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Sample records for polarity intervals positive

  1. Approximation by Müntz spaces on positive intervals

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2013-11-01

    The so-called Bernstein operators were introduced by S.N. Bernstein in 1912 to give a constructive proof of Weierstrass\\' theorem. We show how to extend his result to Müntz spaces on positive intervals. © 2013 Académie des sciences.

  2. A note on regularity and positive definiteness of interval matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farhadsefat, R.; Lotfi, T.; Rohn, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2012), s. 322-328 ISSN 1895-1074 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity condition * positive definiteness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.405, year: 2012

  3. Chaoticity of interval self-maps with positive entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jincheng.

    1988-12-01

    Li and Yorke originally introduced the notion of chaos for continuous self-map of the interval I = (0,1). In the present paper we show that an interval self-map with positive topological entropy has a chaoticity more complicated than the chaoticity in the sense of Li and Yorke. The main result is that if f:I → I is continuous and has a periodic point with odd period > 1 then there exists a closed subset K of I invariant with respect to f such that the periodic points are dense in K, the periods of periodic points in K form an infinite set and f|K is topologically mixing. (author). 9 refs

  4. Floating Inductance and FDNR Using Positive Polarity Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A generalized circuit based on five positive polarity second-generation current conveyors is introduced. The circuit simulates a floating inductance, capacitor floatation circuit and floating fdnr. All these circuits use grounded capacitors.

  5. Positive solutions and eigenvalue intervals for nonlinear systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12]. In this paper, we will show how our method allows to improve the range of eigenvalue intervals. The new results are easily derived from a general result, stated as Theorem 3.1, which gives sufficient conditions to guarantee the existence of ...

  6. Knee position sense: does the time interval at the target angle affect position accuracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Shmuel; Kelman, Dor; Brand, Moshe; Gottlieb, Uri

    2017-10-01

    [Purpose] This study examined whether the interval at the target angle during knee joint position sense (JPS) affected reposition accuracy, and evaluated the consequence of this factor on test-retest reliability. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. Reposition ability was measured after the knee was placed at a target angle (ranging from 40° to 60°) for intervals of 3, 6, 9, and 12 seconds, in randomized order. Two trials were performed for each condition. The measurement was repeated after a week. The absolute error (AE) of each trial and average AE under each condition within the two measures were used for data analysis. [Results] No significant difference was found in comparing the AE or the average AE during all trials and between the two measures. Fair-to-good reliability was found for the AE results of all trials under the conditions of 3, 6, and 12 seconds. Poor reliability was found with time interval of 9 seconds. [Conclusion] The length of time needed to memorize the target angle during knee JPS test might affect test reliability. Practitioners can use this information when collecting JPS data.

  7. Classical cadherins control nucleus and centrosome position and cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin, Isabelle; Camand, Emeline; Etienne-Manneville, Sandrine

    2009-06-01

    Control of cell polarity is crucial during tissue morphogenesis and renewal, and depends on spatial cues provided by the extracellular environment. Using micropatterned substrates to impose reproducible cell-cell interactions, we show that in the absence of other polarizing cues, cell-cell contacts are the main regulator of nucleus and centrosome positioning, and intracellular polarized organization. In a variety of cell types, including astrocytes, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells, calcium-dependent cadherin-mediated cell-cell interactions induce nucleus and centrosome off-centering toward cell-cell contacts, and promote orientation of the nucleus-centrosome axis toward free cell edges. Nucleus and centrosome off-centering is controlled by N-cadherin through the regulation of cell interactions with the extracellular matrix, whereas the orientation of the nucleus-centrosome axis is determined by the geometry of N-cadherin-mediated contacts. Our results demonstrate that in addition to the specific function of E-cadherin in regulating baso-apical epithelial polarity, classical cadherins control cell polarization in otherwise nonpolarized cells.

  8. Power Polarity In The Far Eastern World System, 1025 BC–AD 1850: Narrative And 25-Year Interval Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wikinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Power polarity in the Far Eastern macro-social system is assessed at twenty five year intervals 1050 BC-AD 1850. Consistent with analysis of Indic system data, there is no support for the theory that the normal world-system power configuration is multipolar, hegemonic, or universal-empire. Instead several different "stability epochs" are discerned.

  9. ROCK1-directed basement membrane positioning coordinates epithelial tissue polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, William P; Gervais, Elise M; Centanni, Samuel W; Gulfo, Kathryn M; Nelson, Deirdre A; Larsen, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    The basement membrane is crucial for epithelial tissue organization and function. However, the mechanisms by which basement membrane is restricted to the basal periphery of epithelial tissues and the basement membrane-mediated signals that regulate coordinated tissue organization are not well defined. Here, we report that Rho kinase (ROCK) controls coordinated tissue organization by restricting basement membrane to the epithelial basal periphery in developing mouse submandibular salivary glands, and that ROCK inhibition results in accumulation of ectopic basement membrane throughout the epithelial compartment. ROCK-regulated restriction of PAR-1b (MARK2) localization in the outer basal epithelial cell layer is required for basement membrane positioning at the tissue periphery. PAR-1b is specifically required for basement membrane deposition, as inhibition of PAR-1b kinase activity prevents basement membrane deposition and disrupts overall tissue organization, and suppression of PAR-1b together with ROCK inhibition prevents interior accumulations of basement membrane. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of wild-type PAR-1b results in ectopic interior basement membrane deposition. Significantly, culture of salivary epithelial cells on exogenous basement membrane rescues epithelial organization in the presence of ROCK1 or PAR-1b inhibition, and this basement membrane-mediated rescue requires functional integrin β1 to maintain epithelial cell-cell adhesions. Taken together, these studies indicate that ROCK1/PAR-1b-dependent regulation of basement membrane placement is required for the coordination of tissue polarity and the elaboration of tissue structure in the developing submandibular salivary gland.

  10. Planar cell polarity breaks bilateral symmetry by controlling ciliary positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai; Hu, Jianxin; Chen, Wen; Elliott, Gene; Andre, Philipp; Gao, Bo; Yang, Yingzi

    2010-07-15

    Defining the three body axes is a central event of vertebrate morphogenesis. Establishment of left-right (L-R) asymmetry in development follows the determination of dorsal-ventral and anterior-posterior (A-P) body axes, although the molecular mechanism underlying precise L-R symmetry breaking in reference to the other two axes is still poorly understood. Here, by removing both Vangl1 and Vangl2, the two mouse homologues of a Drosophila core planar cell polarity (PCP) gene Van Gogh (Vang), we reveal a previously unrecognized function of PCP in the initial breaking of lateral symmetry. The leftward nodal flow across the posterior notochord (PNC) has been identified as the earliest event in the de novo formation of L-R asymmetry. We show that PCP is essential in interpreting the A-P patterning information and linking it to L-R asymmetry. In the absence of Vangl1 and Vangl2, cilia are positioned randomly around the centre of the PNC cells and nodal flow is turbulent, which results in disrupted L-R asymmetry. PCP in mouse, unlike what has been implicated in other vertebrate species, is not required for ciliogenesis, cilium motility, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling or apical docking of basal bodies in ciliated tracheal epithelial cells. Our data suggest that PCP acts earlier than the unidirectional nodal flow during bilateral symmetry breaking in vertebrates and provide insight into the functional mechanism of PCP in organizing the vertebrate tissues in development.

  11. Polarity control of spindle positioning in the C. elegans embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fielmich, Lars-Eric; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Cell and tissue polarity guide a large variety of developmental processes, in-cluding the choice between symmetric and asymmetric cell division. Asymmetric divisions create cell diversity and are needed for maintenance of tissue specific stem cells. Symmetric divisions, on the other hand, promote

  12. Existence of positive solutions and eigenvalues intervals for nonlinear Sturm Liouville problems with a singular interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. K. Vamsi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we define the Green's matrix for a nonlinear Sturm Liouville problem associated with a pair of dynamic equations on time scales with a singularity at the point of interface. Then using iterative techniques, we obtain eigenvalue intervals for which there exist positive solutions. Then we present iterative schemes for approximating the solutions, and discus an example that illustrates the the results obtained.

  13. Flatland Position-Dependent-Mass: Polar Coordinates, Separability and Exact Solvability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Mustafa, Omar

    2010-10-01

    The kinetic energy operator with position-dependent-mass in plane polar coordinates is obtained. The separability of the corresponding Schrödinger equation is discussed. A hypothetical toy model is reported and two exactly solvable examples are studied.

  14. Concomitant use of polarization and positive phase contrast microscopy for the study of microbial cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žižka, Zdeněk; Gabriel, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 6 (2015), s. 545-550 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : polarization microscopy * microbial cells * positive phase contrast Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.335, year: 2015

  15. A novel autonomous real-time position method based on polarized light and geomagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinlong; Chu, Jinkui; Zhang, Ran; Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhiwen

    2015-04-08

    Many animals exploit polarized light in order to calibrate their magnetic compasses for navigation. For example, some birds are equipped with biological magnetic and celestial compasses enabling them to migrate between the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. The Vikings' ability to derive true direction from polarized light is also widely accepted. However, their amazing navigational capabilities are still not completely clear. Inspired by birds' and Vikings' ancient navigational skills. Here we present a combined real-time position method based on the use of polarized light and geomagnetic field. The new method works independently of any artificial signal source with no accumulation of errors and can obtain the position and the orientation directly. The novel device simply consists of two polarized light sensors, a 3-axis compass and a computer. The field experiments demonstrate device performance.

  16. Determination of polar cusp position by low-energy particle measurements made aboard AUREOLE satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladyshev, V.A.; Jorjio, M.V.; Shuiskaya, F.K.; Crasnier, J.; Sauvaud, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    The Franco-Soviet experiment ARCAD, launched aboard the satellite AUREOLE December 27, 1971, has verified the existence of a particle penetration from the transition zone up to ionospheric altitudes across the polar cusp. The polar cusp is characterized by proton fluxes >10 7 particles/(cm 2 .s.sr.KeV) at 0.5KeV, with energy spectra similar to those in the transition zone. The position and form of the polar cusp are studied from measurements of protons in the range 0.4 to 30KeV during geomagnetically quiet periods (Kp [fr

  17. Performance of a plasma opening switch in positive polarity on Gamble I using flashboard plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    The successful development of the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) for inductive storage applications has been largely confined to negative polarity operation. Some models of POS behavior suggest that this is because in a positive polarity coaxial configuration, the weaker magnetic field at the cathode position retards the switch opening process. This article describes experiments in which both conductor radii in the POS region were significantly reduced. Anode- and cathode-side current monitors indicate that voltages greater than open-circuit are generated at the POS position, but there is a significant amount of electron flow out of the POS, depending upon load impedance. Flow impedance analysis indicates that a relatively small gap appears in the POS plasma after switch opening. Switch performance is also compared between flashboard and carbon gun plasma sources, with the latter operated both in positive and negative polarity

  18. No Additional Benefits of Block- Over Evenly-Distributed High-Intensity Interval Training within a Polarized Microcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Juudas, Elisabeth; Kazior, Zuzanna; Ström, Kristoffer; Blomstrand, Eva; Hansson, Ola; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The current study aimed to investigate the responses to block- versus evenly-distributed high-intensity interval training (HIT) within a polarized microcycle. Methods: Twenty well-trained junior cross-country skiers (10 males, age 17.6 ± 1.5 and 10 females, age 17.3 ± 1.5) completed two, 3-week periods of training (EVEN and BLOCK) in a randomized, crossover-design study. In EVEN, 3 HIT sessions (5 × 4-min of diagonal-stride roller-skiing) were completed at a maximal sustainable intensity each week while low-intensity training (LIT) was distributed evenly around the HIT. In BLOCK, the same 9 HIT sessions were completed in the second week while only LIT was completed in the first and third weeks. Heart rate (HR), session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), and perceived recovery (pREC) were recorded for all HIT and LIT sessions, while distance covered was recorded for each HIT interval. The recovery-stress questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-Sport) was completed weekly. Before and after EVEN and BLOCK, resting saliva and muscle samples were collected and an incremental test and 600-m time-trial (TT) were completed. Results: Pre- to post-testing revealed no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for changes in resting salivary cortisol, testosterone, or IgA, or for changes in muscle capillary density, fiber area, fiber composition, enzyme activity (CS, HAD, and PFK) or the protein content of VEGF or PGC-1α. Neither were any differences observed in the changes in skiing economy, [Formula: see text] or 600-m time-trial performance between interventions. These findings were coupled with no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for distance covered during HIT, summated HR zone scores, total sRPE training load, overall pREC or overall recovery-stress state. However, 600-m TT performance improved from pre- to post-training, irrespective of intervention ( P = 0.003), and a number of hormonal and muscle biopsy markers were also significantly

  19. No Additional Benefits of Block- Over Evenly-Distributed High-Intensity Interval Training within a Polarized Microcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Juudas, Elisabeth; Kazior, Zuzanna; Ström, Kristoffer; Blomstrand, Eva; Hansson, Ola; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The current study aimed to investigate the responses to block- versus evenly-distributed high-intensity interval training (HIT) within a polarized microcycle. Methods: Twenty well-trained junior cross-country skiers (10 males, age 17.6 ± 1.5 and 10 females, age 17.3 ± 1.5) completed two, 3-week periods of training (EVEN and BLOCK) in a randomized, crossover-design study. In EVEN, 3 HIT sessions (5 × 4-min of diagonal-stride roller-skiing) were completed at a maximal sustainable intensity each week while low-intensity training (LIT) was distributed evenly around the HIT. In BLOCK, the same 9 HIT sessions were completed in the second week while only LIT was completed in the first and third weeks. Heart rate (HR), session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), and perceived recovery (pREC) were recorded for all HIT and LIT sessions, while distance covered was recorded for each HIT interval. The recovery-stress questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-Sport) was completed weekly. Before and after EVEN and BLOCK, resting saliva and muscle samples were collected and an incremental test and 600-m time-trial (TT) were completed. Results: Pre- to post-testing revealed no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for changes in resting salivary cortisol, testosterone, or IgA, or for changes in muscle capillary density, fiber area, fiber composition, enzyme activity (CS, HAD, and PFK) or the protein content of VEGF or PGC-1α. Neither were any differences observed in the changes in skiing economy, V˙O2max or 600-m time-trial performance between interventions. These findings were coupled with no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for distance covered during HIT, summated HR zone scores, total sRPE training load, overall pREC or overall recovery-stress state. However, 600-m TT performance improved from pre- to post-training, irrespective of intervention (P = 0.003), and a number of hormonal and muscle biopsy markers were also significantly altered

  20. Interval Size and Phrase Position: A Comparison between German and Chinese Folksongs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shanahan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the pitch of the voice tends to decline over the course of a spoken utterance. Ladd (2008 showed that there is also a tendency for the pitch range of spoken utterances to shrink as the pitch of the voice declines. Motivated by this work, two studies are reported that test for the existence of “late phrase compression” in music where the interval size tends to decline toward the end of a phrase. A study of 39,863 phrases from notated Germanic folksongs shows the predicted decline in interval size. However, a second study of 10,985 phrases from Chinese folksongs shows a reverse relationship. In fact, the interval behaviors in Chinese and Germanic folksongs provide marked contrasts: Chinese phrases are dominated by relatively large intervals, but begin with small intervals and end with medium-small intervals. Germanic phrases are dominated by relatively medium intervals, but begin with large intervals and end with small intervals. In short, late phrase interval compression is not evident cross-culturally.

  1. Treatment and prognostic significance of positive interval sentinel nodes in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, N.; Scolyer, R.A.; Uren, R.F.; Winstanley, J.; Brown, P.T.; Wilt, J.H. de; Thompson, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interval sentinel nodes (SNs) are lymph nodes receiving direct lymphatic drainage from a primary site and lying between the tumor and a recognized node field. It is not clear what further nodal surgery should be performed when interval nodes are found to contain micrometastatic disease.

  2. Two normal paleomagnetic polarity intervals in the lower Matuyama Chron recorded in the Shungura Formation (Omo Valley, Southwest Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidane, Tesfaye; Otofuji, Yo-Ichiro; Brown, Francis H.; Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Eshete, Getachew

    2007-10-01

    Two hundred fifty meters of fluvio-lacustrine deposits were sampled from the 760-meter thick Shungura Formation to study magnetostratigraphy within the lower Matuyama Chron. Two to three block samples (at different positions) were collected from 46 units in the section. Characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) is isolated at temperatures between 390 °C and 620 °C or alternating fields between 25 and 100 mT. The ChRM is carried by detrital magnetite and maghemite. Directional analyses revealed three reversed and three normal polarity zones: R3-N3-R2-N2-R1-N1 in the sequence. The overall mean direction Ds = 359.1°, Is = 3.4°; α95 = 3.9°, N = 44 differs marginally from the expected mean dipole field direction ( D = 1.0°, I = 8.8°, α95 = 2.3°, N = 26) [Besse, J., Courtillot, V., 2003. Apparent and True Polar wander and the geometry of the geomagnetic field in the last 200 million years. J. Geophys. Res. 108 (B10), 2469. doi 10.1029/2003JB002684]. Using stratigraphic scaling between 40Ar/ 39Ar and K/Ar isotopic age data [Brown, F.H., McDougall, I., Davies, I., Maier, R., 1985. An integrated Plio-Pleistocene chronology for the Turkana basin. In: Delson, E. (Ed.), Ancestors: The Hard Evidence. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, pp. 82-90; McDougall, I., Brown, F.H., 2006. Precise 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology for the upper Koobi Fora Foramtions, Turkana Basin, northern Kenya. J. Geo. Soc. (Lond.) 163, 205-220], the normal zones N3, N2, and N1 are dated between 2.06 ± 0.01-2.08 ± 0.01 Ma, 2.15 ± 0.01-2.20 ± 0.01 Ma, and at 1.93 ± 0.02 Ma respectively. These age estimates imply that N1 represents the bottom of the Olduvai Subchron while N2 and N3 might represent Réunion Subchrons. If the sedimentation rates are assumed to be constant, the duration for the older Réunion (I) Subchron is about four to seven times (57 ± 15 kyr) that currently adopted by the recent GPTS [Cande, S.C., Kent, D.V., 1995. Revised calibration of the geomagnetic polarity timescale for the

  3. Flatland Position-Dependent-Mass: Polar Coordinates, Separability and Exact Solvability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mustafa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic energy operator with position-dependent-mass in plane polar coordinates is obtained. The separability of the corresponding Schrödinger equation is discussed. A hypothetical toy model is reported and two exactly solvable examples are studied.

  4. The first cell-fate decision of mouse preimplantation embryo development: integrating cell position and polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajlović, Aleksandar I; Bruce, Alexander W

    2017-11-01

    During the first cell-fate decision of mouse preimplantation embryo development, a population of outer-residing polar cells is segregated from a second population of inner apolar cells to form two distinct cell lineages: the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass (ICM), respectively. Historically, two models have been proposed to explain how the initial differences between these two cell populations originate and ultimately define them as the two stated early blastocyst stage cell lineages. The 'positional' model proposes that cells acquire distinct fates based on differences in their relative position within the developing embryo, while the 'polarity' model proposes that the differences driving the lineage segregation arise as a consequence of the differential inheritance of factors, which exhibit polarized subcellular localizations, upon asymmetric cell divisions. Although these two models have traditionally been considered separately, a growing body of evidence, collected over recent years, suggests the existence of a large degree of compatibility. Accordingly, the main aim of this review is to summarize the major historical and more contemporarily identified events that define the first cell-fate decision and to place them in the context of both the originally proposed positional and polarity models, thus highlighting their functional complementarity in describing distinct aspects of the developmental programme underpinning the first cell-fate decision in mouse embryogenesis. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. High-intensity interval training has positive effects on performance in ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimo, M A; de Souza, E O; Wilson, J M; Carpenter, A L; Gilchrist, P; Lowery, R P; Averbuch, B; White, T M; Joy, J

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the well-known benefits that have been shown, few studies have looked at the practical applications of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance. This study investigated the effects of a HIIT program compared to traditional continuous endurance exercise training. 24 hockey players were randomly assigned to either a continuous or high-intensity interval group during a 4-week training program. The interval group (IG) was involved in a periodized HIIT program. The continuous group (CG) performed moderate intensity cycling for 45-60 min at an intensity that was 65% of their calculated heart rate reserve. Body composition, muscle thickness, anaerobic power, and on-ice measures were assessed pre- and post-training. Muscle thickness was significantly greater in IG (p=0.01) when compared to CG. The IG had greater values for both ∆ peak power (pperformance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. The metrology of polar measurement experiments: Application to positioning of DEMON Experimental Arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beunard, Remy

    1998-05-01

    A modular neutron detector, named DEMON, was developed by four laboratories (from Caen, Strasbourg, Brussels and Louvain) to determine accurately the energy and direction of emission of the neutrons. The 99 constituent detectors are formed of liquid scintillator tanks 'viewed' by photomultipliers. The objective of this work was to establish a methodology of detector positioning based on the three-dimensional metrology polar measurements by means of an electronic tacheometer located at the level of the target position. The first part of the paper deals with the geometrical positioning of the detection system while the second part describes the concept of different functions of the programme

  7. Repositioning intervals in the modified Epley's maneuver and their effect on benign paroxysmal positional vertigo treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Serif Samil; Yildirim, Yavuz Selim; Tugrul, Selhattin; Ozturan, Orhan

    2017-05-01

    This study showed that short and long interval treatments achieved comparable success rates. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of early and late recurrences between the two groups. Modified Epley maneuver can be applied in a short interval time with comparable success and recurrence rates which are as effective as in a long interval time. The Epley maneuver is called the particle repositioning or canalith repositioning procedure. If a short time interval in each position is effective, it will allow for reduced time and avoid unnecessary physical burden. How long of a stay in each position is not determined in the literature. There is an absence of comparative studies of the BPPV repositioning time. The aim of this study is to compare the treatment time in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Longitudinal prospective study. Outpatient practice in a tertiary care facility. Sixty consecutive patients with BPPV were included in this study. These patients were sequentially allocated to one of two groups (A or B). The interval times between each position in group A and B were 15 and 120 s, respectively. Modified Epley maneuver was performed in all patients. The maneuvers in both groups were exactly the same sequence of movements, except interval times. The mean age of the patients was 49.25 years (range =19-76 years). Of the 60 patients, 48 (80%) were women and 12 (20%) were men. Successful outcome was achieved in 26 patients (86.7%) after the first modified Epley maneuver in both groups. Three patients from each group (total six patients) responded to the third modified Epley maneuver and the remaining two patients did not respond to any modified Epley maneuver. Therefore, the Semont maneuver was applied with a successful result.

  8. European migration crisis: positions, polarization and conflict management of Slovak political parties

    OpenAIRE

    Mihálik, Jaroslav; Jankoľa, Matúš

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the different positions and the polarization among Slovak political elites due to the European migration crisis and the Union´s migration policy. The inability of collective action at the supranational level is first grounded at the national level. From this basis, the authors differentiate the various standpoints of the selected political leaders and parties towards the current migration wave. Based on this cleavage, we seek to demonstrate the patterns of modern day politi...

  9. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT: MEETING IN MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, On-Line Tools for Proper Vertical Positioning of Sampling Intervals During Site Assessment, describes an approach to locating monitoring wells that is based on application of ground water models. The ideal use of both the model and site assessment funds is to ...

  10. Barley disease susceptibility factor RACB acts in epidermal cell polarity and positioning of the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Björn; Schnepf, Vera; Galgenmüller, Carolina; Ranf, Stefanie; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2016-05-01

    RHO GTPases are regulators of cell polarity and immunity in eukaryotes. In plants, RHO-like RAC/ROP GTPases are regulators of cell shaping, hormone responses, and responses to microbial pathogens. The barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) RAC/ROP protein RACB is required for full susceptibility to penetration by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh), the barley powdery mildew fungus. Disease susceptibility factors often control host immune responses. Here we show that RACB does not interfere with early microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered immune responses such as the oxidative burst or activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. RACB also supports rather than restricts expression of defence-related genes in barley. Instead, silencing of RACB expression by RNAi leads to defects in cell polarity. In particular, initiation and maintenance of root hair growth and development of stomatal subsidiary cells by asymmetric cell division is affected by silencing expression of RACB. Nucleus migration is a common factor of developmental cell polarity and cell-autonomous interaction with Bgh RACB is required for positioning of the nucleus near the site of attack from Bgh We therefore suggest that Bgh profits from RACB's function in cell polarity rather than from immunity-regulating functions of RACB. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. DNA-binding polarity of human replication protein A positions nucleases in nucleotide excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, W L; Appeldoorn, E; Sugasawa, K; Weterings, E; Jaspers, N G; Hoeijmakers, J H

    1998-08-15

    The human single-stranded DNA-binding replication A protein (RPA) is involved in various DNA-processing events. By comparing the affinity of hRPA for artificial DNA hairpin structures with 3'- or 5'-protruding single-stranded arms, we found that hRPA binds ssDNA with a defined polarity; a strong ssDNA interaction domain of hRPA is positioned at the 5' side of its binding region, a weak ssDNA-binding domain resides at the 3' side. Polarity appears crucial for positioning of the excision repair nucleases XPG and ERCC1-XPF on the DNA. With the 3'-oriented side of hRPA facing a duplex ssDNA junction, hRPA interacts with and stimulates ERCC1-XPF, whereas the 5'-oriented side of hRPA at a DNA junction allows stable binding of XPG to hRPA. Our data pinpoint hRPA to the undamaged strand during nucleotide excision repair. Polarity of hRPA on ssDNA is likely to contribute to the directionality of other hRPA-dependent processes as well.

  12. Concomitant use of polarization and positive phase contrast microscopy for the study of microbial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žižka, Zdeněk; Gabriel, Jiří

    2015-11-01

    Polarization and positive phase contrast microscope were concomitantly used in the study of the internal structure of microbial cells. Positive phase contrast allowed us to view even the fine cell structure with a refractive index approaching that of the surrounding environment, e.g., the cytoplasm, and transferred the invisible phase image to a visible amplitude image. With polarization microscopy, crossed polarizing filters together with compensators and a rotary stage showed the birefringence of different cell structures. Material containing algae was collected in ponds in Sýkořice and Zbečno villages (Křivoklát region). The objects were studied in laboratory microscopes LOMO MIN-8 Sankt Petersburg and Polmi A Carl Zeiss Jena fitted with special optics for positive phase contrast, polarizers, analyzers, compensators, rotary stages, and digital SLR camera Nikon D 70 for image capture. Anisotropic granules were found in the cells of flagellates of the order Euglenales, in green algae of the orders Chlorococcales and Chlorellales, and in desmid algae of the order Desmidiales. The cell walls of filamentous algae of the orders Zygnematales and Ulotrichales were found to exhibit significant birefringence; in addition, relatively small amounts of small granules were found in the cytoplasm. A typical shape-related birefringence of the cylindrical walls and the septa between the cells differed in intensity, which was especially apparent when using a Zeiss compensator RI-c during its successive double setting. In conclusion, the anisotropic granules found in the investigated algae mostly showed strong birefringence and varied in number, size, and location of the cells. Representatives of the order Chlorococcales contained the highest number of granules per cell, and the size of these granules was almost double than that of the other monitored microorganisms. Very strong birefringence was exhibited by cell walls of filamentous algae; it differed in the intensity

  13. Pin cushion plasmonic device for polarization beam splitting, focusing, and beam position estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Gilad M; Levy, Uriel

    2013-03-13

    Great hopes rest on surface plasmon polaritons' (SPPs) potential to bring new functionalities and applications into various branches of optics. In this paper, we demonstrate a pin cushion structure capable of coupling light from free space into SPPs, split them based on the polarization content of the illuminating beam of light, and focus them into small spots. We also show that for a circularly or randomly polarized light, four focal spots will be generated at the center of each quarter circle comprising the pin cushion device. Furthermore, following the relation between the relative intensity of the obtained four focal spots and the relative position of the illuminating beam with respect to the structure, we propose and demonstrate the potential use of our structure as a miniaturized plasmonic version of the well-known four quadrant detector. Additional potential applications may vary from multichannel microscopy and multioptical traps to real time beam tracking systems.

  14. Interval between injection of contrast material and positive contrast cheliography affects accurate diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail A. Sen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, surgical and diagnostic imaging findings in 11 cats and 3 dogs with suspected acute and chronic traumatic diaphragmatic hernia, and to compare the results of positive contrast cheliography (peritoneography taken immediately and 5 min after the injection of contrast material. Thoracic and abdominal radiography, ultrasonography, and positive contrast cheliography of all animals were performed. Eight cases were considered as acute and six cases were considered chronic. The contrast images taken immediately after the injection of contrast material revealed the contrast material in the thoracic cavity in 8/8 acute trauma patients, but in none of the chronic cases. In 5/6 of these cases contrast material was seen in the thoracal cavity only in additional images taken after 5 min. One patient was diagnosed with FIP and excluded from the study. Twelve cases had complete resolution and one animal died during the early postoperative period. Our results suggest that positive contrast cheliography performed immediately after the injection of contrast material may not reveal chronic cases of diaphragmatic hernia and a second imaging (or imaging after 5 min is indicated in order not to overlook chronic cases.

  15. European Migration Crisis: Positions, Polarization and Conflict Management of Slovak Political Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihálik Jaroslav

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the different positions and the polarization among Slovak political elites due to the European migration crisis and the Union´s migration policy. The inability of collective action at the supranational level is first grounded at the national level. From this basis, the authors differentiate the various standpoints of the selected political leaders and parties towards the current migration wave. Based on this cleavage, we seek to demonstrate the patterns of modern day political party leadership in Slovakia and, secondly, to compare the political response and agendas across the Slovak party system.

  16. Positive vs. Negative: The Impact of Question Polarity in Voting Advice Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouwel, André; van de Pol, Jasper; de Vreese, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Online Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) are survey-like instruments that help citizens to shape their political preferences and compare them with those of political parties. Especially in multi-party democracies, their increasing popularity indicates that VAAs play an important role in opinion formation for citizens, as well as in the public debate prior to elections. Hence, the objectivity and transparency of VAAs are crucial. In the design of VAAs, many choices have to be made. Extant research in survey methodology shows that the seemingly arbitrary choice to word questions positively (e.g., ‘The city council should allow cars into the city centre’) or negatively (‘The city council should ban cars from the city centre’) systematically affects the answers. This asymmetry in answers is in line with work on negativity bias in other areas of linguistics and psychology. Building on these findings, this study investigated whether question polarity also affects the answers to VAA statements. In a field experiment (N = 31,112) during the Dutch municipal elections we analysed the effects of polarity for 16 out of 30 VAA statements with a large variety of linguistic contrasts. Analyses show a significant effect of question wording for questions containing a wide range of implicit negations (such as ‘forbid’ vs. ‘allow’), as well as for questions with explicit negations (e.g., ‘not’). These effects of question polarity are found especially for VAA users with lower levels of political sophistication. As these citizens are an important target group for Voting Advice Applications, this stresses the need for VAA builders to be sensitive to wording choices when designing VAAs. This study is the first to show such consistent wording effects not only for political attitude questions with implicit negations in VAAs, but also for political questions containing explicit negations. PMID:27723776

  17. Spherical ion oscillations in a positive polarity gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, R.; Khachan, J.

    2013-07-01

    A pulsed, positive polarity gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device has been investigated experimentally, using a differential emissive probe and potential traces as primary diagnostics. Large amplitude oscillations in the plasma current and plasma potential were observed within a microsecond of the discharge onset, which are indicative of coherent ion oscillations about a temporarily confined excess of recirculating electron space charge. The magnitude of the depth of the potential well in the established virtual cathode was determined using a differential emissive Langmuir probe, which correlated well to the potential well inferred from the ion oscillation frequency for both hydrogen and argon experiments. It was found that the timescale for ion oscillation dispersion is strongly dependent on the neutral gas density, and weakly dependent on the peak anode voltage. The cessation of the oscillations was found to be due to charge exchange processes converting ions to high velocity neutrals, causing the abrupt de-coherence of the oscillations through an avalanche dispersion in phase space.

  18. Spherical ion oscillations in a positive polarity gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandara, R.; Khachan, J. [Plasma Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    A pulsed, positive polarity gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device has been investigated experimentally, using a differential emissive probe and potential traces as primary diagnostics. Large amplitude oscillations in the plasma current and plasma potential were observed within a microsecond of the discharge onset, which are indicative of coherent ion oscillations about a temporarily confined excess of recirculating electron space charge. The magnitude of the depth of the potential well in the established virtual cathode was determined using a differential emissive Langmuir probe, which correlated well to the potential well inferred from the ion oscillation frequency for both hydrogen and argon experiments. It was found that the timescale for ion oscillation dispersion is strongly dependent on the neutral gas density, and weakly dependent on the peak anode voltage. The cessation of the oscillations was found to be due to charge exchange processes converting ions to high velocity neutrals, causing the abrupt de-coherence of the oscillations through an avalanche dispersion in phase space.

  19. Dynamic Positioning Capability Analysis for Marine Vessels Based on A DPCap Polar Plot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Jian-min; Xu, Sheng-wen

    2018-03-01

    Dynamic positioning capability (DPCap) analysis is essential in the selection of thrusters, in their configuration, and during preliminary investigation of the positioning ability of a newly designed vessel dynamic positioning system. DPCap analysis can help determine the maximum environmental forces, in which the DP system can counteract in given headings. The accuracy of the DPCap analysis is determined by the precise estimation of the environmental forces as well as the effectiveness of the thrust allocation logic. This paper is dedicated to developing an effective and efficient software program for the DPCap analysis for marine vessels. Estimation of the environmental forces can be obtained by model tests, hydrodynamic computation and empirical formulas. A quadratic programming method is adopted to allocate the total thrust on every thruster of the vessel. A detailed description of the thrust allocation logic of the software program is given. The effectiveness of the new program DPCap Polar Plot (DPCPP) was validated by a DPCap analysis for a supply vessel. The present study indicates that the developed program can be used in the DPCap analysis for marine vessels. Moreover, DPCap analysis considering the thruster failure mode might give guidance to the designers of vessels whose thrusters need to be safer.

  20. SUPERMAN attenuates positive INNER NO OUTER autoregulation to maintain polar development of Arabidopsis ovule outer integuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Robert J; Kotow, Louren M; Gasser, Charles S

    2002-09-01

    The outer integument of Arabidopsis ovules exhibits marked polarity in its development, growing extensively from the abaxial side, but only to a very limited extent from the adaxial side of the ovule. Mutations in two genes affect this asymmetric growth. In strong inner no outer (ino) mutants outer integument growth is eliminated, whereas in superman (sup) mutants integument growth on the adaxial side is nearly equal to wild-type growth on the abaxial side. Through complementation and reporter gene analysis, a region of INO 5'-flanking sequences was identified that contains sufficient information for appropriate expression of INO. Using this INO promoter (P-INO) we show that INO acts as a positive regulator of transcription from P-INO, but is not sufficient for de novo initiation of transcription in other plant parts. Protein fusions demonstrate nuclear localization of INO, consistent with a proposed role as a transcription factor for this member of the YABBY protein family. Through its ability to inhibit expression of the endogenous INO gene and transgenes driven by P-INO, SUP is shown to be a negative regulator of INO transcription. Substitution of another YABBY protein coding region (CRABS CLAW) for INO overcomes this negative regulation, indicating that SUP suppresses INO transcription through attenuation of the INO positive autoregulatory loop.

  1. A mixed-interval multi-pulse position modulation scheme for real-time visible light communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Luhong; Li, Cheng; Li, Honglei; Chen, Xiongbin; Mao, Xurui; Chen, Hongda

    2017-11-01

    In the paper, a mixed-interval multi-pulse position modulation (MI-MPPM) scheme for visible light communication (VLC) system is theoretical proposed and implemented on field programmable gate array (FPGA). It has better bandwidth efficiency than PPM and MPPM. And it has better anti-jamming than MPPM. A real-time VLC link based on phosphorescent white LED is also built to measure the performance of the proposed MI-MPPM scheme. The data rate of 104 Mbps in our VLC system under the distance of 60 cm could be achieved, and bit error rate is 3 . 81 × 10-5. As far as we know, it is the highest data rate that can be achieved in continuous real-time VLC system with phosphorescent white LED based on PPM and its derivative modulation. The performance of VLC system under different distances, advantages and the possible application scenarios of MI-MPPM are also discussed.

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased QT corrected interval dispersion: the effects of continuous positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Nagihan; Dikmen, Nursel; Bozkus, Fulsen; Sungur, Aylin; Sarica, Selman; Orhan, Israfil; Samur, Anil

    2017-03-31

    Severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased QT corrected interval dispersion (QTcd) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is thought to improve this arrhythmogenic marker. The aim of the study was to determine the decrease of ratio of cardiovascular risk in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The study included 65 patients with severe OSA who had an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) score of >30. Each patient underwent 12-channel electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring and polysomnography. Patients with an AHI score of <5 were used as the control group. The control group also underwent ECG monitoring and polysomnography testing. The QTcd levels of both groups were calculated. Three months after CPAP treatment, ECG recordings were obtained from the 65 patients with severe OSA again, and their QTcd values were calculated. There were 44 male and 21 female patients with severe OSA syndrome. The age, gender, body mass index, initial saturation, minimum saturation, average saturation, and desaturation index were determined in both groups. The QTc intervals of the OSA patients (62.48±16.29ms) were significantly higher (p=0.001) than those of the control group (29.72±6.30ms). There were statistically significant differences between the QTc values before and after the CPAP treatment, with pretreatment QTc intervals of 62.48±16.29ms and 3-month post-treatment values of 41.42±16.96ms (p=0.001). There was a positive and significant correlation between QTcd periods and the AHI and hypopnea index (HI) in OSA patients (p=0.001; r=0.71; p=0.001; r=0.679, respectively). CPAP treatment reduced the QTcd in patients with severe OSA. In addition, shortening the QTcd periods in patients with severe OSA may reduce their risk of arrhythmias and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Long term analysis of the Polar Front position and thermohaline characteristics in Drake Passage, Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, N.; Sprintall, J.; Mata, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have observed a consistent warming of the Southern Ocean with the migration of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the associated frontal systems southwards. This shift, is thought to be related to the predominantly positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). This study use the long term salinity and temperature measurements from the High Resolution XBT Program (HR-XBT) in Drake Passage to analyze the temporal variability of the thermohaline properties of the Polar Front (PF). The measurements span from 1996 to 2014. The analysis of the variability of the thermohaline properties along both the isobars and isopycnals in the PF was carried out using Bindoff & McDougall's (1994) method to account for warming, freshening and heaving of the water column. The main results indicate a southward migratory trend of the PF of 0.0229°/year ( 2.5km) which is consistent with a positive SAM influence. Freshening dominates changes in the Drake Passage region and heaving is the least important of all three processes. Freshening occurs throughout the water column south of the PF while that signal is limited to the surface towards the north of the PF. The most significant freshening seems to be occurring along the isopycnals 27.2 to 27.5 kg/m³, values that correspond to 100 and 400m depth, respectively. In terms of T/S anomalies with depth, the results show positive anomalies for Pure Warming and negative anomalies for Pure Freshening in both isobaric and neutral surfaces, indicating also that the region is getting fresher with time. Overall, these results endorse the hypothesis that freshening plays a major role in the observed subsurface heating signal occurring along isopycnals.

  4. Identifying N6-methyladenosine sites using multi-interval nucleotide pair position specificity and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Pengwei; Su, Ran; Guo, Fei; Wei, Leyi

    2017-04-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) refers to methylation of the adenosine nucleotide acid at the nitrogen-6 position. It plays an important role in a series of biological processes, such as splicing events, mRNA exporting, nascent mRNA synthesis, nuclear translocation and translation process. Numerous experiments have been done to successfully characterize m6A sites within sequences since high-resolution mapping of m6A sites was established. However, as the explosive growth of genomic sequences, using experimental methods to identify m6A sites are time-consuming and expensive. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop fast and accurate computational identification methods. In this study, we propose a sequence-based predictor called RAM-NPPS for identifying m6A sites within RNA sequences, in which we present a novel feature representation algorithm based on multi-interval nucleotide pair position specificity, and use support vector machine classifier to construct the prediction model. Comparison results show that our proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art predictors on three benchmark datasets across the three species, indicating the effectiveness and robustness of our method. Moreover, an online webserver implementing the proposed predictor has been established at http://server.malab.cn/RAM-NPPS/. It is anticipated to be a useful prediction tool to assist biologists to reveal the mechanisms of m6A site functions.

  5. Energetic ion emission in a positive polarity nanosecond plasma opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfaty, M.; Krasik, Ya.E.; Weingarten, A.; Fruchtman, A.; Maron, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The emission was studied of energetic ions from the plasma in a coaxial Plasma Opening Switch (POS) powered by a 300 kV, 15 kA, 90 ns positive polarity pulse. Fluxes lasting 2 - 3 ns of ions flowing radially onto the cathode were observed at all axial locations of the switch plasma within 5 ns of the beginning of the upstream POS current. It is suggested that the termination of this ion flux is due to the formation of a cathode plasma, which is consistent with our spectroscopic measurements. Later in the pulse, longer duration (100 ns) ion fluxes were observed radially, first appearing in the generator side of the switch plasma. Fluxes 30 - 40 ns long of ions flowing axially towards the POS load at velocities (2±1) x 10 8 cm/s were also observed. The dependences of the start time of the axial ion flow, of the ion velocities, and of the ion flux on the POS operation parameters were studied. (author). 6 figs., 5 refs

  6. A novel methodology for the angular position identification of the unbalance force on asymmetric rotors by response polar plot analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colín Ocampo, Jorge; Gutiérrez Wing, Enrique S.; Ramírez Moroyoqui, Félix J.; Abúndez Pliego, Arturo; Blanco Ortega, Andrés; Mayén, Jan

    2017-10-01

    It is well known that some mechanical systems, as a two pole generator, exhibit two different stiffness on the main inertial axis of its transverse section, which leads to complex vibration modes and complicates the determination of the angular position of the unbalance force and, consequently, the balancing process by conventional methods. Therefore, a methodology for the angular position identification of the unbalance force, based on a two-degrees-of-freedom mathematical simplified model of a rotor with unequal principal moments of inertia of the shaft transverse section, is proposed in this work. The methodology requires the analysis of the response polar plots of the rotor, as well as the information of the vibration response of at least four points from the response polar plot: vibration amplitude, phase angle and the angular velocity of the rotor. The identification of the unbalance force angular position was numerically and experimentally validated using the response polar plots experimentally acquired from a Jeffcott type rotor, which exhibits unequal principal moments of inertia of shaft transverse section and two inertial disks, which were analyzed for several unbalance force angular positions. The results showed slight differences between the identified and the experimental angular positions.

