polarization of electromagnetic radiation is required very often in numerous scientific and industrial applications: studying of crystals, molecules and intermolecular interaction high-temperature superconductivity, semiconductors and their transitions, polymers and liquid crystals. Using polarized radiation allows to obtain important data (otherwise inaccessible) in astrophysics, meteorology and oceanology. It is promising in chemistry and biology for selective influence on definite parts of molecules in chain synthesis reactions, precise control of various processes at cell and subcell levels, genetic engineering etc. Though polarization methods are well elaborated in optics, they can fail in far-infrared, vacuum-ultraviolet and X-ray regions because of lack of suitable non-absorbing materials and damaging of optical elements at high specific power levels. Therefore, it is of some interest to analyse polarization of untreated FEL radiation obtained with various types of undulators, with and without axial magnetic field. The polarization is studied using solutions for electron orbits in various cases: plane or helical undulator with or without axial magnetic field, two plane undulators, a combination of right- and left-handed helical undulators with equal periods, but different field amplitudes. Some examples of how a desired polarization (elliptical circular or linear) can be obtained or changed quickly, which is necessary in many experiments, are given.

  9. Regional stratospheric warmings in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector during winter 2004/2005: implications for temperatures, winds, chemical constituents and the characterization of the Polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The vortex during winter 2004/2005 was interesting for several reasons. It has been described as "cold" stratospherically, with relatively strong westerly winds. Losses of ozone until the final warming in March were considerable, and comparable to the cold 1999–2000 winter. There were also modest warming events, indicated by peaks in 10 hPa zonal mean temperatures at high latitudes, near 1 January and 1 February. Events associated with a significant regional stratospheric warming in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector then began and peaked toward the end of February, providing strong longitudinal variations in dynamical characteristics (Chshyolkova et al., 2007; hereafter C07. The associated disturbed vortex of 25 February was displaced from the pole and either elongated (upper or split into two cyclonic centres (lower.

    Observations from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on Aura are used here to study the thermal characteristics of the stratosphere in the Canadian-US (253° E and Scandinavian-Europe (16° E sectors. Undisturbed high latitude stratopause (55 km zonal mean temperatures during the mid-winter (December–February reached 270 K, warmer than empirical-models such as CIRA-86, suggesting that seasonal polar warming due to dynamical influences affects the high altitude stratosphere as well as the mesosphere. There were also significant stratopause differences between Scandinavia and Canada during the warming events of 1 January and 1 February, with higher temperatures near 275 K at 16° E. During the 25 February "PWC" event a warming occurred at low and middle stratospheric heights (10–30 km: 220 K at 253° E and the stratopause cooled; while over Scandinavia-Europe the stratosphere below ~30 km was relatively cold at 195 K and the stratopause became even warmer (>295 K and lower (~45 km. The zonal winds followed the associated temperature gradients so that the vertical and latitudinal gradients of the winds differed strongly

  10. Sea surface temperature and sea ice variability in the sub-polar North Atlantic from explosive volcanism of the late thirteenth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicre, M.-A.; Khodri, M.; Mignot, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use IP25 and alkenone biomarker proxies to document the subdecadal variations of sea ice and sea surface temperature in the subpolar North Atlantic induced by the decadally paced explosive tropical volcanic eruptions of the second half of the thirteenth century. The short-and long......-term evolutions of both variables were investigated by cross analysis with a simulation of the IPSL-CM5A LR model. Our results show short-term ocean cooling and sea ice expansion in response to each volcanic eruption. They also highlight that the long response time of the ocean leads to cumulative surface cooling...

  11. Thermal stability of tunneling spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, C.H.; Kohlhepp, J.T.; Paluskar, P.V.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Jonge, W.J.M. de

    2005-01-01

    We present a study of the thermal stability of tunneling spin polarization in Al/AlOx/ferromagnet junctions based on the spin-polarized tunneling technique, in which the Zeeman-split superconducting density of states in the Al electrode is used as a detector for the spin polarization. Thermal robustness of the polarization, which is of key importance for the performance of magnetic tunnel junction devices, is demonstrated for post-deposition anneal temperatures up to 500 o C with Co and Co 90 Fe 10 top electrodes, independent of the presence of an FeMn layer on top of the ferromagnet

  12. NLO corrections to the photon impact factor: Combining real and virtual corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Colferai, D.; Kyrieleis, A.; Gieseke, S.

    2002-08-01

    In this third part of our calculation of the QCD NLO corrections to the photon impact factor we combine our previous results for the real corrections with the singular pieces of the virtual corrections and present finite analytic expressions for the quark-antiquark-gluon intermediate state inside the photon impact factor. We begin with a list of the infrared singular pieces of the virtual correction, obtained in the first step of our program. We then list the complete results for the real corrections (longitudinal and transverse photon polarization). In the next step we defined, for the real corrections, the collinear and soft singular regions and calculate their contributions to the impact factor. We then subtract the contribution due to the central region. Finally, we combine the real corrections with the singular pieces of the virtual corrections and obtain our finite results. (orig.)

  13. CMB polarization systematics due to beam asymmetry: Impact on inflationary science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimon, Meir; Keating, Brian; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Hivon, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization provides a unique window into cosmological inflation; the amplitude of the B-mode polarization from last scattering is uniquely sensitive to the energetics of inflation. However, numerous systematic effects arising from optical imperfections can contaminate the observed B-mode power spectrum. In particular, systematic effects due to the coupling of the underlying temperature and polarization fields with elliptical or otherwise asymmetric beams yield spurious systematic signals. This paper presents a nonperturbative analytic calculation of some of these signals. We show that results previously derived in real space can be generalized, formally, by including infinitely many higher-order corrections to the leading order effects. These corrections can be summed and represented as analytic functions when a fully Fourier-space approach is adopted from the outset. The formalism and results presented in this paper were created to determine the susceptibility of CMB polarization probes of the primary gravitational wave signal but can be easily extended to the analysis of gravitational lensing of the CMB.

  14. Spontaneous polarization and pyroelectric effect in improper ferroelectrics-ferroelastics Gd2(MoO4)3 and Tb2(MoO4)3 at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyjasik, S; Shaldin, Yu.V.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental dependencies for spontaneous polarization ΔP s (T) and pyroelectric coefficient γ s (T)for Gd 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 (GMO) and Tb 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 (TMO) reported here differs from those for intrinsic ferroelectrics. We found fundamental distinction in GMO and TMO samples behavior at their repolarization at the fixed temperatures 300 and 4.2 K. In TMO monodomainization temperature does not affect experimental data, while in GMO monodomainization at 4.2 K results in increase of ΔP s (T) by order of magnitude at 85 K and γ s (T) dependence shows well-defined anomalies, reaching a record magnitude of 3 centre dot 10 -4 C/(m 2 centre dot K) at T = 25 K. At T = 200 K the pyroelectric coefficients values are -1.45 centre dot 10 -6 C/(m 2 centre dot K) and-1.8 centre dot 10 -6 C/(m 2 centre dot K). Taking into account our data, results related to transformation of structure in (001) plane and symmetry reasons we suggested crystallographic model of GMO type improper ferroelectric. It is formed by four meso-tetrahedrons constructed of three coordination tetrahedrons MO 4 (a, b and c types). In the framework of this model we discuss the physical meaning of pseudodeviator Q 12 *, coefficient, that initiate the phase transition at T > 433 K from noncentrosymmetric phase (mm2) to another one (4-bar2m).

  15. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  16. Entanglement between pairing and screening in the Gorkov-Melik-Barkhudarov correction to the critical temperature throughout the BCS-BEC crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, L.; Perali, A.; Pieri, P.; Strinati, G. Calvanese

    2018-01-01

    The problem of the theoretical description of the critical temperature Tc of a Fermi superfluid dates back to the work by Gorkov and Melik-Barkhudarov (GMB), who addressed it for a weakly coupled (dilute) superfluid in what would today be referred to as the (extreme) BCS (weak-coupling) limit of the BCS-BEC crossover. The point made in this context by GMB was that particle-particle (pairing) excitations, which are responsible for superfluidity to occur below Tc, and particle-hole excitations, which give rise to screening also in a normal system, get effectively disentangled from each other in the BCS limit, thus yielding a reduction by a factor of 2.2 of the value of Tc obtained when neglecting screening effects. Subsequent work on this topic, that was aimed at extending the original GMB argument away from the BCS limit with diagrammatic methods, has tout court kept this disentangling between pairing and screening throughout the BCS-BEC crossover, without realizing that the conditions for it to be valid are soon violated away from the BCS limit. Here, we reconsider this problem from a more general perspective and argue that pairing and screening are intrinsically entangled with each other along the whole BCS-BEC crossover but for the BCS limit considered by GMB, with the particle-hole excitations soon transmuting into particle-particle excitations away from this limit. We substantiate our argument by performing a detailed numerical calculation of the GMB diagrammatic contribution suitably extended to the whole BCS-BEC crossover, where the full wave-vector and frequency dependence occurring in the repeated in-medium two-particle scattering is duly taken into account. Our numerical calculations are tested against analytic results available in both the BCS and BEC limits, and the contribution of the GMB diagrammatic term to the scattering length of composite bosons in the BEC limit is highlighted. We calculate Tc throughout the BCS-BEC crossover and find that it

  17. INFLUENCE OF SINTERING TEMPERATURE ON THE POLARIZATION RESISTANCE OF LaO20.6SrO20.4CoO20.2FeO20.8O3-δ - SDC CARBONATE COMPOSITE CATHODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Akidah Baharuddin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sintering temperature of an LSCF-samarium-doped ceria carbonate (SDCC cathode composite film on its polarization resistance (Rp were evaluated in this study. An LSCF-SDCC composite cathode was prepared for cathode film development by electrophoretic deposition (EPD. The LSCF-SDCC composite cathode was prepared at 50:50 weight percentage ratio. An EPD suspension which is based on an organic aqueous solution was used, and a mixture of ethanol and deionized water was used as medium with poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (PDADMAC as a dispersing agent. SDCC substrate was used, and EPD was performed on both sides. A symmetrical cell with cathode composite LSCF-SDCC films on both sides of the substrate was subjected to sintering at five different temperatures (from 550°C to 750°C. A symmetrical cell was painted using silver paste before undergoing electrochemical performance test (air condition, in which the impedance, Z data, was measured. The effects of sintering temperature change on element content and film porosity were first investigated by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and J-image analysis. Ceramic-based cathode LSCF-SDCC that was sintered at 600°C exhibited the lowest Rp at a value of 0.68 Ω when operated at 650°C. This study proved that EPD has potential in developing IT-LT solid oxide fuel cell cathode components with high electrochemical performance in terms of Rp values.

  18. Spontaneous polarization and pyroelectric effect in the improper ferroelectrics-ferroelastics Gd2(MoO4)3 and Tb2(MoO4)3 at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjasik, S.; Shaldin, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    The experimental variations in the spontaneous polarization ΔPs(T) and pyroelectric coefficient γs(T) for Gd2(MoO4)3 (GMO) and Tb2(MoO4)3 (TMO) at low temperatures reported here differ from those for intrinsic ferroelectrics. A fundamental difference is found in the repolarization behavior of samples of GMO and TMO at fixed temperatures of 300 and 4.2 K. While the single domain formation temperature essentially has no effect on the measurements for TMO, a fundamental difference is observed in the case of GMO: single domain formation in the latter at 4.2 K leads to an order of magnitude increase in ΔPs at T > 85 K and distinct anomalies are observed in γs(T), at one of which the pyroelectric coefficient reaches a record peak of 3 × 10-4 C/(m2.K) at T = 25 K. At T = 200 K the pyroelectric coefficients equal -1.45 and -1.8 in units of 10-6 C/(m2.K). Based on these results and taking published data on the rotational structural transformation in the (001) plane and symmetry considerations into account, we propose a crystal physical model for GMO-type improper ferroelectrics consisting of four mesotetrahedra, each of which is made up of three different types (a, b, c) of MoO4 coordination tetrahedra. The physical significance of the pseudodeviator coefficient Q12*, which initiates the phase transition at T > 433 K from one non-centrally symmetric phase (mm2) into another (4¯2m), is discussed in terms of this model.

  19. Target mass effects in polarized deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccione, A.

    1998-01-01

    We present a computation of nucleon mass corrections to nucleon structure functions for polarized deep-inelastic scattering. We perform a fit to existing data including mass corrections at first order in m 2 /Q 2 and we study the effect of these corrections on physically interesting quantities. We conclude that mass corrections are generally small, and compatible with current estimates of higher twist uncertainties, when available. (orig.)

  20. Temperature dependent polarization reversal mechanism in 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2) TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 relaxor ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaum, Julia; Simons, Hugh; Hudspeth, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The temperature at which the electric field induced long-range ordered ferroelectric state undergoes transition into the short-range ordered relaxor state, TF-R, is commonly defined by the onset of strong dispersion of the dielectric permittivity. However, this combined macroscopic property and s...... associated with different polarization reversal processes. Such diagrams are useful tools for identifying the best operational temperature regimes for a given composition in actuator applications....... and structural investigation of the polarization reversal process in the prototypical lead-free relaxor 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 reveals that an applied electric field can trigger depolarization and onset of relaxor-like behavior well below TF-R. The polarization reversal process can....... These results are concomitant with a continuous ferroelectric to relaxortransition occurring over a broad temperature range, during which mixed behavior is observed. The nature of polarization reversal can be illustrated in electric-field-temperature (E-T) diagrams showing the electric field amplitudes...

