WorldWideScience

Sample records for polarizable hard sphere

  1. Polarizability properties of bianisotropic spheres with noncomplete magnetoelectric dyadics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvola, A. H.

    1994-02-01

    The polarizability expressions for bianisotropic scatterers are often complicated expressions of the material parameters. The communication treats the question how the dyadic inversion operations needed in the expressions can be carried out in a well-behaving way. Also, the particular polarizabilities of biaxial chiral spheres are studied in detail.

  2. SURFACES OF HARD-SPHERE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Stoyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In various situations surfaces appear that are formed by systems of hard spheres. Examples are porous layers as surfaces of sand heaps and biofilms or fracture surfaces of concrete. The present paper considers models where a statistically homogeneous system of hard spheres with random radii is intersected by a plane and the surface is formed by the spheres with centers close to this plane. Formulae are derived for various characteristics of such surfaces: for the porosity profile, i.e. the local porosity in dependence on the distance from the section plane and for the geometry of the sphere caps that look above the section plane.It turns out that these characteristics only depend on the first-order characteristics of the sphere system, its sphere density and the sphere radius distribution.Comparison with empirically studied biofilms shows that the model is realistic.

  3. Hard Spheres on the Primitive Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotera, Tomonari; Takahashi, Yusuke

    2015-03-01

    Recently hierarchical structures associated with the gyroid in several soft-matter systems have been reported. One of fundamental questions is regular arrangement or tiling on minimal surfaces. We have found certain numbers of hard spheres per unit cell on the gyroid surface are entropically self-organized. Here, new results for the primitive surface are presented. 56/64/72 per unit cell on the primitive minimal surface are entropically self-organized. Numerical evidences for the fluid-solid transition as a function of hard sphere radius are obtained in terms of the acceptance ratio of Monte Carlo moves and order parameters. These arrangements, which are the extensions of the hexagonal arrangement on a flat surface, can be viewed as hyperbolic tiling on the Poincaré disk with a negative Gaussian curvature.

  4. Maximum hardness and minimum polarizability principles through lattice energies of ionic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Savaş, E-mail: savaskaya@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas 58140 (Turkey); Kaya, Cemal, E-mail: kaya@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas 58140 (Turkey); Islam, Nazmul, E-mail: nazmul.islam786@gmail.com [Theoretical and Computational Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Basic Science and Humanities/Chemistry Techno Global-Balurghat, Balurghat, D. Dinajpur 733103 (India)

    2016-03-15

    The maximum hardness (MHP) and minimum polarizability (MPP) principles have been analyzed using the relationship among the lattice energies of ionic compounds with their electronegativities, chemical hardnesses and electrophilicities. Lattice energy, electronegativity, chemical hardness and electrophilicity values of ionic compounds considered in the present study have been calculated using new equations derived by some of the authors in recent years. For 4 simple reactions, the changes of the hardness (Δη), polarizability (Δα) and electrophilicity index (Δω) were calculated. It is shown that the maximum hardness principle is obeyed by all chemical reactions but minimum polarizability principles and minimum electrophilicity principle are not valid for all reactions. We also proposed simple methods to compute the percentage of ionic characters and inter nuclear distances of ionic compounds. Comparative studies with experimental sets of data reveal that the proposed methods of computation of the percentage of ionic characters and inter nuclear distances of ionic compounds are valid.

  5. Maximum hardness and minimum polarizability principles through lattice energies of ionic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Savaş; Kaya, Cemal; Islam, Nazmul

    2016-01-01

    The maximum hardness (MHP) and minimum polarizability (MPP) principles have been analyzed using the relationship among the lattice energies of ionic compounds with their electronegativities, chemical hardnesses and electrophilicities. Lattice energy, electronegativity, chemical hardness and electrophilicity values of ionic compounds considered in the present study have been calculated using new equations derived by some of the authors in recent years. For 4 simple reactions, the changes of the hardness (Δη), polarizability (Δα) and electrophilicity index (Δω) were calculated. It is shown that the maximum hardness principle is obeyed by all chemical reactions but minimum polarizability principles and minimum electrophilicity principle are not valid for all reactions. We also proposed simple methods to compute the percentage of ionic characters and inter nuclear distances of ionic compounds. Comparative studies with experimental sets of data reveal that the proposed methods of computation of the percentage of ionic characters and inter nuclear distances of ionic compounds are valid.

  6. Thermodynamics and vibrational modes of hard sphere colloidal systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zargar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The central question that we address in this thesis is the thermodynamics of colloidal glasses. The thermodynamics of colloidal hard sphere glasses are directly related to the entropy of the system, since the phase behavior of hard sphere systems is dictated only by entropic contributions, and also

  7. Non-hard sphere thermodynamic perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi

    2011-08-21

    A non-hard sphere (HS) perturbation scheme, recently advanced by the present author, is elaborated for several technical matters, which are key mathematical details for implementation of the non-HS perturbation scheme in a coupling parameter expansion (CPE) thermodynamic perturbation framework. NVT-Monte Carlo simulation is carried out for a generalized Lennard-Jones (LJ) 2n-n potential to obtain routine thermodynamic quantities such as excess internal energy, pressure, excess chemical potential, excess Helmholtz free energy, and excess constant volume heat capacity. Then, these new simulation data, and available simulation data in literatures about a hard core attractive Yukawa fluid and a Sutherland fluid, are used to test the non-HS CPE 3rd-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) and give a comparison between the non-HS CPE 3rd-order TPT and other theoretical approaches. It is indicated that the non-HS CPE 3rd-order TPT is superior to other traditional TPT such as van der Waals/HS (vdW/HS), perturbation theory 2 (PT2)/HS, and vdW/Yukawa (vdW/Y) theory or analytical equation of state such as mean spherical approximation (MSA)-equation of state and is at least comparable to several currently the most accurate Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theories. It is discovered that three technical issues, i.e., opening up new bridge function approximation for the reference potential, choosing proper reference potential, and/or using proper thermodynamic route for calculation of f(ex-ref), chiefly decide the quality of the non-HS CPE TPT. Considering that the non-HS perturbation scheme applies for a wide variety of model fluids, and its implementation in the CPE thermodynamic perturbation framework is amenable to high-order truncation, the non-HS CPE 3rd-order or higher order TPT will be more promising once the above-mentioned three technological advances are established. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  8. Simple heuristic for the viscosity of polydisperse hard spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Robert S.

    2014-12-01

    We build on the work of Mooney [Colloids Sci. 6, 162 (1951)] to obtain an heuristic analytic approximation to the viscosity of a suspension any size distribution of hard spheres in a Newtonian solvent. The result agrees reasonably well with rheological data on monodispserse and bidisperse hard spheres, and also provides an approximation to the random close packing fraction of polydisperse spheres. The implied packing fraction is less accurate than that obtained by Farr and Groot [J. Chem. Phys. 131(24), 244104 (2009)], but has the advantage of being quick and simple to evaluate.

  9. Hard sphere colloidal dispersions: Mechanical relaxation pertaining to thermodynamic forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, J.; de Kruif, C.G.; Blom, C.; Vrij, A.

    1987-01-01

    The complex viscosity of sterically stabilized (hard) silica spheres in cyclohexane has been measured between 80 Hz and 170 kHz with torsion pendulums and a nickel tube resonator. The observed relaxation behaviour can be attributed to the interplay of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic forces. The

  10. Simple liquids’ quasiuniversality and the hard-sphere paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2016-01-01

    This topical review discusses the quasiuniversality of simple liquids' structure and dynamics and two possible justifications of it. The traditional one is based on the van der Waals picture of liquids in which the hard-sphere system reflects the basic physics. An alternative explanation argues t...

  11. Simple liquids' quasiuniversality and the hard-sphere paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe C.

    This presentation reflects on the well-known quasiuniversality of simple liquids’ structure and dynamics [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. We discuss two possible justifications of it [6, 7]. The traditional one is based on the van der Waals picture of liquids in which the hard-sphere system reflects the basic ph...

  12. Microstructure and macroscopic properties of polydisperse systems of hard spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogarko, V.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation describes an investigation of systems of polydisperse smooth hard spheres. This includes the development of a fast contact detection algorithm for computer modelling, the development of macroscopic constitutive laws that are based on microscopic features such as the moments of the

  13. Crystallizing hard-sphere glasses by doping with active particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, Ran; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization and vitrification are two different routes to form a solid. Normally these two processes suppress each other, with the glass transition preventing crystallization at high density (or low temperature). This is even true for systems of colloidal hard spheres, which are commonly used as

  14. Force distribution affects vibrational properties in hard-sphere glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeGiuli, E.; Lerner, E.; Brito, C.; Wyart, M.

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically study the elastic properties of hard-sphere glasses and provide a real-space description of their mechanical stability. In contrast to repulsive particles at zero temperature, we argue that the presence of certain pairs of particles interacting with a small force f

  15. Fundamental measure theory for hard-sphere mixtures: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Hard-sphere systems are one of the fundamental model systems of statistical physics and represent an important reference system for molecular or colloidal systems with soft repulsive or attractive interactions in addition to hard-core repulsion at short distances. Density functional theory for classical systems, as one of the core theoretical approaches of statistical physics of fluids and solids, has to be able to treat such an important system successfully and accurately. Fundamental measure theory is up to date the most successful and most accurate density functional theory for hard-sphere mixtures. Since its introduction fundamental measure theory has been applied to many problems, tested against computer simulations, and further developed in many respects. The literature on fundamental measure theory is already large and is growing fast. This review aims to provide a starting point for readers new to fundamental measure theory and an overview of important developments. (topical review)

  16. Bond-orientational analysis of hard-disk and hard-sphere structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, V; Kumaran, V

    2006-05-28

    We report the bond-orientational analysis results for the thermodynamic, random, and homogeneously sheared inelastic structures of hard-disks and hard-spheres. The thermodynamic structures show a sharp rise in the order across the freezing transition. The random structures show the absence of crystallization. The homogeneously sheared structures get ordered at a packing fraction higher than the thermodynamic freezing packing fraction, due to the suppression of crystal nucleation. On shear ordering, strings of close-packed hard-disks in two dimensions and close-packed layers of hard-spheres in three dimensions, oriented along the velocity direction, slide past each other. Such a flow creates a considerable amount of fourfold order in two dimensions and body-centered-tetragonal (bct) structure in three dimensions. These transitions are the flow analogs of the martensitic transformations occurring in metals due to the stresses induced by a rapid quench. In hard-disk structures, using the bond-orientational analysis we show the presence of fourfold order. In sheared inelastic hard-sphere structures, even though the global bond-orientational analysis shows that the system is highly ordered, a third-order rotational invariant analysis shows that only about 40% of the spheres have face-centered-cubic (fcc) order, even in the dense and near-elastic limits, clearly indicating the coexistence of multiple crystalline orders. When layers of close-packed spheres slide past each other, in addition to the bct structure, the hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) structure is formed due to the random stacking faults. Using the Honeycutt-Andersen pair analysis and an analysis based on the 14-faceted polyhedra having six quadrilateral and eight hexagonal faces, we show the presence of bct and hcp signatures in shear ordered inelastic hard-spheres. Thus, our analysis shows that the dense sheared inelastic hard-spheres have a mixture of fcc, bct, and hcp structures.

  17. Elasticity of Hard-Spheres-And-Tether Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farago, O.; Kantor, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Physical properties of a large class of systems ranging from noble gases to polymers and rubber are primarily determined by entropy, while the internal energy plays a minor role. Such systems can be conveniently modeled and numerically studied using ''hard' (i.e., ''infinity-or-zero'') potentials, such as hard sphere repulsive interactions, or inextensible (''tether'') bonds which limit the distance between the bonded monomers, but have zero energy at all permitted distances. The knowledge of elastic constants is very important for understanding the behavior of entropy-dominated systems. Computational methods for determination of the elastic constants in such systems are broadly classified into ''strain'' methods and (fluctuation methods. In the former, the elastic constants are extracted from stress-strain relations, while in the latter they are determined from measurements of stress fluctuations. The fluctuation technique usually enables more accurate and well-controlled determination of the elastic constants since in this method the elastic constants are computed directly from simulations of the un strained system with no need to deform the simulation cell and perform numerical differentiations. For central forces systems, the original ''fluctuation'' formalism can be applied provided the pair potential is twice differentiable. We have extended this formalism to apply to hard-spheres-and-tether models in which this requirement is not fulfilled. We found that for such models the components of the tensor of elastic constants can be related to (two-, three- and four-point) probability densities of contacts between hard spheres and stretched bonds. We have tested our formalism on simple (phantom networks and three-dimensional hard spheres systems

  18. Random close packing of hard spheres and disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    A simple definition of random close packing of hard spheres is presented, and the consequences of this definition are explored. According to this definition, random close packing occurs at the minimum packing fraction eta for which the median nearest-neighbor radius equals the diameter of the spheres. Using the radial distribution function at more dilute concentrations to estimate median nearest-neighbor radii, lower bounds on the critical packing fraction eta/sub RCP/ are obtained and the value of eta/sub RCP/ is estimated by extrapolation. Random close packing is predicted to occur for eta/sub RCP/ = 0.64 +- 0.02 in three dimensions and eta/sub RCP/ = 0.82 +- 0.02 in two dimensions. Both of these predictions are shown to be consistent with the available experimental data

  19. Supercooled liquid dynamics for the charged hard-sphere model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.K.; Chang, S.Y.

    1994-08-01

    We study the dynamics of supercooled liquid and the liquid-glass transition by applying the mode coupling theory to the charged hard-sphere model. By exploiting the two independent parameters inherent in the charged hard-sphere system we examine structurally the subtle and competitive role played by the short-range hard-core correlation and the long-range Coulomb tail. It is found in this work that the long-range Coulombic charge factor effect is generally a less effective contribution to structure when the plasma parameter is less than 500 and becomes dominant when it is greater thereof. To extend our understanding of the supercooled liquid and the liquid-glass transition, an attempt is made to calculate and to give physical relevance to the mode-coupling parameters which are frequently used as mere fitting parameters in analysis of experiments on supercooled liquid systems. This latter information enables us to discuss the possible application of the model to a realistic system. (author). 22 refs, 4 figs

  20. The Enskog Equation for Confined Elastic Hard Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynar, P.; García de Soria, M. I.; Brey, J. Javier

    2018-03-01

    A kinetic equation for a system of elastic hard spheres or disks confined by a hard wall of arbitrary shape is derived. It is a generalization of the modified Enskog equation in which the effects of the confinement are taken into account and it is supposed to be valid up to moderate densities. From the equation, balance equations for the hydrodynamic fields are derived, identifying the collisional transfer contributions to the pressure tensor and heat flux. A Lyapunov functional, H[f], is identified. For any solution of the kinetic equation, H decays monotonically in time until the system reaches the inhomogeneous equilibrium distribution, that is a Maxwellian distribution with a density field consistent with equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  1. Thermodynamic perturbation theory for fused hard-sphere and hard-disk chain fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.; Hall, C.K.; Stell, G.

    1995-01-01

    We find that first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT1) which incorporates the reference monomer fluid used in the generalized Flory--AB (GF--AB) theory yields an equation of state for fused hard-sphere (FHS) chain fluids that has accuracy comparable to the GF--AB and GF--dimer--AC theories. The new TPT1 equation of state is significantly more accurate than other extensions of the TPT1 theory to FHS chain fluids. The TPT1 is also extended to two-dimensional fused hard-disk chain fluids. For the fused hard-disk dimer fluid, the extended TPT1 equation of state is found to be more accurate than the Boublik hard-disk dimer equation of state. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  2. Density Fluctuations of Hard-Sphere Fluids in Narrow Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Nygård

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial confinement induces microscopic ordering of fluids, which in turn alters many of their dynamic and thermodynamic properties. However, the isothermal compressibility has hitherto been largely overlooked in the literature, despite its obvious connection to the underlying microscopic structure and density fluctuations in confined geometries. Here, we address this issue by probing density profiles and structure factors of hard-sphere fluids in various narrow slits, using x-ray scattering from colloid-filled nanofluidic containers and integral-equation-based statistical mechanics at the level of pair distributions for inhomogeneous fluids. Most importantly, we demonstrate that density fluctuations and isothermal compressibilities in confined fluids can be obtained experimentally from the long-wavelength limit of the structure factor, providing a formally exact and experimentally accessible connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic, thermodynamic properties. Our approach will thus, for example, allow direct experimental verification of theoretically predicted enhanced density fluctuations in liquids near solvophobic interfaces.

  3. Collective modes in simple melts: Transition from soft spheres to the hard sphere limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrapak, Sergey; Klumov, Boris; Couëdel, Lénaïc

    2017-08-11

    We study collective modes in a classical system of particles with repulsive inverse-power-law (IPL) interactions in the fluid phase, near the fluid-solid coexistence (IPL melts). The IPL exponent is varied from n = 10 to n = 100 to mimic the transition from moderately soft to hard-sphere-like interactions. We compare the longitudinal dispersion relations obtained using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations with those calculated using the quasi-crystalline approximation (QCA) and find that this simple theoretical approach becomes grossly inaccurate for [Formula: see text]. Similarly, conventional expressions for high-frequency (instantaneous) elastic moduli, predicting their divergence as n increases, are meaningless in this regime. Relations of the longitudinal and transverse elastic velocities of the QCA model to the adiabatic sound velocity, measured in MD simulations, are discussed for the regime where QCA is applicable. Two potentially useful freezing indicators for classical particle systems with steep repulsive interactions are discussed.

  4. New results for virial coefficients of hard spheres in D dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present new results for the virial coefficients Bk for k ≤ 10 for hard spheres in dimensions D ... for the hard sphere gas of particles of diameter σ in D dimensions defined by the two-body potential. U(r) = ..... [22] A J Guttmann, Asymptotic analysis of power-series expansions, in Phase transitions and critical phenomena ...

  5. Structure and dynamics of colloidal hard spheres in real-space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullens, Roel P.A.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with various aspects of the structure and dynamics of colloidal hard spheres. A general introduction on colloids as experimental realization of hard spheres is presented in Chapter 1. The basic principles of confocal microscopy, the main technique used in this thesis, as well as

  6. Equilibrium distribution of hard-sphere systems and revised Enskog theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van

    1983-01-01

    A revised Enskog theory (RET) is shown to lead to a correct equilibrium distribution in hard-sphere systems in a stationary external potential, while the standard Enskog theory (SET) does not. Attention is given to the s-component hard-sphere mixture with constant external potential acting on

  7. Orientational Ordering and Phase Behaviour of Binary Mixtures of Hard Spheres and Hard Spherocylinders.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, L.; Malijevský, Alexandr; Jackson, G.; Muller, E.A.; Avendano, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 4 (2015), s. 044906 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Grant - others:EPSRC(GB) GR/T17595; EPSRC(GB) GR/N35991; EPSRC(GB) EP/E016340; EPSRC(GB) EP/J014958; JREI(GB) GR/M94426 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : phase behaviour * liquid crystals * hard spheres Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.894, year: 2015

  8. Local order and crystallization of dense polydisperse hard spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coslovich, Daniele; Ozawa, Misaki; Berthier, Ludovic

    2018-04-01

    Computer simulations give precious insight into the microscopic behavior of supercooled liquids and glasses, but their typical time scales are orders of magnitude shorter than the experimentally relevant ones. We recently closed this gap for a class of models of size polydisperse fluids, which we successfully equilibrate beyond laboratory time scales by means of the swap Monte Carlo algorithm. In this contribution, we study the interplay between compositional and geometric local orders in a model of polydisperse hard spheres equilibrated with this algorithm. Local compositional order has a weak state dependence, while local geometric order associated to icosahedral arrangements grows more markedly but only at very high density. We quantify the correlation lengths and the degree of sphericity associated to icosahedral structures and compare these results to those for the Wahnström Lennard-Jones mixture. Finally, we analyze the structure of very dense samples that partially crystallized following a pattern incompatible with conventional fractionation scenarios. The crystal structure has the symmetry of aluminum diboride and involves a subset of small and large particles with size ratio approximately equal to 0.5.

  9. The effect of rotational and translational energy exchange on tracer diffusion in rough hard sphere fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Olga; Thachuk, Mark

    2011-03-21

    A study is presented of tracer diffusion in a rough hard sphere fluid. Unlike smooth hard spheres, collisions between rough hard spheres can exchange rotational and translational energy and momentum. It is expected that as tracer particles become larger, their diffusion constants will tend toward the Stokes-Einstein hydrodynamic result. It has already been shown that in this limit, smooth hard spheres adopt "slip" boundary conditions. The current results show that rough hard spheres adopt boundary conditions proportional to the degree of translational-rotational energy exchange. Spheres for which this exchange is the largest adopt "stick" boundary conditions while those with more intermediate exchange adopt values between the "slip" and "stick" limits. This dependence is found to be almost linear. As well, changes in the diffusion constants as a function of this exchange are examined and it is found that the dependence is stronger than that suggested by the low-density, Boltzmann result. Compared with smooth hard spheres, real molecules undergo inelastic collisions and have attractive wells. Rough hard spheres model the effect of inelasticity and show that even without the presence of attractive forces, the boundary conditions for large particles can deviate from "slip" and approach "stick."

  10. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g

  11. Isotropic-nematic transition in a mixture of hard spheres and hard spherocylinders: scaled particle theory description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Holovko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scaled particle theory is developed for the description of thermodynamical properties of a mixture of hard spheres and hard spherocylinders. Analytical expressions for free energy, pressure and chemical potentials are derived. From the minimization of free energy, a nonlinear integral equation for the orientational singlet distribution function is formulated. An isotropic-nematic phase transition in this mixture is investigated from the bifurcation analysis of this equation. It is shown that with an increase of concentration of hard spheres, the total packing fraction of a mixture on phase boundaries slightly increases. The obtained results are compared with computer simulations data.

  12. Structure and effective interactions in three-component hard sphere liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, A; Ashcroft, N W

    2001-04-01

    Complete and simple analytical expressions for the partial structure factors of the ternary hard sphere mixture are obtained within the Percus-Yevick approximation and presented as functions of relative packing fractions and relative hard sphere diameters. These solutions follow from the Laplace transform method as applied to multicomponent systems by Lebowitz [Phys. Rev. 133, A895 (1964)]. As an important application, we examine effective interactions in hard sphere liquid mixtures using the microscopic information contained in their partial structure factors. Thus the ensuring pair potential for an effective one-component system is obtained from the correlation functions by using an approximate inversion, and examples of effective potentials for three-component hard sphere mixtures are given. These mixtures may be of particular interest for the study of the packing aspects of melts that form glasses or quasicrystals, since noncrystalline solids often emerge from melts with at least three atomic constituents.

  13. Probing the equilibrium dynamics of colloidal hard spheres above the mode-coupling glass transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brambilla, G.; al Masri, J.H.M.; Pierno, M.; Berthier, L.; Cipelletti, L.

    2010-01-01

    We use dynamic light scattering and computer simulations to study equilibrium dynamics and dynamic heterogeneity in concentrated suspensions of colloidal hard spheres. Our study covers an unprecedented density range and spans seven decades in structural relaxation time, , including equilibrium

  14. Three-particle equilibrium correlations in dense hard-sphere fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffmans, A.F.E.M.; Schepper, I.M. de; Michels, J.P.J.; Beijeren, H. van

    1988-01-01

    We performed molecular-dynamics simulation experiments for a hard-sphere fluid at four high densities and determined the spatial Fourier transform of the three-particle equilibrium correlation function with two of the three particles at contact.

  15. Dynamical study of a polydisperse hard-sphere system

    KAUST Repository

    Nogawa, Tomoaki; Ito, Nobuyasu; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We study the interplay between the fluid-crystal transition and the glass transition of elastic sphere system with polydispersity using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the end point of the crystal-fluid transition

  16. Molecular-scale hydrophobic interactions between hard-sphere reference solutes are attractive and endothermic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I; Holleran, Sinead A; Ashbaugh, Henry S; Pratt, Lawrence R

    2013-12-17

    The osmotic second virial coefficients, B2, for atomic-sized hard spheres in water are attractive (B2 attractive with increasing temperature (ΔB2/ΔT attractive and endothermic at moderate temperatures. Hydrophobic interactions between atomic-sized hard spheres in water are more attractive than predicted by the available statistical mechanical theory. These results constitute an initial step toward detailed molecular theory of additional intermolecular interaction features, specifically, attractive interactions associated with hydrophobic solutes.

  17. Excluded-volume effects in the diffusion of hard spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, Maria; Chapman, S. Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Excluded-volume effects can play an important role in determining transport properties in diffusion of particles. Here, the diffusion of finite-sized hard-core interacting particles in two or three dimensions is considered systematically using

  18. Dynamical study of a polydisperse hard-sphere system

    KAUST Repository

    Nogawa, Tomoaki

    2010-08-10

    We study the interplay between the fluid-crystal transition and the glass transition of elastic sphere system with polydispersity using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the end point of the crystal-fluid transition line, which corresponds to the critical polydispersity above which the crystal state is unstable, is on the glass transition line. This means that crystal and fluid states at the melting point becomes less distinguishable as polydispersity increases and finally they become identical state, i.e., marginal glass state, at critical polydispersity. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  19. Stochastic interactions of two Brownian hard spheres in the presence of depletants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karzar-Jeddi, Mehdi; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Tuinier, Remco; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative analysis is presented for the stochastic interactions of a pair of Brownian hard spheres in non-adsorbing polymer solutions. The hard spheres are hypothetically trapped by optical tweezers and allowed for random motion near the trapped positions. The investigation focuses on the long-time correlated Brownian motion. The mobility tensor altered by the polymer depletion effect is computed by the boundary integral method, and the corresponding random displacement is determined by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. From our computations it follows that the presence of depletion layers around the hard spheres has a significant effect on the hydrodynamic interactions and particle dynamics as compared to pure solvent and uniform polymer solution cases. The probability distribution functions of random walks of the two interacting hard spheres that are trapped clearly shift due to the polymer depletion effect. The results show that the reduction of the viscosity in the depletion layers around the spheres and the entropic force due to the overlapping of depletion zones have a significant influence on the correlated Brownian interactions

  20. Semiclassical corrections to the interaction energy of a hard-sphere Boltzmann gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, R K [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Dijk, W van [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Srivastava, M K [Institute Instrumentation Center, IIT, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2006-11-01

    Quantum effects in statistical mechanics are important when the thermal wavelength is of the order of, or greater than, the mean interatomic spacing. This is examined in depth taking the example of a hard-sphere Boltzmann gas. Using the virial expansion for the equation of state, it is shown that the interaction energy of a classical hard-sphere gas is exactly zero. When the (second) virial coefficient of such a gas is obtained quantum mechanically, however, the quantum contribution to the interaction energy is shown to be substantial. The importance of the semiclassical corrections to the interaction energy shows up dramatically in such a system.

  1. Semiclassical corrections to the interaction energy of a hard-sphere Boltzmann gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaduri, R K; Dijk, W van; Srivastava, M K

    2006-01-01

    Quantum effects in statistical mechanics are important when the thermal wavelength is of the order of, or greater than, the mean interatomic spacing. This is examined in depth taking the example of a hard-sphere Boltzmann gas. Using the virial expansion for the equation of state, it is shown that the interaction energy of a classical hard-sphere gas is exactly zero. When the (second) virial coefficient of such a gas is obtained quantum mechanically, however, the quantum contribution to the interaction energy is shown to be substantial. The importance of the semiclassical corrections to the interaction energy shows up dramatically in such a system

  2. Excluded-volume effects in the diffusion of hard spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, Maria

    2012-01-03

    Excluded-volume effects can play an important role in determining transport properties in diffusion of particles. Here, the diffusion of finite-sized hard-core interacting particles in two or three dimensions is considered systematically using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The result is a nonlinear diffusion equation for the one-particle distribution function, with excluded-volume effects enhancing the overall collective diffusion rate. An expression for the effective (collective) diffusion coefficient is obtained. Stochastic simulations of the full particle system are shown to compare well with the solution of this equation for two examples. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  3. Towards an analytical theory for charged hard spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Blum

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ion mixtures require an exclusion core to avoid collapse. The Debye Hueckel (DH theory, where ions are point charges, is accurate only in the limit of infinite dilution. The mean spherical approximation (MSA is the embedding of hard cores into DH, and is valid for higher densities. The properties of any ionic mixture can be represented by the single screening parameter Γ which for the equal ionic size restricted model is obtained from the Debye parameter κ. This Γ representation, the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA, is also valid for complex/associating systems, such as the general n-polyelectrolytes. The BIMSA is the only theory that satisfies the infinite dilution limit of the DH theory for any chain length. Furthermore, the contact pair distribution function calculated from our theory agrees with the Monte Carlo of Bresmeea. (Phys. Rev. E, 1995, 51, 289.

  4. Equation of state and jamming density for equivalent bi- and polydisperse, smooth, hard sphere systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogarko, V.; Luding, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We study bi- and polydisperse mixtures of hard sphere fluids with extreme size ratios up to 100. Simulation results are compared with previously found analytical equations of state by looking at the compressibility factor, Z, and agreement is found with much better than 1% deviation in the fluid

  5. Crystalline and amorphous solid phases in the classical hard sphere system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Souza, R.F.T.; Llano, M. de; Mini, S.

    1984-01-01

    A qualitative crystalline, as well as amorphous, solid behavior is simultaneously extracted for a classical hard sphere system from its known virial power series expansion in the density augmented by only one further virial coefficient, taken from an extrapolated estimate of the Cauchy-Hadamard radius of convergence criterion. Results are compared with computer simulation data. (Author) [pt

  6. Brownian dynamics of aggregation kinetics of hard spheres with flexibele bounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rzepiela, A.A.; Opheusden, van J.; Vliet, van T.

    2001-01-01

    Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations have been performed on the aggregation dynamics of colloidal particles within the context of a ball-and-string model. Particles are treated as hard spheres that can bind irreversibly through a string attached to their surface. The model is set up to mimic some

  7. Connecting structural relaxation with the low frequency modes in a hard-sphere colloidal glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, A.; Chikkadi, V.; Schall, P.; Bonn, D.

    2011-01-01

    Structural relaxation in hard-sphere colloidal glasses has been studied using confocal microscopy. The motion of individual particles is followed over long time scales to detect the rearranging regions in the system. We have used normal mode analysis to understand the origin of the rearranging

  8. Flexible equation of state for a hard sphere and Lennard–Jones fluid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Equation of state; Lennard–Jones potential; hard-sphere potential; liquid mixture; computer simulation. ... deviation than Barker–Henderson BH2 for LJ fluids, and results are much closer to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations than expectations and reproduce the existing simulation data and present EoS for LJ potential, ...

  9. Computer simulation of solid-liquid coexistence in binary hard sphere mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, W.G.T.; Frenkel, D.

    1991-01-01

    We present the results of a computer simulation study of the solid-liquid coexistence of a binary hard sphere mixture for diameter ratios in the range 0·85 ⩽ ğa ⩽ 1>·00. For the solid phase we only consider substitutionally disordered FCC and HCP crystals. For 0·9425 < α < 1·00 we find a

  10. Hard sphere-like glass transition in eye lens α-crystallin solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foffi, Giuseppe; Savin, Gabriela; Bucciarelli, Saskia; Dorsaz, Nicolas; Thurston, George M; Stradner, Anna; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2014-11-25

    We study the equilibrium liquid structure and dynamics of dilute and concentrated bovine eye lens α-crystallin solutions, using small-angle X-ray scattering, static and dynamic light scattering, viscometry, molecular dynamics simulations, and mode-coupling theory. We find that a polydisperse Percus-Yevick hard-sphere liquid-structure model accurately reproduces both static light scattering data and small-angle X-ray scattering liquid structure data from α-crystallin solutions over an extended range of protein concentrations up to 290 mg/mL or 49% vol fraction and up to ca. 330 mg/mL for static light scattering. The measured dynamic light scattering and viscosity properties are also consistent with those of hard-sphere colloids and show power laws characteristic of an approach toward a glass transition at α-crystallin volume fractions near 58%. Dynamic light scattering at a volume fraction beyond the glass transition indicates formation of an arrested state. We further perform event-driven molecular dynamics simulations of polydisperse hard-sphere systems and use mode-coupling theory to compare the measured dynamic power laws with those of hard-sphere models. The static and dynamic data, simulations, and analysis show that aqueous eye lens α-crystallin solutions exhibit a glass transition at high concentrations that is similar to those found in hard-sphere colloidal systems. The α-crystallin glass transition could have implications for the molecular basis of presbyopia and the kinetics of molecular change during cataractogenesis.

  11. Exact equivalence between one-dimensional Bose gases interacting via hard-sphere and zero-range potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valiente, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    We prove the equivalence between the hard-sphere Bose gas and a system with momentum-dependent zero-range interactions in one spatial dimension, which we call extended hard-sphere Bose gas. The two-body interaction in the latter model has the advantage of being a regular pseudopotential. The most...

  12. The structural origin of the hard-sphere glass transition in granular packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chengjie; Li, Jindong; Cao, Yixin; Kou, Binquan; Xiao, Xianghui; Fezzaa, Kamel; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yujie

    2015-09-28

    Glass transition is accompanied by a rapid growth of the structural relaxation time and a concomitant decrease of configurational entropy. It remains unclear whether the transition has a thermodynamic origin, and whether the dynamic arrest is associated with the growth of a certain static order. Using granular packing as a model hard-sphere glass, we show the glass transition as a thermodynamic phase transition with a 'hidden' polytetrahedral order. This polytetrahedral order is spatially correlated with the slow dynamics. It is geometrically frustrated and has a peculiar fractal dimension. Additionally, as the packing fraction increases, its growth follows an entropy-driven nucleation process, similar to that of the random first-order transition theory. Our study essentially identifies a long-sought-after structural glass order in hard-sphere glasses.

  13. Parallelized event chain algorithm for dense hard sphere and polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampmann, Tobias A.; Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We combine parallelization and cluster Monte Carlo for hard sphere systems and present a parallelized event chain algorithm for the hard disk system in two dimensions. For parallelization we use a spatial partitioning approach into simulation cells. We find that it is crucial for correctness to ensure detailed balance on the level of Monte Carlo sweeps by drawing the starting sphere of event chains within each simulation cell with replacement. We analyze the performance gains for the parallelized event chain and find a criterion for an optimal degree of parallelization. Because of the cluster nature of event chain moves massive parallelization will not be optimal. Finally, we discuss first applications of the event chain algorithm to dense polymer systems, i.e., bundle-forming solutions of attractive semiflexible polymers

  14. Analytical expressions for the correlation function of a hard sphere dimer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soonho; Chang, Jaeeon; Kim, Hwayong

    A closed form expression is given for the correlation function of a hard sphere dimer fluid. A set of integral equations is obtained from Wertheim's multidensity Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory with Percus-Yevick approximation. Applying the Laplace transformation method to the integral equations and then solving the resulting equations algebraically, the Laplace transforms of the individual correlation functions are obtained. By the inverse Laplace transformation, the radial distribution function (RDF) is obtained in closed form out to 3D (D is the segment diameter). The analytical expression for the RDF of the hard dimer should be useful in developing the perturbation theory of dimer fluids.

  15. Connecting structural relaxation with the low frequency modes in a hard-sphere colloidal glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Antina; Chikkadi, Vijayakumar; Schall, Peter; Bonn, Daniel

    2011-10-28

    Structural relaxation in hard-sphere colloidal glasses has been studied using confocal microscopy. The motion of individual particles is followed over long time scales to detect the rearranging regions in the system. We have used normal mode analysis to understand the origin of the rearranging regions. The low-frequency modes, obtained over short time scales, show strong spatial correlation with the rearrangements that happen on long time scales.

  16. Analytic methods for the Percus-Yevick hard sphere correlation functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Henderson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Percus-Yevick theory for hard spheres provides simple accurate expressions for the correlation functions that have proven exceptionally useful. A summary of the author's lecture notes concerning three methods of obtaining these functions are presented. These notes are original only in part. However, they contain some helpful steps and simplifications. The purpose of this paper is to make these notes more widely available.

  17. Statistical mechanics of molecular fluids. The RHNC theory applied to hard dipolar spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardero, M.; Lado, F.; Abascal, J.L.F.; Lago, S.; Enciso, E.

    1988-01-01

    The RHNC (reference hipernetted chain) equation, together with an optimization criterion which extremalizes the Helmholtz free energy, is used to obtain structural, thermodynamic, and dielectric properties of a system made up of hard dipolar spheres. The comparison with simulation results is made in the same boundary conditions and then the properties of an infinite system are evaluated for a variaty of states at different densities and dipolar moments. (Author)

  18. A linear programming algorithm to test for jamming in hard-sphere packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donev, Aleksandar; Torquato, Salvatore.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Connelly, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Jamming in hard-particle packings has been the subject of considerable interest in recent years. In a paper by Torquato and Stillinger [J. Phys. Chem. B 105 (2001)], a classification scheme of jammed packings into hierarchical categories of locally, collectively and strictly jammed configurations has been proposed. They suggest that these jamming categories can be tested using numerical algorithms that analyze an equivalent contact network of the packing under applied displacements, but leave the design of such algorithms as a future task. In this work, we present a rigorous and practical algorithm to assess whether an ideal hard-sphere packing in two or three dimensions is jammed according to the aforementioned categories. The algorithm is based on linear programming and is applicable to regular as well as random packings of finite size with hard-wall and periodic boundary conditions. If the packing is not jammed, the algorithm yields representative multi-particle unjamming motions. Furthermore, we extend the jamming categories and the testing algorithm to packings with significant interparticle gaps. We describe in detail two variants of the proposed randomized linear programming approach to test for jamming in hard-sphere packings. The first algorithm treats ideal packings in which particles form perfect contacts. Another algorithm treats the case of jamming in packings with significant interparticle gaps. This extended algorithm allows one to explore more fully the nature of the feasible particle displacements. We have implemented the algorithms and applied them to ordered as well as random packings of circular disks and spheres with periodic boundary conditions. Some representative results for large disordered disk and sphere packings are given, but more robust and efficient implementations as well as further applications (e.g., non-spherical particles) are anticipated for the future

  19. Electrostatic solvation free energies of charged hard spheres using molecular dynamics with density functional theory interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duignan, Timothy T.; Baer, Marcel D.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Mundy, Chistopher J.

    2017-10-01

    Determining the solvation free energies of single ions in water is one of the most fundamental problems in physical chemistry and yet many unresolved questions remain. In particular, the ability to decompose the solvation free energy into simple and intuitive contributions will have important implications for models of electrolyte solution. Here, we provide definitions of the various types of single ion solvation free energies based on different simulation protocols. We calculate solvation free energies of charged hard spheres using density functional theory interaction potentials with molecular dynamics simulation and isolate the effects of charge and cavitation, comparing to the Born (linear response) model. We show that using uncorrected Ewald summation leads to unphysical values for the single ion solvation free energy and that charging free energies for cations are approximately linear as a function of charge but that there is a small non-linearity for small anions. The charge hydration asymmetry for hard spheres, determined with quantum mechanics, is much larger than for the analogous real ions. This suggests that real ions, particularly anions, are significantly more complex than simple charged hard spheres, a commonly employed representation.

  20. Thermodynamics and dynamics of the hard-sphere system: From stable to metastable states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomont, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.bomont@univ-lorraine.fr; Bretonnet, Jean-Louis

    2014-08-17

    Highlights: • Three different scaling laws, devoted to transport properties of hard-sphere system, are investigated over a wide range of packing fractions. • A new semiempirical relation linking the transport properties to the excess pressure is derived. • The present relation allows to better understand the link between the thermodynamic and the dynamic properties of the hard-sphere system. - Abstract: A set of three different scaling laws is investigated, which are devoted to link the transport properties, i.e. diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, bulk viscosity and thermal conductivity, to the thermodynamic properties for the athermal hard-sphere system, over the wider range of packing fraction covering the stable and metastable regimes. Except for the thermal conductivity, the Rosenfeld (1999) [15] relation is found to be applicable to the stable states while the Adam and Gibbs (1965) [24] relation holds well for the metastable states. In contrast, the modified Cohen and Turnbull (1959) [25] relation proposed here gives sound support for a universal scaling law connecting the dynamic and thermodynamic properties, over the domain of packing fraction including the stable and metastable states. In particular, it is found that the most relevant control parameter is not the excess entropy, but the logarithm derivative of the excess entropy with respect to the packing fraction. In the same context, the Stokes–Einstein relation between the diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity is also examined. The possible violation of the Stokes–Einstein relation is investigated over a large domain of packing fractions.

  1. Thermodynamics and dynamics of the hard-sphere system: From stable to metastable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomont, Jean-Marc; Bretonnet, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three different scaling laws, devoted to transport properties of hard-sphere system, are investigated over a wide range of packing fractions. • A new semiempirical relation linking the transport properties to the excess pressure is derived. • The present relation allows to better understand the link between the thermodynamic and the dynamic properties of the hard-sphere system. - Abstract: A set of three different scaling laws is investigated, which are devoted to link the transport properties, i.e. diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, bulk viscosity and thermal conductivity, to the thermodynamic properties for the athermal hard-sphere system, over the wider range of packing fraction covering the stable and metastable regimes. Except for the thermal conductivity, the Rosenfeld (1999) [15] relation is found to be applicable to the stable states while the Adam and Gibbs (1965) [24] relation holds well for the metastable states. In contrast, the modified Cohen and Turnbull (1959) [25] relation proposed here gives sound support for a universal scaling law connecting the dynamic and thermodynamic properties, over the domain of packing fraction including the stable and metastable states. In particular, it is found that the most relevant control parameter is not the excess entropy, but the logarithm derivative of the excess entropy with respect to the packing fraction. In the same context, the Stokes–Einstein relation between the diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity is also examined. The possible violation of the Stokes–Einstein relation is investigated over a large domain of packing fractions

  2. Electronic transport properties of 4f shell elements of liquid metal using hard sphere Yukawa system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, H. P.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.

    2018-04-01

    The electronic transport properties are analyzed for 4f shell elements of liquid metals. To examine the electronic transport properties like electrical resistivity (ρ), thermal conductivity (σ) and thermo electrical power (Q), we used our own parameter free model potential with the Hard Sphere Yukawa (HSY) reference system. The screening effect on aforesaid properties has been examined by using different screening functions like Hartree (H), Taylor (T) and Sarkar (S). The correlations of our resultsand other data with available experimental values are intensely promising. Also, we conclude that our newly constructed parameter free model potential is capable of explaining the above mentioned electronic transport properties.

  3. Free energy landscape and cooperatively rearranging region in a hard sphere glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshidome, Takashi; Yoshimori, Akira; Odagaki, Takashi

    2007-08-01

    Exploiting the density functional theory, we calculate the free energy landscape (FEL) of the hard sphere glass in three dimensions. From the FEL, we estimate the number of the particles in the cooperatively rearranging region (CRR). We find that the density dependence of the number of the particles in the CRR is expressed as a power law function of the density. Analyzing the relaxation process in the CRR, we also find that the string motion is the elementary process for the structural relaxation, which leads to the natural definition of the simultaneously rearranging region as the particles displaced in the string motion.

  4. Charged hard spheres in a uniform neutralizing background: The role of thermodynamics selfconsistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badirkhan, Z.; Pastore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1991-06-01

    Calculations of the thermodynamic properties and pair distribution function of a one-component classical fluid of charged hard spheres in a uniform neutralizing background are reported and compared with Monte Carlo results of Hansen and Weis. Thermodynamic selfconsistence between the virial pressure and the fluctuations formula for the isothermal compressibility is enforced in the calculations by various alternative approaches. The role of thermodynamic selfconsistence is crucial to obtain a satisfactory quantitative description of this model fluid, in view of its applications in the theory of liquid metals and of dispersions of charged colloidal particles. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  5. First-principle proof of the modified collision boundary conditions for the hard-sphere system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessarotto, Massimo; Cremaschini, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental issue lying at the foundation of classical statistical mechanics is the determination of the collision boundary conditions that characterize the dynamical evolution of multi-particle probability density functions (PDF) and are applicable to systems of hard-spheres undergoing multiple elastic collisions. In this paper it is proved that, when the deterministic N-body PDF is included in the class of admissible solutions of the Liouville equation, the customary form of collision boundary conditions adopted in previous literature becomes physically inconsistent and must actually be replaced by suitably modified collision boundary conditions.

  6. Analytical expression for the correlation function of a hard sphere chain fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jaeeon; Kim, Hwayong

    A closed form expression is given for the correlation function of flexible hard sphere chain fluid. A set of integral equations obtained from Wertheim's multidensity Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory with the polymer Percus-Yevick ideal chain approximation is considered. Applying the Laplace transformation method to the integral equations and then solving the resulting equations algebraically, the Laplace transforms of individual correlation functions are obtained. By inverse Laplace transformation the inter- and intramolecular radial distribution functions (RDFs) are obtained in closed forms up to 3D(D is segment diameter). These analytical expressions for the RDFs would be useful in developing the perturbation theory of chain fluids.

  7. Density fluctuations and the structure of a nonuniform hard sphere fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Katsov, Kirill; Weeks, John D.

    2000-01-01

    We derive an exact equation for density changes induced by a general external field that corrects the hydrostatic approximation where the local value of the field is adsorbed into a modified chemical potential. Using linear response theory to relate density changes self-consistently in different regions of space, we arrive at an integral equation for a hard sphere fluid that is exact in the limit of a slowly varying field or at low density and reduces to the accurate Percus-Yevick equation fo...

  8. Demixing and nematic behaviour of oblate hard spherocylinders and hard spheres mixtures: Monte Carlo simulation and Parsons-Lee theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, Francisco; Acemel, Rafael D.; Cuetos, Alejandro

    2013-10-01

    Parsons-Lee approach is formulated for the isotropic-nematic transition in a binary mixture of oblate hard spherocylinders and hard spheres. Results for the phase coexistence and for the equation of state in both phases for fluids with different relative size and composition ranges are presented. The predicted behaviour is in agreement with Monte Carlo simulations in a qualitative fashion. The study serves to provide a rational view of how to control key aspects of the behaviour of these binary nematogenic colloidal systems. This behaviour can be tuned with an appropriate choice of the relative size and molar fractions of the depleting particles. In general, the mixture of discotic and spherical particles is stable against demixing up to very high packing fractions. We explore in detail the narrow geometrical range where demixing is predicted to be possible in the isotropic phase. The influence of molecular crowding effects on the stability of the mixture when spherical molecules are added to a system of discotic colloids is also studied.