  7. Large positive spin polarization and giant inverse tunneling magnetoresistance in Fe/PbTiO3/Fe multiferroic tunnel junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jian-Qing; Zhang, Hu; Song, Yu-Min

    2014-01-01

    We perform first-principles electronic structure and spin-dependent transport calculations of a multiferroic tunnel junction (MFTJ) with an epitaxial Fe/PbTiO 3 /Fe heterostructure. We predict a large positive spin-polarization (SP) and an intriguing giant inverse tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio in this tunnel junction. We demonstrate that the tunneling properties are determined by ferroelectric (FE) polarization screening and electronic reconstruction at the interface with lower electrostatic potential. The intricate complex band structure of PbTiO 3 , in particular the lowest decay rates concerning Pb 6p z and Ti 3d z2 states near the Γ ¯ point, gives rise to the large positive SP of the tunneling current in the parallel magnetic configuration. However, the giant inverse TMR ratio is attributed to the minority-spin electrons of the interfacial Ti 3d xz +3d yz orbitals which have considerably weight in the extended area around the Γ ¯ point at the Fermi energy and causes remarkable contributions to the conductance in the antiparallel magnetic configuration. - Highlights: • We study spin-dependent tunneling in Fe/PbTiO 3 /Fe multiferroic tunnel junction. • We find a large positive spin polarization in the parallel magnetic configuration. • An intriguing giant inverse TMR ratio (about −2000%) is predicted. • Complex band structure of PbTiO 3 causes the large positive spin polarization. • Negative TMR is due to minority-spin electrons of interfacial Ti d xz +d yz orbitals

  8. Climatic impact of glacial cycle polar motion: Coupled oscillations of ice sheet mass and rotation pole position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Bruce G.; James, Thomas S.; Mengel, John G.

    1999-01-01

    Precessional motion of Earth's rotation axis relative to its orbit is a well-known source of long-period climatic variation. It is less well appreciated that growth and decay of polar ice sheets perturb the symmetry of the global mass distribution enough that the geographic location of the rotation axis will change by at least 15 km and possibly as much as 100 km during a single glacial cycle. This motion of the pole will change the seasonal and latitudinal pattern of temperatures. We present calculations, based on a diurnal average energy balance, which compare the summer and winter temperature anomalies due to a 1° decrease in obliquity with those due to a 1° motion of the rotation pole toward Hudson Bay. Both effects result in peak temperature perturbations of about 1° Celsius. The obliquity change primarily influences the amplitude of the seasonal cycle, while the polar motion primarily changes the annual mean temperatures. The polar motion induced temperature anomaly is such that it will act as a powerful negative feedback on ice sheet growth. We also explore the evolution of the coupled system composed of ice sheet mass and pole position. Oscillatory solutions result from the conflicting constraints of rotational and thermal stability. A positive mass anomaly on an otherwise featureless Earth is in rotational equilibrium only at the poles or the equator. The two polar equilibria are rotationally unstable, and the equatorial equilibrium, though rotationally stable, is thermally unstable. We find that with a plausible choice for the strength of coupling between the thermal and rotational systems, relatively modest external forcing can produce significant response at periods of 104–106 years, but it strongly attenuates polar motion at longer periods. We suggest that these coupled oscillations may contribute to the observed dominance of 100 kyr glacial cycles since the mid-Pleistocene and will tend to stabilize geographic patterns that are suitable to

  9. Numerical study on the time evolutions of the electric field in helium plasma jets with positive and negative polarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Pedro; Péchereau, François; Bourdon, Anne

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents 2D simulations of atmospheric pressure discharges in helium with N2 and O2 admixtures, propagating in a dielectric tube between a point electrode and a grounded metallic target. For both positive and negative polarities, the propagation of the first ionization front is shown to correspond to a peak of the absolute value of the axial electric field inside the tube, but also outside the tube. After the impact on the metallic target, a rebound front is shown to propagate from the target to the point electrode. This rebound front is 2-3 times faster than the first ionization front. Close to the high voltage point, this rebound front corresponds to a second peak of the absolute value of the axial electric field. Close to the target, as the first ionization and rebound fronts are close in time, only one peak is observed. The dynamics of the absolute value of the radial component of electric field outside the tube is shown to present an increase during the first ionization front propagation and a fast decrease corresponding to the propagation of the rebound front. These time evolutions of the electric field components are in agreement with experiments. Finally, we have shown that the density of metastable He* in 99% He—1% N2 and 99% He—1% O2 atmospheric pressure discharges are very close. Close to the grounded target, the peak density of reactive species is significantly increased due to the synergy between the first ionization and rebound fronts, as observed in experiments. Similar results are obtained for both voltage polarities, but the peak density of metastable He* close to the target is shown to be two times less in negative polarity than in positive polarity.

  10. Photoproduction of positive pions from polarized protons in the region of the first resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Get' man, V.A.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Derkach, A.Y.; Zhebrovskii, Y.V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kolesnikov, L.Y.; Kuz' menko, V.S.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Ranyuk, Y.N.; Rubashkin, A.L.; Sanin, V.M.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Shalatskii, S.V.; Grushin, V.F.

    1980-04-01

    A technique for measuring the T asymmetry for the process ..gamma..p ..-->.. n..pi../sup +/ using a polarized proton target and a quasimonochromatic beam of photons is described. The results of measuring T in the range of pion-emission angles theta(/sub ..pi../ = 3 to 150/sup 0/ at a photon energy of 340 MeV are presented and discussed. It is shown that the results obtained allow a more reliable selection of the solutions of the energy-independent multipole analysis.

  11. Production of positive pions from polarized protons by linearly polarized photons in the energy region 300--420 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Get' man, V.A.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Grushin, V.F.; Derkach, A.Y.; Zhebrovskii, Y.V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kolesnikov, L.Y.; Luchanin, A.A.; Rubashkin, A.L.; Sanin, V.M.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Shalatskii, S.V.

    1980-10-01

    A technique for measurement of the polarization observables ..sigma.., P, and T for the reaction ..gamma..p..-->..n..pi../sup +/ in a doubly polarized experiment (polarized proton target + linearly polarized photon beam) is described. Measurements of the angular distributions of these observables in the range of pion emission angles 30--150/sup 0/ are presented for four photon energies from 300 to 420 MeV. Inclusion of the new experimental data in an energy-independent multipole analysis of photoproduction from protons permits a more reliable selection of solutions to be made.

  12. Par1b links lumen polarity with LGN-NuMA positioning for distinct epithelial cell division phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Cohen, David; Fernandez, Dawn; Hodgson, Louis; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C D; Müsch, Anne

    2013-10-28

    Columnar epithelia establish their luminal domains and their mitotic spindles parallel to the basal surface and undergo symmetric cell divisions in which the cleavage furrow bisects the apical domain. Hepatocyte lumina interrupt the lateral domain of neighboring cells perpendicular to two basal domains and their cleavage furrow rarely bifurcates the luminal domains. We determine that the serine/threonine kinase Par1b defines lumen position in concert with the position of the astral microtubule anchoring complex LGN-NuMA to yield the distinct epithelial division phenotypes. Par1b signaling via the extracellular matrix (ECM) in polarizing cells determined RhoA/Rho-kinase activity at cell-cell contact sites. Columnar MDCK and Par1b-depleted hepatocytic HepG2 cells featured high RhoA activity that correlated with robust LGN-NuMA recruitment to the metaphase cortex, spindle alignment with the substratum, and columnar organization. Reduced RhoA activity at the metaphase cortex in HepG2 cells and Par1b-overexpressing MDCK cells correlated with a single or no LGN-NuMA crescent, tilted spindles, and the development of lateral lumen polarity.

  13. Does the parent positive ion intervene in the fate of the incompletely relaxed trapped electron in irradiated polar liquids?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay-Gerin, J.P.; Ferradini, C.

    1992-01-01

    A model is proposed concerning the influence of the parent positive ion on the fate of the incompletely relaxed trapped electron (e ir - ) in irradiated polar liquids. This model is based on the release, by a tunneling and (or) a trap-hopping mechanism in the Coulomb field of the cation, of the electrons captured in preexisting shallow localized states below the bottom of the conduction band of the solvent. The released electrons would either recombine with the parent positive ion or get retrapped. The net effect would be an accumulation of electrons in deeper traps. The removal of weakly trapped electrons would contribute to the decrease of the infrared part of the optical absorption spectrum during the very early time dynamics of electron solvation. Such a process would imply, as a consequence, the existence of a maximum of the e ir - absorption spectrum

  14. Polar hydrogen positions in proteins: empirical energy placement and neutron diffraction comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünger, A T; Karplus, M

    1988-01-01

    A method for the prediction of hydrogen positions in proteins is presented. The method is based on the knowledge of the heavy atom positions obtained, for instance, from X-ray crystallography. It employs an energy minimization limited to the environment of the hydrogen atoms bound to a common heavy atom or to a single water molecule. The method is not restricted to proteins and can be applied without modification to nonpolar hydrogens and to nucleic acids. The method has been applied to the neutron diffraction structures of trypsin, ribonuclease A, and bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. A comparison of the constructed and the observed hydrogen positions shows few deviations except in situations in which several energetically similar conformations are possible. Analysis of the potential energy of rotation of Lys amino and Ser, Thr, Tyr hydroxyl groups reveals that the conformations of lowest intrinsic torsion energies are statistically favored in both the crystal and the constructed structures.

  15. Screening outcomes in older US women undergoing multiple mammograms in community practice: does interval, age, or comorbidity score affect tumor characteristics or false positive rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Dejana; Zhu, Weiwei; Hubbard, Rebecca A; O'Meara, Ellen S; Miglioretti, Diana L; Geller, Berta; Dittus, Kim; Moore, Dan; Wernli, Karen J; Mandelblatt, Jeanne; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2013-03-06

    Background Uncertainty exists about the appropriate use of screening mammography among older women because comorbid illnesses may diminish the benefit of screening. We examined the risk of adverse tumor characteristics and false positive rates according to screening interval, age, and comorbidity. Methods From January 1999 to December 2006, data were collected prospectively on 2993 older women with breast cancer and 137 949 older women without breast cancer who underwent mammography at facilities that participated in a data linkage between the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium and Medicare claims. Women were aged 66 to 89 years at study entry to allow for measurement of 1 year of preexisting illnesses. We used logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds of advanced (IIb, III, IV) stage, large (>20 millimeters) tumors, and 10-year cumulative probability of false-positive mammography by screening frequency (1 vs 2 years), age, and comorbidity score. The comorbidity score was derived using the Klabunde approximation of the Charlson score. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Adverse tumor characteristics did not differ statistically significantly by comorbidity, age, or interval. Cumulative probability of a false-positive mammography result was higher among annual screeners than biennial screeners irrespective of comorbidity: 48.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 46.1% to 49.9%) of annual screeners aged 66 to 74 years had a false-positive result compared with 29.0% (95% CI = 28.1% to 29.9%) of biennial screeners. Conclusion Women aged 66 to 89 years who undergo biennial screening mammography have similar risk of advanced-stage disease and lower cumulative risk of a false-positive recommendation than annual screeners, regardless of comorbidity.

  16. Enhancing glycan isomer separations with metal ions and positive and negative polarity ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xueyun; Zhang, Xing; Schocker, Nate; Renslow, Ryan S.; Orton, Daniel J.; Khamsi, Jamal; Ashmus, Roger A.; Almeida, Igor C.; Tang, Keqi; Costello, Catherine E; Smith, Richard D.; Michael, Katja; Baker, Erin M.

    2016-09-07

    Glycomics has become an increasingly important field of research since glycans play critical roles in biology processes ranging from molecular recognition and signaling to cellular communication. Glycans often conjugate with other biomolecules such as proteins and lipids, and alter their properties and functions, so understanding the effect glycans have on cellular systems is essential. However the analysis of glycans is extremely difficult due to their complexity and structural diversity (i.e., the number and identity of monomer units, and configuration of their glycosidic linkages and connectivities). In this work, we coupled ion mobility spectrometry with mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) to characterize glycan standards and biologically important isomers of synthetic αGal-containing O-glycans including glycotopes of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is the causative agent of Chagas disease. IMS-MS results showed significant differences for the glycan structural isomers when analyzed in positive and negative polarity and complexed with different metal cations. These results suggest specific metal ions or ion polarities could be used to target and baseline separate glycan isomers of interest with IMS-MS.

  17. Serial position, output order, and list length effects for words presented on smartphones over very long intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortis Mack, Cathleen; Cinel, Caterina; Davies, Nigel; Harding, Michael; Ward, Geoff

    2017-12-01

    Three experiments examined whether or not benchmark findings observed in the immediate retrieval from episodic memory are similarly observed over much greater time-scales. Participants were presented with experimentally-controlled lists of words at the very slow rate of one word every hour using an iPhone recall application, RECAPP, which was also used to recall the words in either any order (free recall: Experiments 1 to 3) or the same order as presented (serial recall: Experiment 3). We found strong temporal contiguity effects, weak serial position effects with very limited recency, and clear list length effects in free recall; clear primacy effects and classic error gradients in serial recall; and recency effects in a final two-alternative forced choice recognition task (Experiments 2 and 3). Our findings extend the timescales over which temporal contiguity effects have been observed, but failed to find consistent evidence for strong long-term recency effects with experimenter-controlled stimuli.

  18. Long-Term Charge/Discharge Cycling Stability of MnO2 Aqueous Supercapacitor under Positive Polarization

    KAUST Repository

    Ataherian, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    The long-term charge/discharge cycling stability of MnO 2 electrode under positive polarization in aqueous KCl electrolyte has been studied over different potential windows spanning from the open circuit potential to varied higher-end potential limited by O 2 evolution. Cycling up to 1.2 V (vs Ag/AgCl (aq)) causes partial (35) capacitance fading to a plateau value within the initial cycles, accompanied by morphological reconstruction, reduction of surface Mn ions and oxygen evolution. The surface Mn-ion reduction has been attributed to a two-step oxidation-reduction mechanism involving OH oxidation in electrolyte, based on electrochemical analysis. When cycling potential extends to 1.4 V, extensive oxygen evolution takes place. The combination of surface passivation of current collector and extensive gas bubbling, which deteriorates electrical contact among the constituent particles within the electrode, results in further monotonic capacitance reduction. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  19. Positive Effect of Large Birth Intervals on Early Childhood Hemoglobin Levels in Africa Is Limited to Girls: Cross-Sectional DHS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robel Afeworki

    Full Text Available Short birth intervals are independently associated with increased risk of adverse maternal, perinatal, infant and child outcomes. Anemia in children, which is highly prevalent in Africa, is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Birth spacing is advocated as a tool to reduce anemia in preschool African children, but the role of gender differences and contextual factors has been neglected. The present study aims to determine to what extent the length of preceding birth interval influences the hemoglobin levels of African preschool children in general, as well as for boys and girls separately, and which contextual factors thereby play a crucial role.This cross-sectional study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS conducted between 2003 and 2011 in 20 African countries. All preschool children aged 6-59 months with a valid hemoglobin measurement and a preceding birth interval of 7-72 months as well as their corresponding multigravida mothers aged 21-49 years were included in the study. Hemoglobin levels of children and mothers were measured in g/l, while birth intervals were calculated as months difference between consecutive births. Multivariate analyses were done to examine the relationship between length of preceding birth interval and child hemoglobin levels, adjusted for factors at the individual, household, community, district, and country level. A positive linear relationship was observed between birth interval and the 49,260 included children's hemoglobin level, whereby age and sex of the child, hemoglobin level of the mother, household wealth, mother's education and urbanization of place of residence also showed positive associations. In the interaction models, the effect of a month increase in birth interval is associated with an average increase of 0.025 g/l in hemoglobin level (P = 0.001 in girls, while for boys the effect was not significant. In addition, for girls, the effect of length of preceding

  20. Porphyry-Style Petropavlovskoe Gold Deposit, the Polar Urals: Geological Position, Mineralogy, and Formation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikentyev, I. V.; Mansurov, R. Kh.; Ivanova, Yu. N.; Tyukova, E. E.; Sobolev, I. D.; Abramova, V. D.; Vykhristenko, R. I.; Trofimov, A. P.; Khubanov, V. B.; Groznova, E. O.; Dvurechenskaya, S. S.; Kryazhev, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    Geological and structural conditions of localization, hydrothermal metasomatic alteration, and mineralization of the Petropavlovskoe gold deposit (Novogodnenskoe ore field) situated in the northern part of the Lesser Ural volcanic-plutonic belt, which is a constituent of the Middle Paleozoic island-arc system of the Polar Urals, are discussed. The porphyritic diorite bodies pertaining to the late phase of the intrusive Sob Complex play an ore-controlling role. The large-volume orebodies are related to the upper parts of these intrusions. Two types of stringer-disseminated ores have been revealed: (1) predominant gold-sulfide and (2) superimposed low-sulfide-gold-quartz ore markedly enriched in Au. Taken together, they make up complicated flattened isometric orebodies transitory to linear stockworks. The gold potential of the deposit is controlled by pyrite-(chlorite)-albite metasomatic rock of the main productive stage, which mainly develops in a volcanic-sedimentary sequence especially close to the contacts with porphyritic diorite. The relationships between intrusive and subvolcanic bodies and dating of individual zircon crystals corroborate a multistage evolution of the ore field, which predetermines its complex hydrothermal history. Magmatic activity of mature island-arc plagiogranite of the Sob Complex and monzonite of the Kongor Complex initiated development of skarn and beresite alterations accompanied by crystallization of hydrothermal sulfides. In the Early Devonian, due to emplacement of the Sob Complex at a depth of approximately 2 km, skarn magnetite ore with subordinate sulfides was formed. At the onset of the Middle Devonian, the large-volume gold porphyry Au-Ag-Te-W ± Mo,Cu stockworks related to quartz diorite porphyry—the final phase of the Sob Complex— were formed. In the Late Devonian, a part of sulfide mineralization was redistributed with the formation of linear low-sulfide quartz vein zones. Isotopic geochemical study has shown that the

  1. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2015-01-01

    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass

  2. Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Interval training can help you get the most out of your workout. By Mayo Clinic Staff Are you ready to shake up ... more time at the gym? Consider aerobic interval training. Once the domain of elite athletes, interval training ...

  3. Ion diode performance on a positive polarity inductive voltage adder with layered magnetically insulated transmission line flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshelwood, D. D.; Schumer, J. W.; Allen, R. J.; Commisso, R. J.; Jackson, S. L.; Murphy, D. P.; Phipps, D.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Weber, B. V.; Ottinger, P. F.; Apruzese, J. P.; Cooperstein, G.; Young, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    A pinch-reflex ion diode is fielded on the pulsed-power machine Mercury (R. J. Allen, et al., 15th IEEE Intl. Pulsed Power Conf., Monterey, CA, 2005, p. 339), which has an inductive voltage adder (IVA) architecture and a magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL). Mercury is operated in positive polarity resulting in layered MITL flow as emitted electrons are born at a different potential in each of the adder cavities. The usual method for estimating the voltage by measuring the bound current in the cathode and anode of the MITL is not accurate with layered flow, and the interaction of the MITL flow with a pinched-beam ion diode load has not been studied previously. Other methods for determining the diode voltage are applied, ion diode performance is experimentally characterized and evaluated, and circuit and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are performed. Results indicate that the ion diode couples efficiently to the machine operating at a diode voltage of about 3.5 MV and a total current of about 325 kA, with an ion current of about 70 kA of which about 60 kA is proton current. It is also found that the layered flow impedance of the MITL is about half the vacuum impedance.

  4. Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  5. Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Regardless of the type of physical activity used, interval training is simply repeated periods of physical stress interspersed with recovery periods during which activity of a reduced intensity is performed. During the recovery periods, the individual usually keeps moving and does not completely recover before the next exercise interval (e.g.,…

  6. Repeated high-intensity interval exercise shortens the positive effect on executive function during post-exercise recovery in healthy young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Takenaka, Saki; Tanaka, Daichi; Takeuchi, Tatsuya; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Isaka, Tadao; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    A single bout of aerobic exercise improves executive function (EF), but only for a short period. Compared with a single bout of aerobic exercise, we recently found that high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) could maintain a longer improvement in EF. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of different exercise modes on the modifications of EF remains unclear. The purpose of the current investigation was to test our hypothesis that the amount of exercise-induced lactate production and its accumulation affects human brain function during and after exercise, thereby affecting post-exercise EF. Ten healthy male subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise. The HIIE protocol consisted of four 4-min bouts at 90% peak VO2 with a 3-min active recovery period at 60% peak VO2. The amount of lactate produced during exercise was manipulated by repeating the HIIE twice with a resting period of 60min between the 1st HIIE and 2nd HIIE. To evaluate EF, a color-word Stroop task was performed, and reverse-Stroop interference scores were obtained. EF immediately after the 1st HIIE was significantly improved compared to that before exercise, and the improved EF was sustained during 40min of the post-exercise recovery. However, for the 2nd HIIE, the improved EF was sustained for only 10min of the post-exercise recovery period, despite the performance of the same exercise. In addition, during and following HIIE, the glucose and lactate accumulation induced by the 2nd HIIE was significantly lower than that induced by the 1st HIIE. Furthermore, there was an inverse relationship between lactate and EF by plotting the changes in lactate levels against changes in EF from pre-exercise during the late phase of post-exercise recovery. These findings suggested the possibility that repeated bouts of HIIE, which decreases lactate accumulation, may dampen the positive effect of exercise on EF during the post-exercise recovery. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Problems, solutions, and perspectives in the evaluation of interval cancers in Italian mammography screening programmes: a position paper from the Italian group for mammography screening (GISMa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Lauro; Frigerio, Alfonso; Zorzi, Manuel; Fedato, Chiara; Angiolucci, Giovanni; Bernardi, Daniela; Campari, Cinzia; Crocetti, Emanuele; Ferretti, Stefano; Giorgi, Daniela; Marchisio, Francesca; Morrone, Doralba; Naldoni, Carlo; Petrella, Marco; Ponti, Antonio; Ravaioli, Alessandra; Saguatti, Gianni; Santini, Dolores; Sassoli de Bianchi, Priscilla; Serafini, Monica; Vergini, Viviana; Giordano, Livia

    2015-01-01

    In this position paper, a self-convened team of experts from the Italian Group for Mammography Screening (Gruppo italiano screening mammografico, GISMa) pointed out the problems that increasingly hamper the feasibility and validity of the estimate of the proportional incidence of interval breast cancer (IBC) in Italy, suggested potential solutions and an agenda for research, and proposed that the question of the sensitivity of mammography be viewed in a larger perspective, with a greater attention to radiological review activities and breast radiology quality assurance programmes. The main problems are as follows: the coverage of cancer registration is incomplete; the robustness of using the pre-screening incidence rates as underlying rates decreases with time since the start of screening; the intermediate mammograms performed for early detection purposes may cause an overrepresentation of IBCs; the classification of many borderline screening histories is prone to subjectivity; and, finally, the composition of cohorts of women with negative screening results is uncertain, because several mammography reports are neither clearly negative nor clearly positive, and because of the limitations and instability of the electronic mammography records. Several possibilities can be considered to cope with these issues: standard methods for using the hospital discharge records in the identification of IBCs should be established; for the calculation of regional estimates of the underlying incidence, a suitable mathematical model should be identified; the definition of IBC according to the 2008 GISMa guidelines needs to be updated, especially with respect to in situ cancers and to invasive cancers with borderline screening histories; a closer adherence to standard screening protocols, with a simplified patient management, would make it easier to objectively identify IBCs; alternative methods for estimating the sensitivity of mammography should be taken into consideration; and

  8. interval functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Chatfield

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppose N is a Banach space of norm |•| and R is the set of real numbers. All integrals used are of the subdivision-refinement type. The main theorem [Theorem 3] gives a representation of TH where H is a function from R×R to N such that H(p+,p+, H(p,p+, H(p−,p−, and H(p−,p each exist for each p and T is a bounded linear operator on the space of all such functions H. In particular we show that TH=(I∫abfHdα+∑i=1∞[H(xi−1,xi−1+−H(xi−1+,xi−1+]β(xi−1+∑i=1∞[H(xi−,xi−H(xi−,xi−]Θ(xi−1,xiwhere each of α, β, and Θ depend only on T, α is of bounded variation, β and Θ are 0 except at a countable number of points, fH is a function from R to N depending on H and {xi}i=1∞ denotes the points P in [a,b]. for which [H(p,p+−H(p+,p+]≠0 or [H(p−,p−H(p−,p−]≠0. We also define an interior interval function integral and give a relationship between it and the standard interval function integral.

  9. Study of Branching Ratio And Polarization Fraction in Neutral B Meson Decays to Negative Rho Meson Positive Kaon Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Baosen; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-03-07

    We present the preliminary results on the search for B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup -}K*{sup +}. The data sample comprises 122.7 million B{bar B} pairs in the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation through the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance collected during 1999-2003 with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy collider at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). We obtain an upper limit of the branching ratio at 90% confidence level as {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup -}K*{sup +}) < 17.2 x 10{sup -6}. The fitted result on the polarization fraction shows no evidence that the decay is longitudinally dominated as predicted by various theoretical models.

  10. Positive Effect of Large Birth Intervals on Early Childhood Hemoglobin Levels in Africa Is Limited to Girls: Cross-Sectional DHS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afeworki, R.; Smits, J.; Tolboom, J.; Ven, A.J. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short birth intervals are independently associated with increased risk of adverse maternal, perinatal, infant and child outcomes. Anemia in children, which is highly prevalent in Africa, is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Birth spacing is advocated as a tool

  11. In-line Fiber Polarizer

    OpenAIRE

    Perumalsamy, Priya

    1998-01-01

    Polarizers and polarization devices are important components in fiber optic communication and sensor systems. There is a growing need for efficient low loss components that are compatible with optical fibers. An all fiber in-line polarizer is a more desirable alternative that could be placed at appropriate intervals along communication links. An in-line fiber polarizer was fabricated and tested. The in-line fiber polarizer operates by coupling optical energy propagatin...

  12. Age related vascular endothelial function following lifelong sedentariness: positive impact of cardiovascular conditioning without further improvement following low frequency high intensity interval training

    OpenAIRE

    Grace, Fergal M.; Herbert, Peter; Ratcliffe, John W.; New, Karl J.; Baker, Julien S.; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aging is associated with diffuse impairments in vascular endothelial function and traditional aerobic exercise is known to ameliorate these changes. High intensity interval training (HIIT) is effective at improving vascular function in aging men with existing disease, but its effectiveness remains to be demonstrated in otherwise healthy sedentary aging. However, the frequency of commonly used HIIT protocols may be poorly tolerated in older cohorts. Therefore, the present study invest...

  13. Polarization Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Fressengeas, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The physics of polarization optics *Polarized light propagation *Partially polarized light; DEA; After a brief introduction to polarization optics, this lecture reviews the basic formalisms for dealing with it: Jones Calculus for totally polarized light and Stokes parameters associated to Mueller Calculus for partially polarized light.

  14. Sublimation of new matrix candidates for high spatial resolution imaging mass spectrometry of lipids: enhanced information in both positive and negative polarities after 1,5-diaminonapthalene deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aurélien; Charbonneau, Jade Laveaux; Fournaise, Erik; Chaurand, Pierre

    2012-02-21

    Matrix sublimation has demonstrated to be a powerful approach for high-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging of lipids, providing very homogeneous solvent-free deposition. This work presents a comprehensive study aiming to evaluate current and novel matrix candidates for high spatial resolution MALDI imaging mass spectrometry of lipids from tissue section after deposition by sublimation. For this purpose, 12 matrices including 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), sinapinic acid (SA), α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), 2,6-dihydroxyacetphenone (DHA), 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP), 3-hydroxypicolinic acid (3-HPA), 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (DMAN), 1,8,9-anthracentriol (DIT), 1,5-diaminonapthalene (DAN), p-nitroaniline (NIT), 9-aminoacridine (9-AA), and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) were investigated for lipid detection efficiency in both positive and negative ionization modes, matrix interferences, and stability under vacuum. For the most relevant matrices, ion maps of the different lipid species were obtained from tissue sections at high spatial resolution and the detected peaks were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. First proposed for imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) after sublimation, DAN has demonstrated to be of high efficiency providing rich lipid signatures in both positive and negative polarities with high vacuum stability and sub-20 μm resolution capacity. Ion images from adult mouse brain were generated with a 10 μm scanning resolution. Furthermore, ion images from adult mouse brain and whole-body fish tissue sections were also acquired in both polarity modes from the same tissue section at 100 μm spatial resolution. Sublimation of DAN represents an interesting approach to improve information with respect to currently employed matrices providing a deeper analysis of the lipidome by IMS.

  15. Análisis del ataque posicional de balonmano playa masculino y femenino mediante coordenadas polares. [Analysis of positional attack in beach handball male and female with polar coordinates].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. Reigal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo aportar una perspectiva novedosa en la comprensión y diferenciación de las conductas de juego en la fase de ataque posicional en el balonmano playa masculino y femenino. Para ello se analizaron 28 partidos de alto nivel con el programa informático Hoisan. Se utilizó un diseño Observacional de carácter nomotético, de seguimiento y multidimensional con un sistema taxonómico metodológicamente validado. Los datos fueron sometidos a un análisis de coordenadas polares en su versión genuina. Para llevar a cabo estos análisis se escogieron siete conductas focales relativas, principalmente, a los jugadores que finalizan el ataque y el modo de realizarlo. Los resultados mostraron diferencias entre las conductas de apareo en la categoría masculina y femenina. Destaca que el ataque posicional en la categoría femenina se orienta hacia zonas de finalización izquierdas ante un sistema defensivo abierto y depende más de la jugadora que adquiere el rol de doble portera (especialista que en la categoría masculina, donde las responsabilidades están más repartidas y el ataque se dirige hacia la banda derecha ante un sistema defensivo cerrado. El lanzamiento en giro se ha mostrado como el principal recurso ofensivo en ambas categorías. Abstract This research aims to provide a new perspective on understanding and differentiation of play behavior in the phase of positional attack in the male and female beach handball. 28 high-level games with Hoisan software were analyzed. The observational design used is nomothetic, monitoring and multidimensional. The taxonomic system has been validated methodologically. Data were subjected to analysis of polar coordinates in its genuine version. To carry out these analyzes on seven focal behaviors were chosen mainly for players who complete the attack and how to create it. The results showed differences in mating behavior in the male and female category. Emphasizes

  16. Linear Polarization Properties of Parsec-Scale AGN Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Pushkarev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We used 15 GHz multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA polarization sensitive observations of 484 sources within a time interval 1996–2016 from the MOJAVE program, and also from the NRAO data archive. We have analyzed the linear polarization characteristics of the compact core features and regions downstream, and their changes along and across the parsec-scale active galactic nuclei (AGN jets. We detected a significant increase of fractional polarization with distance from the radio core along the jet as well as towards the jet edges. Compared to quasars, BL Lacs have a higher degree of polarization and exhibit more stable electric vector position angles (EVPAs in their core features and a better alignment of the EVPAs with the local jet direction. The latter is accompanied by a higher degree of linear polarization, suggesting that compact bright jet features might be strong transverse shocks, which enhance magnetic field regularity by compression.

  17. Narrowing the position of the Treacher Collins syndrome locus to a small interval between three new microsatellite markers at 5q32-33. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, M.J.; Dixon, J. (Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)); Houseal, T.; Klinger, K.; Landes, G.M. (Integrated Genetics, Inc., Framingham, MA (United States)); Bhatt, M.; Ward, D.C. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCOF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development, the features of which include conductive hearing loss and cleft palate. The TCOF1 locus has been localized to chromosome 5q32-33.2. In the present study the authors have used the combined techniques of genetic linkage analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to more accurately define the TCOF1 critical region. Cosmids IG90 and SPARC, which map to distal 5q, encompass two and one hypervariable microsatellite markers, respectively. The heterozygosity values of these three markers range from .72 to .81. Twenty-two unrelated TCOF1 families have been analyzed for linkage to these markers. There is strong evidence demonstrating linkage to all three markers, the strongest support for positive linkage being provided by haplotyping those markers at the locus encompassed by the cosmid IG90 (Z[sub max]= 19.65; 0 = .010). FISH to metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei established that IG90 lies centromeric to SPARC. This information combined with the data generated by genetic linkage analysis demonstrated that the TCOF1 locus is closely flanked proximally by IG90 and distally by SPARC. 30 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. A review of polarized ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmor, P.W.

    1995-06-01

    The two main types of polarized ion sources in use on accelerators today are the Atomic Beam Polarized Ion Source (ABIS) source and the Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS). Both types can provide beams of nuclearly polarized light ions which are either positively or negatively charged. Heavy ion polarized ion sources for accelerators are being developed. (author). 35 refs., 1 tab

  19. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  20. Convex Interval Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alparslan-Gok, S.Z.; Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, convex interval games are introduced and some characterizations are given. Some economic situations leading to convex interval games are discussed. The Weber set and the Shapley value are defined for a suitable class of interval games and their relations with the interval core for

  1. Cooperative interval games

    OpenAIRE

    Bok, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we study cooperative interval games, a generalized model of cooperative games in which worth of every coalition corresponds with a closed interval representing all possible outcomes of their cooperation. We give a brief introduction into classical cooperative games, interval analysis and finally introduction to cooperative interval games with focus on selections, that is on all possible outcomes of interval game with no additional uncertainty. We introduce new selection-based ...

  2. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  3. Geomagnetic excursions reflect an aborted polarity state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Plenier, Guillaume; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2008-10-01

    Geomagnetic excursions represent short episodes of a few thousand years at most during which the field considerably exceeds its normal range of variability during a polarity state. Paleomagnetic records have now been obtained with extremely high temporal resolution which have improved our knowledge of these short events. We have compiled the most detailed records of excursions that had occurred during the Brunhes and Matuyama chrons. We show that virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) of at least one record of each event are able to reach the opposite polarity. In the next step, we have computed different simulations of excursions during which the dipole progressively vanishes before growing back without reversing. This scenario produces very few reversed directions which are only visible at some latitudes. We infer that it is impossible to reach the ratio of reversed to intermediate VGPs present in the paleomagnetic records if the excursions were not associated with a short period of reversed dipole field. Therefore, excursions should be regarded as two successive reversals bracketing an aborted polarity interval. We propose that the same underlying mechanisms prevail in both situations (excursions or reversals) and that below a certain strength the field reaches an unstable position which preludes either the achievement of a reversal or its return to the former polarity.

  4. No More Polarization, Please!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mia Reinholt

    The organizational science literature on motivation has for long been polarized into two main positions; the organizational economic position focusing on extrinsic motivation and the organizational behavior position emphasizing intrinsic motivation. With the rise of the knowledge economy...... and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on motivation, acknowledging the co-existence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, the possible interaction...... between the two as well as different types of motivations filling in the gap between the two polar types, is urgently needed in the organizational science literature. By drawing on the research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation conducted in social psychology and combining this with contributions from...

  5. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  6. Interval Temporal Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monica, Dario Della; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a family of modal logics for reasoning about relational structures of intervals over (usually) linear orders, with modal operators associated with the various binary relations between such intervals, known as Allen’s interval relations. The formulae of these logics are evaluated...... at intervals rather than points and the main eect of that semantic feature is substantially higher expressiveness and computational complexity of the interval logics as compared to point-based ones. Without purporting to provide a comprehensive survey of the field, we take the reader to a journey through...... the main developments in it over the past 10 years and outline some landmark results on expressiveness and (un)decidability of the satisfiability problem for the family of interval logics....

  7. Estimating duration intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); B.L.K. Vroomen (Björn)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractDuration intervals measure the dynamic impact of advertising on sales. More precise, the p per cent duration interval measures the time lag between the advertising impulse and the moment that p per cent of its effect has decayed. In this paper, we derive an expression for the duration

  8. Lobbying and political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Ursprung, Heinrich W.

    2002-01-01

    Standard spatial models of political competition give rise to equilibria in which the competing political parties or candidates converge to a common position. In this paper I show how political polarization can be generated in models that focus on the nexus between pre-election interest group lobbying and electoral competition.

  9. Characterization of cis- and trans-octadecenoic acid positional isomers in edible fat and oil using gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector equipped with highly polar ionic liquid capillary column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Asanuma, Masaharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Kojima, Koichi; Nagai, Toshiharu; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the characterisation of all cis- and trans-octadecenoic acid (C18:1) positional isomers in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO) and milk fat, which contain several cis- and trans-C18:1 positional isomers, was achieved by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector equipped with a highly polar ionic liquid capillary column (SLB-IL111). Prior to analysis, the cis- and trans-C18:1 fractions in PHVO and milk fat were separated using a silver-ion cartridge. The resolution of all cis-C18:1 positional isomers was successfully accomplished at the optimal isothermal column temperature of 120 °C. Similarly, the positional isomers of trans-C18:1, except for trans-6-C18:1 and trans-7-C18:1, were separated at 120 °C. The resolution of trans-6-C18:1 and trans-7-C18:1 isomers was made possible by increasing the column temperature to 160 °C. This analytical method is suitable for determining the cis- and trans-C18:1 positional isomers in edible fats and oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.

    2007-01-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  11. Political polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2007-05-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  12. The Polarized Neutron Spectrometer REMUR at the Pulsed Reactor IBR-2

    CERN Document Server

    Aksenov, V L; Kozhevnikov, S V; Lauter, H; Lauter-Pasyuk, V; Nikitenko, Yu V; Petrenko, A V

    2004-01-01

    A new polarized neutron spectrometer REMUR has been constructed and commissioned. The spectrometer REMUR is dedicated to investigations of multilayers and surfaces by polarized neutron reflection and of the inhomogeneous state of solids by diffuse small-angle polarized neutron scattering. The spectrometer operates in the neutron wavelength interval 1\\div 10 A. In the reflectometry mode it allows one to complete polarization analysis and neutron position-sensitive detection within the solid angle of scattering 2.2\\cdot 10^{-4} rad. The spectrometer ensures good statistics of the reflectometric data in the scattering wave vector interval 3\\cdot 10^{-3}\\div 5\\cdot 10^{-1} A^{-1}. In the small-angle scattering mode the spectrometer allows the investigation of neutron scattering processes without spin-flip over the detector's neutron registration solid angle interval from 4\\cdot 1-^{-3} to 10^{-1} rad and the scattering wave vector interval from 0.006\\div 0.15 to 0.03\\div 0.7 A^{-1}, respectively.

  13. The polarized neutron spectrometer REMUR at the pulsed reactor IBR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Zhernenkov, K.N.; Kozhevnikov, S.V.; Nikitenko, Yu.V.; Petrenko, A.V.; Lauter, H.J.; Lauter-Pasyuk, V.

    2004-01-01

    At the Laboratory of Neutron Physics (JINR, Dubna) the new polarized neutron spectrometer REMUR has been constructed and commissioned. The spectrometer REMUR is dedicated to investigations of multilayers and surfaces by polarized neutron reflection and of the inhomogeneous state of solids by diffuse small-angle polarized neutron scattering. The spectrometer operates in the neutron wavelength interval 1-10 Angstroem. In the reflectometry mode it allows one to complete polarization analysis and neutron position-sensitive detection within the solid angle of scattering 2.2·10 -4 rad. The spectrometer ensures good statistics of the reflectometric data in the scattering wave vector interval 3·10 -3 - 5·10 -1 Angstroem -1 . In the small-angle scattering mode the spectrometer allows the investigation of neutron scattering processes without spin-flip over the detector's neutron registration solid angle interval from 4·10 -3 to 10 -1 rad and the scattering wave vector interval from 0.006-0.15 to 0.03-0.7 Angstroem -1 , respectively

  14. Inter-Pregnancy Interval

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buchi

    This definition excludes. 1, 2 miscarriage as a preceding pregnancy event. Often the IPI is calculated as ... Inter-pregnancy interval of <6 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of adverse subsequent pregnancy outcomes. Mothers 35 years or older at start of childbearing have the highest risk compared to.

  15. Interval methods: An introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenie, L.E.K.; Kreinovich, V.; Madsen, Kaj

    2006-01-01

    This chapter contains selected papers presented at the Minisymposium on Interval Methods of the PARA'04 Workshop '' State-of-the-Art in Scientific Computing ''. The emphasis of the workshop was on high-performance computing (HPC). The ongoing development of ever more advanced computers provides...

  16. Some developments in polarized ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witteveen, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Investigations concerning an atomic beam source are presented and a new polarized ion source of a more universal type is introduced. Polarized and unpolarized beams of positively or negatively charged ions can be produced with this new version and the theoretical limits are a polarized negative hydrogen ion beam with an intensity of about 1 mH and a polarized proton beam with an intensity of 10 mH. (C.F.)