  1. An assessment of CALIOP polar stratospheric cloud composition classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Pitts

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the robustness of the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization polar stratospheric cloud (PSC composition classification algorithm – which is based solely on the spaceborne lidar data – through the use of nearly coincident gas-phase HNO3 and H2O data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on Aura and Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5 temperature analyses. Following the approach of Lambert et al. (2012, we compared the observed temperature-dependent HNO3 uptake by PSCs in the various CALIOP composition classes with modeled uptake for supercooled ternary solutions (STS and equilibrium nitric acid trihydrate (NAT. We examined the CALIOP PSC data record from both polar regions over the period from 2006 through 2011 and over a range of potential temperature levels spanning the 15–30 km altitude range. We found that most PSCs identified as STS exhibit gas phase uptake of HNO3 consistent with theory, but with a small temperature bias, similar to Lambert et al. (2012. Ice PSC classification is also robust in the CALIOP optical data, with the mode in the ice observations occurring about 0.5 K below the frost point. We found that CALIOP PSCs identified as NAT mixtures exhibit two distinct preferred modes which reflect the fact that the growth of NAT particles is kinetically limited. One mode is significantly out of thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to NAT due to short exposure times to temperatures below the NAT existence temperature, TNAT, with HNO3 uptake dominated by the more numerous liquid droplets. The other NAT mixture mode is much closer to NAT thermodynamic equilibrium, indicating that the particles have been exposed to temperatures below TNAT for extended periods of time. With a few notable exceptions, PSCs in the various composition classes conform well to their expected temperature existence regimes. We have a good understanding of the cause of the minor misclassifications that

  2. Radiative corrections in strong Coulomb fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soff, G.

    1993-04-01

    Contributions to the electron Lamb shift in highly charged ions are summarized. Recent theoretical developments as well as current experimental results are considered. Special emphasis is laid on higher-order vacuum polarization corrections as well as on the nuclear size effect on the electron self energy. (orig.). 5 figs

  3. Polar Heat Flow on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeder, G. J.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.; Davies, A. G.; Blaney, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, Galileo spacecraft data have revealed Io's polar regions to be much warmer than previously expected. This unexpected development came from Photo-Polarimeter Radiometer (PPR) data which show that the minimum night temperatures are in the range of 90-95 K virtually everywhere on Io. The minimum night temperatures show no dependence upon latitude and, when away from the sunset terminator, they show no dependence upon time of night. This is indeed bizarre behavior for surface units which generally had been assumed to be passive with respect to Io's pervasive volcanism. Night temperatures of 90-95 K at high, polar latitudes are particularly hard to explain. Even assuming infinite thermal inertia, at these latitudes there is insufficient sunlight to support these warm night temperatures. Thus, through the process of elimination of other possibilities, we come to the conclusion that these surfaces are volcanically heated. Taking previously passive units and turning them into new sources of heat flow is a radical departure from previous thermophysical model paradigms. However, the geological interpretation is straight forward. We are simply seeing the effect of old, cool lava flows which cover most of the surface of Io but yet have some heat to radiate. Under these new constraints, we have taken on the challenge of formulating a physical model which quantitatively reproduces all of the observations of Io's thermal emission. In the following we introduce a new parametric model which suffices to identify a previously unrecognized polar component of Io's heat flow.

  4. PIPER: Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazear, Justin; Benford, D.; Chuss, D.; Fixsen, D.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G.; Jhabvala, C.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A.; Mirel, P.; Mosely, H.; Staguhn, J.; Wollack, E.; Weston, A.; Vlahacos, K.; Bennett, C.; Eimer, J.; Halpern, M.; Irwin, K.; Dotson, J.; Ade, P.; Tucker, C.

    2011-05-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in search of the expected signature of primordial gravity waves excited during an inflationary epoch shortly after the Big Bang. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, one sensitive to the Q Stokes parameter and the other to U. Sky signals will be detected with 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers distributed in four rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 100 mK. To maximize the sensitivity of the instrument, both telescopes are mounted within a single open bucket dewar and are maintained at 1.5 K throughout flight, with no ambient-temperature windows between the sky and the detectors. To mitigate the effects of systematic errors, the polarized sky signals will be modulated using a variable-delay polarization modulator. PIPER will observe at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to separate the CMB from polarized dust emission within the Galaxy. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce nearly full-sky maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. I will discuss the current status and potential science returns from the PIPER project.

  5. Polar metals by geometric design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. H.; Puggioni, D.; Yuan, Y.; Xie, L.; Zhou, H.; Campbell, N.; Ryan, P. J.; Choi, Y.; Kim, J.-W.; Patzner, J. R.; Ryu, S.; Podkaminer, J. P.; Irwin, J.; Ma, Y.; Fennie, C. J.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Pan, X. Q.; Gopalan, V.; Rondinelli, J. M.; Eom, C. B.

    2016-05-01

    Gauss’s law dictates that the net electric field inside a conductor in electrostatic equilibrium is zero by effective charge screening; free carriers within a metal eliminate internal dipoles that may arise owing to asymmetric charge distributions. Quantum physics supports this view, demonstrating that delocalized electrons make a static macroscopic polarization, an ill-defined quantity in metals—it is exceedingly unusual to find a polar metal that exhibits long-range ordered dipoles owing to cooperative atomic displacements aligned from dipolar interactions as in insulating phases. Here we describe the quantum mechanical design and experimental realization of room-temperature polar metals in thin-film ANiO3 perovskite nickelates using a strategy based on atomic-scale control of inversion-preserving (centric) displacements. We predict with ab initio calculations that cooperative polar A cation displacements are geometrically stabilized with a non-equilibrium amplitude and tilt pattern of the corner-connected NiO6 octahedra—the structural signatures of perovskites—owing to geometric constraints imposed by the underlying substrate. Heteroepitaxial thin-films grown on LaAlO3 (111) substrates fulfil the design principles. We achieve both a conducting polar monoclinic oxide that is inaccessible in compositionally identical films grown on (001) substrates, and observe a hidden, previously unreported, non-equilibrium structure in thin-film geometries. We expect that the geometric stabilization approach will provide novel avenues for realizing new multifunctional materials with unusual coexisting properties.

  6. [Cell polarity in the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, C; Kübler, W

    1999-05-01

    The importance of cell polarity as a fundamental biological principle is increasingly recognized in the cardiovascular system. Polar cell mechanisms underlie not only the development of the heart and blood vessels, but also play a major role in the adult organism for polarized endothelial functions such as the separation of the intra- and extravascular compartment and the vectorial exchange of substances between these compartments. Endothelial cells are connected through intercellular junctions which separate the functionally and structurally distinct luminal and abluminal cell surfaces. The luminal plasma membrane is in contact with the blood and takes part in the regulation of hemostasis. The abluminal cell membrane connects the endothelial cell with the basement membrane and modulates blood flow through the release of vasoactive substances. Results from epithelial model systems have shown that the polarized cell phenotype is generated by specific protein sorting and regulated protein trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the cell surface. The polarized distribution of cell membrane proteins is maintained by anchorage with the cytoskeleton and limitation of lateral diffusion by tight junctions. Disturbances of cell polarity may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease states, including ischemic and radiocontrast-induced acute renal failure and carcinomas. Recent results have demonstrated the importance of cholesterol for protein traffic from the trans-Golgi network to the apical cell membrane. This novel intracellular function of cholesterol could point to a connection between cell polarity and the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. The polarity of the endothelium also has to be taken into account when developing gene-therapeutic strategies, since therapeutic success will not only depend on the efficient expression of the desired gene product, but also on its correct cellular location or secretion into the correct extracellular compartment. These

  7. Assessing the Polarization of a Quantum Field from Stokes Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimov, A. B.; Björk, G.; Söderholm, J.

    2010-01-01

    We propose an operational degree of polarization in terms of the variance of the Stokes vector minimized over all the directions of the Poincaré sphere. We examine the properties of this second-order definition and carry out its experimental determination. Quantum states with the same standard...... (first-order) degree of polarization are correctly discriminated by this new measure. We argue that a comprehensive quantum characterization of polarization properties requires a whole hierarchy of higher-order degrees....

  8. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live......In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  9. 78 FR 75449 - Miscellaneous Corrections; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... cross- references, correcting grammatical errors, revising language for clarity and consistency, and... practice. Specifically, these amendments are to correct grammatical errors and to revise cross-references.... The final rule contained minor errors in grammar, punctuation, and referencing. This document corrects...

  10. Functional fixedness and functional reduction as common sense reasonings in chemical equilibrium and in geometry and polarity of molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furió, C.; Calatayud, M. L.; Bárcenas, S. L.; Padilla, O. M.

    2000-09-01

    Many of the learning difficulties in the specific domain of chemistry are found not only in the ideas already possessed by students but in the strategic and procedural knowledge that is characteristic of everyday thinking. These defects in procedural knowledge have been described as functional fixedness and functional reduction. This article assesses the procedural difficulties of students (grade 12 and first and third year of university) based on common sense reasoning in two areas of chemistry: chemical equilibrium and geometry and polarity of molecules. In the first area, the theme of external factors affecting equilibria (temperature and concentration change) was selected because the explanations given by the students could be analyzed easily. The existence of a functional fixedness where Le Chatelier's principle was almost exclusively applied by rote could be observed, with this being the cause of the incorrect responses given to the proposed items. Functional fixedness of the Lewis structure also led to an incorrect prediction of molecular geometry. When molecular geometry was correctly determined by the students, it seemed that other methodological or procedural difficulties appeared when the task was to determine molecular polarity. The students showed a tendency, in many cases, to reduce the factors affecting molecular polarity in two possible ways: (a) assuming that polarity depends only on shape (geometric functional reduction) or (b) assuming that molecular polarity depends only on the polarity of bonds (bonding functional reduction).

  11. Self-correcting quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombin, H; Chhajlany, R W; Horodecki, M; Martin-Delgado, M A

    2013-01-01

    Is the notion of a quantum computer (QC) resilient to thermal noise unphysical? We address this question from a constructive perspective and show that local quantum Hamiltonian models provide self-correcting QCs. To this end, we first give a sufficient condition on the connectedness of excitations for a stabilizer code model to be a self-correcting quantum memory. We then study the two main examples of topological stabilizer codes in arbitrary dimensions and establish their self-correcting capabilities. Also, we address the transversality properties of topological color codes, showing that six-dimensional color codes provide a self-correcting model that allows the transversal and local implementation of a universal set of operations in seven spatial dimensions. Finally, we give a procedure for initializing such quantum memories at finite temperature. (paper)

  12. Generating highly polarized nuclear spins in solution using dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolber, J.; Ellner, F.; Fridlund, B.

    2004-01-01

    A method to generate strongly polarized nuclear spins in solution has been developed, using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) at a temperature of 1.2K, and at a field of 3.354T, corresponding to an electron spin resonance frequency of 94GHz. Trityl radicals are used to directly polarize 13C...... and other low-γ nuclei. Subsequent to the DNP process, the solid sample is dissolved rapidly with a warm solvent to create a solution of molecules with highly polarized nuclear spins. Two main applications are proposed: high-resolution liquid state NMR with enhanced sensitivity, and the use...

  13. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  14. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require one or more ... find out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment ...

  15. On the thermal properties of polarized nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.Y.M.; Montasser, S.S.; Ramadan, S.

    1979-08-01

    The thermal properties of polarized nuclear matter are calculated using Skyrme III interaction modified by Dabrowski for polarized nuclear matter. The temperature dependence of the volume, isospin, spin and spin isospin pressure and energies are determined. The temperature, isospin, spin and spin isospin dependence of the equilibrium Fermi momentum is also discussed. (author)

  16. Polarized Moessbauer transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the emission, absorption and scattering of polarized gamma rays are reviewed for a general case of combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions; various possibilities of obtaining polarized gamma sources are described and examples are given of the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with polarized gamma rays in solving problems of solid state physics. (A.K.)

  17. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, M.; Hankla, A.

    1996-07-09

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90{degree} such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system. 5 figs.

  18. Partially polarized fiber-optic gyro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J; Szafraniec, B; Feth, J

    1996-08-01

    We present a new design for an all-fiber-optic gyroscope that makes use of a single-mode coil containing a Lyot depolarizer along with a partial depolarizer placed between the polarizer and the loop coupler. This design provides an optimal trade-off between the suppression of polarization errors and the reduction of drift errors arising from external magnetic f ields and changes in temperature.

  19. Polarized proton target with horizontal spin orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyatova, Eh.I.; Kiselev, Yu.F.; Kozlenko, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Proton target, the polarization vector of which may be arbitrary oriented in horizontal plane relatively to the beam, is developed and tested. 70% value of polarization is obtained. 0.6 K temperature is acquired through 3 He pumping out continuous cycle. 1.2-propylene glycol - Cr(V) was used as working medium. Magnetic system is made in the form of Helmholtz sperconducting coils with working curren close to critical one. Target polarization is measured by NMR technique using original system of proton signal processing

  20. Mass spectrum bound state systems with relativistic corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dineykhan, M; Zhaugasheva, S A [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Toinbaeva, N Sh; Jakhanshir, A [al-Farabi Kazak National University, 480012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2009-07-28

    Based on the investigation of the asymptotic behaviour of the polarization loop function for charged n scalar particles in an external gauge field, we determine the interaction Hamiltonian including relativistic corrections. The mass spectrum of the bound state is analytically derived. The mechanism for arising of the constituent mass of the relativistic bound-state forming particles is explained. The mass and the constituent mass of the two-, three- and n-body relativistic bound states are calculated taking into account relativistic corrections. The corrections arising due to the one- and two-loop electron polarization to the energy spectrum of muonic hydrogen with orbital and radial excitations are calculated.

  1. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  2. A cryogenic optical feedthrough using polarization maintaining fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M J; Collins, C J; Speake, C C

    2016-03-01

    Polarization maintaining optical fibers can be used to transmit linearly polarized light over long distances but their use in cryogenic environments has been limited by their sensitivity to temperature changes and associated mechanical stress. We investigate experimentally how thermal stresses affect the polarization maintaining fibers and model the observations with Jones matrices. We describe the design, construction, and testing of a feedthrough and fiber termination assembly that uses polarization maintaining fiber to transmit light from a 633 nm HeNe laser at room temperature to a homodyne polarization-based interferometer in a cryogenic vacuum. We report on the efficiency of the polarization maintaining properties of the feedthrough assembly. We also report that, at cryogenic temperatures, the interferometer can achieve a sensitivity of 8 × 10(-10) rad/√Hz at 0.05 Hz using this feedthrough.