  9. High-density fluid-perturbation theory based on an inverse 12th-power hard-sphere reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1979-01-01

    A variational theory is developed that is accurate at normal liquid densities and densities up to 4 times that of the argon triple point. This theory uses the inverse 12th-power potential as a reference system. The properties of this reference system are expressed in terms of hard-sphere packing fractions by using a modified form of hard-space variational theory. As a result of this ''bootstrapping,'' a variational procedure may be followed that employs the inverse 12th-power system as a reference but uses the hard-sphere packing fraction as the scaling parameter with which to minimize the Helmholtz free energy

  10. Macromolecular diffusion in crowded media beyond the hard-sphere model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Pablo M; Garcés, Josep Lluís; Madurga, Sergio; Mas, Francesc

    2018-04-25

    The effect of macromolecular crowding on diffusion beyond the hard-core sphere model is studied. A new coarse-grained model is presented, the Chain Entanglement Softened Potential (CESP) model, which takes into account the macromolecular flexibility and chain entanglement. The CESP model uses a shoulder-shaped interaction potential that is implemented in the Brownian Dynamics (BD) computations. The interaction potential contains only one parameter associated with the chain entanglement energetic cost (Ur). The hydrodynamic interactions are included in the BD computations via Tokuyama mean-field equations. The model is used to analyze the diffusion of a streptavidin protein among different sized dextran obstacles. For this system, Ur is obtained by fitting the streptavidin experimental long-time diffusion coefficient Dlongversus the macromolecular concentration for D50 (indicating their molecular weight in kg mol-1) dextran obstacles. The obtained Dlong values show better quantitative agreement with experiments than those obtained with hard-core spheres. Moreover, once parametrized, the CESP model is also able to quantitatively predict Dlong and the anomalous exponent (α) for streptavidin diffusion among D10, D400 and D700 dextran obstacles. Dlong, the short-time diffusion coefficient (Dshort) and α are obtained from the BD simulations by using a new empirical expression, able to describe the full temporal evolution of the diffusion coefficient.

  11. Thermodynamics and structure of liquid alkali metals from the charged-hard-sphere reference fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.K.; Akinlade, O.; Tosi, M.P.

    1989-12-01

    The evaluation of thermodynamic properties of liquid alkali metals is re-examined in the approach based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality and using the fluid of charged hard spheres in the mean spherical approximation as reference system, with a view to achieving consistency with the liquid structure factor. The perturbative variational calculation of the Helmholtz free energy is based on an ab initio and highly reliable nonlocal pseudopotential. Only limited improvement is found in the calculated thermodynamic functions, even when full advantage is taken of the two variational parameters inherent in this approach. The role of thermodynamic self-consistency between the equations of state of the reference fluid derived from the routes of the internal energy and of the virial theorem is then discussed, using previous results by Hoye and Stell. An approximate evaluation of the corresponding contribution to the free energy of liquid alkali metals yields appreciable improvements in both the thermodynamic functions and the liquid structure factor. It thus appears that an accurate treatment of thermodynamic self-consistency in the charged-hard-sphere system may help to resolve some of the difficulties that are commonly met in the evaluation of thermodynamic and structural properties of liquid metals. (author). 55 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  12. Packing simulation code to calculate distribution function of hard spheres by Monte Carlo method : MCRDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Isao; Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Shirai, Hiroshi.

    1996-03-01

    High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) employ spherical fuels named coated fuel particles (CFPs) consisting of a microsphere of low enriched UO 2 with coating layers in order to prevent FP release. There exist many spherical fuels distributed randomly in the cores. Therefore, the nuclear design of HTGRs is generally performed on the basis of the multigroup approximation using a diffusion code, S N transport code or group-wise Monte Carlo code. This report summarizes a Monte Carlo hard sphere packing simulation code to simulate the packing of equal hard spheres and evaluate the necessary probability distribution of them, which is used for the application of the new Monte Carlo calculation method developed to treat randomly distributed spherical fuels with the continuous energy Monte Carlo method. By using this code, obtained are the various statistical values, namely Radial Distribution Function (RDF), Nearest Neighbor Distribution (NND), 2-dimensional RDF and so on, for random packing as well as ordered close packing of FCC and BCC. (author)

  13. Aging of a hard-sphere glass: effect of the microscopic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas, Antonio M

    2010-01-01

    We present simulations of the aging of a quasi-hard-sphere glass, with Newtonian and Brownian microscopic dynamics. The system is equilibrated at the desired density (above the glass transition in hard spheres) with short-range attractions, which are removed at t = 0. The structural part of the decay of the density correlation function can be time rescaled to collapse onto a master function independent of the waiting time, t w , and the timescale follows a power law with t w , with exponent z ∼ 0.89; the non-ergodicity parameter is larger than that of the glass transition point (the localization length is smaller) and oscillates in harmony with S q . The aging with both microscopic dynamics is identical, except for a scale factor from the age in Newtonian to the age in Brownian dynamics. This factor is approximately the same as that which scales the α-decay of the correlation function in fluids close to the glass transition.

  14. Hard-sphere fluid adsorbed in an annular wedge: The depletion force of hard-body colloidal physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, A. R.; Henderson, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Many important issues of colloidal physics can be expressed in the context of inhomogeneous fluid phenomena. When two large colloids approach one another in solvent, they interact at least partly by the response of the solvent to finding itself adsorbed in the annular wedge formed between the two colloids. At shortest range, this fluid mediated interaction is known as the depletion force/interaction because solvent is squeezed out of the wedge when the colloids approach closer than the diameter of a solvent molecule. An equivalent situation arises when a single colloid approaches a substrate/wall. Accurate treatment of this interaction is essential for any theory developed to model the phase diagrams of homogeneous and inhomogeneous colloidal systems. The aim of our paper is a test of whether or not we possess sufficient knowledge of statistical mechanics that can be trusted when applied to systems of large size asymmetry and the depletion force in particular. When the colloid particles are much larger than a solvent diameter, the depletion force is dominated by the effective two-body interaction experienced by a pair of solvated colloids. This low concentration limit of the depletion force has therefore received considerable attention. One route, which can be rigorously based on statistical mechanical sum rules, leads to an analytic result for the depletion force when evaluated by a key theoretical tool of colloidal science known as the Derjaguin approximation. A rival approach has been based on the assumption that modern density functional theories (DFT) can be trusted for systems of large size asymmetry. Unfortunately, these two theoretical predictions differ qualitatively for hard sphere models, as soon as the solvent density is higher than about 2/3 that at freezing. Recent theoretical attempts to understand this dramatic disagreement have led to the proposal that the Derjaguin and DFT routes represent opposite limiting behavior, for very large size asymmetry

  15. Pseudo hard-sphere potential for use in continuous molecular-dynamics simulation of spherical and chain molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jover, J; Haslam, A J; Galindo, A; Jackson, G; Müller, E A

    2012-10-14

    We present a continuous pseudo-hard-sphere potential based on a cut-and-shifted Mie (generalized Lennard-Jones) potential with exponents (50, 49). Using this potential one can mimic the volumetric, structural, and dynamic properties of the discontinuous hard-sphere potential over the whole fluid range. The continuous pseudo potential has the advantage that it may be incorporated directly into off-the-shelf molecular-dynamics code, allowing the user to capitalise on existing hardware and software advances. Simulation results for the compressibility factor of the fluid and solid phases of our pseudo hard spheres are presented and compared both to the Carnahan-Starling equation of state of the fluid and published data, the differences being indistinguishable within simulation uncertainty. The specific form of the potential is employed to simulate flexible chains formed from these pseudo hard spheres at contact (pearl-necklace model) for m(c) = 4, 5, 7, 8, 16, 20, 100, 201, and 500 monomer segments. The compressibility factor of the chains per unit of monomer, m(c), approaches a limiting value at reasonably small values, m(c) theory. Simulation results are also presented for highly asymmetric mixtures of pseudo hard spheres, with diameter ratios of 3:1, 5:1, 20:1 over the whole composition range.

  16. Crystallization of hard spheres revisited. II. Thermodynamic modeling, nucleation work, and the surface of tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, David; Speck, Thomas

    2018-06-14

    Combining three numerical methods (forward flux sampling, seeding of droplets, and finite-size droplets), we probe the crystallization of hard spheres over the full range from close to coexistence to the spinodal regime. We show that all three methods allow us to sample different regimes and agree perfectly in the ranges where they overlap. By combining the nucleation work calculated from forward flux sampling of small droplets and the nucleation theorem, we show how to compute the nucleation work spanning three orders of magnitude. Using a variation of the nucleation theorem, we show how to extract the pressure difference between the solid droplet and ambient liquid. Moreover, combining the nucleation work with the pressure difference allows us to calculate the interfacial tension of small droplets. Our results demonstrate that employing bulk quantities yields inaccurate results for the nucleation rate.

  17. On the Boltzmann-Grad Limit for Smooth Hard-Sphere Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarotto, Massimo; Cremaschini, Claudio; Mond, Michael; Asci, Claudio; Soranzo, Alessandro; Tironi, Gino

    2018-03-01

    The problem is posed of the prescription of the so-called Boltzmann-Grad limit operator (L_{BG}) for the N-body system of smooth hard-spheres which undergo unary, binary as well as multiple elastic instantaneous collisions. It is proved, that, despite the non-commutative property of the operator L_{BG}, the Boltzmann equation can nevertheless be uniquely determined. In particular, consistent with the claim of Uffink and Valente (Found Phys 45:404, 2015) that there is "no time-asymmetric ingredient" in its derivation, the Boltzmann equation is shown to be time-reversal symmetric. The proof is couched on the "ab initio" axiomatic approach to the classical statistical mechanics recently developed (Tessarotto et al. in Eur Phys J Plus 128:32, 2013). Implications relevant for the physical interpretation of the Boltzmann H-theorem and the phenomenon of decay to kinetic equilibrium are pointed out.

  18. Direct measurement of the free energy of aging hard sphere colloidal glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Rojman; Nienhuis, Bernard; Schall, Peter; Bonn, Daniel

    2013-06-21

    The nature of the glass transition is one of the most important unsolved problems in condensed matter physics. The difference between glasses and liquids is believed to be caused by very large free energy barriers for particle rearrangements; however, so far it has not been possible to confirm this experimentally. We provide the first quantitative determination of the free energy for an aging hard sphere colloidal glass. The determination of the free energy allows for a number of new insights in the glass transition, notably the quantification of the strong spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the free energy. A study of the local minima of the free energy reveals that the observed variations are directly related to the rearrangements of the particles. Our main finding is that the probability of particle rearrangements shows a power law dependence on the free energy changes associated with the rearrangements similar to the Gutenberg-Richter law in seismology.

  19. Fluctuating Navier-Stokes equations for inelastic hard spheres or disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J Javier; Maynar, P; de Soria, M I García

    2011-04-01

    Starting from the fluctuating Boltzmann equation for smooth inelastic hard spheres or disks, closed equations for the fluctuating hydrodynamic fields to Navier-Stokes order are derived. This requires deriving constitutive relations for both the fluctuating fluxes and the correlations of the random forces. The former are identified as having the same form as the macroscopic average fluxes and involving the same transport coefficients. On the other hand, the random force terms exhibit two peculiarities as compared with their elastic limit for molecular systems. First, they are not white but have some finite relaxation time. Second, their amplitude is not determined by the macroscopic transport coefficients but involves new coefficients. ©2011 American Physical Society

  20. Edwards' approach to horizontal and vertical segregation in a mixture of hard spheres under gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierro, Annalisa; Nicodemi, Mario; Coniglio, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    We study the phenomenon of size segregation, observed in models of vibrated granular mixtures such as powders or sand. This consists of the de-mixing of the different components of the system under shaking. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. However, the criteria for predicting segregation in a mixture, an issue of great practical importance, are largely unknown. In the present paper we study a binary hard-sphere mixture under gravity on a three-dimensional lattice using Monte Carlo simulations. The vertical and horizontal segregation observed during the tap dynamics is interpreted in the framework of a statistical mechanics approach to granular media in the manner of Edwards. A phase diagram for the vertical segregation is derived, and compared with the simulation data

  1. The phase behavior of a hard sphere chain model of a binary n-alkane mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanoski, A. P.; Monson, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Monte Carlo computer simulations have been used to study the solid and fluid phase properties as well as phase equilibrium in a flexible, united atom, hard sphere chain model of n-heptane/n-octane mixtures. We describe a methodology for calculating the chemical potentials for the components in the mixture based on a technique used previously for atomic mixtures. The mixture was found to conform accurately to ideal solution behavior in the fluid phase. However, much greater nonidealities were seen in the solid phase. Phase equilibrium calculations indicate a phase diagram with solid-fluid phase equilibrium and a eutectic point. The components are only miscible in the solid phase for dilute solutions of the shorter chains in the longer chains. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  2. Homogeneous Free Cooling State in Binary Granular Fluids of Inelastic Rough Hard Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Andrés

    2011-05-01

    In a recent paper [A. Santos, G. M. Kremer, and V. Garzó, Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 184, 31-48 (2010)] the collisional energy production rates associated with the translational and rotational granular temperatures in a granular fluid mixture of inelastic rough hard spheres have been derived. In the present paper the energy production rates are explicitly decomposed into equipartition rates (tending to make all the temperatures equal) plus genuine cooling rates (reflecting the collisional dissipation of energy). Next the homogeneous free cooling state of a binary mixture is analyzed, with special emphasis on the quasi-smooth limit. A previously reported singular behavior (according to which a vanishingly small amount of roughness has a finite effect, with respect to the perfectly smooth case, on the asymptotic long-time translational/translational temperature ratio) is further elaborated. Moreover, the study of the time evolution of the temperature ratios shows that this dramatic influence of roughness already appears in the transient regime for times comparable to the relaxation time of perfectly smooth spheres.

  3. A Thermodynamically-Consistent Non-Ideal Stochastic Hard-Sphere Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donev, A; Alder, B J; Garcia, A L

    2009-08-03

    A grid-free variant of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is proposed, named the Isotropic DSMC (I-DSMC) method, that is suitable for simulating collision-dominated dense fluid flows. The I-DSMC algorithm eliminates all grid artifacts from the traditional DSMC algorithm and is Galilean invariant and microscopically isotropic. The stochastic collision rules in I-DSMC are modified to introduce a non-ideal structure factor that gives consistent compressibility, as first proposed in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101:075902 (2008)]. The resulting Stochastic Hard Sphere Dynamics (SHSD) fluid is empirically shown to be thermodynamically identical to a deterministic Hamiltonian system of penetrable spheres interacting with a linear core pair potential, well-described by the hypernetted chain (HNC) approximation. We develop a kinetic theory for the SHSD fluid to obtain estimates for the transport coefficients that are in excellent agreement with particle simulations over a wide range of densities and collision rates. The fluctuating hydrodynamic behavior of the SHSD fluid is verified by comparing its dynamic structure factor against theory based on the Landau-Lifshitz Navier-Stokes equations. We also study the Brownian motion of a nano-particle suspended in an SHSD fluid and find a long-time power-law tail in its velocity autocorrelation function consistent with hydrodynamic theory and molecular dynamics calculations.

  4. Low temperature structural transitions in dipolar hard spheres: The influence on magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.O.; Kantorovich, S.S.; Rovigatti, L.; Tavares, J.M.; Sciortino, F.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the structural chain-to-ring transition at low temperature in a gas of dipolar hard spheres (DHS). Due to the weakening of entropic contribution, ring formation becomes noticeable when the effective dipole–dipole magnetic interaction increases. It results in the redistribution of particles from usually observed flexible chains into flexible rings. The concentration (ρ) of DHS plays a crucial part in this transition: at a very low ρ only chains and rings are observed, whereas even a slight increase of the volume fraction leads to the formation of branched or defect structures. As a result, the fraction of DHS aggregated in defect-free rings turns out to be a non-monotonic function of ρ. The average ring size is found to be a slower increasing function of ρ when compared to that of chains. Both theory and computer simulations confirm the dramatic influence of the ring formation on the ρ-dependence of the initial magnetic susceptibility (χ) when the temperature decreases. The rings due to their zero total dipole moment are irresponsive to a weak magnetic field and drive to the strong decrease of the initial magnetic susceptibility. - Highlights: • Found structural chain-to-ring transition at low temperature sheds the light on the no-man's-land of the phase diagram of dipolar hard sphere gas. • Particle concentration plays a crucial part: at high dilution only chains and rings are observed, otherwise different branched structures occur. • The dramatic influence of the ring formation on the concentration dependence of the initial magnetic susceptibility when temperature decreases

  5. Static electric dipole polarizabilities of tri- and tetravalent U, Np, and Pu ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Payal; Peterson, Kirk A; Clark, Aurora E

    2013-11-21

    High-quality static electric dipole polarizabilities have been determined for the ground states of the hard-sphere cations of U, Np, and Pu in the III and IV oxidation states. The polarizabilities have been calculated using the numerical finite field technique in a four-component relativistic framework. Methods including Fock-space coupled cluster (FSCC) and Kramers-restricted configuration interaction (KRCI) have been performed in order to account for electron correlation effects. Comparisons between polarizabilities calculated using Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF), FSCC, and KRCI methods have been made using both triple- and quadruple-ζ basis sets for U(4+). In addition to the ground state, this study also reports the polarizability data for the first two excited states of U(3+/4+), Np(3+/4+), and Pu(3+/4+) ions at different levels of theory. The values reported in this work are the most accurate to date calculations for the dipole polarizabilities of the hard-sphere tri- and tetravalent actinide ions and may serve as reference values, aiding in the calculation of various electronic and response properties (for example, intermolecular forces, optical properties, etc.) relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle and material science applications.

  6. Atomic polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronova, M. S.; Mitroy, J.; Clark, Charles W.; Kozlov, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed

  7. Atomic polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  8. Crystal nucleation in binary hard-sphere mixtures: the effect of order parameter on the cluster composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, R.; Smallenburg, F.; Filion, L.C.; Dijkstra, M.

    2011-01-01

    We study crystal nucleation in a binary mixture of hard spheres and investigate the composition and size of the (non)critical clusters using Monte Carlo simulations. In order to study nucleation of a crystal phase in computer simulations, a one-dimensional order parameter is usually defined to

  9. Coordinated HArd Sphere Model (CHASM): A Simplified Model for Silicate and Oxide Liquids at Mantle Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A. S.; Asimow, P. D.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent first-principles theoretical calculations (Stixrude 2009) and experimental shock-wave investigations (Mosenfelder 2009) indicate that melting perovskite requires significantly less energy than previously thought, supporting the idea of a deep-mantle magma ocean early in Earth's history. The modern-day solid Earth is thus likely the result of crystallization from an early predominantly molten state, a process that is primarily controlled by the poorly understood behavior of silicate melts at extreme pressures and temperatures. Probing liquid thermodynamics at mantle conditions is difficult for both theory and experiment, and further challenges are posed by the large relevant compositional space including at least MgO, SiO2, and FeO. First-principles molecular dynamics has been used with great success to determine the high P-T properties of a small set of fixed composition silicate-oxide liquids including MgO (Karki 2006), SiO2 (Karki 2007), Mg2SiO4 (de Koker 2008), MgSiO3 (Stixrude 2005), and Fe2SiO4 (Ramo 2012). While extremely powerful, this approach has limitations including high computational cost, lower bounds on temperature due to relaxation constraints, as well as restrictions to length scales and time scales that are many orders of magnitude smaller than those relevant to the Earth or experimental methods. As a compliment to accurate first-principles calculations, we have developed the Coordinated HArd Sphere Model (CHASM). We extend the standard hard sphere mixture model, recently applied to silicate liquids by Jing (2011), by accounting for the range of oxygen coordination states available to liquid cations. Utilizing approximate analytic expressions for the hard sphere model, the method can predict complex liquid structure and thermodynamics while remaining computationally efficient. Requiring only minutes on standard desktop computers rather than months on supercomputers, the CHASM approach is well-suited to providing an approximate thermodynamic

  10. On the Brownian motion of a massive sphere suspended in a hard-sphere fluid. II. Molecular dynamics estimates of the friction coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquet, L.; Hansen, J.P.; Piasecki, J.

    1994-01-01

    The friction coefficient γ exerted by a hard-sphere fluid on an infinitely massive Brownian sphere is calculated for several size ratios Σ/σ where Σ and σ are the diameters of the Brownian and fluid spheres, respectively. The exact microscopic expression derived in part I of this work from kinetic theory is transformed and shown to be proportional to the time integral of the autocorrelation function of the momentum transferred from the fluid to the Brownian sphere during instantaneous collisions. Three different methods are described to extract the friction coefficient from molecular dynamics simulations carried out on finite systems. The three independent methods lead to estimates of γ which agree within statistical errors (typically 5%). The results are compared to the predictions of Enskog theory and of the hydrodynamic Stokes law. The former breaks down as the size ratio and/or the packing fraction of the fluid increase. Somewhat surprisingly, Stokes' law is found to hold with stick boundary conditions, in the range 1 ≤ Σ/σ ≤ 4.5 explored in the present simulations, with a hydrodynamic diameter d=Σ. The analysis of the molecular dynamics data on the basis of Stokes' law with slip boundary conditions is less conclusive, although the right trend is found as Σ/σ increases

  11. On the polarizability dyadics of electrically small, convex objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    1993-11-01

    This communication on the polarizability dyadics of electrically small objects of convex shapes has been prompted by a recent paper published by Sihvola and Lindell on the polarizability dyadic of an electrically gyrotropic sphere. A mini-review of recent work on polarizability dyadics is appended.

  12. Kinetic Theory of a Confined Quasi-Two-Dimensional Gas of Hard Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Javier Brey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a system of hard spheres enclosed between two parallel plates separated a distance smaller than two particle diameters is described at the level of kinetic theory. The interest focuses on the behavior of the quasi-two-dimensional fluid seen when looking at the system from above or below. In the first part, a collisional model for the effective two-dimensional dynamics is analyzed. Although it is able to describe quite well the homogeneous evolution observed in the experiments, it is shown that it fails to predict the existence of non-equilibrium phase transitions, and in particular, the bimodal regime exhibited by the real system. A critical revision analysis of the model is presented , and as a starting point to get a more accurate description, the Boltzmann equation for the quasi-two-dimensional gas has been derived. In the elastic case, the solutions of the equation verify an H-theorem implying a monotonic tendency to a non-uniform steady state. As an example of application of the kinetic equation, here the evolution equations for the vertical and horizontal temperatures of the system are derived in the homogeneous approximation, and the results compared with molecular dynamics simulation results.

  13. Assembly of vorticity-aligned hard-sphere colloidal strings in a simple shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, X.

    2011-12-23

    Colloidal suspensions self-assemble into equilibrium structures ranging from face- and body-centered cubic crystals to binary ionic crystals, and even kagome lattices. When driven out of equilibrium by hydrodynamic interactions, even more diverse structures can be accessed. However, mechanisms underlying out-of-equilibrium assembly are much less understood, though such processes are clearly relevant in many natural and industrial systems. Even in the simple case of hard-sphere colloidal particles under shear, there are conflicting predictions about whether particles link up into string-like structures along the shear flow direction. Here, using confocal microscopy, we measure the shear-induced suspension structure. Surprisingly, rather than flow-aligned strings, we observe log-rolling strings of particles normal to the plane of shear. By employing Stokesian dynamics simulations, we address the mechanism leading to this out-of-equilibrium structure and show that it emerges from a delicate balance between hydrodynamic and interparticle interactions. These results demonstrate a method for assembling large-scale particle structures using shear flows.

  14. Ionic pairing in binary liquids of charged hard spheres with non-additive diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Giaquinta, P.V.; Thakur, J.S.; Tosi, M.P.

    1985-07-01

    We examine types of short range order that arise in binary liquids from a combination of Coulombic interactions and non-additivity of excluded volumes, the initial motivation being observations of complex formation by hydrated ions in concentrated aqueous solutions. The model is a fluid of charged hard spheres with contact distances σsub(+-)not=1/2(σsub(++)+σsub(--)), its structural functions being evaluated in the mean spherical approximation and in the hypernetted chain approximation. Cation-anion pairing is clearly seen in the calculated structural functions for negative deviations from additivity (σsub(+-) σsub(++)=σsub(--)) favour long-wavelength concentration fluctuations and demixing in a neutral mixture: these are suppressed by Coulombic interactions in favour of microscopic intermixing of the two species in the local liquid structure, up to like-ion pairing. Contact is made with diffraction from concentrated aqueous solutions of cadmium sulphate and other instances of possible applicability of the model are pointed out. (author)

  15. Polydispersity effects in the crystallisation of hard-sphere colloidal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.; Bryant, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Colloidal particles mimicking hard-sphere behaviour have been shown to undergo the freezing and melting transition as predicted from computer simulations. Due to the large size and slow movement of the colloidal particles, it is possible to measure the time dependence of the growth of the main Bragg reflection using laser light scattering. The new data presented here was taken on a newly built crystallisation spectrometer which averages the Bragg reflections over the whole Debye-Scherrer cone, where previous work has mostly been done with the detector fixed in one plane. This new apparatus allows us to observe the crystallisation process at earlier times, on lower density samples than had previously been possible. Measurements have been made on samples made from colloidal particles with radii 320nm and 247 nm and polydispersities of ∼6.9% and >8% respectively. The results have been compared with other results from particles with >4% polydispersity. The results show that increasing the polydispersity in the particles increases the time lag before significant crystal growth occurs, but polydispersity doesn't appear to directly affect the rate of crystal growth

  16. Wave packet autocorrelation functions for quantum hard-disk and hard-sphere billiards in the high-energy, diffraction regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussev, Arseni; Dorfman, J R

    2006-07-01

    We consider the time evolution of a wave packet representing a quantum particle moving in a geometrically open billiard that consists of a number of fixed hard-disk or hard-sphere scatterers. Using the technique of multiple collision expansions we provide a first-principle analytical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function for the wave packet in the high-energy diffraction regime, in which the particle's de Broglie wavelength, while being small compared to the size of the scatterers, is large enough to prevent the formation of geometric shadow over distances of the order of the particle's free flight path. The hard-disk or hard-sphere scattering system must be sufficiently dilute in order for this high-energy diffraction regime to be achievable. Apart from the overall exponential decay, the autocorrelation function exhibits a generally complicated sequence of relatively strong peaks corresponding to partial revivals of the wave packet. Both the exponential decay (or escape) rate and the revival peak structure are predominantly determined by the underlying classical dynamics. A relation between the escape rate, and the Lyapunov exponents and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of the counterpart classical system, previously known for hard-disk billiards, is strengthened by generalization to three spatial dimensions. The results of the quantum mechanical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function agree with predictions of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory.

  17. Fused hard-sphere chain molecules: Comparison between Monte Carlo simulation for the bulk pressure and generalized Flory theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L.A.; Zhou, Y.; Hall, C.K.; Carra, S.

    1995-01-01

    We report Monte Carlo simulation results for the bulk pressure of fused-hard-sphere (FHS) chain fluids with bond-length-to-bead-diameter ratios ∼ 0.4 at chain lengths n=4, 8 and 16. We also report density profiles for FHS chain fluids at a hard wall. The results for the compressibility factor are compared to results from extensions of the Generalized Flory (GF) and Generalized Flory Dimer (GFD) theories proposed by Yethiraj et al. and by us. Our new GF theory, GF-AB, significantly improves the prediction of the bulk pressure of fused-hard-sphere chains over the GFD theories proposed by Yethiraj et al. and by us although the GFD theories give slightly better low-density results. The GFD-A theory, the GFD-B theory and the new theories (GF-AB, GFD-AB, and GFD-AC) satisfy the exact zero-bonding-length limit. All theories considered recover the GF or GFD theories at the tangent hard-sphere chain limit

  18. Preparation of micro/nanostructure TiO2 spheres by controlling pollen as hard template and soft template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohui; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Xuehong; Song, Xiuqin; Chen, Rufen

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, micro/nanostructure TiO2 spheres were synthesized by a sunflower pollen induced and self-assembly mineralization process, in which a titania precursor and pollen reacted in one-pot at normal pressure. In this paper, the bio-template advantage, as hard and soft template is fully demonstrated. The superiority of our synthesis is that we not only can control pollen as hard template, but also can control it as soft template only by changing reactions temperature. Under 80 degrees C of water bath, TiO2 microspheres which replicated the morphology of pollen were prepared by controlling pollen as hard template. Under 100 degrees C, hierarchical TiO2 spheres with complicated morphology, different from pollen template, were synthesized by using pollen as soft template. At the same time, judicious choice of the amount of pollen affords the synthesis of hierarchical structures spheres with adjustable morphology and crystal structure. The morphology can be tuned from microspheres constructed from TiO2 nanorods to nanospheres constructed from TiO2 nanoparticles, and the crystal structure can be tuned from rutile to anatase. More over this anatase phase can be keep better even at high temperature of 1000 degrees C. The as-prepared micro/nano structure photocatalysts not only have high photocatalytic activities, but also have good separability and reuse performance.

  19. Structure of highly asymmetric hard-sphere mixtures: an efficient closure of the Ornstein-Zernike equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amokrane, S; Ayadim, A; Malherbe, J G

    2005-11-01

    A simple modification of the reference hypernetted chain (RHNC) closure of the multicomponent Ornstein-Zernike equations with bridge functions taken from Rosenfeld's hard-sphere bridge functional is proposed. Its main effect is to remedy the major limitation of the RHNC closure in the case of highly asymmetric mixtures--the wide domain of packing fractions in which it has no solution. The modified closure is also much faster, while being of similar complexity. This is achieved with a limited loss of accuracy, mainly for the contact value of the big sphere correlation functions. Comparison with simulation shows that inside the RHNC no-solution domain, it provides a good description of the structure, while being clearly superior to all the other closures used so far to study highly asymmetric mixtures. The generic nature of this closure and its good accuracy combined with a reduced no-solution domain open up the possibility to study the phase diagram of complex fluids beyond the hard-sphere model.

  20. Double layer for hard spheres with an off-center charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Silvestre-Alcantara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulations for the density and potential profiles of the ions in the planar electrical double layer of a model electrolyte or an ionic liquid are reported. The ions of a real electrolyte or an ionic liquid are usually not spheres; in ionic liquids, the cations are molecular ions. In the past, this asymmetry has been modelled by considering spheres that are asymmetric in size and/or valence (viz., the primitive model or by dimer cations that are formed by tangentially touching spheres. In this paper we consider spherical ions that are asymmetric in size and mimic the asymmetrical shape through an off-center charge that is located away from the center of the cation spheres, while the anion charge is at the center of anion spheres. The various singlet density and potential profiles are compared to (i the dimer situation, that is, the constituent spheres of the dimer cation are tangentially tethered, and (ii the standard primitive model. The results reveal the double layer structure to be substantially impacted especially when the cation is the counterion. As well as being of intrinsic interest, this off-center charge model may be useful for theories that consider spherical models and introduce the off-center charge as a perturbation.

  1. The correlation functions of hard-sphere chain fluids: Comparison of the Wertheim integral equation theory with the Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.; Sandler, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    The correlation functions of homonuclear hard-sphere chain fluids are studied using the Wertheim integral equation theory for associating fluids and the Monte Carlo simulation method. The molecular model used in the simulations is the freely jointed hard-sphere chain with spheres that are tangentially connected. In the Wertheim theory, such a chain molecule is described by sticky hard spheres with two independent attraction sites on the surface of each sphere. The OZ-like equation for this associating fluid is analytically solved using the polymer-PY closure and by imposing a single bonding condition. By equating the mean chain length of this associating hard sphere fluid to the fixed length of the hard-sphere chains used in simulation, we find that the correlation functions for the chain fluids are accurately predicted. From the Wertheim theory we also obtain predictions for the overall correlation functions that include intramolecular correlations. In addition, the results for the average intermolecular correlation functions from the Wertheim theory and from the Chiew theory are compared with simulation results, and the differences between these theories are discussed

  2. Self-diffusion coefficients and shear viscosity of inverse power fluids: from hard- to soft-spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, D M; Brańka, A C

    2008-07-21

    Molecular dynamics computer simulation has been used to compute the self-diffusion coefficient, D, and shear viscosity, eta(s), of soft-sphere fluids, in which the particles interact through the soft-sphere or inverse power pair potential, phi(r) = epsilon(sigma/r)(n), where n measures the steepness or stiffness of the potential, and epsilon and sigma are a characteristic energy and distance, respectively. The simulations were carried out on monodisperse systems for a range of n values from the hard-sphere (n --> infinity) limit down to n = 4, and up to densities in excess of the fluid-solid co-existence value. A new analytical procedure is proposed which reproduces the transport coefficients at high densities, and can be used to extrapolate the data to densities higher than accurately accessible by simulation or experiment, and tending to the glass transition. This formula, DX(c-1) proportional, variant A/X + B, where c is an adjustable parameter, and X is either the packing fraction or the pressure, is a development of one proposed by Dymond. In the expression, -A/B is the value of X at the ideal glass transition (i.e., where D and eta(s)(-1) --> 0). Estimated values are presented for the packing fraction and the pressure at the glass transition for n values between the hard and soft particle limits. The above expression is also shown to reproduce the high density viscosity data of supercritical argon, krypton and nitrogen. Fits to the soft-sphere simulation transport coefficients close to solid-fluid co-existence are also made using the analytic form, ln(D) = alpha(X)X, and n-dependence of the alpha(X) is presented (X is either the packing fraction or the pressure).

  3. Monte Carlo simulation and equation of state for flexible charged hard-sphere chain fluids: Polyampholyte and polyelectrolyte solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hao; Adidharma, Hertanto

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic modeling of flexible charged hard-sphere chains representing polyampholyte or polyelectrolyte molecules in solution is considered. The excess Helmholtz energy and osmotic coefficients of solutions containing short polyampholyte and the osmotic coefficients of solutions containing short polyelectrolytes are determined by performing canonical and isobaric-isothermal Monte Carlo simulations. A new equation of state based on the thermodynamic perturbation theory is also proposed for flexible charged hard-sphere chains. For the modeling of such chains, the use of solely the structure information of monomer fluid for calculating the chain contribution is found to be insufficient and more detailed structure information must therefore be considered. Two approaches, i.e., the dimer and dimer-monomer approaches, are explored to obtain the contribution of the chain formation to the Helmholtz energy. By comparing with the simulation results, the equation of state with either the dimer or dimer-monomer approach accurately predicts the excess Helmholtz energy and osmotic coefficients of polyampholyte and polyelectrolyte solutions except at very low density. It also well captures the effect of temperature on the thermodynamic properties of these solutions

  4. Long-range weight functions in fundamental measure theory of the non-uniform hard-sphere fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    We introduce long-range weight functions to the framework of fundamental measure theory (FMT) of the non-uniform, single-component hard-sphere fluid. While the range of the usual weight functions is equal to the hard-sphere radius R , the modified weight functions have range 3 R . Based on the augmented FMT, we calculate the radial distribution function g (r) up to second order in the density within Percus’ test particle theory. Consistency of the compressibility and virial routes on this level allows us to determine the free parameter γ of the theory. As a side result, we obtain a value for the fourth virial coefficient B 4 which deviates by only 0.01% from the exact result. The augmented FMT is tested for the dense fluid by comparing results for g (r) calculated via the test particle route to existing results from molecular dynamics simulations. The agreement at large distances (r   >  6 R) is significantly improved when the FMT with long-range weight functions is used. In order to improve agreement close to contact (r   =  2 R) we construct a free energy which is based on the accurate Carnahan–Starling equation of state, rather than the Percus–Yevick compressibility equation underlying standard FMT. (paper)

  5. Polydispersity effect on solid-fluid transition in hard sphere systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nogawa, T.; Watanabe, H.; Ito, N.

    2010-01-01

    The solid-fluid transition of the hard elastic particle system with size polydispersity is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Using nonequilibrium relaxation from the mixed initial condition we determines the melting point where the first

  6. Crystallization of sheared hard spheres at 64.5% volume fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, H. L.; Rietz, F.; Schroeter, M.; Radin, C.

    2017-11-01

    A classic experiment by G.D. Scott Nature 188, 908, 1960) showed that pouring balls into a rigid container filled the volume to an upper limit of 64% of the container volume, which is well below the 74% volume fraction filled by spheres in a hexagonal close packed (HCP) or face center cubic (FCC) lattice. Subsequent experiments have confirmed a ``random closed packed'' (RCP) fraction of about 64%. However, the physics of the RCP limit has remained a mystery. Our experiment on a cubical box filled with 49400 weakly sheared glass spheres reveals a first order phase transition from a disordered to an ordered state at a volume fraction of 64.5%. The ordered state consists of crystallites of mixed FCC and HCP symmetry that coexist with the amorphous bulk. The transition is initiated by homogeneous nucleation: in the shearing process small crystallites with about ten or fewer spheres dissolve, while larger crystallites grow. A movie illustrates the crystallization process. German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), German Research Foundation (DFG), NSF DMS, and R.A. Welch Foundation.

  7. Elasto-plastic impact of hemispherical shell impacting on hard rigid sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftopoulos, D. D.; Spicer, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of plastic stress waves for cylindrical metallic projectile in impact is extended to an analysis of a hemispherical shell suffereing plastic deformation during the process of impact. It is assumed that the hemispherical shell with a prescribed launch velocity impinges a fixed rigid sphere of diameter equal to the internal diameter of the shell. The dynamic biaxial state of stress present in the shell during deformation is investigated. The analysis is valuable for studying the state of stress during large plastic deformation of a hemispherical shell.

  8. Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM): A fast approximate model for oxide and silicate melts at extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A. S.; Asimow, P. D.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent first-principles calculations (e.g. Stixrude, 2009; de Koker, 2013), shock-wave experiments (Mosenfelder, 2009), and diamond-anvil cell investigations (Sanloup, 2013) indicate that silicate melts undergo complex structural evolution at high pressure. The observed increase in cation-coordination (e.g. Karki, 2006; 2007) induces higher compressibilities and lower adiabatic thermal gradients in melts as compared with their solid counterparts. These properties are crucial for understanding the evolution of impact-generated magma oceans, which are dominated by the poorly understood behavior of silicates at mantle pressures and temperatures (e.g. Stixrude et al. 2009). Probing these conditions is difficult for both theory and experiment, especially given the large compositional space (MgO-SiO2-FeO-Al2O3-etc). We develop a new model to understand and predict the behavior of oxide and silicate melts at extreme P-T conditions (Wolf et al., 2015). The Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM) extends the Hard Sphere mixture model, accounting for the range of coordination states for each cation in the liquid. Using approximate analytic expressions for the hard sphere model, this fast statistical method compliments classical and first-principles methods, providing accurate thermodynamic and structural property predictions for melts. This framework is applied to the MgO system, where model parameters are trained on a collection of crystal polymorphs, producing realistic predictions of coordination evolution and the equation of state of MgO melt over a wide P-T range. Typical Mg-coordination numbers are predicted to evolve continuously from 5.25 (0 GPa) to 8.5 (250 GPa), comparing favorably with first-principles Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We begin extending the model to a simplified mantle chemistry using empirical potentials (generally accurate over moderate pressure ranges, consuming classical MD calculations. This approach also sheds light on the universality

  9. Polydispersity effect on solid-fluid transition in hard sphere systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nogawa, T.

    2010-02-01

    The solid-fluid transition of the hard elastic particle system with size polydispersity is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Using nonequilibrium relaxation from the mixed initial condition we determines the melting point where the first order transition between the solid, fcc crystal, and fluid states occurs. It is found that the density gap between the bistable states decreases with increasing the strength of the polydispersity and continuously approaches to zero at the critical point. © 2010.

  10. Exact theory of dense amorphous hard spheres in high dimension. II. The high density regime and the Gardner transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchan, Jorge; Parisi, Giorgio; Urbani, Pierfrancesco; Zamponi, Francesco

    2013-10-24

    We consider the theory of the glass phase and jamming of hard spheres in the large space dimension limit. Building upon the exact expression for the free-energy functional obtained previously, we find that the random first order transition (RFOT) scenario is realized here with two thermodynamic transitions: the usual Kauzmann point associated with entropy crisis and a further transition at higher pressures in which a glassy structure of microstates is developed within each amorphous state. This kind of glass-glass transition into a phase dominating the higher densities was described years ago by Elisabeth Gardner, and may well be a generic feature of RFOT. Microstates that are small excitations of an amorphous matrix-separated by low entropic or energetic barriers-thus emerge naturally, and modify the high pressure (or low temperature) limit of the thermodynamic functions.

  11. Perturbation and variational approach for the equation of state for hard-sphere and Lennard—Jones fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasare, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    The present work uses the concept of a scaled particle along with the perturbation and variation approach, to develop an equation of state (EOS) for a mixture of hard sphere (HS), Lennard—Jones (LJ) fluids. A suitable flexible functional form for the radial distribution function G(R) is assumed for the mixture, with R as a variable. The function G(R) has an arbitrary parameter m and a different equation of state can be obtained with a suitable choice of m. For m = 0.75 and m = 0.83 results are close to molecular dynamics (MD) result for pure HS and LJ fluid respectively. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  12. Numerical simulations of granular dynamics: I. Hard-sphere discrete element method and tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Walsh, Kevin J.; Murdoch, Naomi; Michel, Patrick

    2011-03-01

    We present a new particle-based (discrete element) numerical method for the simulation of granular dynamics, with application to motions of particles on small solar system body and planetary surfaces. The method employs the parallel N-body tree code pkdgrav to search for collisions and compute particle trajectories. Collisions are treated as instantaneous point-contact events between rigid spheres. Particle confinement is achieved by combining arbitrary combinations of four provided wall primitives, namely infinite plane, finite disk, infinite cylinder, and finite cylinder, and degenerate cases of these. Various wall movements, including translation, oscillation, and rotation, are supported. We provide full derivations of collision prediction and resolution equations for all geometries and motions. Several tests of the method are described, including a model granular “atmosphere” that achieves correct energy equipartition, and a series of tumbler simulations that show the expected transition from tumbling to centrifuging as a function of rotation rate.

  13. Inquiry into thermodynamic behavior of hard sphere plus repulsive barrier of finite height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi; Solana, J R

    2009-11-28

    A bridge function approximation is proposed to close the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) integral equation for fluids with purely repulsive potentials. The performance of the bridge function approximation is then tested by applying the approximation to two kinds of repulsive potentials, namely, the square shoulder potential and the triangle shoulder potential. An extensive comparison between simulation and the OZ approach is performed over a wide density range for the fluid phase and several temperatures. It is found that the agreement between the two routes is excellent for not too low temperatures and satisfactory for extremely low temperatures. Then, this globally trustworthy OZ approach is used to investigate the possible existence or not of a liquid anomaly, i.e., a liquid-liquid phase transition at low temperatures and negative values of the thermal expansion coefficient in certain region of the phase diagram. While the existence of the liquid anomaly in the square shoulder potential has been previously predicted by a traditional first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT), the present investigation indicates that the liquid-liquid phase transition disappears in the OZ approach, so that its prediction by the first-order TPT is only an artifact originating from the low temperature inadequacy of the first-order TPT. However, the OZ approach indeed predicts negative thermal expansion coefficients. The present bridge function approximation, free of adjustable parameters, is suitable to be used within the context of a recently proposed nonhard sphere perturbation scheme.

  14. Binary non-additive hard sphere mixtures: fluid demixing, asymptotic decay of correlations and free fluid interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Paul; Schmidt, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Using a fundamental measure density functional theory we investigate both bulk and inhomogeneous systems of the binary non-additive hard sphere model. For sufficiently large (positive) non-additivity the mixture phase separates into two fluid phases with different compositions. We calculate bulk fluid-fluid coexistence curves for a range of size ratios and non-additivity parameters and find that they compare well to simulation results from the literature. Using the Ornstein-Zernike equation, we investigate the asymptotic, r→∞, decay of the partial pair correlation functions, g ij (r). At low densities a structural crossover occurs in the asymptotic decay between two different damped oscillatory modes with different wavelengths corresponding to the two intra-species hard-core diameters. On approaching the fluid-fluid critical point there is a Fisher-Widom crossover from exponentially damped oscillatory to monotonic asymptotic decay. Using the density functional we calculate the density profiles for the planar free fluid-fluid interface between coexisting fluid phases. We show that the type of asymptotic decay of g ij (r) not only determines the asymptotic decay of the interface profiles, but is also relevant for intermediate and even short-ranged behaviour. We also determine the surface tension of the free fluid interface, finding that it increases with non-additivity, and that on approaching the critical point mean-field scaling holds.

  15. The power of hard-sphere models: explaining side-chain dihedral angle distributions of Thr and Val.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Alice Qinhua; O'Hern, Corey S; Regan, Lynne

    2012-05-16

    The energy functions used to predict protein structures typically include both molecular-mechanics and knowledge-based terms. In contrast, our approach is to develop robust physics- and geometry-based methods. Here, we investigate to what extent simple hard-sphere models can be used to predict side-chain conformations. The distributions of the side-chain dihedral angle χ(1) of Val and Thr in proteins of known structure show distinctive features: Val side chains predominantly adopt χ(1) = 180°, whereas Thr side chains typically adopt χ(1) = 60° and 300° (i.e., χ(1) = ±60° or g- and g(+) configurations). Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain these differences, including interresidue steric clashes and hydrogen-bonding interactions. In contrast, we show that the observed side-chain dihedral angle distributions for both Val and Thr can be explained using only local steric interactions in a dipeptide mimetic. Our results emphasize the power of simple physical approaches and their importance for future advances in protein engineering and design. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transport coefficients of hard-sphere mixtures: Theory and Monte Carlo molecular-dynamics calculations for an isotopic mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal transport properties of mixtures can be formulated in a number of ways, depending on the choice of driving forces for the transport of heat and matter, without violating the Onsager conditions. Here we treat transport in mixtures based on the driving forces -del ln T and -T del(μ/sub a//T), with T the temperature and μ/sub a/ the specific chemical potential, to obtain the Green-Kubo expressions and the Enskog theory for the corresponding transport coefficients which seem most amenable to molecular-dynamics evaluation. The transport properties of a hard-sphere mixture (mass ratio of 0.1, diameter ratio of 1.0, at a volume of three times close-packed volume), calculated by a Monte Carlo, molecular-dynamics method based on the Green-Kubo formulas, are compared with the predictions of the Enskog theory. The long-time behavior of the Green-Kubo time-correlation functions for shear viscosity, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusion, and mutual diffusion are found to be in good agreement with the predictions of mode-coupling theory. Except for viscosity, the contribution of the long-time tails to the transport coefficients is found to be significant. We obtain values, relative to Enskog, of 1.016 +- 0.007 for shear viscosity, 1.218 +- 0.009 for thermal conductivity, 1.267 +- 0.026 for thermal diffusion, and 1.117 +- 0.008 for mutual diffusion

  17. Structural relaxation of polydisperse hard spheres: comparison of the mode-coupling theory to a Langevin dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weysser, F; Puertas, A M; Fuchs, M; Voigtmann, Th

    2010-07-01

    We analyze the slow glassy structural relaxation as measured through collective and tagged-particle density correlation functions obtained from Brownian dynamics simulations for a polydisperse system of quasi-hard spheres in the framework of the mode-coupling theory (MCT) of the glass transition. Asymptotic analyses show good agreement for the collective dynamics when polydispersity effects are taken into account in a multicomponent calculation, but qualitative disagreement at small q when the system is treated as effectively monodisperse. The origin of the different small-q behavior is attributed to the interplay between interdiffusion processes and structural relaxation. Numerical solutions of the MCT equations are obtained taking properly binned partial static structure factors from the simulations as input. Accounting for a shift in the critical density, the collective density correlation functions are well described by the theory at all densities investigated in the simulations, with quantitative agreement best around the maxima of the static structure factor and worst around its minima. A parameter-free comparison of the tagged-particle dynamics however reveals large quantitative errors for small wave numbers that are connected to the well-known decoupling of self-diffusion from structural relaxation and to dynamical heterogeneities. While deviations from MCT behavior are clearly seen in the tagged-particle quantities for densities close to and on the liquid side of the MCT glass transition, no such deviations are seen in the collective dynamics.