  17. DISCOVERY OF POLARIZATION REVERBERATION IN NGC 4151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskell, C. Martin; Shoji, Masatoshi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Goosmann, Rene W. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Merkulova, Nelly I.; Shakhovskoy, Nikolay M., E-mail: martin.gaskell@uv.cl, E-mail: mshoji@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: rene.goosmann@astro.unistra.fr [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Nauchny, Crimea 98409 (Ukraine)

    2012-04-20

    Observations of the optical polarization of NGC 4151 in 1997-2003 show variations of an order of magnitude in the polarized flux while the polarization position angle remains constant. The amplitude of variability of the polarized flux is comparable to the amplitude of variability of the total U-band flux, except that the polarized flux follows the total flux with a lag of 8 {+-} 3 days. The time lag and the constancy of the position angle strongly favor a scattering origin for the variable polarization rather than a non-thermal synchrotron origin. The orientation of the position angle of the polarized flux (parallel to the radio axis) and the size of the lag imply that the polarization arises from electron scattering in a flattened region within the low-ionization component of the broad-line region. Polarization from dust scattering in the equatorial torus is ruled out as the source of the lag in polarized flux because it would produce a larger lag and, unless the half-opening angle of the torus is >53 Degree-Sign , the polarization would be perpendicular to the radio axis. We note a long-term change in the percentage of polarization at similar total flux levels, and this could be due either to changing non-axisymmetry in the optical continuum emission or a change in the number of scatterers on a timescale of years.

  18. Applications of interval computations

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1996-01-01

    Primary Audience for the Book • Specialists in numerical computations who are interested in algorithms with automatic result verification. • Engineers, scientists, and practitioners who desire results with automatic verification and who would therefore benefit from the experience of suc­ cessful applications. • Students in applied mathematics and computer science who want to learn these methods. Goal Of the Book This book contains surveys of applications of interval computations, i. e. , appli­ cations of numerical methods with automatic result verification, that were pre­ sented at an international workshop on the subject in EI Paso, Texas, February 23-25, 1995. The purpose of this book is to disseminate detailed and surveyed information about existing and potential applications of this new growing field. Brief Description of the Papers At the most fundamental level, interval arithmetic operations work with sets: The result of a single arithmetic operation is the set of all possible results as the o...

  19. A Note on Inclusion Intervals of Matrix Singular Values

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Shu-Yu; Tian, Gui-Xian

    2012-01-01

    We establish an inclusion relation between two known inclusion intervals of matrix singular values in some special case. In addition, based on the use of positive scale vectors, a known inclusion interval of matrix singular values is also improved.

  20. Interval orders and reverse mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Marcone, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    We study the reverse mathematics of interval orders. We establish the logical strength of the implications between various definitions of the notion of interval order. We also consider the strength of different versions of the characterization theorem for interval orders: a partial order is an interval order if and only if it does not contain $2 \\oplus 2$. We also study proper interval orders and their characterization theorem: a partial order is a proper interval order if and only if it cont...

  1. Elite Polarization and Public Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua; Mullinix, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Elite polarization has reshaped American politics and is an increasingly salient aspect of news coverage within the United States. As a consequence, a burgeoning body of research attempts to unravel the effects of elite polarization on the mass public. However, we know very little about how...... attitudes. In our first study, we show that criticism of polarization leads partisans to more positively evaluate the argument offered by their non-preferred party, increases support for bi-partisanship, but ultimately does not change the extent to which partisans follow their party’s policy endorsements...

  2. Polarimetry with azimuthally polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sande, Juan Carlos González; Piquero, Gemma; Santarsiero, Massimo

    2018-03-01

    Nonuniformly polarized light can be used for Mueller polarimetry of homogeneous linear samples. In this work, a set up based on using azimuthally polarized input light and a modified commercial light polarimeter is proposed and developed. With this set up, a Mueller submatrix of a sample can be obtained by measuring the Stokes parameters at only three different positions across the output beam section. Symmetry constraints for linear deterministic samples allow the complete Mueller matrix to be deduced for this kind of specimens. The experimental results obtained for phase plates and for a linear polarizer confirm the validity of the proposed method.

  3. Coherent states with elliptical polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Colavita, E.; Hacyan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Coherent states of the two dimensional harmonic oscillator are constructed as superpositions of energy and angular momentum eigenstates. It is shown that these states are Gaussian wave-packets moving along a classical trajectory, with a well defined elliptical polarization. They are coherent correlated states with respect to the usual cartesian position and momentum operators. A set of creation and annihilation operators is defined in polar coordinates, and it is shown that these same states ...

  4. Chaos on the interval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruette, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this book is to survey the relations between the various kinds of chaos and related notions for continuous interval maps from a topological point of view. The papers on this topic are numerous and widely scattered in the literature; some of them are little known, difficult to find, or originally published in Russian, Ukrainian, or Chinese. Dynamical systems given by the iteration of a continuous map on an interval have been broadly studied because they are simple but nevertheless exhibit complex behaviors. They also allow numerical simulations, which enabled the discovery of some chaotic phenomena. Moreover, the "most interesting" part of some higher-dimensional systems can be of lower dimension, which allows, in some cases, boiling it down to systems in dimension one. Some of the more recent developments such as distributional chaos, the relation between entropy and Li-Yorke chaos, sequence entropy, and maps with infinitely many branches are presented in book form for the first time. The author gi...

  5. HAWC+/SOFIA Instrumental Polarization Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Joseph M.; Chuss, David; Dowell, Charles D.; Santos, Fabio; Siah, Javad; Vaillancourt, John; HAWC+ Instrument Team

    2018-01-01

    HAWC+ is a new far-infrared polarimeter for the NASA/DLR SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) telescope. HAWC+ has the capability to measure the polarization of astronomical sources with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution in four bands from 50-250 microns. Using data obtained during commissioning flights, we implemented a calibration strategy that separates the astronomical polarization signal from the induced instrumental polarization. The result of this analysis is a map of the instrumental polarization as a function of position in the instrument's focal plane in each band. The results show consistency between bands, as well as with other methods used to determine preliminary instrumental polarization values.

  6. Interval Female Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gretchen S; Ramesh, Shanthi S

    2018-01-01

    Female sterilization is relied on by nearly one in three women aged 35-44 years in the United States. Sterilization procedures are among the most common procedures that obstetrician-gynecologists perform. The most frequent sterilization procedures include postpartum tubal ligation, laparoscopic tubal disruption or salpingectomy, and hysteroscopic tubal occlusion. The informed consent process for sterilization is crucial and requires shared decision-making between the patient and the health care provider. Counseling should include the specific risks and benefits of the specific surgical approaches. Additionally, women should be counseled on the alternatives to sterilization, including intrauterine contraceptives and subdermal contraceptive implants. Complications, including unplanned pregnancy after successful female sterilization, are rare. The objectives of this Clinical Expert Series are to describe the epidemiology of female sterilization, access to postpartum sterilization, advances in interval sterilization techniques, and clinical considerations in caring for women requesting sterilization.

  7. Multichannel interval timer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turko, B.T.

    1983-10-01

    A CAMAC based modular multichannel interval timer is described. The timer comprises twelve high resolution time digitizers with a common start enabling twelve independent stop inputs. Ten time ranges from 2.5 μs to 1.3 μs can be preset. Time can be read out in twelve 24-bit words either via CAMAC Crate Controller or an external FIFO register. LSB time calibration is 78.125 ps. An additional word reads out the operational status of twelve stop channels. The system consists of two modules. The analog module contains a reference clock and 13 analog time stretchers. The digital module contains counters, logic and interface circuits. The timer has an excellent differential linearity, thermal stability and crosstalk free performance

  8. Precessing deuteron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.; Volkov, V.I.; Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M.; Plis, Yu.A.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the acceleration in the Nuclotron of deuterons polarized in the horizontal plane is considered. This horizontal polarization is named precessing polarization. The effects of the main magnetic field and synchrotron oscillations are included. The precessing polarization is supposed to be used in studying the polarization parameters of the elastic dp back-scattering and other experiments

  9. Interval by interval analysis of commercial drilling speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dublenich, L.B.; Gor' kov, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    The results are cited of an interval by interval analysis of the commercial drilling speeds in individual sites of the Carpathian region (Skhodnitsa, Dolina, Duvboshanka) which attest to the presence of reserves for increasing the commercial drilling speeds.

  10. DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT TRANSFER PRICING BY APPLICATION OF THE INTERVAL ESTIMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Shuvalova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the application of the method of interval estimation of conformity of the transaction price the market price. A comparative analysis of interval and point estimate. Identified the positive and negative effects of using interval estimation.

  11. Polare maskuliniteter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Anne Hauan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper my aim is to read and understand the journal of Gerrit de Veer from the last journey of William Barents to the Arctic Regions in 1596 and the journal of captain Junge on his hunting trip from Tromsø to Svalbard in 1834.It is nearly 240 years between this to voyages. The first journal is known as the earliest report from the arctic era. Gerrit de Veer adds instructive copper engravings to his text and give us insight in the crews meeting with this new land. Captain Junges journal is found together with his dead crew in a house in a fjord nearby Ny-Ålesund and has no drawings, but word. Both of these journals may be read as sources of the knowledge and understanding of the polar region. They might also unveil the ideas of how to deal with and survive under the challenges that is given. In addition one can ask if the sources can tell us more about how men describe their challenges. Can the way they expressed themselves in the journals give us an understanding of masculinity? And not least help us to create good questions of the change in the ideas of masculinities which is said to follow the change in understanding of the wilderness.

  12. Polarized neutron reflectometry at Dhruva reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) is an ideal non-destructive tool for chemical and magnetic characterization of thin films and multilayers. We have installed a position sensitive detector-based polarized neutron reflectometer at Dhruva reactor, Trombay. In this paper we will discuss the results obtained from this ...

  13. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  14. Retention interval and intertrial interval in a serial learning or delayed discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, E J; Miller, D J; Nawrocki, T M

    1986-01-01

    In each of four experiments, rats were provided with the same three-event decreasing series (18-1-0) of 0.045-g food pellets in a runway. Tracking, running fast to 18 pellets and running slow to 1 and 0 pellets, was investigated as a function of the temporal interval elapsing between the events of the series (the retention interval), shifts in retention interval, and number of trials each day (or the intertrial interval), a trial being defined as presentation of each of the three events of the series. Neither retention interval, which varied from 15 s to 30 min in various investigations, nor shifts in retention interval affected tracking when only one trial was given each day. But when more than one daily trial was given, tracking was acquired more slowly and was disrupted by a shift in retention interval from 15 s to 5 min. Tracking was also disrupted by a shift from one to two trials each day. These results indicate that when given one 18-1-0 trial each day, the rat partitions events on a first-event/subsequent-event basis; that little forgetting occurs even at long retention intervals; that somewhat different memories signal events when one or more than one 18-1-0 trial occurs each day; and that retention interval deficits can arise owing to the same or similar memories' signaling different events. The results described limit the generality of three hypotheses suggested in two recent investigations: that as retention interval increases, rats find it increasingly difficult to remember and utilize serial position cues; that tracking in serial tasks is not influenced by number of trials each day; and that there are specific stimuli associated with each retention interval which, when changed, necessarily disrupt performance.

  15. Coverage Probability of Random Intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinjia

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a general theory on the coverage probability of random intervals defined in terms of discrete random variables with continuous parameter spaces. The theory shows that the minimum coverage probabilities of random intervals with respect to corresponding parameters are achieved at discrete finite sets and that the coverage probabilities are continuous and unimodal when parameters are varying in between interval endpoints. The theory applies to common important discrete ...

  16. Support Vector Regression with Interval-Input Interval-Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensen An

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Support vector machines (classification and regression are powerful machine learning techniques for crisp data. In this paper, the problem is considered for interval data. Two methods to deal with the problem using support vector regression are proposed and two new methods for evaluating performance for estimating prediction interval are presented as well.

  17. Interval Entropy and Informative Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhroddin Misagh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Shannon interval entropy function as a useful dynamic measure of uncertainty for two sided truncated random variables has been proposed in the literature of reliability. In this paper, we show that interval entropy can uniquely determine the distribution function. Furthermore, we propose a measure of discrepancy between two lifetime distributions at the interval of time in base of Kullback-Leibler discrimination information. We study various properties of this measure, including its connection with residual and past measures of discrepancy and interval entropy, and we obtain its upper and lower bounds.

  18. Oocytes Polar Body Detection for Automatic Enucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Enucleation is a crucial step in cloning. In order to achieve automatic blind enucleation, we should detect the polar body of the oocyte automatically. The conventional polar body detection approaches have low success rate or low efficiency. We propose a polar body detection method based on machine learning in this paper. On one hand, the improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG algorithm is employed to extract features of polar body images, which will increase success rate. On the other hand, a position prediction method is put forward to narrow the search range of polar body, which will improve efficiency. Experiment results show that the success rate is 96% for various types of polar bodies. Furthermore, the method is applied to an enucleation experiment and improves the degree of automatic enucleation.

  19. Using a Fractal Analysis and Polarization Method for Phase Identification in Three-Component Seismograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boi-Yee Liao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the automatic P-wave and S-wave arrivals picking algorithm which is essentially based on the fractal dimension and polarized method. With an estimate of the spectral exponent £^ in a 1/f process, an interval that indicates the preferred intersection containing both noise and the P-wave is well-detected by corresponding to the minimum absolute spectral exponent £^ value along the trace. Based on the different properties of background noise and deterministic signal, the fractal dimension technique can detect the position of the P-wave. The place where the fractal dimension value changes suddenly within the intersection interval indicates the location of arrival of the P-wave. Testing that adds various levels of noise to the seismic signal shows the method can prove able to tolerate noise to a signal-to-noise (S/N ratio 1.5. Based on the P-wave arrival, the polarized P-wave could be detected by a genetic algorithm (GA with the strength of polarization and phase difference between the vertical and horizontal components as constraints. Using the first arrival phase as the basis phase, this study combines a polarization filter including rectilinearity functions, linear polarization, phase difference and directionality with GA to detect polarized S-wave of seismograms. Finally, the technique was applied to teleseismic data and near-field motion to verify the accuracy and wide applicability of this method. To conclude, this proposed method, an efficient and brand-new method of associating signal processing technique with physical wave motion properties, may be of importance in finding P-wave and S-wave phase arrivals accurately using three-component seismograms.

  20. Are Parton Distributions Positive?

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    We show that the naive positivity conditions on polarized parton distributions which follow from their probabilistic interpretation in the naive parton model are reproduced in perturbative QCD at the leading log level if the quark and gluon distribution are defined in terms of physical processes. We show how these conditions are modified at the next-to-leading level, and discuss their phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution

  1. Are parton distributions positive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Stefano; Altarelli, Guido; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    We show that the naive positivity conditions on polarized parton distributions which follow from their probabilistic interpretation in the naive parton model are reproduced in perturbative QCD at the leading log level if the quark and gluon distribution are defined in terms of physical processes. We show how these conditions are modified at the next-to-leading level, and discuss their phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution

  2. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  3. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live......In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  4. Polarization effects in mercuric iodide crystals used for nuclear detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed-Brahim, T.; Benmalek, M.

    1984-08-01

    The use of the semiconducting mercuric iodide as an X and ..gamma..-ray detector is limited by the polarization taking place in the material. The authors present a study of this polarization and two experimental methods to get rid of it (long time interband illumination or positively polarized MIS structure). Finally, they propose an explanation of the phenomenon.

  5. PSI: Very slow polarized muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    At the 'pion factory' of the Swiss Paul Scherrer Institute, a collaboration of PSI, Heidelberg and Zurich (ETH) has recently produced intense beams of positive muons which have kinetic energies as low as 10 eV and with complete polarization (spin orientation). The new results were achieved at a surface muon channel, transporting positive muons from the decay of positive pions stopped at the surface of a pion production target. Surface muons with 4 MeV kinetic energy were transported by a conventional secondary beam channel and partially stopped in a moderator consisting of a layer of solidified noble gas deposited on a cold metallic substrate

  6. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  7. Polarized Moessbauer transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the emission, absorption and scattering of polarized gamma rays are reviewed for a general case of combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions; various possibilities of obtaining polarized gamma sources are described and examples are given of the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with polarized gamma rays in solving problems of solid state physics. (A.K.)

  8. Inter-pregnancy interval and pregnancy outcomes among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    Abstract Background: Both short and long inter-pregnancy intervals have been associated with higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. More so, short inter- pregnancy interval among HIV- positive women implies higher birth rate and subsequently a higher number of neonates exposed to HIV and potentially at.

  9. A Note on Inclusion Intervals of Matrix Singular Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish an inclusion relation between two known inclusion intervals of matrix singular values in some special case. In addition, based on the use of positive scale vectors, a known inclusion interval of matrix singular values is also improved.

  10. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  11. Estimation of the sampling interval error for LED measurement with a goniophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiqiang; Liu, Hui; Liu, Jian

    2013-06-01

    Using a goniophotometer to implant a total luminous flux measurement, an error comes from the sampling interval, especially in the situation for LED measurement. In this work, we use computer calculations to estimate the effect of sampling interval on the measuring the total luminous flux for four typical kinds of LEDs, whose spatial distributions of luminous intensity is similar to those LEDs shown in CIE 127 paper. Four basic kinds of mathematical functions are selected to simulate the distribution curves. Axial symmetric type LED and non-axial symmetric type LED are both take amount of. We consider polar angle sampling interval of 0.5°, 1°, 2°, and 5° respectively in one rotation for axial symmetric type, and consider azimuth angle sampling interval of 18°, 15°, 12°, 10° and 5° respectively for non-axial symmetric type. We noted that the error is strongly related to spatial distribution. However, for common LED light sources the calculation results show that a usage of polar angle sampling interval of 2° and azimuth angle sampling interval of 15° is recommended. The systematic error of sampling interval for a goniophotometer can be controlled at the level of 0.3%. For high precise level, the usage of polar angle sampling interval of 1° and azimuth angle sampling interval of 10° should be used.

  12. Inverse Interval Matrix: A Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Farhadsefat, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2011), s. 704-719 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * inverse interval matrix * NP-hardness * enclosure * unit midpoint * inverse sign stability * nonnegative invertibility * absolute value equation * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.808, year: 2010 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ela/ela-articles/articles/vol22_pp704-719.pdf

  13. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13...

  14. [Review] Polarization and Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, Sascha

    2014-02-01

    Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/γ wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astronomical masers, pulsars, galactic magnetic fields, gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and cosmic microwave background radiation.

  15. Robust misinterpretation of confidence intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Rink; Morey, Richard; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is undoubtedly the most common inferential technique used to justify claims in the social sciences. However, even staunch defenders of NHST agree that its outcomes are often misinterpreted. Confidence intervals (CIs) have frequently been proposed as a more

  16. Chaotic dynamics from interspike intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A N; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Considering two different mathematical models describing chaotic spiking phenomena, namely, an integrate-and-fire and a threshold-crossing model, we discuss the problem of extracting dynamics from interspike intervals (ISIs) and show that the possibilities of computing the largest Lyapunov expone...

  17. Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  18. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific refe......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  19. Dynamic Properties of QT Intervals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel; Vondra, Vlastimil; Lipoldová, J.; Leinveber, Pavel; Plachý, M.; Fráňa, P.; Kára, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2009), s. 517-520 ISSN 0276-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/1129; GA MŠk ME09050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : QT Intervals * arrhythmia diagnosis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://cinc.mit.edu/archives/2009/pdf/0517.pdf

  20. The Rhetoric of Polarization: George C. Wallace's 1968 Campaign Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Willard A.; Kneupper, Charles W.

    In the 1968 political campaign, George Wallace consistently attracted auditors of diverse and highly polarized views, people who were negatively closed-minded and people who were positively closed-minded. He exploited this polarization to heighten the impact of his speaking and to rally and solidify the closed-positive auditors. For example, when…

  1. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-09-28

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  2. Polarization in Sagittarius A*

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Geoffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    We summarize the current state of polarization observations of Sagittarius A*, the compact radio source and supermassive black hole candidate in the Galactic Center. These observations are providing new tools for understanding accretion disks, jets and their environments. Linear polarization observations have shown that Sgr A* is unpolarized at frequencies as high as 86 GHz. However, recent single-dish observations indicate that Sgr A* may have strong linear polarization at frequencies higher...

  3. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  4. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  5. Approximation of the semi-infinite interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. McD. Mercer

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The approximation of a function f∈C[a,b] by Bernstein polynomials is well-known. It is based on the binomial distribution. O. Szasz has shown that there are analogous approximations on the interval [0,∞ based on the Poisson distribution. Recently R. Mohapatra has generalized Szasz' result to the case in which the approximating function is αe−ux∑k=N∞(uxkα+β−1Γ(kα+βf(kαuThe present note shows that these results are special cases of a Tauberian theorem for certain infinite series having positive coefficients.

  6. Effects of electric field and light polarization on the electromagnetically induced transparency in an impurity doped quantum ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, D.; Stan, C.; Niculescu, E. C.

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically investigated the effects of the impurity position, in-plane electric field, intensity and polarization of the probe and control lasers on the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in GaAs/GaAlAs disc shaped quantum ring. Our study reveals that, depending on the impurity position, the quantum system presents two specific configurations for the EIT occurrence even in the absence of the external electric field, i.e. ladder-configuration or V-configuration, and changes the configuration from ladder to V for specific electric field values. The polarization of the probe and control lasers plays a crucial role in obtaining a good transparency. The electric field controls the red-shift (blue-shift) of the transparency window and modifies its width. The system exhibits birefringence for the probe light in a limited interval of electric field values.

  7. Early diastolic time intervals during hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, L; Ferro, G; Nappi, C; Farace, M J; Talarico, G; Cinquegrana, G; Condorelli, M

    1987-10-01

    Early diastolic time intervals have been assessed by means of the echopolycardiographic method in 17 pregnant women who developed hypertension during pregnancy (HP) and in 14 normal pregnant women (N). Systolic time intervals (STI), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and mean velocity of myocardial fiber shortening (VCF) were also evaluated. Recordings were performed in the left lateral decubitus (LLD) and then in the supine decubitus (SD). In LLD, isovolumic relaxation period (IRP) was prolonged in the hypertensive pregnant women compared with normal pregnant women (HP 51 +/- 12.5 ms, N 32.4 +/- 15 ms p less than 0.05), whereas time of the mitral valve maximum opening (DE) was not different in the groups. There was no difference in SV, EF, and mean VCF, whereas STI showed only a significant (p less than 0.05) lengthening of pre-ejection period (PEP) in HP. When the subjects shifted from the left lateral to the supine decubitus position, left ventricular ejection time index (LVETi) and SV decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) in both normotensive hypertensive pregnant women. IRP and PEP lengthened significantly (p less than 0.05) only in normals, whereas they were unchanged in HP. DE time did not vary in either group. In conclusion, hypertension superimposed on pregnancy induces lengthening of IRP, as well as of PEP, and minimizes the effects of the postural changes in preload on the above-mentioned time intervals.

  8. Simplified interval type-2 fuzzy neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang-Yin; Liao, Shih-Hui; Chang, Jyh-Yeong; Lin, Chin-Teng

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a self-evolving interval type-2 fuzzy neural network (FNN) for various applications. As type-1 fuzzy systems cannot effectively handle uncertainties in information within the knowledge base, we propose a simple interval type-2 FNN, which uses interval type-2 fuzzy sets in the premise and the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) type in the consequent of the fuzzy rule. The TSK-type consequent of fuzzy rule is a linear combination of exogenous input variables. Given an initially empty the rule-base, all rules are generated with on-line type-2 fuzzy clustering. Instead of the time-consuming K-M iterative procedure, the design factors ql and qr are learned to adaptively adjust the upper and lower positions on the left and right limit outputs, using the parameter update rule based on a gradient descent algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that our approach yields fewer test errors and less computational complexity than other type-2 FNNs.

  9. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP 4 . A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  10. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D' Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R,; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; J.; Severino, F.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP{sup 4}. A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  11. POLARIZED LIGHT IN PHYSIOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Tondiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The data on polarized light (PS - a new promising treatment, rehabilitation and prevention, which took its deserved place among the known therapeutic physical factors and may even compete with laser radiation of low and LED therapy. It is reflected the significant contribution of domestic scientists in the study of aircraft action on the body, its introduction in the treatment, rehabilitation and prevention of grippe, ARI. These action's mechanisms of the aircraft on the electro-physiological processes in the body that have the leading role in the regulation of its life. The new moment in the study of aircraft on the body is the evidence of its positive impact on the mechanisms of self body - its different units: the disease's banning - a revitalization of the stress-protective, stress-limiting system antioxidial, detoxification and other protection systems, the formation by the body antiviral and antimicrobial specific substances (interferon and lysozyme, activation of the immune system, phagocytosis, protective functions of skin. The protective and mobilizing role of the second link is studied: which is triggered in case of occurrence of disease or preexisting diseases: PL mobilized processes of restitution, reparations, compensation, immunity and microcirculation. The authors studied the possibility of aircraft's using to enhance performance, reduce side effects of physical factors, which are often used in the treatment (electric methods, treatment by sound, fresh and mineral water, etc..

  12. Calibration interval technical basis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaro, P.J. Jr.

    1998-09-01

    This document provides a method for the establishment and evaluation of calibration intervals for radiation protection instrumentation. This document is applicable to instrumentation used by personnel at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for the measurement of radioactive contamination and the measurement and monitoring of radiation fields for protection of personnel and the environment. Special calibrations are not addressed by this document and should be handled separately

  13. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsi, Pal B; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna; Andersen, Malene R; Colov, Nina P; Stender, Steen

    2010-04-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S, and protein C and in a subgroup of 186 women in addition for prothrombin time (PT), Owren and Quick PT, protein S activity, and total protein S and coagulation factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII. The level of coagulation factors II, V, X, XI, XII and antithrombin, protein C, aPTT, PT remained largely unchanged during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum and were within non-pregnant reference intervals. However, levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, and coagulation factors VII, VIII, and IX increased markedly. Protein S activity decreased substantially, while free protein S decreased slightly and total protein S was stable. Gestational age-specific reference values are essential for the accurate interpretation of a subset of haemostatic tests during pregnancy, delivery, and puerperium.

  14. Our Polar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2009-01-01

    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  15. Terahertz polarization imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Van der Marel, W.A.M.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method to measure the polarization state of a terahertz pulse by using a modified electrooptic sampling setup. To illustrate the power of this method, we show two examples in which the knowledge of the polarization of the terahertz pulse is essential for interpreting the results:

  16. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  17. Polar Science Is Cool!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Children are fascinated by the fact that polar scientists do research in extremely cold and dangerous places. In the Arctic they might be viewed as lunch by a polar bear. In the Antarctic, they could lose toes and fingers to frostbite and the wind is so fast it can rip skin off. They camp on ice in continuous daylight, weeks from any form of…

  18. Precision Polarization of Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elise; Barron-Palos, Libertad; Couture, Aaron; Crawford, Christopher; Chupp, Tim; Danagoulian, Areg; Estes, Mary; Hona, Binita; Jones, Gordon; Klein, Andi; Penttila, Seppo; Sharma, Monisha; Wilburn, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Determining polarization of a cold neutron beam to high precision is required for the next generation neutron decay correlation experiments at the SNS, such as the proposed abBA and PANDA experiments. Precision polarimetry measurements were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the goal of determining the beam polarization to the level of 10-3 or better. The cold neutrons from FP12 were polarized using optically polarized ^3He gas as a spin filter, which has a highly spin-dependent absorption cross section. A second ^ 3He spin filter was used to analyze the neutron polarization after passing through a resonant RF spin rotator. A discussion of the experiment and results will be given.

  19. Optically polarized 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements. PMID:29503479

  20. Optically polarized 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements.

  1. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  2. Electrochemical regulation of budding yeast polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Haupt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cells are naturally surrounded by organized electrical signals in the form of local ion fluxes, membrane potential, and electric fields (EFs at their surface. Although the contribution of electrochemical elements to cell polarity and migration is beginning to be appreciated, underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we show that an exogenous EF can orient cell polarization in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, directing the growth of mating projections towards sites of hyperpolarized membrane potential, while directing bud emergence in the opposite direction, towards sites of depolarized potential. Using an optogenetic approach, we demonstrate that a local change in membrane potential triggered by light is sufficient to direct cell polarization. Screens for mutants with altered EF responses identify genes involved in transducing electrochemical signals to the polarity machinery. Membrane potential, which is regulated by the potassium transporter Trk1p, is required for polarity orientation during mating and EF response. Membrane potential may regulate membrane charges through negatively charged phosphatidylserines (PSs, which act to position the Cdc42p-based polarity machinery. These studies thus define an electrochemical pathway that directs the orientation of cell polarization.

  3. Statistical intervals a guide for practitioners

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Gerald J

    2011-01-01

    Presents a detailed exposition of statistical intervals and emphasizes applications in industry. The discussion differentiates at an elementary level among different kinds of statistical intervals and gives instruction with numerous examples and simple math on how to construct such intervals from sample data. This includes confidence intervals to contain a population percentile, confidence intervals on probability of meeting specified threshold value, and prediction intervals to include observation in a future sample. Also has an appendix containing computer subroutines for nonparametric stati

  4. A HYBRID APPROACH FOR POLARITY SHIFT DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mistry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days sentiment analysis has become a hot research area. With the increasing use of internet, people express their views by using social media, blogs, etc. So there is a dire need to analyze people’s opinions. Sentiment classification is the main task of sentiment analysis. But while classifying sentiments, the problem of polarity shift occurs. Polarity shift is considered as a very crucial problem. Polarity shift changes a text from positive to negative and vice versa. In this paper, a hybrid approach is proposed for polarity shift detection of negation (explicit and implicit and contrast. The hybrid approach consists of a rule-based approach for detecting explicit negation and contrast and a lexicon called SentiWordNet for detecting implicit negation. The proposed approach outperforms its baselines.

  5. An experiment of spectral induced polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sambuelli

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP survey was carried out in a mining test site in Sardinia (Italy. Measurements were developed along a profile by using an axial dipole-dipole array with 10 AB positions and 6 MN positions for cach AB. The amplitude and phase spectra of the apparent resistivity were acquired in the 0.25-4096 Hz frequeney range. The results obtained through the processing and inversion step seem to confirm that, with respect to the classical TD/FD Induced Polarization, SIP allows better discrimination of some important characteristics of mineral deposits such as mineral content and grain size.

  6. A scoping review of the psychological responses to interval exercise: is interval exercise a viable alternative to traditional exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Matthew J; Banfield, Laura E; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2017-12-01

    While considerable evidence suggests that interval exercise confers numerous physiological adaptations linked to improved health, its psychological consequences and behavioural implications are less clear and the subject of intense debate. The purpose of this scoping review was to catalogue studies investigating the psychological responses to interval exercise in order to identify what psychological outcomes have been assessed, the research methods used, and the results. A secondary objective was to identify research issues and gaps. Forty-two published articles met the review inclusion/exclusion criteria. These studies involved 1258 participants drawn from various active/inactive and healthy/unhealthy populations, and 55 interval exercise protocols (69% high-intensity interval training [HIIT], 27% sprint interval training [SIT], and 4% body-weight interval training [BWIT]). Affect and enjoyment were the most frequently studied psychological outcomes. Post-exercise assessments indicate that overall, enjoyment of, and preferences for interval exercise are equal or greater than for continuous exercise, and participants can hold relatively positive social cognitions regarding interval exercise. Although several methodological issues (e.g., inconsistent use of terminology, measures and protocols) and gaps (e.g., data on adherence and real-world protocols) require attention, from a psychological perspective, the emerging data support the viability of interval exercise as an alternative to continuous exercise.

  7. Polarization at the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Stanford Linear collider was designed to accommodate polarized electron beams. Longitudinally polarized electrons colliding with unpolarized positrons at a center of mass energy near the Z/sup 0/ mass can be used as novel and sensitive probes of the electroweak process. A gallium arsenide based photon emission source will provide a beam of longitudinally polarized electrons of about 45 percent polarization. A system of bend magnets and a superconducting solenoid will be used to rotate the spins so that the polarization is preserved while the 1.21 GeV electrons are stored in the damping ring. Another set of bend magnets and two superconducting solenoids orient the spin vectors so that longitudinal polarization of the electrons is achieved at the collision point with the unpolarized positrons. A system to monitor the polarization based on Moller and Compton scattering will be used. Nearly all major components have been fabricated and tested. Subsystems of the source and polarimeters have been installed, and studies are in progress. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Variational collocation on finite intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Cervantes, Mayra; Fernandez, Francisco M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study a set of functions, defined on an interval of finite width, which are orthogonal and which reduce to the sinc functions when the appropriate limit is taken. We show that these functions can be used within a variational approach to obtain accurate results for a variety of problems. We have applied them to the interpolation of functions on finite domains and to the solution of the Schroedinger equation, and we have compared the performance of the present approach with others

  9. Chaotic dynamics from interspike intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A N; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Considering two different mathematical models describing chaotic spiking phenomena, namely, an integrate-and-fire and a threshold-crossing model, we discuss the problem of extracting dynamics from interspike intervals (ISIs) and show that the possibilities of computing the largest Lyapunov exponent...... (LE) from point processes differ between the two models. We also consider the problem of estimating the second LE and the possibility to diagnose hyperchaotic behavior by processing spike trains. Since the second exponent is quite sensitive to the structure of the ISI series, we investigate...

  10. Chaotic dynamics from interspike intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A.N.; Sosnovtseva, Olga V.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Considering two different mathematical models describing chaotic spiking phenomena, namely, an integrate-and-fire and a threshold-crossing model, we discuss the problem of extracting dynamics from interspike intervals (ISIs) and show that the possibilities of computing the largest Lyapunov exponent...... (LE) from paint processes differ between the two models. We also consider the problem of estimating the second LE and the possibility to diagnose hyperchaotic behavior by processing spike trains. Since the second exponent is quite sensitive to the structure of the ISI series, we investigate...

  11. Dijets at large rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, B G

    2001-01-01

    Inclusive diet production at large pseudorapidity intervals ( Delta eta ) between the two jets has been suggested as a regime for observing BFKL dynamics. We have measured the dijet cross section for large Delta eta in pp collisions at square root s = 1800 and 630 GeV using the DOE detector. The partonic cross section increases strongly with the size of Delta eta . The observed growth is even stronger than expected on the basis of BFKL resummation in the leading logarithmic approximation. The growth of the partonic cross section can be accommodated with an effective BFKL intercept of alpha /sub BFKL/(20 GeV) = 1.65 +or- 0.07.

  12. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    , and protein C and in a subgroup of 186 women in addition for prothrombin time (PT), Owren and Quick PT, protein S activity, and total protein S and coagulation factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII. The level of coagulation factors II, V, X, XI, XII and antithrombin, protein C, aPTT, PT remained...... largely unchanged during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum and were within non-pregnant reference intervals. However, levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, and coagulation factors VII, VIII, and IX increased markedly. Protein S activity decreased substantially, while free protein S decreased slightly and total...

  13. Optogenetic control of organelle transport and positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergeijk, Petra|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338805508; Adrian, Max|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369490959; Hoogenraad, Casper C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/227263502; Kapitein, Lukas C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298806630

    2015-01-01

    Proper positioning of organelles by cytoskeleton-based motor proteins underlies cellular events such as signalling, polarization and growth. For many organelles, however, the precise connection between position and function has remained unclear, because strategies to control intracellular organelle

  14. Low overhead and nonlinear-tolerant adaptive zero-guard-interval CO-OFDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhuge, Qunbi; Gao, Yuliang; Qiu, Meng; Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Chagnon, Mathieu; Xu, Xian; Plant, David V

    2014-07-28

    We propose an adaptive channel estimation (CE) method for zero-guard-interval (ZGI) coherent optical (CO)-OFDM systems, and demonstrate its performance in a single channel 28 Gbaud polarization-division multiplexed ZGI CO-OFDM experiment with only 1% OFDM processing overhead. We systematically investigate its robustness against various transmission impairments including residual chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode dispersion, state of polarization rotation, sampling frequency offset and fiber nonlinearity. Both experimental and numerical results show that the adaptive CE-aided ZGI CO-OFDM is highly robust against these transmission impairments in fiber optical transmission systems.

  15. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  16. Polarized scintillator targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.

    2000-05-01

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as "live" polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  17. Polarized scintillator targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, B. van den E-mail: vandenbrandt@psi.ch; Bunyatova, E.I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S

    2000-05-21

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as 'live' polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  18. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  19. Polarization measurement in the COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, K; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Görtz, S; Hasegawa, T; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Le Goff, J M; Magnon, A; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Matsuda, T

    2004-01-01

    Continuous wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to determine the target polarization in the COMPASS experiment. The system is made of the so-called Liverpool Q-meters, Yale-cards, and VME modules for data taking and system controlling. In 2001 the NMR coils were embedded in the target material, while in 2002 and 2003 the coils were mounted on the outer surface of the target cells to increase the packing factor of the material. Though the error of the measurement became larger with the outer coils than with the inner coils, we have performed stable measurements throughout the COMPASS run time for 3 years. The maximum polarization was +57% and -53% as the average in the target cells.

  20. PolarTREC—A Model Program for Taking Polar Literacy into the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Timm, K.; Larson, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Polar TREC—Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, is a three-year (2007-2009) NSF-funded International Polar Year (IPY) teacher professional development program that advances Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education by improving teacher content knowledge and instructional practices through Teacher Research Experiences (TRE) in the Arctic and Antarctic. Leveraging profound changes and fascinating science taking place in the polar regions, PolarTREC broadly disseminates activities and products to students, educators, researchers, and the public, connecting them with the Arctic and Antarctica and sustaining the widespread interest in the polar regions and building on the enthusiasm that was generated through IPY. Central to the PolarTREC Teacher Research Experience Model, over 40 teachers have spent two to eight weeks participating in hands-on research in the polar regions and sharing their experiences with diverse audiences via live events, online multimedia journals, and interactive bulletin boards. The Connecting Arctic/Antarctic Researchers and Educators (CARE) Network unifies learning community members participants, alumni, and others, developing a sustainable association of education professionals networking to share and apply polar STEM content and pedagogical skills. Educator and student feedback from preliminary results of the program evaluation has shown that PolarTREC’s comprehensive program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes in key areas including amount of time spent in school exploring research activities, importance of understanding science for future work, importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today’s world, as well as increased self-reported knowledge and interest in numerous science content areas. Building

  1. Dispersing surface-modified imogolite nanotubes in polar and non-polar solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Brant, Jonathan A.

    2018-02-01

    Furthering the development of nanocomposite structures, namely membranes for water treatment applications, requires that methods be developed to ensure nanoparticle dispersion in polar and non-polar solvents, as both are widely used in associated synthesis techniques. Here, we report on a two-step method to graft polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and a one-step method for octadecylphosphonic acid (OPA), onto the outer surfaces of imogolite nanotubes. The goal of these approaches was to improve and maintain nanotube dispersion in polymer compatible polar and non-polar solvents. The PVP coating modified the imogolite surface charge from positive to weakly negative at pH ≤ 9; the OPA made it weakly positive at acidic pH values to negative at pH ≥ 7. The PVP surface coating stabilized the nanotubes through steric hindrance in polar protic, dipolar aprotic, and chloroform. In difference to the PVP, the OPA surface coating allowed the nanotubes to be dispersed in n-hexane and chloroform, but not in the polar solvents. The lack of miscibility in the polar solvents, as well as the better dispersion in n-hexane, was attributed to the stronger hydrophobicity of the OPA polymer relative to the PVP. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Polarization measurement and vertical aperture optimization for obtaining circularly polarized bend-magnet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.; Hussain, Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Growing interest in utilizing circular polarization prompted the design of bend-magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, covering the 30-1500 eV spectral region, to include vertical aperturing capabilities for optimizing the collection of circular polarization above and below the orbit plane. After commissioning and early use of the beamline, a multilayer polarimeter was used to characterize the polarization state of the beam as a function of vertical aperture position. This report partially summarizes the polarimetry measurements and compares results with theoretical calculations intended to simulate experimental conditions.

  3. Comparing interval estimates for small sample ordinal CFA models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Prathiba

    2015-01-01

    Robust maximum likelihood (RML) and asymptotically generalized least squares (AGLS) methods have been recommended for fitting ordinal structural equation models. Studies show that some of these methods underestimate standard errors. However, these studies have not investigated the coverage and bias of interval estimates. An estimate with a reasonable standard error could still be severely biased. This can only be known by systematically investigating the interval estimates. The present study compares Bayesian, RML, and AGLS interval estimates of factor correlations in ordinal confirmatory factor analysis models (CFA) for small sample data. Six sample sizes, 3 factor correlations, and 2 factor score distributions (multivariate normal and multivariate mildly skewed) were studied. Two Bayesian prior specifications, informative and relatively less informative were studied. Undercoverage of confidence intervals and underestimation of standard errors was common in non-Bayesian methods. Underestimated standard errors may lead to inflated Type-I error rates. Non-Bayesian intervals were more positive biased than negatively biased, that is, most intervals that did not contain the true value were greater than the true value. Some non-Bayesian methods had non-converging and inadmissible solutions for small samples and non-normal data. Bayesian empirical standard error estimates for informative and relatively less informative priors were closer to the average standard errors of the estimates. The coverage of Bayesian credibility intervals was closer to what was expected with overcoverage in a few cases. Although some Bayesian credibility intervals were wider, they reflected the nature of statistical uncertainty that comes with the data (e.g., small sample). Bayesian point estimates were also more accurate than non-Bayesian estimates. The results illustrate the importance of analyzing coverage and bias of interval estimates, and how ignoring interval estimates can be misleading

  4. Robotic fish tracking method based on suboptimal interval Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaohong; Tang, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) research focused on tracking and positioning, precise guidance and return to dock and other fields. The robotic fish of AUV has become a hot application in intelligent education, civil and military etc. In nonlinear tracking analysis of robotic fish, which was found that the interval Kalman filter algorithm contains all possible filter results, but the range is wide, relatively conservative, and the interval data vector is uncertain before implementation. This paper proposes a ptimization algorithm of suboptimal interval Kalman filter. Suboptimal interval Kalman filter scheme used the interval inverse matrix with its worst inverse instead, is more approximate nonlinear state equation and measurement equation than the standard interval Kalman filter, increases the accuracy of the nominal dynamic system model, improves the speed and precision of tracking system. Monte-Carlo simulation results show that the optimal trajectory of sub optimal interval Kalman filter algorithm is better than that of the interval Kalman filter method and the standard method of the filter.

  5. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  6. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...