  3. Beam divergence correction method for neutron resonance spin echo spectroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Ryuji; Tasaki, Seiji; Hino, Masahiro; Kitaguchi, Masaaki; Kawabata, Yuji; Ebisawa, Toru

    2005-01-01

    A beam divergence correction method for Neutron resonance spin echo (NRSE) spectroscope was proposed and the effectiveness is evaluated by simulation. When a beam divergence correction coil was introduced into NRSE spectroscope and the optimum magnetic field was given, the visibility of spin echo signal was recovered by controlling scattering of phase difference generated by beam divergence. The effectiveness of the correction method was proved by the above result. Principle of NRSE spectroscopy, decrease of spin polarization rate by beam divergence and its correction method, structure of divergence angle correction coil and the magnetic field calculation and result of simulation are described. (S.Y.)

  4. Correcting ionospheric Faraday rotation for ASKAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Shane; Gaensler, Bryan; Landecker, Tom L.; Willis, Tony

    2012-10-01

    Next-generation polarisation surveys, such as the POSSUM survey on ASKAP, aim to measure weak, statistical, cosmological effects associated with weak magnetic fields, and so will require unprecedented accuracy and stability for measuring polarisation vectors and their Faraday rotation measures (RMs). Ionospheric Faraday rotation (IFR) corrupts polarization observations and cannot be ignored at mid to low frequencies. In aperture-synthesis polarimetry IFR rotates individual visibilities and leads to a loss of coherence and accuracy of polarization angle determination. Through the POSSUM survey science team we have been involved in developing detailed ionospheric prediction software (POSSUM memos #10a,b) that will be used to correct the observed visibilities on ASKAP before imaging to obtain sufficiently accurate polarization and RM data. To provide a stringent test of this software, we propose a continuous 24 hr observing block using the 1.1-3.1 GHz band to monitor the variations caused by the time-variable ionosphere in the polarization angle and RM of a strongly polarized calibrator source, PKS B1903-802. We request a total of 96 hrs (4 x 24 hrs) to monitor the changes in the ionosphere every 3 to 6 months until BETA/ASKAP-12 is taking reliable polarization data.

  5. Polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The author discusses a number of interrelated hadronic spin effects which test fundamental features of perturbative and nonperturbative QCD. For example, the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton and the axial coupling g{sub A} on the nucleon are shown to be related to each other for fixed proton radius, independent of the form of the underlying three-quark relativistic quark wavefunction. The renormalization scale and scheme ambiguities for the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule for the polarized structure functions can be eliminated by using commensurate scale relations with other observables. Other examples include (a) new constraints on the shape and normalization of the polarized quark and gluon structure functions of the proton at large and small x{sub bj}; (b) consequences of the principle of hadron retention in high x{sub F} inclusive reactions; (c) applications of hadron helicity conservation to high momentum transfer exclusive reactions; and (d) the dependence of nuclear structure functions and shadowing on virtual photon polarization. The author also discusses the implications of a number of measurements which are in striking conflict with leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions, such as the extraordinarily large spin correlation A{sub NN} observed in large angle proton-proton scattering, the anomalously large {rho}{pi} branching ratio of the J/{psi}, and the rapidly changing polarization dependence of both J/{psi} and continuum lepton pair hadroproduction observed at large x{sub F}. The azimuthal angular dependence of the Drell-Yan process is shown to be highly sensitive to the projectile distribution amplitude, the fundamental valence light-cone wavefunction of the hadron.

  6. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from USCGC POLAR STAR in the Arctic Ocean from 2002-08-19 to 2002-09-23 (NODC Accession 0115588)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115588 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from USCGC POLAR STAR in the Arctic Ocean from 2002-08-19 to 2002-09-23. These data...

  7. Request for Correction 10008 Endangerment Findings for Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Request for correction by Peabody Energy Company for the EPA to correct temperature data in Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act

  8. Wien filter for a polarized ions source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez A, P.I.

    1977-01-01

    In order to carry out investigation works about nuclear structure, the Nuclear Center of Mexico has an accelerator Tandem Van de Graff of 12 Mv. Now in this center there is a polarized ions source, in a setting phase, totally constructed in the workshop of the accelerator. This source, supplies an ion beam with a polarization whose propagation direction is not the adequate one for the dispersion and reaction processes wanted to be realized. A filter Wien was used to obtain the correct direction of the polarization vector. The purpose of this work is the study of the filter necessary conditions in order to reach the desirable objective. In the first part some generalities are given about: polarization phenomena, polarized ions source and description of the performance of the Wien filter. In the second part, the problem of the passage of a polarized beam through the filter is tried and solved. Finally, the design and construction of the filter is presented together with the results of the experimentation with the object to justify the suppositions which were taken into consideration in the solution of the filter problem. (author)

  9. [Review] Polarization and Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, Sascha

    2014-02-01

    Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/γ wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astronomical masers, pulsars, galactic magnetic fields, gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and cosmic microwave background radiation.

  10. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-09-28

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  11. Polarization in Sagittarius A*

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Geoffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    We summarize the current state of polarization observations of Sagittarius A*, the compact radio source and supermassive black hole candidate in the Galactic Center. These observations are providing new tools for understanding accretion disks, jets and their environments. Linear polarization observations have shown that Sgr A* is unpolarized at frequencies as high as 86 GHz. However, recent single-dish observations indicate that Sgr A* may have strong linear polarization at frequencies higher...

  12. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  13. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  14. Invited Article: Polarization ``Down Under'': The polarized time-of-flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saerbeck, T.; Klose, F.; Le Brun, A. P.; Füzi, J.; Brule, A.; Nelson, A.; Holt, S. A.; James, M.

    2012-08-01

    This review presents the implementation and full characterization of the polarization equipment of the time-of-flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The functionality and efficiency of individual components are evaluated and found to maintain a high neutron beam polarization with a maximum of 99.3% through polarizing Fe/Si supermirrors. Neutron spin-flippers with efficiencies of 99.7% give full control over the incident and scattered neutron spin direction over the whole wavelength spectrum available in the instrument. The first scientific experiments illustrate data correction mechanisms for finite polarizations and reveal an extraordinarily high reproducibility for measuring magnetic thin film samples. The setup is now fully commissioned and available for users through the neutron beam proposal system of the Bragg Institute at ANSTO.

  15. Realisation and Optimization the System of Ridge Waveguide Polarizer by Genetic Algorithms for Telecommunication Satellite Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    BOUSALAH, FAYZA; BOUKLI HACENE, NOUR EDDINE

    2012-01-01

    The ridged waveguide polarizer is considered as the better way to get right-hand and left-hand circular polarization in the antennas of telecommunications satellites. In fact, it is a system of three ports used to feed a square waveguide antenna in order to achieve high purity in the right-hand and left-hand circular polarization. Obtaining a great purity of polarization results by the addition from screw from adaptation and blades from correction. A solution with ...

  16. Tensor Networks and Quantum Error Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Andrew J.; Poulin, David

    2014-07-01

    We establish several relations between quantum error correction (QEC) and tensor network (TN) methods of quantum many-body physics. We exhibit correspondences between well-known families of QEC codes and TNs, and demonstrate a formal equivalence between decoding a QEC code and contracting a TN. We build on this equivalence to propose a new family of quantum codes and decoding algorithms that generalize and improve upon quantum polar codes and successive cancellation decoding in a natural way.

  17. Cylindrically polarized Bessel–Gauss beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhi, Daena; Aiello, Andrea; Ornigotti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of radially and azimuthally polarized Bessel–Gauss (BG) beams in both the paraxial and nonparaxial regime. We discuss the validity of the paraxial approximation and the form of the nonparaxial corrections for BG beams. We show that independently on the ratio between the Bessel aperture cone angle ϑ 0 and the Gaussian beam divergence θ 0 , the nonparaxial corrections are alway very small and therefore negligible. The explicit expressions for the nonparaxial vector electric field components are also reported. (paper)

  18. Upgrading the AGS polarized beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    Although present techniques for crossing depolarizing resonances in circular accelerators work, they are very time-consuming to implement and were only able to provide about a 40% polarized beam at 22 GeV in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). We propose to install a partial ''Siberian Snake'' solenoid in the AGS to eliminate the need to correct imperfection resonances and to make other modifications in our intrinsic resonance correctors. This will allow us to reach an energy of 25 GeV with 70% polarization and will enable the AGS to be an efficient injector of polarized protons into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), as well as being able to carry on a fixed-target program with minimum set-up time. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more surgeries depending on the extent of the repair needed. Click here to find out more. Corrective ... more surgeries depending on the extent of the repair needed. Click here to find out more. Corrective ...

  20. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Jaw Surgery Download Download the ebook for further information Corrective jaw, or orthognathic surgery is performed by ... your treatment. Correction of Common Dentofacial Deformities ​ ​ The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  1. NWS Corrections to Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Form B-14 is the National Weather Service form entitled 'Notice of Corrections to Weather Records.' The forms are used to make corrections to observations on forms...

  2. Teaching Politically Correct Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsehelska, Maryna

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that teaching politically correct language to English learners provides them with important information and opportunities to be exposed to cultural issues. The author offers a brief review of how political correctness became an issue and how being politically correct influences the use of language. The article then presents…

  3. The polarized platypus polarized neutron reflectometry made possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saerbeck, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The magnetic moment of the neutron, together with it's highly penetrating non destructive manner, make polarized neutron reflectometry an excellent tool to study magnetic phenomena across surfaces and interfaces of thin films. Unlike other magnetometry techniques which ordinarily yield only average magnetization values or, in case of probes with higher spatial resolution (e.g. electron microscopy or scanning tunnelling microscopy), show a high surface sensitivity, PNR together with magnetic x-ray scattering provides the ability to spatially resolve vector magnetization well beneath the surface [1] The ability to obtain vector magnetization profiles across interfaces and surfaces of thin films and multilayers offers the intriguing possibility to study systematically magnetic configurations and magnetic exchange interactions through intervening layers. In this paper we present the performance of the new polarization system installed on the time of flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS at ANSTO's Bragg Institute. The spin state of the neutrons is polarized and analysed by spatial separation of different neutron spin states using polarizing Fe/Si supermirrors before, and after the sample stage. The supermirrors have a large wavelength acceptance bandwidth of 3 A to 12 A. To control the desired spin direction of the incoming and reflected beam from the sample, two sets of RF spin flippers are installed. In the free space between the spin flippers and the sample stage the neutron spin direction is maintained by two sets of magnetic guide field coils. The new sample environment for studies of magnetic samples includes a 1 T electromagnet and a closed cycle refrigerator which gives access to a temperature range from 4K to 3 50 K .

  4. Our Polar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2009-01-01

    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  5. Terahertz polarization imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Van der Marel, W.A.M.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method to measure the polarization state of a terahertz pulse by using a modified electrooptic sampling setup. To illustrate the power of this method, we show two examples in which the knowledge of the polarization of the terahertz pulse is essential for interpreting the results:

  6. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  7. Polar Science Is Cool!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Children are fascinated by the fact that polar scientists do research in extremely cold and dangerous places. In the Arctic they might be viewed as lunch by a polar bear. In the Antarctic, they could lose toes and fingers to frostbite and the wind is so fast it can rip skin off. They camp on ice in continuous daylight, weeks from any form of…

  8. Dynamic polarization of 19F in a fluorinated alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.; Kasprzyk, T.; Jarmer, J.J.; Penttilae, S.; Krumpolc, M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Purcell, M.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied microwave dynamic cooling of 19 F and 1 H nuclei in mixtures of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and water, doped with Cr(V) complex. Equal spin temperatures of the two nuclei are produced, and the highest spin polarizations (/approximately/80%) are found in mixtures near the eutectic ratio. The high fluorine content and polarization make this a suitable material for polarized nuclear scattering experiments. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Precision Polarization of Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elise; Barron-Palos, Libertad; Couture, Aaron; Crawford, Christopher; Chupp, Tim; Danagoulian, Areg; Estes, Mary; Hona, Binita; Jones, Gordon; Klein, Andi; Penttila, Seppo; Sharma, Monisha; Wilburn, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Determining polarization of a cold neutron beam to high precision is required for the next generation neutron decay correlation experiments at the SNS, such as the proposed abBA and PANDA experiments. Precision polarimetry measurements were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the goal of determining the beam polarization to the level of 10-3 or better. The cold neutrons from FP12 were polarized using optically polarized ^3He gas as a spin filter, which has a highly spin-dependent absorption cross section. A second ^ 3He spin filter was used to analyze the neutron polarization after passing through a resonant RF spin rotator. A discussion of the experiment and results will be given.

  10. Optically polarized 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements. PMID:29503479

  11. Optically polarized 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements.

  12. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  13. Broad-aperture polarized proton target with arbitrary orientation of polarization vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, A.A.; Get'man, V.A.; Derkach, A.Ya.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Razumnyj, A.A.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    Polarized proton target with the Helmholtz broad-aperture superconducting magnetic system is described. Axial aperture α=95 deg, inter-coil access angle β=23 deg. The structure of the target allows various versions of the installation what make sure an arbitrary orientation of polarization vector. The 0.1 W cold output 3 He evaporation cryostat was used to obtain the work temperature 0.5 K allowing quick transformation to a 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator. Results of the study are given on the dynamical proton polarization in 1,2-propylenglycol with various stable Cr 5 complexes

  14. Quantum switching of polarization in mesoscopic ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa de Melo, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    A single domain of a uniaxial ferroelectric grain may be thought of as a classical permanent memory. At the mesoscopic level this system may experience considerable quantum fluctuations due to tunneling between two possible memory states, thus destroying the classical permanent memory effect. To study these quantum effects the concrete example of a mesoscopic uniaxial ferroelectric grain is discussed, where the orientation of the electric polarization determines two possible memory states. The possibility of quantum switching of the polarization in mesoscopic uniaxial ferroelectric grains is thus proposed. To determine the degree of memory loss, the tunneling rate between the two polarization states is calculated at zero temperature both in the absence and in the presence of an external static electric field. In addition, a discussion of crossover temperature between thermally activated behavior and quantum tunneling behavior is presented. And finally, environmental effects (phonons, defects, and surfaces) are also considered. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. EDITORIAL: Politically correct physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen

    1997-03-01

    If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the

  16. Polar ocean stratification in a cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Daniel M; Jaccard, Samuel L; Haug, Gerald H

    2004-03-04

    The low-latitude ocean is strongly stratified by the warmth of its surface water. As a result, the great volume of the deep ocean has easiest access to the atmosphere through the polar surface ocean. In the modern polar ocean during the winter, the vertical distribution of temperature promotes overturning, with colder water over warmer, while the salinity distribution typically promotes stratification, with fresher water over saltier. However, the sensitivity of seawater density to temperature is reduced as temperature approaches the freezing point, with potential consequences for global ocean circulation under cold climates. Here we present deep-sea records of biogenic opal accumulation and sedimentary nitrogen isotopic composition from the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean and the Southern Ocean. These records indicate that vertical stratification increased in both northern and southern high latitudes 2.7 million years ago, when Northern Hemisphere glaciation intensified in association with global cooling during the late Pliocene epoch. We propose that the cooling caused this increased stratification by weakening the role of temperature in polar ocean density structure so as to reduce its opposition to the stratifying effect of the vertical salinity distribution. The shift towards stratification in the polar ocean 2.7 million years ago may have increased the quantity of carbon dioxide trapped in the abyss, amplifying the global cooling.