  18. Chord length distributions between hard disks and spheres in regular, semi-regular, and quasi-random structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Gordon L.

    2008-01-01

    In binary stochastic media in two- and three-dimensions consisting of randomly placed impenetrable disks or spheres, the chord lengths in the background material between disks and spheres closely follow exponential distributions if the disks and spheres occupy less than 10% of the medium. This work demonstrates that for regular spatial structures of disks and spheres, the tails of the chord length distributions (CLDs) follow power laws rather than exponentials. In dilute media, when the disks and spheres are widely spaced, the slope of the power law seems to be independent of the details of the structure. When approaching a close-packed arrangement, the exact placement of the spheres can make a significant difference. When regular structures are perturbed by small random displacements, the CLDs become power laws with steeper slopes. An example CLD from a quasi-random distribution of spheres in clusters shows a modified exponential distribution

  19. Chord length distributions between hard disks and spheres in regular, semi-regular, and quasi-random structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Gordon L. [Computer and Computational Sciences Division (CCS-2), Los Alamos National Laboratory, 5 Foxglove Circle, Madison, WI 53717 (United States)], E-mail: olson99@tds.net

    2008-11-15

    In binary stochastic media in two- and three-dimensions consisting of randomly placed impenetrable disks or spheres, the chord lengths in the background material between disks and spheres closely follow exponential distributions if the disks and spheres occupy less than 10% of the medium. This work demonstrates that for regular spatial structures of disks and spheres, the tails of the chord length distributions (CLDs) follow power laws rather than exponentials. In dilute media, when the disks and spheres are widely spaced, the slope of the power law seems to be independent of the details of the structure. When approaching a close-packed arrangement, the exact placement of the spheres can make a significant difference. When regular structures are perturbed by small random displacements, the CLDs become power laws with steeper slopes. An example CLD from a quasi-random distribution of spheres in clusters shows a modified exponential distribution.

  20. Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons are reviewed, after a discussion of classical analogues. Differences between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches can lead to conflicts with conventional nuclear physics sum rules and calculational techniques. The nucleon polarizabilities are discussed in the context of the non-relativistic valence quark model, which provides a good qualitative description. The recently measured pion polarizabilities are discussed in the context of chiral symmetry and quark-loop models. 58 refs., 5 figs

  1. The Wertheim integral equation theory with the ideal chain approximation and a dimer equation of state: Generalization to mixtures of hard-sphere chain fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.; Sandler, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    We have extended the Wertheim integral equation theory to mixtures of hard spheres with two attraction sites in order to model homonuclear hard-sphere chain fluids, and then solved these equations with the polymer-Percus--Yevick closure and the ideal chain approximation to obtain the average intermolecular and overall radial distribution functions. We obtain explicit expressions for the contact values of these distribution functions and a set of one-dimensional integral equations from which the distribution functions can be calculated without iteration or numerical Fourier transformation. We compare the resulting predictions for the distribution functions with Monte Carlo simulation results we report here for five selected binary mixtures. It is found that the accuracy of the prediction of the structure is the best for dimer mixtures and declines with increasing chain length and chain-length asymmetry. For the equation of state, we have extended the dimer version of the thermodynamic perturbation theory to the hard-sphere chain mixture by introducing the dimer mixture as an intermediate reference system. The Helmholtz free energy of chain fluids is then expressed in terms of the free energy of the hard-sphere mixture and the contact values of the correlation functions of monomer and dimer mixtures. We compared with the simulation results, the resulting equation of state is found to be the most accurate among existing theories with a relative average error of 1.79% for 4-mer/8-mer mixtures, which is the worst case studied in this work. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  2. A Local Approximation of Fundamental Measure Theory Incorporated into Three Dimensional Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations to Account for Hard Sphere Repulsion Among Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yu; Liu, Xuejiao; Chen, Minxin; Lu, Benzhuo

    2016-04-01

    The hard sphere repulsion among ions can be considered in the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations by combining the fundamental measure theory (FMT). To reduce the nonlocal computational complexity in 3D simulation of biological systems, a local approximation of FMT is derived, which forms a local hard sphere PNP (LHSPNP) model. In the derivation, the excess chemical potential from hard sphere repulsion is obtained with the FMT and has six integration components. For the integrands and weighted densities in each component, Taylor expansions are performed and the lowest order approximations are taken, which result in the final local hard sphere (LHS) excess chemical potential with four components. By plugging the LHS excess chemical potential into the ionic flux expression in the Nernst-Planck equation, the three dimensional LHSPNP is obtained. It is interestingly found that the essential part of free energy term of the previous size modified model (Borukhov et al. in Phys Rev Lett 79:435-438, 1997; Kilic et al. in Phys Rev E 75:021502, 2007; Lu and Zhou in Biophys J 100:2475-2485, 2011; Liu and Eisenberg in J Chem Phys 141:22D532, 2014) has a very similar form to one term of the LHS model, but LHSPNP has more additional terms accounting for size effects. Equation of state for one component homogeneous fluid is studied for the local hard sphere approximation of FMT and is proved to be exact for the first two virial coefficients, while the previous size modified model only presents the first virial coefficient accurately. To investigate the effects of LHS model and the competitions among different counterion species, numerical experiments are performed for the traditional PNP model, the LHSPNP model, the previous size modified PNP (SMPNP) model and the Monte Carlo simulation. It's observed that in steady state the LHSPNP results are quite different from the PNP results, but are close to the SMPNP results under a wide range of boundary conditions. Besides, in both

  3. Liquid theory with high accuracy and broad applicability: Coupling parameter series expansion and non hard sphere perturbation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Zhou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic and structural properties of liquids are of fundamental interest in physics, chemistry, and biology, and perturbation approach has been fundamental to liquid theoretical approaches since the dawn of modern statistical mechanics and remains so to this day. Although thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT is widely used in the chemical physics community, one of the most popular versions of the TPT, i.e. Zwanzig (Zwanzig, R. W. J. Chem. Phys. 1954, 22, 1420-1426 1st-order high temperature series expansion (HTSE TPT and its 2nd-order counterpart under a macroscopic compressibility approximation of Barker-Henderson (Barker, J. A.; Henderson, D. J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 2856-2861, have some serious shortcomings: (i the nth-order term of the HTSE is involved with reference fluid distribution functions of order up to 2n, and the higher-order terms hence progressively become more complicated and numerically inaccessible; (ii the performance of the HTSE rapidly deteriorates and the calculated results become even qualitatively incorrect as the temperature of interest decreases. This account deals with the developments that we have made over the last five years or so to advance a coupling parameter series expansion (CPSE and a non hard sphere (HS perturbation strategy that has scored some of its greatest successes in overcoming the above-mentioned difficulties. In this account (i we expatiate on implementation details of our schemes: how input information indispensable to high-order truncation of the CPSE in both the HS and non HS perturbation schemes is calculated by an Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory; how high-order thermodynamic quantities, such as critical parameters and excess constant volume heat capacity, are extracted from the resulting excess Helmholtz free energy with irregular and inevitable numerical errors; how to select reference potential in the non HS perturbation scheme. (ii We give a quantitative analysis on why

  4. Attractive and repulsive interactions among methanol molecules in supercritical state investigated by Raman spectroscopy and perturbed hard-sphere theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitow, Ken-ichi; Sasaki, Jungo

    2005-03-08

    The short-range structure of supercritical methanol (CH(3)OH) is investigated by measuring the spontaneous Raman spectra of the C-O stretching mode. The spectra are obtained at a reduced temperature, T(r)=T/T(c)=1.02 (522.9 K), which permits the neat fluid to be studied isothermally as a function of density. As the density increases, the spectral peaks shift toward the lower energy side and the spectra broaden. In the supercritical region, the amount of shifting shows nonlinear density dependence and the width becomes anomalously large. We use the perturbed hard-sphere model to analyze these density dependencies along the vibrational coordinate. The amount of shifting is decomposed into attractive and repulsive components, and the changes in attractive and repulsive energies are evaluated as functions of density and packing fraction, both of which are continuously varied by a factor of 120. Here we show that the shift amount consists principally of the attractive component at all densities, since the attractive energy is about eight times the repulsive energy. The density dependence of the widths is analyzed by calculating homogeneous and inhomogeneous widths as a function of density. The results show that, although vibrational dephasing and density inhomogeneity contribute similarly to the width at low and middle densities, at high density the main contributor turns out to be the vibrational dephasing. We estimate the local density enhancements of supercritical CH(3)OH as function of bulk density by two methods. The results of these analyses show common features, and both the estimated local density enhancements of CH(3)OH are considerably larger than the local density enhancements of simple fluids, i.e., those having nonhydrogen bonding. It is revealed that the local density of supercritical CH(3)OH is 40%-60% greater than the local densities of the simple fluids. We also estimate the local density fluctuation using the obtained values of attractive shift

  5. Essential roles of protein-solvent many-body correlation in solvent-entropy effect on protein folding and denaturation: Comparison between hard-sphere solvent and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Hiraku; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    In earlier works, we showed that the entropic effect originating from the translational displacement of water molecules plays the pivotal role in protein folding and denaturation. The two different solvent models, hard-sphere solvent and model water, were employed in theoretical methods wherein the entropic effect was treated as an essential factor. However, there were similarities and differences in the results obtained from the two solvent models. In the present work, to unveil the physical origins of the similarities and differences, we simultaneously consider structural transition, cold denaturation, and pressure denaturation for the same protein by employing the two solvent models and considering three different thermodynamic states for each solvent model. The solvent-entropy change upon protein folding/unfolding is decomposed into the protein-solvent pair (PA) and many-body (MB) correlation components using the integral equation theories. Each component is further decomposed into the excluded-volume (EV) and solvent-accessible surface (SAS) terms by applying the morphometric approach. The four physically insightful constituents, (PA, EV), (PA, SAS), (MB, EV), and (MB, SAS), are thus obtained. Moreover, (MB, SAS) is discussed by dividing it into two factors. This all-inclusive investigation leads to the following results: (1) the protein-water many-body correlation always plays critical roles in a variety of folding/unfolding processes; (2) the hard-sphere solvent model fails when it does not correctly reproduce the protein-water many-body correlation; (3) the hard-sphere solvent model becomes problematic when the dependence of the many-body correlation on the solvent number density and temperature is essential: it is not quite suited to studies on cold and pressure denaturating of a protein; (4) when the temperature and solvent number density are limited to the ambient values, the hard-sphere solvent model is usually successful; and (5) even at the ambient

  6. Polarizable protein packing

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Albert H.; Snow, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full

  7. Microwave scattering coefficient of snow in MEMLS and DMRT-ML revisited: the relevance of sticky hard spheres and tomography-based estimates of stickiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Löwe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The description of snow microstructure in microwave models is often simplified to facilitate electromagnetic calculations. Within dense media radiative transfer (DMRT, the microstructure is commonly described by sticky hard spheres (SHS. An objective mapping of real snow onto SHS is however missing which prevents measured input parameters from being used for DMRT. In contrast, the microwave emission model of layered snowpacks (MEMLS employs a conceptually different approach, based on the two-point correlation function which is accessible by tomography. Here we show the equivalence of both electromagnetic approaches by reformulating their microstructural models in a common framework. Using analytical results for the two-point correlation function of hard spheres, we show that the scattering coefficient in both models only differs by a factor which is close to unity, weakly dependent on ice volume fraction and independent of other microstructural details. Additionally, our analysis provides an objective retrieval method for the SHS parameters (diameter and stickiness from tomography images. For a comprehensive data set we demonstrate the variability of stickiness and compare the SHS diameter to the optical equivalent diameter. Our results confirm the necessity of a large grain-size scaling when relating both diameters in the non-sticky case, as previously suggested by several authors.

  8. A variable hard sphere-based phenomenological inelastic collision model for rarefied gas flow simulations by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanth, P S; Kakkassery, Jose K; Vijayakumar, R, E-mail: y3df07@nitc.ac.in, E-mail: josekkakkassery@nitc.ac.in, E-mail: vijay@nitc.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kozhikode - 673 601, Kerala (India)

    2012-04-01

    A modified phenomenological model is constructed for the simulation of rarefied flows of polyatomic non-polar gas molecules by the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. This variable hard sphere-based model employs a constant rotational collision number, but all its collisions are inelastic in nature and at the same time the correct macroscopic relaxation rate is maintained. In equilibrium conditions, there is equi-partition of energy between the rotational and translational modes and it satisfies the principle of reciprocity or detailed balancing. The present model is applicable for moderate temperatures at which the molecules are in their vibrational ground state. For verification, the model is applied to the DSMC simulations of the translational and rotational energy distributions in nitrogen gas at equilibrium and the results are compared with their corresponding Maxwellian distributions. Next, the Couette flow, the temperature jump and the Rayleigh flow are simulated; the viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of nitrogen are numerically estimated and compared with experimentally measured values. The model is further applied to the simulation of the rotational relaxation of nitrogen through low- and high-Mach-number normal shock waves in a novel way. In all cases, the results are found to be in good agreement with theoretically expected and experimentally observed values. It is concluded that the inelastic collision of polyatomic molecules can be predicted well by employing the constructed variable hard sphere (VHS)-based collision model.

  9. Polarizable Density Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Steinmann, Casper; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    We present a new QM/QM/MM-based model for calculating molecular properties and excited states of solute-solvent systems. We denote this new approach the polarizable density embedding (PDE) model and it represents an extension of our previously developed polarizable embedding (PE) strategy. The PDE...... model is a focused computational approach in which a core region of the system studied is represented by a quantum-chemical method, whereas the environment is divided into two other regions: an inner and an outer region. Molecules belonging to the inner region are described by their exact densities...

  10. Dynamical polarizability of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, G.; Lundqvist, S.

    1980-07-01

    The frequency-dependent polarizability of a closed-shell atom is considered in an RPA type approximation. This is usually done using many-body perturbation theory but can also be recast into the form of equations for the density oscillations as previously shown by the authors. The latter approach is known to lead to a non-hermitian problem because of the structure of the interaction kernel. This note shows that this is also true if using the reaction matrix method. The main result is to derive the expression for the polarizability function taking into account the non-hermitian nature of the problem. (author)

  11. Emerging quasi-0D states at vanishing total entropy of the 1D hard sphere system: A coarse-grained similarity to the car parking problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frusawa, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    A coarse-grained system of one-dimensional (1D) hard spheres (HSs) is created using the Delaunay tessellation, which enables one to define the quasi-0D state. It is found from comparing the quasi-0D and 1D free energy densities that a frozen state due to the emergence of quasi-0D HSs is thermodynamically more favorable than fluidity with a large-scale heterogeneity above crossover volume fraction of ϕc=e/(1+e)=0.731⋯ , at which the total entropy of the 1D state vanishes. The Delaunay-based lattice mapping further provides a similarity between the dense HS system above ϕc and the jamming limit in the car parking problem.

  12. Emerging quasi-0D states at vanishing total entropy of the 1D hard sphere system: A coarse-grained similarity to the car parking problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frusawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A coarse-grained system of one-dimensional (1D) hard spheres (HSs) is created using the Delaunay tessellation, which enables one to define the quasi-0D state. It is found from comparing the quasi-0D and 1D free energy densities that a frozen state due to the emergence of quasi-0D HSs is thermodynamically more favorable than fluidity with a large-scale heterogeneity above crossover volume fraction of ϕ c =e/(1+e)=0.731⋯ , at which the total entropy of the 1D state vanishes. The Delaunay-based lattice mapping further provides a similarity between the dense HS system above ϕ c and the jamming limit in the car parking problem.

  13. Magnetic polarizability of pion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luschevskaya, E.V., E-mail: luschevskaya@itep.ru [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Bolshaia Cheremushkinskaia 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Solovjeva, O.E., E-mail: olga.solovjeva@itep.ru [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Bolshaia Cheremushkinskaia 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Teryaev, O.V., E-mail: teryaev@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe highway, 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-10

    We explore the energy dependence of π mesons off the background Abelian magnetic field on the base of quenched SU(3) lattice gauge theory and calculate the magnetic dipole polarizability of charged and neutral pions for various lattice volumes and lattice spacings. The contribution of the magnetic hyperpolarizability to the neutral pion energy has been also found.

  14. Polarizable Density Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Peter; Kongsted, Jacob; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the performance of the polarizable density embedding (PDE) model-a new multiscale computational approach designed for prediction and rationalization of general molecular properties of large and complex systems. We showcase how the PDE model very effectively handles the use of large...

  15. Spin polarizability of hyperons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K B VIJAYA KUMAR. Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri 574 199, India. E-mail: kbvijayakumar@yahoo.com. DOI: 10.1007/s12043-014-0869-4; ePublication: 4 November 2014. Abstract. We review the recent progress of the theoretical understanding of spin polarizabilities of the hyperon in the ...

  16. Polarizable protein packing

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Albert H.

    2011-01-24

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full energy while maintaining tractability. We represent the polarizable packing problem for protein G as a hypergraph and solve for optimal rotamers with the FASTER combinatorial optimization algorithm. These approximate energy models can be improved to high accuracy [root mean square deviation (rmsd) < 1 kJ mol -1] via ridge regression. The resulting trained approximations are used to efficiently identify new, low-energy solutions. The approach is general and should allow combinatorial optimization of other many-body problems. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation of a piston driven shock wave in a hard sphere gas. Final Contractor ReportPh.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Myeung-Jouh; Greber, Isaac

    1995-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to study the piston driven shock wave at Mach 1.5, 3, and 10. A shock tube, whose shape is a circular cylinder, is filled with hard sphere molecules having a Maxwellian thermal velocity distribution and zero mean velocity. The piston moves and a shock wave is generated. All collisions are specular, including those between the molecules and the computational boundaries, so that the shock development is entirely causal, with no imposed statistics. The structure of the generated shock is examined in detail, and the wave speed; profiles of density, velocity, and temperature; and shock thickness are determined. The results are compared with published results of other methods, especially the direct simulation Monte-Carlo method. Property profiles are similar to those generated by direct simulation Monte-Carlo method. The shock wave thicknesses are smaller than the direct simulation Monte-Carlo results, but larger than those of the other methods. Simulation of a shock wave, which is one-dimensional, is a severe test of the molecular dynamics method, which is always three-dimensional. A major challenge of the thesis is to examine the capability of the molecular dynamics methods by choosing a difficult task.

  18. Density anomaly of charged hard spheres of different diameters in a mixture with core-softened model solvent. Monte Carlo simulation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hribar-Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Very recently the effect of equisized charged hard sphere solutes in a mixture with core-softened fluid model on the structural and thermodynamic anomalies of the system has been explored in detail by using Monte Carlo simulations and integral equations theory (J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 137, 244502 (2012. Our objective of the present short work is to complement this study by considering univalent ions of unequal diameters in a mixture with the same soft-core fluid model. Specifically, we are interested in the analysis of changes of the temperature of maximum density (TMD lines with ion concentration for three model salt solutes, namely sodium chloride, potassium chloride and rubidium chloride models. We resort to Monte Carlo simulations for this purpose. Our discussion also involves the dependences of the pair contribution to excess entropy and of constant volume heat capacity on the temperature of maximum density line. Some examples of the microscopic structure of mixtures in question in terms of pair distributions functions are given in addition.

  19. Polarizability sum rules in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llanta, E.; Tarrach, R.

    1978-01-01

    The well founded total photoproduction and the, assumed subtraction free, longitudinal photoproduction polarizability sum rules are checked in QED at the lowest non-trivial order. The first one is shown to hold, whereas the second one turns out to need a subtraction, which makes its usefulness for determining the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleons quite doubtful. (Auth.)

  20. Static polarizabilities of dielectric nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Sofo, Jorge O.; Cole, Milton W.; Velegol, Darrell; Mukhopadhyay, Gautam

    2005-01-01

    A cluster consisting of many atoms or molecules may be considered, in some circumstances, to be a single large molecule with a well-defined polarizability. Once the polarizability of such a cluster is known, one can evaluate certain properties--e.g. the cluster's van der Waals interactions, using expressions derived for atoms or molecules. In the present work, we evaluate the static polarizability of a cluster using a microscopic method that is exact within the linear and dipolar approximations. Numerical examples are presented for various shapes and sizes of clusters composed of identical atoms, where the term 'atom' actually refers to a generic constituent, which could be any polarizable entity. The results for the clusters' polarizabilities are compared with those obtained by assuming simple additivity of the constituents' atomic polarizabilities; in many cases, the difference is large, demonstrating the inadequacy of the additivity approximation. Comparison is made (for symmetrical geometries) with results obtained from continuum models of the polarizability. Also, the surface effects due to the nonuniform local field near a surface or edge are shown to be significant

  1. Parity nonconservation and nuclear polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    The hadronic weak interaction contributes to parity nonconserving observables in semileptonic interactions. Weak nuclear polarizabilities are frequently important in such interactions. Some of the interesting physics is illustrated by 18 F, a nucleus that provides an important constraint on the neutral weak hadronic current. One observable where the nuclear polarizability is expected to dominate is the nuclear anapole moment. The long-range pion contribution to this weak radiative correction is explored for both nucleons and nuclei. Similar polarizabilities that arise for time-reversal-odd hadronic interactions that conserve or violate parity are discussed in connection with atomic electric dipole moments. 20 refs., 4 figs

  2. Pion electromagnetic polarizabilities and quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llanta, E.; Tarrach, R.

    1980-01-01

    The electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the neutral and charged pion are calculated in a coloured quark field theory at the one-loop level. The theory has as free parameter the quark mass but our results do not depend on it. We have found that the electric polarizabilities are αsub(π+-) = -0.04 α/m 3 sub(π), αsub(π 0 ) = -0.4 α/m 3 sub(π). These values are compared with calculations in other models and some comments are made about the polarizability sum rules. (orig.)

  3. Pion polarizabilities measurement at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Guskov, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    The electromagnetic structure of pions is probed in $\\pi^{−}+(A,Z) \\rightarrow\\pi^{−}+(A,Z)+\\gamma$ Compton scattering in inverse kinematics (Primakoff reaction) and described by the electric ($\\bar{\\alpha_{\\pi}}$) and the magnetic ($\\bar{\\beta_{\\pi}}$) polarizabilities that depend on the rigidity of pion’s internal structure as a composite particle. Values for pion polarizabilities can be extracted from the comparison of the differential cross section for scattering of pointlike pions with the measured cross section. The pion polarizability measurement was performed with a $\\pi^{-}$ beam of 190 GeV. The high beam intensity, the good spectrometer resolution, the high rate capability, the high acceptance and the possibility to use pion and muon beams, unique to the COMPASS experiment, provide the tools to measure precisely the pion polarizabilities in the Primakoff reaction.

  4. Molecular Properties through Polarizable Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Kongsted, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    We review the theory related to the calculation of electric and magnetic molecular properties through polarizable embedding. In particular, we derive the expressions for the response functions up to the level of cubic response within the density functional theory-based polarizable embedding (PE......-DFT) formalism. In addition, we discuss some illustrative applications related to the calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance parameters, nonlinear optical properties, and electronic excited states in solution....

  5. On the mechanical stability of the body-centered cubic phase and the emergence of a metastable cI16 phase in classical hard sphere solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshavsky, Vadim B.; Ford, David M.; Monson, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    The stability of the body-centered cubic (bcc) solid phase of classical hard spheres is of intrinsic interest and is also relevant to the development of perturbation theories for bcc solids of other model systems. Using canonical ensemble Monte Carlo, we simulated systems initialized in a perfect bcc lattice at various densities in the solid region. We observed that the systems rapidly evolved into one of four structures that then persisted for the duration of the simulation. Remarkably, one of these structures was identified as cI16, a cubic crystalline structure with 16 particles in the unit cell, which has recently been observed experimentally in lithium and sodium solids at high pressures. The other three structures do not exhibit crystalline order but are characterized by common patterns in the radial distribution function and bond-orientational order parameter distribution; we refer to them as bcc-di, with i ranging from 1 to 3. We found similar outcomes when employing any of the three single occupancy cell (SOC) restrictions commonly used in the literature. We also ran long constant-pressure simulations with box shape fluctuations initiated from bcc and cI16 initial configurations. At lower pressures, all the systems evolved to defective face-centered cubic (fcc) or hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structures. At higher pressures, most of the systems initiated as bcc evolved to cI16 with some evolving to defective fcc/hcp. High pressure systems initiated from cI16 remained in that structure. We computed the chemical potential of cI16 using the Einstein crystal reference method and found that it is higher than that of fcc by ˜0.5kT-2.5kT over the pressure range studied, with the difference increasing with pressure. We find that the undistorted bcc solid, even with constant-volume and SOC restrictions applied, is so mechanically unstable that it is unsuitable for consideration as a metastable phase or as a reference system for studying bcc phases of other systems

  6. Pion polarizabilities measurement at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Guskov, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    The electromagnetic structure of pions is probed in $\\pi^{−} + (A,Z)\\rightarrow\\pi^{−} + (A,Z) +\\gamma$ Compton scattering in inverse kinematics (Primakoff reaction) and described by the electric $(\\bar{\\alpha_{\\pi}})$ and the magnetic $(\\bar{\\beta_{\\pi}})$ polarizabilities that depend on the rigidity of pion’s internal structure as a composite particle. Values for pion polarizabilities can be extracted from the comparison of the differential cross section for scattering of pointlike pions with the measured cross section. The pion polarizability measurement was performed with $a \\pi^{−}$ beam of 190 GeV. The high beam intensity, the good spectrometer resolution, the high rate capability, the high acceptance and the possibility to use pion and muon beams, unique to the COMPASS experiment, provide the tools to measure precisely the pion polarizabilities in the Primakoff reaction. The preliminary result for pion polarizabilities under the assumption of $\\bar{\\alpha_{\\pi}} + \\bar{\\beta_{\\pi}} =$ 0 is $\\ba...

  7. Double-polarizating scanning radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishev, D.N.; Nazyrski, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    The double-polarizating single-channel scanning radiometer comprises the following serial connected parts: a scanning double-polarizating aerial, a block for polarization separation, a radiometer receiver, an analog-to-digit converter and an information flow forming block. The low frequency input of the radiometer receiver is connected with a control block, which is also connected with a first bus of a microprocessor, the second bus of which is connected with the A-D converter. The control input of the scanning double-polarizating aerial is connected with the first microprocessor bus. The control inputs of the block for polarization separation are linked by an electronic switch with the output of the forming block, the input of which is connected to the first input of the control block. The control inputs of the block for polarization separation are connected with the second and the third input of the information flow forming block. 2 cls

  8. Gravitational polarizability of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria

    2009-01-01

    The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h l of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h l EM . The Love numbers h l give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.

  9. Polarizability effects on the structure and dynamics of ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Ary de Oliveira, E-mail: arycavalcante@ufam.edu.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas – UNICAMP, Cx. P. 6154, Campinas, SP 13084-862 (Brazil); Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Av. Rodrigo Octávio, 6200, Coroado, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Ribeiro, Mauro C. C. [Laboratório de Espectroscopia Molecular, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP C.P. 26077, 05513 970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Skaf, Munir S. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas – UNICAMP, Cx. P. 6154, Campinas, SP 13084-862 (Brazil)

    2014-04-14

    Polarization effects on the structure and dynamics of ionic liquids are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Four different ionic liquids were simulated, formed by the anions Cl{sup −} and PF{sub 6}{sup −}, treated as single fixed charge sites, and the 1-n-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations (1-ethyl and 1-butyl-), which are polarizable. The partial charge fluctuation of the cations is provided by the electronegativity equalization model (EEM) and a complete parameter set for the cations electronegativity (χ) and hardness (J) is presented. Results obtained from a non-polarizable model for the cations are also reported for comparison. Relative to the fixed charged model, the equilibrium structure of the first solvation shell around the imidazolium cations shows that inclusion of EEM polarization forces brings cations closer to each other and that anions are preferentially distributed above and below the plane of the imidazolium ring. The polarizable model yields faster translational and reorientational dynamics than the fixed charges model in the rotational-diffusion regime. In this sense, the polarizable model dynamics is in better agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Scaling of the space-time correlation function of particle currents in a suspension of hard-sphere-like particles: exposing when the motion of particles is Brownian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Megen, W; Martinez, V A; Bryant, G

    2009-12-18

    The current correlation function is determined from dynamic light scattering measurements of a suspension of particles with hard spherelike interactions. For suspensions in thermodynamic equilibrium we find scaling of the space and time variables of the current correlation function. This finding supports the notion that the movement of suspended particles can be described in terms of uncorrelated Brownian encounters. However, in the metastable fluid, at volume fractions above freezing, this scaling fails.

  11. Computational analysis of electronic polarizabilities in Thomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electric polarizability,α, of a molecule is a measure of its ability to respond to an electric field and acquire an electric dipole moment, μ. The electric polarizability, α has been calculated for several ions and atoms by obtaining the perturbation of wave functions by an external field from a numerical solution of differential ...

  12. Microscopic evaluation of the nuclear dipole polarizability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipparini, E; Orlandini, G; Stringari, S; Traini, M [Trento Univ. (Italy). Dept. di Matematica e Fisica

    1977-12-01

    The dipole polarizability sum rule has been evaluated by means of a restricted Hartree-Fock approach. The method leads to a simple and analytical expression for the dipole polarizability. Explicit calculations have been performed in /sup 16/O and /sup 40/Ca with different types of interaction.

  13. Excited States in Solution through Polarizable Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jógvan Magnus; Aidas, Kestutis; Kongsted, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    mechanical calculation. The polarizable embedding potential is described by an atomistic representation including terms up to localized octupoles and anisotropic polarizabilities. It is generally applicable to any quantum chemical description but is here implemented for the case of Kohn−Sham density...

  14. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization...... of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....

  15. Vibrational polarizabilities of hydrogen-bonded water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vibrational polarizabilities of hydrogen-bonded water are analyzed theoretically. ► Total vibrational polarizability is (at least) comparable to the electronic one. ► Molecular translations contribute to the vibrational polarizability below 300 cm −1 . ► Intermolecular charge fluxes along H bonds are induced by molecular translations. ► The results are discussed in relation to the observed dielectric properties. - Abstract: The vibrational polarizabilities and the related molecular properties of hydrogen-bonded water are analyzed theoretically, taking the case of (water) 30 clusters as an example case. It is shown that some off-diagonal dipole derivatives are large for the translations of incompletely hydrogen-bonded molecules, and this is reasonably explained by the scheme of intermolecular charge fluxes induced along hydrogen bonds. In total, because of these intermolecular charge fluxes, molecular translations give rise to the vibrational polarizability of 2.8–3.3 a 0 3 per molecule, which is as large as about 40% of the electronic polarizability, mainly in the frequency region below 300 cm −1 . Adding the contributions of the molecular rotations (librations) and the translation–rotation cross term, the total polarizability (electronic + vibrational) at ∼100 cm −1 is slightly larger than the double of that at >4000 cm −1 . The relation of these results to some observed time- and frequency-dependent dielectric properties of liquid water is briefly discussed

  16. Shining light on polarizable dark particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichet, Sylvain [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo State University,Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco 2, Barra Funda (Brazil)

    2017-04-14

    We investigate the possibilities of searching for a self-conjugate polarizable particle in the self-interactions of light. We first observe that polarizability can arise either from the exchange of mediator states or as a consequence of the inner structure of the particle. To exemplify this second possibility we calculate the polarizability of a neutral bosonic open string, and find it is described only by dimension-8 operators. Focussing on the spin-0 case, we calculate the light-by-light scattering amplitudes induced by the dimension-6 and 8 polarizability operators. Performing a simulation of exclusive diphoton production with proton tagging at the LHC, we find that the imprint of the polarizable dark particle can be potentially detected at 5σ significance for mass and cutoff reaching values above the TeV scale, for √s=13 TeV and 300 fb{sup −1} of integrated luminosity. If the polarizable dark particle is stable, it can be a dark matter candidate, in which case we argue this exclusive diphoton search may complement the existing LHC searches for polarizable dark matter.

  17. Excitations in opal photonic crystals infiltrated with polarizable media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eradat, Nayer; Sivachenko, A. Y.; Raikh, Mikhail E.; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Li, S.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2002-12-01

    Photonic crystals (PC) are a class of artificial structures with a periodic dielectric function. PCs can be a laboratory for testing fundamental processes involving interactions of radiation with matter in novel conditions. We have studied the optical properties of opal PCs that are infiltrated with highly polarizable media such as j-aggregates of cyanine dyes. Opals are self-assembled structures of silica spheres. We report our studies on clarifying the relationship between a polaritonic gap and a photonic stop band (Bragg gap) when they resonantly coexist in the same structure. Infiltration of opal with polarizable molecules combines the polaritonic and Bragg diffractive effects. Both effects exist independently when the Bragg (at ω = ωB) and polaritonic (ω = ωT) resonances are well separated in frequency. A completely different situation occurs when ωT ~ωB. Such a condition was achieved in opals that were infiltrated with J-aggregates of cyanine dyes that have large Rabi frequency. Our measurements show some dramatic changes in the shape of the reflectivity plateaus, which are due to the interplay between the photonic band gap and the polaritonic gap. The experimental results on reflectivity and its dependence on the light propagation angle and concentration of the cyanie dyes are in agreement with the theoretical calculations.

  18. Electric dipole polarizability from first principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miorelli, M.; University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC; Bacca, S.; University of Manitoba; Barnea, N.

    2016-01-01

    The electric dipole polarizability quantifies the low-energy behavior of the dipole strength and is related to critical observables such as the radii of the proton and neutron distributions. Its computation is challenging because most of the dipole strength lies in the scattering continuum. In our paper we combine integral transforms with the coupled-cluster method and compute the dipole polarizability using bound-state techniques. Furthermore, employing different interactions from chiral effective field theory, we confirm the strong correlation between the dipole polarizability and the charge radius, and study its dependence on three-nucleon forces. Finally, we find good agreement with data for the 4 He, 40 Ca, and 16 O nuclei, and predict the dipole polarizability for the rare nucleus 22 O.

  19. Beyond packing of hard spheres: The effects of core softness, non-additivity, intermediate-range repulsion, and many-body interactions on the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Fan, Meng; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Shattuck, Mark D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics and Benjamin Levich Institute, The City College of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); O’Hern, Corey S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2015-11-14

    When a liquid is cooled well below its melting temperature at a rate that exceeds the critical cooling rate R{sub c}, the crystalline state is bypassed and a metastable, amorphous glassy state forms instead. R{sub c} (or the corresponding critical casting thickness d{sub c}) characterizes the glass-forming ability (GFA) of each material. While silica is an excellent glass-former with small R{sub c} < 10{sup −2} K/s, pure metals and most alloys are typically poor glass-formers with large R{sub c} > 10{sup 10} K/s. Only in the past thirty years have bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) been identified with R{sub c} approaching that for silica. Recent simulations have shown that simple, hard-sphere models are able to identify the atomic size ratio and number fraction regime where BMGs exist with critical cooling rates more than 13 orders of magnitude smaller than those for pure metals. However, there are a number of other features of interatomic potentials beyond hard-core interactions. How do these other features affect the glass-forming ability of BMGs? In this manuscript, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine how variations in the softness and non-additivity of the repulsive core and form of the interatomic pair potential at intermediate distances affect the GFA of binary alloys. These variations in the interatomic pair potential allow us to introduce geometric frustration and change the crystal phases that compete with glass formation. We also investigate the effect of tuning the strength of the many-body interactions from zero to the full embedded atom model on the GFA for pure metals. We then employ the full embedded atom model for binary BMGs and show that hard-core interactions play the dominant role in setting the GFA of alloys, while other features of the interatomic potential only change the GFA by one to two orders of magnitude. Despite their perturbative effect, understanding the detailed form of the intermetallic potential is important for

  20. Free Volume of the Hard Spheres Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, P. M. E.; Martinez, J. C.; Springham, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    The Enskog factor [chi] plays a central role in the theory of dense gases, quantifying how the finite size of molecules causes many physical quantities, such as the equation of state, the mean free path, and the diffusion coefficient, to deviate from those of an ideal gas. We suggest an intuitive but rigorous derivation of this fact by showing how…

  1. Free volume of the hard spheres gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutler, P M E; Martinez, J C; Springham, S V

    2007-01-01

    The Enskog factor χ plays a central role in the theory of dense gases, quantifying how the finite size of molecules causes many physical quantities, such as the equation of state, the mean free path, and the diffusion coefficient, to deviate from those of an ideal gas. We suggest an intuitive but rigorous derivation of this fact by showing how all these instances of χ amount to different ways of looking at the derivative of the free volume with respect to the packing density. We show how to compute the free volume explicitly for finitely many molecules in a finite box and demonstrate excellent agreement between its derivative and mean free paths obtained from computer simulations, where the number of molecules N varies from 1000 down to 2, and where the mean free paths vary from many times the molecular diameter at low density down to a small fraction of the molecular diameter at high density. Since the boundary corrections involved are relatively simple and intuitive this strengthens the link between the teaching of large N theory for real physical systems, and the running of small N simulations in undergraduate physics laboratories

  2. Charged pions polarizability measurement at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Guskov, A

    2010-01-01

    The pion electromagnetic structure can be probed in $\\pi^{−}+(A,Z)\\rightarrow\\pi^{-}+(A,Z)+\\gamma$ Compton scattering in inverse kinematics (Primakoff reaction) and described by the electric $(\\alpha_{\\pi})$ and the magnetic $(\\beta_{\\pi})$ polarizabilities that depend on the rigidity of pion’s internal structure as a composite particle. Values for pion polarizabilities can be extracted from the comparison of the differential cross section for scattering of point-like pions with the measured cross section. The opportunity to measure pion polarizability via the Primakoff reaction at the COMPASS experiment was studied with $a$ $\\pi^{-}$ beam of 190 GeV during pilot run 2004. The obtained results were used for preparation of the new data taking which was performed in 2009.

  3. Hadron polarizability data analysis: GoAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, H., E-mail: hkstegen@mta.ca; Hornidge, D. [Mount Allison University, Sackville (Canada); Collicott, C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada); Martel, P. [Mount Allison University, Sackville (Canada); Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Ott, P. [Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-12-31

    The A2 Collaboration at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Mainz, Germany, is working towards determining the polarizabilities of hadrons from nonperturbative quantum chromodynamics through Compton scattering experiments at low energies. The asymmetry observables are directly related to the scalar and spin polarizabilities of the hadrons. Online analysis software, which will give real-time feedback on asymmetries, efficiencies, energies, and angle distributions, has been developed. The new software is a big improvement over the existing online code and will greatly develop the quality of the acquired data.

  4. Hadron polarizability data analysis: GoAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegen, H.; Collicott, C.; Hornidge, D.; Martel, P.; Ott, P.

    2015-12-01

    The A2 Collaboration at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Mainz, Germany, is working towards determining the polarizabilities of hadrons from nonperturbative quantum chromodynamics through Compton scattering experiments at low energies. The asymmetry observables are directly related to the scalar and spin polarizabilities of the hadrons. Online analysis software, which will give real-time feedback on asymmetries, efficiencies, energies, and angle distributions, has been developed. The new software is a big improvement over the existing online code and will greatly develop the quality of the acquired data.

  5. Quantum mechanical determination of atomic polarizabilities of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heid, Esther; Szabadi, András; Schröder, Christian

    2018-04-25

    The distribution of a molecule's polarizability to individual atomic sites is inevitable to develop accurate polarizable force fields. We present the direct quantum mechanical calculation of atomic polarizabilities of 27 common ionic liquids. The method is superior to previously published distribution routines based on large databases of the molecular polarizability, and enables the correct description of any ionic liquid and its peculiarities within the quantum mechanical framework.

  6. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  7. Pion polarizability in a chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Volkov, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    The pion polarizability is calculated in a chiral meson-quark model at the one-loop level. The results are in complete agreement with earlier ones obtained within a chiral meson-baryon theory. A critical discussion of a recent paper by Llanta and Tarrach is given. (orig.)

  8. Pion polarizability in a chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Ehbert, D.

    1980-01-01

    The pion polarizability is calculated in a chiral meson-quark model at the one-loop level. The results are in complete agreement with earlier ones obtained within a chiral meson-baryon theory. A critical discussion of a recent paper by Lanta and Tarrach is given. The results of the paper give evidence to the nonlinear chiral Lagrangian favour

  9. Pion polarizability in a chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Ehbert, D.

    1981-01-01

    The pion polarizability is calculated in a chiral meson- quark model at the one-loop level. The results are in complete agreement with earlier ones obtained within a chiral meson-baryon theory. A critical discussion of a recent paper by Llanta and Tarrach is given [ru

  10. Pion polarizability in a chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Ebert, D.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the pion polarizability calculated in a chiral model with quark loops agrees exactly with the analogous quantity found in a chiral meson-baryon model. The results of a paper by Llanta and Tarrach are discussed critically

  11. The polarizable embedding coupled cluster method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneskov, Kristian; Schwabe, Tobias; Kongsted, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    We formulate a new combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method based on a self-consistent polarizable embedding (PE) scheme. For the description of the QM region, we apply the popular coupled cluster (CC) method detailing the inclusion of electrostatic and polarization effects...

  12. Hadron electric polarizability from lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandru, Andrei

    2017-09-01

    Electromagnetic polarizabilities are important parameters for hadron structure, describing the response of the charge and current distributions inside the hadron to an external electromagnetic field. For most hadrons these quantities are poorly constrained experimentally since they can only be measured indirectly. Lattice QCD can be used to compute these quantities directly in terms of quark and gluons degrees of freedom, using the background field method. We present results for the neutron electric polarizability for two different quark masses, light enough to connect to chiral perturbation theory. These are currently the lightest quark masses used in polarizability studies. For each pion mass we compute the polarizability at four different volumes and perform an infinite volume extrapolation. We also discuss the effect of turning on the coupling between the background field and the sea quarks. A.A. is supported in part by the National Science Foundation CAREER Grant PHY-1151648 and by U.S. DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-95ER40907.

  13. The axial polarizability of nucleons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.; Figureau, A.

    1981-02-01

    The part of the static nuclear axial polarizability arising from the nucleonic excitations is derived from the low energy expansion of the πN amplitude. It is shown that the contribution of the Δ intermediate state, though dominant, does not saturate the nucleonic response. A similar effect, though more pronounced, is known to occur for the magnetic susceptibility

  14. Polarizable Density Embedding Coupled Cluster Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hršak, Dalibor; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Kongsted, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    by an embedding potential consisting of a set of fragment densities obtained from calculations on isolated fragments with a quantum-chemistry method such as Hartree-Fock (HF) or Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) and dressed with a set of atom-centered anisotropic dipole-dipole polarizabilities...

  15. K$_{-}$ and K$_{-}$ polarizability from kaonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bergström, I; Bunaciu, T; Egger, J; Hagelberg, R; Hultberg, S; Koch, H; Lynen, Y; Ritter, H G; Schwitter, A; Tauscher, L

    1973-01-01

    The K/sup -/ mass was determined from kaonic atomic X-rays from Au and Ba to be 493.691+or-0.040 MeV. An upper limit for the polarizability of the K/sup -/ was found to be 0.020 fm/sup 3/ at 90% confidence. (18 refs).

  16. Polarizability tensor and Kramers-Heisenberg induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, Christianus M.J.

    2004-01-01

    A general expression for the semiclassical, nonrelativistic linear polarizability of an arbitrary volume element V has been derived in the long wavelength approximation. The derivation starts from the expectation value of the dipole strength, as in the original Kramers-Heisenberg paper about optical

  17. Dinamical polarizability of highly excited hydrogen-like states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delone, N.B.; Krajnov, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Analytic expressions are derived for the dynamic polarizability of highly excited hydrogen-like atomic states. It is shown that in the composite matrix element which determines the dynamic polarizability there is a strong compensation of the terms as a result of which the resulting magnitude of the dynamic polarizability is quasiclasically small compared to the individual terms of the composite matrix. It is concluded that the resonance behaviour of the dynamic polarizability of highly excited states differs significantly from the resonance behaviour of the polarizability for the ground and low-lying atomic states. The static limit and high-frequency limit of on electromagnetic field are considered

  18. Static dipole polarizabilities of Scn (n ≤ 15) clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi-Bo, Li; Jiang-Shan, Luo; Wei-Dong, Wu; Yong-Jian, Tang; Hong-Yan, Wang; Yun-Dong, Guo

    2009-01-01

    The static dipole polarizabilities of scandium clusters with up to 15 atoms are determined by using the numerically finite field method in the framework of density functional theory. The electronic effects on the polarizabilities are investigated for the scandium clusters. We examine a large highest occupied molecular orbital — the lowest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO–LUMO) gap of a scandium cluster usually corresponds to a large dipole moment. The static polarizability per atom decreases slowly and exhibits local minimum with increasing cluster size. The polarizability anisotropy and the ratio of mean static polarizability to the HOMO–LUMO gap can also reflect the cluster stability. The polarizability of the scandium cluster is partially related to the HOMO–LUMO gap and is also dependent on geometrical characteristics. A strong correlation between the polarizability and ionization energy is observed. (atomic and molecular physics)

  19. Collision-induced polarizabilities of inert gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, K.L.; Madden, P.A.; Buckingham, A.D.