  7. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  8. Some Characterizations of Convex Interval Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.; Alparslan-Gok, S.Z.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on new characterizations of convex interval games using the notions of exactness and superadditivity. We also relate big boss interval games with concave interval games and obtain characterizations of big boss interval games in terms of exactness and subadditivity.

  9. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  10. Ultracold Polar Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0005 Ultracold Polar Molecules Jeremy Hutson UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM Final Report 04/01/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-Jan-2010 to 14-Jul-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Report on Grant FA8655-10-1-3033 on Ultracold Polar Molecules 5a...formation of ultracold 87RbCs molecules in their rovibrational ground state by magnetoassociation followed by STIRAP, resulting in 14 papers acknowledging

  11. Combination of interval set and soft set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyun Qin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory and interval set theory are all mathematical tools for dealing with uncertainties. This paper is devoted to the discussion of soft interval set and its application. The notion of soft interval sets is introduced by combining soft set and interval set. Several operations on soft interval sets are presented in a manner parallel to that used in defining operations on soft sets and the lattice structures of soft interval sets are established. In addition, a soft interval set based decision making problem is analyzed.

  12. Hsp Polarization Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bless, Robert

    1991-07-01

    This proposal defines the procedure for determining the instrumental polarization of the polarimetric IDT (IDT#1, POL) on the HSP. 1 of 2 unpolarized standard stars wil be observed using various filter-polarizer combinations. These observations will permit the instrumental polarization to be calibrated. The instrumental polarization must be determined to a high precision in order to vectoriallly remove it from HSP polarization observations to determine the actual astronomical polarization. Final run of proposal will look at one of 2 possible stars previously observed to get another look at the throughput. Revision History: Mark H. Slovak 8/30/88 Translated to V2 proposal instructions (RPSS V6.2) S. Laurent 1/20/89 Updated: Sally Laurent 2/24/89, 3/20/89, 4/13/89, 5/12/89 Modified: P. Stanley 1/15/90 - change to use CTA selected targets only; Fixes for aberration problem - SALM 7/30/90; Based on SV/HSP 1386. New submission changed targets and revised scheduling strategy. Revised: 26 Aug 92 J. Dolan, L. Walter, P. Reppert want to re-run the proposal (3985) one last time to bring down errors.

  13. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  14. Robust Control with Enlaeged Interval of Uncertain Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Keresturi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust control is advantageous for systems with defined interval of uncertain parameters. This can be substantially enlarged dividing it into a few sub-intervals. Corresponding controllers for each of them may be set after approximate identification of some uncertain plant parameters. The paper deals with application of the pole region assignment method for position control of the crane crab. The same track form is required for uncertain burden mass and approximate value of rope length. Measurement of crab position and speed is supposed, burden deviation angle is observed. Simulation results have verified feasibility of this design procedure.

  15. Spin polarization at the interface and tunnel magnetoresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, H.; Inoue, J.

    2001-01-01

    We propose that interfacial states of imperfectly oxidized Al ions may exist in ferromagnetic tunnel junctions with Al-O barrier and govern both the spin polarization and tunnel conductance. It is shown that the spin polarization is positive independent of materials and correlates well with the tunnel magnetoresistance

  16. Different Approaches to Automatic Polarity Annotation at Synset Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maks, E.; Vossen, P.T.J.M.; Sagot, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore two approaches for the automatic annotation of polarity (positive, negative and neutral) of adjective synsets in Dutch. Both approaches focus on the creation of a Dutch polarity lexicon at word sense level using wordnet as a lexical resource. The first method is based upon

  17. The evolution of tensor polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Lee, S.Y.; Ratner, L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the equation of motion for the vector polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization is derived. The evolution equation for the tensor polarization is studied in the presence of an isolate spin resonance and in the presence of a spin rotor, or snake

  18. Polarized Electrons at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously.initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented.

  19. Polarized electrons at Jefferson laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously. Initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented

  20. Polar low monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, Leonid; Zabolotskikh, Elizaveta; Mitnik, Leonid

    2010-05-01

    Polar lows are intense mesoscale atmospheric low pressure weather systems, developing poleward of the main baroclinic zone and associated with high surface wind speeds. Small size and short lifetime, sparse in-situ observations in the regions of their development complicate polar low study. Our knowledge of polar lows and mesocyclones has come almost entirely during the period of satellite remote sensing since, by virtue of their small horizontal scale, it was rarely possible to analyse these lows on conventional weather charts using only the data from the synoptic observing network. However, the effects of intense polar lows have been felt by coastal communities and seafarers since the earliest times. These weather systems are thought to be responsible for the loss of many small vessels over the centuries, although the nature of the storms was not understood and their arrival could not be predicted. The actuality of the polar low research is stipulated by their high destructive power: they are a threat to such businesses as oil and gas exploration, fisheries and shipping. They could worsen because of global warming: a shrinking of sea ice around the North Pole, which thawed to its record minimum in the summer of 2007, is likely to give rise to more powerful storms that form only over open water and can cause hurricane-strength winds. Therefore, study of polar lows, their timely detection, tracking and forecasting represents a challenge for today meteorology. Satellite passive microwave data, starting from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) onboard Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite, remain invaluable source of regularly available remotely sensed data to study polar lows. The sounding in this spectral range has several advantages in comparison with observations in visible and infrared ranges and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data: independence on day time and clouds, regularity and high temporal resolution in Polar Regions. Satellite

  1. Polarized protons at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    The Physics case is presented for the use of polarized protons at RHIC for one or two months each year. This would provide a facility with polarizations of approx-gt 50% high luminosity ∼2.0 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , the possibility of both longitudinal and transverse polarization at the interaction regions, and frequent polarization reversal for control of systematic errors. The annual integrated luminosity for such running (∼10 6 sec per year) would be ∫ Ldt = 2 x 10 38 cm -2 -- roughly 20 times the total luminosity integrated in ∼ 10 years of operation of the CERN Collider (∼10 inverse picobarns, 10 37 cm -2 ). This facility would be unique in the ability to perform parity-violating measurements and polarization test of QCD. Also, the existence of p-p collisions in a new energy range would permit the study of ''classical'' reactions like the total cross section and elastic scattering, etc., and serve as a complement to measurements from p-bar p colliders. 11 refs

  2. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  3. Polarization dynamics of VCSELs in external cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, M.; Javaloyes, J.; Barland, S.; Balle, S.; Giudici, M.

    2014-05-01

    We review the dynamics of VCSELs that experience both Polarization-Selective Feedback (PSF) and Crossed- Polarization Reinjection (XPR). Different regimes of regular pulsation were found. For strong enough XPR levels, the VCSEL emission in each of its linearly-polarized components displays a square-wave modulation which regularity is greatly enhanced by small levels of PSF. Such a square-wave is in antiphase for the two polarizations, and it turns out to be stable and robust over broad intervals of current. The frequency of the square-wave is determined by the length of the XPR arm. For weak levels of PSF and XPR, the VCSEL emits a regular train of short optical pulses arising from the locking of the modes in the PSF cavity. The frequency of the pulse train is stable on short time scales, but it wanders with a characteristic time scale of hundreds of roundtrips in the PSF cavity. The experimental results are successfully explained by an extension of the Spin-Flip Model that incorporates gain saturation and the effects of PSF and XPR.

  4. Precise Point Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaohong

    performance of point positioning for kinematic applications, the precise point positioning attracted a lot of attention and opened a new alternative door to kinematic positioning. In this report different tests have been done to evaluate the ability and accuracy of the software TriP in the kinematic...... and static case by using internal consistency (residuals, RMS, repeatability etc.), known coordinates, ground truth and double-differenced solutions. The kinematic GPS positioning accuracy using four different software systems has been investigated and tested by comparing the degree of agreement between...... the airborne lidar system misalignment angle by automating the matching of lidar data with ground truth. Kinematic GPS positioning has been widely used, but the available commercial software systems are normally only suitable for the short or medium range kinematic baseline. However, in polar areas, airborne...

  5. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signa...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice.......This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...

  6. Physics of polarized targets

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    For developing, building and operating solid polarized targets we need to understand several fields of physics that have seen sub stantial advances during the last 50 years. W e shall briefly review a selection of those that are important today. These are: 1) quantum statistical methods to describe saturation and relaxation in magnetic resonance; 2) equal spin temperature model for dy namic nuclear polarization; 3 ) weak saturation during NMR polarization measurement; 4 ) refrigeration using the quantum fluid properties of helium isotopes. These, combined with superconducting magnet technologies, permit today to reach nearly complete pola rization of almost any nuclear spins. Targets can be operated in frozen spin mode in rather low and inhomogeneous field of any orientation, and in DNP mode in beams of high intensity. Beyond such experiments of nuclear and particle physics, applications a re also emerging in macromolecular chemistry and in magnetic resonance imaging. This talk is a tribute to Michel Borghini...

  7. Polarized source upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, T.B.; Rummel, R.L.; Carter, E.P.; Westerfeldt, C.R.; Lovette, A.W.; Edwards, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The decision was made this past year to move the Lamb-shift polarized ion source which was first installed in the laboratory in 1970. The motivation was the need to improve the flexibility of spin-axis orientation by installing the ion source with a new Wien-filter spin precessor which is capable of rotating physically about the beam axis. The move of the polarized source was accomplished in approximately two months, with the accelerator being turned off for experiments during approximately four weeks of this time. The occasion of the move provided the opportunity to rewire completely the entire polarized ion source frame and to rebuild approximately half of the electronic chassis on the source. The result is an ion source which is now logically wired and carefully documented. Beams obtained from the source are much more stable than those previously available

  8. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  9. Using the confidence interval confidently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Avijit

    2017-10-01

    Biomedical research is seldom done with entire populations but rather with samples drawn from a population. Although we work with samples, our goal is to describe and draw inferences regarding the underlying population. It is possible to use a sample statistic and estimates of error in the sample to get a fair idea of the population parameter, not as a single value, but as a range of values. This range is the confidence interval (CI) which is estimated on the basis of a desired confidence level. Calculation of the CI of a sample statistic takes the general form: CI = Point estimate ± Margin of error, where the margin of error is given by the product of a critical value (z) derived from the standard normal curve and the standard error of point estimate. Calculation of the standard error varies depending on whether the sample statistic of interest is a mean, proportion, odds ratio (OR), and so on. The factors affecting the width of the CI include the desired confidence level, the sample size and the variability in the sample. Although the 95% CI is most often used in biomedical research, a CI can be calculated for any level of confidence. A 99% CI will be wider than 95% CI for the same sample. Conflict between clinical importance and statistical significance is an important issue in biomedical research. Clinical importance is best inferred by looking at the effect size, that is how much is the actual change or difference. However, statistical significance in terms of P only suggests whether there is any difference in probability terms. Use of the CI supplements the P value by providing an estimate of actual clinical effect. Of late, clinical trials are being designed specifically as superiority, non-inferiority or equivalence studies. The conclusions from these alternative trial designs are based on CI values rather than the P value from intergroup comparison.

  10. POLARIZED NEUTRONS IN RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COURANT,E.D.

    1998-04-27

    There does not appear to be any obvious way to accelerate neutrons, polarized or otherwise, to high energies by themselves. To investigate the behavior of polarized neutrons the authors therefore have to obtain them by accelerating them as components of heavier nuclei, and then sorting out the contribution of the neutrons in the analysis of the reactions produced by the heavy ion beams. The best neutron carriers for this purpose are probably {sup 3}He nuclei and deuterons. A polarized deuteron is primarily a combination of a proton and a neutron with their spins pointing in the same direction; in the {sup 3}He nucleus the spins of the two protons are opposite and the net spin (and magnetic moment) is almost the same as that of a free neutron. Polarized ions other than protons may be accelerated, stored and collided in a ring such as RHIC provided the techniques proposed for polarized proton operation can be adapted (or replaced by other strategies) for these ions. To accelerate polarized particles in a ring, one must make provisions for overcoming the depolarizing resonances that occur at certain energies. These resonances arise when the spin tune (ratio of spin precession frequency to orbit frequency) resonates with a component present in the horizontal field. The horizontal field oscillates with the vertical motion of the particles (due to vertical focusing); its frequency spectrum is dominated by the vertical oscillation frequency and its modulation by the periodic structure of the accelerator ring. In addition, the magnet imperfections that distort the closed orbit vertically contain all integral Fourier harmonics of the orbit frequency.

  11. Pigeons' Choices between Fixed-Interval and Random-Interval Schedules: Utility of Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Cardinal, Claudia D.; Field, Douglas P.; Flannery, Barbara A.; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-interval schedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the…

  12. Dark Polar Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    20 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired during northern summer in December 2004, shows dark, windblown sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars. A vast sea of sand dunes nearly surrounds the north polar cap. These landforms are located near 80.3oN, 144.1oW. Light-toned features in the image are exposures of the substrate that underlies the dune field. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  13. Imaging with Polarized Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kardjilov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their zero charge, neutrons are able to pass through thick layers of matter (typically several centimeters while being sensitive to magnetic fields due to their intrinsic magnetic moment. Therefore, in addition to the conventional attenuation contrast image, the magnetic field inside and around a sample can be visualized by detecting changes of polarization in a transmitted beam. The method is based on the spatially resolved measurement of the cumulative precession angles of a collimated, polarized, monochromatic neutron beam that traverses a magnetic field or sample.

  14. The polar mesosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Ray; Murphy, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The mesosphere region, which lies at the edge of space, contains the coldest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, with summer temperatures as low as minus 130 °C. In this extreme environment ice aerosol layers have appeared since the dawn of industrialization—whose existence may arguably be linked to human influence—on yet another layer of the Earth's fragile atmosphere. Ground-based and space-based experiments conducted in the Arctic and Antarctic during the International Polar Year (IPY) aim to address limitations in our knowledge and to advance our understanding of thermal and dynamical processes at play in the polar mesosphere

  15. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  16. AGS polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Sluyters, T.

    1985-01-01

    The AGS polarized H - source is now operational. During a month-long experimental physics run in July 1984, pulses equivalent to 15 μA x 300 μs (approx. 3 x 10 10 protons) were injected into the RFQ preaccelerator. Beam polarization, measured at 200 MeV, was approx. 75%. After the run, a program to increase the H - yield of the source was begun and significant progress has been made. The H - current is now frequently 20 to 30 μA. A description of the source and some details of our operating experience are given. We also briefly describe the improvement program

  17. A note on birth interval distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, G.

    1989-08-01

    A considerable amount of work has been done regarding the birth interval analysis in mathematical demography. This paper is prepared with the intention of reviewing some probability models related to interlive birth intervals proposed by different researchers. (author). 14 refs

  18. The physics of polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    This course is intended to give a description of the basic physical concepts which underlie the study and the interpretation of polarization phenomena. Apart from a brief historical introduction (Sect. 1), the course is organized in three parts. A first part (Sects. 2 - 6) covers the most relevant facts about the polarization phenomena that are typically encountered in laboratory applications and in everyday life. In Sect. 2, the modern description of polarization in terms of the Stokes parameters is recalled, whereas Sect. 3 is devoted to introduce the basic tools of laboratory polarimetry, such as the Jones calculus and the Mueller matrices. The polarization phenomena which are met in the reflection and refraction of a beam of radiation at the separation surface between two dielectrics, or between a dielectric and a metal, are recalled in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 gives an introduction to the phenomena of dichroism and of anomalous dispersion and Sect. 6 summarizes the polarization phenomena that are commonly encountered in everyday life. The second part of this course (Sects. 7-14) deals with the description, within the formalism of classical physics, of the spectro-polarimetric properties of the radiation emitted by accelerated charges. Such properties are derived by taking as starting point the Liénard and Wiechert equations that are recalled and discussed in Sect. 7 both in the general case and in the non-relativistic approximation. The results are developed to find the percentage polarization, the radiation diagram, the cross-section and the spectral characteristics of the radiation emitted in different phenomena particularly relevant from the astrophysical point of view. The emission of a linear antenna is derived in Sect. 8. The other Sections are devoted to Thomson scattering (Sect. 9), Rayleigh scattering (Sect. 10), Mie scattering (Sect. 11), bremsstrahlung radiation (Sect. 12), cyclotron radiation (Sect. 13), and synchrotron radiation (Sect. 14

  19. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  20. An Adequate First Order Logic of Intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaochen, Zhou; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1998-01-01

    This paper introduces left and right neighbourhoods as primitive interval modalities to define other unary and binary modalities of intervals in a first order logic with interval length. A complete first order logic for the neighbourhood modalities is presented. It is demonstrated how the logic can...... support formal specification and verification of liveness and fairness, and also of various notions of real analysis....

  1. Skew products of interval maps over subshifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gharaei, Masoumeh; Homburg, Ale Jan

    2016-01-01

    We treat step skew products over transitive subshifts of finite type with interval fibers. The fiber maps are diffeomorphisms on the interval; we assume that the end points of the interval are fixed under the fiber maps. Our paper thus extends work by V. Kleptsyn and D. Volk who treated step skew

  2. Consistency and Refinement for Interval Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delahaye, Benoit; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Interval Markov Chains (IMC), or Markov Chains with probability intervals in the transition matrix, are the base of a classic specification theory for probabilistic systems [18]. The standard semantics of IMCs assigns to a specification the set of all Markov Chains that satisfy its interval...

  3. RETRIEVAL OF AEROSOL PHASE FUNCTION AND POLARIZED PHASE FUNCTION FROM POLARIZATION OF SKYLIGHT FOR DIFFERENT OBSERVATION GEOMETRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The phase function and polarized phase function are important optical parameters, which describe scattering properties of atmospheric aerosol particles. Polarization of skylight induced by the scattering processes is sensitive to the scattering properties of aerosols. The Stokes parameters I, Q, U and the polarized radiance Lp of skylight measured by the CIMEL dual-polar sun-sky radiometer CE318- DP can be use to retrieve the phase function and polarized phase function, respectively. Two different observation geometries (i.e., the principal plane and almucantar are preformed by the CE318-DP to detect skylight polarization. Polarization of skylight depends on the illumination and observation geometries. For the same solar zenith angle, retrievals of the phase function and the polarized phase function are still affected by the observation geometry. The performance of the retrieval algorithm for the principal plane and almucantar observation geometries was assessed by the numerical experiments at two typical high and low sun’s positions (i.e. solar zenith angles are equal to 45° and 65°. Comparing the results for the principal plane and almucantar geometries, it is recommended to utilize the principal plane observations to retrieve the phase function when the solar zenith angle is small. The Stokes parameter U and the polarized radiance Lp from the almucantar observations are suggested to retrieve the polarized phase function, especially for short wavelength channels (e.g., 440 and 500 nm.

  4. Gravitational Lens Time Delays Using Polarization Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Biggs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational lens time delays provide a means of measuring the expansion of the Universe at high redshift (and therefore in the ‘Hubble flow’ that is independent of local calibrations. It was hoped that many of the radio lenses found in the JVAS/CLASS survey would yield time delays as these were selected to have flat spectra and are dominated by multiple compact components. However, despite extensive monitoring with the Very Large Array (VLA, time delays have only been measured for three of these systems (out of 22. We have begun a programme to reanalyse the existing VLA monitoring data with the goal of producing light curves in polarized flux and polarization position angle, either to improve delay measurements or to find delays for new sources. Here, we present preliminary results on the lens system B1600+434 which demonstrate the presence of correlated and substantial polarization variability in each image.

  5. Calibration of the instrumental polarization in LEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    A method to calibrate the instrumental polarization of LEST (i.e., of the optics in front of the polarization and analysis package at the LEST secondary focus) is described and analysed. A laser sends a beam from the LEST observing room at ground level backwards through the telescope. The modulated return beam that has been reflected at the 2.4 m entrance window is received by the detector system at the end focus in the LEST observing room. Because of a wedge in the entrance window the reflections at the front and back window surfaces may be examined separately. The detected laser beam signals at the three AC frequencies are recorded as functions of the position angle of the modulator package at the LEST secondary focus. Aided by a theorem that is proven in the present paper, the information recorded by the detector system allows all unknowns of the instrumental polarization to be fully determined.

  6. The polarizing effect of arousal on negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ashley D; Curhan, Jared R

    2013-10-01

    In this research, we examined the impact of physiological arousal on negotiation outcomes. Conventional wisdom and the prescriptive literature suggest that arousal should be minimized given its negative effect on negotiations, whereas prior research on misattribution of arousal suggests that arousal might polarize outcomes, either negatively or positively. In two experiments, we manipulated arousal and measured its effect on subjective and objective negotiation outcomes. Our results support the polarization effect. When participants had negative prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a detrimental effect on outcomes, whereas when participants had positive prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a beneficial effect on outcomes. These effects occurred because of the construal of arousal as negative or positive affect, respectively. Our findings have important implications not only for negotiation, but also for research on misattribution of arousal, which previously has focused on the target of evaluation, in contrast to the current research, which focused on the critical role of the perceiver.

  7. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of the modern understanding of orientational order in liquid crystals (LCs) is based on polarizing microscopy (PM). A PM image bears only two-dimensional (2D) information, integrating the 3D pattern of optical birefringence over the path of light. Recently, we proposed a technique to image 3D director patterns by ...

  8. Polarization of Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.

    1957-01-01

    The numerical results for the polarization of Bremsstrahlung are presented. The multiple scattering of electrons in the target is taken into account. The angular-and photon energy dependences are seen on the curves for an incident 25 MeV electron energy. (Author) [fr

  9. DESY: HERA polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The new HERA electron-proton collider at DESY in Hamburg achieved the first luminosity for electron-proton collisions on 19 October last year. Only one month later, on 20 November, HERA passed another important milestone with the observation of transverse electron polarization

  10. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  11. Graphics of polar figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  12. Electrocardiographic PR Interval Duration and Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Vibe; Nielsen, Jonas Bille; Skov, Morten Wagner

    2017-01-01

    Background Because of ambiguous reports in the literature, we aimed to investigate the association between PR interval and the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, heart failure, and pacemaker implantation, allowing for a nonlinear relationship. MethodsWe included 293,111 individuals...... into 7 groups based on the population PR interval distribution. Cox models were used, with reference to a PR interval between 152 and 161 ms (40th to ..., and 1805 pacemaker implantations. A short PR interval ( PR interval ( > 200 ms; HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.14-1.32; P

  13. Study on the thermal structure of the Venusian polar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, M.; Taguchi, M.; Fukuhara, T.; Kouyama, T.; Imamura, T.; Sato, T. M.; Futaguchi, M.; Yamada, T.; Nakamura, M.; Iwagami, N.; Suzuki, M.; Ueno, M.; Sato, M.; Hashimoto, G. L.; Takagi, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Venus atmosphere exhibits characteristic thermal features called `polar dipoles' and `polar collars' in both polar regions. The polar dipole which locates around the center of the polar region is warmer than mid-latitudes and the polar collar surrounding the polar dipole is colder than the other regions at the same altitude. These features were revealed by infrared observations of Venus by the previous missions. The previous observations showed that shapes of the polar dipoles can be characterized by three patterns which are the zonal wave numbers of 0-2, and that they change with time. The rotation periods of polar dipoles were determined to be 2.5 and 2.8-3.2 Earth days for the southern and northern polar regions, respectively. It has not been clear that the difference and variability in the rotation period is due to just a temporal variation, influence of solar activity, or other reasons. Sato et al. compared the appearances of both polar hot regions by a ground-based observation, rotation of the hot regions is synchronized between the northern and southern hemispheres. However, rotation periods of the northern and southern polar dipoles have not yet been directly compared. The Japanese Venus orbiter Akatsuki is a planetary meteorological satellite aiming at understanding the atmosphere dynamics of Venus. The Longwave Infrared Camera (LIR), observes thermal emission from the cloud top ( 65km). Akatsuki is in an equatorial orbit, which is suitable for simultaneous observations of both northern and southern polar regions. Rotation periods of polar vortices were derived using the LIR data by tracking a zonal position of maximum temperature. The rotation periods of polar vortices of southern and northern hemispheres are determined to be 3.0 - 8.2 and 1.6 - 5.5 Earth days, respectively (Fig.1). These rotation periods of southern polar vortex are longer than the values observed in the past. As a next step, we will derive rotation periods of the polar vortices for

  14. Characteristics of volume polarization holography with linear polarization light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jinliang; Wu, An'an; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jue; Lin, Xiao; Tan, Xiaodi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    Volume polarization holographic recording in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ-PMMA) photopolymer with linear polarized light is obtained. The characteristics of the volume polarization hologram are experimentally investigated. It is found that beyond the paraxial approximation the polarization states of the holographic reconstruction light are generally different from the signal light. Based on vector wave theoretical analyses and material properties, the special exposure condition for correctly holographic reconstruction is obtained and experimentally demonstrated.

  15. Experiments with Fermilab polarized proton and polarized antiproton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize activities concerning the Fermilab polarized beams. They include a brief description of the polarized-beam facility, measurements of beam polarization by polarimeters, asymmetry measurements in the π degree production at high p perpendicular and in the Λ (Σ degree), π ± , π degree production at large x F , and Δσ L (pp, bar pp) measurements. 18 refs

  16. NUCLEON POLARIZATION IN 3-BODY MODELS OF POLARIZED LI-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHELLINGERHOUT, NW; KOK, LP; COON, SA; ADAM, RM

    1993-01-01

    Just as He-3 --> can be approximately characterized as a polarized neutron target, polarized Li-6D has been advocated as a good isoscalar nuclear target for the extraction of the polarized gluon content of the nucleon. The original argument rests upon a presumed ''alpha + deuteron'' picture of Li-6,

  17. Geomagnetic polarity transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ronald T.; McFadden, Phillip L.

    1999-05-01

    The top of Earth's liquid outer core is nearly 2900 km beneath Earth's surface, so we will never be able to observe it directly. This hot, dense, molten iron-rich body is continuously in motion and is the source of Earth's magnetic field. One of the most dynamic manifestations at Earth's surface of this fluid body is, perhaps, a reversal of the geomagnetic field. Unfortunately, the most recent polarity transition occurred at about 780 ka, so we have never observed a transition directly. It seems that a polarity transition spans many human lifetimes, so no human will ever witness the phenomenon in its entirety. Thus we are left with the tantalizing prospect that paleomagnetic records of polarity transitions may betray some of the secrets of the deep Earth. Certainly, if there are systematics in the reversal process and they can be documented, then this will reveal substantial information about the nature of the lowermost mantle and of the outer core. Despite their slowness on a human timescale, polarity transitions occur almost instantaneously on a geological timescale. This rapidity, together with limitations in the paleomagnetic recording process, prohibits a comprehensive description of any reversal transition both now and into the foreseeable future, which limits the questions that may at this stage be sensibly asked. The natural model for the geomagnetic field is a set of spherical harmonic components, and we are not able to obtain a reliable model for even the first few harmonic terms during a transition. Nevertheless, it is possible, in principle, to make statements about the harmonic character of a geomagnetic polarity transition without having a rigorous spherical harmonic description of one. For example, harmonic descriptions of recent geomagnetic polarity transitions that are purely zonal can be ruled out (a zonal harmonic does not change along a line of latitude). Gleaning information about transitions has proven to be difficult, but it does seem

  18. Polarized electron beams at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1992-11-01

    SLAC has successfully accelerated high energy polarized electrons for the Stanford Linear Collider and fixed polarized nuclear target experiments. The polarized electron beams at SLAC use a gallium arsenide (GaAlAs for E-142) photon emission source to provide the beam of polarized electrons with polarization of approximately 28% (41% for E-142). While the beam emittance is reduced in the damping ring for SLC operation a system of bend magnets and superconducting solenoids preserve and orient the spin direction for maximum longitudinal polarization at the collision point. The electron polarization is monitored with a Compton scattering polarimeter, and was typically 22% at the e+e- collision point for the 1992 run. Improvements are discussed to increase the source polarization and to reduce the depolarization effects between the source and the collision point

  19. Analytical polarization calculations beyond SLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made between the theories of Bell and Leinaas and of Derbenev and Kondratenko for the spin polarization in electron storage rings. A calculation of polarization in HERA using the program SMILE of Mane is presented

  20. On Determinants of Political Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Grechyna, Daryna

    2015-01-01

    Political polarization has been shown to significantly influence a country's economic performance. However, little is known about the drivers of political polarization. In this article, we aim to identify the main determinants of political polarization using Bayesian Model Averaging to overcome the problem of model uncertainty. We find that the level of trust within a country and the degree of income inequality are the most robust determinants of political polarization.

  1. Polarity Assignment to Causal Information Extracted from Financial Articles Concerning Business Performance of Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroyuki; Masuyama, Shigeru

    We propose a method of assigning polarity to causal information extracted from Japanese financial articles concerning business performance of companies. Our method assigns polarity (positive or negative) according to business performance to causal information, e.g. "zidousya no uriage ga koutyou: (Sales of cars are good)" (The polarity positive is assigned in this example.). First, our method classifies articles concerning business performance into positive articles and negative articles. Using this classified sets of articles, our method assigns polarity (positive or negative) to causal information extracted from the set of articles concerning business performance. We evaluated our method and it attained 75.3% precision and 47.9% recall of assigning polarity positive, and 77.0% precision and 58.5% recall of assigning polarity negative, respectively.

  2. HST observations of the limb polarization of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzon, A.; Schmid, H. M.; Buenzli, E.

    2014-12-01

    Context. Titan is an excellent test case for detailed studies of the scattering polarization from thick hazy atmospheres. Accurate scattering and polarization parameters have been provided by the in situ measurements of the Cassini-Huygens landing probe. For Earth-bound observations Titan can only be observed at a backscattering situation, where the disk-integrated polarization is close to zero. However, with resolved imaging polarimetry a second order polarization signal along the entire limb of Titan can be measured. Aims: We present the first limb polarization measurements of Titan, which are compared as a test to our limb polarization models. Methods: Previously unpublished imaging polarimetry from the HST archive is presented, which resolves the disk of Titan. We determine flux-weighted averages of the limb polarization and radial limb polarization profiles, and investigate the degradation and cancelation effects in the polarization signal due to the limited spatial resolution of our observations. Taking this into account we derive corrected values for the limb polarization in Titan. The results are compared with limb polarization models, using atmosphere and haze scattering parameters from the literature. Results: In the wavelength bands between 250 nm and 2 μm a strong limb polarization of about 2 - 7% is detected with a position angle perpendicular to the limb. The fractional polarization is highest around 1 μm. As a first approximation, the polarization seems to be equally strong along the entire limb. The comparison of our data with model calculations and the literature shows that the detected polarization is compatible with expectations from previous polarimetric observations taken with Voyager 2, Pioneer 11, and the Huygens probe. Conclusions: Our results indicate that ground-based monitoring measurements of the limb-polarization of Titan could be useful for investigating local haze properties and the impact of short-term and seasonal variations of

  3. Polarized electrogowdy spacetimes censored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nungesser, Ernesto, E-mail: ernesto.nungesser@aei.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-05-01

    A sketch of the proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this it is seen that the results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.

  4. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzio, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a probability distribution for flowing interval spacing. A flowing interval is defined as a fractured zone that transmits flow in the Saturated Zone (SZ), as identified through borehole flow meter surveys (Figure 1). This analysis uses the term ''flowing interval spacing'' as opposed to fractured spacing, which is typically used in the literature. The term fracture spacing was not used in this analysis because the data used identify a zone (or a flowing interval) that contains fluid-conducting fractures but does not distinguish how many or which fractures comprise the flowing interval. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. Fracture spacing within the SZ is defined as the spacing between fractures, with no regard to which fractures are carrying flow. The Development Plan associated with this analysis is entitled, ''Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing'', (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The parameter from this analysis may be used in the TSPA SR/LA Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Work Direction and Planning Documents: (1) ''Abstraction of Matrix Diffusion for SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a) and (2) ''Incorporation of Heterogeneity in SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'', (CRWMS M and O 1999b). A limitation of this analysis is that the probability distribution of flowing interval spacing may underestimate the effect of incorporating matrix diffusion processes in the SZ transport model because of the possible overestimation of the flowing interval spacing. Larger flowing interval spacing results in a decrease in the matrix diffusion processes. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be determined from the data. Because each flowing interval probably has more than one fracture contributing to a flowing interval, the true flowing interval spacing could be

  5. PEPPo: Using a Polarized Electron Beam to Produce Polarized Positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeyemi, Adeleke H. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); et al.

    2015-09-01

    Polarized positron beams have been identified as either an essential or a significant ingredient for the experimental program of both the present and next generation of lepton accelerators (JLab, Super KEK B, ILC, CLIC). An experiment demonstrating a new method for producing polarized positrons has been performed at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Lab. The PEPPo (Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons) concept relies on the production of polarized e⁻/e⁺ pairs from the bremsstrahlung radiation of a longitudinally polarized electron beam interacting within a high-Z conversion target. PEPPo demonstrated the effective transfer of spin-polarization of an 8.2 MeV/c polarized (P~85%) electron beam to positrons produced in varying thickness tungsten production targets, and collected and measured in the range of 3.1 to 6.2 MeV/c. In comparison to other methods this technique reveals a new pathway for producing either high-energy or thermal polarized positron beams using a relatively low polarized electron beam energy (~10MeV) .This presentation will describe the PEPPo concept, the motivations of the experiment and high positron polarization achieved.

  6. Polarization induced doped transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  7. Polar bears, Ursus maritimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Stirling, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Polar bears are the largest of the eight species of bears found worldwide and are covered in a pigment-free fur giving them the appearance of being white. They are the most carnivorous of bear species consuming a high-fat diet, primarily of ice-associated seals and other marine mammals. They range throughout the circumpolar Arctic to the southernmost extent of seasonal pack ice.

  8. Polarized advanced fuel reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The d- 3 He reaction has the same spin dependence as the d-t reaction. It produces no neutrons, so that if the d-d reactivity could be reduced, it would lead to a neutron-lean reactor. The current understanding of the possible suppression of the d-d reactivity by spin polarization is discussed. The question as to whether a suppression is possible is still unresolved. Other advanced fuel reactions are briefly discussed. 11 refs

  9. On polarization in biomembranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchi, Karis Amata

    close to physiological conditions, making these effects biologically relevant. In this work, we consider the case of asymmetric membranes which can display spontaneous polarization in the absence of a field. Close to the phase transition, we find that the membrane displays piezoelectric, flexoelectric...... on different geometries point in the direction of a flexoelectric mechanism behind current rectification in lipid bilayers. Finally, we suggest that our updated equivalent circuit should be included in the interpretation of elctrophysiological data....

  10. Multifrequency Behaviour of Polars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Reinsch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cataclysmic variables emit over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper I will review observations of polars in relevant passbands obtained during the last decade and will discuss their diagnostical potential to access the physics of the main components within the binary systems. This will include a discussion of intrinsic source variability and the quest for simultaneous multi-frequency observations.

  11. Polar Business Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Caisse

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Polar business design aims to enable entrepreneurs, managers, consultants, researchers, and business students to better tackle model-based analysis, creation, and transformation of businesses, ventures, and, more generically, collective endeavors of any size and purpose. It is based on a systems-thinking approach that builds on a few interrelated core concepts to create holistic visual frameworks. These core concepts act as poles linked by meaningful dyads, flows, and faces arranged in geometric shapes. The article presents two such polar frameworks as key findings in an ongoing analytic autoethnography: the three-pole Value−Activity−Stakeholder (VAS triquetra and the four-pole Offer−Creation−Character−Stakeholder (OCCS tetrahedron. The VAS triquetra is a more aggregated model of collective endeavors. The OCCS tetrahedron makes a trade-off between a steeper learning curve and deeper, richer representation potential. This article discusses how to use these two frameworks as well as their limits, and explores the potential that polar business design offers for future research.

  12. Sentiment Polarity Analysis based multi-dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jian; Zhou, Yanquan

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for Chinese online reviews, which identifies sentiment polarity. To determine the sentence is negative or positive, we extracted opinion words and identified their opinion targets by CRFs and establish the absolute emotional dictionary (AbED), the relative emotional dictionary (ReED), the field of emotional dictionary (FiED) and the field of targets and opinion words dictionary (TfED). With those emotional dictionary, negative dictionary and modified dictionary, we achieved an effective algorithm to discriminate sentiment polarity by multi-string pattern matching algorithm. For evaluation, we used car online reviews, hotel online reviews and computer online reviews which annotated positive or negative. Experimental results show that our proposed method has made a higher precision and recall rate.

  13. Polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P.; Keller, P. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP at SINQ has been optimized for measuring magnetic cross sections in condensed matter. The neutrons are polarized or analyzed either by means of benders or Heusler monochromators. The beam divergence, i.e. the intensity, and the spectral range of the neutrons is rather large because of the supermirror coatings of the feeding neutron guide. The intensity can be further increased at the sample position by means of a focussing monochromator and a focussing anti-trumpet. The end position of TASP allows the tailoring of the neutron beam already before the monochromator and to scatter neutrons over very wide ranges of angles. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  14. Polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Keller, P.

    1996-01-01

    The polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP at SINQ has been optimized for measuring magnetic cross sections in condensed matter. The neutrons are polarized or analyzed either by means of benders or Heusler monochromators. The beam divergence, i.e. the intensity, and the spectral range of the neutrons is rather large because of the supermirror coatings of the feeding neutron guide. The intensity can be further increased at the sample position by means of a focussing monochromator and a focussing anti-trumpet. The end position of TASP allows the tailoring of the neutron beam already before the monochromator and to scatter neutrons over very wide ranges of angles. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  15. Attribution of polar warming to human influence

    OpenAIRE

    Gillett, NP; Stone, DA; Stott, PA; Nozawa, T; Karpechko, AY; Hegerl, GC; Wehner, MF; Jones, PD

    2008-01-01

    The polar regions have long been expected to warm strongly as a result of anthropogenic climate change, because of the positive feedbacks associated with melting ice and snow. Several studies have noted a rise in Arctic temperatures over recent decades, but have not formally attributed the changes to human influence, owing to sparse observations and large natural variability. Both warming and cooling trends have been observed in Antarctica, which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ...

  16. Spin polarized electron tunneling and magnetoresistance in molecular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczewski, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews tunneling of spin-polarized electrons through molecules positioned between ferromagnetic electrodes, which gives rise to tunneling magnetoresistance. Such measurements yield important insight into the factors governing spin-polarized electron injection into organic semiconductors, thereby offering the possibility to manipulate the quantum-mechanical spin degrees of freedom for charge carriers in optical/electrical devices. In the first section of the chapter a brief description of the Jullière model of spin-dependent electron tunneling is reviewed. Next, a brief description of device fabrication and characterization is presented. The bulk of the review highlights experimental studies on spin-polarized electron tunneling and magnetoresistance in molecular junctions. In addition, some experiments describing spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy on single molecules are mentioned. Finally, some general conclusions and prospectus on the impact of spin-polarized tunneling in molecular junctions are offered.

  17. A novel polar-based human face recognition computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by a recently proposed biologically inspired face recognition approach, we investigated the relation between human behavior and a computational model based on Fourier-Bessel (FB spatial patterns. We measured human recognition performance of FB filtered face images using an 8-alternative forced-choice method. Test stimuli were generated by converting the images from the spatial to the FB domain, filtering the resulting coefficients with a band-pass filter, and finally taking the inverse FB transformation of the filtered coefficients. The performance of the computational models was tested using a simulation of the psychophysical experiment. In the FB model, face images were first filtered by simulated V1- type neurons and later analyzed globally for their content of FB components. In general, there was a higher human contrast sensitivity to radially than to angularly filtered images, but both functions peaked at the 11.3-16 frequency interval. The FB-based model presented similar behavior with regard to peak position and relative sensitivity, but had a wider frequency band width and a narrower response range. The response pattern of two alternative models, based on local FB analysis and on raw luminance, strongly diverged from the human behavior patterns. These results suggest that human performance can be constrained by the type of information conveyed by polar patterns, and consequently that humans might use FB-like spatial patterns in face processing.

  18. Interval-Valued Rank in Finite Ordered Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff; Pogel, Alex; Purvine, Emilie

    2016-11-12

    We consider the concept of rank as a measure of the vertical levels and positions of elements of partially ordered sets (posets). We are motivated by the need for algorithmic measures on large, real-world hierarchically-structured data objects like the semantic hierarchies of ontolog- ical databases. These rarely satisfy the strong property of gradedness, which is required for traditional rank functions to exist. Representing such semantic hierarchies as finite, bounded posets, we recognize the duality of ordered structures to motivate rank functions which respect verticality both from the bottom and from the top. Our rank functions are thus interval-valued, and always exist, even for non-graded posets, providing order homomorphisms to an interval order on the interval-valued ranks. The concept of rank width arises naturally, allowing us to identify the poset region with point-valued width as its longest graded portion (which we call the “spindle”). A standard interval rank function is naturally motivated both in terms of its extremality and on pragmatic grounds. Its properties are examined, including the relation- ship to traditional grading and rank functions, and methods to assess comparisons of standard interval-valued ranks.

  19. Interval Forecast for Smooth Transition Autoregressive Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we propose a simple method for constructing interval forecast for smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) model. This interval forecast is based on bootstrapping the residual error of the estimated STAR model for each forecast horizon and computing various Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. This new ...

  20. Confidence Interval Approximation For Treatment Variance In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a random effects model with a single factor, variation is partitioned into two as residual error variance and treatment variance. While a confidence interval can be imposed on the residual error variance, it is not possible to construct an exact confidence interval for the treatment variance. This is because the treatment ...

  1. New interval forecast for stationary autoregressive models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we proposed a new forecasting interval for stationary Autoregressive, AR(p) models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. Ordinarily, the AIC function is used to determine the order of an AR(p) process. In this study however, AIC forecast interval compared favorably with the theoretical forecast ...

  2. Interpretation of Confidence Interval Facing the Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luisa; Fernández, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    As literature has reported, it is usual that university students in statistics courses, and even statistics teachers, interpret the confidence level associated with a confidence interval as the probability that the parameter value will be between the lower and upper interval limits. To confront this misconception, class activities have been…

  3. Nonparametric confidence intervals for monotone functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneboom, P.; Jongbloed, G.