  17. Spin-polarized deuterium in magnetic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelman, J.M.V.A.; Stoof, H.T.C.; Verhaar, B.J.; Walraven, J.T.M.

    1987-01-01

    We have calculated the spin-exchange two-body rate constants associated with the population dynamics of the hyperfine levels of atomic deuterium as a function of magnetic field in the Boltzmann zero-temperature limit. Results indicate that a gas of low-field--seeking deuterium atoms trapped in a static magnetic field minimum decays rapidly into an ultrastable gas of doubly spin-polarized deuterium. We also discuss the temperature dependence of various effects

  18. Polarized proton beam for eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    RHIC has provided polarized proton collisions from 31 GeV to 255 GeV in the past decade. To preserve polarization through numerous depolarizing resonances through the whole accelerator chain, harmonic orbit correction, partial snakes, horizontal tune jump system and full snakes have been used. In addition, close attentions have been paid to betatron tune control, orbit control and beam line alignment. The polarization of 60% at 255 GeV has been delivered to experiments with 1.8×1011 bunch intensity. For the eRHIC era, the beam brightness has to be maintained to reach the desired luminosity. Since we only have one hadron ring in the eRHIC era, existing spin rotator and snakes can be converted to six snake configuration for one hadron ring. With properly arranged six snakes, the polarization can be maintained at 70% at 250 GeV. This paper summarizes the effort and plan to reach high polarization with small emittance for eRHIC.

  19. Study of polarization and relaxation phenomena of polyblend films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) studies were carried out on pure poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(vinyl chloride) and polyblends (of various weight ratios, 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30) as a function of polarizing fields at constant temperature, to study the polarization and relaxation phenomena in them.

  20. Spin polarization of electrons in a magnetic impurity doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A theoretical model is presented in this paper for degree of spin polarization in alight emitting diode (LED) whose epitaxial region contains quantum dots doped with magnetic impurity. The model is then used to investigate the effect of electron–phonon interaction on degree of spin polarization at different temperatures and ...

  1. Study of polarization and relaxation phenomena of polyblend films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) studies were carried out on pure poly(methyl methacry- late), poly(vinyl chloride) and polyblends (of various weight ratios, 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30) as a function of polarizing fields at constant temperature, to study the polarization and relaxation phenomena in ...

  2. Experiment on the melting pressure of spin polarized He3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapellier, M.; Olsen, M.; Rasmussen, Finn Berg

    1981-01-01

    In liquid He in a Pomeranchuk cell, the melting curve has been observed to be suppressed, presumably in regions with a strong local spin polarization. In the temperature range 30-50 mK the observed suppression was 60-80 kPa. The corresponding local polarization is estimated, in a crude model, to ...

  3. Polarization at the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Stanford Linear collider was designed to accommodate polarized electron beams. Longitudinally polarized electrons colliding with unpolarized positrons at a center of mass energy near the Z/sup 0/ mass can be used as novel and sensitive probes of the electroweak process. A gallium arsenide based photon emission source will provide a beam of longitudinally polarized electrons of about 45 percent polarization. A system of bend magnets and a superconducting solenoid will be used to rotate the spins so that the polarization is preserved while the 1.21 GeV electrons are stored in the damping ring. Another set of bend magnets and two superconducting solenoids orient the spin vectors so that longitudinal polarization of the electrons is achieved at the collision point with the unpolarized positrons. A system to monitor the polarization based on Moller and Compton scattering will be used. Nearly all major components have been fabricated and tested. Subsystems of the source and polarimeters have been installed, and studies are in progress. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Reduction of polarization-fluctuation induced drift in resonator fiber optic gyro by a resonator integrating in-line polarizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huilian; Yu, Xuhui; Jin, Zhonghe

    2012-08-15

    A method to decrease the polarization-fluctuation induced drift in a resonator fiber optic gyro (R-FOG) is demonstrated by inserting two in-line polarizers in a polarization-maintaining fiber resonator with twin 90° polarization-axis rotated splices. The in-line polarizers attenuate the unwanted resonance by introducing high loss for the unwanted eigenstates of polarization in the resonator. Compared to the resonator without in-line polarizers, the polarization-fluctuation induced drift is reduced by 6×10(3) times. The desired resonance in the resonator can keep excellent stability in a wide temperature range; thus the temperature-dependent polarization-fluctuation drift in the R-FOG is sufficiently suppressed. A typical bias stability of 4.7°/h over 6500 s with an integration time of 10 s has been carried out. To the best of our knowledge, the long-term bias stability and high temperature stability are the best ever demonstrated in an R-FOG.

  5. Quantum electrodynamical corrections in critical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soff, G.

    1990-09-01

    We investigate field-theoretical corrections, such as vacuum polarization and self energy to study their influence on strongly bound electrons in heavy and superheavy atoms. In critical fields (Z≅170) for spontaneous e + e - pair creation the coupling constant of the external field Zα exceeds 1 thereby preventing the ordinary perturbative approach of quantum electrodynamical correction which employs an expansion in Zα. For heavy and superheavy elements radiative corrections have to be treated to all orders in Zα. The dominant effect is provided by the Uehling contribution being visualized by the first diagram on the right hand side. It is linear in the external field and thus of order α(Zα). (orig./HSI)

  6. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  7. Polarized scintillator targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.

    2000-05-01

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as "live" polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  8. Polarized scintillator targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, B. van den E-mail: vandenbrandt@psi.ch; Bunyatova, E.I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S

    2000-05-21

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as 'live' polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  9. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  10. Polarization measurement in the COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, K; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Görtz, S; Hasegawa, T; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Le Goff, J M; Magnon, A; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Matsuda, T

    2004-01-01

    Continuous wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to determine the target polarization in the COMPASS experiment. The system is made of the so-called Liverpool Q-meters, Yale-cards, and VME modules for data taking and system controlling. In 2001 the NMR coils were embedded in the target material, while in 2002 and 2003 the coils were mounted on the outer surface of the target cells to increase the packing factor of the material. Though the error of the measurement became larger with the outer coils than with the inner coils, we have performed stable measurements throughout the COMPASS run time for 3 years. The maximum polarization was +57% and -53% as the average in the target cells.

  11. [Research on the Thermal Infrared Polarization Properties of Fresh Snow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-ting; Li, Zhao-liang; Tang, Bo-hui; Sun, Wei-qi; Zhao, Yun-sheng

    2015-07-01

    Snow can directly affect the surface energy balance and climate change and has a significant impact on human life and production. It is therefore of great significance to study the fresh snow emission spectroscopy properties by using the thermal infrared Polarization technique. This can provide a basis for quantitative thermal infrared remote sensing monitoring of snow as well as a deeper understanding of global warming and appropriate countermeasures. This paper focuses on the investigation of the thermal infrared polarization properties of the fresh snow. The results show that the thermal emissive polarization properties of fresh snow depend significantly on the wavelengths (channels) and view angles used to measure them. Four channels are considered in this study, their spectral response ranges are 8-14 microm for channel 1 (CH1), 11.5-12.5 microm for channel 2 (CH2), 10.3-11.5 microm for channel 3 (CH) and 8.2-9.2 microm for channel 4 (CH4). The snow polarized radiance (L) and its polarized brightness temperature (T) manifest as L(CH1) >L(CH3) > L(CH4) > L(CH2) and T(CH4) > T(CH1) > T(CH2) > TCH3, respectively, while the degree of polarization (P) manifests as P0 > P30 > P40 > P20 > P0 > P50 where the subscript of P denotes the view angle. The maximum of both L and T occurs at the view angle of 50 degree and polarization angle of 90 degree while their minimum appears at the view angle of 30 degree and polarization angle of 75 degree for each channel. In addition, the results show that: CH3 is more appropriate for better investigation of the emissive polarization properties of snow. Linear relationship is found between the fresh snow polarized T and the polarization angle with the coefficient of determination larger than 0.77 for all four channels. The polarized brightness temperature of the fresh snow is found to be increased about 0.003 K per polarization angle within 0-135 degree. The degree of polarization of snow is almost independent of the channels we

  12. Nimbus-7 SMMR Polar Gridded Radiances and Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains gridded brightness temperatures and sea ice concentrations for both polar regions. It spans the period from October 1978 through August 1987,...

  13. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  14. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...

  15. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  16. Fusion with highly spin polarized HD and D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics relating to inertial confinement with spin polarized hydrogen targets: low temperature implementation of mating a target to omega; dilution-refrigerator cold-entry and retrieval system; target shell tensile strength characterization at low temperatures; and proton and deuteron spin-lattice relaxation measurements in HD in the millikelvin temperature range

  17. Computing the hadronic vacuum polarization function by analytic continuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xu [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan); Hashimoto, Shoji [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan); The Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba (Japan). School of High Energy Accelerator Science; Hotzel, Grit [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Petschlies, Marcus [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Renner, Dru B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-07-15

    We propose a method to compute the hadronic vacuum polarization function on the lattice at continuous values of photon momenta bridging between the space-like and time-like regions. We provide two independent derivations of this method showing that it leads to the desired hadronic vacuum polarization function in Minkowski space-time. We show with the example of the leading- order QCD correction to the muon anomalous magnetic moment that this approach can provide a valuable alternative method for calculations of physical quantities where the hadronic vacuum polarization function enters.

  18. Polarization of a stored beam by spin-filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyniak, W. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, 00681 Warsaw (Poland); Barion, L. [Universita di Ferrara and INFN, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Barsov, S. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Bechstedt, U. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Benati, P.; Bertelli, S.; Carassiti, V. [Universita di Ferrara and INFN, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Chiladze, D. [High Energy Physics Institute, Tbilisi State University, 0186 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P.F. [Universita di Ferrara and INFN, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Dymov, S. [Physikalische Institute II, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Engels, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Erwen, W. [Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Fiorini, M. [Universita di Ferrara and INFN, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); and others

    2012-11-15

    The PAX Collaboration has successfully performed a spin-filtering experiment with protons at the COSY-ring. The measurement allowed the determination of the spin-dependent polarizing cross section, that compares well with the theoretical prediction from the nucleon-nucleon potential. The test confirms that spin-filtering can be adopted as a method to polarize a stored beam and that the present interpretation of the mechanism in terms of the proton-proton interaction is correct. The outcome of the experiment is of utmost importance in view of the possible application of the method to polarize a beam of stored antiprotons.

  19. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  20. Ultracold Polar Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0005 Ultracold Polar Molecules Jeremy Hutson UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM Final Report 04/01/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-Jan-2010 to 14-Jul-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Report on Grant FA8655-10-1-3033 on Ultracold Polar Molecules 5a...formation of ultracold 87RbCs molecules in their rovibrational ground state by magnetoassociation followed by STIRAP, resulting in 14 papers acknowledging

  1. Hsp Polarization Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bless, Robert

    1991-07-01

    This proposal defines the procedure for determining the instrumental polarization of the polarimetric IDT (IDT#1, POL) on the HSP. 1 of 2 unpolarized standard stars wil be observed using various filter-polarizer combinations. These observations will permit the instrumental polarization to be calibrated. The instrumental polarization must be determined to a high precision in order to vectoriallly remove it from HSP polarization observations to determine the actual astronomical polarization. Final run of proposal will look at one of 2 possible stars previously observed to get another look at the throughput. Revision History: Mark H. Slovak 8/30/88 Translated to V2 proposal instructions (RPSS V6.2) S. Laurent 1/20/89 Updated: Sally Laurent 2/24/89, 3/20/89, 4/13/89, 5/12/89 Modified: P. Stanley 1/15/90 - change to use CTA selected targets only; Fixes for aberration problem - SALM 7/30/90; Based on SV/HSP 1386. New submission changed targets and revised scheduling strategy. Revised: 26 Aug 92 J. Dolan, L. Walter, P. Reppert want to re-run the proposal (3985) one last time to bring down errors.

  2. Fifty Years of Soviet and Russian Drilling Activity in Polar and Non-Polar Ice: A Chronological History

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ueda, Herbert T; Talalay, Pavel G

    2007-01-01

    Soviet and Russian drilling activity in ice began in 1955 while conducting temperature surveys on a glacier in Franz-Josef Land in the Arctic and continued to 1960 on the glaciers of the polar Ural...

  3. Relaxation of polarized nuclei in superconducting rhodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuuttila, T.A.; Tuoriniemi, J.T.; Lefmann, K.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates were measured in normal and superconducting (sc) rhodium with nuclear polarizations up to p = 0.55. This was sufficient to influence the sc state of Rh, whose T, and B-c, are exceptionally low. Because B-c ... is unchanged, the nuclear spin entropy was fully sustained across the sc transition. The relaxation in the sc state was slower at all temperatures without the coherence enhancement close to T-c. Nonzero nuclear polarization strongly reduced the difference between the relaxation rates in the sc and normal...