    1978-01-01

    The use of polarizability densities to calculate collision-induced polarizabilities is investigated. One method for computing polarizabilities of inert gas diatoms employs atomic polarizability densities from finite-field Hartree-Fock calculations, together with classical equations for the polarization of dielectrics. It is shown that this model gives inaccurate values for both the local fields and the local response to non-uniform fields. An alternative method incorporating the same physical effects is used to compute the pair polarizabilities to first order in the interatomic interaction. To first order the pair contribution to the trace of the polarizability is negative at short range. The calculated anisotropy does not differ significantly from the DID value, whereas the polarizability density calculation gives a substantial reduction in the anisotropy. (author)

  20. On the possibility of considering the fullerene shell C{sub 60} as a conducting sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Baltenkov, A.S. [Arifov Institute of Electronics, Tashkent 700125 (Uzbekistan)]. E-mail: arkbalt@mail.ru

    2006-12-25

    The dynamical and static dipole polarizabilities of the C{sub 60} molecule have been calculated on the basis of the experimental data on the cross section of the fullerene photoabsorption. It has been shown that the fullerene shell in the static electric field behaves most likely as a set of separate carbon atoms rather than as a conducting sphere.

  1. Fourier-Laplace transform of irreducible regular differential systems on the Riemann sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbah, C

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the Fourier-Laplace transform of an irreducible regular differential system on the Riemann sphere underlies a polarizable regular twistor D-module if one considers only the part at finite distance. The associated holomorphic bundle defined away from the origin of the complex plane is therefore equipped with a natural harmonic metric having a tame behaviour near the origin

  2. Site specific atomic polarizabilities in endohedral fullerenes and carbon onions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zope, Rajendra R., E-mail: rzope@utep.edu; Baruah, Tunna [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79958 (United States); Computational Science Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79958 (United States); Bhusal, Shusil; Basurto, Luis [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79958 (United States); Jackson, Koblar [Physics Department and Science of Advanced Materials Ph.D. Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan 48859 (United States)

    2015-08-28

    We investigate the polarizability of trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes by partitioning the total polarizability into site specific components. This analysis indicates that the polarizability of the endohedral fullerene is essentially due to the outer fullerene cage and has insignificant contribution from the encapsulated unit. Thus, the outer fullerene cages effectively shield the encapsulated clusters and behave like Faraday cages. The polarizability of endohedral fullerenes is slightly smaller than the polarizability of the corresponding bare carbon fullerenes. The application of the site specific polarizabilities to C{sub 60}@C{sub 240} and C{sub 60}@C{sub 180} onions shows that, compared to the polarizability of isolated C{sub 60} fullerene, the encapsulation of the C{sub 60} in C{sub 240} and C{sub 180} fullerenes reduces its polarizability by 75% and 83%, respectively. The differences in the polarizability of C{sub 60} in the two onions is a result of differences in the bonding (intershell electron transfer), fullerene shell relaxations, and intershell separations. The site specific analysis further shows that the outer atoms in a fullerene shell contribute most to the fullerene polarizability.

  3. Site specific atomic polarizabilities in endohedral fullerenes and carbon onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zope, Rajendra R.; Baruah, Tunna; Bhusal, Shusil; Basurto, Luis; Jackson, Koblar

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the polarizability of trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes by partitioning the total polarizability into site specific components. This analysis indicates that the polarizability of the endohedral fullerene is essentially due to the outer fullerene cage and has insignificant contribution from the encapsulated unit. Thus, the outer fullerene cages effectively shield the encapsulated clusters and behave like Faraday cages. The polarizability of endohedral fullerenes is slightly smaller than the polarizability of the corresponding bare carbon fullerenes. The application of the site specific polarizabilities to C 60 @C 240 and C 60 @C 180 onions shows that, compared to the polarizability of isolated C 60 fullerene, the encapsulation of the C 60 in C 240 and C 180 fullerenes reduces its polarizability by 75% and 83%, respectively. The differences in the polarizability of C 60 in the two onions is a result of differences in the bonding (intershell electron transfer), fullerene shell relaxations, and intershell separations. The site specific analysis further shows that the outer atoms in a fullerene shell contribute most to the fullerene polarizability

  4. Site specific atomic polarizabilities in endohedral fullerenes and carbon onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zope, Rajendra R.; Bhusal, Shusil; Basurto, Luis; Baruah, Tunna; Jackson, Koblar

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the polarizability of trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes by partitioning the total polarizability into site specific components. This analysis indicates that the polarizability of the endohedral fullerene is essentially due to the outer fullerene cage and has insignificant contribution from the encapsulated unit. Thus, the outer fullerene cages effectively shield the encapsulated clusters and behave like Faraday cages. The polarizability of endohedral fullerenes is slightly smaller than the polarizability of the corresponding bare carbon fullerenes. The application of the site specific polarizabilities to C60@C240 and C60@C180 onions shows that, compared to the polarizability of isolated C60 fullerene, the encapsulation of the C60 in C240 and C180 fullerenes reduces its polarizability by 75% and 83%, respectively. The differences in the polarizability of C60 in the two onions is a result of differences in the bonding (intershell electron transfer), fullerene shell relaxations, and intershell separations. The site specific analysis further shows that the outer atoms in a fullerene shell contribute most to the fullerene polarizability.

  5. Polarizabilities of the beryllium clock transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.

    2010-01-01

    The polarizabilities of the three lowest states of the beryllium atom are determined from a large basis configuration interaction calculation. The polarizabilities of the 2s 2 1 S e ground state (37.73a 0 3 ) and the 2s2p 3 P 0 o metastable state (39.04a 0 3 ) are found to be very similar in size and magnitude. This leads to an anomalously small blackbody radiation shift at 300 K of -0.018(4) Hz for the 2s 2 1 S e -2s2p 3 P 0 o clock transition. Magic wavelengths for simultaneous trapping of the ground and metastable states are also computed.

  6. Atomic polarizability in negative-ion photodetachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.; Greene, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of a strong atomic polarizability on photodetachment processes is isolated. In a model study of K - photodetachment near the 4p/sub 1/2/, 4p/sub 3/2/ levels of K, the polarizability (α/sub 4p/ approx. = 600a 3 0 ) is shown to cause a striking energy dependence of the parameters which determine the cross section. This study extends the effective range theory of O'Malley, Spruch, and Rosenberg to a broader energy range and to multichannel systems. An appendix provides a derivation of the polarization potential (and correction terms) starting from the electron-atom close-coupling equations, showing some new features

  7. Polarizability of a crystal with impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettig, S.

    1985-09-01

    The expression for the complex frequency- and wavevector-dependent longitudinal electronic polarizability due to the presence of a weak static disorder (e.g. impurities) in a crystal with an arbitrary band structure is derived. The quantum kinetic equation in the self-consistent-field approximation is solved, expanding the one-particle density operator in powers of the screened static imperfection field and a weak perturbing electric field. The polarizability is determined by the induced electronic charge density quadratic in the imperfection field and linear in the perturbing field, averaged over the statistical distribution of imperfections. The obtained expression, which accounts properly for the collective effects in the electronic plasma, takes also into account the polar coupling of the plasma with longitudinal optical phonons. The conductivity in the optical limit (q-vector→O) is calculated, and the correspondence with one-band effective-mass approximation is established. (author)

  8. Phase coexistence properties of polarizable Stockmayer fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyohara, K.; Gubbins, K.E.; Panagiotopoulos, A.Z.

    1997-01-01

    We report the phase coexistence properties of polarizable Stockmayer fluids of reduced permanent dipoles |m 0 * |= 1.0 and 2.0 and reduced polarizabilities α * = 0.00, 0.03, and 0.06, calculated by a series of grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations with the histogram reweighting method. In the histogram reweighting method, the distributions of density and energy calculated in Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations are stored in histograms and analyzed to construct the grand canonical partition function of the system. All thermodynamic properties are calculated from the grand partition function. The results are compared with Wertheim close-quote s renormalization perturbation theory. Deviations between theory and simulation results for the coexistence envelope are near 2% for the lower dipole moment and 10% for the higher dipole moment we studied. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. On the dynamic polarizability of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuroh, K.; Zaremba, E.

    1989-04-01

    The positive frequency dependent polarizability of atoms is discussed in terms of the particle-hole polarization propagator. It is considered in the simplest approximation defined by the Bethe-Salpeter equation which includes a subset of particle-hole interactions to all orders in the Coulomb potential. Its solution is used to show the relationship between different formulations of atomic photoabsorption via the effective dipole matrix element (Fermi's 'golden rule'), the TDLDA and the reaction matrix. (author). 21 refs, 7 figs

  10. Electrode redox reactions with polarizable molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2018-04-01

    A theory of redox reactions involving electron transfer between a metal electrode and a polarizable molecule in solution is formulated. Both the existence of molecular polarizability and its ability to change due to electron transfer distinguish this problem from classical theories of interfacial electrochemistry. When the polarizability is different between the oxidized and reduced states, the statistics of thermal fluctuations driving the reactant over the activation barrier becomes non-Gaussian. The problem of electron transfer is formulated as crossing of two non-parabolic free energy surfaces. An analytical solution for these free energy surfaces is provided and the activation barrier of electrode electron transfer is given in terms of two reorganization energies corresponding to the oxidized and reduced states of the molecule in solution. The new non-Gaussian theory is, therefore, based on two theory parameters in contrast to one-parameter Marcus formulation for electrode reactions. The theory, which is consistent with the Nernst equation, predicts asymmetry between the cathodic and anodic branches of the electrode current. They show different slopes at small electrode overpotentials and become curved at larger overpotentials. However, the curvature of the Tafel plot is reduced compared to the Marcus-Hush model and approaches the empirical Butler-Volmer form with different transfer coefficients for the anodic and cathodic currents.

  11. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Measurement of molecular polarizability on Rayleigh light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerushev, O.A.; Novopashin, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The installation for measuring the polarizability of atoms and molecules on Rayleigh light scattering is described. The measurements in gases with the known polarizability are used for a calibration. Test measurements are carried out on nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, vapours of water and acetone. The results of measurements are compared with the table data. The technique is used for measuring the polarizability of fullerene molecules. 6 refs., 2 figs

  13. Dielectric constant of atomic fluids with variable polarizability

    OpenAIRE

    Alder, B. J.; Beers, J. C.; Strauss, H. L.; Weis, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    The Clausius-Mossotti function for the dielectric constant is expanded in terms of single atom and pair polarizabilities, leading to contributions that depend on both the trace and the anisotropy of the pair-polarizability tensor. The short-range contribution of the anisotropic part to the pair polarizabilities has previously been obtained empirically from light scattering experiments, whereas the trace contribution is now empirically determined by comparison to dielectric experiments. For he...

  14. Silo outflow of soft frictionless spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Ahmed; Trittel, Torsten; Börzsönyi, Tamás; Stannarius, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    Outflow of granular materials from silos is a remarkably complex physical phenomenon that has been extensively studied with simple objects like monodisperse hard disks in two dimensions (2D) and hard spheres in 2D and 3D. For those materials, empirical equations were found that describe the discharge characteristics. Softness adds qualitatively new features to the dynamics and to the character of the flow. We report a study of the outflow of soft, practically frictionless hydrogel spheres from a quasi-2D bin. Prominent features are intermittent clogs, peculiar flow fields in the container, and a pronounced dependence of the flow rate and clogging statistics on the container fill height. The latter is a consequence of the ineffectiveness of Janssen's law: the pressure at the bottom of a bin containing hydrogel spheres grows linearly with the fill height.

  15. Specific surface area of overlapping spheres in the presence of obstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D R

    2013-02-21

    This study considers the random placement of uniform sized spheres, which may overlap, in the presence of another set of randomly placed (hard) spheres, which do not overlap. The overlapping spheres do not intersect the hard spheres. It is shown that the specific surface area of the collection of overlapping spheres is affected by the hard spheres, such that there is a minimum in the specific surface area as a function of the relative size of the two sets of spheres. The occurrence of the minimum is explained in terms of the break-up of pore connectivity. The configuration can be considered to be a simple model of the structure of a porous composite material. In particular, the overlapping particles represent voids while the hard particles represent fillers. Example materials are pervious concrete, metallurgical coke, ice cream, and polymer composites. We also show how the material properties of such composites are affected by the void structure.

  16. Pion polarizability in nonlocal quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.; Okhlopkova, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The γγ→ππ amplitude was calculated in nonlocal quark model in the fourth order on the perturbation theory. The coefficients of electric[a) and magnetic polarizability (β) determined are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign αsub(π+-)=βsub(π+-)=+0.014α/msub(π)sup(3), αsub(πsup(0))=-βsub(πsup(0))=-0.07α/msub(π)sup(3). The results have been compared with calculations in other models

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance J coupling constant polarizabilities of hydrogen peroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Hanna; Nielsen, Monia R.; Pagola, Gabriel I.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the so far most extended investigation of the calculation of the coupling constant polarizability of a molecule. The components of the coupling constant polarizability are derivatives of the NMR indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constant with respect to an external elec...

  18. An averaged polarizable potential for multiscale modeling in phospholipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzke, Sarah; List, Nanna Holmgaard; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard

    2017-01-01

    A set of average atom-centered charges and polarizabilities has been developed for three types of phospholipids for use in polarizable embedding calculations. The lipids investigated are 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and 1-palmitoyl...

  19. Measurement of the charged-pion polarizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, C; Akhunzyanov, R; Alexeev, M G; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Anosov, V; Austregesilo, A; Badełek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Beck, R; Bedfer, Y; Berlin, A; Bernhard, J; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bodlak, M; Boer, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bressan, A; Büchele, M; Burtin, E; Capozza, L; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Colantoni, M; Crespo, M L; Curiel, Q; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Dinkelbach, A M; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dünnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Gorzellik, M; Grabmüller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Grussenmeyer, T; Guskov, A; Guthörl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Hahne, D; Hashimoto, R; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hinterberger, F; Höppner, Ch; Horikawa, N; d'Hose, N; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Jasinski, P; Jörg, P; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Königsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Krämer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuchinski, N; Kuhn, R; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levillain, M; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Miyachi, Y; Moinester, M A; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Novy, J; Nowak, W-D; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Orlov, I; Ostrick, M; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Peshekhonov, D; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Regali, C; Reicherz, G; Rocco, E; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Rychter, A; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schlüter, T; Schmidt, K; Schmieden, H; Schönning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Steiger, L; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Suzuki, H; Szabelski, A; Szameitat, T; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; ter Wolbeek, J; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Virius, M; Wang, L; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; Windmolders, R; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M; Zink, A

    2015-02-13

    The COMPASS collaboration at CERN has investigated pion Compton scattering, π(-)γ→π(-)γ, at center-of-mass energy below 3.5 pion masses. The process is embedded in the reaction π(-)Ni→π(-)γNi, which is initiated by 190 GeV pions impinging on a nickel target. The exchange of quasireal photons is selected by isolating the sharp Coulomb peak observed at smallest momentum transfers, Q(2)<0.0015  (GeV/c)(2). From a sample of 63,000 events, the pion electric polarizability is determined to be α(π)=(2.0±0.6(stat)±0.7(syst))×10(-4)  fm(3) under the assumption α(π)=-β(π), which relates the electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities. It is the most precise measurement of this fundamental low-energy parameter of strong interaction that has been addressed since long by various methods with conflicting outcomes. While this result is in tension with previous dedicated measurements, it is found in agreement with the expectation from chiral perturbation theory. An additional measurement replacing pions by muons, for which the cross-section behavior is unambiguously known, was performed for an independent estimate of the systematic uncertainty.

  20. Model-independent effects of Δ excitation in nucleon polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Phillips, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Model-independent effects of Δ(1232) excitation on nucleon polarizabilities are computed in a Lorentz-invariant fashion. We find a large effect of relative order (M Δ -M)/M in some of the spin polarizabilities, with the backward spin polarizability receiving the largest contribution. Similar subleading effects are found to be important in the fourth-order spin-independent polarizabilities α Eν , α E2 , β Mν , and β M2 . Combining our results with those for the model-independent effects of pion loops we obtain predictions for spin and fourth-order polarizabilities which compare favorably with the results of a recent dispersion-relation analysis of data

  1. Molecular Polarizability of Sc and C (Fullerene and Graphite Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Torrens

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A method (POLAR for the calculation of the molecular polarizability is presented. It uses the interacting induced dipoles polarization model. As an example, the method is applied to Scn and Cn (fullerene and one-shell graphite model clusters. On varying the number of atoms, the clusters show numbers indicative of particularly polarizable structures. The are compared with reference calculations (PAPID. In general, the Scn calculated (POLAR and Cn computed (POLAR and PAPID are less polarizable than what is inferred from the bulk. However, the Scn calculated (PAPID are more polarizable than what is inferred. Moreover, previous theoretical work yielded the same trend for Sin, Gen and GanAsm small clusters. The high polarizability of the Scn clusters (PAPID is attributed to arise from dangling bonds at the surface of the cluster.

  2. Hyperfine-mediated static polarizabilities of monovalent atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Beloy, K.; Derevianko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We apply relativistic many-body methods to compute static differential polarizabilities for transitions inside the ground-state hyperfine manifolds of monovalent atoms and ions. Knowledge of this transition polarizability is required in a number of high-precision experiments, such as microwave atomic clocks and searches for CP-violating permanent electric dipole moments. While the traditional polarizability arises in the second order of interaction with the externally applied electric field, the differential polarizability involves an additional contribution from the hyperfine interaction of atomic electrons with nuclear moments. We derive formulas for the scalar and tensor polarizabilities including contributions from magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine interactions. Numerical results are presented for Al, Rb, Cs, Yb + , Hg + , and Fr.

  3. Sound Scattering and Its Reduction by a Janus Sphere Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliya Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound scattering by a Janus sphere type is considered. The sphere has two surface zones: a soft surface of zero acoustic impedance and a hard surface of infinite acoustic impedance. The zones are arranged such that axisymmetry of the sound field is preserved. The equivalent source method is used to compute the sound field. It is shown that, by varying the sizes of the soft and hard zones on the sphere, a significant reduction can be achieved in the scattered acoustic power and upstream directivity when the sphere is near a free surface and its soft zone faces the incoming wave and vice versa for a hard ground. In both cases the size of the sphere’s hard zone is much larger than that of its soft zone. The boundary location between the two zones coincides with the location of a zero pressure line of the incoming standing sound wave, thus masking the sphere within the sound field reflected by the free surface or the hard ground. The reduction in the scattered acoustic power diminishes when the sphere is placed in free space. Variations of the scattered acoustic power and directivity with the sound frequency are also given and discussed.

  4. Density and polarizability of liquid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempin'ski, V.; Zhuk, T.; Stankovski, Ya.; Sitarzh, S.

    1988-01-01

    The temperature changes in the density of liquid helium are measured in the temperature range of 1.63 to 4.2 K.; Unlike the conventional pycnometric technique, the changes in the hydrostatic displacement of the liquid were determined. The cirrectness of the method chosen and the appropriate equipment for its realization are substantiated. The results obtained are in good agreement with those of other authors. On the basis of temperature measurements of the dependence of density ρ and permittivity ε, the dependence of polarizability A of liquid 4 He on temperature and density was calculated. The results obtained show an alternating character of the dependences A(T) and A(ρ). These dependences are found to correlate

  5. Accelerating GW calculations with optimal polarizability basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umari, P.; Stenuit, G. [CNR-IOM DEMOCRITOS Theory Elettra Group, Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy); Qian, X.; Marzari, N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Giacomazzi, L.; Baroni, S. [CNR-IOM DEMOCRITOS Theory Elettra Group, Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy); SISSA - Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    We present a method for accelerating GW quasi-particle (QP) calculations. This is achieved through the introduction of optimal basis sets for representing polarizability matrices. First the real-space products of Wannier like orbitals are constructed and then optimal basis sets are obtained through singular value decomposition. Our method is validated by calculating the vertical ionization energies of the benzene molecule and the band structure of crystalline silicon. Its potentialities are illustrated by calculating the QP spectrum of a model structure of vitreous silica. Finally, we apply our method for studying the electronic structure properties of a model of quasi-stoichiometric amorphous silicon nitride and of its point defects. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Electronic Energy Transfer in Polarizable Heterogeneous Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Casper Steinmann; Kongsted, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    such couplings provide important insight into the strength of interaction between photo-active pigments in protein-pigment complexes. Recently, attention has been payed to how the environment modifies or even controls the electronic couplings. To enable such theoretical predictions, a fully polarizable embedding......-order multipole moments. We use this extended model to systematically examine three different ways of obtaining EET couplings in a heterogeneous medium ranging from use of the exact transition density to a point-dipole approximation. Several interesting observations are made including that explicit use...... of transition densities in the calculation of the electronic couplings - also when including the explicit environment contribution - can be replaced by a much simpler transition point charge description without comprising the quality of the model predictions....

  7. Dielectric constant of atomic fluids with variable polarizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, B J; Beers, J C; Strauss, H L; Weis, J J

    1980-06-01

    The Clausius-Mossotti function for the dielectric constant is expanded in terms of single atom and pair polarizabilities, leading to contributions that depend on both the trace and the anisotropy of the pair-polarizability tensor. The short-range contribution of the anisotropic part to the pair polarizabilities has previously been obtained empirically from light scattering experiments, whereas the trace contribution is now empirically determined by comparison to dielectric experiments. For helium, the short-range trace part agrees well with electronic structure calculations, whereas for argon qualitative agreement is achieved.

  8. A Powerful Public Sphere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, Christina

    The paper holds a critical discussion of the Habermasian model of the public sphere and proposes a revised model of a general public......The paper holds a critical discussion of the Habermasian model of the public sphere and proposes a revised model of a general public...

  9. Polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities of the alkali metal atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentealba, P. (Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Mecanica Cuantica Aplicada (CMCA)); Reyes, O. (Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Fisica)

    1993-08-14

    The electric static dipole polarizability [alpha], quadrupole polarizability C, dipole-quadrupole polarizability B, and the second dipole hyperpolarizability [gamma] have been calculated for the alkali metal atoms in the ground state. The results are based on a pseudopotential which is able to incorporate the very important core-valence correlation effect through a core polarization potential, and, in an empirical way, the main relativistic effects. The calculated properties compare very well with more elaborated calculations for the Li atom, excepting the second hyperpolarizability [gamma]. For the other atoms, there is neither theoretical nor experimental information about most of the higher polarizabilities. Hence, the results of this paper should be seen as a first attempt to give a complete account of the series expansion of the interaction energy of an alkali metal atom and a static electric field. (author).

  10. The polarizability of diatomic helium. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The calculation of the electric dipole polarizability tensor of the He 2 dimer is described, and the results are used in the computation of several dielectric and optical properties of helium gas, at both high (322 K) and low (4 K) temperatures. The properties considered are the second dielectric virial coefficient, the second Kerr virial coefficient, and the depolarization ratio of the integrated intensities for the Raman scattering experiments. The thesis consists of five parts: the polarizability and various properties are defined; the calculation of the polarizability in the long-range region in terms of a quantum mechanical multipole expansion is described; the calculation of the He2 polarizability in the overlap region via coupled Hartree-Fock perturbation theory is described; the calculation of the quantum pair distribution function for both the He-3 and He-4 isotopes at 4 K is discussed; and the calculated values of the properties of helium gas are given.

  11. Contributions of polarizabilities to four basis polarizations of electromagnetic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukina, E.N.; Dubovik, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    All contributions to four basis polarizations of an arbitrary electromagnetic medium at the expense of mixed polarizabilities up to fourth rank tensors are presented. Some concrete examples are considered

  12. Polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities of the alkali metal atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentealba, P.; Reyes, O.

    1993-01-01

    The electric static dipole polarizability α, quadrupole polarizability C, dipole-quadrupole polarizability B, and the second dipole hyperpolarizability γ have been calculated for the alkali metal atoms in the ground state. The results are based on a pseudopotential which is able to incorporate the very important core-valence correlation effect through a core polarization potential, and, in an empirical way, the main relativistic effects. The calculated properties compare very well with more elaborated calculations for the Li atom, excepting the second hyperpolarizability γ. For the other atoms, there is neither theoretical nor experimental information about most of the higher polarizabilities. Hence, the results of this paper should be seen as a first attempt to give a complete account of the series expansion of the interaction energy of an alkali metal atom and a static electric field. (author)

  13. Dynamic polarizabilities for the low lying states of Ca+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yong-Bo; Shi, Ting-Yun; Qiao, Hao-Xue; Mitroy, J

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic polarizabilities of the 4s, 3d and 4p states of Ca + are calculated using a relativistic structure model. The wavelengths at which the Stark shifts between different pairs of transitions are zero are calculated. Experimental determination of the magic wavelengths could prove useful in developing better atomic structure models and in particular lead to improved values of the polarizabilities for the Ca + (3d) states

  14. Black-Body Radiation Correction to the Polarizability of Helium

    OpenAIRE

    Puchalski, M.; Jentschura, U. D.; Mohr, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    The correction to the polarizability of helium due to black-body radiation is calculated near room temperature. A precise theoretical determination of the black-body radiation correction to the polarizability of helium is essential for dielectric gas thermometry and for the determination of the Boltzmann constant. We find that the correction, for not too high temperature, is roughly proportional to a modified hyperpolarizability (two-color hyperpolarizability), which is different from the ord...

  15. Effect of core polarizability on photoionization cross-section calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Demonstration of the importance of core polarizability in a case where cancellation is only moderate, with suggestion of an improvement to the scaled Thomas-Fermi (STF) wave functions of Stewart and Rotenberg (1965). The inclusion of dipole polarizability of the core for argon is shown to substantially improve the agreement between the theoretical and experimental photoionization cross sections for the ground-state configuration.

  16. Electric dipole polarizability: from few- to many-body systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miorelli Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the Lorentz integral transform coupled-cluster method for the calculation of the electric dipole polarizability. We benchmark our results with exact hyperspherical harmonics calculations for 4He and then we move to a heavier nucleus studying 16O. We observe that the implemented chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order underestimates the electric dipole polarizability.

  17. Density Functional Studies of Molecular Polarizabilities. 7. Anthracene and Phenanthrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto J. Soscun Machado

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available We report accurate Ab Initio studies of the static dipole polarizabilities of anthracene and phenanthrene. Geometries were optimized at the HF/6-311G(3d,2p level of theory. Dipole polarizabilities were calculated at the HF/6-311++G(3d,2p and BLYP/6-311++G(3d,2p levels of theory, using HF/6-311G(3d,2p geometries. The calculated dipole polarizabilities for anthracene are compared with experiment. Inclusion of electron correlation using the BLYP procedure increases the L and M components of the dipole polarizability, but not the perpendicular (N component. Examination of corresponding BLYP results for the polyacene series benzene, naphthalene and anthracene shows that the normal component of the dipole polarizability scales linearly with the number of benzene ring units, with an increment of 20.8 au. The medium component also scales linearly with an increment of 42.8 atomic units. The long component does not scale linearly. Semi-emiprical AM1 calculations are also given for comparison; the normal component of the dipole polarizability tensor is poorly represented by such calculations.

  18. Experiment SPHERE status 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulov, S.B.; Besshapov, S.P.; Kabanova, N.V.; Sysoeva, T.I.; Antonov, R.A.; Anyuhina, A.M.; Bronvech, E.A.; Chernov, D.V.; Galkin, V.I.; Tkaczyk, W.; Finger, M.; Sonsky, M.

    2009-01-01

    The expedition carried out in March, 2008 to Lake Baikal became an important stage in the development of the SPHERE experiment. During the expedition the SPHERE-2 installation was hoisted, for the first time, on a tethered balloon, APA, to a height of 700 m over the lake surface covered with ice and snow. A series of test measurements were made. Preliminary results of the data processing are presented. The next plan of the SPHERE experiment is to begin a set of statistics for constructing the CR spectrum in the energy range 10 16 -10 18 eV.

  19. Experiment SPHERE status 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulov, S.B., E-mail: shaul@sci.lebedev.r [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Besshapov, S.P.; Kabanova, N.V.; Sysoeva, T.I. [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Antonov, R.A.; Anyuhina, A.M.; Bronvech, E.A.; Chernov, D.V.; Galkin, V.I. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Tkaczyk, W. [Department of Experimental Physics of University of Lodz (Poland); Finger, M. [Karlov University, Prague (Czech Republic); Sonsky, M. [COMPAS Consortium, Turnov (Czech Republic)

    2009-12-15

    The expedition carried out in March, 2008 to Lake Baikal became an important stage in the development of the SPHERE experiment. During the expedition the SPHERE-2 installation was hoisted, for the first time, on a tethered balloon, APA, to a height of 700 m over the lake surface covered with ice and snow. A series of test measurements were made. Preliminary results of the data processing are presented. The next plan of the SPHERE experiment is to begin a set of statistics for constructing the CR spectrum in the energy range 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV.

  20. Soft And Hard Skills of Social Worker

    OpenAIRE

    HANTOVÁ, Libuše

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with soft and hard skills relevant to the profession of social worker. The theoretical part at first evaluates and analyzes important soft and hard skills necessary for people working in the field of social work. Then these skills are compared. The practical part illustrates the use of soft and hard skills in practice by means of model scenes and deals with the preferences in three groups of people ? students of social work, social workers and people outside the sphere, namely ...

  1. The sphere-PAC fuel code 'SPHERE-3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, H.

    2000-01-01

    Sphere-PAC fuel is an advanced nuclear fuel, in which the cladding tube is filled with small fuel spheres instead of the more usual fuel pellets. At PSI, the irradiation behaviour of sphere-PAC fuel is calculated using the computer code SPHERE-3. The paper describes the present status of the SPHERE-3 code, and some results of the qualification process against experimental data. (author)

  2. The sphere-pac fuel code 'SPHERE-3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, H.; Nordstroem, L.A.; Hellwig, C.

    2001-01-01

    Sphere-pac fuel is an advanced nuclear fuel, in which the cladding tube is filled with small fuel spheres instead of the more usual fuel pellets. At PSI, the irradiation behaviour of sphere-pac fuel is calculated using the computer code SPHERE-3. The paper describes the present status of the SPHERE-3 code, and some results of the qualification process against experimental data. (author)

  3. Fe2O3 hollow sphere nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Wen, Yang; Xu, Bing; Lu, Lu; Ren, Reiming

    2018-02-01

    Nanomaterials have attracted increasing interest in electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites were successfully prepared through facile low temperature water-bath method with carbon sphere as hard template. The morphology and microstructure of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Through hydrolysis mechanism, using ferric chloride direct hydrolysis, iron hydroxide coated on the surface of carbon sphere, after high temperature calcination can form the hollow spherical iron oxide materials. Electrochemical performances of the hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammery (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge. The Pure hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites achieves a specific capacitance of 125 F g-1 at the current density of 85 mA g-1. The results indicate that the uniform dispersion of hollow ball structure can effectively reduce the particle reunion in the process of charging and discharging.

  4. Graphs with Eulerian unit spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    d-spheres in graph theory are inductively defined as graphs for which all unit spheres S(x) are (d-1)-spheres and that the removal of one vertex renders the graph contractible. Eulerian d-spheres are geometric d-spheres which are d+1 colorable. We prove here that G is an Eulerian sphere if and only if the degrees of all the (d-2)-dimensional sub-simplices in G are even. This generalizes a Kempe-Heawood result for d=2 and is work related to the conjecture that all d-spheres have chromatic numb...

  5. Analytic behavior of the QED polarizability function at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, A.; Perez, A.

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the analytical properties of the static quasi-photon polarizability function for an electron gas at finite temperature, in connection with the existence of Friedel oscillations in the potential created by an impurity. In contrast with the zero temperature case, where the polarizability is an analytical function, except for the two branch cuts which are responsible for Friedel oscillations, at finite temperature the corresponding function is non analytical, in spite of becoming continuous everywhere on the complex plane. This effect produces, as a result, the survival of the oscillatory behavior of the potential. We calculate the potential at large distances, and relate the calculation to the non-analytical properties of the polarizability.

  6. Polarizability tensor invariants of H2, HD, and D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Ankit; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.; Witek, Henryk A.

    2018-03-01

    We report an exhaustive compilation of wavelength-dependent matrix elements over the mean polarizability (α ¯ ) and polarizability anisotropy (γ) operators for the rovibrational states of the H2, HD, and D2 molecules together with an accompanying computer program for their evaluation. The matrix elements can be readily evaluated using the provided codes for rovibrational states with J = 0-15 and v = 0-4 and for any laser wavelengths in the interval 182.25-1320.6 nm corresponding to popular, commercially available lasers. The presented results substantially extend the scope of the data available in the literature, both in respect of the rovibrational transitions analyzed and the range of covered laser frequencies. The presented detailed tabulation of accurate polarizability tensor invariants is essential for successful realization of our main long-term goal: developing a universal standard for determining absolute Raman cross sections and absolute Raman intensities in experimental Rayleigh and Raman scattering studies of molecules.

  7. The possibility for a pion polarizability measurement at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Guskov, A

    2010-01-01

    The pion electromagnetic structure can be probed in $\\pi^{−}+(A,Z)\\rightarrow\\pi^{-}+(A,Z) + \\gamma$ Compton scattering in inverse kinematics (Primakoff reaction) and described by the electric $(\\alpha_{\\pi})$ and the magnetic $(\\beta_{\\pi})$ polarizabilities that depend on the rigidity of pion’s internal structure as a composite particle. Values for pion polarizabilities can be extracted from the comparison of the differential cross section for scattering of point-like pions with the measured cross section. The opportunity to measure pion polarizability via the Primakoff reaction at the COMPASS experiment was studied with a $\\pi^{−}$ beam of 190 GeV. The obtained results are used for preparation of the new measurement.

  8. Spinning the fuzzy sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenstein, David; Dzienkowski, Eric; Lashof-Regas, Robin

    2015-01-01

    We construct various exact analytical solutions of the SO(3) BMN matrix model that correspond to rotating fuzzy spheres and rotating fuzzy tori. These are also solutions of Yang Mills theory compactified on a sphere times time and they are also translationally invariant solutions of the N=1"∗ field theory with a non-trivial charge density. The solutions we construct have a ℤ_N symmetry, where N is the rank of the matrices. After an appropriate ansatz, we reduce the problem to solving a set of polynomial equations in 2N real variables. These equations have a discrete set of solutions for each value of the angular momentum. We study the phase structure of the solutions for various values of N. Also the continuum limit where N→∞, where the problem reduces to finding periodic solutions of a set of coupled differential equations. We also study the topology change transition from the sphere to the torus.

  9. Polarizability of Fluid Droplets and the Kerr Effect on Microemulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Lisy, V

    2001-01-01

    Spheroidal fluid droplets immersed in another fluid and thermally fluctuating in the shape are considered. The polarizability of the droplet is evaluated up to the second order in the fluctuation amplitudes. The correlation functions of the polarizability tensor components are found and used to describe the polarized and depolarized scattering of light, and the Kerr effect on microemulsions. By comparison of the theoretical results with the Kerr constant measurements from the literature, we estimate the bending rigidity of the surfactant monolayer that separates the oil and water phases in droplet microemulsions.

  10. Open-ended response theory with polarizable embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steindal, Arnfinn Hykkerud; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Ringholm, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    We present the theory and implementation of an open-ended framework for electric response properties at the level of Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham density functional theory that includes effects from the molecular environment modeled by the polarizable embedding (PE) model. With this new state......-of-the-art multiscale functionality, electric response properties to any order can be calculated for molecules embedded in polarizable atomistic molecular environments ranging from solvents to complex heterogeneous macromolecules such as proteins. In addition, environmental effects on multiphoton absorption (MPA...

  11. Compton scattering, meson exchange, and the polarizabilities of bound nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, G.; Mellendorf, K.E.; Eisenstein, R.A.; Federspiel, F.J.; Garino, G.; Igarashi, R.; Kolb, N.R.; Lucas, M.A.; MacGibbon, B.E.; Mize, W.K.; Nathan, A.M.; Pywell, R.E.; Wells, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    Elastic photon scattering cross sections on 16 O have been measured in the energy range 27 endash 108 MeV. These data are inconsistent with a conventional interpretation in which the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the bound nucleon are unchanged from the free values and the meson-exchange seagull amplitude is taken in the zero-energy limit. Agreement with the data can be achieved by invoking either strongly modified polarizabilities or a substantial energy dependence to the meson-exchange seagull amplitude. It is argued that these seemingly different explanations are experimentally indistinguishable and probably physically equivalent. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Blackbody-radiation correction to the polarizability of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchalski, M.; Jentschura, U. D.; Mohr, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    The correction to the polarizability of helium due to blackbody radiation is calculated near room temperature. A precise theoretical determination of the blackbody radiation correction to the polarizability of helium is essential for dielectric gas thermometry and for the determination of the Boltzmann constant. We find that the correction, for not too high temperature, is roughly proportional to a modified hyperpolarizability (two-color hyperpolarizability), which is different from the ordinary hyperpolarizability of helium. Our explicit calculations provide a definite numerical result for the effect and indicate that the effect of blackbody radiation can be excluded as a limiting factor for dielectric gas thermometry using helium or argon.

  13. One-Photon Absorption Properties from a Hybrid Polarizable Density Embedding/Complex Polarization Propagator Approach for Polarizable Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hršak, Dalibor; Nørby, Morten Steen; Coriani, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    We present a formulation of the polarizable density embedding (PDE) method in combination with the complex polarization propagator (CPP) method for the calculation of absorption spectra of molecules in solutions. The method is particularly useful for the calculation of near-edge X-ray absorption...... fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra. We compare the performance of PDE-CPP with the previously formulated polarizable embedding (PE)-CPP model for the calculation of the NEXAFS spectra of adenine, formamide, glycine, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in water at the carbon and nitrogen K-edges, as well...

  14. Computer simulations of a rough sphere fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyklema, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer simulation is described on rough hard spheres with a continuously variable roughness parameter, including the limits of smooth and completely rough spheres. A system of 500 particles is simulated with a homogeneous mass distribution at 8 different densities and for 5 different values of the roughness parameter. For these 40 physically different situations the intermediate scattering function for 6 values of the wave number, the orientational correlation functions and the velocity autocorrelation functions have been calculated. A comparison has been made with a neutron scattering experiment on neopentane and agreement was good for an intermediate value of the roughness parameter. Some often made approximations in neutron scattering experiments are also checked. The influence of the variable roughness parameter on the correlation functions has been investigated and three simple stochastic models studied to describe the orientational correlation function which shows the most pronounced dependence on the roughness. (Auth.)

  15. Partial Molar Volume of Methanol in Water: Effect of Polarizability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moučka, F.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 4 (2009), s. 559-563 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : water–methanol mixtures * partial molar volume * polarizability Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.856, year: 2009

  16. Theory and applications of atomic and ionic polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitroy, J [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Safronova, M S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Clark, Charles W, E-mail: jxm107@rsphysse.anu.edu.a, E-mail: msafrono@udel.ed, E-mail: charles.clark@nist.go [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8410 (United States)

    2010-10-28

    Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics. The dielectric constant and refractive index of any gas are examples of macroscopic properties that are largely determined by the dipole polarizability. When it comes to microscopic phenomena, the existence of alkaline-earth anions and the recently discovered ability of positrons to bind to many atoms are predominantly due to the polarization interaction. An imperfect knowledge of atomic polarizabilities is presently looming as the largest source of uncertainty in the new generation of optical frequency standards. Accurate polarizabilities for the group I and II atoms and ions of the periodic table have recently become available by a variety of techniques. These include refined many-body perturbation theory and coupled-cluster calculations sometimes combined with precise experimental data for selected transitions, microwave spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms and ions, refractive index measurements in microwave cavities, ab initio calculations of atomic structures using explicitly correlated wavefunctions, interferometry with atom beams and velocity changes of laser cooled atoms induced by an electric field. This review examines existing theoretical methods of determining atomic and ionic polarizabilities, and discusses their relevance to various applications with particular emphasis on cold-atom physics and the metrology of atomic frequency standards. (topical review)

  17. Hyperon polarizabilities in the bound-state soliton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbi, C.; Scoccola, N.N.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed calculation of electric and magnetic static polarizabilities of octet hyperons is presented in the framework of the bound-state soliton model. Both seagull and dispersive contributions are considered, and the results are compared with different model predictions. (orig.)

  18. Molecular polarizabilities and susceptibilities from Frost-model wavefunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, A.T.; Yoffe, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Average polarizabilities and susceptibilities of a number of molecules are computed from Frost-model wavefunctions using a form of symmetry-adapted double perturbation theory. The anisotropy of α and chi is found for a few molecules using the elliptical Gaussian form of the Frost model. The results obtained are in reasonable agreement with experiment and other calculated values

  19. Theory and applications of atomic and ionic polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J; Safronova, M S; Clark, Charles W

    2010-01-01

    Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics. The dielectric constant and refractive index of any gas are examples of macroscopic properties that are largely determined by the dipole polarizability. When it comes to microscopic phenomena, the existence of alkaline-earth anions and the recently discovered ability of positrons to bind to many atoms are predominantly due to the polarization interaction. An imperfect knowledge of atomic polarizabilities is presently looming as the largest source of uncertainty in the new generation of optical frequency standards. Accurate polarizabilities for the group I and II atoms and ions of the periodic table have recently become available by a variety of techniques. These include refined many-body perturbation theory and coupled-cluster calculations sometimes combined with precise experimental data for selected transitions, microwave spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms and ions, refractive index measurements in microwave cavities, ab initio calculations of atomic structures using explicitly correlated wavefunctions, interferometry with atom beams and velocity changes of laser cooled atoms induced by an electric field. This review examines existing theoretical methods of determining atomic and ionic polarizabilities, and discusses their relevance to various applications with particular emphasis on cold-atom physics and the metrology of atomic frequency standards. (topical review)

  20. Polarizability and Aqueous Solvation of the Sulfate Dianion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Pavel; Curtis, J. E.; Tobias, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 367, - (2003), s. 704-710 ISSN 0009-2614 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : polarizability * aqueous solvation * dianion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.438, year: 2003

  1. Electro-optical parameters of bond polarizability model for aluminosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Konstantin S; Bougeard, Daniel; Tandon, Poonam

    2006-04-06

    Electro-optical parameters (EOPs) of bond polarizability model (BPM) for aluminosilicate structures were derived from quantum-chemical DFT calculations of molecular models. The tensor of molecular polarizability and the derivatives of the tensor with respect to the bond length are well reproduced with the BPM, and the EOPs obtained are in a fair agreement with available experimental data. The parameters derived were found to be transferable to larger molecules. This finding suggests that the procedure used can be applied to systems with partially ionic chemical bonds. The transferability of the parameters to periodic systems was tested in molecular dynamics simulation of the polarized Raman spectra of alpha-quartz. It appeared that the molecular Si-O bond EOPs failed to reproduce the intensity of peaks in the spectra. This limitation is due to large values of the longitudinal components of the bond polarizability and its derivative found in the molecular calculations as compared to those obtained from periodic DFT calculations of crystalline silica polymorphs by Umari et al. (Phys. Rev. B 2001, 63, 094305). It is supposed that the electric field of the solid is responsible for the difference of the parameters. Nevertheless, the EOPs obtained can be used as an initial set of parameters for calculations of polarizability related characteristics of relevant systems in the framework of BPM.

  2. Communication: A simplified coupled-cluster Lagrangian for polarizable embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Katharina; Klopper, Wim

    2016-01-28

    A simplified coupled-cluster Lagrangian, which is linear in the Lagrangian multipliers, is proposed for the coupled-cluster treatment of a quantum mechanical system in a polarizable environment. In the simplified approach, the amplitude equations are decoupled from the Lagrangian multipliers and the energy obtained from the projected coupled-cluster equation corresponds to a stationary point of the Lagrangian.

  3. Communication: A simplified coupled-cluster Lagrangian for polarizable embedding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Katharina; Klopper, Wim

    2016-01-01

    A simplified coupled-cluster Lagrangian, which is linear in the Lagrangian multipliers, is proposed for the coupled-cluster treatment of a quantum mechanical system in a polarizable environment. In the simplified approach, the amplitude equations are decoupled from the Lagrangian multipliers and the energy obtained from the projected coupled-cluster equation corresponds to a stationary point of the Lagrangian

  4. Substituent effects of the alkyl groups: Polarity vs. polarizability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Otto; Böhm, S.

    -, č. 17 (2007), s. 2870-2876 ISSN 1434-193X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : density functional calculations * hyperconjugation * inductive effect * polarizability Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.914, year: 2007

  5. A coarse-grained polarizable force field for the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Johannes; Uhlig, Frank; Smiatek, Jens; Holm, Christian

    2017-12-01

    We present a coarse-grained polarizable molecular dynamics force field for the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6]). For the treatment of electronic polarizability, we employ the Drude model. Our results show that the new explicitly polarizable force field reproduces important static and dynamic properties such as mass density, enthalpy of vaporization, diffusion coefficients, or electrical conductivity in the relevant temperature range. In situations where an explicit treatment of electronic polarizability might be crucial, we expect the force field to be an improvement over non-polarizable models, while still profiting from the reduction of computational cost due to the coarse-grained representation.

  6. ORGANIZATION IN CONTEMPORARY PUBLIC SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie HAINES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The critical analysis of Habermas’ Public Sphere Theory and the comparative undertaking to the current day enables us to assert that in contemporary society, public sphere is no longer a political public sphere, this dimension being completed by a societal dimension, the public sphere has extended and now we can talk about partial public spheres in an ever more commercial environment. The new rebuilding and communication technologies create a new type of public character: the visible sphere – non-located, non-dialogical and open. Information and communication are more and more involved in the restructuring of capitalism on an international scale and the reorganization of leadership and management systems. The reevaluation of the public sphere, public opinion, communication allows us to define public sphere according to the profound mutations from today’s democratic societies.