    2015-01-01

    We study nonparametric isotonic confidence intervals for monotone functions. In [Ann. Statist. 29 (2001) 1699–1731], pointwise confidence intervals, based on likelihood ratio tests using the restricted and unrestricted MLE in the current status model, are introduced. We extend the method to the

  4. Recent progress on HYSPEC, and its polarization analysis capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winn Barry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HYSPEC is a high-intensity, direct-geometry time-of-flight spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source, optimized for measurement of excitations in small single-crystal specimens with optional polarization analysis capabilities. The incident neutron beam is monochromated using a Fermi chopper with short, straight blades, and is then vertically focused by Bragg scattering onto the sample position by either a highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (unpolarized or a Heusler (polarized crystal array. Neutrons are detected by a bank of 3He tubes that can be positioned over a wide range of scattering angles about the sample axis. HYSPEC entered the user program in February 2013 for unpolarized experiments, and is already experiencing a vibrant research program. Polarization analysis will be accomplished by using the Heusler crystal array to polarize the incident beam, and either a 3He spin filter or a supermirror wide-angle polarization analyser to analyse the scattered beam. The 3He spin filter employs the spin-exchange optical pumping technique. A 60∘ wide angle 3He cell that matches the detector coverage will be used for polarization analysis. The polarized gas in the post-sample wide angle cell is designed to be periodically and automatically refreshed with an adjustable pressure of polarized gas, optically pumped in a separate cell and then transferred to the wide angle cell. The supermirror analyser has 960 supermirror polarizers distributed over 60∘, and has been characterized at the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source. The current status of the instrument and the development of its polarization analysis capabilities are presented.

  5. Assigning Polarity to Causal Information in Financial Articles on Business Performance of Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroyuki; Masuyama, Shigeru

    We propose a method of assigning polarity to causal information extracted from Japanese financial articles concerning business performance of companies. Our method assigns polarity (positive or negative) to causal information in accordance with business performance, e.g. “zidousya no uriage ga koutyou: (Sales of cars are good)” (The polarity positive is assigned in this example). We may use causal expressions assigned polarity by our method, e.g., to analyze content of articles concerning business performance circumstantially. First, our method classifies articles concerning business performance into positive articles and negative articles. Using them, our method assigns polarity (positive or negative) to causal information extracted from the set of articles concerning business performance. Although our method needs training dataset for classifying articles concerning business performance into positive and negative ones, our method does not need a training dataset for assigning polarity to causal information. Hence, even if causal information not appearing in the training dataset for classifying articles concerning business performance into positive and negative ones exist, our method is able to assign it polarity by using statistical information of this classified sets of articles. We evaluated our method and confirmed that it attained 74.4% precision and 50.4% recall of assigning polarity positive, and 76.8% precision and 61.5% recall of assigning polarity negative, respectively.

  6. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  7. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Iwamae, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    Plasma Polarization Spectroscopy (PPS) is now becoming a standard diagnostic technique for working with laboratory plasmas. This new area needs a comprehensive framework, both experimental and theoretical. This book reviews the historical development of PPS, develops a general theoretical formulation to deal with this phenomenon, along with an overview of relevant cross sections, and reports on laboratory experiments so far performed. It also includes various facets that are interesting from this standpoint, e.g. X-ray lasers and effects of microwave irradiation. It also offers a timely discussion of instrumentation that is quite important in a practical PPS experiment.

  8. System for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The system for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target representing the high-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described Q-meter with series connection and a circuit for measuring system resonance characteristic is used for NMR-absorption signal recording. Measuring coil is produced of a strip conductor in order to obtain uniform system sensitivity to polarization state in all target volume and improve signal-to-noise ratio. Polarization measuring system operates ion-line with the M-6000 computer. The total measuring error for the value of free proton polarization in target taking into account the error caused by local depolarization of working substance under irradiation by high-intense photon beam is <= 6%. Long-term application of the described system for measuring the proton polarization in the LUEh-20000 accelerator target used in the pion photoproduction experiments has demonstrated its high reliability

  9. COMPASS polarized target for Drell-Yan

    CERN Document Server

    Pešek, M

    2014-01-01

    In the COMPASS Drell–Yan experiment the pion beam with momen tum of 190 GeV/ c and in- tensity up to 10 8 pions/s will interact with transversely polarized proton t arget producing muon pair via Drell–Yan process. The solid-state NH 3 will be polarized by dynamic nuclear polar- ization. Maximum polarization reached during data taking i s expected to be up to 90%. The non-interacting beam and other particles produced inside t he target will be stopped in the hadron absorber after the target. Two target cells, sepparated by a 20 cm gap in between, each 55 cm long and 4 cm in diameter give the target material volume about 691 cm 3 . The target platform needs to be moved by 2.3 m in upstream dire ction from the position used in previous experiments in order to accomodate the absorber. D uring the beam time higher radiation is expected in the area of the control room. Thus a new target r emote control system is needed. The target magnet is undergoing a substantial upgrade. Drell–Yan data taking is expected t...

  10. A New Lunar Topographic Map of the Moon by KAGUYA-LALT: The First Precise Topography of the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, H.; Ishihara, Y.; Noda, H.; Goossens, S.; Tazawa, S.; Kawano, N.; Sasaki, S.; Oberst, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Japanese lunar explorer KAGUYA (SELENE) was launched successfully on September 14th, 2007. A laser altimeter (LALT) is on board the main orbiter of KAGUYA. The objectives of LALT are (1) determination of lunar global figure, (2) studies in internal structure and surface processes, (3) exploration of the lunar pole regions, and (4) reduction of lunar occultation data. LALT transmits laser pulses whose time width is about 20 nano-seconds and pulse interval is 1 second. Range accuracy is up to 5m. The range data are transformed to the topography of the moon with the aid of position and attitude data of the main orbiter. From the end of December 2007, LALT started continuous operation and a global topography map with unprecedented resolution was produced. Lunar mean radius is estimated as 1737.15±0.01 km and the COM-COF offset is 1.94 km based on the spherical harmonic model STM359_grid-02 derived from LALT topography. The amplitude of the power spectrum of STM359_grid-02 is larger than that of the previous model at L>30 degrees, which may reflect the process of basin formation and/or crustal evolution. In the polar regions where previous CLEMENTINE altimeter did not cover, many topographic features that were difficult to see on the imagery from spacecraft or ground based radar are discovered. The sunlit rate in the lunar polar regions is estimated by using the polar topographic map made from LALT topography. We found that i) the highest sunlit rate is 93~96 % in both polar regions and ii) the eternal shadow area is smaller than previous estimations. These results will be of great use for the planning of the lunar polar exploration in near future.

  11. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  12. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...... positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...

  13. Integers without large prime factors in short intervals: Conditional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    α > 0 the interval (X, X +. √. X(log X)1/2+o(1)] contains an integer having no prime factor exceeding Xα for all X sufficiently large. Keywords. Smooth numbers; Riemann zeta function. 1. Introduction. Suppose P (n) denotes the largest prime factor of an integer n > 1 and let us declare. P(1) = 1. Given a positive real number y, ...

  14. Spin-Polarization in Quasi-Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng-Wei; Li, Ling

    2017-05-01

    Spin polarization in ferromagnetic metal/insulator/spin-filter barrier/nonmagnetic metal, referred to as quasi-magnetic tunnel junctions, is studied within the free-electron model. Our results show that large positive or negative spin-polarization can be obtained at high bias in quasi-magnetic tunnel junctions, and within large bias variation regions, the degree of spin-polarization can be linearly tuned by bias. These linear variation regions of spin-polarization with bias are influenced by the barrier thicknesses, barrier heights and molecular fields in the spin-filter (SF) layer. Among them, the variations of thickness and heights of the insulating and SF barrier layers have influence on the value of spin-polarization and the linear variation regions of spin-polarization with bias. However, the variations of molecular field in the SF layer only have influence on the values of the spin-polarization and the influences on the linear variation regions of spin-polarization with bias are slight. Supported by the Key Natural Science Fund of Sichuan Province Education Department under Grant Nos 13ZA0149 and 16ZA0047, and the Construction Plan for Scientific Research Innovation Team of Universities in Sichuan Province under Grant No 12TD008.

  15. Polar Grid Navigation Algorithm for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheping; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Jiajia; Wang, Man

    2017-07-09

    To solve the unavailability of a traditional strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) in the polar region, a polar grid navigation algorithm for UUVs is proposed in this paper. Precise navigation is the basis for UUVs to complete missions. The rapid convergence of Earth meridians and the serious polar environment make it difficult to establish the true heading of the UUV at a particular instant. Traditional SINS and traditional representation of position are not suitable in the polar region. Due to the restrictions of the complex underwater conditions in the polar region, a SINS based on the grid frame with the assistance of the OCTANS and the Doppler velocity log (DVL) is chosen for a UUV navigating in the polar region. Data fusion of the integrated navigation system is realized by a modified fuzzy adaptive Kalman filter (MFAKF). By neglecting the negative terms, and using T-S fuzzy logic in the adaptive regulation of the noise covariance, the proposed filter algorithm can improve navigation accuracy. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the polar grid navigation algorithm can effectively navigate a UUV sailing in the polar region.

  16. Optical characterization and polarization calibration for rigid endoscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Missael; Gruev, Viktor

    2017-02-01

    Polarization measurements give orthogonal information to spectral images making them a great tool in the characterization of environmental parameters in nature. Thus, polarization imagery has proven to be remarkably useful in a vast range of biomedical applications. One such application is the early diagnosis of flat cancerous lesions in murine colorectal tumor models, where polarization data complements NIR fluorescence analysis. Advances in nanotechnology have led to compact and precise bio-inspired imaging sensors capable of accurately co-registering multidimensional spectral and polarization information. As more applications emerge for these imagers, the optics used in these instruments get very complex and can potentially compromise the original polarization state of the incident light. Here we present a complete optical and polarization characterization of three rigid endoscopes of size 1.9mm x 10cm (Karl Storz, Germany), 5mm x 30cm, and 10mm x 33cm (Olympus, Germany), used in colonoscopy for the prevention of colitis-associated cancer. Characterization results show that the telescope optics act as retarders and effectively depolarize the linear component. These incorrect readings can cause false-positives or false-negatives leading to an improper diagnosis. In this paper, we offer a polarization calibration scheme for these endoscopes based on Mueller calculus. By modeling the optical properties from training data as real-valued Mueller matrices, we are able to successfully reconstruct the initial polarization state acquired by the imaging system.

  17. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  18. A Fuzzy Computing Model for Identifying Polarity of Chinese Sentiment Words

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bingkun; Huang, Yongfeng; Wu, Xian; Li, Xing

    2015-01-01

    With the spurt of online user-generated contents on web, sentiment analysis has become a very active research issue in data mining and natural language processing. As the most important indicator of sentiment, sentiment words which convey positive and negative polarity are quite instrumental for sentiment analysis. However, most of the existing methods for identifying polarity of sentiment words only consider the positive and negative polarity by the Cantor set, and no attention is paid to th...

  19. Long term observations of polar mesospheric echoes at Andøya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latteck, Ralph; Strelnikova, Irina; Renkwitz, Toralf; Sommer, Svenja

    2016-04-01

    Polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) are strong enhancements of received signal power at very high radar frequencies occurring at altitudes between about 80 and 95 km at polar latitudes during summer. These echoes are caused by inhomogeneities in the electron density of the radar Bragg scale within the plasma of the cold summer mesopause region in the presence of negatively charged ice particles. Thus the occurrence of PMSE contains information about mesospheric temperature and water vapour content but also depends on the ionisation due to solar electromagnetic radiation and precipitating high energetic particles. Continuous observations of PMSE have been done on the North-Norwegian island Andøya (69.3°N, 16.0°E) since 1994 using different VHF radars. The PMSE occurrence rate is positively correlated with the geomagnetic Ap index, however not correlated with the solar Lyman α radiation and shows a significant positive trend during the time interval from 1994 until 2012. VHF radar echoes have been observed also during winter times but in the mid mesosphere from about 55 to 85 km altitude. These so called polar mesosphere winter echoes (PMWE) have been observed continuously at Andøya since 2004 using the ALWIN VHF radar (until 2008) and the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System MAARSY (since 2011). Using the more sensitive MAARSY compared to the previous VHF radar systems operated at the site, results in more detections characterized by smaller volume reflectivity values down to 4 ṡ 10-18m-1. The end of the winter season is now hard to determine since mesospheric echoes have also been observed below altitudes of 80 km during non winter months, particularly around the end of May, i.e. the beginning of the polar mesospheric summer echo season. These observations indicate that the physical mechanism for creating the lower mesospheric echoes is present during the early summer months as well. We present results from long term observations of polar mesospheric

  20. INTERVAL OBSERVER FOR A BIOLOGICAL REACTOR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kharkovskaia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of an interval observer design for nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties is considered. The interval observer synthesis problem for systems with varying parameters consists in the following. If there is the uncertainty restraint for the state values of the system, limiting the initial conditions of the system and the set of admissible values for the vector of unknown parameters and inputs, the interval existence condition for the estimations of the system state variables, containing the actual state at a given time, needs to be held valid over the whole considered time segment as well. Conditions of the interval observers design for the considered class of systems are shown. They are: limitation of the input and state, the existence of a majorizing function defining the uncertainty vector for the system, Lipschitz continuity or finiteness of this function, the existence of an observer gain with the suitable Lyapunov matrix. The main condition for design of such a device is cooperativity of the interval estimation error dynamics. An individual observer gain matrix selection problem is considered. In order to ensure the property of cooperativity for interval estimation error dynamics, a static transformation of coordinates is proposed. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated by computer modeling of the biological reactor. Possible applications of these interval estimation systems are the spheres of robust control, where the presence of various types of uncertainties in the system dynamics is assumed, biotechnology and environmental systems and processes, mechatronics and robotics, etc.

  1. Physiology and its Importance for Reference Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikaris, Kenneth A

    2014-01-01

    Reference intervals are ideally defined on apparently healthy individuals and should be distinguished from clinical decision limits that are derived from known diseased patients. Knowledge of physiological changes is a prerequisite for understanding and developing reference intervals. Reference intervals may differ for various subpopulations because of differences in their physiology, most obviously between men and women, but also in childhood, pregnancy and the elderly. Changes in laboratory measurements may be due to various physiological factors starting at birth including weaning, the active toddler, immunological learning, puberty, pregnancy, menopause and ageing. The need to partition reference intervals is required when there are significant physiological changes that need to be recognised. It is important that laboratorians are aware of these changes otherwise reference intervals that attempt to cover a widened inter-individual variability may lose their usefulness. It is virtually impossible for any laboratory to directly develop reference intervals for each of the physiological changes that are currently known, however indirect techniques can be used to develop or validate reference intervals in some difficult situations such as those for children. Physiology describes our life’s journey, and it is only when we are familiar with that journey that we can appreciate a pathological departure. PMID:24659833

  2. Polar drive on OMEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha P.B.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High-convergence polar-drive experiments are being conducted on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commum. 133, 495 (1997] using triple-picket laser pulses. The goal of OMEGA experiments is to validate modeling of oblique laser deposition, heat conduction in the presence of nonradial thermal gradients in the corona, and implosion energetics in the presence of laser–plasma interactions such as crossed-beam energy transfer. Simulated shock velocities near the equator, where the beams are obliquely incident, are within 5% of experimentally inferred values in warm plastic shells, well within the required accuracy for ignition. High, near-one-dimensional areal density is obtained in warm-plastic-shell implosions. Simulated backlit images of the compressing core are in good agreement with measured images. Outstanding questions that will be addressed in the future relate to the role of cross-beam transfer in polar drive irradiation and increasing the energy coupled into the target by decreasing beam obliquity.

  3. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  4. Fast transfer of crossmodal time interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-06-01

    Sub-second time perception is essential for many important sensory and perceptual tasks including speech perception, motion perception, motor coordination, and crossmodal interaction. This study investigates to what extent the ability to discriminate sub-second time intervals acquired in one sensory modality can be transferred to another modality. To this end, we used perceptual classification of visual Ternus display (Ternus in Psychol Forsch 7:81-136, 1926) to implicitly measure participants' interval perception in pre- and posttests and implemented an intra- or crossmodal sub-second interval discrimination training protocol in between the tests. The Ternus display elicited either an "element motion" or a "group motion" percept, depending on the inter-stimulus interval between the two visual frames. The training protocol required participants to explicitly compare the interval length between a pair of visual, auditory, or tactile stimuli with a standard interval or to implicitly perceive the length of visual, auditory, or tactile intervals by completing a non-temporal task (discrimination of auditory pitch or tactile intensity). Results showed that after fast explicit training of interval discrimination (about 15 min), participants improved their ability to categorize the visual apparent motion in Ternus displays, although the training benefits were mild for visual timing training. However, the benefits were absent for implicit interval training protocols. This finding suggests that the timing ability in one modality can be rapidly acquired and used to improve timing-related performance in another modality and that there may exist a central clock for sub-second temporal processing, although modality-specific perceptual properties may constrain the functioning of this clock.

  5. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...... positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media...

  6. Generalized production planning problem under interval uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A. Abass

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Data in many real life engineering and economical problems suffer from inexactness. Herein we assume that we are given some intervals in which the data can simultaneously and independently perturb. We consider the generalized production planning problem with interval data. The interval data are in both of the objective function and constraints. The existing results concerning the qualitative and quantitative analysis of basic notions in parametric production planning problem. These notions are the set of feasible parameters, the solvability set and the stability set of the first kind.

  7. Dijet production at large rapidity intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.; Schmidt, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    We examine dijet production at large rapidity intervals at Tevatron energies, by using the theory of Lipatov and collaborators which resums the leading powers of the rapidity interval. We analyze the growth of the Mueller-navelet K-factor in this context and find it to be negligible. However, we do find a considerable enhancement of jet production at large transverse momenta. In addition, we show that the correlation in transverse momentum and azimuthal angle of the tagging jets fades away as the rapidity interval is increased. (orig.)

  8. Polarized proton collider at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanaka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Lehrach, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S.Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W.W. E-mail: mackay@bnl.govhttp://www.rhichome.bnl.gov/People/waldowaldo@bnl.gov; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.N

    2003-03-01

    In addition to heavy ion collisions (RHIC Design Manual, Brookhaven National Laboratory), RHIC will also collide intense beams of polarized protons (I. Alekseev, et al., Design Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1998, reaching transverse energies where the protons scatter as beams of polarized quarks and gluons. The study of high energy polarized protons beams has been a long term part of the program at BNL with the development of polarized beams in the Booster and AGS rings for fixed target experiments. We have extended this capability to the RHIC machine. In this paper we describe the design and methods for achieving collisions of both longitudinal and transverse polarized protons in RHIC at energies up to {radical}s=500 GeV.

  9. Spin exchange in polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewoski, B. von; Meyer, H.O.; Balewski, J.; Doskow, J.; Ibald, R.; Pollock, R.E.; Rinckel, T.; Wellinghausen, A.; Whitaker, T.J.; Daehnick, W.W.; Haeberli, W.; Schwartz, B.; Wise, T.; Lorentz, B.; Rathmann, F.; Pancella, P.V.; Saha, Swapan K.; Thoerngren-Engblom, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the vector and tensor polarization of an atomic deuterium target as a function of the target density. The polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell. For this experiment, the atomic beam source was operated without rf transitions, in order to avoid complications from the unknown efficiency of these transitions. In this mode, the atomic beam is vector and tensor polarized and both polarizations can be measured simultaneously. We used a 1.2-cm-diam and 27-cm-long storage cell, which yielded an average target density between 3 and 9x10 11 at/cm 3 . We find that the tensor polarization decreases with increasing target density while the vector polarization remains constant. The data are in quantitative agreement with the calculated effect of spin exchange between deuterium atoms at low field

  10. Linear polarization of BY Draconis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.H.; Pfeiffer, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Linear polarization measurements are reported in four bandpasses for the flare star BY Dra. The red polarization is intrinsically variable at a confidence level greater than 99 percent. On a time scale of many months, the variability is not phase-locked to either a rotational or a Keplerian ephemeris. The observations of the three other bandpasses are useful principally to indicate a polarization spectrum rising toward shorter wavelengths

  11. Polarity in Mammalian Epithelial Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roignot, Julie; Peng, Xiao; Mostov, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarity is fundamental for the architecture and function of epithelial tissues. Epithelial polarization requires the intervention of several fundamental cell processes, whose integration in space and time is only starting to be elucidated. To understand what governs the building of epithelial tissues during development, it is essential to consider the polarization process in the context of the whole tissue. To this end, the development of three-dimensional organotypic cell culture model...

  12. A polarized alkali ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, R.; Tungate, G.; Bauer, B.; Egelhof, P.; Moebius, K.H.; Steffens, E.

    1978-01-01

    The beam foil technique has been applied to detect nuclear vector polarization of a 10 keV 23 Na + beam. The result was about 70% of the atomic beam polarization thus limiting the depolarization by the surface ionizer to at most 30%. In a Coulomb excitation experiment with a tensor polarized 42 MeV 23 Na 7+ beam an effect of 0.011 +- 0.003 was measured yielding a value of t 20 approx. 0.04 for the beam polarization. The depolarization during the acceleration process can be estimated to be about 0.8. (orig.) [de

  13. The SLAC polarized electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.; Alley, R.; Frisch, J.

    1995-06-01

    The SLAC polarized electron source employs a photocathode DC high voltage gun with a loadlock and a YAG pumped Ti:sapphire laser system for colliding beam experiments or a flash lamp pumped Ti:sapphire laser for fixed target experiments. It uses a thin, strained GaAs(100) photocathode, and is capable of producing a pulsed beam with a polarization of ≥80% and a peak current exceeding 10 A. Its operating efficiency has reached 99%. The physics and technology of producing high polarization electron beams from a GaAs photocathode will be reviewed. The prospects of realizing a polarized electron source for future linear colliders will also be discussed

  14. Mechano-capacitive properties of polarized membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosgaard, Lars D; Zecchi, Karis A; Heimburg, Thomas

    2015-10-28

    Biological membranes are capacitors that can be charged by applying a field across the membrane. The charges on the capacitor exert a force on the membrane that leads to electrostriction, i.e. a thinning of the membrane. Since the force is quadratic in voltage, negative and positive voltage have an identical influence on the physics of symmetric membranes. However, this is not the case for a membrane with an asymmetry leading to a permanent electric polarization. Positive and negative voltages of identical magnitude lead to different properties. Such an asymmetry can originate from a lipid composition that is different on the two monolayers of the membrane, or from membrane curvature. The latter effect is called 'flexoelectricity'. As a consequence of permanent polarization, the membrane capacitor is discharged at a voltage different from zero. This leads to interesting electrical phenomena such as outward or inward rectification of membrane permeability. Here, we introduce a generalized theoretical framework, that treats capacitance, polarization, flexoelectricity, piezoelectricity and thermoelectricity in the same language. We show applications to electrostriction, membrane permeability and piezoelectricity and thermoelectricity close to melting transitions, where such effects are especially pronounced.

  15. Direct Interval Forecasting of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Xu, Zhao; Pinson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel approach to directly formulate the prediction intervals of wind power generation based on extreme learning machine and particle swarm optimization, where prediction intervals are generated through direct optimization of both the coverage probability and sharpness, wit......, without the prior knowledge of forecasting errors. The proposed approach has been proved to be highly efficient and reliable through preliminary case studies using real-world wind farm data, indicating a high potential of practical application.......This letter proposes a novel approach to directly formulate the prediction intervals of wind power generation based on extreme learning machine and particle swarm optimization, where prediction intervals are generated through direct optimization of both the coverage probability and sharpness...

  16. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture.......Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  17. Optimal prediction intervals of wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Wu, Zhao; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    direct optimization of both the coverage probability and sharpness to ensure the quality. The proposed method does not involve the statistical inference or distribution assumption of forecasting errors needed in most existing methods. Case studies using real wind farm data from Australia have been...... penetration beforehand. This paper proposes a novel hybrid intelligent algorithm approach to directly formulate optimal prediction intervals of wind power generation based on extreme learning machine and particle swarm optimization. Prediction intervals with Associated confidence levels are generated through...

  18. Polar orientation of renal grafts within the proximal seal zone affects risk of early type IA endoleaks after chimney endovascular aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kenneth; Ullery, Brant W; Itoga, Nathan; Lee, Jason T

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the polar orientation of renal chimney grafts within the proximal seal zone and to determine whether graft orientation is associated with early type IA endoleak or renal graft compression after chimney endovascular aneurysm repair (ch-EVAR). Patients who underwent ch-EVAR with at least one renal chimney graft from 2009 to 2015 were included in this analysis. Centerline three-dimensional reconstructions were used to analyze postoperative computed tomography scans. The 12-o'clock polar position was set at the takeoff of the superior mesenteric artery. Relative polar positions of chimney grafts were recorded at the level of the renal artery ostium, at the mid-seal zone, and at the proximal edge of the graft fabric. Early type IA endoleaks were defined as evidence of a perigraft flow channel within the proximal seal zone. There were 62 consecutive patients who underwent ch-EVAR (35 double renal, 27 single renal) for juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms with a mean follow-up of 31.2 months; 18 (29%) early type IA "gutter" endoleaks were identified. During follow-up, the majority of these (n = 13; 72%) resolved without intervention, whereas two patients required reintervention (3.3%). Estimated renal graft patency was 88.9% at 60 months. Left renal chimney grafts were most commonly at the 3-o'clock position (51.1%) at the ostium, traversing posteriorly to the 5- to 7-o'clock positions (55.5%) at the fabric edge. Right renal chimney grafts started most commonly at the 9-o'clock position (n = 17; 33.3%) and tended to traverse both anteriorly (11 to 1 o'clock; 39.2%) and posteriorly (5 to 7 o'clock; 29.4%) at the fabric edge. In the polar plane, the majority of renal chimney grafts (n = 83; 85.6%) traversed 90 degrees were independently associated with early type IA endoleaks (odds ratio, 11.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-64.8) even after controlling for other device and anatomic variables. Polar orientation of the chimney

  19. Ventral polarization vision in tabanids: horseflies and deerflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) are attracted to horizontally polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gábor; Majer, József; Horváth, Loránd; Szivák, Ildikó; Kriska, György

    2008-11-01

    Adult tabanid flies (horseflies and deerflies) are terrestrial and lay their eggs onto marsh plants near bodies of fresh water because the larvae develop in water or mud. To know how tabanids locate their host animals, terrestrial rendezvous sites and egg-laying places would be very useful for control measures against them, because the hematophagous females are primary/secondary vectors of some severe animal/human diseases/parasites. Thus, in choice experiments performed in the field we studied the behavior of tabanids governed by linearly polarized light. We present here evidence for positive polarotaxis, i.e., attraction to horizontally polarized light stimulating the ventral eye region, in both males and females of 27 tabanid species. The novelty of our findings is that positive polarotaxis has been described earlier only in connection with the water detection of some aquatic insects ovipositing directly into water. A further particularity of our discovery is that in the order Diptera and among blood-sucking insects the studied tabanids are the first known species possessing ventral polarization vision and definite polarization-sensitive behavior with known functions. The polarotaxis in tabanid flies makes it possible to develop new optically luring traps being more efficient than the existing ones based on the attraction of tabanids by the intensity and/or color of reflected light.

  20. Establishing reference intervals in the coagulation laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellone, D D

    2017-05-01

    Obtaining a reference interval (RI) is a challenge for any laboratory and becomes more complicated in the coagulation laboratory due to testing on samples with limited stability on reagents that are poorly standardized. Reference intervals are required to be able to evaluate results in relation to a patients' hemostatic disorder. This becomes one of the most important tasks conducted in the coagulation laboratory. However, many laboratories lack the time, finances and in many cases the expertise to conduct this study. Many RI are obtained from package inserts, or from publications written by experts in lieu of laboratories conducting their own studies. An overview of validating reference intervals and options for verifying or transference of reference intervals is discussed. Based on the confidence interval and the acceptability of risk laboratories are willing to accept, coagulation laboratories have options to conduct robust studies for their RI. Data mining or global reference studies may help to provide data for age specific ranges. Pre-analytical variables and selection of healthy subjects have the largest impact on coagulation testing outcomes and need to be well controlled during the establishment of reference intervals. Laboratories have options in lieu of conducting a full validation on how to verify RI based on smaller RI studies or transference of RI after determining compatibility of the original RI study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Interval Size and Affect: An Ethnomusicological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarha Moore

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This commentary addresses Huron and Davis's question of whether "The Harmonic Minor Provides an Optimum Way of Reducing Average Melodic Interval Size, Consistent with Sad Affect Cues" within any non-Western musical cultures. The harmonic minor scale and other semitone-heavy scales, such as Bhairav raga and Hicaz makam, are featured widely in the musical cultures of North India and the Middle East. Do melodies from these genres also have a preponderance of semitone intervals and low incidence of the augmented second interval, as in Huron and Davis's sample? Does the presence of more semitone intervals in a melody affect its emotional connotations in different cultural settings? Are all semitone intervals equal in their effect? My own ethnographic research within these cultures reveals comparable connotations in melodies that linger on semitone intervals, centered on concepts of tension and metaphors of falling. However, across different musical cultures there may also be neutral or lively interpretations of these same pitch sets, dependent on context, manner of performance, and tradition. Small pitch movement may also be associated with social functions such as prayer or lullabies, and may not be described as "sad." "Sad," moreover may not connote the same affect cross-culturally.

  2. Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-06-01

    We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals τ between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q. The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Polarization Measurements of OMC-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Janet P.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Burton, Michael G.; Schultz, A. S. B.

    2006-01-01

    We present 2 micrometer polarization measurements of positions in the BN region of the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC-1) made with NICMOS Camera 2 (0.2" resolution) on Hubble Space Telescope. Our goals are to seek the sources of heating for IRc2, 3, 4, and 7, identify possible young stellar objects (YSOs), and characterize the grain alignment in the dust clouds along the lines-of-sight to the stars. Our results are as follows: BN is approximately 29% polarized by dichroic absorption and appears to be the illuminating source for most of the nebulosity to its north and up to approximately 5" to its south. Although the stars are probably all polarized by dichroic absorption, there are a number of compact, but non-point-source, objects that could be polarized by a combination of both dichroic absorption and local scattering of star light. We identify several candidate YSOs, including an approximately edge-on bipolar YSO 8.7" east of BN, and a deeply-embedded IRc7, all of which are obviously self-luminous at mid-infrared wavelengths and may be YSOs. None of these is a reflection nebula illuminated by a star located near radio source I, as was previously suggested. Other IRc sources are clearly reflection nebulae: IRc3 appears to be illuminated by IRc2-B or a combination of the IRc2 sources, and IRc4 and IRc5 appear to be illuminated by an unseen star in the vicinity of radio source I, or by Star n or IRc2-A. Trends in the magnetic field direction are inferred from the polarization of the 26 stars that are bright enough to be seen as NICMOS point sources. Their polarization ranges from N less than or equal to 1% (all stars with this low polarization are optically visible) to greater than 40%. The most polarized star has a polarization position angle different from its neighbors by approximately 40 degrees, but in agreement with the grain alignment inferred from millimeter polarization measurements of the cold dust cloud in the southern part of OMC-1. The polarization

  4. Polar Frontal Migration in the Warm Late Pliocene: Diatom Evidence from The Wilkes Land Margin, East Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesselman, C. R.; Taylor-Silva, B.; Patterson, M. O.

    2017-12-01

    The Late Pliocene is the most recent interval in Earth's history to sustain global temperatures within the range of warming predicted for the 21st century. Published global reconstructions and climate models find an average +2° C summer SST anomaly relative to modern during the 3.3-3.0 Ma PRISM interval, when atmospheric CO2 concentrations last reached 400 ppm. Here, we present a new diatom-based reconstruction of Pliocene interglacial sea surface conditions from IODP Site U1361, on the East Antarctic continental rise. U1361 biogenic silica concentrations document the alternation of diatom-rich and diatom-poor lithologies; we interpret 8 diatom-rich mudstones within this sequence to record interglacial periods between 3.8 and 2.8 Ma. We find that open-ocean conditions in the mid-Pliocene became increasingly influenced by sea ice from 3.6-3.2 Ma, prior to the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. This cooling trend was interrupted by a temporary southward migration of the Antarctic Polar Front, bathing U1361 in warmer subantarctic waters during a single interglacial, marine isotope stage KM3 (3.17-3.15 Ma), that corresponds to a maximum in summer insolation at 65°S. Following this interval of transient warmth, interglacial periods became progressively cooler starting at 3 Ma, coinciding with a transition from obliquity to precession as the dominant orbital driver of Antarctic ice sheet fluctuations. Building on the identification of a single outlier interglacial within the PRISM interval, we have revisited older reconstructions to explore the response of the Southern Ocean/cryosphere system to peak late Pliocene warmth. By applying a modern chronostratigraphic framework to those low-resolution "mean interglacial" records, we identify the same frontal migration in 4 other cores in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean, documenting a major migration of the polar front during a key interval of warm climate. These new results suggest that increased summer

  5. Role of competition between polarity sites in establishing a unique front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Fang; Chiou, Jian-Geng; Minakova, Maria; Woods, Benjamin; Tsygankov, Denis; Zyla, Trevin R; Savage, Natasha S; Elston, Timothy C; Lew, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Polarity establishment in many cells is thought to occur via positive feedback that reinforces even tiny asymmetries in polarity protein distribution. Cdc42 and related GTPases are activated and accumulate in a patch of the cortex that defines the front of the cell. Positive feedback enables spontaneous polarization triggered by stochastic fluctuations, but as such fluctuations can occur at multiple locations, how do cells ensure that they make only one front? In polarizing cells of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, positive feedback can trigger growth of several Cdc42 clusters at the same time, but this multi-cluster stage rapidly evolves to a single-cluster state, which then promotes bud emergence. By manipulating polarity protein dynamics, we show that resolution of multi-cluster intermediates occurs through a greedy competition between clusters to recruit and retain polarity proteins from a shared intracellular pool. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11611.001 PMID:26523396

  6. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Kuzio

    2004-01-01

    Fracture spacing is a key hydrologic parameter in analyses of matrix diffusion. Although the individual fractures that transmit flow in the saturated zone (SZ) cannot be identified directly, it is possible to determine the fractured zones that transmit flow from flow meter survey observations. The fractured zones that transmit flow as identified through borehole flow meter surveys have been defined in this report as flowing intervals. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. The determination of flowing interval spacing is important because the flowing interval spacing parameter is a key hydrologic parameter in SZ transport modeling, which impacts the extent of matrix diffusion in the SZ volcanic matrix. The output of this report is input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, the analysis of data and development of a data distribution reported herein is used to develop the uncertainty distribution for the flowing interval spacing parameter for the SZ transport abstraction model. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this report to other model reports that also pertain to flow and transport in the SZ. Figure 1-1 also shows the flow of key information among the SZ reports. It should be noted that Figure 1-1 does not contain a complete representation of the data and parameter inputs and outputs of all SZ reports, nor does it show inputs external to this suite of SZ reports. Use of the developed flowing interval spacing probability distribution is subject to the limitations of the assumptions discussed in Sections 5 and 6 of this analysis report. The number of fractures in a flowing interval is not known. Therefore, the flowing intervals are assumed to be composed of one flowing zone in the transport simulations. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be

  7. Heartbeat Classification Using Normalized RR Intervals and Morphological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Cheng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an automatic heartbeat classification system for identifying normal beats, supraventricular ectopic beats, and ventricular ectopic beats based on normalized RR intervals and morphological features. The proposed heartbeat classification system consists of signal preprocessing, feature extraction, and linear discriminant classification. First, the signal preprocessing removed the high-frequency noise and baseline drift of the original ECG signal. Then the feature extraction derived the normalized RR intervals and two types of morphological features using wavelet analysis and linear prediction modeling. Finally, the linear discriminant classifier combined the extracted features to classify heartbeats. A total of 99,827 heartbeats obtained from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database were divided into three datasets for the training and testing of the optimized heartbeat classification system. The study results demonstrate that the use of the normalized RR interval features greatly improves the positive predictive accuracy of identifying the normal heartbeats and the sensitivity for identifying the supraventricular ectopic heartbeats in comparison with the use of the nonnormalized RR interval features. In addition, the combination of the wavelet and linear prediction morphological features has higher global performance than only using the wavelet features or the linear prediction features.

  8. Coordinates and intervals in graph-based reference genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Knut D; Grytten, Ivar; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Storvik, Geir O; Glad, Ingrid K; Sandve, Geir K

    2017-05-18

    It has been proposed that future reference genomes should be graph structures in order to better represent the sequence diversity present in a species. However, there is currently no standard method to represent genomic intervals, such as the positions of genes or transcription factor binding sites, on graph-based reference genomes. We formalize offset-based coordinate systems on graph-based reference genomes and introduce methods for representing intervals on these reference structures. We show the advantage of our methods by representing genes on a graph-based representation of the newest assembly of the human genome (GRCh38) and its alternative loci for regions that are highly variable. More complex reference genomes, containing alternative loci, require methods to represent genomic data on these structures. Our proposed notation for genomic intervals makes it possible to fully utilize the alternative loci of the GRCh38 assembly and potential future graph-based reference genomes. We have made a Python package for representing such intervals on offset-based coordinate systems, available at https://github.com/uio-cels/offsetbasedgraph . An interactive web-tool using this Python package to visualize genes on a graph created from GRCh38 is available at https://github.com/uio-cels/genomicgraphcoords .

  9. Polarized photon transport through fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jonathan; Persons, Christopher M.; DeSilva, Robert; Kirkland, James H.; Finney, Greg A.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Hokr, Brett H.

    2017-09-01

    Anyone who has driven through fog understands the detrimental effect scattering can have on your ability to see. When light interacts with a scattering center, in this case a fog droplet, it is scattered into a new direction, ultimately turning the world around you into a dull gray haze. In some fogs, visibility can be less than 100 meters. It would be possible to see through turbid media like fog if you can separate the scattered light from the unscattered, or ballistic, light; however, we must understand the light transport properties of the atmosphere to determine the optimum scheme. Here, we present an end-to-end simulation for polarized light transport through fog. Our approach can be summarized in three steps: compute the Mueller matrix for a single scattering interaction, ensemble average a distribution of sizes and shapes, and solve the light transport using a Monte Carlo simulation. For small spherical particles, such as fog, we use Mie theory to calculate the single scattering Mueller matrix, but this approach can be generalized to non-spherical particles using ray tracing for large particles or a T-matrix approach for smaller particles. Through this simulation, we are able to determine a backscattering Mueller matrix and a forward scattering Mueller matrix response function for the atmosphere as a function of position and detection angle.

  10. Learning about confidence intervals with software R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gariela Gonçalves

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 202 1111 USAL 9 2 1311 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} This work was to study the feasibility of implementing a teaching method that employs software, in a Computational Mathematics course, involving students and teachers through the use of the statistical software R in carrying out practical work, such as strengthening the traditional teaching. The statistical inference, namely the determination of confidence intervals, was the content selected for this experience. It was intended show, first of all, that it is possible to promote, through the proposal methodology, the acquisition of basic skills in statistical inference and to promote the positive relationships between teachers and students. It presents also a comparative study between the methodologies used and their quantitative and qualitative results on two consecutive school years, in several indicators. The data used in the study were obtained from the students to the exam questions in the years 2010/2011 and 2011/2012, from the achievement of a working group in 2011/2012 and via the responses to a questionnaire (optional and anonymous also applied in 2011 / 2012. In terms of results, we emphasize a better performance of students in the examination questions in 2011/2012, the year that students used the software R, and a very favorable student’s perspective about

  11. Polar Biomedical Research - An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    to grow more crops in subpolar Alaska. The severity of the polar conditions in Antarctica allow no practical method for providing volumes of plant food...for an expanded population. Any experiments in polar regions in food production involving geothermal heat, solar energy, hydroponics , or aquaculture

  12. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  13. Carbon nanotube fiber terahertz polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, Ahmed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Young, Colin C. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Heimbeck, Martin S. [Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Everitt, Henry O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Pasquali, Matteo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kono, Junichiro, E-mail: kono@rice.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2016-04-04

    Conventional, commercially available terahertz (THz) polarizers are made of uniformly and precisely spaced metallic wires. They are fragile and expensive, with performance characteristics highly reliant on wire diameters and spacings. Here, we report a simple and highly error-tolerant method for fabricating a freestanding THz polarizer with nearly ideal performance, reliant on the intrinsically one-dimensional character of conduction electrons in well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The polarizer was constructed on a mechanical frame over which we manually wound acid-doped CNT fibers with ultrahigh electrical conductivity. We demonstrated that the polarizer has an extinction ratio of ∼−30 dB with a low insertion loss (<0.5 dB) throughout a frequency range of 0.2–1.1 THz. In addition, we used a THz ellipsometer to measure the Müller matrix of the CNT-fiber polarizer and found comparable attenuation to a commercial metallic wire-grid polarizer. Furthermore, based on the classical theory of light transmission through an array of metallic wires, we demonstrated the most striking difference between the CNT-fiber and metallic wire-grid polarizers: the latter fails to work in the zero-spacing limit, where it acts as a simple mirror, while the former continues to work as an excellent polarizer even in that limit due to the one-dimensional conductivity of individual CNTs.

  14. Polarization-preserving holey fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2001-01-01

    In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization...

  15. Polarized Scintillating Targets at Psi

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.

    2001-02-01

    Scintillating polarized targets are now routinely available: blocks of 18×18×5 mm scintillating organic polymer, doped with TEMPO, polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical 3He-4He dilution refrigerator. A 19 mm diameter plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat.

  16. UV Coatings, Polarization, and Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Quijada, Manuel; West, Garrett; Balasubramanian, Bala; Krist, John; Martin, Stefan; Sabatke, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Presenation for the Large UltraViolet Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) and Habitable Exoplanet Imager (HabEx) Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDT) on technical considerations regarding ultraviolet coatings, polarization, and coronagraphy. The presentations review the state-of-the-art in ultraviolet coatings, how those coatings generate polarization aberrations, and recent study results from both the LUVOIR and HabEx teams.