  4. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  5. Water vapor retrieval from near-IR measurements of polarized scanning atmospheric corrector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Lili; Ning, Yuanming; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Xingfeng; Ma, Yan; Li, Zhengqiang; Cui, Wenyu

    2018-02-01

    Water vapor and aerosol are two key atmospheric factors effecting the remote sensing image quality. As water vapor is responsible for most of the solar radiation absorption occurring in the cloudless atmosphere, accurate measurement of water content is important to not only atmospheric correction of remote sensing images, but also many other applications such as the study of energy balance and global climate change, land surface temperature retrieval in thermal remote sensing. A multi-spectral, single-angular, polarized radiometer called Polarized Scanning Atmospheric Corrector (PSAC) were developed in China, which are designed to mount on the same satellite platform with the principle payload and provide essential parameters for principle payload image atmospheric correction. PSAC detect water vapor content via measuring atmosphere reflectance at water vapor absorbing channels (i.e. 0.91 μm) and nearby atmospheric window channel (i.e. 0.865μm). A near-IR channel ratio method was implemented to retrieve column water vapor (CWV) amount from PSAC measurements. Field experiments were performed at Yantai, in Shandong province of China, PSAC aircraft observations were acquired. The comparison between PSAC retrievals and ground-based Sun-sky radiometer measurements of CWV during the experimental flights illustrates that this method retrieves CWV with relative deviations ranging from 4% 13%. This method retrieve CWV more accurate over land than over ocean, as the water reflectance is low.

  6. Operator quantum error-correcting subsystems for self-correcting quantum memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, Dave

    2006-01-01

    The most general method for encoding quantum information is not to encode the information into a subspace of a Hilbert space, but to encode information into a subsystem of a Hilbert space. Recently this notion has led to a more general notion of quantum error correction known as operator quantum error correction. In standard quantum error-correcting codes, one requires the ability to apply a procedure which exactly reverses on the error-correcting subspace any correctable error. In contrast, for operator error-correcting subsystems, the correction procedure need not undo the error which has occurred, but instead one must perform corrections only modulo the subsystem structure. This does not lead to codes which differ from subspace codes, but does lead to recovery routines which explicitly make use of the subsystem structure. Here we present two examples of such operator error-correcting subsystems. These examples are motivated by simple spatially local Hamiltonians on square and cubic lattices. In three dimensions we provide evidence, in the form a simple mean field theory, that our Hamiltonian gives rise to a system which is self-correcting. Such a system will be a natural high-temperature quantum memory, robust to noise without external intervening quantum error-correction procedures

  7. A technique for measurement of vector and tensor polarization in solid spin one polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielhorn, W.F.

    1991-06-01

    Vector and tensor polarizations are explicitly defined and used to characterize the polarization states of spin one polarized targets, and a technique for extracting these polarizations from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data is developed. This technique is independent of assumptions about spin temperature, but assumes the target's crystal structure induces a quadrupole interaction with the spin one particles. Analysis of the NMR signals involves a computer curve fitting algorithm implemented with a fast Fourier transform method which speeds and simplifies curve fitting algorithms used previously. For accurate curve fitting, the NMR electronic circuit must be modeled by the fitting algorithm. Details of a circuit, its model, and data collected from this circuit are given for a solid deuterated ammonia target. 37 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. A technique for measurement of vector and tensor polarization in solid spin one polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielhorn, W.F.

    1991-06-01

    Vector and tensor polarizations are explicitly defined and used to characterize the polarization states of spin one polarized targets, and a technique for extracting these polarizations from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data is developed. This technique is independent of assumptions about spin temperature, but assumes the target's crystal structure induces a quadrupole interaction with the spin one particles. Analysis of the NMR signals involves a computer curve fitting algorithm implemented with a fast Fourier transform method which speeds and simplifies curve fitting algorithms used previously. For accurate curve fitting, the NMR electronic circuit must be modeled by the fitting algorithm. Details of a circuit, its model, and data collected from this circuit are given for a solid deuterated ammonia target. 37 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs

  9. The evolution of tensor polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Lee, S.Y.; Ratner, L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the equation of motion for the vector polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization is derived. The evolution equation for the tensor polarization is studied in the presence of an isolate spin resonance and in the presence of a spin rotor, or snake

  10. HST observations of the limb polarization of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzon, A.; Schmid, H. M.; Buenzli, E.

    2014-12-01

    Context. Titan is an excellent test case for detailed studies of the scattering polarization from thick hazy atmospheres. Accurate scattering and polarization parameters have been provided by the in situ measurements of the Cassini-Huygens landing probe. For Earth-bound observations Titan can only be observed at a backscattering situation, where the disk-integrated polarization is close to zero. However, with resolved imaging polarimetry a second order polarization signal along the entire limb of Titan can be measured. Aims: We present the first limb polarization measurements of Titan, which are compared as a test to our limb polarization models. Methods: Previously unpublished imaging polarimetry from the HST archive is presented, which resolves the disk of Titan. We determine flux-weighted averages of the limb polarization and radial limb polarization profiles, and investigate the degradation and cancelation effects in the polarization signal due to the limited spatial resolution of our observations. Taking this into account we derive corrected values for the limb polarization in Titan. The results are compared with limb polarization models, using atmosphere and haze scattering parameters from the literature. Results: In the wavelength bands between 250 nm and 2 μm a strong limb polarization of about 2 - 7% is detected with a position angle perpendicular to the limb. The fractional polarization is highest around 1 μm. As a first approximation, the polarization seems to be equally strong along the entire limb. The comparison of our data with model calculations and the literature shows that the detected polarization is compatible with expectations from previous polarimetric observations taken with Voyager 2, Pioneer 11, and the Huygens probe. Conclusions: Our results indicate that ground-based monitoring measurements of the limb-polarization of Titan could be useful for investigating local haze properties and the impact of short-term and seasonal variations of

  11. Mapping grain boundary heterogeneity at the nanoscale in a positive temperature coefficient of resistivity ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Holsgrove

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being of wide commercial use in devices, the orders of magnitude increase in resistance that can be seen in some semiconducting BaTiO3-based ceramics, on heating through the Curie temperature (TC, is far from well understood. Current understanding of the behavior hinges on the role of grain boundary resistance that can be modified by polarization discontinuities which develop in the ferroelectric state. However, direct nanoscale resistance mapping to verify this model has rarely been attempted, and the potential approach to engineer polarization states at the grain boundaries, that could lead to optimized positive temperature coefficient (PTC behavior, is strongly underdeveloped. Here we present direct visualization and nanoscale mapping in a commercially optimized BaTiO3–PbTiO3–CaTiO3 PTC ceramic using Kelvin probe force microscopy, which shows that, even in the low resistance ferroelectric state, the potential drop at grain boundaries is significantly greater than in grain interiors. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy reveal new evidence of Pb-rich grain boundaries symptomatic of a higher net polarization normal to the grain boundaries compared to the purer grain interiors. These results validate the critical link between optimized PTC performance and higher local polarization at grain boundaries in this specific ceramic system and suggest a novel route towards engineering devices where an interface layer of higher spontaneous polarization could lead to enhanced PTC functionality.

  12. Polarized Electrons at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously.initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented.

  13. Polarized electrons at Jefferson laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously. Initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented

  14. Higher order corrections to energy levels of muonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinker, G.A. Jr.; Steffen, R.M.

    1975-08-01

    In order to facilitate the analysis of muonic x-ray spectra, the results of numerical computations of all higher order quantum electrodynamical corrections to the energy levels of muonic atoms are presented in tabular and graphical form. These corrections include the vacuum polarization corrections caused by emission and reabsorption of virtual electron pairs to all orders, including ''double-bubble'' and ''cracked-egg'' diagrams. An estimate of the Delbruecke scattering-type correction is presented. The Lamb-shift (second- and fourth-order vertex) corrections have been calculated including the correction for the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. The relativistic nuclear motion (or recoil) correction as well as the correction caused by the screening of the atomic electrons is presented in graphs. For the sake of completeness a graph of the nuclear polarization as computed on the basis of Chen's approach has been included. All calculations were made with a two-parameter Fermi distribution of the nuclear charge density. 7 figures, 23 references

  15. Spin-polarized light-emitting diodes based on organic bipolar spin valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardeny, Zeev Valentine; Nguyen, Tho Duc; Ehrenfreund, Eitan Avraham

    2017-10-25

    Spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes are provided. Such spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes incorporate ferromagnetic electrodes and show considerable spin-valve magneto-electroluminescence and magneto-conductivity responses, with voltage and temperature dependencies that originate from the bipolar spin-polarized space charge limited current.

  16. Polarized protons at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    The Physics case is presented for the use of polarized protons at RHIC for one or two months each year. This would provide a facility with polarizations of approx-gt 50% high luminosity ∼2.0 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , the possibility of both longitudinal and transverse polarization at the interaction regions, and frequent polarization reversal for control of systematic errors. The annual integrated luminosity for such running (∼10 6 sec per year) would be ∫ Ldt = 2 x 10 38 cm -2 -- roughly 20 times the total luminosity integrated in ∼ 10 years of operation of the CERN Collider (∼10 inverse picobarns, 10 37 cm -2 ). This facility would be unique in the ability to perform parity-violating measurements and polarization test of QCD. Also, the existence of p-p collisions in a new energy range would permit the study of ''classical'' reactions like the total cross section and elastic scattering, etc., and serve as a complement to measurements from p-bar p colliders. 11 refs

  17. In-line Fiber Polarizer

    OpenAIRE

    Perumalsamy, Priya

    1998-01-01

    Polarizers and polarization devices are important components in fiber optic communication and sensor systems. There is a growing need for efficient low loss components that are compatible with optical fibers. An all fiber in-line polarizer is a more desirable alternative that could be placed at appropriate intervals along communication links. An in-line fiber polarizer was fabricated and tested. The in-line fiber polarizer operates by coupling optical energy propagatin...

  18. Impact of the CO2 and H2O clouds of the Martian polar hood on the polar energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Francois; Pollack, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Clouds covering extensive areas above the martian polar caps have regularly been observed during the fall and winter seasons of each hemisphere. These 'polar hoods' are thought to be made of H2O and CO2. In particular, the very cold temperatures observed during the polar night by Viking and Mariner 9 around both poles have been identified as CO2 clouds and several models, including GCM, have indicated that the CO2 can condense in the atmosphere at all polar latitudes. Estimating the impact of the polar hood clouds on the energy balance of the polar regions is necessary to model the CO2 cycle and address puzzling problems like the polar caps assymetry. For example, by altering the thermal radiation emitted to space, CO2 clouds alter the amount of CO2 that condenses during the fall and winter season. The complete set of Viking IRTM data was analyzed to define the spatial and temporal properties of the polar hoods, and how their presence affects the energy radiated by the atmosphere/caps system to space was estimated. The IRTM observations provide good spatial and temporal converage of both polar regions during fall, winter, and spring, when a combination of the first and the second Viking year is used. Only the IRTM brightness temperatures at 11, 15, and 20 microns are reliable at martian polar temperatures. To recover the integrated thermal fluxes from the IRTM data, a simple model of the polar hood, thought to consist of 'warm' H2O clouds lying above colder and opaque CO2 clouds was developed. Such a model is based on the analysis of the IRIS spectra, and is consistent with the IRTM data used.

  19. Statistical mechanics of error-correcting codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashima, Y.; Saad, D.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the performance of error-correcting codes, where the code word comprises products of K bits selected from the original message and decoding is carried out utilizing a connectivity tensor with C connections per index. Shannon's bound for the channel capacity is recovered for large K and zero temperature when the code rate K/C is finite. Close to optimal error-correcting capability is obtained for finite K and C. We examine the finite-temperature case to assess the use of simulated annealing for decoding and extend the analysis to accommodate other types of noisy channels.

  20. Capsize of polarization in dilute photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkian, Zhyrair; Hakhoumian, Arsen; Gasparian, Vladimir; Cuevas, Emilio

    2017-11-29

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, polarization rotation effects in dilute photonic crystals with transverse permittivity inhomogeneity perpendicular to the traveling direction of waves. A capsize, namely a drastic change of polarization to the perpendicular direction is observed in a one-dimensional photonic crystal in the frequency range 10 ÷ 140 GHz. To gain more insights into the rotational mechanism, we have developed a theoretical model of dilute photonic crystal, based on Maxwell's equations with a spatially dependent two dimensional inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity. We show that the polarization's rotation can be explained by an optical splitting parameter appearing naturally in Maxwell's equations for magnetic or electric fields components. This parameter is an optical analogous of Rashba like spin-orbit interaction parameter present in quantum waves, introduces a correction to the band structure of the two-dimensional Bloch states, creates the dynamical phase shift between the waves propagating in the orthogonal directions and finally leads to capsizing of the initial polarization. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  1. Polarization of a stored electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.

    1981-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation by a point charge is a familiar subject in classical electrodynamics. Perhaps less familiar are some quantum mechanical corrections to the classical results. Some of those quantum aspects of synchrotron radiation are described. One of the quantum effects leads to the expectation that electrons in a storage ring will polarize themselves to 92% - a surprisingly high value. A semi-classical derivation of the quantum effects is given. An effort has been made to minimize the need of using quantum mechanics. Results are put together to derive a final expression of beam polarization. Conditions under which the expected 92% polarization is destroyed are found and attributed to depolarization resonances. The various depolarization mechanisms are first illustrated by an idealized example and then systematically treated by a matrix formalism. It is shown that the strength of depolarization is specified by a key quantity called the spin chromaticity. Finally as an application of the obtained results, an estimate of the achievable level of beam polarization for two existing electron storage rings, SPEAR and PEP, is given.

  2. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signa...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice.......This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...

  3. No More Polarization, Please!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mia Reinholt

    The organizational science literature on motivation has for long been polarized into two main positions; the organizational economic position focusing on extrinsic motivation and the organizational behavior position emphasizing intrinsic motivation. With the rise of the knowledge economy...... and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on motivation, acknowledging the co-existence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, the possible interaction...... between the two as well as different types of motivations filling in the gap between the two polar types, is urgently needed in the organizational science literature. By drawing on the research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation conducted in social psychology and combining this with contributions from...