  7. Computational Study of Geometry, Solvation Free Energy, Dipole Moment, Polarizability, Hyperpolarizability and Molecular Properties of 2-Methylimidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Firoz Khan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ab initio calculations were carried out to study the geometry, solvation free energy, dipole moment, molecular electrostatic potential (MESP, Mulliken and Natural charge distribution, polarizability, hyperpolarizability, Natural Bond Orbital (NBO energetic and different molecular properties like global reactivity descriptors (chemical hardness, softness, chemical potential, electronegativity, electrophilicity index of 2-methylimidazole. B3LYP/6-31G(d,p level of theory was used to optimize the structure both in the gas phase and in solution. The solvation free energy, dipole moment and molecular properties were calculated by applying the Solvation Model on Density (SMD in four solvent systems, namely water, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, n-octanol and chloroform. The computed bond distances, bond angles and dihedral angles of 2-methylimidazole agreed reasonably well with the experimental data except for C(2-N(1, C(4-C(5 and N(1-H(7 bond lengths and N(1-C(5-C(4 bond angle. The solvation free energy, dipole moment, polarizability, first order hyperpolarizability, chemical potential, electronegativity and electrophilicity index of 2-methylimidazole increased on going from non-polar to polar solvents. Chemical hardness also increased with increasing polarity of the solvent and the opposite relation was found in the case of softness. These results provide better understanding of the stability and reactivity of 2-methylimidazole in different solvent systems.

  8. Calculations on the Nonlinear Second—Order Optical Polarizabilities for Series of Donor—C60 Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘孝娟; 封继康; 任爱民

    2003-01-01

    The equilibrium geometries and UV-visible spectra of a series of donor-C60 molecules were obtained by means of the AM1 and INDO/CI method,on the basis of accurate geometric and electronic structures.The nonlinear second-order optical polarizabilities were calculated using the method INDO/SDCI combined with the Sum-Over-States(SOS) expression.The calculatedβ(λ=1.34μm) values are 28.81,48.56,57.33,66.99,70.85,85.84,and 142.14(×10-30 esu) for the molecules A,B,C,D,E,F and G,respectively.The frontier orbitals were plot for the representative molecules in order to exhibit the intramolecular charge transfer.The results indicate the introduction of thienylethylene can enhance the NLO response and the dimethylaniline-substituted dithienyl-ethylene-C60 (molecule G) possesses the largest NLO second-order optical polarizability.The large β values can be attributed to the charge transfer between the substituents and C60,as well as within the three-dimensional conjugated sphere of C60.

  9. The hard-sphere model of strongly interacting fermion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mecca, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The formalism based on Correlated Basis Functions (CBF) and the cluster-expansion technique has been recently employed to derive an effective interaction from a realistic nuclear Hamiltonian. One of the main objectives of the work described in this Thesis is establishing the accuracy of this novel approach--that allows to combine the flexibility of perturbation theory in the basis of eigenstates of the noninteracting system with a realistic description of short-range correlations in coordinat...

  10. Theory of molecular crowding in Brownian hard-sphere liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Alessio; Terentjev, Eugene M

    2012-06-01

    We derive an analytical pair potential of mean force for Brownian molecules in the liquid state. Our approach accounts for many-particle correlations of crowding particles of the liquid and for diffusive transport across the spatially modulated local density of crowders in the dense environment. Focusing on the limit of equal-size particles, we show that this diffusive transport leads to additional density- and structure-dependent terms in the interaction potential and to a much stronger attraction (by a factor of ≈4 at average volume fraction of crowders φ{0}=0.25) than in the standard depletion interaction where the diffusive effects are neglected. As an illustration of the theory, we use it to study the size of a polymer chain in a solution of inert crowders. Even in the case of an athermal background solvent, when a classical chain should be fully swollen, we find a sharp coil-globule transition of the ideal chain collapsing at a critical value of the crowder volume fraction φ{c}≈0.145.

  11. Structural relaxation in dense hard-sphere fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, A.J.C.; Edward Alley, W.; Alder, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The long-time decay of the shear-stress autocorrelation function is shown to be quantitatively related to the decay of correlations between the orientation of ''bonds'' connecting colliding pairs of particles. Within computational uncertainties, we find that orientational correlations in high-density fluids decay as a ''stretched'' exponential in time, with an exponent that is independent of density. However, at low densities the decay is exponential. In two-dimensional systems the decay is exponential, even at high density

  12. Theorising Public and Private Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Remina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 19th century saw an expression of women’s ardent desire for freedom, emancipation and assertion in the public space. Women hardly managed to assert themselves at all in the public sphere, as any deviation from their traditional role was seen as unnatural. The human soul knows no gender distinctions, so we can say that women face the same desire for fulfillment as men do. Today, women are more and more encouraged to develop their skills by undertaking activities within the public space that are different from those that form part of traditional domestic chores. The woman of the 19th century felt the need to be useful to society, to make her contribution visible in a variety of domains. A woman does not have to become masculine to get power. If she is successful in any important job, this does not mean that she thinks like a man, but that she thinks like a woman. Women have broken through the walls that cut them off from public life, activity and ambition. There are no hindrances that can prevent women from taking their place in society.

  13. VMware vSphere Design

    CERN Document Server

    Guthrie, Forbes; Saidel-Keesing, Maish

    2011-01-01

    The only book focused on designing VMware vSphere implementations.VMware vSphere is the most widely deployed virtualization platform today. Considered the most robust and sophisticated hypervisor product, vSphere is the de facto standard for businesses, both large and small. This book is the only one of its kind to concisely explain how to execute a successful vSphere architecture, tailored to meet your company's needs. Expert authors share with you the factors that shape the design of a vSphere implementation. Learn how to make the right design decisions for your environment.Explores the late

  14. Measurement of the charged pion polarizability at COMPASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, Thiemo Christian Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The reaction π - +Z→π - +γ+Z in which a photon is produced by a beam pion scattering off a quasi-real photon of the Coulomb field of the target nucleus is identified experimentally by the tiny magnitude of the momentum transfer to the nucleus. This process gives access to the charged pion polarizabilities α π and β π whose experimental determination constitutes an important test of Chiral Perturbation Theory. In this work, the pion polarizability is obtained as α π =(1.9±0.7 stat. ±0.8 syst. ) x 10 -4 fm 3 from data taken with 190 GeV/c hadron beam provided by SPS to the COMPASS experiment at CERN in November 2009 and under the assumption of α π +β π =0.

  15. Dynamic polarizability of a complex atom in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapoport, L.P.; Klinskikh, A.F.; Mordvinov, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    An asymptotic expansion of the dynamic polarizability of a complex atom in a strong circularly polarized light field is found for the case of high frequencies. The self-consistent approximation of the Hartree-Fock type for the ''atom+field'' system is developed, within the framework of which a numerical calculation of the dynamic polarizability of Ne, Kr, and Ar atoms in a strong radiation field is performed. The strong field effect is shown to manifest itself not only in a change of the energy spectrum and the character of behavior of the wave functions of atomic electrons, but also in a modification of the one-electron self-consistent potential for the atom in the field

  16. Measurement of the charged pion polarizability at COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Thiemo Christian Ingo

    2012-09-26

    The reaction {pi}{sup -}+Z{yields}{pi}{sup -}+{gamma}+Z in which a photon is produced by a beam pion scattering off a quasi-real photon of the Coulomb field of the target nucleus is identified experimentally by the tiny magnitude of the momentum transfer to the nucleus. This process gives access to the charged pion polarizabilities {alpha}{sub {pi}} and {beta}{sub {pi}} whose experimental determination constitutes an important test of Chiral Perturbation Theory. In this work, the pion polarizability is obtained as {alpha}{sub {pi}}=(1.9{+-}0.7{sub stat.}{+-}0.8{sub syst.}) x 10{sup -4} fm{sup 3} from data taken with 190 GeV/c hadron beam provided by SPS to the COMPASS experiment at CERN in November 2009 and under the assumption of {alpha}{sub {pi}}+{beta}{sub {pi}}=0.

  17. Detecting Stealth Dark Matter Directly through Electromagnetic Polarizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelquist, T; Berkowitz, E; Brower, R C; Buchoff, M I; Fleming, G T; Jin, X-Y; Kiskis, J; Kribs, G D; Neil, E T; Osborn, J C; Rebbi, C; Rinaldi, E; Schaich, D; Schroeder, C; Syritsyn, S; Vranas, P; Weinberg, E; Witzel, O

    2015-10-23

    We calculate the spin-independent scattering cross section for direct detection that results from the electromagnetic polarizability of a composite scalar "stealth baryon" dark matter candidate, arising from a dark SU(4) confining gauge theory-"stealth dark matter." In the nonrelativistic limit, electromagnetic polarizability proceeds through a dimension-7 interaction leading to a very small scattering cross section for dark matter with weak-scale masses. This represents a lower bound on the scattering cross section for composite dark matter theories with electromagnetically charged constituents. We carry out lattice calculations of the polarizability for the lightest "baryon" states in SU(3) and SU(4) gauge theories using the background field method on quenched configurations. We find the polarizabilities of SU(3) and SU(4) to be comparable (within about 50%) normalized to the stealth baryon mass, which is suggestive for extensions to larger SU(N) groups. The resulting scattering cross sections with a xenon target are shown to be potentially detectable in the dark matter mass range of about 200-700 GeV, where the lower bound is from the existing LUX constraint while the upper bound is the coherent neutrino background. Significant uncertainties in the cross section remain due to the more complicated interaction of the polarizablity operator with nuclear structure; however, the steep dependence on the dark matter mass, 1/m(B)(6), suggests the observable dark matter mass range is not appreciably modified. We briefly highlight collider searches for the mesons in the theory as well as the indirect astrophysical effects that may also provide excellent probes of stealth dark matter.

  18. Electric field enhanced hydrogen storage on polarizable materials substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Wang, Q.; Sun, Q.; Jena, P.; Chen, X. S.

    2010-01-01

    Using density functional theory, we show that an applied electric field can substantially improve the hydrogen storage properties of polarizable substrates. This new concept is demonstrated by adsorbing a layer of hydrogen molecules on a number of nanomaterials. When one layer of H2 molecules is adsorbed on a BN sheet, the binding energy per H2 molecule increases from 0.03 eV/H2 in the field-free case to 0.14 eV/H2 in the presence of an electric field of 0.045 a.u. The corresponding gravimetric density of 7.5 wt% is consistent with the 6 wt% system target set by Department of Energy for 2010. The strength of the electric field can be reduced if the substrate is more polarizable. For example, a hydrogen adsorption energy of 0.14 eV/H2 can be achieved by applying an electric field of 0.03 a.u. on an AlN substrate, 0.006 a.u. on a silsesquioxane molecule, and 0.007 a.u. on a silsesquioxane sheet. Thus, application of an electric field to a polarizable substrate provides a novel way to store hydrogen; once the applied electric field is removed, the stored H2 molecules can be easily released, thus making storage reversible with fast kinetics. In addition, we show that materials with rich low-coordinated nonmetal anions are highly polarizable and can serve as a guide in the design of new hydrogen storage materials. PMID:20133647

  19. Experimental Constraints on Polarizability Corrections to Hydrogen Hyperfine Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaryan, Vahagn; Carlson, Carl E.; Griffioen, Keith A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a state-of-the-art evaluation of the polarizability corrections--the inelastic nucleon corrections--to the hydrogen ground-state hyperfine splitting using analytic fits to the most recent data. We find a value Δ pol =1.3±0.3 ppm. This is 1-2 ppm smaller than the value of Δ pol deduced using hyperfine splitting data and elastic nucleon corrections obtained from modern form factor fits

  20. Beyond fuzzy spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindarajan, T R; Padmanabhan, Pramod; Shreecharan, T

    2010-01-01

    We study polynomial deformations of the fuzzy sphere, specifically given by the cubic or the Higgs algebra. We derive the Higgs algebra by quantizing the Poisson structure on a surface in R 3 . We find that several surfaces, differing by constants, are described by the Higgs algebra at the fuzzy level. Some of these surfaces have a singularity and we overcome this by quantizing this manifold using coherent states for this nonlinear algebra. This is seen in the measure constructed from these coherent states. We also find the star product for this non-commutative algebra as a first step in constructing field theories on such fuzzy spaces.

  1. Falling-sphere radioactive viscometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, R. de.

    1987-01-01

    In this work the falling sphere viscometric method was studies experimentally using a sphere tagged with 198 Au radiosotopo, the objective being the demosntration of the advantages of this technique in relation to the traditional method. The utilisation of the falling radioactive sphere permits the point-point monitoring of sphere position as a function of count rate. The fall tube wall and end effects were determined by this technique. Tests were performed with spheres of different diameters in four tubes. The application of this technique demosntrated the wall and end effects in sphere speed. The case of sphere fall in the steady slow regime allowed the determination of the terminal velocity, showing the increase of botton end effect as the sphere approaches the tube base. In the case the transient slow regime, the sphere was initially in a state of respose near the top surface. The data obtained show the influence of the free surface and wall on the sphere acceleration. These experimental data were applied to the Basset equation on order to verify the behaviour of the terms in this equation. (author) [pt

  2. Influence of permittivity on gradient force exerted on Mie spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Li, Kaikai; Li, Xiao

    2018-04-01

    In optical trapping, whether a particle could be stably trapped into the focus region greatly depends on the strength of the gradient force. Individual theoretical study on gradient force exerted on a Mie particle is rare because the mathematical separation of the gradient force and the scattering force in the Mie regime is difficult. Based on the recent forces separation work by Du et al. [Sci. Rep.7, 18042 (2017)SRCEC32045-232210.1038/s41598-017-17874-1], we investigate the influence of permittivity (an important macroscopic physical quantity) on the gradient force exerted on a Mie particle by cooperating numerical calculation using fast Fourier transform and analytical analysis using multipole expansion. It is revealed that gradient forces exerted on small spheres are mainly determined by the electric dipole moment except for certain permittivity with which the real part of polarizability of the electric dipole approaches zero, and gradient forces exerted on larger spheres are complex because of the superposition of the multipole moments. The classification of permittivity corresponding to different varying tendencies of gradient forces exerted on small spheres or larger Mie particles are illustrated. Absorption of particles favors the trapping of small spheres by gradient force, while it is bad for the trapping of larger particles. Moreover, the absolute values of the maximal gradient forces exerted on larger Mie particles decline greatly versus the varied imaginary part of permittivity. This work provides elaborate investigation on the different varying tendencies of gradient forces versus permittivity, which favors more accurate and free optical trapping.

  3. Time reversal violating nuclear polarizability and atomic electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginges, J.S.M.; Flambaum, V.V.; Mititelu, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We propose a nuclear mechanism which can induce an atomic electric dipole moment (EDM). The interaction of external electric E and magnetic H fields with nuclear electric and magnetic dipole moments, d and ,u, gives rise to an energy shift, U= -β ik E i H k , where β ik is the nuclear polarizability. Parity and time invariance violating (P,T-odd) nuclear forces generate a mixed P,T-odd nuclear polarizability, whereψ 0 and ψ n are P,T-odd perturbed ground and excited nuclear states, respectively. In the case of a heavy spherical nucleus with a single unpaired nucleon, the perturbed wavefunctions are U = -β ik E i H k , where ξis a constant proportional to the strength of the nuclear P,T-odd interaction, σ is the nuclear spin operator, and ψ n is an unperturbed wavefunction. There are both scalar and tensor contributions to the nuclear P,T-odd polarizability. An atomic EDM is induced by the interaction of the fields of an unpaired electron in an atom with the P,T-odd perturbed atomic nucleus. An estimate for the value of this EDM has been made. The measurements of atomic EDMs can provide information about P,T-odd nuclear forces and test models of CP-violation

  4. Transport coefficients and mechanical response in hard-disk colloidal suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo-Kai; Ma Yu-Qiang; Li Jian; Chen Kang; Tian Wen-De

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties and mechanical response of glassy hard disks using nonlinear Langevin equation theory. We derive expressions for the elastic shear modulus and viscosity in two dimensions on the basis of thermal-activated barrier-hopping dynamics and mechanically accelerated motion. Dense hard disks exhibit phenomena such as softening elasticity, shear-thinning of viscosity, and yielding upon deformation, which are qualitatively similar to dense hard-sphere colloidal suspensions in three dimensions. These phenomena can be ascribed to stress-induced “landscape tilting”. Quantitative comparisons of these phenomena between hard disks and hard spheres are presented. Interestingly, we find that the density dependence of yield stress in hard disks is much more significant than in hard spheres. Our work provides a foundation for further generalizing the nonlinear Langevin equation theory to address slow dynamics and rheological behavior in binary or polydisperse mixtures of hard or soft disks. (rapid communication)

  5. Analytic functionals on the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Morimoto, Mitsuo

    1998-01-01

    This book treats spherical harmonic expansion of real analytic functions and hyperfunctions on the sphere. Because a one-dimensional sphere is a circle, the simplest example of the theory is that of Fourier series of periodic functions. The author first introduces a system of complex neighborhoods of the sphere by means of the Lie norm. He then studies holomorphic functions and analytic functionals on the complex sphere. In the one-dimensional case, this corresponds to the study of holomorphic functions and analytic functionals on the annular set in the complex plane, relying on the Laurent series expansion. In this volume, it is shown that the same idea still works in a higher-dimensional sphere. The Fourier-Borel transformation of analytic functionals on the sphere is also examined; the eigenfunction of the Laplacian can be studied in this way.

  6. Standard hardness conversion tables for metals relationship among brinell hardness, vickers hardness, rockwell hardness, superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and scleroscope hardness

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content o...

  7. Dynamic dipole polarizabilities of the Li atom and the Be+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Liyan; Yan Zongchao; Shi Tingyun; Mitroy, J.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic dipole polarizabilities for Li atoms and Be + ions in the 2 2 S and 2 2 P states are calculated using the variational method with a Hylleraas basis. The present polarizabilities represent the definitive values in the nonrelativistic limit. Corrections due to relativistic effects are also estimated. Analytic representations of the polarizabilities for frequency ranges encompassing the n=3 excitations are presented. The recommended polarizabilities for 7 Li and 9 Be + are 164.11±0.03 a 0 3 and 24.489±0.004 a 0 3 , respectively.

  8. Physical Principles of Development of the State Standard of Biological Cell Polarizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvalov, G. V.; Generalov, K. V.; Generalov, V. M.; Kruchinina, M. V.; Koptev, E. S.; Minin, O. V.; Minin, I. V.

    2018-03-01

    A new state standard of biological cell polarizability based on micron-size latex particles has been developed. As a standard material, it is suggested to use polystyrene. Values of the polarizability calculated for erythrocytes and values of the polarizability of micron-size spherical latex particles measured with measuring-computing complexes agree within the limits of satisfactory relative error. The Standard allows one the unit of polarizability measurements [m3] to be assigned to cells and erythrocytes for the needs of medicine.

  9. Chiral model predictions for electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon: A 'consumer report'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broniowski, W.

    1992-01-01

    This contribution has two parts: (1) The author critically discusses predictions for the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon obtained in two different approaches: (a) hedgehog models (HM), such as Skyrmions, chiral quark models, hybrid bags, NJL etc., and (b) chiral perturbation theory (χPT). (2) The author shows new results obtained in HM: N c -counting of polarizabilities, splitting of the neutron and proton polarizabilities (he argues that α n > α p in models with pionic clouds), relevance of dispersive terms in the magnetic polarizability β, important role of the Δ resonance in pionic loops, and the effects of non-minimal substitution terms in the effective lagrangian. 3 refs

  10. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  11. Pele's tears and spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, L. A.; Quane, S.; Russell, K.

    2011-12-01

    Pele's tears are a well known curiosity commonly associated with low viscosity basaltic explosive eruptions. However, these pyroclasts are rarely studied in detail and there is no full explanation for their formation. These intriguing pyroclasts have smooth glassy surfaces, vesiculated interiors, and fluidal morphologies tending towards droplets and then spheres as they decrease in size to Pele's tears from the 1959 fire-fountaining eruption of Kilauea Iki involving size and density measurements. Using thin section and SEM analysis we also consider their internal and external morphologies, porosity and bubble size distributions, and surface textures. Finally we consider the mechanisms of magma fragmentation, timescales of relaxation, and cooling rates that are responsible for their formation.

  12. Panoramic stereo sphere vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  13. A General Synthesis Strategy for Hierarchical Porous Metal Oxide Hollow Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadong Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hierarchical porous TiO2 hollow spheres were successfully prepared by using the hydrothermally synthesized colloidal carbon spheres as templates and tetrabutyl titanate as inorganic precursors. The diameter and wall thickness of hollow TiO2 spheres were determined by the hard templates and concentration of tetrabutyl titanate. The particle size, dispersity, homogeneity, and surface state of the carbon spheres can be easily controlled by adjusting the hydrothermal conditions and adding certain amount of the surfactants. The prepared hollow spheres possessed the perfect spherical shape, monodispersity, and hierarchically pore structures, and the further experiment verified that the present approach can be used to prepare other metal oxide hollow spheres, which could be used as catalysis, fuel cells, lithium-air battery, gas sensor, and so on.

  14. Spherical Approximation on Unit Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Samir Bhaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a Jackson type theorem for functions in LP spaces on sphere And study on best approximation of  functions in  spaces defined on unit sphere. our central problem is to describe the approximation behavior of functions in    spaces for  by modulus of smoothness of functions.

  15. Calculations of polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities for the Be+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Liyan; Zhang Junyi; Mitroy, J.; Yan Zongchao; Shi Tingyun; Babb, James F.

    2009-01-01

    The polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities of the Be + ion in the 2 2 S state and the 2 2 P state are determined. Calculations are performed using two independent methods: (i) variationally determined wave functions using Hylleraas basis set expansions and (ii) single electron calculations utilizing a frozen-core Hamiltonian. The first few parameters in the long-range interaction potential between a Be + ion and a H, He, or Li atom, and the leading parameters of the effective potential for the high-L Rydberg states of beryllium were also computed. All the values reported are the results of calculations close to convergence. Comparisons are made with published results where available.

  16. Excess Properties of Aqueous Solutions: Hard Spheres versus Pseudo-Hard Bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rouha, M.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 4 (2011), s. 613-617 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : partial molar volume * primitive models * thermodynamic properties Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.819, year: 2011

  17. Electric and magnetic polarizabilities of hadrons via elastic Compton scattering at KAON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moinester, M.A.; Blecher, M.

    1990-08-01

    The study of dynamic properties of hadrons presents a challenge. Among the most basic of these are the electric and magnetic polarizabilities describing the electromagnetic structure of hadrons. They characterize the induced transient dipole moments of hadrons in an external electromagnetic field. During gamma-hadron Compton scattering the lowest order scattering is determined by the charge and magnetic moment. The next order scattering is determined by the induced dipole moments. The dipole polarizabilities probe the rigidity of the internal structure of baryons and mesons, the dipole moments being induced by the rearrangement of the hadron constituents driven by the presence of the electric and magnetic fields of the photon during scattering. A sophisticated understanding of hadrons within the framework of QCD will be tested, in part, by the prediction of these quantities. For the light charged pion, chiral symmetry leads to a precise prediction for the polarizabilities. For the heavier charged kaon, chiral perturbation theory can be applied to predict the polarizabilities. For these cases, the experimental polarizabilities subject the underlying chiral symmetry and chiral perturbation techniques of QCD to new and serious tests. Here the physics of electromagnetic polarizabilities is first described, followed by a review of previous experimental and theoretical polarizability results for the proton, neutron, pion, and kaon. A brief description is then given of how polarizabilities for these hadrons can be studied at the proposed TRIUMF KAON facility. (36 refs., 4 figs.)

  18. Electric polarizability of pions in the semirelativistic quark model; Ehlektricheskaya polyarizuemost' pionov v polurelyativistskoj kvarkovoj modeli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimenko, N V [Gomel& #x27; skij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. im. F.Skoriny, Gomel (Belarus); Kuchin, S M [Filial Bryanskogo Gosudarstvennogo Univ. im. akademika I.G.Petrovskogo, Novozybkov (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    In the paper the calculation is performed of the generalized and static polarizability of charged pions, which are considered as a relativistic system of two point spinor quarks with the linear interaction potential. The question of the relationship between static electricity and generalized polarizabilities of pions in the framework of this approach is studied.

  19. Do the seagull terms really survive for the electric polarizability of the nucleon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, S.

    1998-01-01

    The seagull terms for the electric polarizability of the nucleon are shown indeed to vanish, if one introduces fluctuations around the Skyrmion configuration, and the origin of the electric polarizability cannot after all be attributed to the seagull terms in the Skyrme model. (orig.)

  20. The electric double layer at high surface potentials: The influence of excess ion polarizability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatlo, M. M.; van Roij, R.H.H.G.; Lue, L.

    2012-01-01

    By including the excess ion polarizability into the Poisson-Boltzmann theory, we show that the decrease in differential capacitance with voltage, observed for metal electrodes above a threshold potential, can be understood in terms of thickening of the double layer due to ion-induced polarizability

  1. Effective electric and magnetic polarizabilities of pointlike spin-1/2 particles

    OpenAIRE

    Silenko, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Effective electric and magnetic polarizabilities of pointlike spin-1/2 particles possesing an anomalous magnetic moment are calculated with the transformation of an initial Hamiltonian to the Foldy-Wouthuysen representation. Polarizabilities of spin-1/2 and spin-1 particles are compared.

  2. Lithium photoionization cross-section and dynamic polarizability using square integrable basis sets and correlated wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollauer, E.; Nascimento, M.A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The photoionization cross-section and dynamic polarizability for lithium atom are calculated using a discrete basis set to represent both the bound and the continuum-states of the atom, to construct an approximation to the dynamic polarizability. From the imaginary part of the complex dynamic polarizability one extracts the photoionization cross-section and from its real part the dynamic polarizability. The results are in good agreement with the experiments and other more elaborate calculations (Author) [pt

  3. Transferability of polarizable models for ion-water electrostatic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masia, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Studies of ion-water systems at condensed phase and at interfaces have pointed out that molecular and ionic polarization plays an important role for many phenomena ranging from hydrogen bond dynamics to water interfaces' structure. Classical and ab initio Molecular Dynamics simulations reveal that induced dipole moments at interfaces (e.g. air-water and water-protein) are usually high, hinting that polarizable models to be implemented in classical force fields should be very accurate in reproducing the electrostatic properties of the system. In this paper the electrostatic properties of three classical polarizable models for ion-water interaction are compared with ab initio results both at gas and condensed phase. For Li + - water and Cl - -water dimers the reproducibility of total dipole moments obtained with high level quantum chemical calculations is studied; for the same ions in liquid water, Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics simulations are used to compute the time evolution of ionic and molecular dipole moments, which are compared with the classical models. The PD2-H2O model developed by the author and coworkers [Masia et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2004, 121, 7362] together with the gaussian intermolecular damping for ion-water interaction [Masia et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2005, 123, 164505] showed to be the fittest in reproducing the ab initio results from gas to condensed phase, allowing for force field transferability.

  4. Revised Parameters for the AMOEBA Polarizable Atomic Multipole Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Vijay S.; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Ponder, Jay W.

    2016-01-01

    A set of improved parameters for the AMOEBA polarizable atomic multipole water model is developed. The protocol uses an automated procedure, ForceBalance, to adjust model parameters to enforce agreement with ab initio-derived results for water clusters and experimentally obtained data for a variety of liquid phase properties across a broad temperature range. The values reported here for the new AMOEBA14 water model represent a substantial improvement over the previous AMOEBA03 model. The new AMOEBA14 water model accurately predicts the temperature of maximum density and qualitatively matches the experimental density curve across temperatures ranging from 249 K to 373 K. Excellent agreement is observed for the AMOEBA14 model in comparison to a variety of experimental properties as a function of temperature, including the 2nd virial coefficient, enthalpy of vaporization, isothermal compressibility, thermal expansion coefficient and dielectric constant. The viscosity, self-diffusion constant and surface tension are also well reproduced. In comparison to high-level ab initio results for clusters of 2 to 20 water molecules, the AMOEBA14 model yields results similar to the AMOEBA03 and the direct polarization iAMOEBA models. With advances in computing power, calibration data, and optimization techniques, we recommend the use of the AMOEBA14 water model for future studies employing a polarizable water model. PMID:25683601

  5. Measurement of the proton scalar polarizabilities at MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mornacchi, Edoardo [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: A2-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The electric (α{sub E{sub 1}}) and magnetic (β{sub M1}) scalar polarizabilities are fundamental properties related to the internal structure of the nucleon. They play a crucial role not only in our understanding of the nucleon, but also in other areas such as atomic physics, where they provide e.g. corrections to the Lamb Shift. In order to determine the scalar polarizabilities of the proton, the beam asymmetry Σ{sub 3} was measured, for the first time for the Compton scattering, below the pion photoproduction threshold. The measurement was performed at the MAMI accelerator facility in Mainz. The linearly polarized primary photons impinged on a liquid hydrogen target and the outgoing particles were detected in a nearly 4π detector setup, composed by Crystall Ball and TAPS calorimeters. In this talk the results on the Compton scattering beam asymmetry Σ{sub 3} and their influence on the extraction of α{sub E{sub 1}} and β{sub M1} are discussed.

  6. Polarizability of KC60: Evidence for Potassium Skating on the C60 Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayane, D.; Antoine, R.; Dugourd, Ph.; Benichou, E.; Allouche, A. R.; Aubert-Frécon, M.; Broyer, M.

    2000-02-01

    We present the first measurement of the polarizability and the permanent dipole moment of isolated KC60 molecules by molecular beam deflection technique. We have obtained a value of 2506+/-250 Å3 for the polarizability at room temperature. The addition of a potassium atom enhances by more than a factor of 20 the polarizability of a pure C60 molecule. This very high polarizability and the lack of observed permanent dipole show that the apparent polarizability of KC60 is induced by the free skating of the potassium atom on the C60 surface, resulting in a statistical orientation of the dipole. The results are interpreted with a simple model similar to the Langevin theory for paramagnetic systems.

  7. Polarizability of acetanilide and RDX in the crystal: effect of molecular geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiaousis, D.; Munn, R. W.; Smith, P. J.; Popelier, P. L. A.

    2004-10-01

    Density-functional theory with the B3LYP functional at the 6-311++G** level is used to calculate the dipole moment and the static polarizability for acetanilide and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) in their in-crystal structures. For acetanilide the dipole moment is 2{1}/{2}% larger than for the gas-phase structure and for RDX (where there is a gross geometry change) it is 15% larger. The polarizability for the in-crystal structure is smaller than for the gas-phase structure by 3% for both species, whereas the in-crystal effective optical polarizability is larger than the gas-phase static polarizability for both crystals. Hence, effects in addition to the molecular geometry change in the crystal must be considered in order to interpret the effective polarizability completely.

  8. Average electronegativity, electronic polarizability and optical basicity of lanthanide oxides for different coordination numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xinyu; Wang Xiaoli; Lin Hai; Wang Zhiqiang

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of new electronegativity values, electronic polarizability and optical basicity of lanthanide oxides are calculated from the concept of average electronegativity given by Asokamani and Manjula. The estimated values are in close agreement with our previous conclusion. Particularly, we attempt to obtain new data of electronic polarizability and optical basicity of lanthanide sesquioxides for different coordination numbers (6-12). The present investigation suggests that both electronic polarizability and optical basicity increase gradually with increasing coordination number. We also looked for another double peak effect, that is, electronic polarizability and optical basicity of trivalent lanthanide oxides show a gradual decrease and then an abrupt increase at the Europia and Ytterbia. Furthermore, close correlations are investigated among average electronegativity, optical basicity, electronic polarizability and coordination number in this paper

  9. Of spheres and squares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrydstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how different visions and values of science translate into different architectural shapes. I bring Peter Sloterdijk’s ‘spherology’ to bear on my ethnographic fieldwork at the NEEM ice core base in Greenland, a significant node in the global infrastructure of climate science. I...... argue that the visual form of the geodesic dome of the camp materializes specific values and visions of this branch of paleoclimate science, which I elaborate vis-a-vis the pragmatic claims of the scientists/designers and the particular architectural history of Danish ice core drilling in Greenland. I...... as the lab space is rectangular and the recreational space is spherical. Third, I argue that NEEM scientists and Sloterdijk are essentially engaged in a common project: the scientists work hard to align air bubbles in the cores with atmospheric fluctuations in the hemisphere on the evidentiary terrain of ice...

  10. Public Sphere as Digital Assemblage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    the 1990s onwards digitalization brought concepts of network and complexity into the theoretical discourse. This relational turn changed the social ontology of the public sphere into a dynamic and complex system, erasing the division between the fields of reality (the world), representation (discourse......Normative theories of public sphere have struggled with the topic of materiality. The historical narrative of the ‘public sphere’ situated the phenomenon in specific spaces, where practices (public deliberation) and language (discourse) constructed political agencies, and further publics. From......), and subjectivity (agency). This changed the public sphere into an assemblage consisting of both human and non-human actors interactingin a highly dynamic, networked environment. This paper proposes a framework for considering this new materiality in the field of the public sphere: the assemblage and complexity...

  11. Differential Calculus on Quantum Spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Welk, Martin

    1998-01-01

    We study covariant differential calculus on the quantum spheres S_q^2N-1. Two classification results for covariant first order differential calculi are proved. As an important step towards a description of the noncommutative geometry of the quantum spheres, a framework of covariant differential calculus is established, including a particular first order calculus obtained by factorization, higher order calculi and a symmetry concept.

  12. Model Hamiltonian Calculations of the Nonlinear Polarizabilities of Conjugated Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Steven Michael

    This dissertation advances the theoretical knowledge of the nonlinear polarizabilities of conjugated molecules. The unifying feature of these molecules is an extended delocalized pi electron structure. The pi electrons dominate the electronic properties of the molecules, allowing prediction of molecular properties based on the treatment of just the pi electrons. Two separate pi electron Hamiltonians are used in the research. The principal Hamiltonian used is the non-interacting single-particle Huckel Hamiltonian, which replaces the Coulomb interaction among the pi electrons with a mean field interaction. The simplification allows for exact solution of the Hamiltonian for large molecules. The second Hamiltonian used for this research is the interacting multi-particle Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) Hamiltonian, which retains explicit Coulomb interactions. This limits exact solutions to molecules containing at most eight electrons. The molecular properties being investigated are the linear polarizability, and the second and third order hyperpolarizabilities. The hyperpolarizabilities determine the nonlinear optical response of materials. These molecular parameters are determined by two independent approaches. The results from the Huckel Hamiltonian are obtained through first, second and third order perturbation theory. The results from the PPP Hamiltonian are obtained by including the applied field directly in the Hamiltonian and determining the ground state energy at a series of field strengths. By fitting the energy to a polynomial in field strength, the polarizability and hyperpolarizabilities are determined. The Huckel Hamiltonian is used to calculate the third order hyperpolarizability of polyenes. These calculations were the first to show the average hyperpolarizability of the polyenes to be positive, and also to show the saturation of the hyperpolarizability. Comparison of these Huckel results to those from the PPP Hamiltonian shows the lack of explicit Coulomb

  13. Dielectric constant of polarizable, nonpolar fluids and suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichocki, B.; Felderhof, B.U.

    1988-01-01

    We study the dielectric constant of a polarizable, nonpolar fluid or suspension of spherical particles by use of a renormalized cluster expansion.The particles may have induced multipole moments of any order. We show that the Clausius-Mossotti formula results from a virtual overlap contribution. The corrections to the Clausius-Mossotti formula are expressed with the aid of a cluster expansion. The integrands of the cluster integrals are expressed in terms of two-body nodal connectors which incorporate all reflections between a pair of particles. We study the two- and three-body cluster integrals in some detail and show how these are related to the dielectric virial expansion and to the first term of the Kirkwood-Yvon expansion

  14. Dynamic polarizabilities and Rydberg states of the argon isoelectronic sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, T.K.; Das, A.K.; Castro, M.; Canuto, S.; Mukherjee, P.K.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic dipole polarizabilities α d (ω) have been calculated within and beyond the normal-dispersion region for the isoelectronic members of argon up to Mn 7+ using time-dependent coupled Hartree-Fock theory. Excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and quantum-defect values have been estimated for the dipole-allowed transitions 3p 6 1 Se→3p 5 ( 2 P)ns 1 Po (n=4,...,7) and 3p 6 1 Se→3p 5 ( 2 P)nd 1 Po (n=3,...,7). Analytic representations of the singly excited Rydberg orbitals have been obtained. The results compare favorably with the existing theoretical and experimental data. The oscillator strengths show an interesting trend of variation along the isoelectronic sequence

  15. Modeling Electronic Circular Dichroism within the Polarizable Embedding Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Morten S; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Steinmann, Casper

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the key components needed to model single chromophore electronic circular dichroism (ECD) within the polarizable embedding (PE) approach. By relying on accurate forms of the embedding potential, where especially the inclusion of local field effects...... are in focus, we show that qualitative agreement between rotatory strength parameters calculated by full quantum mechanical calculations and the more efficient embedding calculations can be obtained. An important aspect in the computation of reliable absorption parameters is the need for conformational...... sampling. We show that a significant number of snapshots are needed to avoid artifacts in the calculated electronic circular dichroism parameters due to insufficient configurational sampling, thus highlighting the efficiency of the PE model....

  16. Theoretical studies of the global minima and polarizabilities of small lithium clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hanshi; Zhao, Ya-Fan; Hammond, Jeffrey R.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Apra, Edoardo; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; Li, Jun; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol

    2016-01-16

    Lithium clusters Lin (n=1-20) have been investigated with density functional theory (DFT) and coupled—cluster (CC) methods. The global-minimum structures are located via an improved basin---hopping algorithm and the lowest energy Lin isomers are confirmed with DFT geometry optimizations, CCSD(T) energy calculations, and by comparing simulated and experimental polarizabilities. The tetrahedral Li4 structure is found to be the basic building block of lithium clusters Lin (n=6-20). Simulated polarizabilities, including thermal effects at room temperature, are in good agreement with measured isotropic polarizabilities.

  17. Relativity, nuclear polarizability, and screening in sub-Coulomb elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, W.G.; Tsang, M.B.; Bhang, H.C.; Cramer, J.G.; Puigh, R.J.

    Elastic scattering of p-shell nuclear projectiles from 208 Pb has been examined for deviations from Rutherford scattering. Four effects can be important: atomic screening, vacuum polarization, nuclear polarizability and a relativistic effect of dynamical origin. The presence of atomic screening, nuclear polarizability and the relativistic effect was observed thus constituting the first measurement of this relativistic effect using complex nuclei and the first measurement of this relativistic effect using complex nuclei and the first measurement of nuclear polarizability in an external Coulomb field

  18. Static and dynamic polarizabilities of Na- within a variationally stable coupled-channel hyperspherical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masili, Mauro; Groote, J.J. de

    2004-01-01

    Using a model potential representation combined with a variationally stable method, we present a precise calculation of the electric dipole polarizabilities of the sodium negative ion (Na - ). The effective two-electron eigensolutions for Na - are obtained from a hyperspherical coupled-channel calculation. This approach allows efficient error control and insight into the system's properties through one-dimensional potential curves. Our result of 1018.3 a.u. for the static dipole polarizability is in agreement with previous calculations and supports our results for the dynamic polarizability, which has scarcely been investigated hitherto

  19. Tuning the bridging attraction between large hard particles by the softness of small microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junhua; Yuan, Guangcui; Han, Charles C

    2016-09-20

    In this study, the attraction between large hard polystyrene (PS) spheres is studied by using three types of small microgels as bridging agents. One is a purely soft poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgel, the other two have a non-deformable PS hard core surrounded by a soft PNIPAM shell but are different in the core-shell ratio. The affinity for bridging the large PS spheres is provided and thus affected by the PNIPAM constituent in the microgels. The bridging effects caused by the microgels can be indirectly incorporated into their influence on the effective attraction interaction between the large hard spheres, since the size of the microgels is very small in comparison to the size of the PS hard spheres. At a given volume fraction of large PS spheres, they behave essentially as hard spheres in the absence of small microgels. By gradually adding the microgels, the large spheres are connected to each other through the bridging of small particles until the attraction strength reaches a maximum value, after which adding more small particles slowly decreases the effective attraction strength and eventually the large particles disperse individually when saturated adsorption is achieved. The aggregation and gelation behaviors triggered by these three types of small microgels are compared and discussed. A way to tune the strength and range of the short-range attractive potential via changing the softness of bridging microgels (which can be achieved either by using core-shell microgels or by changing the temperature) is proposed.

  20. Troubleshooting vSphere storage

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This is a step-by-step example-oriented tutorial aimed at showing the reader how to troubleshoot a variety of vSphere storage problems, and providing the reader with solutions that can be completed with minimal effort and time in order to limit damage to work.If you are a vSphere administrator, this is the book for you. This book will provide you with 'need to know' information about the various storage transports that ESXi utilizes, the tools and techniques we can use to identify problems, and the fundamental knowledge and steps to take to troubleshoot storage-related issues. Prior knowledge

  1. Correlated, Static and Dynamic Polarizabilities of Small Molecules. Comparison of Four "Black Box" Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Erik K.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    1998-01-01

    Molecular static and dynamic polarizabilities for thirteen small molecules have been calculated using four "black box" ab initio methods, the random phase approximation, RPA, the second-order polarization propagator approximation, SOPPA, the second-order polarization propagator approximation...

  2. Conduction of molecular electronic devices: Qualitative insights through atom-atom polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuyver, T.; Fias, S.; De Proft, F.; Geerlings, P.; Fowler, P. W.

    2015-01-01

    The atom-atom polarizability and the transmission probability at the Fermi level, as obtained through the source-and-sink-potential method for every possible configuration of contacts simultaneously, are compared for polycyclic aromatic compounds. This comparison leads to the conjecture that a positive atom-atom polarizability is a necessary condition for transmission to take place in alternant hydrocarbons without non-bonding orbitals and that the relative transmission probability for different configurations of the contacts can be predicted by analyzing the corresponding atom-atom polarizability. A theoretical link between the two considered properties is derived, leading to a mathematical explanation for the observed trends for transmission based on the atom-atom polarizability

  3. Solvation Effects on Electronic Transitions: Exploring the Performance of Advanced Solvent Potentials in Polarizable Embedding Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwabe, Tobias; Olsen, Magnus; Sneskov, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    The polarizable embedding (PE) approach, which combines quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular mechanics (MM), is applied to predict solvatochromic effects on excitation energies of several representative molecules in aqueous, methanol, acetonitrile, and carbon tetrachloride solutions. Good agreement...

  4. Conduction of molecular electronic devices: Qualitative insights through atom-atom polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuyver, T.; Fias, S., E-mail: sfias@vub.ac.be; De Proft, F.; Geerlings, P. [ALGC, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Fowler, P. W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HF (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-07

    The atom-atom polarizability and the transmission probability at the Fermi level, as obtained through the source-and-sink-potential method for every possible configuration of contacts simultaneously, are compared for polycyclic aromatic compounds. This comparison leads to the conjecture that a positive atom-atom polarizability is a necessary condition for transmission to take place in alternant hydrocarbons without non-bonding orbitals and that the relative transmission probability for different configurations of the contacts can be predicted by analyzing the corresponding atom-atom polarizability. A theoretical link between the two considered properties is derived, leading to a mathematical explanation for the observed trends for transmission based on the atom-atom polarizability.

  5. Conduction of molecular electronic devices: qualitative insights through atom-atom polarizabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuyver, T; Fias, S; De Proft, F; Fowler, P W; Geerlings, P

    2015-03-07

    The atom-atom polarizability and the transmission probability at the Fermi level, as obtained through the source-and-sink-potential method for every possible configuration of contacts simultaneously, are compared for polycyclic aromatic compounds. This comparison leads to the conjecture that a positive atom-atom polarizability is a necessary condition for transmission to take place in alternant hydrocarbons without non-bonding orbitals and that the relative transmission probability for different configurations of the contacts can be predicted by analyzing the corresponding atom-atom polarizability. A theoretical link between the two considered properties is derived, leading to a mathematical explanation for the observed trends for transmission based on the atom-atom polarizability.

  6. Metal-organic materials (MOMs) for adsorption of polarizable gases and methods of using MOMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaworotko, Michael; Mohamed, Mona H.; Elsaidi, Sameh

    2017-06-14

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for multi-component metal-organic materials (MOMs), systems including the MOM, systems for separating components in a gas, methods of separating polarizable gases from a gas mixture, and the like.

  7. Visualization of Natural Convection Heat Transfer on a Single Sphere using the Electroplating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Young; Chung, Bum Jin [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The natural convective flows on outer sphere rise along surface. At top of sphere, the flows are lifted-up plume shape. For laminar flows, the local heat transfer shows maximum at the bottom of sphere and a monotonic decreases as flows approached to the top. The laminar natural convection heat transfer on a single sphere has been studied experimentally and numerically by several researchers. However, relatively less study has been performed for turbulent flows as it requires large facilities to achieve high Rayleigh numbers. The flows, which occur transition, is hard to experiment because of unstable. This study tried measurement of heat transfer and visualization external natural convection on a single sphere. The basic idea is that the plating patterns of copper on the sphere in mass transfer system will reveal the amount of heat transfer according to angular distance from the bottom. This study simulated natural convection on a single sphere and performed a mass transfer experiment using heat and mass transfer analogy concept. For visualization experiment, streak form plating pattern was observed. In this case, it seems that turbulence sets on the top of sphere and increases local heat transfer.

  8. Charged ion source with a polarizable probe and with a cyclotron electronic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, P.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is about ion sources with a polarizable probe able to produce, from neutral atoms, highly charged ions. This source is composed of an hyperfrequency cavity, production means of an axial magnetic field in the cavity, production means of a multipolar radial magnetic field in this cavity, a high frequency inlet, gas input in the cavity, ion extraction means and a polarizable probe in tension to improve gas ionization

  9. Enhanced polarizability of aromatic molecules placed in the vicinity of silver clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A; Schatz, G C

    2009-01-01

    We use a charge-dipole interaction model to study the polarizability of aromatic molecules that are placed between two silver clusters. In particular we examine the enhancement in polarizability induced by the clusters at plasmon-like resonant frequencies of the cluster-molecule-cluster system. The model used for these simulations relies on representation of the atoms by both a net electric charge and a dipole. By relating the time variation of the atomic charges to the currents that flow through the bonds of the structures considered, a least-action principle can be formulated that enables the atomic charges and dipoles to be determined. We consider benzene, naphthalene and anthracene for this study, comparing the polarizability of these aromatic molecules when placed in the middle between two Ag 120 clusters, with their polarizability as isolated molecules. We find that the polarizability of these molecules is enhanced by the clusters, and this increases the electromagnetic coupling between the two clusters. This results in significant red-shifting (by up to 0.8 eV) of the lowest energy optical transition in the cluster-molecule-cluster system compared to plasmon-like excitation in the cluster-cluster system. The resulting resonant polarizability enhancement leads to an electromagnetic enhancement in surface-enhanced Raman scattering of over 10 6 .