  17. Polarization Imaging and Insect Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam S.; Ohmann, Paul R.; Leininger, Nick E.; Kavanaugh, James A.

    2010-01-01

    For several years we have included discussions about insect vision in the optics units of our introductory physics courses. This topic is a natural extension of demonstrations involving Brewster's reflection and Rayleigh scattering of polarized light because many insects heavily rely on optical polarization for navigation and communication.…

  18. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  19. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica L; Streuli, Charles H

    2014-08-01

    Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell-matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical-basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Hyperon polarization: An experimental overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lach, J.

    1992-12-01

    The fact that inclusively produced hyperons are produced with significant polarization was first discovered at Fermilab about seventeen years ago. This and subsequent experiments showed that Λ degree were produced polarized while bar Λ degree had no polarization in the same kinematical region. This set the stage for many experiments which showed that most hyperons are produced polarized. Recent Fermilab experiments have showed that this phenomena is even more complex than previously thought and theoretical understanding is still lacking. Nevertheless polarized hyperon beams have been an extremely useful experimental tool in measuring hyperon magnetic moments and hyperon β-decay. Recently, hyperon radiative decays have been studied and magnetic moment precession of channeled particles in bent crystals has been observed

  1. Optically controlled polarization in highly oriented ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkar, Hitesh; Tomar, M.; Gupta, Vinay; Katiyar, Ram S.; Scott, J. F.; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-08-01

    The out-of-plane and in-plane polarization of (Pb0.6Li0.2Bi0.2)(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 (PLBZT) thin film has been studied in the dark and under illumination from a weak light source of a comparable bandgap. A highly oriented PLBZT thin film was grown on a LaNiO3/LaAlO3 substrate by pulsed laser deposition; it showed well-saturated polarization which was significantly enhanced under light illumination. We employed two configurations for polarization characterization: the first deals with out-of-plane polarization with a single capacitor under investigation, whereas the second uses two capacitors connected in series via the bottom electrode. Two different configurations were illuminated using different energy sources and their effects were studied. The latter configuration shows a significant change in polarization under light illumination that may provide an extra degree of freedom for device miniaturization. The polarization was also tested using positive-up and negative-down measurements, confirming robust polarization and its switching under illumination.

  2. Efficient ionizer for polarized H/sup -/ formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    An ionizer is under development for a polarized H/sup -/ source based on the resonant charge exchange reaction polarized H/sup 0/ + D/sup -/ ..-->.. polarized H/sup -/ + D/sup 0/. The polarized H/sup 0/ beam passes through the center of a magnetron surface-plasma source having an annular geometry, where it crosses a high current (approx.0.5 A), 200 eV D/sup -/ beam. Calculations predict an H/sup 0/ ..-->.. H/sup -/ ionization efficiency of approx.7%, more than an order of magnitude higher than that obtained on present ground state atomic beam sources. In initial experiments using an unpolarized H/sup 0/ beam, H/sup -/ currents in excess of 100 ..mu..A have been measured. While the ionization efficiency is now only about the same as other methods (Cs beam, for example), the results are encouraging since it appears that by injecting positive ions to improve the space-charge neutralization, and by improving the extraction optics, considerable gains in intensity will be made. We will then use this ionizer with a polarized H/sup 0/ beam, and measure the polarization of the resulting H/sup -/ beam. If no depolarization is observed this ionizer will be combined with an atomic beam, cooled to 5 to 6 K, to give a polarized H/sup -/ beam expected to be in the milliampere range for use in the AGS.

  3. Computed assisted detection of interval breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, Kerstin; Bjurstam, Nils; Wilczek, Brigitte; Rostgaard, Lars; Egge, Elisabeth; Muren, Catharina

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine interval cancer detection rate for a system of computer assisted detection (CAD) and its influence on radiologists' sensitivity/specificity in a screen-like retrospective review situation. Materials and methods: Three screening radiologists reviewed previous screen images of 59 interval cancers mixed with other screening mammograms (ratio 1:5) and non-mixed. Mixed interval cases were interpreted both without and with aid of CAD. Results: CAD detected a number of 14 interval cancers while the three radiologists detected 17, 12 and 11 without and 16, 10 and 13 with CAD. Although CAD specificity was low (38%) no reduction in radiologists' specificity occurred using CAD (73%, 82% and 89% without and 78%, 90% and 92% with CAD). Non-mixed reading increased radiologists' detection rate to 21, 17 and 19 interval cancers respectively. Conclusion: Despite sufficiently high sensitivity for CAD alone no increase in radiologist sensitivity (or decrease in specificity) occurred with CAD. Improving CAD specificity, with unaffectedly high sensitivity, should make radiologists more inclined to revise interpretations according to CAD. The potential sensitivity increase, noted when using CAD as a double reader, could be realised in this way

  4. Return Intervals Approach to Financial Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengzhong; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    Financial fluctuations play a key role for financial markets studies. A new approach focusing on properties of return intervals can help to get better understanding of the fluctuations. A return interval is defined as the time between two successive volatilities above a given threshold. We review recent studies and analyze the 1000 most traded stocks in the US stock markets. We find that the distribution of the return intervals has a well approximated scaling over a wide range of thresholds. The scaling is also valid for various time windows from one minute up to one trading day. Moreover, these results are universal for stocks of different countries, commodities, interest rates as well as currencies. Further analysis shows some systematic deviations from a scaling law, which are due to the nonlinear correlations in the volatility sequence. We also examine the memory in return intervals for different time scales, which are related to the long-term correlations in the volatility. Furthermore, we test two popular models, FIGARCH and fractional Brownian motion (fBm). Both models can catch the memory effect but only fBm shows a good scaling in the return interval distribution.

  5. Nuclear Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Gregg G.; Worman, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The nucleus is the largest organelle and is commonly depicted in the center of the cell. Yet during cell division, migration and differentiation, it frequently moves to an asymmetric position aligned with cell function. We consider the toolbox of proteins that move and anchor the nucleus within the cell and how forces generated by the cytoskeleton are coupled to the nucleus to move it. The significance of proper nuclear positioning is underscored by numerous diseases resulting from genetic alterations in the toolbox proteins. Finally, we discuss how nuclear position may influence cellular organization and signaling pathways. PMID:23498944

  6. Promoting Diversity Through Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (Polar ICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, J. D.; Hotaling, L. A.; Garza, C.; Van Dyk, P. B.; Hunter-thomson, K. I.; Middendorf, J.; Daniel, A.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Schofield, O.

    2017-12-01

    Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE) is an education and outreach program designed to provide public access to the Antarctic and Arctic regions through polar data and interactions with the scientists. The program provides multi-faceted science communication training for early career scientists that consist of a face-to face workshop and opportunities to apply these skills. The key components of the scientist training workshop include cultural competency training, deconstructing/decoding science for non-expert audiences, the art of telling science stories, and networking with members of the education and outreach community and reflecting on communication skills. Scientists partner with educators to provide professional development for K-12 educators and support for student research symposia. Polar ICE has initiated a Polar Literacy initiative that provides both a grounding in big ideas in polar science and science communication training designed to underscore the importance of the Polar Regions to the public while promoting interdisciplinary collaborations between scientists and educators. Our ultimate objective is to promote STEM identity through professional development of scientists and educators while developing career awareness of STEM pathways in Polar science.

  7. The Case for Common Reference Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Graham RD; Barker, Antony; Tate, Jill; Lim, Chen-Fee; Robertson, Ken

    2004-01-01

    The current paradigm for pathology reference intervals is for each laboratory to determine its own interval for use with each test offered by the laboratory. It is our contention that this approach does not best serve the medical community, especially at a time when electronic databases of health information are being expanded and integrated. We also believe that this approach is not performed well in many laboratories and is excessively expensive in practice. In contrast, we believe that the preferable option is to develop and apply common reference intervals throughout Australia and New Zealand, together with common reporting formats and assay standardisation wherever this is possible. We are aware that these are neither trivial nor simple issues, however we believe that failure to achieve this goal where technically possible will be a failure of the pathology profession to meet the challenges of the modern health community. PMID:18458709

  8. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed...... as a synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... on thecomponentwise calculations done in the course of the iteration. These componentwisetests are useful for parallel implementation of the search, sincethe tests can then be performed local to each processor and only when a test issuccessful do a processor communicate this result to other processors....

  9. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  10. [Positive psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen; Bech, Per

    2016-02-08

    Positive psychiatry (PP) is a field within psychiatry with a particular focus on promoting well-being in people who already have or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illness. PP should be considered a supplement to trad-tional psychiatry and a call for therapists in psychiatry to focus on the person as a whole rather than just as a patient. PP is in line with current national and international health policy focus on promoting positive mental health.

  11. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, Vsevolod

    1975-01-01

    A circuitry for deriving the quotient of signal delivered by position-sensitive detectors is described. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10- to 12-bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words

  12. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, V.

    1975-05-01

    This paper describes circuitry for deriving the quotient of signals delivered by position-sensitive detectors. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10 to 12 bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less than 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words [fr

  13. Do Longer Intervals between Challenges Reduce the Risk of Adverse Reactions in Oral Wheat Challenges?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Yanagida

    Full Text Available The use of oral food challenges (OFCs in clinics is limited because they are complicated and associated with anaphylactic symptoms. To increase their use, it is necessary to develop novel, effective, and safe methods. However, the effectiveness of different OFCs has not been compared.To investigate the effect of ingestion methods on wheat allergy symptoms and treatment during OFCs.Without changing the total challenge dose, we changed the administration method from a 5-installment dose titration every 15 min (15-min interval method to 3 installments every 30 min (30-min interval method. We retrospectively reviewed and compared the results of 65 positive 15-min interval wheat challenge tests conducted between July 2005 and February 2008 and 87 positive 30-min interval tests conducted between March 2008 and December 2009.A history of immediate symptoms was more common for the 30-min interval method; however, no difference between methods was observed in other background parameters. Switching from the 15-min to the 30-min interval method did not increase symptoms or require treatment. The rate of cardiovascular symptoms (p = 0.032, and adrenaline use (p = 0.017 was significantly lower with the 30-min interval method. The results did not change after adjusting for the effects of immediate symptom history in multivariate analysis.This study suggests that the 30-min interval method reduces the risk of adverse events, compared to the 15-min interval method.

  14. A climatological morphology of ionospheric disturbances at high and polar latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris N. Fotiadis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After a historical introduction on the first well-documented observations of ionospheric phenomena and a review of the current, state-of-the art polar ionospheric studies, a climatological morphology of the irregular F-region plasma structures at high and polar latitudes is being presented, following a feature-aided pattern recognition method. Using the available in three solar cycles hourly foF2 data from 18 ionosonde stations, an ionospheric definition of disturbed conditions, independent of any causative mechanism, is being applied and positive/negative disturbances of duration smaller than 24 hours are sorted out. No latitudinal/longitudinal bins or seasons are defined and disturbances in each month and station are handled separately while four local time intervals of storm commencement are considered, according to solar zenith angle. A median profile per disturbance is produced only when a minimum occurrence probability is satisfied. Non-systematic features are excluded from this analysis by careful selection of the time window under morphological investigation. First, the median profiles of disturbance patterns are fitted to standard distributions and then, if they fail, they are grouped according to their major characteristic features and are described by a dynamic variation envelope along with their distribution in space and time. The present model, while being a non-conditional stand-alone model of ionospheric storms at high and polar latitudes offered to radio users, may complement existing empirical models. Finally, the present model may ultimately reveal cause-effect relationships with geomagnetic field or interplanetary parameters after further correlation studies undertaken in the future.

  15. Interval logic. Proof theory and theorem proving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Marthedal

    2002-01-01

    of a direction of an interval, and present a sound and complete Hilbert proof system for it. Because of its generality, SIL can conveniently act as a general formalism in which other interval logics can be encoded. We develop proof theory for SIL including both a sequent calculus system and a labelled natural...... deduction system. We conduct theoretical investigations of the systems with respect to subformula properties, proof search, etc. The generic theorem proving system Isabelle is used as a framework for encoding both proof theoretical systems. We consider a number of examples/small case-studies and discuss...

  16. POSTMORTAL CHANGES AND ASSESSMENT OF POSTMORTEM INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edin Šatrović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes in a simple way the changes that occur in the body after death.They develop in a specific order, and the speed of their development and their expression are strongly influenced by various endogenous and exogenous factors. The aim of the authors is to indicate the characteristics of the postmortem changes, and their significance in establishing time since death, which can be established precisely within 72 hours. Accurate evaluation of the age of the corpse based on the common changes is not possible with longer postmortem intervals, so the entomological findings become the most significant change on the corpse for determination of the postmortem interval (PMI.

  17. Conditional prediction intervals of wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2010-01-01

    A generic method for the providing of prediction intervals of wind power generation is described. Prediction intervals complement the more common wind power point forecasts, by giving a range of potential outcomes for a given probability, their so-called nominal coverage rate. Ideally they inform...... of the situation-specific uncertainty of point forecasts. In order to avoid a restrictive assumption on the shape of forecast error distributions, focus is given to an empirical and nonparametric approach named adapted resampling. This approach employs a fuzzy inference model that permits to integrate expertise...

  18. Risk based surveillance test interval optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    1995-01-01

    First step towards the risk based regulation is to determine the optimal surveillance test intervals for the safety equipment which is tested at nuclear power plant operation. In the paper we have presented the process of optimal surveillance test interval optimization from our perspective. It consist of three levels: component level, system level and plant level. It bases on the results of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment and is focused to minimize risk. At component and system level the risk measure is component or system mean unavailability respectively. At plant level the risk measure is core damage frequency. (author)

  19. Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss (Polar SWIFT version 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Rex, Markus

    2017-07-01

    The Polar SWIFT model is a fast scheme for calculating the chemistry of stratospheric ozone depletion in polar winter. It is intended for use in global climate models (GCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs) to enable the simulation of mutual interactions between the ozone layer and climate. To date, climate models often use prescribed ozone fields, since a full stratospheric chemistry scheme is computationally very expensive. Polar SWIFT is based on a set of coupled differential equations, which simulate the polar vortex-averaged mixing ratios of the key species involved in polar ozone depletion on a given vertical level. These species are O3, chemically active chlorine (ClOx), HCl, ClONO2 and HNO3. The only external input parameters that drive the model are the fraction of the polar vortex in sunlight and the fraction of the polar vortex below the temperatures necessary for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Here, we present an update of the Polar SWIFT model introducing several improvements over the original model formulation. In particular, the model is now trained on vortex-averaged reaction rates of the ATLAS Chemistry and Transport Model, which enables a detailed look at individual processes and an independent validation of the different parameterizations contained in the differential equations. The training of the original Polar SWIFT model was based on fitting complete model runs to satellite observations and did not allow for this. A revised formulation of the system of differential equations is developed, which closely fits vortex-averaged reaction rates from ATLAS that represent the main chemical processes influencing ozone. In addition, a parameterization for the HNO3 change by denitrification is included. The rates of change of the concentrations of the chemical species of the Polar SWIFT model are purely chemical rates of change in the new version, whereas in the original Polar SWIFT model, they included a transport effect caused by the

  20. Is an interval the right result of arithmetic operations on intervals?

    OpenAIRE

    Piegat Andrzej; Landowski Marek

    2017-01-01

    For many scientists interval arithmetic (IA, I arithmetic) seems to be easy and simple. However, this is not true. Interval arithmetic is complicated. This is confirmed by the fact that, for years, new, alternative versions of this arithmetic have been created and published. These new versions tried to remove shortcomings and weaknesses of previously proposed options of the arithmetic, which decreased the prestige not only of interval arithmetic itself, but also of fuzzy arithmetic, which, to...

  1. Statistics of return intervals between long heartbeat intervals and their usability for online prediction of disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogachev, Mikhail I; Bunde, Armin; Kireenkov, Igor S; Nifontov, Eugene M

    2009-01-01

    We study the statistics of return intervals between large heartbeat intervals (above a certain threshold Q) in 24 h records obtained from healthy subjects. We find that both the linear and the nonlinear long-term memory inherent in the heartbeat intervals lead to power-laws in the probability density function P Q (r) of the return intervals. As a consequence, the probability W Q (t; Δt) that at least one large heartbeat interval will occur within the next Δt heartbeat intervals, with an increasing elapsed number of intervals t after the last large heartbeat interval, follows a power-law. Based on these results, we suggest a method of obtaining a priori information about the occurrence of the next large heartbeat interval, and thus to predict it. We show explicitly that the proposed method, which exploits long-term memory, is superior to the conventional precursory pattern recognition technique, which focuses solely on short-term memory. We believe that our results can be straightforwardly extended to obtain more reliable predictions in other physiological signals like blood pressure, as well as in other complex records exhibiting multifractal behaviour, e.g. turbulent flow, precipitation, river flows and network traffic.

  2. Statistics of return intervals between long heartbeat intervals and their usability for online prediction of disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogachev, Mikhail I; Bunde, Armin [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392, Giessen (Germany); Kireenkov, Igor S; Nifontov, Eugene M [Faculty Therapy Department, Pavlov State Medical University, Lev Tolstoy Street 6/8, 197022, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Mikhail.Bogachev@physik.uni-giessen.de

    2009-06-15

    We study the statistics of return intervals between large heartbeat intervals (above a certain threshold Q) in 24 h records obtained from healthy subjects. We find that both the linear and the nonlinear long-term memory inherent in the heartbeat intervals lead to power-laws in the probability density function P{sub Q}(r) of the return intervals. As a consequence, the probability W{sub Q}(t; {delta}t) that at least one large heartbeat interval will occur within the next {delta}t heartbeat intervals, with an increasing elapsed number of intervals t after the last large heartbeat interval, follows a power-law. Based on these results, we suggest a method of obtaining a priori information about the occurrence of the next large heartbeat interval, and thus to predict it. We show explicitly that the proposed method, which exploits long-term memory, is superior to the conventional precursory pattern recognition technique, which focuses solely on short-term memory. We believe that our results can be straightforwardly extended to obtain more reliable predictions in other physiological signals like blood pressure, as well as in other complex records exhibiting multifractal behaviour, e.g. turbulent flow, precipitation, river flows and network traffic.

  3. Nuclear physics with polarized particles

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen Schieck, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of spin-polarization observables in reactions of nuclei and particles is of great utility and advantage when the effects of single-spin sub-states are to be investigated. Indeed, the unpolarized differential cross-section encompasses the averaging over the spin states of the particles, and thus loses details of the interaction process. This introductory text combines, in a single volume, course-based lecture notes on spin physics and on polarized-ion sources with the aim of providing a concise yet self-contained starting point for newcomers to the field, as well as for lecturers in search of suitable material for their courses and seminars. A significant part of the book is devoted to introducing the formal theory-a description of polarization and of nuclear reactions with polarized particles. The remainder of the text describes the physical basis of methods and devices necessary to perform experiments with polarized particles and to measure polarization and polarization effects in nuclear rea...

  4. Space Environmental Erosion of Polar Icy Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, William M.; Killen, R. M.; Vondrak, R. R.; Hurley, D. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Delory, G. T.; Halekas, J. S.; Zimmerman, M. I.

    2011-01-01

    While regions at the floors of permanently shadowed polar craters are isolated from direct sunlight, these regions are still exposed to the harsh space environment, including the interplanetary Lyman-a background, meteoric impacts, and obstacle-affected solar wind. We demonstrate that each of these processes can act to erode the polar icy regolith located at or near the surface along the crater floor. The Lyman-a background can remove/erode the icy-regolith via photon stimulated desorption [1], meteoric impacts can vaporize the regolith [2], and redirected solar wind ions can sputter the ice-regolith mix [3]. As an example we shall examine in detail the inflow of solar wind ions and electrons into polar craters, One might expect such ions to flow horizontally over the crater top (see Figure). However, we find that plasma ambipolar processes act to deflect passing ions into the craters [3]. We examine this plasma process and determine the ion flux as a function of position across a notional crater floor. We demonstrate that inflowing solar wind ions can indeed create sputtering along the crater floor, effectively eroding the surface. Erosion time scales rrom sputtering will be presented. We shall also consider the effect of impact vaporization on buried icy-regolith regions. There will also be a discussion of solar wind electrons that enter into the PSR, demonstrating that these also have the ability rree surface-bound atoms via electron stimulated desorption processes [l].

  5. Few-body experiments with polarized beams and polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is presented concerning recent polarization experiments in the elastic p-d, p- 3 He, and p- 4 He systems. Mention is made of selected neutron experiments. The nominal energy range is 10 to 1000 MeV. Recent results and interpretations of the p-d system near 10 MeV are discussed. New experiments on the energy dependence of back angle p-d tensor polarization are discussed with respect to resolution of discrepancies and difficulty of theoretical interpretation. Progress is noted concerning multiple scattering interpretation of forward p-d deuteron polarization. Some new results are presented concerning the p- 3 He system and higher energy p- 4 He polarization experiments. 52 references

  6. Characteristics of target polarization by laser ablation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Delle Side, D.; Giuffreda, E.; Nassisi, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2015), 601-605 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0454; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Grant - others: Laser Zdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Target current in laser -produced plasmas * positive and negative target polarization * space structure of ion front Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.649, year: 2015

  7. Acceleration of polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1998-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Using a partial Siberian snake and a rf dipole that ensure stable adiabatic spin motion during acceleration has made it possible to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV at the Brookhaven AGS. Full Siberian snakes are being developed for RHIC to make the acceleration of polarized protons to 250 GeV possible. A similar scheme is being studied for the 800 GeV HERA proton accelerator

  8. Polarized deuteron elastic scattering from a polarized proton target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, R.; Kuiper, H.; Schoeberl, M.; Berber, S.; Hilmert, H.; Koeppel, R.; Pferdmenges, R.; Zankel, H.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements are reported of the spin correlation parameter Cy,y for the elastic scattering of 10.0 MeV vector polarized deuterons from a polarized proton target at five CM angles (76 0 ,85 0 ,98 0 ,115 0 ,132 0 ). The experimental results are compared with different predictions. A Faddeev type calculation on the basis of local potentials also including approximate Coulomb distortion is favoured by our experimental results. (orig.)

  9. PolarHub: A Global Hub for Polar Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a NSF project in developing a large-scale web crawler PolarHub to discover automatically the distributed polar dataset in the format of OGC web services (OWS) in the cyberspace. PolarHub is a machine robot; its goal is to visit as many webpages as possible to find those containing information about polar OWS, extract this information and store it into the backend data repository. This is a very challenging task given huge data volume of webpages on the Web. Three unique features was introduced in PolarHub to make it distinctive from earlier crawler solutions: (1) a multi-task, multi-user, multi-thread support to the crawling tasks; (2) an extensive use of thread pool and Data Access Object (DAO) design patterns to separate persistent data storage and business logic to achieve high extendibility of the crawler tool; (3) a pattern-matching based customizable crawling algorithm to support discovery of multi-type geospatial web services; and (4) a universal and portable client-server communication mechanism combining a server-push and client pull strategies for enhanced asynchronous processing. A series of experiments were conducted to identify the impact of crawling parameters to the overall system performance. The geographical distribution pattern of all PolarHub identified services is also demonstrated. We expect this work to make a major contribution to the field of geospatial information retrieval and geospatial interoperability, to bridge the gap between data provider and data consumer, and to accelerate polar science by enhancing the accessibility and reusability of adequate polar data.

  10. Precise Interval Timer for Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A precise digital fractional interval timer for software defined radios which vary their waveform on a packet-by-packet basis. The timer allows for variable length in the preamble of the RF packet and allows to adjust boundaries of the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Slots of the receiver of an SDR based on the reception of the RF packet of interest.

  11. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  12. Population based reference intervals for common blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population based reference intervals for common blood haematological and biochemical parameters in the Akuapem north district. K.A Koram, M.M Addae, J.C Ocran, S Adu-amankwah, W.O Rogers, F.K Nkrumah ...

  13. Diagnostic interval and mortality in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hamilton, William

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the theory of a U-shaped association between time from the first presentation of symptoms in primary care to the diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Study Design and Setting Three population-based studies in Denmark...

  14. Quinsy tonsillectomy or interval tonsillectomy - a prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-one patients with peritonsillar abscesses were randomised to undergo either quinsy tonsillectomy (aT) or interval tonsillectomy (IT), and the two groups were compared. The QT group lost fewer (10,3 v. 17,9) working days and less blood during the operation (158,6 ml v. 205,7 ml); haemostasis was easier and the ...

  15. Linear chord diagrams on two intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Penner, Robert; Reidys, Christian

    generating function ${\\bf C}_g(z)=z^{2g}R_g(z)/(1-4z)^{3g-{1\\over 2}}$ for chords attached to a single interval is algebraic, for $g\\geq 1$, where the polynomial $R_g(z)$ with degree at most $g-1$ has integer coefficients and satisfies $R_g(1/4)\

  16. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  17. Interval scanning photomicrography of microbial cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A single reproducible area of the preparation in a fixed focal plane is photographically scanned at intervals during incubation. The procedure can be used for evaluating the aerobic or anaerobic growth of many microbial cells simultaneously within a population. In addition, the microscope is not restricted to the viewing of any one microculture preparation, since the slide cultures are incubated separately from the microscope.

  18. A sequent calculus for signed interval logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Marthedal

    2001-01-01

    We propose and discuss a complete sequent calculus formulation for Signed Interval Logic (SIL) with the chief purpose of improving proof support for SIL in practice. The main theoretical result is a simple characterization of the limit between decidability and undecidability of quantifier-free SIL...

  19. Modal Transition Systems with Weight Intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We propose weighted modal transition systems, an extension to the well-studied specification formalism of modal transition systems that allows to express both required and optional behaviours of their intended implementations. In our extension we decorate each transition with a weight interval...

  20. Equidistant Intervals in Perspective Photographs and Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Human vision is extremely sensitive to equidistance of spatial intervals in the frontal plane. Thresholds for spatial equidistance have been extensively measured in bisecting tasks. Despite the vast number of studies, the informational basis for equidistance perception is unknown. There are three possible sources of information for spatial equidistance in pictures, namely, distances in the picture plane, in physical space, and visual space. For each source, equidistant intervals were computed for perspective photographs of walls and canals. Intervals appear equidistant if equidistance is defined in visual space. Equidistance was further investigated in paintings of perspective scenes. In appraisals of the perspective skill of painters, emphasis has been on accurate use of vanishing points. The current study investigated the skill of painters to depict equidistant intervals. Depicted rows of equidistant columns, tiles, tapestries, or trees were analyzed in 30 paintings and engravings. Computational analysis shows that from the middle ages until now, artists either represented equidistance in physical space or in a visual space of very limited depth. Among the painters and engravers who depict equidistance in a highly nonveridical visual space are renowned experts of linear perspective. PMID:27698983

  1. Interval Appendicectomy and Management of Appendix Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wholly conservative management without interval appendicectomy was instituted for 13 patients diagnosed as having appendix mass between 1998 and 2002 in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Within three days of admission, one patient developed clinical features of ruptured appendix and ...

  2. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approve...

  3. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... backgrounds, of membership in a minoritised[i] or majoritised group, and the influence of different theoretical and methodological outlooks on our common goal of trying to transcend existing othering and objectifying representations of Muslims in Western societies. This process sometimes entails a direct...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  4. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  5. Assessment of tissue viability by polarization spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, G.; Anderson, C.; Henricson, J.; Leahy, M.; O'Doherty, J.; Sjöberg, F.

    2008-09-01

    A new and versatile method for tissue viability imaging based on polarization spectroscopy of blood in superficial tissue structures such as the skin is presented in this paper. Linearly polarized light in the visible wavelength region is partly reflected directly by the skin surface and partly diffusely backscattered from the dermal tissue matrix. Most of the directly reflected light preserves its polarization state while the light returning from the deeper tissue layers is depolarized. By the use of a polarization filter positioned in front of a sensitive CCD-array, the light directly reflected from the tissue surface is blocked, while the depolarized light returning from the deeper tissue layers reaches the detector array. By separating the colour planes of the detected image, spectroscopic information about the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvascular network of the tissue under investigation can be derived. A theory that utilizes the differences in light absorption of RBCs and bloodless tissue in the red and green wavelength region forms the basis of an algorithm for displaying a colour coded map of the RBC distribution in a tissue. Using a fluid model, a linear relationship (cc. = 0.99) between RBC concentration and the output signal was demonstrated within the physiological range 0-4%. In-vivo evaluation using transepidermal application of acetylcholine by the way of iontophoresis displayed the heterogeneity pattern of the vasodilatation produced by the vasoactive agent. Applications of this novel technology are likely to be found in drug and skin care product development as well as in the assessment of skin irritation and tissue repair processes and even ultimately in a clinic case situation.

  6. Haematological reference intervals in a multiethnic population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeli Ambayya

    Full Text Available Similar to other populations, full blood count reference (FBC intervals in Malaysia are generally derived from non-Malaysian subjects. However, numerous studies have shown significant differences between and within populations supporting the need for population specific intervals.Two thousand seven hundred twenty five apparently healthy adults comprising all ages, both genders and three principal races were recruited through voluntary participation. FBC was performed on two analysers, Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800, in addition to blood smears and haemoglobin analysis. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and C-reactive protein assays were performed in selected subjects. All parameters of qualified subjects were tested for normality followed by determination of reference intervals, measures of central tendency and dispersion along with point estimates for each subgroup.Complete data was available in 2440 subjects of whom 56% (907 women and 469 men were included in reference interval calculation. Compared to other populations there were significant differences for haemoglobin, red blood cell count, platelet count and haematocrit in Malaysians. There were differences between men and women, and between younger and older men; unlike in other populations, haemoglobin was similar in younger and older women. However ethnicity and smoking had little impact. 70% of anemia in premenopausal women, 24% in postmenopausal women and 20% of males is attributable to iron deficiency. There was excellent correlation between Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800.Our data confirms the importance of population specific haematological parameters and supports the need for local guidelines rather than adoption of generalised reference intervals and cut-offs.

  7. Selecting clinically relevant populations for reference intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Robert F; Palomaki, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    The selection of individuals to represent a group for any purpose can commit the effort to success or failure from the very outset. The description of this group must reflect what is, in reality, the purpose for which the group is being studied. Considering that reference intervals are designed to assist clinicians during diagnostic triage, criteria must reflect the nature of the subjects entering the system for care. The majority of people seeking care have non-life-threatening, yet troublesome complaints. In other words, persons who are in a reasonable state of health and who are not suffering from significant illness. Therefore the relevant cohort should fit this description, not individuals who lack any clinical or laboratory issues. Our focus is to employ reference intervals to exclude disease and not to define normality. Normality in the eyes of statisticians is quite different from the word as viewed by clinical staff, yet the term is used interchangeably without concern for its ultimate use. As a result medicine today stumbles over this issue at every turn. Scientists and artists do not speak the same language. Compounding this awkward situation has been the conviction that by increasing laboratory precision and accuracy, the utility of laboratory data, reference intervals in particular, will improve clinical understanding. This has, after many years, not proven to be the case. What has become very evident, however, is that unsustainably large sums of money are being devoted to improving laboratory performance. To what end, when we are unable to grasp the significance of what is available now including published reference intervals for common test values? A realistic perspective on the value of prevailing laboratory performance, as illustrated by reference intervals, must be adopted. The obligation of laboratories, its regulators and professional groups is to create a sustainable mechanism to provide clinically usable information, in a timely and affordable

  8. Stability of Rotation Pairs of Cycles for the Interval Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taixiang Sun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let C0(I be the set of all continuous self-maps of the closed interval I, and P(u,v={f∈C0(I:f has a cycle with rotation pair (u,v} for any positive integer v>u. In this paper, we prove that if (2mns,2mnt⊣(γ,λ, then P(2mns,2mnt⊂  int  P(γ,λ, where m≥0 is integer, n≥1 odd, 1≤s

  9. Oocyte Polarization Is Coupled to the Chromosomal Bouquet, a Conserved Polarized Nuclear Configuration in Meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv M Elkouby

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The source of symmetry breaking in vertebrate oocytes is unknown. Animal-vegetal oocyte polarity is established by the Balbiani body (Bb, a conserved structure found in all animals examined that contains an aggregate of specific mRNAs, proteins, and organelles. The Bb specifies the oocyte vegetal pole, which is key to forming the embryonic body axes as well as the germline in most vertebrates. How Bb formation is regulated and how its asymmetric position is established are unknown. Using quantitative image analysis, we trace oocyte symmetry breaking in zebrafish to a nuclear asymmetry at the onset of meiosis called the chromosomal bouquet. The bouquet is a universal feature of meiosis where all telomeres cluster to one pole on the nuclear envelope, facilitating chromosomal pairing and meiotic recombination. We show that Bb precursor components first localize with the centrosome to the cytoplasm adjacent to the telomere cluster of the bouquet. They then aggregate around the centrosome in a specialized nuclear cleft that we identified, assembling the early Bb. We show that the bouquet nuclear events and the cytoplasmic Bb precursor localization are mechanistically coordinated by microtubules. Thus the animal-vegetal axis of the oocyte is aligned to the nuclear axis of the bouquet. We further show that the symmetry breaking events lay upstream to the only known regulator of Bb formation, the Bucky ball protein. Our findings link two universal features of oogenesis, the Bb and the chromosomal bouquet, to oocyte polarization. We propose that a meiotic-vegetal center couples meiosis and oocyte patterning. Our findings reveal a novel mode of cellular polarization in meiotic cells whereby cellular and nuclear polarity are aligned. We further reveal that in zygotene nests, intercellular cytoplasmic bridges remain between oocytes and that the position of the cytoplasmic bridge coincides with the location of the centrosome meiotic-vegetal organizing center

  10. Oocyte Polarization Is Coupled to the Chromosomal Bouquet, a Conserved Polarized Nuclear Configuration in Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkouby, Yaniv M; Jamieson-Lucy, Allison; Mullins, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    The source of symmetry breaking in vertebrate oocytes is unknown. Animal-vegetal oocyte polarity is established by the Balbiani body (Bb), a conserved structure found in all animals examined that contains an aggregate of specific mRNAs, proteins, and organelles. The Bb specifies the oocyte vegetal pole, which is key to forming the embryonic body axes as well as the germline in most vertebrates. How Bb formation is regulated and how its asymmetric position is established are unknown. Using quantitative image analysis, we trace oocyte symmetry breaking in zebrafish to a nuclear asymmetry at the onset of meiosis called the chromosomal bouquet. The bouquet is a universal feature of meiosis where all telomeres cluster to one pole on the nuclear envelope, facilitating chromosomal pairing and meiotic recombination. We show that Bb precursor components first localize with the centrosome to the cytoplasm adjacent to the telomere cluster of the bouquet. They then aggregate around the centrosome in a specialized nuclear cleft that we identified, assembling the early Bb. We show that the bouquet nuclear events and the cytoplasmic Bb precursor localization are mechanistically coordinated by microtubules. Thus the animal-vegetal axis of the oocyte is aligned to the nuclear axis of the bouquet. We further show that the symmetry breaking events lay upstream to the only known regulator of Bb formation, the Bucky ball protein. Our findings link two universal features of oogenesis, the Bb and the chromosomal bouquet, to oocyte polarization. We propose that a meiotic-vegetal center couples meiosis and oocyte patterning. Our findings reveal a novel mode of cellular polarization in meiotic cells whereby cellular and nuclear polarity are aligned. We further reveal that in zygotene nests, intercellular cytoplasmic bridges remain between oocytes and that the position of the cytoplasmic bridge coincides with the location of the centrosome meiotic-vegetal organizing center. These results

  11. Molecular density functional theory of water including density–polarization coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Lévy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We present a three-dimensional molecular density functional theory of water derived fromfirst-principles that relies on the particle’s density and multipolar polarization density andincludes the density–polarization coupling. This brings two main benefits: (i) scalar densityand vectorial multipolar polarization density fields are much more tractable and give morephysical insight than the full position and orientation densities, and (ii) it includes the fulldensity–pola...

  12. Is an interval the right result of arithmetic operations on intervals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piegat Andrzej

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For many scientists interval arithmetic (IA, I arithmetic seems to be easy and simple. However, this is not true. Interval arithmetic is complicated. This is confirmed by the fact that, for years, new, alternative versions of this arithmetic have been created and published. These new versions tried to remove shortcomings and weaknesses of previously proposed options of the arithmetic, which decreased the prestige not only of interval arithmetic itself, but also of fuzzy arithmetic, which, to a great extent, is based on it. In our opinion, the main reason for the observed shortcomings of the present IA is the assumption that the direct result of arithmetic operations on intervals is also an interval. However, the interval is not a direct result but only a simplified representative (indicator of the result. This hypothesis seems surprising, but investigations prove that it is true. The paper shows what conditions should be satisfied by the result of interval arithmetic operations to call it a “result”, how great its dimensionality is, how to perform arithmetic operations and solve equations. Examples illustrate the proposed method of interval computations.

  13. Researcher Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2009-01-01

    involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives onresearch and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance ofconstant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioningas a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other...

  14. Polar source analysis : technical memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    The following technical memorandum describes the development, testing and analysis of various polar source data sets. The memorandum also includes recommendation for potential inclusion in future releases of AEDT. This memorandum is the final deliver...

  15. Anodic Concentration Polarization in SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williford, Rick E.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Maupin, Gary D.; Simner, Steve P.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Wachsman, ED, et al

    2003-08-01

    Concentration polarization is important because it determines the maximum power output of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) at high fuel utilization. Anodic concentration polarization occurs when the demand for reactants exceeds the capacity of the porous ceramic anode to supply them by gas diffusion mechanisms. High tortuosities (bulk diffusion resistances) are often assumed to explain this behavior. However, recent experiments show that anodic concentration polarization originates in the immediate vicinity of the reactive triple phase boundary (TPB) sites near the anode/electrolyte interface. A model is proposed to describe how concentration polarization is controlled by two localized phenomena: competitive adsorption of reactants in areas adjacent to the reactive TPB sites, followed by relatively slow surface diffusion to the reactive sites. Results suggest that future SOFC design improvements should focus on optimization of the reactive area, adsorption, and surface diffusion at the anode/electrolyte interface.

  16. The definition of cross polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Arthur

    1973-01-01

    There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice....

  17. Dynamic elections and ideological polarization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nunnari, S.; Zápal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2017), s. 505-534 ISSN 1047-1987 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : elections * political polarization Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  18. Dynamic elections and ideological polarization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nunnari, S.; Zápal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2017), s. 505-534 ISSN 1047-1987 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : elections * political polarization Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  19. Polarization at LEP. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, G.; Altarelli, G.; Blondel, A.; Coignet, G.; Keil, E.; Plane, D.E.; Treille, D.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains a collection of papers covering the most important part of studies carried out by five study groups in view of a programme of experiments with polarized beams at LEP, the Large Electron-Positron collider under construction at CERN. The emphasis is on precision measurements at the Z peak. Such measurements are shown to be of considerable theoretical interest as well as very clean from the point of view of theoretical and experimental uncertainties. The measurement of the beam polarization can certainly be performed with sufficient accuracy, thanks to the availability of both e + and e - beam polarization. The normalization of the data taken with different beam helicities poses certain constraints that are described. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the possibility of providing longitudinally polarized beams in the LEP machine: The design of new wigglers and spin rotators, the study of correction procedures and results of numerical simulations are presented. (orig.)

  20. Mechanical writing of ferroelectric polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H; Bark, C-W; Esque de los Ojos, D; Alcala, J; Eom, C B; Catalan, G; Gruverman, A

    2012-04-06

    Ferroelectric materials are characterized by a permanent electric dipole that can be reversed through the application of an external voltage, but a strong intrinsic coupling between polarization and deformation also causes all ferroelectrics to be piezoelectric, leading to applications in sensors and high-displacement actuators. A less explored property is flexoelectricity, the coupling between polarization and a strain gradient. We demonstrate that the stress gradient generated by the tip of an atomic force microscope can mechanically switch the polarization in the nanoscale volume of a ferroelectric film. Pure mechanical force can therefore be used as a dynamic tool for polarization control and may enable applications in which memory bits are written mechanically and read electrically.

  1. Mechanical Writing of Ferroelectric Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H.; Bark, C.-W.; Esque de los Ojos, D.; Alcala, J.; Eom, C. B.; Catalan, G.; Gruverman, A.

    2012-04-01

    Ferroelectric materials are characterized by a permanent electric dipole that can be reversed through the application of an external voltage, but a strong intrinsic coupling between polarization and deformation also causes all ferroelectrics to be piezoelectric, leading to applications in sensors and high-displacement actuators. A less explored property is flexoelectricity, the coupling between polarization and a strain gradient. We demonstrate that the stress gradient generated by the tip of an atomic force microscope can mechanically switch the polarization in the nanoscale volume of a ferroelectric film. Pure mechanical force can therefore be used as a dynamic tool for polarization control and may enable applications in which memory bits are written mechanically and read electrically.