  4. Polarized source upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, T.B.; Rummel, R.L.; Carter, E.P.; Westerfeldt, C.R.; Lovette, A.W.; Edwards, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The decision was made this past year to move the Lamb-shift polarized ion source which was first installed in the laboratory in 1970. The motivation was the need to improve the flexibility of spin-axis orientation by installing the ion source with a new Wien-filter spin precessor which is capable of rotating physically about the beam axis. The move of the polarized source was accomplished in approximately two months, with the accelerator being turned off for experiments during approximately four weeks of this time. The occasion of the move provided the opportunity to rewire completely the entire polarized ion source frame and to rebuild approximately half of the electronic chassis on the source. The result is an ion source which is now logically wired and carefully documented. Beams obtained from the source are much more stable than those previously available

  5. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  6. POLARIZED NEUTRONS IN RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COURANT,E.D.

    1998-04-27

    There does not appear to be any obvious way to accelerate neutrons, polarized or otherwise, to high energies by themselves. To investigate the behavior of polarized neutrons the authors therefore have to obtain them by accelerating them as components of heavier nuclei, and then sorting out the contribution of the neutrons in the analysis of the reactions produced by the heavy ion beams. The best neutron carriers for this purpose are probably {sup 3}He nuclei and deuterons. A polarized deuteron is primarily a combination of a proton and a neutron with their spins pointing in the same direction; in the {sup 3}He nucleus the spins of the two protons are opposite and the net spin (and magnetic moment) is almost the same as that of a free neutron. Polarized ions other than protons may be accelerated, stored and collided in a ring such as RHIC provided the techniques proposed for polarized proton operation can be adapted (or replaced by other strategies) for these ions. To accelerate polarized particles in a ring, one must make provisions for overcoming the depolarizing resonances that occur at certain energies. These resonances arise when the spin tune (ratio of spin precession frequency to orbit frequency) resonates with a component present in the horizontal field. The horizontal field oscillates with the vertical motion of the particles (due to vertical focusing); its frequency spectrum is dominated by the vertical oscillation frequency and its modulation by the periodic structure of the accelerator ring. In addition, the magnet imperfections that distort the closed orbit vertically contain all integral Fourier harmonics of the orbit frequency.

  7. Realisation and Optimization the System of Ridge WaveguidePolarizer by Genetic Algorithms for Telecommunication Satellite Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    BOUSALAH1, FAYZA; NOUR EDDINE2; BOUKLI HACENE

    2013-01-01

    The ridged waveguide polarizer is considered as the better way to get right-hand and left-hand circular polarization in the antennas of telecommunications satellites. In fact, it is a system of three ports used to feed a square waveguide antenna in order to achieve high purity in the right-hand and left-hand circular polarization. Obtaining a great purity of polarization results by the addition from screw from adaptation and blades from correction. A solution with this pr...

  8. Publisher Correction to

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrio, Isabel C.; Lindén, Elin; Beest, Te Mariska; Olofsson, Johan; Rocha, Adrian; Soininen, Eeva M.; Alatalo, Juha M.; Andersson, Tommi; Asmus, Ashley; Boike, Julia; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Bryant, John P.; Buchwal, Agata; Bueno, C.G.; Christie, Katherine S.; Egelkraut, Dagmar; Ehrich, Dorothee; Fishback, Lee Ann; Forbes, Bruce C.; Gartzia, Maite; Grogan, Paul; Hallinger, Martin; Heijmans, Monique M.P.D.; Hik, David S.; Hofgaard, Annika; Holmgren, Milena; Høye, Toke T.; Huebner, Diane C.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Svala; Kaarlejärvi, Elina; Kumpula, Timo; Lange, Cynthia Y.M.J.G.; Lange, Jelena; Lévesque, Esther; Limpens, Juul; Macias-Fauria, Marc; Myers-Smith, Isla; Nieukerken, van Erik J.; Normand, Signe; Post, Eric S.; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Sitters, Judith; Skoracka, Anna; Sokolov, Alexander; Sokolova, Natalya; Speed, James D.M.; Street, Lorna E.; Sundqvist, Maja K.; Suominen, Otso; Tananaev, Nikita; Tremblay, Jean Pierre; Urbanowicz, Christine; Uvarov, Sergey A.; Watts, David; Wilmking, Martin; Wookey, Philip A.; Zimmermann, Heike H.; Zverev, Vitali; Kozlov, Mikhail V.

    2018-01-01

    The above mentioned article was originally scheduled for publication in the special issue on Ecology of Tundra Arthropods with guest editors Toke T. Høye . Lauren E. Culler. Erroneously, the article was published in Polar Biology, Volume 40, Issue 11, November, 2017. The publisher sincerely

  9. Dark Polar Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    20 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired during northern summer in December 2004, shows dark, windblown sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars. A vast sea of sand dunes nearly surrounds the north polar cap. These landforms are located near 80.3oN, 144.1oW. Light-toned features in the image are exposures of the substrate that underlies the dune field. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  10. Imaging with Polarized Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kardjilov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their zero charge, neutrons are able to pass through thick layers of matter (typically several centimeters while being sensitive to magnetic fields due to their intrinsic magnetic moment. Therefore, in addition to the conventional attenuation contrast image, the magnetic field inside and around a sample can be visualized by detecting changes of polarization in a transmitted beam. The method is based on the spatially resolved measurement of the cumulative precession angles of a collimated, polarized, monochromatic neutron beam that traverses a magnetic field or sample.

  11. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  12. AGS polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Sluyters, T.

    1985-01-01

    The AGS polarized H - source is now operational. During a month-long experimental physics run in July 1984, pulses equivalent to 15 μA x 300 μs (approx. 3 x 10 10 protons) were injected into the RFQ preaccelerator. Beam polarization, measured at 200 MeV, was approx. 75%. After the run, a program to increase the H - yield of the source was begun and significant progress has been made. The H - current is now frequently 20 to 30 μA. A description of the source and some details of our operating experience are given. We also briefly describe the improvement program

  13. Fault of the correction factor for pressure and temperature k{sub PT} in the atmospheric conditions of Dosimetric Calibration Lab. - LSCD of ININ - Mexico; Falla del factor de correcion por presion y temperatura k{sub PT} a las condiciones atmosfericas del LSCD-ININ-Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, Jose T.; Jesus Cejudo, A.; La Cruz H., Daniel de; Tovar M, Victor M., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: jesus.cejudo@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: daniel.delacruz@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: victor.tovar@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (LSCD/ININ), Ocoyoacac (Mexico). Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica

    2013-07-01

    The realization of the operational quantities H*, Hp y/0 H'(0.07) for estimating the effective dose E, usually is done by measuring the air kerma Ka air within the field of ionizing radiation of interest and was subsequently applied appropriate conversion factors for both the quality of radiation and the operational quantity of interest. However, the SSDL in performing the Ka to environmental conditions of ININ (3000 m above sea level, P ∼ 710 hPa) with ionization chambers has found that the pressure correction factor and kPT temperature is not sufficient to correct the change in air density. Indeed, in the case of {sup 60}Co the discrepancy between the measurement of a primary standard graphite walls Ka (BEV CC01 be 131) and a side of the plastic walls (Exradin A12) is on the order of 0.4% for the case of the RX BIPM qualities to 100,135, 180 and 250 kV. It was found that for a camera model 30001 PTW (PMMA graphite wall) is needed an additional correction factor k PT ranging from 0.4% to 1.5%, correction factor calculated by MC simulation. For Sk of {sup 125}I brachytherapy sources was given an additional correction lower in 11% compared to conventional k{sub PT} value measured with a well chamber Standard Imaging HDR 1000 plus. Finally, it is in the process of studying the behavior of this additional correction factor to the case of {sup 137}Cs.

  14. Radiative corrections to the atomic photoeffect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEnnan, J.; Gavrila, M.

    1977-01-01

    The radiative corrections to the photoeffect are evaluated for the K-shell of hydrogenlike atoms to lowest order in the radiation field. The corrective matrix element is first discussed within the framework of the bound-state interaction (Furry) picture. We then employ the relativistic Born approximation for the Coulomb Dirac propagator and the final continuum wave function of the electron to obtain an expression which is correct to lowest order in αZ, provided αZ/β very-much-less-than 1, where β is the velocity of the ejected electron. The renormalization program is carried out completely, and the lowest-order radiative corrections are given explicitly in terms of the familiar first-order invariant functions of QED. The matrix element which results is further analyzed in terms of invariant amplitudes which are expressed as sums of Feynman parameter integrals. Finally, we evaluate the differential cross section assuming the polarizations of the electron and photon are not observed. Infrared divergences are eliminated from this cross section by allowing for the possibility that an unobserved soft photon is emitted along with the photoelectron. Although in general a numerical evaluation is necessary, analytic expressions are given for the low- and high-energy limits of our final expression for the radiative corrections to the photoeffect. We find that, while the corrections are small at low energy, for incident photons in the range 1--10 MeV and for electrons emitted near the forward direction (finite momentum transfer), the radiative corrections tend to reduce the photoeffect differential cross section by 1.0 to 7.0%

  15. Students' Attitude toward Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinda Fitriana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Students’ attitudes influence their decision to whether or not accept the teachers’ feedback. Therefore, questionnaire was administered to one hundred and ninety-six twelfth grade of vocational high school students, wherein, ten of them were involved in interview, to figure out their perspective concerning to the teachers’ correction on their oral production. From both instruments, it is found that the students preferred the teachers as the correctors, although, they did not mind for peer correction. They also expected the teachers to give correction at every time they did error and for all types of errors. Additionally, students agreed that teachers’ personality and their way of teaching influenced their willingness to accept the corrective feedback.

  16. Corrected Age for Preemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic ... Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > Corrected Age For Preemies Ages & Stages ...

  17. Eyeglasses for Vision Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... light. Another option for vision correction with UV protection is prescription sunglasses . Also, for people who prefer one set of eyeglasses for both inside and outdoors, photochromatic lenses are ...

  18. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is performed by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) to correct a wide range of minor and ... when sleeping, including snoring) Your dentist, orthodontist and OMS will work together to determine whether you are ...

  19. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Corrective Jaw ...

  20. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Corrective Jaw ...

  1. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... surgery, orthognathic surgery is performed to correct functional problems. Jaw Surgery can have a dramatic effect on ... without straining Chronic mouth breathing Sleep apnea (breathing problems when sleeping, including snoring) Your dentist, orthodontist and ...

  2. Study on the thermal structure of the Venusian polar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, M.; Taguchi, M.; Fukuhara, T.; Kouyama, T.; Imamura, T.; Sato, T. M.; Futaguchi, M.; Yamada, T.; Nakamura, M.; Iwagami, N.; Suzuki, M.; Ueno, M.; Sato, M.; Hashimoto, G. L.; Takagi, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Venus atmosphere exhibits characteristic thermal features called `polar dipoles' and `polar collars' in both polar regions. The polar dipole which locates around the center of the polar region is warmer than mid-latitudes and the polar collar surrounding the polar dipole is colder than the other regions at the same altitude. These features were revealed by infrared observations of Venus by the previous missions. The previous observations showed that shapes of the polar dipoles can be characterized by three patterns which are the zonal wave numbers of 0-2, and that they change with time. The rotation periods of polar dipoles were determined to be 2.5 and 2.8-3.2 Earth days for the southern and northern polar regions, respectively. It has not been clear that the difference and variability in the rotation period is due to just a temporal variation, influence of solar activity, or other reasons. Sato et al. compared the appearances of both polar hot regions by a ground-based observation, rotation of the hot regions is synchronized between the northern and southern hemispheres. However, rotation periods of the northern and southern polar dipoles have not yet been directly compared. The Japanese Venus orbiter Akatsuki is a planetary meteorological satellite aiming at understanding the atmosphere dynamics of Venus. The Longwave Infrared Camera (LIR), observes thermal emission from the cloud top ( 65km). Akatsuki is in an equatorial orbit, which is suitable for simultaneous observations of both northern and southern polar regions. Rotation periods of polar vortices were derived using the LIR data by tracking a zonal position of maximum temperature. The rotation periods of polar vortices of southern and northern hemispheres are determined to be 3.0 - 8.2 and 1.6 - 5.5 Earth days, respectively (Fig.1). These rotation periods of southern polar vortex are longer than the values observed in the past. As a next step, we will derive rotation periods of the polar vortices for

  3. The physics of polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    This course is intended to give a description of the basic physical concepts which underlie the study and the interpretation of polarization phenomena. Apart from a brief historical introduction (Sect. 1), the course is organized in three parts. A first part (Sects. 2 - 6) covers the most relevant facts about the polarization phenomena that are typically encountered in laboratory applications and in everyday life. In Sect. 2, the modern description of polarization in terms of the Stokes parameters is recalled, whereas Sect. 3 is devoted to introduce the basic tools of laboratory polarimetry, such as the Jones calculus and the Mueller matrices. The polarization phenomena which are met in the reflection and refraction of a beam of radiation at the separation surface between two dielectrics, or between a dielectric and a metal, are recalled in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 gives an introduction to the phenomena of dichroism and of anomalous dispersion and Sect. 6 summarizes the polarization phenomena that are commonly encountered in everyday life. The second part of this course (Sects. 7-14) deals with the description, within the formalism of classical physics, of the spectro-polarimetric properties of the radiation emitted by accelerated charges. Such properties are derived by taking as starting point the Liénard and Wiechert equations that are recalled and discussed in Sect. 7 both in the general case and in the non-relativistic approximation. The results are developed to find the percentage polarization, the radiation diagram, the cross-section and the spectral characteristics of the radiation emitted in different phenomena particularly relevant from the astrophysical point of view. The emission of a linear antenna is derived in Sect. 8. The other Sections are devoted to Thomson scattering (Sect. 9), Rayleigh scattering (Sect. 10), Mie scattering (Sect. 11), bremsstrahlung radiation (Sect. 12), cyclotron radiation (Sect. 13), and synchrotron radiation (Sect. 14

  4. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  5. QED polarization asymmetries for e+e- scattering due to helicity flips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, T.B.; Sell, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    The polarization asymmetries for the e + e - scattering with polarized incoming of outgoing beams, which are proportional to the amplitudes φ 5 describing one helicity flip and φ 2 describing two helicity flips, have been calculated including their pure QED radiative corrections. These asymmetries are partly large and can be observed well at low energies. (orig.)