  10. Analytical transition-matrix treatment of electric multipole polarizabilities of hydrogen-like atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, V.F.

    2015-01-01

    The direct transition-matrix approach to the description of the electric polarization of the quantum bound system of particles is used to determine the electric multipole polarizabilities of the hydrogen-like atoms. It is shown that in the case of the bound system formed by the Coulomb interaction the corresponding inhomogeneous integral equation determining an off-shell scattering function, which consistently describes virtual multiple scattering, can be solved exactly analytically for all electric multipole polarizabilities. Our method allows to reproduce the known Dalgarno–Lewis formula for electric multipole polarizabilities of the hydrogen atom in the ground state and can also be applied to determine the polarizability of the atom in excited bound states. - Highlights: • A new description for electric polarization of hydrogen-like atoms. • Expression for multipole polarizabilities in terms of off-shell scattering functions. • Derivation of integral equation determining the off-shell scattering function. • Rigorous analytic solving the integral equations both for ground and excited states. • Study of contributions of virtual multiple scattering to electric polarizabilities

  11. Influence of Gaussian white noise on the frequency-dependent linear polarizability of doped quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Linear polarizability of quantum dot has been studied. • Quantum dot is doped with a repulsive impurity. • The polarizabilities are frequency-dependent. • Influence of Gaussian white noise has been monitored. • Noise exploited is of additive and multiplicative nature. - Abstract: We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent linear (α xx and α yy ) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. The dopant impurity potential chosen assumes Gaussian form. The study principally puts emphasis on investigating the role of noise on the polarizability components. In view of this we have exploited Gaussian white noise containing additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The frequency-dependent polarizabilities are studied by exposing the doped dot to a periodically oscillating external electric field of given intensity. The oscillation frequency, confinement potentials, dopant location, and above all, the noise characteristics tune the linear polarizability components in a subtle manner. Whereas the additive noise fails to have any impact on the polarizabilities, the multiplicative noise influences them delicately and gives rise to additional interesting features

  12. Spheres of discharge of springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Abraham E.; Stevens, Lawrence E.

    2009-02-01

    Although springs have been recognized as important, rare, and globally threatened ecosystems, there is as yet no consistent and comprehensive classification system or common lexicon for springs. In this paper, 12 spheres of discharge of springs are defined, sketched, displayed with photographs, and described relative to their hydrogeology of occurrence, and the microhabitats and ecosystems they support. A few of the spheres of discharge have been previously recognized and used by hydrogeologists for over 80 years, but others have only recently been defined geomorphologically. A comparison of these spheres of discharge to classification systems for wetlands, groundwater dependent ecosystems, karst hydrogeology, running waters, and other systems is provided. With a common lexicon for springs, hydrogeologists can provide more consistent guidance for springs ecosystem conservation, management, and restoration. As additional comprehensive inventories of the physical, biological, and cultural characteristics are conducted and analyzed, it will eventually be possible to associate spheres of discharge with discrete vegetation and aquatic invertebrate assemblages, and better understand the habitat requirements of rare or unique springs species. Given the elevated productivity and biodiversity of springs, and their highly threatened status, identification of geomorphic similarities among spring types is essential for conservation of these important ecosystems.

  13. Neuroscience in the public sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Rees, Geraint; Joffe, Helene

    2012-04-26

    The media are increasingly fascinated by neuroscience. Here, we consider how neuroscientific discoveries are thematically represented in the popular press and the implications this has for society. In communicating research, neuroscientists should be sensitive to the social consequences neuroscientific information may have once it enters the public sphere. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuroscience in the Public Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Rees, Geraint; Joffe, Helene

    2012-01-01

    The media are increasingly fascinated by neuroscience. Here, we consider how neuroscientific discoveries are thematically represented in the popular press and the implications this has for society. In communicating research, neuroscientists should be sensitive to the social consequences neuroscientific information may have once it enters the public sphere.

  15. Spin Sum Rules and Polarizabilities: Results from Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2006-01-01

    The nucleon spin structure has been an active, exciting and intriguing subject of interest for the last three decades. Recent experimental data on nucleon spin structure at low to intermediate momentum transfers provide new information in the confinement regime and the transition region from the confinement regime to the asymptotic freedom regime. New insight is gained by exploring moments of spin structure functions and their corresponding sum rules (i.e. the generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn, Burkhardt-Cottingham and Bjorken). The Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule is verified to good accuracy. The spin structure moments data are compared with Chiral Perturbation Theory calculations at low momentum transfers. It is found that chiral perturbation calculations agree reasonably well with the first moment of the spin structure function g 1 at momentum transfer of 0.05 to 0.1 GeV 2 but fail to reproduce the neutron data in the case of the generalized polarizability (delta) LT (the (delta) LT puzzle). New data have been taken on the neutron ( 3 He), the proton and the deuteron at very low Q 2 down to 0.02 GeV 2 . They will provide benchmark tests of Chiral dynamics in the kinematic region where the Chiral Perturbation theory is expected to work

  16. Determination of lifetimes and nonadiabatic correlations from measured dipole polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Lorenzo J

    2007-01-01

    In atomic systems for which the total oscillator strength of excitations from the ground state is dominated by the transition to the lowest resonance level, the f-sum rule provides a bracketing inequality connecting the lifetime τ of that level to the dipole polarizability α d . This relationship has been used previously to deduce α d from τ. It is shown here that improved spectroscopic accuracies now permit this procedure to be inverted, with τ deduced from a value for α d obtained spectroscopically using the core polarization model. A similar quantitative relationship exists connecting the nonadiabatic correlation factor β to τ, and thus also to α d . The method is applied to a recent measurement of α d for Kr 6+ to obtain the values τ(4s4p 1 P 1 ) 0.096 ± 0.003 ns and β(Kr 6+ ) = 1.71 ± 0.03a 5 0 . It is shown that the use of this method to make precision lifetime determinations for a small number of ions in an isoelectronic sequence permits the exploitation of observed semiempirical regularities to specify the lifetimes of all ions in that sequence

  17. Electronic Polarizability and the Effective Pair Potentials of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontyev, I. V.; Stuchebrukhov, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Employing the continuum dielectric model for electronic polarizability, we have developed a new consistent procedure for parameterization of the effective nonpolarizable potential of liquid water. The model explains the striking difference between the value of water dipole moment μ~3D reported in recent ab initio and experimental studies with the value μeff~2.3D typically used in the empirical potentials, such as TIP3P or SPC/E. It is shown that the consistency of the parameterization scheme can be achieved if the magnitude of the effective dipole of water is understood as a scaled value μeff=μ∕εel, where εel =1.78 is the electronic (high-frequency) dielectric constant of water, and a new electronic polarization energy term, missing in the previous theories, is included. The new term is evaluated by using Kirkwood - Onsager theory. The new scheme is fully consistent with experimental data on enthalpy of vaporization, density, diffusion coefficient, and static dielectric constant. The new theoretical framework provides important insights into the nature of the effective parameters, which is crucial when the computational models of liquid water are used for simulations in different environments, such as proteins, or for interaction with solutes. PMID:25383062

  18. Generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon in baryon chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensky, Vadim [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Cluster of Excellence PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Vanderhaeghen, Marc [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Cluster of Excellence PRISMA, Mainz (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    The nucleon generalized polarizabilities (GPs), probed in virtual Compton scattering (VCS), describe the spatial distribution of the polarization density in a nucleon. They are accessed experimentally via the process of electron-proton bremsstrahlung (ep → epγ) at electron-beam facilities, such as MIT-Bates, CEBAF (Jefferson Lab), and MAMI (Mainz). We present the calculation of the nucleon GPs and VCS observables at next-to-leading order in baryon chiral perturbation theory (BχPT), and confront the results with the empirical information. At this order our results are predictions, in the sense that all the parameters are well known from elsewhere. Within the relatively large uncertainties of our calculation we find good agreement with the experimental observations of VCS and the empirical extractions of the GPs. We find large discrepancies with previous chiral calculations - all done in heavy-baryon χPT (HBχPT) - and discuss the differences between BχPT and HBχPT responsible for these discrepancies. (orig.)

  19. The muon anomalous magnetic moment and the pion polarizability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, Kevin T. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J. [Physics Department, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We compute the charged pion loop contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment a{sub μ}, taking into account the previously omitted effect of the charged pion polarizability, (α{sub 1}−β{sub 1}){sub π{sup +}}. We evaluate this contribution using two different models that are consistent with the requirements of chiral symmetry in the low-momentum regime and perturbative quantum chromodynamics in the asymptotic region. The result may increase the disagreement between the present experimental value for a{sub μ} and the theoretical, Standard Model prediction by as much as ∼60×10{sup −11}, depending on the value of (α{sub 1}−β{sub 1}){sub π{sup +}} and the choice of the model. The planned determination of (α{sub 1}−β{sub 1}){sub π{sup +}} at Jefferson Laboratory will eliminate the dominant parametric error, leaving a theoretical model uncertainty commensurate with the error expected from planned Fermilab measurement of a{sub μ}.

  20. Dipole polarizability of neutron rich nuclei and the symmetry energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, Andrea; Johansen, Jacob; Miki, Kenjiro; Schindler, Fabia; Schrock, Philipp [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, Thomas [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    As a part of a systematic investigation of the dipole response of stable up to very neutron rich tin isotopes, nuclear and electromagnetic excitation of {sup 124}Sn-{sup 134}Sn has been investigated at relativistic energies in inverse kinematics induced by carbon and lead targets at the LAND-R3B setup at GSI in Darmstadt. The electric dipole response and the nuclear reaction cross section, total and charge-changing, are obtained from the kinematically complete determination of momenta of all particles on an event by event basis. The dipole polarizability is extracted from the Coulomb excitation interaction channel, in order to make use of relevant correlations of this observable with nuclear matter properties such as the symmetry energy at saturation density (J) and it's slope (L). The systematics of the low-lying ''pygmy'' dipole strength, the giant dipole resonance (GDR) and the neutron skin thickness are determined with respect to increasing isospin asymmetry. This talk also discusses the correlations and sensitivities of these variables and observables obtained within the framework of nuclear energy density functional theory.

  1. New experimental method for investigation of the nucleon polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yevetska, O.; Watzlawik, S.; Ahrens, J.; Alkhazov, G.D.; Chizhov, V.P.; Maev, E.M.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Orischin, E.M.; Petrov, G.E.; Porte, J.-M.; Richter, A.; Sarantsev, V.V.; Schrieder, G.; Smirenin, Yu.V.

    2010-01-01

    At the continuous wave (cw) Superconducting Darmstadt Electron Linear Accelerator S-DALINAC, a new method has been developed for the determination of the electric (α-bar) and magnetic (β-bar) polarizabilities of the proton and the deuteron. For that purpose the energy and angular dependence of the differential cross-section for elastic γp and γd scattering of bremsstrahlung photons in the energy range between 20 and 100 MeV is measured by detecting the recoiling proton (deuteron) in coincidence with the scattered bremsstrahlung photon. α-bar and β-bar are then found by means of a best fit to a theoretical description of the scattering cross-section with these quantities as open parameters. The experimental setup consists of a bremsstrahlung photon facility, two specially designed high pressure hydrogen (deuterium) ionization chambers which serve as targets and detectors of the recoil proton (deuteron), NaI gamma spectrometers and several additional detectors for beam diagnostics and normalization. The whole setup was tested using bremsstrahlung photon beams with endpoint energies of 60 and 79.3 MeV. The results of the test experiments show that future high-statistics measurements are feasible.

  2. El Naschie's structures in the electrodynamics of polarizable media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agop, M.; Merches, I.; Enache, V.

    2005-01-01

    Using the concept of 'combined field', an electrodynamics of polarizable media on a fractal space-time is constructed. In this context, using the scale relativity theory, the permanent electric moment, the induced electric moment, the vacuum fluctuations, the paraelectrics, the diaelectrics, the electric Zeeman-type effect, the electric Einstein-de Haas-type effect, the electric Aharonov-Bohm-type effect, the superconductors in the 'combined field', the double layers as coherent structures, the magnetic Aharonov-Casher-type effect, are analyzed. Correspondence with the ε (∞) space-time is accomplished either by admitting an anomal electric Zeeman-type effect, or through a fractal string as in the case of a superconductor in 'combined field', or, by phase coherence of the electron-ion pairs from the electric double layers (El Naschie's coherence). Moreover, the electric double layer or multiple layer may be considered as two-dimensional projections of the same El Naschie's fractal strings (higher-dimensional strings in ε (∞) space-time)

  3. Electronic basis of hardness and phase transformations (covalent crystals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, J J

    2008-01-01

    Several electronic parameters measure the stabilities of covalent crystals, including minimum energy band-gap densities, inverse polarizabilities, plasma frequencies, transverse vibrational frequencies and elastic shear moduli. Convenient is the band-gap density (energy/volume; called the 'bond modulus'). For a given bonding type, the indentation hardness is proportional to the bond modulus. Examples are the group IV elements, III-V compounds; and II-VI compounds. The motion of dislocation kinks requires the excitation of bonding electrons into anti-bonding states. The bond modulus measures this together with the work done by the applied stress when a kink moves. In addition to hardness, the bond modulus measures the compressive strain (pressure) needed to transform an ambient structure into a more dense structure. Activation of such transformations also requires the excitation of bonding electrons into anti-bonding states together with the work done by the compressive stress

  4. Tessellating the Sphere with Regular Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Bechthold, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Tessellations in the Euclidean plane and regular polygons that tessellate the sphere are reviewed. The regular polygons that can possibly tesellate the sphere are spherical triangles, squares and pentagons.

  5. Multi-template synthesis of hierarchically porous carbon spheres with potential application in supercapacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Weizheng; Lin, Zhixing; Tong, Gangsheng; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Yan, Deyue; Mai, Yiyong; Zhu, Xinyuan

    2016-01-01

    A new and simple multi-template approach towards hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) materials was reported. HPC spheres were prepared by using hierarchical silica capsules (HSCs) as the hard template and triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as the soft template. Three types of pores were tunably

  6. Variational principles for the static electric and magnetic polarizabilities of anisotropic media with perfect electric conductor inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We present four variational principles for the electric and magnetic polarizabilities for a structure consisting of anisotropic media with perfect electric conductor (PEC) inclusions. From these principles, we derive monotonicity results and upper and lower bounds on the electric and magnetic polarizabilities. When computing the polarizabilities numerically, the bounds can be used as error bounds. The variational principles demonstrate important differences between electrostatics and magnetostatics when PEC bodies are present.

  7. Capillary holdup between vertical spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinali Heris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The maximum volume of liquid bridge left between two vertically mounted spherical particles has been theoretically determined and experimentally measured. As the gravitational effect has not been neglected in the theoretical model, the liquid interface profile is nonsymmetrical around the X-axis. Symmetry in the interface profile only occurs when either the particle size ratio or the gravitational force becomes zero. In this paper, some equations are derived as a function of the spheres' sizes, gap width, liquid density, surface tension and body force (gravity/centrifugal to estimate the maximum amount of liquid that can be held between the two solid spheres. Then a comparison is made between the result based on these equations and several experimental results.

  8. Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a known place, and were thus very useful in navigation.

  9. Spheres of Justice within Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbagh, Clara; Resh, Nura; Mor, Michal

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that there are distinct spheres of justice within education and examines a range of justice norms and distribution rules that characterize the daily life of schools and classrooms. Moving from the macro to micro level, we identify the following five areas: the right to education......, the allocation of (or selection into) learning places, teaching–learning practices, teachers’ treatment of students, and student evaluations of grade distribution. We discuss the literature on the beliefs by students and teachers about the just distribution of educational goods in these five domains......, and on the practices used in the actual allocation of these goods. In line with normative ‘spheres of justice’ arguments in social theory, we conclude that the ideals of social justice within schools vary strongly according to the particular resource to be distributed. Moreover, these ideals often do not correspond...

  10. The optical levitation of spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosen, G.

    1979-01-01

    In this article we are dealing with optical levitation, that is the possibility of maintaining particles in a stable equilibrium position in air or vacuum by means of laser beams. In the first part, we review the methods used to calculate the force exerted on a sphere by a laser beam. The axial and transverse force components could be obtained either by applying Debye theory to laser beams which have a non-uniform energy distribution or by using, in the case of large spheres, a geometrical optics approach. From the results achieved with the geometrical optics approach, we derive, in a second part, the required stable equilibrium conditions for a sphere placed either in a vertical beam or in two horizontal ones having the same axis but opposite direction. In the last part, we describe in detail the levitation experiments carried out using either a vertical or two horizontal beams. In conclusion, we point out some applications of optical levitation, emphasizing especially the suspension by optical levitation of the targets used in laser fusion experiments. (author) [fr

  11. Mastering VMware vSphere 5

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A new and updated edition of bestselling Mastering VMware vSphere 4 Written by leading VMware expert, this book covers all the features and capabilities of VMware vSphere. You'll learn how to install, configure, operate, manage, and secure the latest release.Covers all the new features and capabilities of the much-anticipated new release of VMware vSphereDiscusses the planning, installation, operation, and management for the latest releaseReviews migration to the latest vSphere softwareOffers hands-on instruction and clear explanations with real-world examples Mastering VMware vSphere is the

  12. The sphere-PAC fuel code 'SPHERE-3'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, H

    2000-07-01

    Sphere-PAC fuel is an advanced nuclear fuel, in which the cladding tube is filled with small fuel spheres instead of the more usual fuel pellets. At PSI, the irradiation behaviour of sphere-PAC fuel is calculated using the computer code SPHERE-3. The paper describes the present status of the SPHERE-3 code, and some results of the qualification process against experimental data. (author)

  13. A FEW CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE SPHERE OF FINANCIAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Bota Anton Florin

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses his financial affairs sphere, looking at this issue under a double aspect: analysis of the financial relations sphere and analyzing the financial activity sphere. Analysis of the financial relations sphere is made on the basis of fou

  14. Correlation among electronegativity, cation polarizability, optical basicity and single bond strength of simple oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, Vesselin, E-mail: vesselin@uctm.edu [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8, Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: komatsu@mst.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements in different valence states and with the most common coordination numbers has been searched on the basis of the similarity in physical nature of both quantities. In general, the cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. A systematic periodic change in the polarizability against the electronegativity has been observed in the isoelectronic series. It has been found that generally the optical basicity increases and the single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. The observed trends have been discussed on the basis of electron donation ability of the oxide ions and type of chemical bonding in simple oxides. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the single bond strength of simple oxides as a function of element electronegativity. A remarkable correlation exists between these independently obtained quantities. High values of electronegativity correspond to high values of single bond strength and vice versa. It is obvious that the observed trend in this figure is closely related to the type of chemical bonding in corresponding oxide. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements was searched. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed trends were discussed on the basis of type of chemical bonding in simple oxides.

  15. Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2005-06-01

    Ever since Karl Schwarzschild’s 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star—a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density—the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres.

  16. Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2005-01-01

    Ever since Karl Schwarzschild's 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star--a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density--the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres

  17. Fusion breeder sphere - PAC blanket design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Palmer, B.J.F.

    1987-11-01

    There is a considerable world-wide effort directed toward the production of materials for fusion reactors. Many ceramic fabrication groups are working on making lithium ceramics in a variety of forms, to be incorporated into the tritium breeding blanket which will surround the fusion reactor. Current blanket designs include ceramic in either monolithic or packed sphere bed (sphere-pac) forms. The major thrust at AECL is the production of lithium aluminate spheres to be incorporated in a sphere-pac bed. Contemporary studies on breeder blanket design offer little insight into the requirements on the sizes of the spheres. This study examined the parameters which determine the properties of pressure drop and coolant requirements. It was determined that an optimised sphere-pac bed would be composed of two diameters of spheres: 75 weight % at 3 mm and 25 weight % at 0.3 mm

  18. Sampling from a polytope and hard-disk Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapfer, Sebastian C; Krauth, Werner

    2013-01-01

    The hard-disk problem, the statics and the dynamics of equal two-dimensional hard spheres in a periodic box, has had a profound influence on statistical and computational physics. Markov-chain Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics were first discussed for this model. Here we reformulate hard-disk Monte Carlo algorithms in terms of another classic problem, namely the sampling from a polytope. Local Markov-chain Monte Carlo, as proposed by Metropolis et al. in 1953, appears as a sequence of random walks in high-dimensional polytopes, while the moves of the more powerful event-chain algorithm correspond to molecular dynamics evolution. We determine the convergence properties of Monte Carlo methods in a special invariant polytope associated with hard-disk configurations, and the implications for convergence of hard-disk sampling. Finally, we discuss parallelization strategies for event-chain Monte Carlo and present results for a multicore implementation

  19. Investigation of Compton effect on π-meson and charged pion polarizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, Yu.M.; Batarin, V.A.; Bezzubov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The results of an experiment aimed at the study of the 40 GeV/c pion radiative scattering on nuclei at small momentum transfers are presented. Compton effect on the pion was investigated and the charged pion polarizability was measured. The pion Compton-effect cross section dependence on the incident photon energy ω' 1 (rest pion frame) was measured in the 100 - 600 MeV range. The polarizability of charged pion from the analysis of Compton-effect events has been found to be β π =-α π =(-6.9 ± 1.4 stat. ± 1.2 syst. )x10 -43 cm 3 and the sun of pion electrical α π and magnetic β π polarizability has been estimated to be in agreement with theoretical predictions: α π +β π ≅ 0

  20. Free energy simulations with the AMOEBA polarizable force field and metadynamics on GPU platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiangda; Zhang, Yuebin; Chu, Huiying; Li, Guohui

    2016-03-05

    The free energy calculation library PLUMED has been incorporated into the OpenMM simulation toolkit, with the purpose to perform enhanced sampling MD simulations using the AMOEBA polarizable force field on GPU platform. Two examples, (I) the free energy profile of water pair separation (II) alanine dipeptide dihedral angle free energy surface in explicit solvent, are provided here to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our implementation. The converged free energy profiles could be obtained within an affordable MD simulation time when the AMOEBA polarizable force field is employed. Moreover, the free energy surfaces estimated using the AMOEBA polarizable force field are in agreement with those calculated from experimental data and ab initio methods. Hence, the implementation in this work is reliable and would be utilized to study more complicated biological phenomena in both an accurate and efficient way. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Some measurements of H/D polarizability isotope effects using differential refractometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster Smith, M; Van Hook, W A [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1989-05-01

    Refractive index differences between the H and D isomers of some common molecules in the liquid phase were measured between 404.7 and 690.0 nm. The data are combined with information on molar volume isotope effects to yield values for H/D isotope effects on the static polarizability, the vibrational contribution to the static and frequency dependent parts of the polarizability, and the H/D isotope effect on the second moment of the electronic charge distribution. The present results suffice to demonstrate the practicability of this technique to measure the components of the polarizability listed above. However for accurate resolution of the vibrational and second moment contributions, refractive index data of still greater precision will be required. (orig.).

  2. Some measurements of H/D polarizability isotope effects using differential refractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster Smith, M.; Van Hook, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    Refractive index differences between the H and D isomers of some common molecules in the liquid phase were measured between 404.7 and 690.0 nm. The data are combined with information on molar volume isotope effects to yield values for H/D isotope effects on the static polarizability, the vibrational contribution to the static and frequency dependent parts of the polarizability, and the H/D isotope effect on the second moment of the electronic charge distribution. The present results suffice to demonstrate the practicability of this technique to measure the components of the polarizability listed above. However for accurate resolution of the vibrational and second moment contributions, refractive index data of still greater precision will be required. (orig.)

  3. Polarizabilities of Ba and Ba2: Comparison of molecular beam experiments with relativistic quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Sascha; Mehring, Max; Schaefer, Rolf; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The dielectric response to an inhomogeneous electric field has been investigated for Ba and Ba 2 within a molecular beam experiment. The ratio of the polarizabilities per atom of Ba 2 and Ba is determined to be 1.30±0.13. The experimental result is compared to a high level ab initio quantum chemical coupled cluster calculation with an energy-consistent scalar relativistic small-core pseudopotential for Ba. For the barium atom a polarizability of 40.82 A 3 is obtained and the isotropic value of the polarizability calculated for Ba 2 is 97.88 A 3 , which is in good agreement with the experimental results, demonstrating that a quantitative understanding of the interaction between two closed-shell heavy element metal atoms has been achieved

  4. Comparison of self-consistent calculations of the static polarizability of atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moullet, I.; Martins, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The static dipole polarizabilities and other ground-state properties of H, H 2 , He, Na, and Na 2 are calculated using five different self-consistent schemes: Hartree--Fock, local spin density approximation, Hartree--Fock plus local density correlation, self-interaction-corrected local spin density approximation, and Hartree--Fock plus self-interaction-corrected local density correlation. The inclusion of the self-interaction corrected local spin density approximation in the Hartree--Fock method improves dramatically the calculated dissociation energies of molecules but has a small effect on the calculated polarizabilities. Correcting the local spin density calculations for self-interaction effects improves the calculated polarizability in the cases where the local spin density results are mediocre, and has only a small effect in the cases where the local spin density values are in reasonable agreement with experiment

  5. Optimization and transferability of non-electrostatic repulsion in the polarizable density embedding model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrsak, Dalibor; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Kongsted, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Embedding techniques in combination with response theory represent a successful approach to calculate molecular properties and excited states in large molecular systems such as solutions and proteins. Recently, the polarizable embedding model has been extended by introducing explicit electronic...... densities of the molecules in the nearest environment, resulting in the polarizable density embedding (PDE) model. This improvement provides a better description of the intermolecular interactions at short distances. However, the electronic densities of the environment molecules are calculated in isolation...... interaction energies calculated on the basis of full quantum-mechanical calculations. The obtained optimal factors are used in PDE calculations of various ground- and excited-state properties of molecules embedded in solvents described as polarizable environments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  6. Effect of substituents on polarizability and hyperpolarizability values of benzimidazole metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, P. A.; Babu, R. Ramesh, E-mail: rampap2k@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Growth and Thin films Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli - 620 024, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this report, the polarizability and first and second order hyperpolarizability values of bis benzimidazole Zn(II)-2R and bis benzimidazole Cd(II)-2R complexes, with different electron donating moieties R (R= Cl, Br, I, Acetate) were calculated using time dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) formalism embedded in MOPAC2012 package. Further the role of substituents on polarizability and hyperpolarizability values is investigated for the first time by analyzing the frontier molecular orbitals of the complexes with respect to the electronegativity of the substituents. It is found that the increase in electronegativity of the substituents correspondingly increases the energy gap of the molecules, which in turn reduces the polarizability values of both Zn and Cd benzimidazole complexes. Similarly, increase in electronegativity reduces the electric quadrupole moments of both the metal complexes, which in turn reduces the hyperpolarizability values.

  7. VMware vSphere design

    CERN Document Server

    Guthrie, Forbes

    2013-01-01

    Achieve the performance, scalability, and ROI your business needs What can you do at the start of a virtualization deployment to make things run more smoothly? If you plan, deploy, maintain, and optimize vSphere solutions in your company, this unique book provides keen insight and solutions. From hardware selection, network layout, and security considerations to storage and hypervisors, this book explains the design decisions you'll face and how to make the right choices. Written by two virtualization experts and packed with real-world strategies and examples, VMware v

  8. Dipole polarizability and neutron skin in {sup 68}Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Dominic [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Univ. Mainz (Germany); NSCL, MSU (United States); Aumann, Thomas [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The symmetry energy term E{sub sym} of the nuclear equation-of-state describes fundamental phenomena both in nuclear physics and in astrophysics. The electric dipole (E1) response of nuclei as a function of the isospin asymmetry is driven by E{sub sym} and in particular by its density dependence. Studies of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in exotic nuclei have been used to constrain E{sub sym} or the neutron skin thickness ΔR{sub n,p}. The electric dipole polarizability α{sub D}, being very sensitive to the low-lying E1 strength, is correlated to ΔR{sub n,p} in a robust and only moderately less model-dependent manner [PRC 81, 051303 (2010)]. Recently, for the stable nucleus, 208Pb the neutron skin thickness was extracted from the measured αD. Here, a first experimental determination of α{sub D} in an unstable nucleus and the derivation of its ΔR{sub n,p} will be reported. Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics at the R3B-LAND setup at GSI allows for the investigation of the dipole strength distribution in the neutron-rich {sup 68}Ni covering the pygmy (PDR) and giant dipole resonance (GDR). The E1 strength distribution in the neutron-rich {sup 68}Ni covering the pygmy (PDR) and giant dipole resonance (GDR) s investigated using the R3B-LAND setup at GSI. From the E1 strength distribution in {sup 68}Ni measured using the R3B-LAND setup at GSI, the resonance parameters for the observed PDR at 9.55(17) MeV and the giant dipole resonance at 17.1(2) MeV are determined. In combination with results from Wieland et al. [PRL 102, 092502 (2009)] an unexpectedly large direct photon-decay branching ratio of 7(2) is observed for the PDR. The measured α{sub D} of 3.40(23) fm{sup 3} is compared to relativistic RPA calculations yielding ΔR{sub n,p} of 0.17(2) fm for {sup 68}Ni.

  9. A comparison of density functional theory and coupled cluster methods for the calculation of electric dipole polarizability gradients of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paidarová, Ivana; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2012-01-01

    We have compared the performance of density functional theory (DFT) using five different exchange-correlation functionals with four coupled cluster theory based wave function methods in the calculation of geometrical derivatives of the polarizability tensor of methane. The polarizability gradient...

  10. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium dynamics of soft sphere fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yajun; Mittal, Jeetain

    2015-07-14

    We use computer simulations to test the freezing-point scaling relationship between equilibrium transport coefficients (self-diffusivity, viscosity) and thermodynamic parameters for soft sphere fluids. The fluid particles interact via the inverse-power potential (IPP), and the particle softness is changed by modifying the exponent of the distance-dependent potential term. In the case of IPP fluids, density and temperature are not independent variables and can be combined to obtain a coupling parameter to define the thermodynamic state of the system. We find that the rescaled coupling parameter, based on its value at the freezing point, can approximately collapse the diffusivity and viscosity data for IPP fluids over a wide range of particle softness. Even though the collapse is far from perfect, the freezing-point scaling relationship provides a convenient and effective way to compare the structure and dynamics of fluid systems with different particle softness. We further show that an alternate scaling relationship based on two-body excess entropy can provide an almost perfect collapse of the diffusivity and viscosity data below the freezing transition. Next, we perform nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the shear-dependent viscosity and to identify the distinct role of particle softness in underlying structural changes associated with rheological properties. Qualitatively, we find a similar shear-thinning behavior for IPP fluids with different particle softness, though softer particles exhibit stronger shear-thinning tendency. By investigating the distance and angle-dependent pair correlation functions in these systems, we find different structural features in the case of IPP fluids with hard-sphere like and softer particle interactions. Interestingly, shear-thinning in hard-sphere like fluids is accompanied by enhanced translational order, whereas softer fluids exhibit loss of order with shear. Our results provide a systematic evaluation

  11. Raman polarizabilities of the ν2, ν5 bands of CD3Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escribano, R.; Hernandez, M.G.; Mejias, M.; Brodersen, S.

    1985-01-01

    The Raman spectrum of the Coriolis interacting ν 2 , ν 5 bands of CD 3 Cl was recorded with a resolution of ca 0.6 cm -1 . Using the vibrational-rotational parameters of Yamada and Hirota, a computer simulation of the Raman contour was performed, yielding relative values of Raman polarizability derivatives for these bands. By comparison with the absolute intensity measurement of Orza et al., absolute values of the Raman polarizabilities were obtained. The sign of the Raman intensity perturbation was found to be negative. (author)

  12. Polarizable atomistic calculation of site energy disorder in amorphous Alq3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Yuki

    2010-02-01

    A polarizable molecular dynamics simulation and calculation scheme for site energy disorder is presented in amorphous tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum (Alq(3)) by means of the charge response kernel (CRK) method. The CRK fit to the electrostatic potential and the tight-binding approximation are introduced, which enables modeling of the polarizable electrostatic interaction for a large molecule systematically from an ab initio calculation. The site energy disorder for electron and hole transfers is calculated in amorphous Alq(3) and the effect of the polarization on the site energy disorder is discussed.

  13. Effect of impurities on the two-dimensional electron gas polarizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkoma, J.S.

    1980-06-01

    The polarizability for a two-dimensional electron gas is calculated in the presence of impurities by a Green function formalism. This leads to a system with finite mean free path due to electrons scattering off impurities. The calculated polarizability is found to be strongly dependent on the mean free path. The main feature is the suppression of the sharp corner at wave vector 2ksub(F) for finite mean free paths, and the pure metal result is recovered for the infinite mean free path. A possible application of the results to the transport properties of semiconductor inversion layers is discussed. (author)

  14. Poisson denoising on the sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J.; Starck, J. L.; Fadili, J.; Grenier, I.; Casandjian, J. M.

    2009-08-01

    In the scope of the Fermi mission, Poisson noise removal should improve data quality and make source detection easier. This paper presents a method for Poisson data denoising on sphere, called Multi-Scale Variance Stabilizing Transform on Sphere (MS-VSTS). This method is based on a Variance Stabilizing Transform (VST), a transform which aims to stabilize a Poisson data set such that each stabilized sample has an (asymptotically) constant variance. In addition, for the VST used in the method, the transformed data are asymptotically Gaussian. Thus, MS-VSTS consists in decomposing the data into a sparse multi-scale dictionary (wavelets, curvelets, ridgelets...), and then applying a VST on the coefficients in order to get quasi-Gaussian stabilized coefficients. In this present article, the used multi-scale transform is the Isotropic Undecimated Wavelet Transform. Then, hypothesis tests are made to detect significant coefficients, and the denoised image is reconstructed with an iterative method based on Hybrid Steepest Descent (HST). The method is tested on simulated Fermi data.

  15. Multiple and dependent scattering by densely packed discrete spheres: Comparison of radiative transfer and Maxwell theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.X.; Tan, J.Y.; Zhao, J.M.; Wang, F.Q.; Wang, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    The radiative transfer equation (RTE) has been widely used to deal with multiple scattering of light by sparsely and randomly distributed discrete particles. However, for densely packed particles, the RTE becomes questionable due to strong dependent scattering effects. This paper examines the accuracy of RTE by comparing with the exact electromagnetic theory. For an imaginary spherical volume filled with randomly distributed, densely packed spheres, the RTE is solved by the Monte Carlo method combined with the Percus–Yevick hard model to consider the dependent scattering effect, while the electromagnetic calculation is based on the multi-sphere superposition T-matrix method. The Mueller matrix elements of the system with different size parameters and volume fractions of spheres are obtained using both methods. The results verify that the RTE fails to deal with the systems with a high-volume fraction due to the dependent scattering effects. Apart from the effects of forward interference scattering and coherent backscattering, the Percus–Yevick hard sphere model shows good accuracy in accounting for the far-field interference effects for medium or smaller size parameters (up to 6.964 in this study). For densely packed discrete spheres with large size parameters (equals 13.928 in this study), the improvement of dependent scattering correction tends to deteriorate. The observations indicate that caution must be taken when using RTE in dealing with the radiative transfer in dense discrete random media even though the dependent scattering correction is applied. - Highlights: • The Muller matrix of randomly distributed, densely packed spheres are investigated. • The effects of multiple scattering and dependent scattering are analyzed. • The accuracy of radiative transfer theory for densely packed spheres is discussed. • Dependent scattering correction takes effect at medium size parameter or smaller. • Performance of dependent scattering correction

  16. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T >approx. 600 0 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10 3 μm) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants

  17. The Positive Freedom of the Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2015-01-01

    calls for new reflections on the possible relationship between media, public sphere and democracy. This paper argues that we should change the questions that are raised when we try to assess the public sphere. It is argued that the traditional (Enlightenment) focus upon negative liberties and the truth-value......The relationship between democracy and the media since the appearance of Habermas' major texts in the 1960s has been articulated through theories of the public sphere. The structure of the public sphere is significantly influenced by the communicative media, and the emergence of the internet thus...

  18. Sphere Rényi entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, J S

    2013-01-01

    I give some scalar field theory calculations on a d-dimensional lune of arbitrary angle, evaluating, numerically, the effective action which is expressed as a simple quadrature, for conformal coupling. Using this, the entanglement and Rényi entropies are computed. Massive fields are also considered and a renormalization to make the (one-loop) effective action vanish for infinite mass is suggested and used, not entirely successfully. However a universal coefficient is derived from the large mass expansion. From the deformation of the corresponding lune result, I conjecture that the effective action on all odd manifolds with a simple conical singularity has an extremum when the singularity disappears. For the round sphere, I show how to convert the quadrature form of the conformal Laplacian determinant into the more usual sum of Riemann ζ-functions (and log 2). (paper)

  19. A quantum-mechanical perspective on linear response theory within polarizable embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Norman, Patrick; Kongsted, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We present a derivation of linear response theory within polarizable embedding starting from a rigorous quantum-mechanical treatment of a composite system. To this aim, two different subsystem decompositions (symmetric and nonsymmetric) of the linear response function are introduced and the pole...

  20. Impact of graphene on the polarizability of a neighbour nanoparticle: A dyadic green's function study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amorim, B.; Dias Gonçalves, Paulo André; Vasilevskiy, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the renormalization of the polarizability of a nanoparticle in the presence of either: (1) a continuous graphene sheet; or (2) a plasmonic graphene grating, taking into account retardation effects. Our analysis demonstrates that the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in graphene...

  1. Finite-volume and partial quenching effects in the magnetic polarizability of the neutron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. M. M.; Leinweber, D. B.; Young, R. D.

    2014-03-01

    There has been much progress in the experimental measurement of the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon. Similarly, lattice QCD simulations have recently produced dynamical QCD results for the magnetic polarizability of the neutron approaching the chiral regime. In order to compare the lattice simulations with experiment, calculation of partial quenching and finite-volume effects is required prior to an extrapolation in quark mass to the physical point. These dependencies are described using chiral effective field theory. Corrections to the partial quenching effects associated with the sea-quark-loop electric charges are estimated by modeling corrections to the pion cloud. These are compared to the uncorrected lattice results. In addition, the behavior of the finite-volume corrections as a function of pion mass is explored. Box sizes of approximately 7 fm are required to achieve a result within 5% of the infinite-volume result at the physical pion mass. A variety of extrapolations are shown at different box sizes, providing a benchmark to guide future lattice QCD calculations of the magnetic polarizabilities. A relatively precise value for the physical magnetic polarizability of the neutron is presented, βn=1.93(11)stat(11)sys×10-4 fm3, which is in agreement with current experimental results.

  2. Finite volume effects on the electric polarizability of neutral hadrons in lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, M.; Alexandru, A.; Freeman, W.; Lee, F. X.

    2016-10-01

    We study the finite volume effects on the electric polarizability for the neutron, neutral pion, and neutral kaon using eight dynamically generated two-flavor nHYP-clover ensembles at two different pion masses: 306(1) and 227(2) MeV. An infinite volume extrapolation is performed for each hadron at both pion masses. For the neutral kaon, finite volume effects are relatively mild. The dependence on the quark mass is also mild, and a reliable chiral extrapolation can be performed along with the infinite volume extrapolation. Our result is αK0 phys=0.356 (74 )(46 )×10-4 fm3 . In contrast, for neutron, the electric polarizability depends strongly on the volume. After removing the finite volume corrections, our neutron polarizability results are in good agreement with chiral perturbation theory. For the connected part of the neutral pion polarizability, the negative trend persists, and it is not due to finite volume effects but likely sea quark charging effects.

  3. Electric dipole, polarizability and structure of cesium chloride clusters with one-excess electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jraij, A.; Allouche, A.R.; Rabilloud, F.; Korek, M.; Aubert-Frecon, M.; Rayane, D.; Compagnon, I.; Antoine, R.; Broyer, M.; Dugourd, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of the electric dipole of gas phase one-excess electron Cs n Cl n-1 clusters is reported together with a theoretical ab initio prediction of stable structures, dipole moments and electronic polarizabilities for these species in their ground state. Results are in agreement with NaCl cubic structures

  4. Polarizability of the Nitrate Anion and Its Solvation at the Air/Water Interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salvador, P.; Curtis, J. E.; Tobias, D. J.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2003), s. 3752-3757 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : polarizability * nitrate anion * air/water Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.959, year: 2003

  5. Calculation of dipole polarizability derivatives of adamantane and their use in electron scattering computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Paidarová, Ivana; Čársky, Petr

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present calculations of the static polarizability and its derivatives for the adamantane molecule carried out at the density functional theory level using the B3LYP exchange correlation functional and Sadlej’s polarized valence triple zeta basis set. It is shown...

  6. Optical basicity and electronic polarizability of zinc borotellurite glass doped La3+ ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Halimah

    Full Text Available Zinc borotellurite glasses doped with lanthanum oxide were successfully prepared through melt-quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the glass system was validated by the presence of a broad hump in the XRD result. The refractive index of the prepared glass samples was calculated by using the equation proposed by Dimitrov and Sakka. The theoretical value of molar refraction, electronic polarizability, oxide ion polarizability and metallization criterion were calculated by using Lorentz-Lorenz equation. Meanwhile, expression proposed by Duffy and Ingram for the theoretical value of optical basicity of multi-component glasses were applied to obtain energy band gap based optical basicity and refractive index based optical basicity. The optical basicity of prepared glasses decreased with the increasing concentration of lanthanum oxide. Metallization criterion on the basis of refractive index showed an increasing trend while energy band gap based metallization criterion showed a decreasing trend. The small metallization criterion values of the glass samples represent that the width of the conduction band becomes larger which increase the tendency for metallization of the glasses. The results obtained indicates that the fabricated glasses have high potential to be applied on optical limiting devices in photonic field. Keywords: Borotellurite glasses, Refractive index, Electronic polarizability, Oxide ion polarizability, Optical basicity, Metallization criterion

  7. ''Atomic'' Bremsstrahlung or polarizational radiation in collision of many-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Solov'yov, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    In this work the so-called ''Atomic'' bremsstrahlung (AB) or polarizational radiation, created in collisions of atoms or ions, is discussed. This kind of radiation arises due to the polarization of the electron shell of colliding particles. It is created by the structured projectiles and targets if the constituents are electrically charged. 6 refs, 2 figs

  8. A calculation of internal kinetic energy and polarizability of compressed argon from the statistical atom model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldam, C.A. ten; Groot, S.R. de

    1952-01-01

    From Jensen's and Gombás' modification of the statistical Thomas-Fermi atom model, a theory for compressed atoms is developed by changing the boundary conditions. Internal kinetic energy and polarizability of argon are calculated as functions of pressure. At 1000 atm. an internal kinetic energy of

  9. Collision-induced absorption intensity redistribution and the atomic pair polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanin, M. O.

    1997-01-01

    A modified relation between the trace polarizability of a diatom and the S(-2) dipole sum is proposed that accounts for the effect of atomic collisions on the dipole oscillator strength distribution. Contribution to the collision-induced trace due to redistribution in the ionization continuum of Ar is evaluated and is found to be significant

  10. Electron polarizability of crystalline solids in quantizing magnetic fields and topological gap numbers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Středa, Pavel; Jonckheere, T.; Martin, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, - (2008), 146804/1-146804/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0365 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : electron polarizability * quantum Hall effect * topological numbers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.180, year: 2008

  11. A thermodynamic derivation of equations for dielectric-relaxation phenomena in anisotropic polarizable media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciancio, V.; Kluitenberg, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Using the general methods of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, a theory for anisotropic polarizable media in which dielectric relaxation phenomena occur is developed. Assuming that ii microscopic phenomena give rise to dielectric relaxation, the contributions of these phenomena to the macroscopic

  12. A model with charges and polarizability for CS2 in an ionic liquid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RUTH M LYNDEN-BELL

    the static electrostatic distribution in the CS2 molecule with 7 charged sites and anisotropic polarizability on the carbon site and isotropic .... the charges modified to reproduce the molecular quad- ... face at 1.5 times the van der Waals radii from the nuclei ..... shows the probability distribution of induced dipoles on the C site ...

  13. Light Scattering by a Dielectric Sphere: Perspectives on the Mie Resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tzarouchis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Light scattering by a small spherical particle, a central topic for electromagnetic scattering theory, is here considered. In this short review, some of the basic features of its resonant scattering behavior are covered. First, a general physical picture is described by a full electrodynamic perspective, the Lorenz–Mie theory. The resonant spectrum of a dielectric sphere reveals the existence of two distinctive types of polarization enhancement: the plasmonic and the dielectric resonances. The corresponding electrostatic (Rayleigh picture is analyzed and the polarizability of a homogeneous spherical inclusion is extracted. This description facilitates the identification of the first type of resonance, i.e., the localized surface plasmon (plasmonic resonance, as a function of the permittivity. Moreover, the electrostatic picture is linked with the plasmon hybridization model through the case of a step-inhomogeneous structure, i.e., a core–shell sphere. The connections between the electrostatic and electrodynamic models are reviewed in the small size limit and details on size-induced aspects, such as the dynamic depolarization and the radiation reaction on a small sphere are exposed through the newly introduced Mie–Padé approximative perspective. The applicability of this approximation is further expanded including the second type of resonances, i.e., the dielectric resonances. For this type of resonances, the Mie–Padé approximation reveals the main character of the two different cases of resonances of either magnetic or electric origin. A unified picture is therefore described encompassing both plasmonic and dielectric resonances, and the resonant conditions of all three different types are extracted as functions of the permittivity and the size of the sphere. Lastly, the directional scattering behavior of the first two dielectric resonances is exposed in a simple manner, namely the Kerker conditions for maximum forward and

  14. Transport coefficients and mechanical response in hard-disk colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-Kai; Li, Jian; Chen, Kang; Tian, Wen-De; Ma, Yu-Qiang

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the transport properties and mechanical response of glassy hard disks using nonlinear Langevin equation theory. We derive expressions for the elastic shear modulus and viscosity in two dimensions on the basis of thermal-activated barrier-hopping dynamics and mechanically accelerated motion. Dense hard disks exhibit phenomena such as softening elasticity, shear-thinning of viscosity, and yielding upon deformation, which are qualitatively similar to dense hard-sphere colloidal suspensions in three dimensions. These phenomena can be ascribed to stress-induced “landscape tilting”. Quantitative comparisons of these phenomena between hard disks and hard spheres are presented. Interestingly, we find that the density dependence of yield stress in hard disks is much more significant than in hard spheres. Our work provides a foundation for further generalizing the nonlinear Langevin equation theory to address slow dynamics and rheological behavior in binary or polydisperse mixtures of hard or soft disks. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821500) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21374073 and, 21574096).