  2. Modeling optical and UV polarization of AGNs. IV. Polarization timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Lobos, P. A.; Goosmann, R. W.; Marin, F.; Savić, D.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Optical observations cannot resolve the structure of active galactic nuclei (AGN), and a unified model for AGN was inferred mostly from indirect methods, such as spectroscopy and variability studies. Optical reverberation mapping allowed us to constrain the spatial dimension of the broad emission line region and thereby to measure the mass of supermassive black holes. Recently, reverberation was also applied to the polarized signal emerging from different AGN components. In principle, this should allow us to measure the spatial dimensions of the sub-parsec reprocessing media. Aim. We conduct numerical modeling of polarization reverberation and provide theoretical predictions for the polarization time lag induced by different AGN components. The model parameters are adjusted to the observational appearance of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. Methods: We modeled scattering-induced polarization and tested different geometries for the circumnuclear dust component. Our tests included the effects of clumpiness and different dust prescriptions. To further extend the model, we also explored the effects of additional ionized winds stretched along the polar direction, and of an equatorial scattering ring that is responsible for the polarization angle observed in pole-on AGN. The simulations were run using a time-dependent version of the STOKES code. Results: Our modeling confirms the previously found polarization characteristics as a function of the observer`s viewing angle. When the dust adopts a flared-disk geometry, the lags reveal a clear difference between type 1 and type 2 AGN. This distinction is less clear for a torus geometry where the time lag is more sensitive to the geometry and optical depth of the inner surface layers of the funnel. The presence of a scattering equatorial ring and ionized outflows increased the recorded polarization time lags, and the polar outflows smooths out dependence on viewing angle, especially for the higher optical depth of the

  3. Circadian profile of QT interval and QT interval variability in 172 healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Wiegand, Uwe K H; Braasch, Wiebke

    2003-01-01

    The limited prognostic value of QT dispersion has been demonstrated in recent studies. However, longitudinal data on physiological variations of QT interval and the influence of aging and sex are few. This analysis included 172 healthy subjects (89 women, 83 men; mean age 38.7 +/- 15 years). Beat......-to-beat QT interval duration (QT, QTapex [QTa], Tend [Te]), variability (QTSD, QTaSD), and the mean R-R interval were determined from 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms after exclusion of artifacts and premature beats. All volunteers were fully active, awoke at approximately 7:00 AM, and had 6-8 hours...... lower at day- and nighttime. Aging was associated with an increase of QT interval mainly at daytime and a significant shift of the T wave apex towards the end of the T wave. The circadian profile of ventricular repolarization is strongly related to the mean R-R interval, however, there are significant...

  4. Solid Polarized Targets and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, D. G.

    2008-01-01

    Examples are given of dynamically polarized targets in use today and how the subsystems have changed to meet the needs of todays experiments. Particular emphasis is placed on target materials such as ammonia and lithium deuteride. Recent polarization studies of irradiated materials such as butanol, deuterated butanol, polyethylene, and deuterated polyethylene are presented. The operation of two non-DNP target systems as well as applications of traditional DNP targets are briefly discussed

  5. Artificial anisotropy and polarizing filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, François; Escoubas, Ludovic; Lazaridès, Basile

    2002-06-01

    The calculated spectral transmittance of a multilayer laser mirror is used to determine the effective index of the single layer equivalent to the multilayer stack. We measure the artificial anisotropy of photoresist thin films whose structure is a one-dimensional, subwavelength grating obtained from interference fringes. The limitation of the theory of the first-order effective index homogenization is discussed. We designed normal-incidence, polarizing coating and a polarization rotator by embedding anisotropic films in simple multilayer structures.

  6. Polarization bremsstrahlung in α decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Zon, B. A.; Kretinin, I. Yu.

    2007-01-01

    A mechanism of formation of electromagnetic radiation that accompanies α decay and is associated with the emission of photons by electrons of atomic shells due to the scattering of α particles by these atoms (polarization bremsstrahlung) is proposed. It is shown that, when the photon energy is no higher than the energy of K electrons of an atom, polarization bremsstrahlung makes a significant contribution to the bremsstrahlung in α decay

  7. Polarization of Coronal Forbidden Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao; Qu, Zhongquan [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China); Landi Degl’Innocenti, Egidio, E-mail: sayahoro@ynao.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2017-03-20

    Since the magnetic field is responsible for most manifestations of solar activity, one of the most challenging problems in solar physics is the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields, particularly in the outer atmosphere. To this end, it is important to develop rigorous diagnostic tools to interpret polarimetric observations in suitable spectral lines. This paper is devoted to analyzing the diagnostic content of linear polarization imaging observations in coronal forbidden lines. Although this technique is restricted to off-limb observations, it represents a significant tool to diagnose the magnetic field structure in the solar corona, where the magnetic field is intrinsically weak and still poorly known. We adopt the quantum theory of polarized line formation developed in the framework of the density matrix formalism, and synthesize images of the emergent linear polarization signal in coronal forbidden lines using potential-field source-surface magnetic field models. The influence of electronic collisions, active regions, and Thomson scattering on the linear polarization of coronal forbidden lines is also examined. It is found that active regions and Thomson scattering are capable of conspicuously influencing the orientation of the linear polarization. These effects have to be carefully taken into account to increase the accuracy of the field diagnostics. We also found that linear polarization observation in suitable lines can give valuable information on the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona.

  8. Polarization in free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadichev, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Polarization of electromagnetic radiation is required very often in numerous scientific and industrial applications: studying of crystals, molecules and intermolecular interaction high-temperature superconductivity, semiconductors and their transitions, polymers and liquid crystals. Using polarized radiation allows to obtain important data (otherwise inaccessible) in astrophysics, meteorology and oceanology. It is promising in chemistry and biology for selective influence on definite parts of molecules in chain synthesis reactions, precise control of various processes at cell and subcell levels, genetic engineering etc. Though polarization methods are well elaborated in optics, they can fail in far-infrared, vacuum-ultraviolet and X-ray regions because of lack of suitable non-absorbing materials and damaging of optical elements at high specific power levels. Therefore, it is of some interest to analyse polarization of untreated FEL radiation obtained with various types of undulators, with and without axial magnetic field. The polarization is studied using solutions for electron orbits in various cases: plane or helical undulator with or without axial magnetic field, two plane undulators, a combination of right- and left-handed helical undulators with equal periods, but different field amplitudes. Some examples of how a desired polarization (elliptical circular or linear) can be obtained or changed quickly, which is necessary in many experiments, are given.

  9. Arabidopsis AIP1-2 restricted by WER-mediated patterning modulates planar polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Christian S; Claes, Andrea R; Nzayisenga, Jean-Claude; Pietra, Stefano; Stanislas, Thomas; Hüser, Anke; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Grebe, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The coordination of cell polarity within the plane of the tissue layer (planar polarity) is crucial for the development of diverse multicellular organisms. Small Rac/Rho-family GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton contribute to planar polarity formation at sites of polarity establishment in animals and plants. Yet, upstream pathways coordinating planar polarity differ strikingly between kingdoms. In the root of Arabidopsis thaliana, a concentration gradient of the phytohormone auxin coordinates polar recruitment of Rho-of-plant (ROP) to sites of polar epidermal hair initiation. However, little is known about cytoskeletal components and interactions that contribute to this planar polarity or about their relation to the patterning machinery. Here, we show that ACTIN7 (ACT7) represents a main actin isoform required for planar polarity of root hair positioning, interacting with the negative modulator ACTIN-INTERACTING PROTEIN1-2 (AIP1-2). ACT7, AIP1-2 and their genetic interaction are required for coordinated planar polarity of ROP downstream of ethylene signalling. Strikingly, AIP1-2 displays hair cell file-enriched expression, restricted by WEREWOLF (WER)-dependent patterning and modified by ethylene and auxin action. Hence, our findings reveal AIP1-2, expressed under control of the WER-dependent patterning machinery and the ethylene signalling pathway, as a modulator of actin-mediated planar polarity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Design of a TW-SLIM Module for Dual Polarity Confinement, Transport, and Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Webb, Ian K.; Prabhakaran, Aneesh; Attah, Isaac K.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-07-01

    Here we describe instrumental approaches for performing dual polarity ion confinement, transport, ion mobility separations, and reactions in structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM). Previous means of ion confinement in SLIM, based upon rf-generated pseudopotentials and DC fields for lateral confinement, cannot trap ions of opposite polarity simultaneously. Here we explore alternative approaches to provide simultaneous lateral confinement of both ion polarities. Traveling wave ion mobility (IM) separations experienced in such SLIM cause ions of both polarities to migrate in the same directions and exhibit similar separations. The ion motion (and relative motion of the two polarities) under both surfing and IM separation conditions are discussed. In surfing conditions the two polarities are transported losslessly and non-reactively in their respective potential minima (higher absolute voltage regions confine negative polarities, and lower absolute potential regions are populated by positive polarities). In separation mode, where ions roll over an overtaking traveling wave, the two polarities can interact during the rollovers. Strategies to minimize overlap of the two ion populations to prevent reactive losses during separations are presented. A theoretical treatment of the time scales over which two populations (injected into a DC field-free region of the dual polarity SLIM device) interact is considered, and SLIM designs for allowing ion/ion interactions and other manipulations with dual polarities at 4 Torr are presented.

  11. Differential response to circularly polarized light by the jewel scarab beetle Chrysina gloriosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Parrish; Cummings, Molly

    2010-05-01

    Circularly polarized light is rare in the terrestrial environment, and cuticular reflections from scarab beetles are one of the few natural sources. Chrysina gloriosa LeConte 1854, a scarab beetle found in montane juniper forests of the extreme southwestern United States and northern Mexico, are camouflaged in juniper foliage; however, when viewed with right circularly polarizing filters, the beetles exhibit a stark black contrast. Given the polarization-specific changes in the appearance of C. gloriosa, we hypothesized that C. gloriosa can detect circularly polarized light. We tested for phototactic response and differential flight orientation of C. gloriosa toward different light stimuli. Chrysina gloriosa exhibited (a) positive phototaxis, (b) differential flight orientation between linear and circularly polarized light stimuli of equal intensities, and (c) discrimination between circularly polarized and unpolarized lights of different intensities consistent with a model of circular polarization sensitivity based on a quarter-wave plate. These results demonstrate that C. gloriosa beetles respond differentially to circularly polarized light. In contrast, Chrysina woodi Horn 1885, a close relative with reduced circularly polarized reflection, exhibited no phototactic discrimination between linear and circularly polarized light. Circularly polarized sensitivity may allow C. gloriosa to perceive and communicate with conspecifics that remain cryptic to predators, reducing indirect costs of communication.

  12. Direct visualization of polarization reversal of organic ferroelectric memory transistor by using charge modulated reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Takako; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2017-11-01

    By using the charge modulated reflectance (CMR) imaging technique, charge distribution in the pentacene organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with a ferroelectric gate insulator [P(VDF-TrFE)] was investigated in terms of polarization reversal of the P(VDF-TrFE) layer. We studied the polarization reversal process and the carrier spreading process in the OFET channel. The I-V measurement showed a hysteresis behavior caused by the spontaneous polarization of P(VDF-TrFE), but the hysteresis I-V curve changes depending on the applied drain bias, possibly due to the gradual shift of the polarization reversal position in the OFET channel. CMR imaging visualized the gradual shift of the polarization reversal position and showed that the electrostatic field formed by the polarization of P(VDF-TrFE) contributes to hole and electron injection into the pentacene layer and the carrier distribution is significantly dependent on the direction of the polarization. The polarization reversal position in the channel region is governed by the electrostatic potential, and it happens where the potential reaches the coercive voltage of P(VDF-TrFE). The transmission line model developed on the basis of the Maxwell-Wagner effect element analysis well accounts for this polarization reversal process in the OFET channel.

  13. Distribution of conductive minerals as associated with uranium minerals at Dendang Arai sector by induced polarization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurdin, M.; Nikijuluw, N.; Subardjo; Sudarto, S.

    2000-01-01

    Based on previous investigation results, a favourable zone of 20-80 meters in wide, 80-240 meters in length and in the direction of East-West to Northwest-Southeast was found. The favourable zone is conductor, associated with sulfide. Induced polarization method has been applied to find vertical and horizontal sulfide distribution. The measurement was conducted in perpendicular to lateral direction of the conductive zone in an interval of 20 meters. Properties measured are apparent resistivity and charge ability. Measurement results indicated the presence of sulfide zone with the position and dip are sub-vertical. Sulfide zones were found on the fault cross-point with the directions being East-West to East South East-West North West by fault is North-South. This anomalies were then represented in 3 (three) dimension tomographic model. (author)

  14. Time-Interval Measurement of Stuttering: Modifying Interjudge Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Roger J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments investigating interval-by-interval interjudge and intrajudge agreement for stuttered and nonstuttered speech intervals found that training of judges could improve reliability levels; judges with relatively high intrajudge agreement also showed relatively higher interjudge agreement; and interval-by-interval interjudge agreement was…

  15. Interval Mathematics Applied to Critical Point Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito A. Stradi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The determination of critical points of mixtures is important for both practical and theoretical reasons in the modeling of phase behavior, especially at high pressure. The equations that describe the behavior of complex mixtures near critical points are highly nonlinear and with multiplicity of solutions to the critical point equations. Interval arithmetic can be used to reliably locate all the critical points of a given mixture. The method also verifies the nonexistence of a critical point if a mixture of a given composition does not have one. This study uses an interval Newton/Generalized Bisection algorithm that provides a mathematical and computational guarantee that all mixture critical points are located. The technique is illustrated using several example problems. These problems involve cubic equation of state models; however, the technique is general purpose and can be applied in connection with other nonlinear problems.

  16. Appendix mass: conservative management without interval appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, J; Lindhard, A; Jensen, H E

    1984-09-01

    Forty-nine patients had conservative treatment of an appendix mass without interval appendectomy. Five were lost to follow-up within 6 months, and 44 patients were followed for between 6 months and 22 years. In nine patients (20 percent) recurrent appendicitis developed, and six (14 percent) suffered chronic pain not thought to be due to appendicitis. Of the recurrences, 66 percent occurred within 2 years of the initial attack. Barium examination of the cecum was successful in diagnosing two of three additional patients in whom a right iliac fossa mass was not due to appendicitis. The morbidity and expense of routine interval appendectomy was thus eliminated in 80 percent of the patients.

  17. Systolic Time Intervals and New Measurement Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolian, Kouhyar

    2016-06-01

    Systolic time intervals have been used to detect and quantify the directional changes of left ventricular function. New methods of recording these cardiac timings, which are less cumbersome, have been recently developed and this has created a renewed interest and novel applications for these cardiac timings. This manuscript reviews these new methods and addresses the potential for the application of these cardiac timings for the diagnosis and prognosis of different cardiac diseases.

  18. Quinsy tonsillectomy or interval tonsillectomy - a prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-one patients with peritonsillar abscesses were randomised to undergo either quinsy tonsillectomy (aT) or interval tonsillectomy (IT), and the two groups were compared. The aT group lost fewer (10,3 v. 17,9) working days and less blood during the operation (158,6 ml v. 205,7 ml); haemostasis was easier and the ...

  19. Understanding Confidence Intervals With Visual Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Navruz, Bilgin; Delen, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we showed how confidence intervals (CIs) are valuable and useful in research studies when they are used in the correct form with correct interpretations. The sixth edition of the APA (2010) Publication Manual strongly recommended reporting CIs in research studies, and it was described as “the best reporting strategy” (p. 34). Misconceptions and correct interpretations of CIs were presented from several textbooks. In addition, limitations of the null hypothesis statistica...

  20. Prolonged QT interval in Rett syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ellaway, C; Sholler, G; Leonard, H; Christodoulou, J

    1999-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology. A prolonged QT interval has been described previously in patients with Rett syndrome. To investigate QT prolongation and the presence of cardiac tachyarrhythmias in Rett syndrome electrocardiography and 24 hour Holter monitoring were performed prospectively in a cohort of 34 girls with Rett syndrome. The corrected QT value was prolonged in nine patients. Compared with a group of healthy controls of a...

  1. Interval type–2 fuzzy decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Runkler, Thomas; Coupland, Simon; John, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full text on Nottingham eprints - http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/36609/ This paper concerns itself with decision making under uncertainty and the consideration of risk. Type-1 fuzzy logic by its (essentially) crisp nature is limited in modelling decision making as there is no uncertainty in the membership function. We are interested in the role that interval type-2 fuzzy sets might play in enhancing decision making. Previous work by Bellman and Zadeh considered decision making to be based...

  2. Direct Probing of Polarization Charge at Nanoscale Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Owoong [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Republic of Korea). School of Advanced Materials and Engineering; Seol, Daehee [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Republic of Korea). School of Advanced Materials and Engineering; Lee, Dongkyu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Han, Hee [Korea Research Inst. of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (South Korea); Lindfors-Vrejoiu, Ionela [Univ. of Cologne (Germany). Physics Inst.; Lee, Woo [Korea Research Inst. of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (South Korea); Jesse, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences; Lee, Ho Nyung [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences; Alexe, Marin [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Kim, Yunseok [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Republic of Korea). School of Advanced Materials and Engineering

    2017-11-14

    Ferroelectric materials possess spontaneous polarization that can be used for multiple applications. Owing to a long-term development of reducing the sizes of devices, the preparation of ferroelectric materials and devices is entering the nanometer-scale regime. In order to evaluate the ferroelectricity, there is a need to investigate the polarization charge at the nanoscale. Nonetheless, it is generally accepted that the detection of polarization charges using a conventional conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) without a top electrode is not feasible because the nanometer-scale radius of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip yields a very low signal-to-noise ratio. But, the detection is unrelated to the radius of an AFM tip and, in fact, a matter of the switched area. In this work, the direct probing of the polarization charge at the nanoscale is demonstrated using the positive-up-negative-down method based on the conventional CAFM approach without additional corrections or circuits to reduce the parasitic capacitance. The polarization charge densities of 73.7 and 119.0 µC cm-2 are successfully probed in ferroelectric nanocapacitors and thin films, respectively. The results we obtained show the feasibility of the evaluation of polarization charge at the nanoscale and provide a new guideline for evaluating the ferroelectricity at the nanoscale.

  3. INTERVALS OPTIMIZATION OF SYSTEMS INFORMATION SECURITY INSPECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bogatyrev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Markov model is suggested for secure information systems, functioning under conditions of destructive impacts, which aftereffects are found by on-line and test control. It is assumed that on-line control, in contrast to the test one, is char- acterized by the limited control completeness, but does not require the stopping of computational process. The aim of re- search is to create models that optimize intervals of test control initialization by the criterion of probability maximization for system stay in the ready state to secure fulfillment of the functional requests and minimization of the dangerous system states in view of the uncertainty and intensity variance of the destructive impacts. Variants of testing intervals optimization are con- sidered depending on the intensity of destructive impacts by the criterion of the maximum system availability for the safe execution of queries. Optimization is carried out with and without adaptation to the actual intensity change of destructive impacts. The efficiency of adaptive change for testing periods is shown depending on the observed activity of destructive impacts. The solution of optimization problem is obtained by built-in tools of computer mathematics Mathcad 15, including symbolic mathematics for solution of systems of algebraic equations. The proposed models and methods of determining the optimal testing intervals can find their application in the system design of computer systems and networks of critical applications, working under conditions of destabilizing actions with the increased requirements for their safety.

  4. High Performance Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondyopadhyay, Probir K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip antenna for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves comprising a cluster array of at least four microstrip radiator elements, each of which is provided with dual orthogonal coplanar feeds in phase quadrature relation achieved by connection to an asymmetric T-junction power divider impedance notched at resonance. The dual fed circularly polarized reference element is positioned with its axis at a 45 deg angle with respect to the unit cell axis. The other three dual fed elements in the unit cell are positioned and fed with a coplanar feed structure with sequential rotation and phasing to enhance the axial ratio and impedance matching performance over a wide bandwidth. The centers of the radiator elements are disposed at the corners of a square with each side of a length d in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 times the free space wavelength of the antenna radiation and the radiator elements reside in a square unit cell area of sides equal to 2d and thereby permit the array to be used as a phased array antenna for electronic scanning and is realizable in a high temperature superconducting thin film material for high efficiency.

  5. Superconducting polarizing magnet for a movable polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchenko, N.G.; Bartenev, V.D.; Blinov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    The superconducting polarizing magnet was constructed for the JINR (Dubna) movable polarized target (MPT) with working volume 200 mm long and 30 mm in diameter. The magnet provides a polarizing magnetic field up to 6 T in the centre with the uniformity of 4.5 x 10 -4 in the working volume of the target. The magnet contains a main solenoidal winding 558 mm long and 206/144 mm in diameters, and compensating and correcting winding placed at its ends. The windings are made of a NbTi wire, impregnated with the epoxy resin and placed in the horizontal cryostat. The diameter of the 'warm' aperture of the magnet cryostat is 96 mm. The design and technology of the magnet winding are described. Results of the magnetic field map measurements, using a NMR-magnetometer are given. A similar magnet constructed at DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay (France), represented a model for the present development. The MPT array is installed in the beam line of polarized neutrons produced by break-up of polarized deuterons extracted from the synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies (LHE), JINR (Dubna)

  6. Commissioning of the Delta Polarizing Undulator at LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    2015-09-25

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) generates linearly polarized, intense, high-brightness x-ray pulses from planar fixed-gap undulators. While the fixed-gap design supports a very successful and tightly controlled alignment concept, it provides only limited taper capability (up to 1% through canted pole and horizontal position adjustability) and lacks polarization control. The latter is of great importance for soft x-ray experiments. A new 3.2-m-long compact undulator (based on the Cornell University Delta design) has been developed and installed in place of the last LCLS undulator segment (U33) in October 2014. This undulator provides full control of the polarization degree and K value. Used on its own, it produces fully polarized radiation in the selected state (linear, circular or elliptical) but at low intensity. To increase the output power by orders of magnitude, the electron beam is micro-bunched by several (~10) of the upstream LCLS undulator segments operated in the linear FEL regime. As unavoidable by-product, this microbunching process produces moderate amounts of horizontally linear polarized radiation which mixes with the radiation produced by the Delta undulator. This unwanted radiation component has been greatly reduced by the reverse taper configuration, as suggested by E. Schneidmiller and M. Yurkov. Full elimination of the linear polarized component was achieved through spatial separation combined with transverse collimation. The paper describes these and other methods tested during commissioning. It also presents results of polarization measurements showing high degrees of circular polarization in the soft x-ray wavelength range (500 eV - 1500 eV).

  7. Long-term changes of polar mesosphere summer echoes at 69°N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latteck, R.; Bremer, J.

    2013-09-01

    Polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) are strong enhancements of received signal power at very high radar frequencies occurring at altitudes between about 80 and 95km at polar latitudes during summer. PMSE are caused by inhomogeneities in the electron density of the radar Bragg scale within the plasma of the cold summer mesopause region in the presence of negatively charged ice particles. Thus, the occurrence of PMSE contains information about mesospheric temperature and water vapor content but also depends on the ionization due to solar electromagnetic radiation and precipitating high energetic particles. Continuous and homogeneous observations of PMSE have been done on the North-Norwegian Island Andøya (69.3°N, 16.0°E) from 1994 until 2008 using the ALOMAR SOUSY and the ALWIN radar at 53.5MHz. In 2009, the Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics in Kühlungsborn, Germany started the installation of the Middle Atmosphere ALOMAR Radar System (MAARSY) at the same location. The observation of mesospheric echoes could be continued in spring 2010 starting with an initial stage of expansion of MAARSY and is carried out with the completed installation of the radar since May 2011. Since both the ALWIN radar and MAARSY are calibrated, the received echo strength of PMSE from 14 years of mesospheric observations (1999-2012) could be converted into absolute signal power. This data series could be extended to the years 1994 until 1997 on the basis of signal-to-noise ratio values derived during the years between 1994 and 2008. The PMSE occurrence rate is positively correlated with the geomagnetic Ap index (significance level χ=85-95%), however, is not correlated with the solar Lyman α radiation. Using different regression analysis methods, the PMSE occurrence rates show a significant positive trend during the time interval from 1994 until 2012 (χ=95-99%).

  8. Molecular Diagnosis of Classical Rabies Virus in Polar Foxes in Greeenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    Classical rabies virus continues to circulate in polar foxes in Greenland. Within the last 5 years more than 30 animals, mainly polar foxes have been tested positive for rabies. In this study, brain samples from this period were assessed for the presence of rabies viral RNA using molecular...

  9. Dietary biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaskan polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, Erich H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in the adipose tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) vary throughout the Arctic. The range in concentrations has not been explained fully by bear age, sex, condition, location, or reproductive status. Dietary pathways expose polar bears to a variety of contaminant profiles and concentrations. Prey range from lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758), one of the least contaminated marine mammals, to highly contaminated upper trophic level ringed seals (Phoca hispida (Schreber, 1775)). We used ??15N and ??13C signatures to estimate the trophic status of 42 polar bears sampled along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast to determine the relationship between organochlorine concentration and trophic level. The ?? 15N values in the cellular portions of blood ranged from 18.2% to 20.7%. We found strong positive relationships between concentrations of the most recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ??15N values in models incorporating age, lipid content, and ??13C value. Specifically these models accounted for 67% and 76% of the variation in PCB153 and oxychlordane concentration in male polar bears and 85% and 93% in females, respectively. These results are strong indicators of variation in diet and biomagnification of organochlorines among polar bears related to their sex, age, and trophic position. ?? 2008 NRC.

  10. Polarization fluctuations in stationary light beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, A.; Setaelae, T.; Kaivola, M.; Friberg, A.T.; Royal Institute of Technology , Department of Microelectronics and Applied Physics; Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    For stationary beams the degree of polarization contains only limited information on time dependent polarization. Two approaches towards assessing a beams polarization dynamics, one based on Poincare and the other on Jones vector formalism, are described leading to the notion of polarization time. Specific examples of partially temporally coherent electromagnetic beams are discussed. (Author)

  11. FIRST POLARIZED PROTON COLLISIONS AT RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSER, T.; AHRENS, L.; ALESSI, J.; BAI, M.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BROWN, K.A.; BUNCE, G.; CAMERON, P.; COURANT, E.D.; DREES, A.; FISCHER, W.; FLILLER, R. III; GLENN, W.; HUANG, H.; LUCCIO, A.U.; MACKAY, W.W.; MAKDISI, Y.; MONTAG, C.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; SATOGATA, T.

    2002-01-01

    We successfully injected polarized protons in both RHIC rings and maintained polarization during acceleration up to 100 GeV per ring using two Siberian snakes in each ring. Each snake consists of four helical superconducting dipoles which rotate the polarization by 180 o about a horizontal axis. This is the first time that polarized protons have been accelerated to 100 GeV

  12. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs ...

  13. Electrode polarization vs. Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars interfacial polarization in dielectric spectra of materials: Characteristic frequencies and scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, M.; Levchenko, V.; Boiteux, G.; Seytre, G.; Kallel, A.; Serghei, A.

    2015-05-01

    The characteristic frequencies of electrode polarization and of interfacial polarization effects in dielectric spectra of ionic liquids and of polymer bi-layers are determined and systematically analyzed, based on dielectric measurements by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy, numerical simulations, and analytical calculations. It is shown that, to a large extent, identical scaling laws can be derived for these two dielectric phenomena taking place at external and internal interfaces. Surprisingly, a fundamentally different behavior concerning the interrelation between the characteristic frequencies is found. This brings direct evidence that different manifestations of the phenomenon of electrical polarization can be discriminated by examining the inter-relation governing their characteristic frequencies, which can be of significant importance in disseminating the nature of different contributions appearing in the dielectric spectra of complex materials. Based on our analysis, we derive a new formula, valid for both electrode polarization and interfacial polarization effects, that allows one to determine the conductivity value from the frequency position of the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars peak. An excellent agreement between experiment and calculations is obtained. The formula can be used, furthermore, to estimate the thickness of the interfacial layers formed due to electrode polarization effects. Values in the order of several nanometers, increasing with decreasing temperature, are reported.

  14. Positioning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  15. Inclusive quasielastic scattering of polarized electrons from polarized nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, J.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics]|[Universidad de Granada (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Moderna]|[Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Lab. for Nuclear Science]|[Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Caballero, J.A. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Estructura de la Materia]|[Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear; Donnelly, T.W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics]|[Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Lab. for Nuclear Science]|[Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Moya de Guerra, E. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Estructura de la Materia

    1996-12-23

    The inclusive quasielastic response functions that appear in the scattering of polarized electrons from polarized nuclei are computed and analyzed for several closed-shell-minus-one nuclei with special attention paid to {sup 39}K. Results are presented using two models for the ejected nucleon - when described by a distorted wave in the continuum shell model or by a plane wave in PWIA with on- and off-shell nucleons. Relativistic effects in kinematics and in the electromagnetic current have been incorporated throughout. Specifically, the recently obtained expansion of the electromagnetic current in powers only of the struck nucleon`s momentum is employed for the on-shell current and the effects of the first-order terms (spin-orbit and convection) are compared with the zeroth-order (charge and magnetization) contributions. The use of polarized inclusive quasielastic electron scattering as a tool for determining near-valence nucleon momentum distributions is discussed. (orig.).

  16. System for measuring of proton polarization in polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkach, A.Ya.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kuz'menko, V.S.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement system of proton polarization in the target, which uses the method of nuclear magnetic resonance is described. To record the signal of NMR-absorption a parallel Q-meter of voltage with analogous subtraction of resonance characteristics of measurement circuit is used. To obtain gradual sensitivity of the system to polarization state in the whole volume of the target the measurement coils is made of tape conductor. The analysis and mathematical modelling of Q-meter are carried out. Corrections for nonlinearity and dispersion are calculated. Key diagrams of the main electron blocks of Q-meter are presented. The system described operates on line with the M6000 computer. Total error of measurement of polarization value of free protons in the target does not exceed 6% [ru

  17. System of measurement of proton polarization in a polarized target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnaukov, I.M.; Chechetenko, V.F.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.

    1985-05-01

    This paper describes a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer with high sensitivity. The signal of NMR absorption is recorded by a Q-meter with a series circuit and a circuit for compensation of the resonance characteristic of the measuring circuit. In order to ensure uniform sensitivity of the system to the state of polarization throughout the volume of the target and to enhance the S/N ration the measuring coil is made of a flat conductor. The polarization-measuring system works on-line with an M-6000 computer. The total error of measurement of the polarization of free protons in a target with allowance for the error due to local depolarization of free protons in a target with allowance for the error due to local depolarization of the working substance under irradiation with an intense photon beam is less than or equal to 6%.

  18. A fan analyzer of neutron beam polarization on the spectrometer REMUR at the pulsed reactor IBR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanov, V.A.; Pusenkov, V.M.; Pleshanov, N.K.

    2004-01-01

    The new spectrometer of polarized neutrons REMUR has been created and put in operation at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (JINR, Dubna). The spectrometer is dedicated to investigations of multilayer structures and surfaces by registering the reflection of polarized neutrons and of the inhomogeneous state of solid matter by measuring the small-angle scattering of polarized neutrons. The spectrometer's working range of neutron wavelengths is 1.5-10 Angstroem. The spectrometer is equipped with a linear position-sensitive detector and a focused supermirror polarization analyzer (the fan-like polarization analyzer) with a solid angle of polarized neutron detection of 2.2·10 -4 rad. This paper describes the design and the principle of operation of the fan analyzer of neutron polarization together with the results of the fan tests on a polarized neutron beam

  19. Performance of the SLC polarized electron source with high polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.; Alley, R.K.; Aoyagi, H.

    1993-04-01

    For the 1992 operating cycle of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC), the polarized electron source (PES) during its maiden run successfully met the pulse intensity and overall efficiency requirements of the SLC. However, the polarization of the bulk GaAs cathode was low (∼27%) and the pulse-to-pulse stability was marginal. We have shown that adequate charge for the SLC can be extracted from a strained layer cathode having P e ∼80% even though the quantum efficiency (QE) is - beam stability. The performance of the PES during the 1993 SLC operating cycle with these and other improvements is discussed

  20. PIPER: Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazear, Justin; Benford, D.; Chuss, D.; Fixsen, D.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G.; Jhabvala, C.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A.; Mirel, P.; Mosely, H.; Staguhn, J.; Wollack, E.; Weston, A.; Vlahacos, K.; Bennett, C.; Eimer, J.; Halpern, M.; Irwin, K.; Dotson, J.; Ade, P.; Tucker, C.

    2011-05-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in search of the expected signature of primordial gravity waves excited during an inflationary epoch shortly after the Big Bang. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, one sensitive to the Q Stokes parameter and the other to U. Sky signals will be detected with 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers distributed in four rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 100 mK. To maximize the sensitivity of the instrument, both telescopes are mounted within a single open bucket dewar and are maintained at 1.5 K throughout flight, with no ambient-temperature windows between the sky and the detectors. To mitigate the effects of systematic errors, the polarized sky signals will be modulated using a variable-delay polarization modulator. PIPER will observe at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to separate the CMB from polarized dust emission within the Galaxy. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce nearly full-sky maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. I will discuss the current status and potential science returns from the PIPER project.

  1. Polar metals by geometric design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. H.; Puggioni, D.; Yuan, Y.; Xie, L.; Zhou, H.; Campbell, N.; Ryan, P. J.; Choi, Y.; Kim, J.-W.; Patzner, J. R.; Ryu, S.; Podkaminer, J. P.; Irwin, J.; Ma, Y.; Fennie, C. J.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Pan, X. Q.; Gopalan, V.; Rondinelli, J. M.; Eom, C. B.

    2016-05-01

    Gauss’s law dictates that the net electric field inside a conductor in electrostatic equilibrium is zero by effective charge screening; free carriers within a metal eliminate internal dipoles that may arise owing to asymmetric charge distributions. Quantum physics supports this view, demonstrating that delocalized electrons make a static macroscopic polarization, an ill-defined quantity in metals—it is exceedingly unusual to find a polar metal that exhibits long-range ordered dipoles owing to cooperative atomic displacements aligned from dipolar interactions as in insulating phases. Here we describe the quantum mechanical design and experimental realization of room-temperature polar metals in thin-film ANiO3 perovskite nickelates using a strategy based on atomic-scale control of inversion-preserving (centric) displacements. We predict with ab initio calculations that cooperative polar A cation displacements are geometrically stabilized with a non-equilibrium amplitude and tilt pattern of the corner-connected NiO6 octahedra—the structural signatures of perovskites—owing to geometric constraints imposed by the underlying substrate. Heteroepitaxial thin-films grown on LaAlO3 (111) substrates fulfil the design principles. We achieve both a conducting polar monoclinic oxide that is inaccessible in compositionally identical films grown on (001) substrates, and observe a hidden, previously unreported, non-equilibrium structure in thin-film geometries. We expect that the geometric stabilization approach will provide novel avenues for realizing new multifunctional materials with unusual coexisting properties.

  2. NMR dispersion measurement of dynamic nuclear polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.; Cox, S.F.J.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of monitoring dynamic nuclear polarization from the NMR dispersive susceptibility is examined. Two prototype instruments are tested in a polarized proton target using organic target material. The more promising employs a tunnel diode oscillator, inside the target cavity, and should provide a precise polarization measurement working at a frequency far enough from the main resonance for the disturbance of the measured polarization to be negligible. Other existing methods for measuring target polarization are briefly reviewed. (author)

  3. Polarization in electron and proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1986-03-01

    One first introduces the concept of polarization for spin 1/2 particle beams and discusses properties of spin kinetics in a stationary magnetic field. Then the acceleration of polarized protons in synchrotrons is studied with emphasis on depolarization when resonances are crossed and on the cures for reducing it. Finally, transverse polarization of electrons in storage rings is discussed as an equilibrium between polarizing and depolarizing effects of synchrotron radiation. Means for obtaining longitudinal polarization are also treated

  4. Electrochemical transformation of trichloroethylene in aqueous solution by electrode polarity reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Ljiljana; Fallahpour, Noushin; Yuan, Songhu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2014-12-15

    Electrode polarity reversal is evaluated for electrochemical transformation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in aqueous solution using flow-through reactors with mixed metal oxide electrodes and Pd catalyst. The study tests the hypothesis that optimizing electrode polarity reversal will generate H2O2 in Pd presence in the system. The effect of polarity reversal frequency, duration of the polarity reversal intervals, current intensity and TCE concentration on TCE removal rate and removal mechanism were evaluated. TCE removal efficiencies under 6 cycles h(-1) were similar in the presence of Pd catalyst (50.3%) and without Pd catalyst (49.8%), indicating that Pd has limited impact on TCE degradation under these conditions. The overall removal efficacies after 60 min treatment under polarity reversal frequencies of 6, 10, 15, 30 and 90 cycles h(-1) were 50.3%, 56.3%, 69.3%, 34.7% and 23.4%, respectively. Increasing the frequency of polarity reversal increases TCE removal as long as sufficient charge is produced during each cycle for the reaction at the electrode. Electrode polarity reversal shifts oxidation/reduction and reduction/oxidation sequences in the system. The optimized polarity reversal frequency (15 cycles h(-1) at 60 mA) enables two reaction zones formation where reduction/oxidation occurs at each electrode surface. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Frequency dependent polarization in blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernsson, C.I.

    1984-10-01

    It is argued that the intrinsic frequency dependent polarization in blazars finds its most straightforward explanations in terms of a single rather than a multicomponent sourcemodel. In order to reproduce the observations, under the assumption that the emission mechanism is optically thin synchrotron radiation, both a well ordered magnetic field and an electron distribution with a sharp break or cuttoff are necessary. Non-uniform pitch angle distribution and/or environments where synchrotron losses are important are both conducive to producing strong frequency dependent polarization. Reasons are put forth as to why such conditions ar expected to occur in blazars. Two specific models are discussed in detail and it is shown that they are both able to produce strong frequency dependent polarization, even when the spectral index changes by a small amount only. (orig.)

  6. Report of the polarization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.; Kondo, K.; Martin, F.; Manning, G.; Miller, D.; Prescott, C.

    1975-01-01

    The use of longitudinal polarization in the reaction e + e - → μ + μ - was studied. Modifications of the magnetic insertion which could reduce synchrotron radiation by two or more were considered. In addition, a specific design is suggested which incorporates the optimized magnetic configuration; it is assumed that no particle detection is necessary near the interaction vertex and the synchrotron radiation is ''dumped'' up - and downstream. Also considered were vacuum chambers in which the synchrotron radiation is absorbed locally so that shielded regions are provided for detectors near the interaction vertex. A scheme for rotating the polarization outside the experiment areas is detailed; in this way the design of experiments is greatly simplified. Local intense ionization of residual gas in the interaction region due to synchrotron radiation at the insertion was studied. Finally, some general considerations in the production and measurement of beam polarization are summarized. 2 figures

  7. Trends and Variability of North Pacific Polar Lows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 6-hourly 1948–2010 NCEP 1 reanalyses have been dynamically downscaled for the region of the North Pacific. With a detecting-and-tracking algorithm, the climatology of North Pacific Polar Lows has been constructed. This derived climatology is consistent with the limited observational evidence in terms of frequency and spatial distribution. The climatology exhibits strong year-to-year variability but weak decadal variability and a small positive trend. A canonical correlation analysis describes the conditioning of the formation of Polar Lows by characteristic seasonal mean flow regimes, which favor, or limit, cold air outbreaks and upper air troughs.

  8. Synthetic aperture radar processing with polar formatted subapertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses the motion of a small real antenna to synthesize a larger aperture, and thereby achieve very fine azimuth resolution. Efficient SAR image formation requires modelling the radar echo and compensating (focusing) the delay and phase for various positions in the target scene. Polar-Format processing is one successful algorithm developed to process large scenes at fine resolutions, but is still limited, especially at resolutions near a wavelength. This paper shows how using tiers of subapertures can overcome the limitations of Polar-Format processing and increase the focused scene size substantially while using only efficient vector multiplies and Fast Fourier Transforms.

  9. Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansel, Justyna K; Thiel, Michael; Rill, Michael S; Decker, Manuel; Bade, Klaus; Saile, Volker; von Freymann, Georg; Linden, Stefan; Wegener, Martin

    2009-09-18

    We investigated propagation of light through a uniaxial photonic metamaterial composed of three-dimensional gold helices arranged on a two-dimensional square lattice. These nanostructures are fabricated via an approach based on direct laser writing into a positive-tone photoresist followed by electrochemical deposition of gold. For propagation of light along the helix axis, the structure blocks the circular polarization with the same handedness as the helices, whereas it transmits the other, for a frequency range exceeding one octave. The structure is scalable to other frequency ranges and can be used as a compact broadband circular polarizer.

  10. Uses of laser optical pumping to produce polarized ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Laser optical pumping can be used to produce polarized alkali atom beams or polarized alkali vapor targets. Polarized alkali atom beams can be converted into polarized alkali ion beams, and polarized alkali vapor targets can be used to produce polarized H - or 3 He - ion beams. In this paper the authors discuss how the polarized alkali atom beams and polarized alkali vapor targets are used to produce polarized ion beams with emphasis on the production of polarized negative ion beams

  11. Polarization-Dependent Multi-Functional Metamaterial as Polarization Filter, Transparent Wall and Circular Polarizer using Ring-Cross Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a polarization-dependent multi-functional metamaterial using ring-cross resonator. Based on the analysis of surface current distributions induced by different polarized incidence, we demonstrate that the proposed metamaterial serves as a polarization filter, a transparent wall and a circular polarizer under different polarization normal incidence. Additionally, parameter analyses on the control of resonance are discussed to complementally explain the physical origin. Simulated results show that the proposed metamaterial functions as a polarization filter eliminating the x-polarization wave at 10.1 GHz and y-polarization wave at 14.3 GHz, a transparent wall transmitting both x-polarized and y-polarized incident waves at 12.6 GHz, and a broadband circular polarizer converting the +45° polarized (-45° polarized incident wave to the left (right handed circularly polarized wave from 10.8 to 12.8 GHz, respectively. Measured results agree well with the simulation and validate the performance of the proposed multifunctional metamaterial.

  12. Multiple Interference Cancellation Performance for GPS Receivers with Dual-Polarized Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeness G. Amin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the interference cancellation performance in global positioning system (GPS receivers equipped with dual-polarized antenna arrays. In dense jamming environment, different types of interferers can be mitigated by the dual-polarized antennas, either acting individually or in conjunction with other receiver antennas. We apply minimum variance distorntionless response (MVDR method to a uniform circular dual-polarized antenna array. The MVDR beamformer is constructed for each satellite. Analysis of the eigenstructures of the covariance matrix and the corresponding weight vector polarization characteristics are provided. Depending on the number of jammers and jammer polarizations, the array chooses to expend its degrees of freedom to counter the jammer polarization or/and use phase coherence to form jammer spatial nulls. Results of interference cancellations demonstrate that applying multiple MVDR beamformers, each for one satellite, has a superior cancellation performance compared to using only one MVDR beamformer for all satellites in the field of view.