  6. Lobbying and political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Ursprung, Heinrich W.

    2002-01-01

    Standard spatial models of political competition give rise to equilibria in which the competing political parties or candidates converge to a common position. In this paper I show how political polarization can be generated in models that focus on the nexus between pre-election interest group lobbying and electoral competition.

  7. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of the modern understanding of orientational order in liquid crystals (LCs) is based on polarizing microscopy (PM). A PM image bears only two-dimensional (2D) information, integrating the 3D pattern of optical birefringence over the path of light. Recently, we proposed a technique to image 3D director patterns by ...

  8. Polarization of Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.

    1957-01-01

    The numerical results for the polarization of Bremsstrahlung are presented. The multiple scattering of electrons in the target is taken into account. The angular-and photon energy dependences are seen on the curves for an incident 25 MeV electron energy. (Author) [fr

  9. DESY: HERA polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The new HERA electron-proton collider at DESY in Hamburg achieved the first luminosity for electron-proton collisions on 19 October last year. Only one month later, on 20 November, HERA passed another important milestone with the observation of transverse electron polarization

  10. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  11. Graphics of polar figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  12. Graded nanowire ultraviolet LEDs by polarization engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Santino D.; Kent, Thomas F.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; Klie, Robert F.; Rajan, Siddharth; Myers, Roberto C.

    2012-10-01

    Given the large thermal activation energy of acceptors in high %Al AlGaN, a new approach is needed to control p-type conductivity in this material. One promising alternative to using impurity doping with thermal activation is using the intrinsic characteristics of the III-nitrides to activate dopants with polarization-induced charge in graded heterostructures. In this work polarization-induced activation of dopants is used in graded AlGaN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy to form ultraviolet light-emitting diodes. Electrical and optical characterization is provided, showing clear diode behavior and electroluminescent emission at 336nm. Variable temperature electrical measurements show little change in device performance at cryogenic temperatures, proving that dopant ionization is polarizationinduced rather than thermally activated.

  13. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  14. Nuclear spin polarized H and D by means of spin-exchange optical pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Jörn; Grosshauser, Carsten; Kilian, Wolfgang; Nagengast, Wolfgang; Ranzenberger, Bernd; Rith, Klaus; Schmidt, Frank

    1998-01-01

    Optically pumped spin-exchange sources for polarized hydrogen and deuterium atoms have been demonstrated to yield high atomic flow and high electron spin polarization. For maximum nuclear polarization the source has to be operated in spin temperature equilibrium, which has already been demonstrated for hydrogen. In spin temperature equilibrium the nuclear spin polarization PI equals the electron spin polarization PS for hydrogen and is even larger than PS for deuterium. We discuss the general properties of spin temperature equilibrium for a sample of deuterium atoms. One result are the equations PI=4PS/(3+PS2) and Pzz=PSṡPI, where Pzz is the nuclear tensor polarization. Furthermore we demonstrate that the deuterium atoms from our source are in spin temperature equilibrium within the experimental accuracy.

  15. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  16. Attribution of polar warming to human influence

    OpenAIRE

    Gillett, NP; Stone, DA; Stott, PA; Nozawa, T; Karpechko, AY; Hegerl, GC; Wehner, MF; Jones, PD

    2008-01-01

    The polar regions have long been expected to warm strongly as a result of anthropogenic climate change, because of the positive feedbacks associated with melting ice and snow. Several studies have noted a rise in Arctic temperatures over recent decades, but have not formally attributed the changes to human influence, owing to sparse observations and large natural variability. Both warming and cooling trends have been observed in Antarctica, which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ...

  17. Experiments with Fermilab polarized proton and polarized antiproton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize activities concerning the Fermilab polarized beams. They include a brief description of the polarized-beam facility, measurements of beam polarization by polarimeters, asymmetry measurements in the π degree production at high p perpendicular and in the Λ (Σ degree), π ± , π degree production at large x F , and Δσ L (pp, bar pp) measurements. 18 refs

  18. NUCLEON POLARIZATION IN 3-BODY MODELS OF POLARIZED LI-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHELLINGERHOUT, NW; KOK, LP; COON, SA; ADAM, RM

    1993-01-01

    Just as He-3 --> can be approximately characterized as a polarized neutron target, polarized Li-6D has been advocated as a good isoscalar nuclear target for the extraction of the polarized gluon content of the nucleon. The original argument rests upon a presumed ''alpha + deuteron'' picture of Li-6,

  19. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tristan Brooks [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics; Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  20. Viscous corrections to electromagnetic emissivities in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    2017-12-01

    We provide a general framework for the derivation of the hydrodynamical corrections to the QCD electromagnetic emissivities in a viscous fluid. Assuming that the emission times are short in comparison to the fluid evolution time, we show that the leading corrections in the fluid gradients are controlled by the bulk and shear tensors times pertinent response functions involving the energy-momentum tensor. In a hadronic fluid phase, we detail these contributions using spectral functions. Using the vector dominance approximation, we show that the bulk viscosity correction to the photon rate is sizable, while the shear viscosity is negligible for about all frequencies. In the partonic phase near the transition temperature, we provide an assessment of the viscous corrections to the photon and dilepton emissions, using a nonperturbative quark-gluon plasma with soft thermal gluonic corrections in the form of operators of leading mass dimension. Again, the thermal bulk viscosity corrections are found to be larger than the thermal shear viscosity corrections at all energies for both the photon and dilepton in the partonic phase.

  1. Geomagnetic polarity transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ronald T.; McFadden, Phillip L.

    1999-05-01

    The top of Earth's liquid outer core is nearly 2900 km beneath Earth's surface, so we will never be able to observe it directly. This hot, dense, molten iron-rich body is continuously in motion and is the source of Earth's magnetic field. One of the most dynamic manifestations at Earth's surface of this fluid body is, perhaps, a reversal of the geomagnetic field. Unfortunately, the most recent polarity transition occurred at about 780 ka, so we have never observed a transition directly. It seems that a polarity transition spans many human lifetimes, so no human will ever witness the phenomenon in its entirety. Thus we are left with the tantalizing prospect that paleomagnetic records of polarity transitions may betray some of the secrets of the deep Earth. Certainly, if there are systematics in the reversal process and they can be documented, then this will reveal substantial information about the nature of the lowermost mantle and of the outer core. Despite their slowness on a human timescale, polarity transitions occur almost instantaneously on a geological timescale. This rapidity, together with limitations in the paleomagnetic recording process, prohibits a comprehensive description of any reversal transition both now and into the foreseeable future, which limits the questions that may at this stage be sensibly asked. The natural model for the geomagnetic field is a set of spherical harmonic components, and we are not able to obtain a reliable model for even the first few harmonic terms during a transition. Nevertheless, it is possible, in principle, to make statements about the harmonic character of a geomagnetic polarity transition without having a rigorous spherical harmonic description of one. For example, harmonic descriptions of recent geomagnetic polarity transitions that are purely zonal can be ruled out (a zonal harmonic does not change along a line of latitude). Gleaning information about transitions has proven to be difficult, but it does seem

  2. Polarized electron beams at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1992-11-01

    SLAC has successfully accelerated high energy polarized electrons for the Stanford Linear Collider and fixed polarized nuclear target experiments. The polarized electron beams at SLAC use a gallium arsenide (GaAlAs for E-142) photon emission source to provide the beam of polarized electrons with polarization of approximately 28% (41% for E-142). While the beam emittance is reduced in the damping ring for SLC operation a system of bend magnets and superconducting solenoids preserve and orient the spin direction for maximum longitudinal polarization at the collision point. The electron polarization is monitored with a Compton scattering polarimeter, and was typically 22% at the e+e- collision point for the 1992 run. Improvements are discussed to increase the source polarization and to reduce the depolarization effects between the source and the collision point

  3. Analytical polarization calculations beyond SLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made between the theories of Bell and Leinaas and of Derbenev and Kondratenko for the spin polarization in electron storage rings. A calculation of polarization in HERA using the program SMILE of Mane is presented

  4. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... statebased on an idealized mechanical model to be adapted to the original limit state by the model correction factor. Reliable approximations are obtained by iterative use of gradient information on the original limit state function analogously to previous response surface approaches. However, the strength...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  5. Three-dimensional polarization marked multiple-QR code encryption by optimizing a single vectorial beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Hua, Binbin; Wang, Zhisong

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of three dimensional (3D) polarization multiplexing by optimizing a single vectorial beam using a multiple-signal window multiple-plane (MSW-MP) phase retrieval algorithm. Original messages represented with multiple quick response (QR) codes are first partitioned into a series of subblocks. Then, each subblock is marked with a specific polarization state and randomly distributed in 3D space with both longitudinal and transversal adjustable freedoms. A generalized 3D polarization mapping protocol is established to generate a 3D polarization key. Finally, multiple-QR code is encrypted into one phase only mask and one polarization only mask based on the modified Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm. We take the polarization mask as the cyphertext and the phase only mask as additional dimension of key. Only when both the phase key and 3D polarization key are correct, original messages can be recovered. We verify our proposal with both simulation and experiment evidences.

  6. Nonlinear Magnetic Phenomena in Highly Polarized Target Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Yu F

    2007-01-01

    The report introduces and surveys nonlinear magnetic phenomena which have been observed at high nuclear polarizations in polarized targets of the SMC and of the COMPASS collaborations at CERN. Some of these phenomena, namely the frequency modulation eect and the distortion of the NMR line shape, promote the development of the polarized target technique. Others, as the spin-spin cross-relaxation between spin subsystems can be used for the development of quantum statistical physics. New findings bear on an electromagnetic noise and the spectrally resolved radiation from LiD with negatively polarized nuclei detected by low temperature bolometers. These nonlinear phenomena need to be taken into account for achieving the ultimate polarizations.

  7. Adaptive correction of ensemble forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Anna; Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Van den Bergh, Joris; Vannitsem, Stephane

    2017-04-01

    Forecasts from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models often suffer from both systematic and non-systematic errors. These are present in both deterministic and ensemble forecasts, and originate from various sources such as model error and subgrid variability. Statistical post-processing techniques can partly remove such errors, which is particularly important when NWP outputs concerning surface weather variables are employed for site specific applications. Many different post-processing techniques have been developed. For deterministic forecasts, adaptive methods such as the Kalman filter are often used, which sequentially post-process the forecasts by continuously updating the correction parameters as new ground observations become available. These methods are especially valuable when long training data sets do not exist. For ensemble forecasts, well-known techniques are ensemble model output statistics (EMOS), and so-called "member-by-member" approaches (MBM). Here, we introduce a new adaptive post-processing technique for ensemble predictions. The proposed method is a sequential Kalman filtering technique that fully exploits the information content of the ensemble. One correction equation is retrieved and applied to all members, however the parameters of the regression equations are retrieved by exploiting the second order statistics of the forecast ensemble. We compare our new method with two other techniques: a simple method that makes use of a running bias correction of the ensemble mean, and an MBM post-processing approach that rescales the ensemble mean and spread, based on minimization of the Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS). We perform a verification study for the region of Campania in southern Italy. We use two years (2014-2015) of daily meteorological observations of 2-meter temperature and 10-meter wind speed from 18 ground-based automatic weather stations distributed across the region, comparing them with the corresponding COSMO

  8. On Determinants of Political Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Grechyna, Daryna

    2015-01-01

    Political polarization has been shown to significantly influence a country's economic performance. However, little is known about the drivers of political polarization. In this article, we aim to identify the main determinants of political polarization using Bayesian Model Averaging to overcome the problem of model uncertainty. We find that the level of trust within a country and the degree of income inequality are the most robust determinants of political polarization.

  9. Bryant J. correction formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejera R, A.; Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.

    1990-03-01

    For the practical application of the method proposed by J. Bryant, the authors carried out a series of small corrections, related with the bottom, the dead time of the detectors and channels, with the resolution time of the coincidences, with the accidental coincidences, with the decay scheme and with the gamma efficiency of the beta detector beta and the beta efficiency beta of the gamma detector. The calculation of the correction formula is presented in the development of the present report, being presented 25 combinations of the probability of the first existent state at once of one disintegration and the second state at once of the following disintegration. (Author)

  10. Polarized electrogowdy spacetimes censored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nungesser, Ernesto, E-mail: ernesto.nungesser@aei.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-05-01

    A sketch of the proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this it is seen that the results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.

  11. Nuclear polarization study: new frontiers for tests of QED in heavy highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotka, Andrey V; Plunien, Günter

    2014-07-11

    A systematic investigation of the nuclear polarization effects in one- and few-electron heavy ions is presented. The nuclear polarization corrections in the zeroth and first orders in 1/Z are evaluated to the binding energies, the hyperfine splitting, and the bound-electron g factor. It is shown that the nuclear polarization contributions can be substantially canceled simultaneously with the rigid nuclear corrections. This allows for new prospects for probing the QED effects in a strong electromagnetic field and the determination of fundamental constants.

  12. PEPPo: Using a Polarized Electron Beam to Produce Polarized Positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeyemi, Adeleke H. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); et al.

    2015-09-01

    Polarized positron beams have been identified as either an essential or a significant ingredient for the experimental program of both the present and next generation of lepton accelerators (JLab, Super KEK B, ILC, CLIC). An experiment demonstrating a new method for producing polarized positrons has been performed at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Lab. The PEPPo (Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons) concept relies on the production of polarized e⁻/e⁺ pairs from the bremsstrahlung radiation of a longitudinally polarized electron beam interacting within a high-Z conversion target. PEPPo demonstrated the effective transfer of spin-polarization of an 8.2 MeV/c polarized (P~85%) electron beam to positrons produced in varying thickness tungsten production targets, and collected and measured in the range of 3.1 to 6.2 MeV/c. In comparison to other methods this technique reveals a new pathway for producing either high-energy or thermal polarized positron beams using a relatively low polarized electron beam energy (~10MeV) .This presentation will describe the PEPPo concept, the motivations of the experiment and high positron polarization achieved.