  15. On the theory of electric double layer with explicit account of a polarizable co-solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budkov, Yu. A., E-mail: urabudkov@rambler.ru [Laboratory of NMR Spectroscopy and Numerical Investigations of Liquids, G. A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Department of Applied Mathematics, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kolesnikov, A. L. [Institut für Nichtklassische Chemie e.V., Universität Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Kiselev, M. G. [Laboratory of NMR Spectroscopy and Numerical Investigations of Liquids, G. A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ivanovo (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-14

    We present a continuation of our theoretical research into the influence of co-solvent polarizability on a differential capacitance of the electric double layer. We formulate a modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory, using the formalism of density functional approach on the level of local density approximation taking into account the electrostatic interactions of ions and co-solvent molecules as well as their excluded volume. We derive the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation, considering the three-component symmetric lattice gas model as a reference system and minimizing the grand thermodynamic potential with respect to the electrostatic potential. We apply present modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation to the electric double layer theory, showing that accounting for the excluded volume of co-solvent molecules and ions slightly changes the main result of our previous simplified theory. Namely, in the case of small co-solvent polarizability with its increase under the enough small surface potentials of electrode, the differential capacitance undergoes the significant growth. Oppositely, when the surface potential exceeds some threshold value (which is slightly smaller than the saturation potential), the increase in the co-solvent polarizability results in a differential capacitance decrease. However, when the co-solvent polarizability exceeds some threshold value, its increase generates a considerable enhancement of the differential capacitance in a wide range of surface potentials. We demonstrate that two qualitatively different behaviors of the differential capacitance are related to the depletion and adsorption of co-solvent molecules at the charged electrode. We show that an additive of the strongly polarizable co-solvent to an electrolyte solution can shift significantly the saturation potential in two qualitatively different manners. Namely, a small additive of strongly polarizable co-solvent results in a shift of saturation potential to higher surface potentials. On

  16. On the theory of electric double layer with explicit account of a polarizable co-solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budkov, Yu. A.; Kolesnikov, A. L.; Kiselev, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    We present a continuation of our theoretical research into the influence of co-solvent polarizability on a differential capacitance of the electric double layer. We formulate a modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory, using the formalism of density functional approach on the level of local density approximation taking into account the electrostatic interactions of ions and co-solvent molecules as well as their excluded volume. We derive the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation, considering the three-component symmetric lattice gas model as a reference system and minimizing the grand thermodynamic potential with respect to the electrostatic potential. We apply present modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation to the electric double layer theory, showing that accounting for the excluded volume of co-solvent molecules and ions slightly changes the main result of our previous simplified theory. Namely, in the case of small co-solvent polarizability with its increase under the enough small surface potentials of electrode, the differential capacitance undergoes the significant growth. Oppositely, when the surface potential exceeds some threshold value (which is slightly smaller than the saturation potential), the increase in the co-solvent polarizability results in a differential capacitance decrease. However, when the co-solvent polarizability exceeds some threshold value, its increase generates a considerable enhancement of the differential capacitance in a wide range of surface potentials. We demonstrate that two qualitatively different behaviors of the differential capacitance are related to the depletion and adsorption of co-solvent molecules at the charged electrode. We show that an additive of the strongly polarizable co-solvent to an electrolyte solution can shift significantly the saturation potential in two qualitatively different manners. Namely, a small additive of strongly polarizable co-solvent results in a shift of saturation potential to higher surface potentials. On

  17. Size-scaling behaviour of the electronic polarizability of one-dimensional interacting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, G.; Louis, E.; Vergés, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    Electronic polarizability of finite chains is accurately calculated from the total energy variation of the system produced by small but finite static electric fields applied along the chain direction. Normalized polarizability, that is, polarizability divided by chain length, diverges as the second power of length for metallic systems but approaches a constant value for insulating systems. This behaviour provides a very convenient way to characterize the wave-function malleability of finite systems as it avoids the need of attaching infinite contacts to the chain ends. Hubbard model calculations at half filling show that the method works for a small U  =  1 interaction value that corresponds to a really small spectral gap of 0.005 (hopping t  =  ‑1 is assumed). Once successfully checked, the method has been applied to the long-range hopping model of Gebhard and Ruckenstein showing 1/r hopping decay (Gebhard and Ruckenstein 1992 Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 244; Gebhard et al 1994 Phys. Rev. B 49 10926). Metallicity for U values below the reported metal-insulator transition is obtained but the surprise comes for U values larger than the critical one (when a gap appears in the spectral density of states) because a steady increase of the normalized polarizability with size is obtained. This critical size-scaling behaviour can be understood as corresponding to a molecule which polarizability is unbounded. We have checked that a real transfer of charge from one chain end to the opposite occurs as a response to very small electric fields in spite of the existence of a large gap of the order of U for one-particle excitations. Finally, ab initio quantum chemistry calculations of realistic poly-acetylene chains prove that the occurrence of such critical behaviour in real systems is unlikely.

  18. Electric dipoles on the Bloch sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Vutha, Amar C.

    2014-01-01

    The time evolution of a two-level quantum mechanical system can be geometrically described using the Bloch sphere. By mapping the Bloch sphere evolution onto the dynamics of oscillating electric dipoles, we provide a physically intuitive link between classical electromagnetism and the electric dipole transitions of atomic & molecular physics.

  19. Reversible thermal gelation in soft spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapnistos, M.; Vlassopoulos, D.; Fytas, G.

    2000-01-01

    Upon heating, concentrated solutions of star polymers and block copolymer micelles in a good solvent, representing soft spheres, undergo a reversible gelation. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of clusters causing a partial dynamic arrest of the swollen interpenetrating spheres at hi...

  20. Electric dipoles on the Bloch sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vutha, Amar C

    2015-01-01

    The time evolution of a two-level quantum mechanical system can be geometrically described using the Bloch sphere. By mapping the Bloch sphere evolution onto the dynamics of oscillating electric dipoles, we provide a physically intuitive link between classical electromagnetism and the electric dipole transitions of atomic and molecular physics. (paper)

  1. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  2. The effective χ parameter in polarizable polymeric systems: One-loop perturbation theory and field-theoretic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzetic, Douglas J; Delaney, Kris T; Fredrickson, Glenn H

    2018-05-28

    We derive the effective Flory-Huggins parameter in polarizable polymeric systems, within a recently introduced polarizable field theory framework. The incorporation of bead polarizabilities in the model self-consistently embeds dielectric response, as well as van der Waals interactions. The latter generate a χ parameter (denoted χ̃) between any two species with polarizability contrast. Using one-loop perturbation theory, we compute corrections to the structure factor Sk and the dielectric function ϵ^(k) for a polarizable binary homopolymer blend in the one-phase region of the phase diagram. The electrostatic corrections to S(k) can be entirely accounted for by a renormalization of the excluded volume parameter B into three van der Waals-corrected parameters B AA , B AB , and B BB , which then determine χ̃. The one-loop theory not only enables the quantitative prediction of χ̃ but also provides useful insight into the dependence of χ̃ on the electrostatic environment (for example, its sensitivity to electrostatic screening). The unapproximated polarizable field theory is amenable to direct simulation via complex Langevin sampling, which we employ here to test the validity of the one-loop results. From simulations of S(k) and ϵ^(k) for a system of polarizable homopolymers, we find that the one-loop theory is best suited to high concentrations, where it performs very well. Finally, we measure χ̃N in simulations of a polarizable diblock copolymer melt and obtain excellent agreement with the one-loop theory. These constitute the first fully fluctuating simulations conducted within the polarizable field theory framework.

  3. Incorporating Phase-Dependent Polarizability in Non-Additive Electrostatic Models for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Aqueous Liquid-Vapor Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Brad A; Warren, G Lee; Patel, Sandeep

    2009-02-10

    We discuss a new classical water force field that explicitly accounts for differences in polarizability between liquid and vapor phases. The TIP4P-QDP (4-point transferable intermolecular potential with charge dependent-polarizability) force field is a modification of the original TIP4P-FQ fluctuating charge water force field of Rick et al.(1) that self-consistently adjusts its atomic hardness parameters via a scaling function dependent on the M-site charge. The electronegativity (χ) parameters are also scaled in order to reproduce condensed-phase dipole moments of comparable magnitude to TIP4P-FQ. TIP4P-QDP is parameterized to reproduce experimental gas-phase and select condensed-phase properties. The TIP4P-QDP water model possesses a gas phase polarizability of 1.40 Å(3) and gas-phase dipole moment of 1.85 Debye, in excellent agreement with experiment and high-level ab initio predictions. The liquid density of TIP4P-QDP is 0.9954(±0.0002) g/cm(3) at 298 K and 1 atmosphere, and the enthalpy of vaporization is 10.55(±0.12) kcal/mol. Other condensed-phase properties such as the isobaric heat capacity, isothermal compressibility, and diffusion constant are also calculated within reasonable accuracy of experiment and consistent with predictions of other current state-of-the-art water force fields. The average molecular dipole moment of TIP4P-QDP in the condensed phase is 2.641(±0.001) Debye, approximately 0.02 Debye higher than TIP4P-FQ and within the range of values currently surmised for the bulk liquid. The dielectric constant, ε = 85.8 ± 1.0, is 10% higher than experiment. This is reasoned to be due to the increase in the condensed phase dipole moment over TIP4P-FQ, which estimates ε remarkably well. Radial distribution functions for TIP4P-QDP and TIP4P-FQ show similar features, with TIP4P-QDP showing slightly reduced peak heights and subtle shifts towards larger distance interactions. Since the greatest effects of the phase-dependent polarizability are

  4. Incorporating Phase-Dependent Polarizability in Non-Additive Electrostatic Models for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Aqueous Liquid-Vapor Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Brad A.; Warren, G. Lee; Patel, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a new classical water force field that explicitly accounts for differences in polarizability between liquid and vapor phases. The TIP4P-QDP (4-point transferable intermolecular potential with charge dependent-polarizability) force field is a modification of the original TIP4P-FQ fluctuating charge water force field of Rick et al.1 that self-consistently adjusts its atomic hardness parameters via a scaling function dependent on the M-site charge. The electronegativity (χ) parameters are also scaled in order to reproduce condensed-phase dipole moments of comparable magnitude to TIP4P-FQ. TIP4P-QDP is parameterized to reproduce experimental gas-phase and select condensed-phase properties. The TIP4P-QDP water model possesses a gas phase polarizability of 1.40 Å3 and gas-phase dipole moment of 1.85 Debye, in excellent agreement with experiment and high-level ab initio predictions. The liquid density of TIP4P-QDP is 0.9954(±0.0002) g/cm3 at 298 K and 1 atmosphere, and the enthalpy of vaporization is 10.55(±0.12) kcal/mol. Other condensed-phase properties such as the isobaric heat capacity, isothermal compressibility, and diffusion constant are also calculated within reasonable accuracy of experiment and consistent with predictions of other current state-of-the-art water force fields. The average molecular dipole moment of TIP4P-QDP in the condensed phase is 2.641(±0.001) Debye, approximately 0.02 Debye higher than TIP4P-FQ and within the range of values currently surmised for the bulk liquid. The dielectric constant, ε = 85.8 ± 1.0, is 10% higher than experiment. This is reasoned to be due to the increase in the condensed phase dipole moment over TIP4P-FQ, which estimates ε remarkably well. Radial distribution functions for TIP4P-QDP and TIP4P-FQ show similar features, with TIP4P-QDP showing slightly reduced peak heights and subtle shifts towards larger distance interactions. Since the greatest effects of the phase-dependent polarizability are

  5. Effective oscillator strength distributions of spherically symmetric atoms for calculating polarizabilities and long-range atom–atom interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jun, E-mail: phyjiang@yeah.net [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, 0909 (Australia); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, 0909 (Australia); Cheng, Yongjun, E-mail: cyj83mail@gmail.com [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, 0909 (Australia); Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Bromley, M.W.J., E-mail: brom@physics.uq.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4075 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Effective oscillator strength distributions are systematically generated and tabulated for the alkali atoms, the alkaline-earth atoms, the alkaline-earth ions, the rare gases and some miscellaneous atoms. These effective distributions are used to compute the dipole, quadrupole and octupole static polarizabilities, and are then applied to the calculation of the dynamic polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies. These polarizabilities can be used to determine the long-range C{sub 6}, C{sub 8} and C{sub 10} atom–atom interactions for the dimers formed from any of these atoms and ions, and we present tables covering all of these combinations.

  6. Effective oscillator strength distributions of spherically symmetric atoms for calculating polarizabilities and long-range atom–atom interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jun; Mitroy, J.; Cheng, Yongjun; Bromley, M.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Effective oscillator strength distributions are systematically generated and tabulated for the alkali atoms, the alkaline-earth atoms, the alkaline-earth ions, the rare gases and some miscellaneous atoms. These effective distributions are used to compute the dipole, quadrupole and octupole static polarizabilities, and are then applied to the calculation of the dynamic polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies. These polarizabilities can be used to determine the long-range C 6 , C 8 and C 10 atom–atom interactions for the dimers formed from any of these atoms and ions, and we present tables covering all of these combinations

  7. Controllable Electrochemical Activities by Oxidative Treatment toward Inner-Sphere Redox Systems at N-Doped Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoriko Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical activity of the surface of Nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films (a-CNH, N-doped DLC toward the inner sphere redox species is controllable by modifying the surface termination. At the oxygen plasma treated N-doped DLC surface (O-DLC, the surface functional groups containing carbon doubly bonded to oxygen (C=O, which improves adsorption of polar molecules, were generated. By oxidative treatment, the electron-transfer rate for dopamine (DA positively charged inner-sphere redox analyte could be improved at the N-doped DLC surface. For redox reaction of 2,4-dichlorophenol, which induces an inevitable fouling of the anode surface by forming passivating films, the DLC surfaces exhibited remarkably higher stability and reproducibility of the electrode performance. This is due to the electrochemical decomposition of the passive films without the interference of oxygen evolution by applying higher potential. The N-doped DLC film can offer benefits as the polarizable electrode surface with the higher reactivity and higher stability toward inner-sphere redox species. By making use of these controllable electrochemical reactivity at the O-DLC surface, the selective detection of DA in the mixed solution of DA and uric acid could be achieved.

  8. Characterization of maximally random jammed sphere packings. III. Transport and electromagnetic properties via correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Michael A.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    In the first two papers of this series, we characterized the structure of maximally random jammed (MRJ) sphere packings across length scales by computing a variety of different correlation functions, spectral functions, hole probabilities, and local density fluctuations. From the remarkable structural features of the MRJ packings, especially its disordered hyperuniformity, exceptional physical properties can be expected. Here we employ these structural descriptors to estimate effective transport and electromagnetic properties via rigorous bounds, exact expansions, and accurate analytical approximation formulas. These property formulas include interfacial bounds as well as universal scaling laws for the mean survival time and the fluid permeability. We also estimate the principal relaxation time associated with Brownian motion among perfectly absorbing traps. For the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the long-wavelength limit, we show that a dispersion of dielectric MRJ spheres within a matrix of another dielectric material forms, to a very good approximation, a dissipationless disordered and isotropic two-phase medium for any phase dielectric contrast ratio. We compare the effective properties of the MRJ sphere packings to those of overlapping spheres, equilibrium hard-sphere packings, and lattices of hard spheres. Moreover, we generalize results to micro- and macroscopically anisotropic packings of spheroids with tensorial effective properties. The analytic bounds predict the qualitative trend in the physical properties associated with these structures, which provides guidance to more time-consuming simulations and experiments. They especially provide impetus for experiments to design materials with unique bulk properties resulting from hyperuniformity, including structural-color and color-sensing applications.

  9. Carbon 1s photoelectron spectroscopy of halomethanes. Effects of electronegativity, hardness, charge distribution, and relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saethre, L.J.; Borve, K.J.; Thomas, T.D.; Bozek, J.D.; Huttula, M.; Kukk, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The concept of electronegativity - the ability of an atom (or functional group) to attract electrons to itself - plays an important role in chemistry. A related concept is the hardness, which has been defined to be half the derivative of electronegativity with respect to charge. It is inversely related to polarizibility. A number of quantitative definitions of electronegativity have been given and a number of tables of electronegativity and hardness have been presented. In spite of this extensive activity the quantitative nature of both of these remains elusive. Inner-shell ionization energies reflect both the charge distribution in a molecule (and, hence, the electronegativity of its component atoms) and the polarizibility of the molecule (and, hence, the hardness of the component atoms). It is not surprising, therefore, that the core-ionization energies of a central atom correlate with the electronegativities of the substituents attached to the atom. It has been our goal to use these correlations to obtain a better insight into the nature of electronegativity and to develop a method for assigning group electronegativities on the basis of core-ionization energies. Carbon 1s ionization energies have been measured for 12 halomethanes. These together with earlier measurements provide 27 compounds for investigating the relationship between core-ionization energies and the electronegativity and hardness of the halogens. The ionization energies correlate nearly linearly with the sum of the electronegativities of the halogens attached to the central carbon. Both electronegativity and hardness play important roles in determining the ionization energy, and it is found that the linear relationship between ionization energy and electronegativity arises from an interplay of the electronegativity and hardness of the halogens and the length and ionicity of the carbon-halogen bond

  10. Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomis, Jaume [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Hsin, Po-Shen [Department of Physics, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Komargodski, Zohar; Schwimmer, Adam [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Seiberg, Nathan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Theisen, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,14476 Golm (Germany)

    2016-03-04

    The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space M is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail N=(2,2) and N=(0,2) supersymmetric theories in d=2 and N=2 supersymmetric theories in d=4. This reasoning leads to new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is Kähler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing Kähler class. For N=(2,2) theories in d=2 and N=2 theories in d=4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the Kähler potential of M follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.

  11. TWO FERROMAGNETIC SPHERES IN HOMOGENEOUS MAGNETIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury A. Krasnitsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of two spherical conductors is studied quite in detail with bispherical coordinates usage and has numerous appendices in an electrostatics. The boundary-value problem about two ferromagnetic spheres enclosed on homogeneous and infinite environment in which the lack of spheres exists like homogeneous magnetic field is considered. The solution of Laplace's equation in the bispherical system of coordinates allows us to find the potential and field distribution in all spaces, including area between spheres. The boundary conditions in potential continuity and in ordinary density constituent of spheres surfaces induction flux are used. It is supposed that spheres are identical, and magnetic permeability of their material is expressed in  >> 0. The problem about falling of electromagnetic plane wave on the system of two spheres, which possesses electrically small sizes, can be considered as quasistationary. The scalar potentials received as a result of Laplace's equation solution are represented by the series containing Legendre polynomials. The concept of two spheres system effective permeability is introduced. It is equal to the advantage in magnitude of magnetic induction flux vector through a certain system’s section arising due to its magnetic properties. Necessary ratios for the effective permeability referred to the central system’s section are obtained. Particularly, the results can be used during the analysis of ferroxcube core clearance, which influences on the magnetic antenna properties. 

  12. Unsteady flow over a decelerating rotating sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkyilmazoglu, M.

    2018-03-01

    Unsteady flow analysis induced by a decelerating rotating sphere is the main concern of this paper. A revolving sphere in a still fluid is supposed to slow down at an angular velocity rate that is inversely proportional to time. The governing partial differential equations of motion are scaled in accordance with the literature, reducing to the well-documented von Kármán equations in the special circumstance near the pole. Both numerical and perturbation approaches are pursued to identify the velocity fields, shear stresses, and suction velocity far above the sphere. It is detected that an induced flow surrounding the sphere acts accordingly to adapt to the motion of the sphere up to some critical unsteadiness parameters at certain latitudes. Afterward, the decay rate of rotation ceases such that the flow at the remaining azimuths starts revolving freely. At a critical unsteadiness parameter corresponding to s = -0.681, the decelerating sphere rotates freely and requires no more torque. At a value of s exactly matching the rotating disk flow at the pole identified in the literature, the entire flow field around the sphere starts revolving faster than the disk itself. Increasing values of -s almost diminish the radial outflow. This results in jet flows in both the latitudinal and meridional directions, concentrated near the wall region. The presented mean flow results will be useful for analyzing the instability features of the flow, whether of a convective or absolute nature.

  13. Induced spherococcoid hard wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    A mutant has been obtained - a spheroccocoid line -through irradiation of hard wheat seed with fast neutrons. It is distinguished by semispherical glumes and smaller grain; the plants have low stem with erect leaves but with shorter spikes and with lesser number of spikelets than those of the initial cultivar. Good productive tillering and resistance to lodging contributed to 23.5% higher yield. The line was superior to the standard and the initial cultivars by 14.2% as regards protein content, and by up to 22.8% - as to flour gluten. It has been successfully used in hybridization producing high-yielding hard wheat lines resistant to lodging, with good technological and other indicators. The possibility stated is of obtaining a spherococcoid mutant in tetraploid (hard) wheat out of the D-genome as well as its being suited to hard wheat breeding to enhance protein content, resistance to lodging, etc. (author)

  14. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  15. Formal Variability of Terms in the Sphere of Network Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Viktorovich Deniko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the problem of formal variability of terms in the sphere of network terminology in the Russian language. The research is based on data from the Internet communication in the sphere of network technologies. Such formal variability types as graphical, phonemic, word building and complex (graphic and phonetic, morphologic and accentual are discussed in this article. The authors reveal the reasons for graphic variability of foreign origin terms making up the international terminological fund. These reasons cover such aspects as the use of graphics of source language and recipient language; the presence or absence of hyphenation, etc. It is determined that the phonemic variants of terms appear as a result of oral or written borrowings. The existence of such variants is also connected with the stage of their adaptation in the Russian language after borrowing. In this case the variants are related with soft or hard pronunciation of consonants. There are also some cases of phonemic variability on the graphic level. The complex variability is regarded as a part of active processes taking place in the modern Russian language, and these processes involve both native and foreign origin terms. The particular attention is paid to the word-building variants – word-building affixes the variability of which is peculiar of network technologies. The results of the research show that the variability of professional units belonging to the network technologies sublanguage is caused by the active process of borrowing of specialpurpose vocabulary into the Russian language. The process is due to the intensification of intercultural communication in the professional spheres.

  16. Finding a source inside a sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitsas, N L; Martin, P A

    2012-01-01

    A sphere excited by an interior point source or a point dipole gives a simplified yet realistic model for studying a variety of applications in medical imaging. We suppose that there is an exterior field (transmission problem) and that the total field on the sphere is known. We give analytical inversion algorithms for determining the interior physical characteristics of the sphere as well as the location, strength and orientation of the source/dipole. We start with static problems (Laplace’s equation) and then proceed to acoustic problems (Helmholtz equation). (paper)

  17. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  18. Exploring the Dipole Polarizability of $^{11}$Li at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Dipole polarizability refers to the effect of the excitation to negative parity states through the electric dipole interaction. In nuclear physics dipole polarizability has not yet played a major role. For nuclei close to the drip lines where the separation energies of neutrons (or protons) are small, a substantial part of the dipole strength function occurs at low excitation energies. We here propose to investigate this effect by measuring elastic scattering at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. REX-ISOLDE together with the new improved yields of $^{11}$Li provides the ideal setting for this experiment. We ask for a total of 24 shifts with proton beam plus 3 shifts of stable beam from a Ta-foil target.

  19. Induced-Charge Enhancement of the Diffusion Potential in Membranes with Polarizable Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, I I; Lebedev, D V; Solodovnichenko, V S; Shiverskiy, A V; Simunin, M M

    2017-12-01

    When a charged membrane separates two salt solutions of different concentrations, a potential difference appears due to interfacial Donnan equilibrium and the diffusion junction. Here, we report a new mechanism for the generation of a membrane potential in polarizable conductive membranes via an induced surface charge. It results from an electric field generated by the diffusion of ions with different mobilities. For uncharged membranes, this effect strongly enhances the diffusion potential and makes it highly sensitive to the ion mobilities ratio, electrolyte concentration, and pore size. Theoretical predictions on the basis of the space-charge model extended to polarizable nanopores fully agree with experimental measurements in KCl and NaCl aqueous solutions.

  20. Lanczos-driven coupled-cluster damped linear response theory for molecules in polarizable environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Coriani, Sonia; Kongsted, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    are specifically motivated by a twofold aim: (i) computation of core excitations in realistic surroundings and (ii) examination of the effect of the differential response of the environment upon excitation solely related to the CC multipliers (herein denoted the J matrix) in computations of excitation energies......We present an extension of a previously reported implementation of a Lanczos-driven coupled-cluster (CC) damped linear response approach to molecules in condensed phases, where the effects of a surrounding environment are incorporated by means of the polarizable embedding formalism. We...... and transition moments of polarizable-embedded molecules. Numerical calculations demonstrate that the differential polarization of the environment due to the first-order CC multipliers provides only minor contributions to the solvatochromic shift for all transitions considered. We thus complement previous works...

  1. Spin-orbit coupling and the static polarizability of single-wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, Ginetom S.; Ulloa, Sergio E.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the static longitudinal polarizability of single-wall carbon tubes in the long wavelength limit taking into account spin-orbit effects. We use a four-orbital orthogonal tight-binding formalism to describe the electronic states and the random phase approximation to calculate the dielectric function. We study the role of both the Rashba as well as the intrinsic spin-orbit interactions on the longitudinal dielectric response, i.e., when the probing electric field is parallel to the nanotube axis. The spin-orbit interaction modifies the nanotube electronic band dispersions, which may especially result in a small gap opening in otherwise metallic tubes. The bandgap size and state features, the result of competition between Rashba and intrinsic spin-orbit interactions, result in drastic changes in the longitudinal static polarizability of the system. We discuss results for different nanotube types and the dependence on nanotube radius and spin-orbit couplings.

  2. Spin-orbit coupling and the static polarizability of single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Ginetom S., E-mail: ginetom@gmail.com; Ulloa, Sergio E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701-2979 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    We calculate the static longitudinal polarizability of single-wall carbon tubes in the long wavelength limit taking into account spin-orbit effects. We use a four-orbital orthogonal tight-binding formalism to describe the electronic states and the random phase approximation to calculate the dielectric function. We study the role of both the Rashba as well as the intrinsic spin-orbit interactions on the longitudinal dielectric response, i.e., when the probing electric field is parallel to the nanotube axis. The spin-orbit interaction modifies the nanotube electronic band dispersions, which may especially result in a small gap opening in otherwise metallic tubes. The bandgap size and state features, the result of competition between Rashba and intrinsic spin-orbit interactions, result in drastic changes in the longitudinal static polarizability of the system. We discuss results for different nanotube types and the dependence on nanotube radius and spin-orbit couplings.

  3. Coupled cluster calculations for static and dynamic polarizabilities of C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Karol; Hammond, Jeff R.; de Jong, Wibe A.; Sadlej, Andrzej J.

    2008-12-01

    New theoretical predictions for the static and frequency dependent polarizabilities of C60 are reported. Using the linear response coupled cluster approach with singles and doubles and a basis set especially designed to treat the molecular properties in external electric field, we obtained 82.20 and 83.62 Å3 for static and dynamic (λ =1064 nm) polarizabilities. These numbers are in a good agreement with experimentally inferred data of 76.5±8 and 79±4 Å3 [R. Antoine et al., J. Chem. Phys.110, 9771 (1999); A. Ballard et al., J. Chem. Phys.113, 5732 (2000)]. The reported results were obtained with the highest wave function-based level of theory ever applied to the C60 system.

  4. Magnetic polarizabilities of light mesons in SU(3 lattice gauge theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Luschevskaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ground state energies of neutral pseudoscalar and vector meson in SU(3 lattice gauge theory in the strong abelian magnetic field. The energy of ρ0 meson with zero spin projection sz=0 on the axis of the external magnetic field decreases, while the energies with non-zero spins sz=−1 and +1 increase with the field. The energy of π0 meson decreases as a function of the magnetic field. We calculate the magnetic polarizabilities of pseudoscalar and vector mesons for lattice volume 184. For ρ0 with spin |sz|=1 and π0 meson the polarizabilities in the continuum limit have been evaluated. We do not observe any evidence in favour of tachyonic mode existence.

  5. Method of the reduced-added Green function in the calculation of atomic polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, V.E.; Dorofeev, D.L.; Kretinin, I.Yu.; Zon, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Green function in the quantum defect theory provides an exact account for high-excited and continuum electronic states. We modify it by taking into account the ground and low-excited states using their wave functions calculated ab initio. As an application, we present a simple and efficient semianalytical method for the calculation of atomic electric frequency-dependent scalar dipole polarizability, for both real and imaginary frequencies. The polarizabilities calculated for some atoms (Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca, Si, P, S, O, Al, Ge, C, N, F, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) are compared with existing methods of computational quantum chemistry and with experiments; good accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated

  6. Polarizability of Kr6+ from high-L Kr5+ fine-structure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, S. R.; Fehrenbach, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    The transition between n=55 and n=109 Rydberg levels of Kr 5+ has been studied at high resolution using the resonant excitation stark ionization spectroscopy method. Resolved excitation of L=6, 7, 8, and 9 levels in n=55 lead to a determination of the fine-structure energies of these levels. Interpreted with the long-range polarization model, this leads to a measurement of the dipole polarizabilities of Zn-like Kr 6+ , α d =2.69(4)a 0 3 . Obtaining a value of the quadrupole polarizability from the data will require additional theoretical input. Factors contributing to the signal and noise levels in measurements of this type are discussed

  7. Acoustic levitation of a large solid sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Bernassau, Anne L.; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that acoustic levitation can levitate spherical objects much larger than the acoustic wavelength in air. The acoustic levitation of an expanded polystyrene sphere of 50 mm in diameter, corresponding to 3.6 times the wavelength, is achieved by using three 25 kHz ultrasonic transducers arranged in a tripod fashion. In this configuration, a standing wave is created between the transducers and the sphere. The axial acoustic radiation force generated by each transducer on the sphere was modeled numerically as a function of the distance between the sphere and the transducer. The theoretical acoustic radiation force was verified experimentally in a setup consisting of an electronic scale and an ultrasonic transducer mounted on a motorized linear stage. The comparison between the numerical and experimental acoustic radiation forces presents a good agreement.

  8. Acoustic levitation of a large solid sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marco A. B., E-mail: marcobrizzotti@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-090 (Brazil); Bernassau, Anne L. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Adamowski, Julio C. [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering, Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-030 (Brazil)

    2016-07-25

    We demonstrate that acoustic levitation can levitate spherical objects much larger than the acoustic wavelength in air. The acoustic levitation of an expanded polystyrene sphere of 50 mm in diameter, corresponding to 3.6 times the wavelength, is achieved by using three 25 kHz ultrasonic transducers arranged in a tripod fashion. In this configuration, a standing wave is created between the transducers and the sphere. The axial acoustic radiation force generated by each transducer on the sphere was modeled numerically as a function of the distance between the sphere and the transducer. The theoretical acoustic radiation force was verified experimentally in a setup consisting of an electronic scale and an ultrasonic transducer mounted on a motorized linear stage. The comparison between the numerical and experimental acoustic radiation forces presents a good agreement.

  9. Spheres of SA Government, responsibilities and delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The institutional framework for government in South Africa was established in 1996 with the adoption of the first democratic Constitution. National, provincial and local government was established as three elected spheres of government, each...

  10. Gender, Diversity and the European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that feminist criticism of Habermasian theory leads to new ways of approaching empirical analyses of public sphere deliberation, and gives some concrete indications of which methodological consequences such a critique may lead to....

  11. Hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria and passive sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bokai; Ding, Yang; Xu, Xinliang

    2017-11-01

    Understanding hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria and passive sphere is important for identifying rheological properties of bacterial and colloidal suspension. Over the past few years, scientists mainly focused on bacterial influences on tracer particle diffusion or hydrodynamic capture of a bacteria around stationary boundary. Here, we use superposition of singularities and regularized method to study changes in bacterial swimming velocity and passive sphere diffusion, simultaneously. On this basis, we present a simple two-bead model that gives a unified interpretation of passive sphere diffusion and bacterial swimming. The model attributes both variation of passive sphere diffusion and changes of speed of bacteria to an effective mobility. Using the effective mobility of bacterial head and tail as an input function, the calculations are consistent with simulation results at a broad range of tracer diameters, incident angles and bacterial shapes.

  12. Acoustic levitation of a large solid sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Bernassau, Anne L.; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that acoustic levitation can levitate spherical objects much larger than the acoustic wavelength in air. The acoustic levitation of an expanded polystyrene sphere of 50 mm in diameter, corresponding to 3.6 times the wavelength, is achieved by using three 25 kHz ultrasonic transducers arranged in a tripod fashion. In this configuration, a standing wave is created between the transducers and the sphere. The axial acoustic radiation force generated by each transducer on the sphere was modeled numerically as a function of the distance between the sphere and the transducer. The theoretical acoustic radiation force was verified experimentally in a setup consisting of an electronic scale and an ultrasonic transducer mounted on a motorized linear stage. The comparison between the numerical and experimental acoustic radiation forces presents a good agreement.

  13. 1-Public sphere Ambadiang.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    \\376\\377\\000s\\000e\\000r\\000i\\000a\\000n\\000e\\000.\\000c\\000a\\000m\\000a\\000r\\000a

    2011-03-09

    Mar 9, 2011 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2010 .... Ambadiang: Public Sphere, Linguistic Sphericules and Discourse Communities in Africa ...... eds., Media, Ritual, Identity, London: Routledge, pp.

  14. Higher-dimensional relativistic-fluid spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, L. K.; Ahmedabad, Gujarat Univ.

    1997-01-01

    They consider the hydrostatic equilibrium of relativistic-fluid spheres for a D-dimensional space-time. Three physically viable interior solutions of the Einstein field equations corresponding to perfect-fluid spheres in a D-dimensional space-time are obtained. When D = 4 they reduce to the Tolman IV solution, the Mehra solution and the Finch-Skea solution. The solutions are smoothly matched with the D-dimensional Schwarzschild exterior solution at the boundary r = a of the fluid sphere. Some physical features and other related details of the solutions are briefly discussed. A brief description of two other new solutions for higher-dimensional perfect-fluid spheres is also given

  15. Elastic spheres can walk on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Jesse; Hurd, Randy C; Jandron, Michael A; Bower, Allan F; Truscott, Tadd T

    2016-02-04

    Incited by public fascination and engineering application, water-skipping of rigid stones and spheres has received considerable study. While these objects can be coaxed to ricochet, elastic spheres demonstrate superior water-skipping ability, but little is known about the effect of large material compliance on water impact physics. Here we show that upon water impact, very compliant spheres naturally assume a disk-like geometry and dynamic orientation that are favourable for water-skipping. Experiments and numerical modelling reveal that the initial spherical shape evolves as elastic waves propagate through the material. We find that the skipping dynamics are governed by the wave propagation speed and by the ratio of material shear modulus to hydrodynamic pressure. With these insights, we explain why softer spheres skip more easily than stiffer ones. Our results advance understanding of fluid-elastic body interaction during water impact, which could benefit inflatable craft modelling and, more playfully, design of elastic aquatic toys.

  16. which spheres of government are responsible

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    XXX

    basic guidelines for a land use management system in the municipality. 38. The issue ... property in Linden to permit the establishment of a restaurant and gift shop. 40. The .... spheres of government do not operate in sealed compartments. 65.

  17. Scintillation forward spectrometer of the SPHERE setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, Yu.S.; Afanas'ev, S.V.; Bondarev, V.K.

    1991-01-01

    The construction of the forward spectrometer for the 4π SPHERE setup to study multiple production of particles in nucleus-nucleus interactions is described. The measured parameters of the spectrometer detectors are presented. 7 refs.; 14 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Potential of mean force for ion pairs in non-aqueous solvents. Comparison of polarizable and non-polarizable MD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinokov, A. V.; Leontyev, I. V.; Basilevsky, M. V.; Petrov, N. Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Potentials of mean force (PMF) are calculated for two model ion pairs in two non-aqueous solvents. Standard non-polarizable molecular dynamics simulation (NPMD) and approximate polarizable simulation (PMD) are implemented and compared as tools for monitoring PMF profiles. For the polar solvent (dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO) the PMF generated in terms of the NPMD reproduces fairly well the refined PMD-PMF profile. For the non-polar solvent (benzene) the conventional NPMD computation proves to be deficient. The validity of the correction found in terms of the approximate PMD approach is verified by its comparison with the result of the explicit PMD computation in benzene. The shapes of the PMF profiles in DMSO and in benzene are quite different. In DMSO, owing to dielectric screening, the PMF presents a flat plot with a shallow minimum positioned in the vicinity of the van der Waals contact of the ion pair. For the benzene case, the observed minimum proves to be unexpectedly deep, which manifests the formation of a tightly-binded contact ion pair. This remarkable effect arises owing to the strong electrostatic interaction that is incompletely screened by a non-polar medium. The PMFs for the binary benzene/DMSO mixtures display intermediate behaviour depending on the DMSO content.

  19. Geometrical Dynamics in a Transitioning Superconducting Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claycomb J. R.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical works have concentrated on calculating the Casimir effect in curved spacetime. In this paper we outline the forward problem of metrical variation due to the Casimir effect for spherical geometries. We consider a scalar quantum field inside a hollow superconducting sphere. Metric equations are developed describing the evolution of the scalar curvature after the sphere transitions to the normal state.

  20. New trends in the ICRU sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morstin, K.; Kawecka, B.; Booz, J.

    1985-01-01

    A space transformation has been applied that enables the transport equation to be efficiently solved for spheres exposed to radiations of almost arbitrary angular distribution. Depth dose distributions in the ICRU sphere have been calculated with the 1-D ANISN transport code for neutron energies from thermal up to 20 MeV and for photons up to 15 MeV. Several irradiation geometries are considered. For deep-penetrating radiations, maximum possible dose equivalent index significantly exceeds Hsub(10) star

  1. Hardy type inequalities on the sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider the L p $L^{p}$ -Hardy inequalities on the sphere. By the divergence theorem, we establish the L p $L^{p}$ -Hardy inequalities on the sphere. Furthermore, we also obtain their best constants. Our results can be regarded as the extension of Xiao’s (J. Math. Inequal. 10:793-805, 2016.

  2. vSphere virtual machine management

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzhugh, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step tutorial approach with some real-world scenarios that vSphere businesses will be required to overcome every day. This book also discusses creating and configuring virtual machines and also covers monitoring virtual machine performance and resource allocation options. This book is for VMware administrators who want to build their knowledge of virtual machine administration and configuration. It's assumed that you have some experience with virtualization administration and vSphere.

  3. vSphere high performance cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    vSphere High Performance Cookbook is written in a practical, helpful style with numerous recipes focusing on answering and providing solutions to common, and not-so common, performance issues and problems.The book is primarily written for technical professionals with system administration skills and some VMware experience who wish to learn about advanced optimization and the configuration features and functions for vSphere 5.1.

  4. Quasi-free Compton scattering and the polarizabilities of the neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossert, K.; Camen, M.; Wissmann, F.; Schumacher, M.; Seitz, B.; Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Beck, R.; Caselotti, G.; Jahn, O.; Jennewein, P.; Olmos de Leon, V.; Annand, J.R.M.; McGeorge, J.C.; Rosner, G.; Grabmayr, P.; Natter, A.; Levchuk, M.I.; L'vov, A.I.; Petrun'kin, V.A.; Smend, F.; Thomas, A.; Weihofen, W.; Zapadtka, F.

    2003-01-01

    Differential cross-sections for quasi-free Compton scattering from the proton and neutron bound in the deuteron have been measured using the Glasgow/Mainz photon tagging spectrometer at the Mainz MAMI accelerator together with the Mainz 48cm diameter x 64cm NaI(Tl) photon detector and the Goettingen SENECA recoil detector. The data cover photon energies ranging from 200MeV to 400MeV at θ LAB γ =136.2 . Liquid deuterium and hydrogen targets allowed direct comparison of free and quasi-free scattering from the proton. The neutron detection efficiency of the SENECA detector was measured via the reaction p(γ,π + n). The ''free'' proton Compton scattering cross-sections extracted from the bound proton data are in reasonable agreement with those for the free proton which gives confidence in the method to extract the differential cross-section for free scattering from quasi-free data. Differential cross-sections on the free neutron have been extracted and the difference of the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the neutron has been determined to be α n -β n =9.8±3.6(stat) +2.1 -1.1 (syst)±2.2(model) in units of 10 -4 fm 3 . In combination with the polarizability sum α n +β n =15.2±0.5 deduced from photoabsorption data, the neutron electric and magnetic polarizabilities, α n =12.5±1.8(stat) + 1 .1 -0.6 (syst)±1.1(model) and β n =2.7±1.8(stat) +0.6 -1.1 (syst)±1.1(model) are obtained. The backward spin polarizability of the neutron was determined to be γ (n) π =(58.6±4.0) x 10 -4 fm 4 . (orig.)

  5. Natural Fe3O4 nanoparticles embedded zinc–tellurite glasses: Polarizability and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widanarto, W.; Sahar, M.R.; Ghoshal, S.K.; Arifin, R.; Rohani, M.S.; Hamzah, K.; Jandra, M.

    2013-01-01

    Modifying the optical behavior of zinc–tellurite glass by embedding magnetic nanoparticles has implication in nanophotonics. A series of zinc–tellurite glasses containing natural Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with composition (80 − x)TeO 2 ·xFe 3 O 4 ·20ZnO (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) in mol% are synthesized by melt quenching method and their optical properties are investigated using FTIR and UV–vis–NIR spectroscopies. Lorentz–Lorenz relations are exploited to determine the refractive index, molar refraction and electronic polarizability. The sharp absorption peaks of FTIR spectra show a shift from 667 cm −1 to 671 cm −1 in the presence of nanoparticles that increase the non-bridging oxygen, confirmed by the intensity change of the TeO 3 peak at 752 cm −1 . A new peak around 461 cm −1 is also observed which is attributed to the band characteristic of covalent Fe–O linkages. A decrease in the Urbach energy as much as 0.122 eV and the optical energy band gap with the increase of Fe 3 O 4 concentration (0.5–1.0 mol%) is evidenced. Electronic polarizability of the glasses increases with increasing Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles concentration up to 1 mol%. Interestingly, the polarizability tends to decrease with the further increase of Fe 3 O 4 concentration at 2 mol%. The role of magnetic nanoparticles in influencing the structural and optical behavior are examined and understood. - Highlights: ► Incorporation of natural Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles into the zinc–tellurite glass. ► Influence of magnetic nanoparticles in modifying structure and optical properties. ► Enhancement of refraction index and change in electronic polarizability

  6. Nucleon electric polarizability in soliton models and the role of the seagull terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoccola, N.N.; Cohen, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The full Hamiltonian of the soliton models contains no electric seagull terms. Here it is shown that if one restricts the fields to the collective subspace then electric seagull terms are induced in the effective Hamiltonian. These effective seagull contributions are consistent with gauge invariance. They also reproduce the leading non-analytic behavior of a large N c chiral perturbation theory calculation of the electric polarizability. (orig.)

  7. Calculation of dipole polarizability derivatives of adamantane and their use in electron scattering computations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sauer, S. P. A.; Paidarová, Ivana; Čársky, Petr; Čurík, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 5 (2016), č. článku 105. ISSN 1434-6060 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14088 Grant - others:COST(XE) CM1301 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : DENSITY-FUNCTIONAL- THEORY * COUPLED-CLUSTER CALCULATIONS * FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT POLARIZABILITIES Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.288, year: 2016

  8. Balancing the Interactions of Ions, Water, and DNA in the Drude Polarizable Force Field

    OpenAIRE

    Savelyev, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    Recently we presented a first-generation all-atom Drude polarizable force field for DNA based on the classical Drude oscillator model, focusing on optimization of key dihedral angles followed by extensive validation of the force field parameters. Presently, we describe the procedure for balancing the electrostatic interactions between ions, water, and DNA as required for development of the Drude force field for DNA. The proper balance of these interactions is shown to impact DNA stability and...

  9. Many-body calculations of molecular electric polarizabilities in asymptotically complete basis sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Hajgató, Balázs; Deleuze, Michael S.

    2011-10-01

    The static dipole polarizabilities of Ne, CO, N2, F2, HF, H2O, HCN, and C2H2 (acetylene) have been determined close to the Full-CI limit along with an asymptotically complete basis set (CBS), according to the principles of a Focal Point Analysis. For this purpose the results of Finite Field calculations up to the level of Coupled Cluster theory including Single, Double, Triple, Quadruple and perturbative Pentuple excitations [CCSDTQ(P)] were used, in conjunction with suited extrapolations of energies obtained using augmented and doubly-augmented Dunning's correlation consistent polarized valence basis sets of improving quality. The polarizability characteristics of C2H4 (ethylene) and C2H6 (ethane) have been determined on the same grounds at the CCSDTQ level in the CBS limit. Comparison is made with results obtained using lower levels in electronic correlation, or taking into account the relaxation of the molecular structure due to an adiabatic polarization process. Vibrational corrections to electronic polarizabilities have been empirically estimated according to Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamical simulations employing Density Functional Theory. Confrontation with experiment ultimately indicates relative accuracies of the order of 1 to 2%.

  10. Casimir friction between polarizable particle and half-space with radiation damping at zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Høye, J S; I Brevik; Milton, K A

    2015-01-01

    Casimir friction between a polarizable particle and a semi-infinite space is a delicate physical phenomenon, as it concerns the interaction between a microscopic quantum particle and a semi-infinite reservoir. Not unexpectedly, results obtained in the past about the friction force obtained via different routes are sometimes, at least apparently, wildly different from each other. Recently, we considered the Casimir friction force for two dielectric semi-infinite plates moving parallel to each other Høye and Brevik (2014 Eur. Phys. J. D 68 61), and managed to get essential agreement with results obtained by Pendry (1997 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 9 10301), Volokitin and Persson (2007 Rev. Mod. Phys. 79 1291), and Barton (2011 New J. Phys. 13 043023; 2011 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23 335004). Our method was based upon use of the Kubo formalism. In the present paper we focus on the interaction between a polarizable particle and a dielectric half-space again, and calculate the friction force using the same basic method as before. The new ingredient in the present analysis is that we take into account radiative damping, and derive the modifications thereof. Some comparisons are also made with works from others. Essential agreement with the results of Intravaia, Behunin, and Dalvit can also be achieved using the modification of the atomic polarizability by the metallic plate. (paper)

  11. Bounds on complex polarizabilities and a new perspective on scattering by a lossy inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Graeme W.

    2017-09-01

    Here, we obtain explicit formulas for bounds on the complex electrical polarizability at a given frequency of an inclusion with known volume that follow directly from the quasistatic bounds of Bergman and Milton on the effective complex dielectric constant of a two-phase medium. We also describe how analogous bounds on the orientationally averaged bulk and shear polarizabilities at a given frequency can be obtained from bounds on the effective complex bulk and shear moduli of a two-phase medium obtained by Milton, Gibiansky, and Berryman, using the quasistatic variational principles of Cherkaev and Gibiansky. We also show how the polarizability problem and the acoustic scattering problem can both be reformulated in an abstract setting as "Y problems." In the acoustic scattering context, to avoid explicit introduction of the Sommerfeld radiation condition, we introduce auxiliary fields at infinity and an appropriate "constitutive law" there, which forces the Sommerfeld radiation condition to hold. As a consequence, we obtain minimization variational principles for acoustic scattering that can be used to obtain bounds on the complex backwards scattering amplitude. Some explicit elementary bounds are given.

  12. Communication: Polarizable polymer chain under external electric field in a dilute polymer solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budkov, Yu A; Kolesnikov, A L; Kiselev, M G

    2015-11-28

    We study the conformational behavior of polarizable polymer chain under an external homogeneous electric field within the Flory type self-consistent field theory. We consider the influence of electric field on the polymer coil as well as on the polymer globule. We show that when the polymer chain conformation is a coil, application of external electric field leads to its additional swelling. However, when the polymer conformation is a globule, a sufficiently strong field can induce a globule-coil transition. We show that such "field-induced" globule-coil transition at the sufficiently small monomer polarizabilities goes quite smoothly. On the contrary, when the monomer polarizability exceeds a certain threshold value, the globule-coil transition occurs as a dramatic expansion in the regime of first-order phase transition. The developed theoretical model can be applied to predicting polymer globule density change under external electric field in order to provide more efficient processes of polymer functionalization, such as sorption, dyeing, and chemical modification.

  13. The determination of accurate dipole polarizabilities alpha and gamma for the noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Julia E.; Taylor, Peter R.; Lee, Timothy J.; Almloef, Jan

    1989-01-01

    The static dipole polarizabilities alpha and gamma for the noble gases helium through xenon were determined using large flexible one-particle basis sets in conjunction with high-level treatments of electron correlation. The electron correlation methods include single and double excitation coupled-cluster theory (CCSD), an extension of CCSD that includes a perturbational estimate of connected triple excitations, CCSD(T), and second order perturbation theory (MP2). The computed alpha and gamma values are estimated to be accurate to within a few percent. Agreement with experimental data for the static hyperpolarizability gamma is good for neon and xenon, but for argon and krypton the differences are larger than the combined theoretical and experimental uncertainties. Based on our calculations, we suggest that the experimental value of gamma for argon is too low; adjusting this value would bring the experimental value of gamma for krypton into better agreement with our computed result. The MP2 values for the polarizabilities of neon, argon, krypton and zenon are in reasonabe agreement with the CCSD and CCSD(T) values, suggesting that this less expensive method may be useful in studies of polarizabilities for larger systems.

  14. Electroabsorption spectra of carotenoid isomers: Conformational modulation of polarizability vs. induced dipole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczyk, Stanislaw; Jazurek, Beata; Luchowski, Rafal; Wiacek, Dariusz

    2006-01-01

    Electroabsorption spectra of all-trans, 13-cis and 15-cis isomers of carotenoids violaxanthin and β-carotene frozen in organic solvents were analysed in terms of changes in permanent dipole moment, Δμ, and in the linear polarizability, Δα, on electronic excitation. The spectral range investigated covered the two carotenoid absorption bands in the VIS and UV, known to originate from differently oriented transition dipole moments. In contrast with the collinearity of the apparent Δμ with Δα in the lowest-energy allowed (VIS) transition 1A g - ->1B u + , the axis of the largest polarizability change in the UV transition 1A g - ->1A g + (''cis band'') was found to make a large angle with the transition moment, while the direction of Δμ appears to be much closer to it. These data support the view that Δμ's inferred from electrochromic spectra of carotenoids are apparent and are not induced by the local matrix field in the solvent cavity, but merely result from conformational modulation of molecular polarizability

  15. Soft and hard pomerons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, Uri; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1995-09-01

    The role of s-channel unitarity screening corrections, calculated in the eikonal approximation, is investigated for soft Pomeron exchange responsible for elastic and diffractive hadron scattering in the high energy limit. We examine the differences between our results and those obtained from the supercritical Pomeron-Regge model with no such corrections. It is shown that screening saturation is attained at different scales for different channels. We then proceed to discuss the new HERA data on hard (PQCD) Pomeron diffractive channels and discuss the relationship between the soft and hard Pomerons and the relevance of our analysis to this problem. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  16. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  17. Hard-hat day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN will be organizing a special information day on Friday, 27th June, designed to promote the wearing of hard hats and ensure that they are worn correctly. A new prevention campaign will also be launched.The event will take place in the hall of the Main Building from 11.30 a.m. to 2.00 p.m., when you will be able to come and try on various models of hard hat, including some of the very latest innovative designs, ask questions and pass on any comments and suggestions.

  18. A FEW CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE SPHERE OF FINANCIAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bota Anton Florin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses his financial affairs sphere, looking at this issue under a double aspect: analysis of the financial relations sphere and analyzing the financial activity sphere. Analysis of the financial relations sphere is made on the basis of fou

  19. The Separate Spheres Model of Gendered Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrea L; Borgida, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Research on role congruity theory and descriptive and prescriptive stereotypes has established that when men and women violate gender stereotypes by crossing spheres, with women pursuing career success and men contributing to domestic labor, they face backlash and economic penalties. Less is known, however, about the types of individuals who are most likely to engage in these forms of discrimination and the types of situations in which this is most likely to occur. We propose that psychological research will benefit from supplementing existing research approaches with an individual differences model of support for separate spheres for men and women. This model allows psychologists to examine individual differences in support for separate spheres as they interact with situational and contextual forces. The separate spheres ideology (SSI) has existed as a cultural idea for many years but has not been operationalized or modeled in social psychology. The Separate Spheres Model presents the SSI as a new psychological construct characterized by individual differences and a motivated system-justifying function, operationalizes the ideology with a new scale measure, and models the ideology as a predictor of some important gendered outcomes in society. As a first step toward developing the Separate Spheres Model, we develop a new measure of individuals' endorsement of the SSI and demonstrate its reliability, convergent validity, and incremental predictive validity. We provide support for the novel hypotheses that the SSI predicts attitudes regarding workplace flexibility accommodations, income distribution within families between male and female partners, distribution of labor between work and family spheres, and discriminatory workplace behaviors. Finally, we provide experimental support for the hypothesis that the SSI is a motivated, system-justifying ideology.

  20. The Separate Spheres Model of Gendered Inequality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Miller

    Full Text Available Research on role congruity theory and descriptive and prescriptive stereotypes has established that when men and women violate gender stereotypes by crossing spheres, with women pursuing career success and men contributing to domestic labor, they face backlash and economic penalties. Less is known, however, about the types of individuals who are most likely to engage in these forms of discrimination and the types of situations in which this is most likely to occur. We propose that psychological research will benefit from supplementing existing research approaches with an individual differences model of support for separate spheres for men and women. This model allows psychologists to examine individual differences in support for separate spheres as they interact with situational and contextual forces. The separate spheres ideology (SSI has existed as a cultural idea for many years but has not been operationalized or modeled in social psychology. The Separate Spheres Model presents the SSI as a new psychological construct characterized by individual differences and a motivated system-justifying function, operationalizes the ideology with a new scale measure, and models the ideology as a predictor of some important gendered outcomes in society. As a first step toward developing the Separate Spheres Model, we develop a new measure of individuals' endorsement of the SSI and demonstrate its reliability, convergent validity, and incremental predictive validity. We provide support for the novel hypotheses that the SSI predicts attitudes regarding workplace flexibility accommodations, income distribution within families between male and female partners, distribution of labor between work and family spheres, and discriminatory workplace behaviors. Finally, we provide experimental support for the hypothesis that the SSI is a motivated, system-justifying ideology.

  1. The Separate Spheres Model of Gendered Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrea L.; Borgida, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Research on role congruity theory and descriptive and prescriptive stereotypes has established that when men and women violate gender stereotypes by crossing spheres, with women pursuing career success and men contributing to domestic labor, they face backlash and economic penalties. Less is known, however, about the types of individuals who are most likely to engage in these forms of discrimination and the types of situations in which this is most likely to occur. We propose that psychological research will benefit from supplementing existing research approaches with an individual differences model of support for separate spheres for men and women. This model allows psychologists to examine individual differences in support for separate spheres as they interact with situational and contextual forces. The separate spheres ideology (SSI) has existed as a cultural idea for many years but has not been operationalized or modeled in social psychology. The Separate Spheres Model presents the SSI as a new psychological construct characterized by individual differences and a motivated system-justifying function, operationalizes the ideology with a new scale measure, and models the ideology as a predictor of some important gendered outcomes in society. As a first step toward developing the Separate Spheres Model, we develop a new measure of individuals’ endorsement of the SSI and demonstrate its reliability, convergent validity, and incremental predictive validity. We provide support for the novel hypotheses that the SSI predicts attitudes regarding workplace flexibility accommodations, income distribution within families between male and female partners, distribution of labor between work and family spheres, and discriminatory workplace behaviors. Finally, we provide experimental support for the hypothesis that the SSI is a motivated, system-justifying ideology. PMID:26800454

  2. Structure and dynamics of concentrated dispersions of polystyrene latex spheres in glycerol: Static and dynamic x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumma, D.; Lurio, L. B.; Borthwick, M. A.; Falus, P.; Mochrie, S. G. J.

    2000-01-01

    X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering measurements are applied to characterize the dynamics and structure of concentrated suspensions of charge-stabilized polystyrene latex spheres dispersed in glycerol, for volume fractions between 2.7% and 52%. The static structures of the suspensions show essentially hard-sphere behavior. The short-time dynamics shows good agreement with predictions for the wave-vector-dependent collective diffusion coefficient, which are based on a hard-sphere model [C. W. J. Beenakker and P. Mazur, Physica A 126, 349 (1984)]. However, the intermediate scattering function is found to violate a scaling behavior found previously for a sterically stabilized hard-sphere suspension [P. N. Segre and P. N. Pusey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 771 (1996)]. Our measurements are parametrized in terms of a viscoelastic model for the intermediate scattering function [W. Hess and R. Klein, Adv. Phys. 32, 173 (1983)]. Within this framework, two relaxation modes are predicted to contribute to the decay of the dynamic structure factor, with mode amplitudes depending on both wave vector and volume fraction. Our measurements indicate that, for particle volume fractions smaller than about 0.30, the intermediate scattering function is well described in terms of single-exponential decays, whereas a double-mode structure becomes apparent for more concentrated systems

  3. Hard times; Schwere Zeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Markus

    2012-10-02

    The prices of silicon and solar wafers keep dropping. According to market research specialist IMS research, this is the result of weak traditional solar markets and global overcapacities. While many manufacturers are facing hard times, big producers of silicon are continuing to expand.

  4. Hardness of Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Hardness of Clustering. Both k-means and k-medians intractable (when n and d are both inputs even for k =2). The best known deterministic algorithms. are based on Voronoi partitioning that. takes about time. Need for approximation – “close” to optimal.

  5. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  6. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  7. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the ...

  8. Fabricating off-diagonal components of frequency-dependent linear and nonlinear polarizabilities of doped quantum dots by Gaussian white noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Surajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2015-01-01

    We make a rigorous exploration of the profiles of off-diagonal components of frequency-dependent linear (α xy , α yx ), first nonlinear (β xyy , β yxx ), and second nonlinear (γ xxyy , γ yyxx ) polarizabilities of quantum dots driven by Gaussian white noise. The quantum dot is doped with repulsive Gaussian impurity. Noise has been applied additively and multiplicatively to the system. An external oscillatory electric field has also been applied to the system. Gradual variations of external frequency, dopant location, and noise strength give rise to interesting features of polarizability components. The observations reveal intricate interplay between noise strength and dopant location which designs the polarizability profiles. Moreover, the mode of application of noise also modulates the polarizability components. Interestingly, in case of additive noise the noise strength has no role on polarizabilities whereas multiplicative noise invites greater delicacy in them. The said interplay provides a rather involved framework to attain stable, enhanced, and often maximized output of linear and nonlinear polarizabilities. - Highlights: • Linear and nonlinear polarizabilities of quantum dot are studied. • The polarizability components are off-diagonal and frequency-dependent. • Quantum dot is doped with a repulsive impurity. • Doped system is subject to Gaussian white noise. • Mode of noise application affects polarizabilities

  9. The thermal conductivity of beds of spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Shapiro, M.; Longest, A.W.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The thermal conductivities (k) of beds of solid and hollow microspheres were measured using two radial heat flow techniques. One technique provided k-data at 300 K for beds with the void spaces between particles filled with argon, nitrogen, or helium from 5 kPa to 30 MPa. The other technique provided k-data with air at atmospheric pressure from 300 to 1000 K. The 300 K technique was used to study bed systems with high k-values that can be varied by changing the gas type and gas pressure. Such systems can be used to control the operating temperature of an irradiation capsule. The systems studied included beds of 500 μm dia solid Al 2 O 3 , the same Al 2 O 3 spheres mixed with spheres of silica--alumina or with SiC shards, carbon spheres, and nickel spheres. Both techniques were used to determine the k-value of beds of hollow spheres with solid shells of Al 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 /center dot/7 w/o Cr 2 O 3 , and partially stabilized ZrO 2 . The hollow microspheres had diameters from 2100 to 3500 μm and wall thicknesses from 80 to 160 μm. 12 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Instability of extremal relativistic charged spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anninos, Peter; Rothman, Tony

    2002-01-01

    With the question 'Can relativistic charged spheres form extremal black holes?' in mind, we investigate the properties of such spheres from a classical point of view. The investigation is carried out numerically by integrating the Oppenheimer-Volkov equation for relativistic charged fluid spheres and finding interior Reissner-Nordstroem solutions for these objects. We consider both constant density and adiabatic equations of state, as well as several possible charge distributions, and examine stability by both a normal mode and an energy analysis. In all cases, the stability limit for these spheres lies between the extremal (Q=M) limit and the black hole limit (R=R + ). That is, we find that charged spheres undergo gravitational collapse before they reach Q=M, suggesting that extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes produced by collapse are ruled out. A general proof of this statement would support a strong form of the cosmic censorship hypothesis, excluding not only stable naked singularities, but stable extremal black holes. The numerical results also indicate that although the interior mass-energy m(R) obeys the usual m/R + as Q→M. In the Appendix we also argue that Hawking radiation will not lead to an extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. All our results are consistent with the third law of black hole dynamics, as currently understood

  11. Fuzzy spheres from inequivalent coherent states quantizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazeau, Jean Pierre; Huguet, Eric; Lachieze-Rey, Marc; Renaud, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The existence of a family of coherent states (CS) solving the identity in a Hilbert space allows, under certain conditions, to quantize functions defined on the measure space of CS parameters. The application of this procedure to the 2-sphere provides a family of inequivalent CS quantizations based on the spin spherical harmonics (the CS quantization from usual spherical harmonics appears to give a trivial issue for the Cartesian coordinates). We compare these CS quantizations to the usual (Madore) construction of the fuzzy sphere. Due to these differences, our procedure yields new types of fuzzy spheres. Moreover, the general applicability of CS quantization suggests similar constructions of fuzzy versions of a large variety of sets

  12. Glass transition in soft-sphere dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RamIrez-Gonzalez, P E; Medina-Noyola, M

    2009-01-01

    The concept of dynamic equivalence among mono-disperse soft-sphere fluids is employed in the framework of the self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of colloid dynamics to calculate the ideal glass transition phase diagram of model soft-sphere colloidal dispersions in the softness-concentration state space. The slow dynamics predicted by this theory near the glass transition is compared with available experimental data for the decay of the intermediate scattering function of colloidal dispersions of soft-microgel particles. Increasing deviations from this simple scheme occur for increasingly softer potentials, and this is studied here using the Rogers-Young static structure factor of the soft-sphere systems as the input of the SCGLE theory, without assuming a priori the validity of the equivalence principle above.

  13. Hard Copy Market Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testan, Peter R.

    1987-04-01

    A number of Color Hard Copy (CHC) market drivers are currently indicating strong growth in the use of CHC technologies for the business graphics marketplace. These market drivers relate to product, software, color monitors and color copiers. The use of color in business graphics allows more information to be relayed than is normally the case in a monochrome format. The communicative powers of full-color computer generated output in the business graphics application area will continue to induce end users to desire and require color in their future applications. A number of color hard copy technologies will be utilized in the presentation graphics arena. Thermal transfer, ink jet, photographic and electrophotographic technologies are all expected to be utilized in the business graphics presentation application area in the future. Since the end of 1984, the availability of color application software packages has grown significantly. Sales revenue generated by business graphics software is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of just over 40 percent to 1990. Increased availability of packages to allow the integration of text and graphics is expected. Currently, the latest versions of page description languages such as Postscript, Interpress and DDL all support color output. The use of color monitors will also drive the demand for color hard copy in the business graphics market place. The availability of higher resolution screens is allowing color monitors to be easily used for both text and graphics applications in the office environment. During 1987, the sales of color monitors are expected to surpass the sales of monochrome monitors. Another major color hard copy market driver will be the color copier. In order to take advantage of the communications power of computer generated color output, multiple copies are required for distribution. Product introductions of a new generation of color copiers is now underway with additional introductions expected

  14. Willmore energy estimates in conformal Berger spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Manuel; Ferrandez, Angel

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The Willmore energy is computed in a wide class of surfaces. → Isoperimetric inequalities for the Willmore energy of Hopf tori are obtained. → The best possible lower bound is achieved on isoareal Hopf tori. - Abstract: We obtain isoperimetric inequalities for the Willmore energy of Hopf tori in a wide class of conformal structures on the three sphere. This class includes, on the one hand, the family of conformal Berger spheres and, on the other hand, a one parameter family of Lorentzian conformal structures. This allows us to give the best possible lower bound of Willmore energies concerning isoareal Hopf tori.

  15. Does Negative Type Characterize the Round Sphere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the measure theoretic metric invariants extent, mean distance and symmetry ratio and their relation to the concept of negative type of a metric space. A conjecture stating that a compact Riemannian manifold with symmetry ratio 1 must be a round sphere, was put forward in a previous paper....... We resolve this conjecture in the class of Riemannian symmetric spaces by showing, that a Riemannian manifold with symmetry ratio 1 must be of negative type and that the only compact Riemannian symmetric spaces of negative type are the round spheres....

  16. Path integral representations on the complex sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosche, C. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2007-08-15

    In this paper we discuss the path integral representations for the coordinate systems on the complex sphere S{sub 3C}. The Schroedinger equation, respectively the path integral, separates in exactly 21 orthogonal coordinate systems. We enumerate these coordinate systems and we are able to present the path integral representations explicitly in the majority of the cases. In each solution the expansion into the wave-functions is stated. Also, the kernel and the corresponding Green function can be stated in closed form in terms of the invariant distance on the sphere, respectively on the hyperboloid. (orig.)

  17. Path integral representations on the complex sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, C.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper we discuss the path integral representations for the coordinate systems on the complex sphere S 3C . The Schroedinger equation, respectively the path integral, separates in exactly 21 orthogonal coordinate systems. We enumerate these coordinate systems and we are able to present the path integral representations explicitly in the majority of the cases. In each solution the expansion into the wave-functions is stated. Also, the kernel and the corresponding Green function can be stated in closed form in terms of the invariant distance on the sphere, respectively on the hyperboloid. (orig.)

  18. Scattering by two spheres: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1998-01-01

    of suspended sediments. The scattering properties of single regular-shaped particles have been studied in depth by several authors in the past. However, single particle scattering cannot explain all features of scattering by suspended sediment. When the concentration of particles exceeds a certain limit...... on three issues: (1) to develop a simplified theory for scattering by two elastical spheres; (2) to measure the scattering by two spheres in a water tank, and (3) to compare the theoretical/numerical results with the measured data. A number of factors influencing multiple scattering, including...

  19. vSphere design best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Bolander, Brian

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide full of hands-on examples of real-world design best practices. Each topic is explained and placed in context, and for the more inquisitive, there are more details on the concepts used.If you wish to learn about vSphere best practices and how to apply them when designing virtual, high performance, reliable datacenters that support business critical applications to work more efficiently and to prepare for official certifications, this is the book for you. Readers should possess a good working knowledge of vSphere as well as servers, storage, and networking.

  20. Coupled influence of noise and damped propagation of impurity on linear and nonlinear polarizabilities of doped quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Linear and nonlinear polarizabilities of quantum dot are studied. • Quantum dot is doped with a repulsive impurity. • Doped system is subject to Gaussian white noise. • Dopant migrates under damped condition. • Noise-damping coupling affects polarizabilities. - Abstract: We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of static and frequency-dependent linear, first, and second nonlinear polarizabilities of repulsive impurity doped quantum dot. We have considered propagation of dopant within an environment that damps the motion. Simultaneous presence of noise inherent to the system has also been considered. The dopant has a Gaussian potential and noise considered is a Gaussian white noise. The doped system is exposed to an external electric field which could be static or time-dependent. Noise undergoes direct coupling with damping and the noise-damping coupling strength appears to be a crucial parameter that designs the profiles of polarizability components. This happens because the coupling strength modulates the dispersive and asymmetric character of the system. The frequency of external field brings about additional features in the profiles of polarizability components. The present investigation highlights some useful features in the optical properties of doped quantum dots

  1. Electro-Optomechanical Transduction & Quantum Hard-Sphere Model for Dissipative Rydberg-EIT Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Emil

    by two key parameters, the signal transfer efficiency and added noise temperature. In terms of these, we may evaluate its performance in various tasks ranging from classical signal detection to quantum state conversion between, e.g., superconducting circuitry and traveling optical signals. Having...... transduction functionality into the well-established framework of electrical engineering, thereby facilitating its implementation in potential applications such as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and radio astronomy. We consider such optomechanical sensing of weak electrical signals and discuss how...... in a cold, optically dense cloud with light fields propagating under the condition of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). This can lead to strong and non-linear dissipative dynamics at the quantum level that prevent slow-light polaritons from coexisting within a blockade radius of one another...

  2. Assembly of vorticity-aligned hard-sphere colloidal strings in a simple shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, X.; Xu, X.; Rice, S. A.; Dinner, A. R.; Cohen, I.

    2011-01-01

    under shear, there are conflicting predictions about whether particles link up into string-like structures along the shear flow direction. Here, using confocal microscopy, we measure the shear-induced suspension structure. Surprisingly, rather than flow

  3. Periodic and Aperiodic Close Packing: A Spontaneous Hard-Sphere Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Waal, B. W.

    1985-01-01

    Shows how to make close-packed models from balloons and table tennis balls to illustrate structural features of clusters and organometallic cluster-compounds (which are of great interest in the study of chemical reactions). These models provide a very inexpensive and tactile illustration of the organization of matter for concrete operational…

  4. Fluid of Hard Spheres with a Modified Dipole: Simulation and Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsák, Jan; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 4 (2008), s. 541-557 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400720409; GA AV ČR IAA400720710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : molecular simulation * monte carlo method * perturbation theory Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2008

  5. Free cooling of hard-spheres with short and long range interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Briones, Sebastián; Thornton, Anthony Richard; Luding, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We study the stability, the clustering and the phase-diagram of free cooling granular gases. The systems consist of mono-disperse particles with additional non-contact (long-range) interactions, and are simulated here by the event-driven molecular dynamics algorithm with discrete (short-range

  6. Flexible equation of state for a hard sphere and Lennard–Jones fluid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where λ is a suitable density- and temperature-dependent function. kc(ηc, α) is a suitable constant and it is arbitrarily found out. Case (m = m1 = 0.5, α6 = 1). In order to get root mean square deviation (RMSD) to be minimum selecting kc(ηc, α) = kc1 = 0.1142022080, we obtained kc(ηc, α) by numerical technique yielding.

  7. New results for virial coefficients of hard spheres in D dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nathan Clisby1 Barry M McCoy2. ARC Centre of Excellence for Mathematics and Statistics of Complex Systems, 139 Barry Street, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia; C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840, USA ...

  8. Gelation in a model 1-component system with adhesive hard-sphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Min; Eberle, Aaron; Fang, Jun; Wagner, Norman

    2012-02-01

    Colloidal dispersions can undergo a dynamical arrest of the disperse phase leading to a system with solid-like properties when either the volume fraction or the interparticle potential is varied. Systems that contain low to moderate particulate concentrations form gels whereas higher concentrations lead to glassy states in which caging by nearest neighbors can be a significant contributor to the arrested long-time dynamics. Colloid polymer mixtures have been the prevalent model system for studying the effect of attraction, where attractions are entropically driven by depletion effects, in which gelation has been shown to be a result of phase separation [1]. Using the model 1-component octadecyl coated silica nanoparticle system, Eberle et al. [2] found the gel-line to intersect the spinodal to the left of the critical point, and at higher concentrations extended toward the mode coupling theory attractive driven glass line. . We continue this study by varying the particle diameter and find quantitative differences which we explain by gravity. 1. Lu, P.J., et al., Nature, 2008. 453(7194): p. 499-504.2. Eberle, A.P.R., N.J. Wagner, and R. Castaneda-Priego, Physical Review Letters, 2011. 106(10).

  9. Atom interferometry experiments with lithium. Accurate measurement of the electric polarizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miffre, A.

    2005-06-01

    Atom interferometers are very sensitive tools to make precise measurements of physical quantities. This study presents a measurement of the static electric polarizability of lithium by atom interferometry. Our result, α = (24.33 ± 0.16)*10 -30 m 3 , improves by a factor 3 the most accurate measurements of this quantity. This work describes the tuning and the operation of a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer in detail. The two interfering arms are separated by the elastic diffraction of the atomic wave by a laser standing wave, almost resonant with the first resonance transition of lithium atom. A set of experimental techniques, often complicated to implement, is necessary to build the experimental set-up. After a detailed study of the atom source (a supersonic beam of lithium seeded in argon), we present our experimental atom signals which exhibit a very high fringe visibility, up to 84.5 % for first order diffraction. A wide variety of signals has been observed by diffraction of the bosonic isotope at higher diffraction orders and by diffraction of the fermionic less abundant isotope. The quality of these signals is then used to do very accurate phase measurements. A first experiment investigates how the atom interferometer signals are modified by a magnetic field gradient. An absolute measurement of lithium atom electric polarizability is then achieved by applying a static electric field on one of the two interfering arms, separated by only 90 micrometers. The construction of such a capacitor, its alignment in the experimental set-up and its operation are fully detailed.We obtain a very accurate phase measurement of the induced Lo Surdo - Stark phase shift (0.07 % precision). For this first measurement, the final uncertainty on the electric polarizability of lithium is only 0.66 %, and is dominated by the uncertainty on the atom beam mean velocity, so that a further reduction of the uncertainty can be expected. (author)

  10. Polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities for the atoms Al, Si, P, S, Cl, and Ar: Coupled cluster calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupinetti, Concetta; Thakkar, Ajit J

    2005-01-22

    Accurate static dipole polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities are calculated for the ground states of the Al, Si, P, S, Cl, and Ar atoms. The finite-field computations use energies obtained with various ab initio methods including Moller-Plesset perturbation theory and the coupled cluster approach. Excellent agreement with experiment is found for argon. The experimental alpha for Al is likely to be in error. Only limited comparisons are possible for the other atoms because hyperpolarizabilities have not been reported previously for most of these atoms. Our recommended values of the mean dipole polarizability (in the order Al-Ar) are alpha/e(2)a(0) (2)E(h) (-1)=57.74, 37.17, 24.93, 19.37, 14.57, and 11.085 with an error estimate of +/-0.5%. The recommended values of the mean second dipole hyperpolarizability (in the order Al-Ar) are gamma/e(4)a(0) (4)E(h) (-3)=2.02 x 10(5), 4.31 x 10(4), 1.14 x 10(4), 6.51 x 10(3), 2.73 x 10(3), and 1.18 x 10(3) with an error estimate of +/-2%. Our recommended polarizability anisotropy values are Deltaalpha/e(2)a(0) (2)E(h) (-1)=-25.60, 8.41, -3.63, and 1.71 for Al, Si, S, and Cl respectively, with an error estimate of +/-1%. The recommended hyperpolarizability anisotropies are Deltagamma/e(4)a(0) (4)E(h) (-3)=-3.88 x 10(5), 4.16 x 10(4), -7.00 x 10(3), and 1.65 x 10(3) for Al, Si, S, and Cl, respectively, with an error estimate of +/-4%. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Nuclear reactor using fuel sphere for combustion and fuel spheres for breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a pebble bed-type reactor which can efficiently convert parent nuclides to fission nuclides. Fuel spheres for combustion having fission nuclides as main fuels, and fuel spheres for breeding having parent nuclides as main fuels are used separately, in the pebble bed-type reactor. According to the present invention, fuel spheres for breeding can be stayed in a reactor core for a long period of time, so that parent nuclides can be sufficiently converted into fission nuclides. In addition, since fuel spheres for breeding are loaded repeatedly, the amount thereof to be used is reduced. Therefore, the amount of the fuel spheres for breeding is small even when they are re-processed. On the other hand, since the content of the fission nuclides in the fuel spheres for breeding is not great, they can be put to final storage. This is attributable that although the fuel spheres for breeding contain fission nuclides generated by conversion, the fission nuclides are annihilated by nuclear fission reactions at the same time with the generation thereof. (I.S.)

  12. Hard Electromagnetic Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.

    1987-09-01

    Among hard electromagnetic processes, I will use the most recent data and focus on quantitative test of QCD. More specifically, I will retain two items: - hadroproduction of direct photons, - Drell-Yan. In addition, I will briefly discuss a recent analysis of ISR data obtained with AFS (Axial Field Spectrometer) which sheds a new light on the e/π puzzle at low P T

  13. Computing variational bounds for flow through random aggregates of Spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Known formulas for variational bounds on Darcy's constant for slow flow through porous media depend on two-point and three-poiint spatial correlation functions. Certain bounds due to Prager and Doi depending only a two-point correlation functions have been calculated for the first time for random aggregates of spheres with packing fractions (eta) up to eta = 0.64. Three radial distribution functions for hard spheres were tested for eta up to 0.49: (1) the uniform distribution or ''well-stirred approximation,'' (2) the Percus Yevick approximation, and (3) the semi-empirical distribution of Verlet and Weis. The empirical radial distribution functions of Benett andd Finney were used for packing fractions near the random-close-packing limit (eta/sub RCP/dapprox.0.64). An accurate multidimensional Monte Carlo integration method (VEGAS) developed by Lepage was used to compute the required two-point correlation functions. The results show that Doi's bounds are preferred for eta>0.10 while Prager's bounds are preferred for eta>0.10. The ''upper bounds'' computed using the well-stirred approximation actually become negative (which is physically impossible) as eta increases, indicating the very limited value of this approximation. The other two choices of radial distribution function give reasonable results for eta up to 0.49. However, these bounds do not decrease with eta as fast as expected for large eta. It is concluded that variational bounds dependent on three-point correlation functions are required to obtain more accurate bounds on Darcy's constant for large eta

  14. Simulations of Coulomb systems confined by polarizable surfaces using periodic Green functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alexandre P; Girotto, Matheus; Levin, Yan

    2017-11-14

    We present an efficient approach for simulating Coulomb systems confined by planar polarizable surfaces. The method is based on the solution of the Poisson equation using periodic Green functions. It is shown that the electrostatic energy arising from the surface polarization can be decoupled from the energy due to the direct Coulomb interaction between the ions. This allows us to combine an efficient Ewald summation method, or any other fast method for summing over the replicas, with the polarization contribution calculated using Green function techniques. We apply the method to calculate density profiles of ions confined between the charged dielectric and metal surfaces.

  15. Role of polarizability in the 3H(d,n)4He reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.B.; Kuzmichev, V.E.; Peresypkin, V.V.; Zepalova, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The influence is investigated of the deuteron electric dipole polarizability on the cross section, astrophysical S-factor, and the yield of helium nuclei in the 3 H(d,n) 4 He reaction in the region of extremely low energies. Prediction is made of the existence of narrow maximum in the cross section at energies of an incident triton lower that 10 keV produced by the action of an attractive polarization potential in the d 3 H system. The growth of the cross section of d 3 H reaction increases the yield of 4 He nuclei at temperatures lower than keV

  16. Dynamical polarizability of graphene irradiated by circularly polarized ac electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busl, Maria; Platero, Gloria; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    We examine the low-energy physics of graphene in the presence of a circularly polarized electric field in the terahertz regime. Specifically, we derive a general expression for the dynamical polarizability of graphene irradiated by an ac electric field. Several approximations are developed...... that allow one to develop a semianalytical theory for the weak-field regime. The ac field changes qualitatively the single- and many-electron excitations of graphene: Undoped samples may exhibit collective excitations (in contrast to the equilibrium situation), and the properties of the excitations in doped...

  17. Ion Transfer Voltammetry Associated with Two Polarizable Interfaces Within Water and Moderately Hydrophobic Ionic Liquid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Shiyu; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    An electrochemical system composed of two polarizable interfaces (the metallic electrode|water and water|ionic liquid interfaces), namely two‐polarized‐interface (TPI) technique, has been proposed to explore the ion transfer processes between water and moderately hydrophobic ionic liquids (W...... to an extremely narrow polarized potential window (ppw) caused by these moderately hydrophobic ionic components. In this article, we show that TPI technique has virtually eliminated the ppw limitation based on a controlling step of concentration polarization at the electrode|water interface. With the aid...

  18. Relativistic Quadrupole Polarizability for the Ground State of Hydrogen-Like Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong-Hu; Zhang Xian-Zhou; Tang Li-Yan; Shi Ting-Yun; Mitroy Jim

    2012-01-01

    The static quadrupole polarizabilities for hydrogen-like ions from Z = 1 to Z = 100 in the 1S 1/2 ground state are calculated to high precision by solving the Dirac equation using the B-spline Galerkin method. The results are consistent with the expression of Kaneko [J. Phys. B 10 (1977) 3347] at low Z. The quadrupole oscillator strength sum Σ n f (2) gn is computed to be zero to a very high degree of precision. (atomic and molecular physics)

  19. Performance test of multicomponent quantum mechanical calculation with polarizable continuum model for proton chemical shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Yusuke; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2015-05-21

    Multicomponent quantum mechanical (MC_QM) calculations with polarizable continuum model (PCM) have been tested against liquid (1)H NMR chemical shifts for a test set of 80 molecules. Improvement from conventional quantum mechanical calculations was achieved for MC_QM calculations. The advantage of the multicomponent scheme could be attributed to the geometrical change from the equilibrium geometry by the incorporation of the hydrogen nuclear quantum effect, while that of PCM can be attributed to the change of the electronic structure according to the polarization by solvent effects.

  20. Validation of PM6 & PM7 semiempirical methods on polarizability calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, P. A.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Ramamurthi, K.

    2015-06-01

    Modern semiempirical methods such as PM6 and PM7 are often used to explore the electronic structure dependent properties of molecules. In this work we report the evaluation of PM6 and PM7 methods towards linear and nonlinear optical polarizability calculations for different molecules and solid nanoclusters. The results are compared with reported experimental results as well as theoretical results from other high level theories for the same systems. It is found that both methods produce accurate results for small molecules and the accuracy increases with the increase in asymmetry of the medium sized organic molecules and accuracy reduces for solid nanoclusters.

  1. Frequency dependent polarizabilities for the ground state of H2, HD, and D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rychlewski, J.

    1983-01-01

    A variation-perturbation method has been employed to calculate the dynamic dipole polarizability for the ground state of the hydrogen molecule. The explicit correlated electronic wave functions were used. The averaged values of α(#betta#) and #betta#(#betta#) for several vibration-rotation states of HD and D 2 are presented. Similar values for H 2 have also been calculated and were used to test the efficiency of the method and the validity of the assumption applied in the present calculation. The agreement of the present theoretical results with the existing experimental data is found to be satisfactory

  2. Electronic structure and static dipole polarizability of C60-C240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zope, Rajendra R

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structure of C 60 -C 240 and its first-order response to a static electric field is studied by an all-electron density functional theory calculation using large polarized Gaussian basis sets. Our results show that the outer C 240 shell almost completely shields the inner C 60 as inferred from the practically identical values of dipole polarizability of the C 60 -C 240 onion (449 A 3 ) and that of the isolated C 240 fullerene (441 A 3 ). The C 60 -C 240 is thus a near-perfect Faraday cage

  3. Polarizability of Helium, Neon, and Argon: New Perspectives for Gas Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiser, Christof; Fellmuth, Bernd

    2018-03-01

    With dielectric-constant gas thermometry, the molar polarizability of helium, neon, and argon has been determined with relative standard uncertainties of about 2 parts per million. A series of isotherms measured with the three noble gases and two different experimental setups led to this unprecedented level of uncertainty. These data are crucial for scientists in the field of gas metrology, working on pressure and temperature standards. Furthermore, with the new benchmark values for neon and argon, theoretical calculations, today about 3 orders of magnitude larger in uncertainty, can be checked and improved.

  4. Sensitivity of the electric dipole polarizability to the neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca-Maza, X.; Agrawal, B. K.; Colo, G.; Nazarewicz, W.; Paar, N.; Piekarewicz, J.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Vretenar, D. [INFN, sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) and Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia); Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-10-20

    The static dipole polarizability, {alpha}{sub D}, in {sup 208}Pb has been recently measured with highresolution via proton inelastic scattering at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) [1]. This observable is thought to be intimately connected with the neutron skin thickness, r{sub skin}, of the same nucleus and, more fundamentally, it is believed to be associated with the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of r{sub skin} on {alpha}{sub D} in {sup 208}Pb is investigated and discussed on the basis of a large and representative set of relativistic and non-relativistic nuclear energy density functionals (EDF) [2].

  5. Validation of PM6 & PM7 semiempirical methods on polarizability calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, P. A.; Babu, R. Ramesh, E-mail: rampap2k@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Growth and Thin film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli-620024, Tamilnadu (India); Ramamurthi, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattankulathur – 603 203, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-06-24

    Modern semiempirical methods such as PM6 and PM7 are often used to explore the electronic structure dependent properties of molecules. In this work we report the evaluation of PM6 and PM7 methods towards linear and nonlinear optical polarizability calculations for different molecules and solid nanoclusters. The results are compared with reported experimental results as well as theoretical results from other high level theories for the same systems. It is found that both methods produce accurate results for small molecules and the accuracy increases with the increase in asymmetry of the medium sized organic molecules and accuracy reduces for solid nanoclusters.

  6. Validation of PM6 & PM7 semiempirical methods on polarizability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen, P. A.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Ramamurthi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Modern semiempirical methods such as PM6 and PM7 are often used to explore the electronic structure dependent properties of molecules. In this work we report the evaluation of PM6 and PM7 methods towards linear and nonlinear optical polarizability calculations for different molecules and solid nanoclusters. The results are compared with reported experimental results as well as theoretical results from other high level theories for the same systems. It is found that both methods produce accurate results for small molecules and the accuracy increases with the increase in asymmetry of the medium sized organic molecules and accuracy reduces for solid nanoclusters

  7. Self-consistent nonlinearly polarizable shell-model dynamics for ferroelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkam Tchouobiap, S.E.; Kofane, T.C.; Ngabireng, C.M.

    2002-11-01

    We investigate the dynamical properties of the polarizable shellmodel with a symmetric double Morse-type electron-ion interaction in one ionic species. A variational calculation based on the Self-Consistent Einstein Model (SCEM) shows that a theoretical ferroelectric (FE) transition temperature can be derive which demonstrates the presence of a first-order phase transition for the potassium selenate (K 2 SeO 4 ) crystal around Tc 91.5 K. Comparison of the model calculation with the experimental critical temperature yields satisfactory agreement. (author)

  8. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASUDEB DATTA

    2011-11-20

    Nov 20, 2011 ... Preliminaries. Lower bound theorem. On going work. Definitions. An n-simplex is a convex hull of n + 1 affinely independent points. (called vertices) in some Euclidean space R. N . Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta. Indian Institute of Science. 2 / 27 ...

  9. New interior solution describing relativistic fluid sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anewexact solution of embedding class I is presented for a relativistic anisotropicmassive fluid sphere. The new exact solution satisfies Karmarkar condition, is well-behaved in all respects, and therefore is suitable for the modelling of superdense stars. Consequently, using this solution, we have studied in detail two ...

  10. 1/4-pinched contact sphere theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Jian; Huang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Given a closed contact 3-manifold with a compatible Riemannian metric, we show that if the sectional curvature is 1/4-pinched, then the contact structure is universally tight. This result improves the Contact Sphere Theorem in [EKM12], where a 4/9-pinching constant was imposed. Some tightness...

  11. Performance and Politics in the Public Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Wiegmink

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pia Wiegmink’s timely examination of the transforming transnational spaces of protest in a globalizing and technologically mediated public sphere in “Performance and Politics in the Public Sphere” offers a well-researched review of contemporary theory surrounding ideas of the political (Chantal Mouffe, the public sphere (Jürgen Habermas, the transnational public sphere (Nancy Fraser, and the reterritorialized transnational public sphere (Markus Schroer as the basis for her analysis of how the performance of political action in public—virtual or physical—is transformed by the capacity of the local to be played on a global stage, thus turning the citizen-actor into a cosmopolitan, transnational force. Tracing examples from the Seattle protests against the World Trade Organization meetings in 1999 by the Global Justice Movement to the work of the Electronic Disturbance Theater, from the civil rights movement to the subject matter of her larger study, “The Church of Life After Shopping,” “Billionaires for Bush,” and “The Yes Men,” Wiegmink provides an important analysis of the “alternative aesthetics” of the counterpublics’ formation, dissent, and action in and against hegemony. This selection is taken from her monograph, Protest EnACTed: Activist Performance in the Contemporary United States, a strong, cultural studies–focused contribution to transnational American Studies.

  12. On the torus cobordant cohomology spheres

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Let a compact Lie group G act on a smooth integral cohomology sphere with G = .... is a compact connected Lie group, (X, A) is a G space and H. ∗ ..... [15] Hsiang W-Y, Cohomology theory of topological transformation groups (New York,.

  13. Performance and Politics in the Public Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Wiegmink

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pia Wiegmink’s timely examination of the transforming transnational spaces of protest in a globalizing and technologically mediated public sphere in “Performance and Politics in the Public Sphere” offers a well-researched review of contemporary theory surrounding ideas of the political (Chantal Mouffe, the public sphere (Jürgen Habermas, the transnational public sphere (Nancy Fraser, and the reterritorialized transnational public sphere (Markus Schroer as the basis for her analysis of how the performance of political action in public—virtual or physical—is transformed by the capacity of the local to be played on a global stage, thus turning the citizen-actor into a cosmopolitan, transnational force. Tracing examples from the Seattle protests against the World Trade Organization meetings in 1999 by the Global Justice Movement to the work of the Electronic Disturbance Theater, from the civil rights movement to the subject matter of her larger study, “The Church of Life After Shopping,” “Billionaires for Bush,” and “The Yes Men,” Wiegmink provides an important analysis of the “alternative aesthetics” of the counterpublics’ formation, dissent, and action in and against hegemony. This selection is taken from her monograph, Protest EnACTed: Activist Performance in the Contemporary United States, a strong, cultural studies–focused contribution to transnational American Studies.

  14. Full sphere hydrodynamic and dynamo benchmarks

    KAUST Repository

    Marti, P.; Schaeffer, N.; Hollerbach, R.; Cebron, D.; Nore, C.; Luddens, F.; Guermond, J.- L.; Aubert, J.; Takehiro, S.; Sasaki, Y.; Hayashi, Y.- Y.; Simitev, R.; Busse, F.; Vantieghem, S.; Jackson, A.

    2014-01-01

    of computer codes designed to calculate fluid flow within a whole sphere. The flows are incompressible and rapidly rotating and the forcing of the flow is either due to thermal convection or due to moving boundaries. All problems defined have solutions

  15. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W; Grillo, I; Phipps, J; Gittins, D I

    2011-01-01

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  16. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Grillo, I [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Phipps, J [Imerys Minerals Ltd, Par Moor Centre, Par Moor Road, Par, Cornwall PL24 2SQ (United Kingdom); Gittins, D I, E-mail: Giorgio.Cinacchi@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: J.S.van-Duijneveldt@bristol.ac.uk [Imerys Performance and Filtration Minerals Ltd, 130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2011-05-18

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  17. TEACHING PHYSICS: Biking around a hollow sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Se-yuen; Yip, Din-yan

    1999-11-01

    The conditions required for a cyclist riding a motorbike in a horizontal circle on or above the equator of a hollow sphere are derived using concepts of equilibrium and the condition for uniform circular motion. The result is compared with an empirical analysis based on a video show. Some special cases of interest derived from the general solution are elaborated.

  18. The Dirac operator on the Fuzzy sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.

    1994-01-01

    We introduce the Fuzzy analog of spinor bundles over the sphere on which the non-commutative analog of the Dirac operator acts. We construct the complete set of eigenstates including zero modes. In the commutative limit we recover known results. (authors)

  19. Institutional change and spheres of authority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    institutioner. Denne tilgang bidrager til at udvikle global governance begrebet "spheres of authority" Det forklarer hvordan transnational lederskab kan bevares, selv om magten spredes i en globaliseret verden. Gennem en illustrativ case om microcredit, viser artiklen hvordan en tilgang baseret på institutional...

  20. Production of Liquid Metal Spheres by Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G. Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a molding technique for producing spheres composed of eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn with diameters ranging from hundreds of microns to a couple millimeters. The technique starts by spreading EGaIn across an elastomeric sheet featuring cylindrical reservoirs defined by replica molding. The metal flows into these features during spreading. The spontaneous formation of a thin oxide layer on the liquid metal keeps the metal flush inside these reservoirs. Subsequent exposure to acid removes the oxide and causes the metal to bead up into a sphere with a size dictated by the volume of the reservoirs. This technique allows for the production and patterning of droplets with a wide range of volumes, from tens of nanoliters up to a few microliters. EGaIn spheres can be embedded or encased subsequently in polymer matrices using this technique. These spheres may be useful as solder bumps, electrodes, thermal contacts or components in microfluidic devices (valves, switches, pumps. The ease of parallel-processing and the ability to control the location of the droplets during their formation distinguishes this technique.