  13. Polarization induced doped transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  14. Polar bears, Ursus maritimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Stirling, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Polar bears are the largest of the eight species of bears found worldwide and are covered in a pigment-free fur giving them the appearance of being white. They are the most carnivorous of bear species consuming a high-fat diet, primarily of ice-associated seals and other marine mammals. They range throughout the circumpolar Arctic to the southernmost extent of seasonal pack ice.

  15. Polarized advanced fuel reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The d- 3 He reaction has the same spin dependence as the d-t reaction. It produces no neutrons, so that if the d-d reactivity could be reduced, it would lead to a neutron-lean reactor. The current understanding of the possible suppression of the d-d reactivity by spin polarization is discussed. The question as to whether a suppression is possible is still unresolved. Other advanced fuel reactions are briefly discussed. 11 refs

  16. On polarization in biomembranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchi, Karis Amata

    close to physiological conditions, making these effects biologically relevant. In this work, we consider the case of asymmetric membranes which can display spontaneous polarization in the absence of a field. Close to the phase transition, we find that the membrane displays piezoelectric, flexoelectric...... on different geometries point in the direction of a flexoelectric mechanism behind current rectification in lipid bilayers. Finally, we suggest that our updated equivalent circuit should be included in the interpretation of elctrophysiological data....

  17. Multifrequency Behaviour of Polars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Reinsch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cataclysmic variables emit over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper I will review observations of polars in relevant passbands obtained during the last decade and will discuss their diagnostical potential to access the physics of the main components within the binary systems. This will include a discussion of intrinsic source variability and the quest for simultaneous multi-frequency observations.

  18. Polar Business Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Caisse

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Polar business design aims to enable entrepreneurs, managers, consultants, researchers, and business students to better tackle model-based analysis, creation, and transformation of businesses, ventures, and, more generically, collective endeavors of any size and purpose. It is based on a systems-thinking approach that builds on a few interrelated core concepts to create holistic visual frameworks. These core concepts act as poles linked by meaningful dyads, flows, and faces arranged in geometric shapes. The article presents two such polar frameworks as key findings in an ongoing analytic autoethnography: the three-pole Value−Activity−Stakeholder (VAS triquetra and the four-pole Offer−Creation−Character−Stakeholder (OCCS tetrahedron. The VAS triquetra is a more aggregated model of collective endeavors. The OCCS tetrahedron makes a trade-off between a steeper learning curve and deeper, richer representation potential. This article discusses how to use these two frameworks as well as their limits, and explores the potential that polar business design offers for future research.

  19. Laser detection of spin-polarized hydrogen from HCl and HBr photodissociation: comparison of H- and halogen-atom polarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofikitis, Dimitris; Rubio-Lago, Luis; Bougas, Lykourgos; Alexander, Andrew J; Rakitzis, T Peter

    2008-10-14

    Thermal HCl and HBr molecules were photodissociated using circularly polarized 193 nm light, and the speed-dependent spin polarization of the H-atom photofragments was measured using polarized fluorescence at 121.6 nm. Both polarization components, described by the a(0)(1)(perpendicular) and Re[a(1)(1)(parallel, perpendicular)] parameters which arise from incoherent and coherent dissociation mechanisms, are measured. The values of the a(0)(1)(perpendicular) parameter, for both HCl and HBr photodissociation, are within experimental error of the predictions of both ab initio calculations and of previous measurements of the polarization of the halide cofragments. The experimental and ab initio theoretical values of the Re[a(1)(1)(parallel, perpendicular)] parameter show some disagreement, suggesting that further theoretical investigations are required. Overall, good agreement occurs despite the fact that the current experiments photodissociate molecules at 295 K, whereas previous measurements were conducted at rotational temperatures of about 15 K.

  20. Polarization-angle dependence of photoluminescence intensity of ordered GaInP{sub 2} layers: observation of polarization memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prutskij, T.; Brito-Orta, R. [Instituto de Ciencias, BUAP, Puebla (Mexico); Pelosi, C. [IMEM/CNR, Parma (Italy)

    2008-09-15

    We compare measured and calculated polarization-angle dependencies of the intensity of the photoluminescence emission from MOVPE-grown GaInP{sub 2} layers with different ordering parameters. We measured the polarization-angle dependencies of the emission propagating along the [001],[110] and [1 anti 10] directions at room temperature. Symmetry considerations were used to calculate the dependence of the relative intensity of the PL emission which was linearly polarized along different directions and to estimate the value of the valence-band splitting by fitting the measured dependencies with calculated curves. An intriguing influence of the polarization of the exciting beam on the relative amount of the polarized PL emission was observed in the emission from the (110) plane. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Developing and testing multimedia educational tools to teach Polar Sciences in the Italian school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, Maddalena; Cattadori, Matteo; Bianchi, Cristiana; Zattin, Massimiliano; Talarico, Franco Maria

    2013-04-01

    front, University of Siena) and THERMOCHRON (University of Padova and Fondazione Cariparo) and focuses on the dynamic of the Ross Sea Ice shelf, in Antarctica, that is directly linked to temperature variation. The past history of this glacial system has been reconstructed studying the seafloor sediments recovered by the international drilling project ANDRILL (ANtarctic geological DRILLing), which gathered information about past periods of global warming and cooling. Working with CLAST, students are engaged in inquiry-based and interactive learning experiences, which show the response of the Antarctic glacial system to climatic forcing in the last 150 kyear. Moreover, students deal with the geological key data used to constrain the paleo-environmental reconstructions with glacial-interglacial scenarios. Finally, the students obtain evidence on the role of temperature in causing advance and retreat of ice sheet that are strictly related to global sea level and climate. CLAST will be soon freely downloadable in Italian and in English from App Store and it is supported by a website (http://www.mna.it/italiano/News/notizie_app_set.htm) where it is possible to find references and other teaching tools needed for its correct use in the classroom.

  2. Error Correcting Codes -34 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science, Bangalore. Her interests are in. Theoretical Computer. Science. SERIES I ARTICLE. Error Correcting Codes. 2. The Hamming Codes. Priti Shankar. In the first article of this series we showed how redundancy introduced into a message transmitted over a noisy channel could improve the reliability of transmission. In.

  3. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 33-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/03/0033-0047 ...

  4. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    focused pictures of Triton, Neptune's largest moon. This great feat was in no small measure due to the fact that the sophisticated communication system on Voyager had an elaborate error correcting scheme built into it. At Jupiter and Saturn, a convolutional code was used to enhance the reliability of transmission, and at ...

  5. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... their surgery, orthognathic surgery is performed to correct functional problems. Jaw Surgery can have a dramatic effect on many aspects of life. Following are some of the conditions that may ... front, or side Facial injury Birth defects Receding lower jaw and ...

  6. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We Are Find a Surgeon News Videos Contact Anesthesia Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic ...

  7. Correctness of concurrent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Olderog (Ernst-Rüdiger)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA new notion of correctness for concurrent processes is introduced and investigated. It is a relationship P sat S between process terms P built up from operators of CCS [Mi 80], CSP [Ho 85] and COSY [LTS 79] and logical formulas S specifying sets of finite communication sequences as in

  8. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It was engineering on the grand scale. - the use of new material for .... ROAD REPAIRSCE!STOP}!TL.,ZBFALK where errors occur in both the message as well as the check symbols, the decoder would be able to correct all of these (as there are not more than 8 .... before it is conveyed to the master disc. Modulation caters for.

  9. Text Induced Spelling Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present TISC, a language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from a very large corpus of raw text, without supervision, and contains word

  10. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  11. 10. Correctness of Programs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 4. Algorithms - Correctness of Programs. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article Volume 3 ... Author Affiliations. R K Shyamasundar1. Computer Science Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India.

  12. Correctional Practices in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskridge, Chris W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes Japanese correctional system including its early history and adoption of Western ideas in the late nineteenth century. Presents current Japanese treatment practices, probation/parole systems, and other offender assistance programs pointing out the importance of individual responsibility and community involvement to the system. Compares…

  13. Decadal Variability and Temperature Trends in the Middle Atmosphere From Historical Rocketsonde Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerton, Timothy J.

    2000-01-01

    Observational studies were performed using historical rocketsonde data to investigate long-term temperature trends, solar-cycle variations, and interactions between tropical and extratropical latitudes in the middle atmosphere. Evidence from tropical, subtropical, and midlatitude North American rocketsonde stations indicated a consistent downward trend over 25 years, with a solar cycle component superposed. The trend is about -1.4 to -2.0 K per decade and the amplitude of the decadal oscillation is about 1.1 K. Prior to trend derivation it was necessary for us to correct temperatures for aerodynamic heating in the early years. The empirically derived correction profile agrees well with a theoretical profile of Krumins and Lyons. A study was also performed of the correlation between equatorial winds and north polar temperatures in winter, showing that the entire stratospheric wind profile near the equator -- including the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and stratopause semiannual oscillation (SAO) -- is important to the extratropical flow, not merely the QBO component as previously thought. A strong correlation was discovered between winter polar temperatures and equatorial winds in the upper stratosphere during the preceding September, suggesting a role for the second cycle of the SAO.

  14. Preparation of electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers containing only the polarization charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qin; Yao, Yongyi; Guo, Xiaoming; Zhou, Tao; Xiang, Ruili

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we report a simple method to separate immobile charges into polarization charges and trapped charges and successfully prepare electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers only containing polarization charge. The amount of surface polarization charges and trapped charges were +5.34 nC/g and -2.98 nC/g, respectively. We also tried to explain the mechanism of formation and location of immobile charges by using a model of a parallel plate capacitor, and to track the route and location of charges. Additionally, we investigated the influence of residual solvent, a water bath and the temperature of the water bath on the immobile charges.

  15. Automated multifunction apparatus for spectral and polarization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.N.; Kurakov, A.Ya.

    1992-01-01

    An automated spectral apparatus is described that is based on an SDL-2 spectrometer for spectral and polarization measurements with small specimens (0.15 x 0.15 mm) by the Fourier-coefficient method in the visible and ultraviolet regions over a wide range of temperatures. The absorption, dichroism, birefringence, and polarization orientation of natural waves are determined simultaneously in a single measurement cycle. Polarization-luminescence spectra can also be recorded from one region of the specimen without its adjustment. 3 refs., 3 figs

  16. Study of Lambda polarization at RHIC BES and LHC energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpenko Iurii

    2018-01-01

    gradient of four-temperature field. Based on this mechanism there have been several calculations in hydrodynamic and non-hydrodynamic models for non-central heavy ion collisions in the RHIC Beam Energy Scan energy range, showing that the amount of polarization of produced Λ hyperons ranges from few percents to few permille, and decreases with collision energy. We report on an extension of our existing calculation of global Λ polarization in UrQMD+vHLLE model to full RHIC and LHC energies, and discuss the component of polarization along the beam direction, which is the dominant one at high energies.

  17. Issues in Correctional Training and Casework. Correctional Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford, Bruce I., Ed.; Lawrenz, Pam, Ed.

    The eight papers contained in this monograph were drawn from two national meetings on correctional training and casework. Titles and authors are: "The Challenge of Professionalism in Correctional Training" (Michael J. Gilbert); "A New Perspective in Correctional Training" (Jack Lewis); "Reasonable Expectations in Correctional Officer Training:…

  18. The color of polarization in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, H.A.; Osofsky, M.S.; Lechter, W.L.; Pande, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for the identification of individual anisotropic grains in a heterogeneous and opaque material involves the observation of grain color in reflected light through crossed polarizers (color of polarization). Such colors are generally characteristic of particular phases. When grains of many members of the class of hole carrier cuprate superconductors are so viewed at room temperature with a 'daylight' source, a characteristic color of polarization is observed. This color was studied in many of these cuprate superconductors and a strong correlation was found between color and the existence of superconductivity. Two members were also examined of the electron cuprate superconductors and it was found that they possess the same color of polarization as the hole carrier cuprate superconductors so far examined. The commonality of the characteristic color regardless of charge carrier indicates that the presence of this color is independent of carrier type. The correlation of this color with the existence of superconductivity in the cuprate superconductors suggests that the origin of the color relates to the origin of superconductivity. Photometric techniques are also discussed

  19. Polarization imaging apparatus with auto-calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingyin Kevin; Zhao, Hongzhi; Chen, Qiushui

    2013-08-20

    A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set, a first variable phase retarder (VPR) with its optical axis aligned 22.5.degree., a second variable phase retarder with its optical axis aligned 45.degree., a linear polarizer, a imaging sensor for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller and a computer. Two variable phase retarders were controlled independently by a computer through a controller unit which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of the first and second variable phase retarders. A auto-calibration procedure was incorporated into the polarization imaging apparatus to correct the misalignment of first and second VPRs, as well as the half-wave voltage of the VPRs. A set of four intensity images, I.sub.0, I.sub.1, I.sub.2 and I.sub.3 of the sample were captured by imaging sensor when the phase retardations of VPRs were set at (0,0), (.pi.,0), (.pi.,.pi.) and (.pi./2,.pi.), respectively. Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S.sub.0, S.sub.1, S.sub.2 and S.sub.3 were calculated using the four intensity images.

  20. Polarization Imaging Apparatus with Auto-Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set, a first variable phase retarder (VPR) with its optical axis aligned 22.5 deg, a second variable phase retarder with its optical axis aligned 45 deg, a linear polarizer, a imaging sensor for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller and a computer. Two variable phase retarders were controlled independently by a computer through a controller unit which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of the first and second variable phase retarders. A auto-calibration procedure was incorporated into the polarization imaging apparatus to correct the misalignment of first and second VPRs, as well as the half-wave voltage of the VPRs. A set of four intensity images, I(sub 0), I(sub 1), I(sub 2) and I(sub 3) of the sample were captured by imaging sensor when the phase retardations of VPRs were set at (0,0), (pi,0), (pi,pi) and (pi/2,pi), respectively. Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S(sub 0), S(sub 1), S(sub 2) and S(sub 3) were calculated using the four intensity images.