  13. Production and polarization of the Λc+ and the charm of the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, J. dos; Magnin, J.; Simao, F.R.A.; Herrera, G.

    1997-02-01

    We propose a two component model involving the parton fusion mechanism and recombination of the ud valence diquark with a sea c-quark of the incident proton to describe Λ c + inclusive production in pp collisions. We also study the polarization of the produced Λ c + in the framework of the Thomas Precession Model for polarization. We show that a measurement of the Λ c polarization is a sensitive test of its production mechanism. In particular the intrinsic charm model predicts a positive polarization for the Λ c within the framework of the Thomas Precession Model, while according to the model presented here the Λ c polarization should be negative. The measurement of the Λ c polarization provides a close examination of intrinsic charm Fock states in the proton and give interesting information about the hadroproduction of charm. (author)

  14. Duration of Polar Activity Cycles and Their Relation to Sunspot Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, V. I.; Tlatov, A. G.; Sivaraman, K. R.

    2003-05-01

    We have defined the duration of polar magnetic activity as the time interval between two successive polar reversals. The epochs of the polarity reversals of the magnetic field at the poles of the Sun have been determined (1) by the time of the final disappearance of the polar crown filaments and (2) by the time between the two neighbouring reversals of the magnetic dipole configuration (l=1) from the Hα synoptic charts covering the period 1870-2001. It is shown that the reversals for the magnetic dipole configuration (l=1) occur on an average 3.3+/-0.5 years after the sunspot minimum according to the Hα synoptic charts (Table I) and the Stanford magnetograms (Table III). If we set the time of the final disappearance of the polar crown filaments (determined from the latitude migration of filaments) as the criterion for deciding the epoch of the polarity reversal of the polar fields, then the reversal occurs on an average 5.8+/-0.6 years from sunspot minimum (last column of Table I). We consider this as the most reliable diagnostic for fixing the epoch of reversals, as the final disappearance of the polar crown filaments can be observed without ambiguity. We show that shorter the duration of the polar activity cycle (i.e., the shorter the duration between two neighbouring reversals), the more intense is the next sunspot cycle. We also notice that the duration of polar activity is always more in even solar cycles than in odd cycles whereas the maximum Wolf numbers W\\max is always higher for odd solar cycles than for even cycles. Furthermore, we assume there is a secular change in the duration of the polar cycle. It has decreased by ~1.2 times during the last 120 years.

  15. The HB-2D Polarized Neutron Development Beamline at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Lowell; Hamilton, WA; Zhao, JK; Robertson, JL

    2016-09-01

    The Polarized Neutron Development beamline, recently commissioned at the HB-2D position on the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, provides a tool for development and testing of polarizers, polarized neutron devices, and prototyping of polarized neutron techniques. With available monochromators including pyrolytic graphite and polarizing enriched Fe-57 (Si), the instrument has operated at 4.25 and 2.6 Å wavelengths, using crystal, supermirror, or He-3 polarizers and analyzers in various configurations. The Neutron Optics and Development Team has used the beamline for testing of He-3 polarizers for use at other HFIR and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) instruments, as well as a variety of flipper devices. Recently, we have acquired new supermirror polarizers which have improved the instrument performance. The team and collaborators also have continuing demonstration experiments of spin-echo focusing techniques, and plans to conduct polarized diffraction measurements. The beamline is also used to support a growing use of polarization techniques at present and future instruments at SNS and HFIR.

  16. Optimal ABC inventory classification using interval programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Jafar; Salimi, Negin

    2015-08-01

    Inventory classification is one of the most important activities in inventory management, whereby inventories are classified into three or more classes. Several inventory classifications have been proposed in the literature, almost all of which have two main shortcomings in common. That is, the previous methods mainly rely on an expert opinion to derive the importance of the classification criteria which results in subjective classification, and they need precise item parameters before implementing the classification. While the problem has been predominantly considered as a multi-criteria, we examine the problem from a different perspective, proposing a novel optimisation model for ABC inventory classification in the form of an interval programming problem. The proposed interval programming model has two important features compared to the existing methods: it provides optimal results instead of an expert-based classification and it does not require precise values of item parameters, which are not almost always available before classification. Finally, by illustrating the proposed classification model in the form of numerical example, conclusion and suggestions for future works are presented.

  17. una experiencia de intervención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Villarreal Montoya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo resume la experiencia de intervención con una familia de la escuela de Villa Esperanza de Pavas. Se trata de un matrimonio con dificultades para disciplinar a sus tres hijos varones de ocho, seis, y cuatro años. En primer lugar, se exponen los principios teóricos y metodológicos, para luego mostrar la aplicación de ellos en el proceso vivido por la familia. Se aplica el modelo de intervención estructural, que busca que la misma familia logre realizar, paso a paso, los cambios requeridos en la dinámica y estructura familiar. En la situación específica de esta familia, se observa el fortalecimiento de la pareja como tal y como madre y padre en la medida que van logrando asumir la autoridad en forma compartida para disciplinar a los hijos. Al compartir esta experiencia, la autora pretende estimular a profesionales en Orientación a asumir el reto de considerar a las familias de la comunidad estudiantil, de las instituciones educativas donde laboran, como parte importante en el quehacer orientador.

  18. Polarized electroluminescence from silicon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagraev, Nikolay; Danilovsky, Eduard; Gets, Dmitry; Klyachkin, Leonid; Kudryavtsev, Andrey; Kuzmin, Roman; Malyarenko, Anna [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mashkov, Vladimir [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    We present the first findings of the circularly polarized electroluminescence (CPEL) from silicon nanostructures which are the p-type ultra-narrow silicon quantum well (Si-QW) confined by {delta}-barriers heavily doped with boron. The CPEL dependences on the forward current and lateral electric field show the circularly polarized light emission which appears to be caused by the exciton recombination through the negative-U dipole boron centers at the Si-QW-{delta}-barriers interface with the assistance of phosphorus donors. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. All-fiber polarization switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knape, Harald; Margulis, Walter

    2007-03-01

    We report an all-fiber polarization switch made out of silica-based microstructured fiber suitable for Q-switching all-fiber lasers. Nanosecond high-voltage pulses are used to heat and expand an internal electrode to cause λ/2-polarization rotation in less than 10 ns for 1.5 μm light. The 10 cm long component has an experimentally measured optical insertion loss of 0.2 dB and a 0-10 kHz repetition frequency capacity and has been durability tested for more than 109 pulses.

  20. The sensitivity of income polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar

    2009-01-01

    This study looks at polarization and its components' sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show...... that polarization has increased over time, regardless of the applied measure, when the last part of the period is compared to the first part of the period; primary causes being increased inequality (alienation) and faster income growth among high incomes relative to those in the middle of the distribution...

  1. Graphics of polar figure; Graficado de figura polar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R

    1991-11-15

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  2. Confidence intervals for directly standardized rates using mid-p gamma intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Michael P; Kim, Sungwook

    2017-03-01

    Directly standardized rates continue to be an integral tool for presenting rates for diseases that are highly dependent on age, such as cancer. Statistically, these rates are modeled as a weighted sum of Poisson random variables. This is a difficult statistical problem, because there are k observed Poisson variables and k unknown means. The gamma confidence interval has been shown through simulations to have at least nominal coverage in all simulated scenarios, but it can be overly conservative. Previous modifications to that method have closer to nominal coverage on average, but they do not achieve the nominal coverage bound in all situations. Further, those modifications are not central intervals, and the upper coverage error rate can be substantially more than half the nominal error. Here we apply a mid-p modification to the gamma confidence interval. Typical mid-p methods forsake guaranteed coverage to get coverage that is sometimes higher and sometimes lower than the nominal coverage rate, depending on the values of the parameters. The mid-p gamma interval does not have guaranteed coverage in all situations; however, in the (not rare) situations where the gamma method is overly conservative, the mid-p gamma interval often has at least nominal coverage. The mid-p gamma interval is especially appropriate when one wants a central interval, since simulations show that in many situations both the upper and lower coverage error rates are on average less than or equal to half the nominal error rate. © Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Polarized View of Supercooled Liquid Water Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Wasilewski, Andrzej P.; McGill, Matthew J.; Yorks, John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Platnick, Steven E.; Arnold, G. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Supercooled liquid water (SLW) clouds, where liquid droplets exist at temperatures below 0 C present a well known aviation hazard through aircraft icing, in which SLW accretes on the airframe. SLW clouds are common over the Southern Ocean, and climate-induced changes in their occurrence is thought to constitute a strong cloud feedback on global climate. The two recent NASA field campaigns POlarimeter Definition EXperiment (PODEX, based in Palmdale, California, January-February 2013) and Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS, based in Houston, Texas in August- September 2013) provided a unique opportunity to observe SLW clouds from the high-altitude airborne platform of NASA's ER-2 aircraft. We present an analysis of measurements made by the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) during these experiments accompanied by correlative retrievals from other sensors. The RSP measures both polarized and total reflectance in 9 spectral channels with wavelengths ranging from 410 to 2250 nm. It is a scanning sensor taking samples at 0.8deg intervals within 60deg from nadir in both forward and backward directions. This unique angular resolution allows for characterization of liquid water droplet size using the rainbow structure observed in the polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg. Simple parametric fitting algorithms applied to the polarized reflectance provide retrievals of the droplet effective radius and variance assuming a prescribed size distribution shape (gamma distribution). In addition to this, we use a non-parametric method, Rainbow Fourier Transform (RFT),which allows retrieval of the droplet size distribution without assuming a size distribution shape. We present an overview of the RSP campaign datasets available from the NASA GISS website, as well as two detailed examples of the retrievals. In these case studies we focus on cloud fields with spatial features

  4. An unsupervised learning method to identify reference intervals from a clinical database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Sarah; Schroeder, Lee Frederick; Shah, Nigam

    2016-02-01

    Reference intervals are critical for the interpretation of laboratory results. The development of reference intervals using traditional methods is time consuming and costly. An alternative approach, known as an a posteriori method, requires an expert to enumerate diagnoses and procedures that can affect the measurement of interest. We develop a method, LIMIT, to use laboratory test results from a clinical database to identify ICD9 codes that are associated with extreme laboratory results, thus automating the a posteriori method. LIMIT was developed using sodium serum levels, and validated using potassium serum levels, both tests for which harmonized reference intervals already exist. To test LIMIT, reference intervals for total hemoglobin in whole blood were learned, and were compared with the hemoglobin reference intervals found using an existing a posteriori approach. In addition, prescription of iron supplements were used to identify individuals whose hemoglobin levels were low enough for a clinician to choose to take action. This prescription data indicating clinical action was then used to estimate the validity of the hemoglobin reference interval sets. Results show that LIMIT produces usable reference intervals for sodium, potassium and hemoglobin laboratory tests. The hemoglobin intervals produced using the data driven approaches consistently had higher positive predictive value and specificity in predicting an iron supplement prescription than the existing intervals. LIMIT represents a fast and inexpensive solution for calculating reference intervals, and shows that it is possible to use laboratory results and coded diagnoses to learn laboratory test reference intervals from clinical data warehouses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Right Time, Right Place : Probing the Functions of Organelle Positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergeijk, Petra; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Kapitein, Lukas C

    2016-01-01

    The proper spatial arrangement of organelles underlies many cellular processes including signaling, polarization, and growth. Despite the importance of local positioning, the precise connection between subcellular localization and organelle function is often not fully understood. To address this,

  6. Substorms and polar cap convection: the 10 January 2004 interplanetary CME case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Andalsvik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion-contraction model of Dungey cell plasma convection has two different convection sources, i.e. reconnections at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail. The spatial-temporal structure of the nightside source is not yet well understood. In this study we shall identify temporal variations in the winter polar cap convection structure during substorm activity under steady interplanetary conditions. Substorm activity (electrojets and particle precipitations is monitored by excellent ground-satellite DMSP F15 conjunctions in the dusk-premidnight sector. We take advantage of the wide latitudinal coverage of the IMAGE chain of ground magnetometers in Svalbard – Scandinavia – Russia for the purpose of monitoring magnetic deflections associated with polar cap convection and substorm electrojets. These are augmented by direct observations of polar cap convection derived from SuperDARN radars and cross-track ion drift observations during traversals of polar cap along the dusk-dawn meridian by spacecraft DMSP F13. The interval we study is characterized by moderate, stable forcing of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system (EKL = 4.0–4.5 mV m−1; cross polar cap potential (CPCP, Φ (Boyle = 115 kV during Earth passage of an interplanetary CME (ICME, choosing an 4-h interval where the magnetic field pointed continuously south-west (Bz By By polarity of the ICME magnetic field, a clear indication of a nightside source.

  7. Induction of transverse polarity by blue light: an all-or-none response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, P; Schafer, E

    1991-10-01

    Phototropic stimulation induces a spatial memory. This was inferred from experiments with maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles involving opposing blue-light pulses, separated by variable time intervals, and rotation on a horizontal clinostat (Nick and Schafer, 1988b, Planta 175, 380-388). In those experiments, individual seedlings either curved towards the first or towards the second pulse, or they remained straight. Bending, if it occurred, seemed to be an all-or-none response. Intermediates, i.e. plants, bending only weakly, were not observed. In the first part of the present study it was attempted to create such intermediates. For this purpose the strength of the first, inducing, and the second, opposing, pulse was varied. The result was complex: (i) Individual seedlings maintained the all-or-none expression of spatial memory. (ii) However, on the level of the whole population, the time intervals at which a given response type dominated depended on the fluence ratio. (iii) Furthermore, the final curvature was determined by the fluence ratio. These results are discussed in terms of a blue-light-induced transverse polarity. This polarity initiates from a labile precursor, which can be reoriented by an opposing stimulation (indicated by the strong bending towards the second pulse). The strong curvatures towards the first pulse over long time intervals reveal that, eventually, the blue-light-induced transverse polarity becomes stabilised and thus immune to the counterpulse. In the second part of the study, the relation between phototropic transduction and transverse polarity was characterised by a phenomenological approach involving the following points: (i) Sensory adaptation for induction of transverse polarity disappears with a time course similar to that for phototropic sensory adaptatation. (ii) The fluence response for induction of transverse polarity is a saturation curve and not bell-shaped like the curve for phototropism (iii) For strong counterpulses and long

  8. A three-dimensional polarization domain retrieval method from electron diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, Robert S.; Koch, Christoph T.

    2015-01-01

    We present an algorithm for retrieving three-dimensional domains of picometer-scale shifts in atomic positions from electron diffraction data, and apply it to simulations of ferroelectric polarization in BaTiO 3 . Our algorithm successfully and correctly retrieves polarization domains in which the Ti atom positions differ by less than 3 pm (0.4% of the unit cell diagonal distance) with 5 and 10 nm depth resolution along the beam direction, and we also retrieve unit cell strain, corresponding to tetragonal-to-cubic unit cell distortions, for 10 nm domains. Experimental applicability is also discussed. - Highlights: • We show a retrieval method for ferroelectric polarization from TEM diffraction data. • Simulated strain and polarization variations along the beam direction are retrieved. • This method can be used for 3D strain and polarization mapping without specimen tilt

  9. Polarization analysis for magnetic field imaging at RADEN in J-PARC/MLF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Takenao; Hiroi, Kosuke; Su, Yuhua; Kai, Tetsuya; Nakatani, Takeshi; Oikawa, Kenichi; Segawa, Mariko; Hayashida, Hirotoshi; Parker, Joseph D.; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Zhang, Shuoyuan; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    2017-06-01

    Polarized neutron imaging is an attractive method for visualizing magnetic fields in a bulk object or in free space. In this technique polarization of neutrons transmitted through a sample is analyzed position by position to produce an image of the polarization distribution. In particular, the combination of three-dimensional spin analysis and the use of a pulsed neutron beam is very effective for the quantitative evaluation of both field strength and direction by means of the analysis of the wavelength dependent polarization vector. Recently a new imaging instrument “RADEN” has been constructed at the beam line of BL22 of the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at J-PARC, which is dedicated to energy-resolved neutron imaging experiments. We have designed a polarization analysis apparatus for magnetic field imaging at the RADEN instrument and have evaluated its performance.

  10. VIIRS/J1 polarization narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluschka, Eugene; McCorkel, Joel; McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; McAndrew, Brendan; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Young, James B.; Fest, Eric; Butler, James; Wang, Tung R.; Monroy, Eslim O.; Turpie, Kevin; Meister, Gerhard; Thome, Kurtis J.

    2015-09-01

    The polarization sensitivity of the Visible/NearIR (VISNIR) bands in the Joint Polar Satellite Sensor 1 (J1) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was measured using a broadband source. While polarization sensitivity for bands M5-M7, I1, and I2 was less than 2.5 %, the maximum polarization sensitivity for bands M1, M2, M3, and M4 was measured to be 6.4 %, 4.4 %, 3.1 %, and 4.3 %, respectively with a polarization characterization uncertainty of less than 0.38%. A detailed polarization model indicated that the large polarization sensitivity observed in the M1 to M4 bands is mainly due to the large polarization sensitivity introduced at the leading and trailing edges of the newly manufactured VISNIR bandpass focal plane filters installed in front of the VISNIR detectors. This was confirmed by polarization measurements of bands M1 and M4 bands using monochromatic light. Discussed are the activities leading up to and including the two polarization tests, some discussion of the polarization model and the model results, the role of the focal plane filters, the polarization testing of the Aft-Optics-Assembly, the testing of the polarizers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard center and at the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) facility and the use of NIST's Traveling Spectral Irradiance and Radiance responsivity Calibrations using Uniform Sources (T-SIRCUS) for polarization testing and associated analyses and results.

  11. VIIRS-J1 Polarization Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluschka, Eugene; McCorkel, Joel; McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; McAndrew, Brendan; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith; Butler, James; Meister, Gerhard; Thome, Kurtis J.

    2015-01-01

    The VIS/NIR bands polarization sensitivity of Joint Polar Satellite Sensor 1 (JPSS1) Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was measured using a broadband source. While polarization sensitivity for bands M5-M7, I1, and I2 was less than 2.5%, the maximum polarization sensitivity for bands M1, M2, M3, and M4 was measured to be 6.4%, 4.4%, 3.1%, and 4.3%, respectively with a polarization characterization uncertainty of less than 0.3%. A detailed polarization model indicated that the large polarization sensitivity observed in the M1 to M4 bands was mainly due to the large polarization sensitivity introduced at the leading and trailing edges of the newly manufactured VISNIR bandpass focal plane filters installed in front of the VISNIR detectors. This was confirmed by polarization measurements of bands M1 and M4 bands using monochromatic light. Discussed are the activities leading up to and including the instruments two polarization tests, some discussion of the polarization model and the model results, the role of the focal plane filters, the polarization testing of the Aft-Optics-Assembly, the testing of the polarizers at Goddard and NIST and the use of NIST's T-SIRCUS for polarization testing and associated analyses and results.

  12. The fallacy of placing confidence in confidence intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Richard D.; Hoekstra, Rink; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Lee, Michael D.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Interval estimates – estimates of parameters that include an allowance for sampling uncertainty – have long been touted as a key component of statistical analyses. There are several kinds of interval estimates, but the most popular are confidence intervals (CIs): intervals that contain the true

  13. The fallacy of placing confidence in confidence intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, R.D.; Hoekstra, R.; Rouder, J.N.; Lee, M.D.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    Interval estimates – estimates of parameters that include an allowance for sampling uncertainty – have long been touted as a key component of statistical analyses. There are several kinds of interval estimates, but the most popular are confidence intervals (CIs): intervals that contain the true

  14. Surface Polarization Effects on Ion-Containing Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Meng; Li, Honghao; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2017-09-01

    Surface polarization in ion-containing heterogeneous dielectric media such as cell media and emulsions is determined by and determines the positions of the ions. We compute the surface polarization self-consistently as the ions move and analyze their effects on the interactions between electro-neutral, ion-containing droplets using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations based on the true energy functional. For water droplets immersed in oil, the interdroplet interaction is attractive, and the surface polarization makes the major contribution. By contrast, for oil droplets in water, the ion-surface induced charge interaction is repulsive and counteracts the attraction between the ions, leading to a small attractive interaction between the droplets. This research improves our understanding of self-assembly in mixed phases such as metal extraction for recovering rare earth elements and nuclear waste as well as water purification.

  15. Modulation of UK lightning by heliospheric magnetic field polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, M. J.; Scott, C. J.; Lockwood, M.; Barnard, L.; Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K.; Watt, C.; Bennett, A. J.

    2014-11-01

    Observational studies have reported solar magnetic modulation of terrestrial lightning on a range of time scales, from days to decades. The proposed mechanism is two-step: lightning rates vary with galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux incident on Earth, either via changes in atmospheric conductivity and/or direct triggering of lightning. GCR flux is, in turn, primarily controlled by the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) intensity. Consequently, global changes in lightning rates are expected. This study instead considers HMF polarity, which doesn't greatly affect total GCR flux. Opposing HMF polarities are, however, associated with a 40-60% difference in observed UK lightning and thunder rates. As HMF polarity skews the terrestrial magnetosphere from its nominal position, this perturbs local ionospheric potential at high latitudes and local exposure to energetic charged particles from the magnetosphere. We speculate as to the mechanism(s) by which this may, in turn, redistribute the global location and/or intensity of thunderstorm activity.

  16. Emerging Translational Variance: Vacuum Polarization Energy of the ϕ6 Kink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Weigel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an efficient method to compute the vacuum polarization energy of static field configurations that do not allow decomposition into symmetric and antisymmetric channels in one space dimension. In particular, we compute the vacuum polarization energy of the kink soliton in the ϕ6 model. We link the dependence of this energy on the position of the center of the soliton to the different masses of the quantum fluctuations at negative and positive spatial infinity.

  17. Measurement of inclusive quasielastic scattering of polarized electrons from polarized 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, C.E.; Beise, E.J.; Belz, J.E.; Carr, R.W.; Filippone, B.W.; Lorenzon, W.B.; McKeown, R.D.; Mueller, B.; O'Neill, T.G.; Dodson, G.; Dow, K.; Farkhondeh, M.; Kowalski, S.; Lee, K.; Makins, N.; Milner, R.; Thompson, A.; Tieger, D.; van den Brand, J.; Young, A.; Yu, X.; Zumbro, J.

    1990-01-01

    We report a measurement of the asymmetry in spin-dependent quasielastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from a polarized 3 He gas target. This measurement represents the first demonstration of a new method for studying electromagnetic nuclear structure: the scattering of polarized electrons from a polarized nuclear target. The measured asymmetry is in good agreement with a Faddeev calculation and supports the picture of spin-dependent quasielastic scattering from polarized 3 He as predominantly scattering from a polarized neutron

  18. Calibration of the Fermilab E-704 polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report lists the final, best estimate of the target polarization P T as a function of time for all of the periods during which scattering data were (or may have been) collected. The information under ''RUN'' refers to Δσ L -runs. The notation ''sfs'' stands for ''start of frozen spin,'' ''efs'' for ''end of frozen spin,'' ''→ la'' for ''go to large-aperture'' target magnet position, and ''nla'' for ''not large-aperture'' position, i.e., the target magnet is in ''polarizing'' position. Where the ''NOTE'' column is blank it means that all standard frozen-spin conditions were in effect: the target temperature was reduced and the magnet was in large-aperture position. The timing marks were developed on the basis of three criteria: (1) the availability of direct NMR data, (2) the inclusion of major Target and Run boundaries, and (3) the arbitrary inclusion of enough ''minor'' Run boundaries to shorten large timing gaps. The sign of the P T -values is given in the NMR convention: (+) corresponds to predominant occupation of the Zeeman ground state (the ''thermal'' NMR-signals are considered positive). Since the target magnet field pointed upstream, (+) corresponds to target spin antiparallel to the beam momentum. The estimated uncertainty on P T is ±6.5% (2σ), and the estimated uncertainty on the ratio of values for the two signs of polarization, P T (+)/PT(-), is ±4.3% (2σ)

  19. Interval-based reconstruction for uncertainty quantification in PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharczak, Florentin; Loquin, Kevin; Buvat, Irène; Strauss, Olivier; Mariano-Goulart, Denis

    2018-02-01

    A new directed interval-based tomographic reconstruction algorithm, called non-additive interval based expectation maximization (NIBEM) is presented. It uses non-additive modeling of the forward operator that provides intervals instead of single-valued projections. The detailed approach is an extension of the maximum likelihood—expectation maximization algorithm based on intervals. The main motivation for this extension is that the resulting intervals have appealing properties for estimating the statistical uncertainty associated with the reconstructed activity values. After reviewing previously published theoretical concepts related to interval-based projectors, this paper describes the NIBEM algorithm and gives examples that highlight the properties and advantages of this interval valued reconstruction.

  20. Hyperon polarization: theory and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnin, J.; Simao, F.R.A.

    1996-01-01

    We give a brief review of the experimental situation concerning hyperon polarization. We mention also the current models developed to understand the experimental results and make some comments on some theoretical aspects contained in the Thomas precession model. (author). 8 ref.

  1. Tau physics with polarized beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoudi, M.

    1995-11-01

    We present the first results on tau physics using polarized beams. These include measurements of the {tau} Michel parameters {xi} and {xi}{delta} and the {tau} neutrino helicity h{sub {nu}}. The measurements were performed using the SLD detector at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC).

  2. Circular polarization observed in bioluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, Hans; Meijer, E.W.; Hummelen, J.C.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.; Schippers, P.H.; Carlson, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    While investigating circular polarization in luminescence, and having found it in chemiluminescence, we have studied bioluminescence because it is such a widespread and dramatic natural phenomenon. We report here that left and right lanterns of live larvae of the fireflies, Photuris lucicrescens and

  3. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  4. Free radicals and polarized targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyatova, E. I.

    2004-06-01

    Many free radicals were added to organic compounds in search of high proton and deuteron polarizations. Few found practical application. A short review is presented, and special attention is given to some stable nitroxyl radicals which have lately been admixed to organic compounds solid at room temperature, in particular to scintillators.

  5. Free radicals and polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunyatova, E.I. E-mail: bunyatel@nusun.jinr.ru

    2004-06-21

    Many free radicals were added to organic compounds in search of high proton and deuteron polarizations. Few found practical application. A short review is presented, and special attention is given to some stable nitroxyl radicals which have lately been admixed to organic compounds solid at room temperature, in particular to scintillators.

  6. History of the polarized beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, E F

    1979-01-01

    In 1973, the first high energy polarized proton beam was developed at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS). It operated very successfully and productively until 1979 when the ZGS was shut down permanently. This report describes the development, characteristics, and operations of this facility.

  7. TREC Dynamic Domain: Polar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    similarity. However, not all teams that submitted web crawls to this dataset applied their jaccard- similarity algorithms . 4.2 Data Format ...analysis. These algorithms were focused then on allowing better answers to the below representative science queries of our Polar data: 1. What...

  8. Bacteriophage in polar inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säwström, Christin; Lisle, John; Anesio, A.M.; Priscu, John C.; Laybourn-Parry, J.

    2008-01-01

    Bacteriophages are found wherever microbial life is present and play a significant role in aquatic ecosystems. They mediate microbial abundance, production, respiration, diversity, genetic transfer, nutrient cycling and particle size distribution. Most studies of bacteriophage ecology have been undertaken at temperate latitudes. Data on bacteriophages in polar inland waters are scant but the indications are that they play an active and dynamic role in these microbially dominated polar ecosystems. This review summarises what is presently known about polar inland bacteriophages, ranging from subglacial Antarctic lakes to glacial ecosystems in the Arctic. The review examines interactions between bacteriophages and their hosts and the abiotic and biotic variables that influence these interactions in polar inland waters. In addition, we consider the proportion of the bacteria in Arctic and Antarctic lake and glacial waters that are lysogenic and visibly infected with viruses. We assess the relevance of bacteriophages in the microbial loop in the extreme environments of Antarctic and Arctic inland waters with an emphasis on carbon cycling.

  9. High current polarized proton sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Polarized proton sources are now being used more frequently on linacs. In pulsed operation up to 10 mA of /rvec H//sup +/ and 0.4 mA of /rvec H//sup /minus// have been produced. The present status of these sources, and developments to reach even higher intensities, are reviewed. 39 refs., 1 tab.

  10. the effect of surface polarity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An implant material when comes in contact with blood fluids (e.g., blood and lymph), adsorb proteins spontaneously on its surface. Notably, blood coagulation is influenced by many factors, including mainly chemical structure and polarity (charge) of the material. The present study describes the methodology to ...

  11. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  12. The SLC polarized electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.

    1990-10-01

    A polarized electron source consisting of a 3-electrode photocathode gun and a flashlamp-pumped dye laser has been designed and built for the SLC and is currently undergoing commissioning. The source is described, and the operating configuration is discussed. The present status of the source and future plans are briefly indicated. 7 refs., 4 figs

  13. Polar heating in Saturn's thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. A. Smith

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A 3-D numerical global circulation model of the Kronian thermosphere has been used to investigate the influence of polar heating. The distributions of temperature and winds resulting from a general heat source in the polar regions are described. We show that both the total energy input and its vertical distribution are important to the resulting thermal structure. We find that the form of the topside heating profile is particularly important in determining exospheric temperatures. We compare our results to exospheric temperatures from Voyager occultation measurements (Smith et al., 1983; Festou and Atreya, 1982 and auroral H3+ temperatures from ground-based spectroscopic observations (e.g. Miller et al., 2000. We find that a polar heat source is consistent with both the Smith et al. determination of T∞~400 K at ~30° N and auroral temperatures. The required heat source is also consistent with recent estimates of the Joule heating rate at Saturn (Cowley et al., 2004. However, our results show that a polar heat source can probably not explain the Festou and Atreya determination of T∞~800 K at ~4° N and the auroral temperatures simultaneously. Keywords. Ionosphere (Planetary ionosphere – Magnetospherica physics (Planetary magnetospheres – Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (Thermospheric dynamics

  14. Generation of Gigawatt Circularly Polarized Attosecond-Pulse Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, K.; Wu, H.-C.

    2017-12-01

    A novel scheme for generating a pair of gigawatt attosecond pulses by coherent Thomson scattering from relativistic electron sheets is proposed. With a circularly polarized relativistic laser pulse, the scattered x-ray signal can have a saddlelike temporal profile, where the lower electromagnetic frequencies are found mostly in the center region of this saddlelike profile. By filtering out the latter, we can obtain two few-attosecond pulses separated by a subfemtosecond interval, which is tunable by controlling the energy of the sheet electrons. Such a pulse pair can be useful for an attosecond pump probe at an unprecedented time resolution and for ultrafast chiral studies in molecules and materials.

  15. Confidence intervals for annual wind power production******

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensoussan Alain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power is an intermittent resource due to wind speed intermittency. However wind speed can be described as a stochastic process with short memory. This allows us to derive a central limit theorem for the annual or pluri-annual wind power production and then get quantiles of the wind power production for one, ten or twenty years future periods. On the one hand, the interquantile spread offers a measurement of the intrinsic uncertainties of wind power production. On the other hand, different quantiles with different periods of time are used by financial institutions to quantify the financial risk of the wind turbine. Our method is then applied to real datasets corresponding to a French wind turbine. Since confidence intervals can be enhanced by taking into account seasonality, we present some tools for change point analysis on wind series.

  16. Supersymmetry and electroweak breaking in the interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diego, David; Gersdorff, Gero von; Quiros, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    Hypermultiplets are considered in the five-dimensional interval where all fields are continuous and the boundary conditions are dynamically obtained from the action principle. The orbifold boundary conditions are obtained as particular cases. We can interpret the Scherk-Schwarz supersymmetry breaking as a misalignment of boundary conditions while a new source of supersymmetry breaking corresponding to a mismatch of different boundary parameters is identified. The latter can be viewed as coming from boundary supersymmetry breaking masses for hyperscalars and the nature of the corresponding supersymmetry breaking parameter is analyzed. For some regions of the parameter space where supersymmetry is broken (either by Scherk-Schwarz boundary conditions or by boundary hyperscalar masses) electroweak symmetry breaking can be triggered at the tree level

  17. Fusing photovoltaic data for improved confidence intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansgar Steland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing and testing photovoltaic modules requires carefully made measurements on important variables such as the power output under standard conditions. When additional data is available, which has been collected using a different measurement system and therefore may be of different accuracy, the question arises how one can combine the information present in both data sets. In some cases one even has prior knowledge about the ordering of the variances of the measurement errors, which is not fully taken into account by commonly known estimators. We discuss several statistical estimators to combine the sample means of independent series of measurements, both under the assumption of heterogeneous variances and ordered variances. The critical issue is then to assess the estimator’s variance and to construct confidence intervals. We propose and discuss the application of a new jackknife variance estimator devised by [1] to such photovoltaic data, in order to assess the variability of common mean estimation under heterogeneous and ordered variances in a reliable and nonparametric way. When serial correlations are present, which usually a ect the marginal variances, it is proposed to construct a thinned data set by downsampling the series in such a way that autocorrelations are removed or dampened. We propose a data adaptive procedure which downsamples a series at irregularly spaced time points in such a way that the autocorrelations are minimized. The procedures are illustrated by applying them to real photovoltaic power output measurements from two different sun light flashers. In addition, focusing on simulations governed by real photovoltaic data, we investigate the accuracy of the jackknife approach and compare it with other approaches. Among those is a variance estimator based on Nair’s formula for Gaussian data and, as a parametric alternative, two Bayesian models. We investigate the statistical accuracy of the resulting confidence

  18. Affective and Enjoyment Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Overweight-to-Obese and Insufficiently Active Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Nic; Kilpatrick, Marcus W; Salomon, Kristen; Jung, Mary E; Little, Jonathan P

    2015-04-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has many known physiological benefits, but research investigating the psychological aspects of this training is limited. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the affective and enjoyment responses to continuous and high-intensity interval exercise sessions. Twenty overweight-to-obese, insufficiently active adults completed four counterbalanced trials: a 20-min trial of heavy continuous exercise and three 24-min HIIT trials that used 30-s, 60-s, and 120-s intervals. Affect declined during all trials (p < .05), but affect at the completion of trials was more positive in the shorter interval trials (p < .05). Enjoyment declined in the 120-s interval and heavy continuous conditions only (p < .05). Postexercise enjoyment was higher in the 60-s trial than in the 120-s trial and heavy continuous condition (p < .05). Findings suggest that pleasure and enjoyment are higher during shorter interval trials than during a longer interval or heavy continuous exercise.

  19. Selection-based Approach to Cooperative Interval Games

    OpenAIRE

    Bok, Jan; Hladík, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative interval games are a generalized model of cooperative games in which the worth of every coalition corresponds to a closed interval representing the possible outcomes of its cooperation. Selections are all possible outcomes of the interval game with no additional uncertainty. We introduce new selection-based classes of interval games and prove their characterization theorems and relations to existing classes based on the interval weakly better operator. We show new results regardin...

  20. Intractable properties of responding under a fixed-interval schedule

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, G. David; Marr, M. Jackson

    1982-01-01

    The behavior engendered by the fixed-interval schedule is characterized by its variability within and across intervals. The present experiment was designed to assess further the magnitude of interval-to-interval dynamics and to explore conditions which might enhance control by response number for subsequent output. Pigeons were exposed to three experimental manipulations after responding had stabilized under a fixed-interval five-minute schedule. First, a discrete five-stimulus counter was ad...

  1. Spin-polarization reversal at the interface between benzene and Fe(100)

    KAUST Repository

    Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2013-01-03

    The spin-polarization at the interface between Fe(100) and a benzene is investigated theoretically using density functional theory for two positions of the organic molecule: planar and perpendicular with respect to the substrate. The electronic and magnetic properties as well as the spin-polarization close to the Fermi level strongly depend on the benzene position on the iron surface. An inversion of the spin-polarization is induced by p-d hybridization and charge transfer from the iron to the carbon sites in both configurations.

  2. Local field in LiD polarized target material

    CERN Document Server

    Kisselev, Yu V; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Görtz, S; Horikawa, N; Koivuniemi, J H; Kondo, K; Magnon, A; Meyer, Werner T; Reicherz, G

    2004-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the first and the second moments of D, **6Li and **7Li (I greater than 1/2) NMR lines in a granulated LiD- target material as a function of nuclear polarizations and the data has been compared with a theory elaborated by Abragam, Roinel and Bouffard for monocrystalline samples. The experiments were carried out in the large COMPASS twin-target at CERN. The static local magnetic field of the polarized nuclei was measured by frequency shift between the NMR-signals in the two oppositely polarized cells and lead to the first moment, whereas the investigation of the second moment was done through Gaussian approximation. The average field magnitude in granulated material was estimated 20% larger than the value given by the calculations for monocrystalline samples of cylindrical shape. The second moment shows a qualitative agreement with the theory but it is slightly larger at the negative than at the positive polarization. In a polarized mode, the moments depend on the saturated microw...

  3. Lattice-polarity-driven epitaxy of hexagonal semiconductor nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ping

    2015-12-22

    Lattice-polarity-driven epitaxy of hexagonal semiconductor nanowires (NWs) is demonstrated on InN NWs. In-polarity InN NWs form typical hexagonal structure with pyramidal growth front, whereas N-polarity InN NWs slowly turn to the shape of hexagonal pyramid and then convert to an inverted pyramid growth, forming diagonal pyramids with flat surfaces and finally coalescence with each other. This contrary growth behavior driven by lattice-polarity is most likely due to the relatively lower growth rate of the (0001 ̅) plane, which results from the fact that the diffusion barriers of In and N adatoms on the (0001) plane (0.18 and 1.0 eV, respectively) are about two-fold larger in magnitude than those on the (0001 ̅) plane (0.07 and 0.52 eV), as calculated by first-principles density functional theory (DFT). The formation of diagonal pyramids for the N-polarity hexagonal NWs affords a novel way to locate quantum dot in the kink position, suggesting a new recipe for the fabrication of dot-based devices.

  4. The voices in the infant context: the polarization in evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analúcia Morais Vieira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has the intention of reflecting on the subtleties of the discourse of the educators, assistants and the children, which happens in the early childhood daily routine, upon the polarization slant. What I call polarization has to do with the dualities of the discourse of the educators and children about their knowings and doings, such as right and wrong, speak and shut up, learn and play, start and end, beautiful and ugly, good and bad, viz, the existence of two poles for the discourse: a positive one and a negative one. In this text we support the idea that, in early childhood education, the educators, assistants and the children should pay more attention to their discourse, so that they could break with the polarization, avoiding undesirable results. Together, they may start to talk about the present moment as something of the now, and not as something that has a dual value. Besides, we believe that it is relevant that since the beginning of the schooldays of the children there be no polarization of the discourse by the adults that accompany them. Keywords: Early Childhood Education, Discourse, Polarization

  5. Kif3a regulates planar polarization of auditory hair cells through both ciliary and non-ciliary mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Conor W.; Lu, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Auditory hair cells represent one of the most prominent examples of epithelial planar polarity. In the auditory sensory epithelium, planar polarity of individual hair cells is defined by their V-shaped hair bundle, the mechanotransduction organelle located on the apical surface. At the tissue level, all hair cells display uniform planar polarity across the epithelium. Although it is known that tissue planar polarity is controlled by non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, the hair cell-intrinsic polarity machinery that establishes the V-shape of the hair bundle is poorly understood. Here, we show that the microtubule motor subunit Kif3a regulates hair cell polarization through both ciliary and non-ciliary mechanisms. Disruption of Kif3a in the inner ear led to absence of the kinocilium, a shortened cochlear duct and flattened hair bundle morphology. Moreover, basal bodies are mispositioned along both the apicobasal and planar polarity axes of mutant hair cells, and hair bundle orientation was uncoupled from the basal body position. We show that a non-ciliary function of Kif3a regulates localized cortical activity of p21-activated kinases (PAK), which in turn controls basal body positioning in hair cells. Our results demonstrate that Kif3a-PAK signaling coordinates planar polarization of the hair bundle and the basal body in hair cells, and establish Kif3a as a key component of the hair cell-intrinsic polarity machinery, which acts in concert with the tissue polarity pathway. PMID:21752934

  6. Reference intervals of echocardiographic measurements in healthy adult dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Czopowicz, Michał; Witkowski, Lucjan; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Frymus, Tadeusz; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Bagnicka, Emilia; Kaba, Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    To determine references intervals for echocardiographic measurements in adult dairy goats. 125 clinically healthy, adult dairy goats aged 2-9 years, belonging to two breeds-Polish Fawn Improved (PFI, n = 64, weight range from 46 to 73, median of 58.5kg) and Polish White Improved (PWI, n = 61, weight range from 48 to 80 kg, median of 67.9kg), closely related to French Alpine and Saanen, respectively. Non-invasive transthoracic echocardiography examination was performed in unsedated goats in a standing position. Two-dimensional, M-mode and pulsed wave Doppler measurements were obtained. A non-parametric method was applied for determination of reference intervals. Measurements for the two breeds were compared using an analysis of covariance to control for their body weight. Repeatability was assessed using a between-day coefficient of variation and a coefficient of repeatability. Following reference intervals were determined: aortic diameter in diastole 2.2-3.3, left atrial diameter in systole 2.5-4.3cm cm, the ratio of the left atrial diameter to the aortic diameter 0.96-1.5, right ventricular internal diameter in diastole 0.4-1.7cm, left ventricular internal diameter in systole and diastole 1.8-3.2 and 3.2-5.6 cm, respectively, inter-ventricular septum thickness in systole and diastole 0.7-1.5 and 0.5-1.1cm, respectively, left ventricular posterior-wall in systole and diastole 0.8-1.6 and 0.5-1.2cm, respectively, E-point to septal separation 0.3-0.8cm, left ventricular fractional shortening 28-54%, left ventricular ejection fraction 55-86%, maximum Left and Right Ventricular Outflow Tract velocity 80-140 cm/s and 70-130 cm/s, respectively Left and Right Ventricular Outflow Tract pressure gradient 2.5-8.9mmHg and 1.9-6.5mmHg, respectively. Most of the differences between the two breeds could be attributed to different body weight. The study provides echocardiographic reference intervals determined on the highest sample of apparently healthy goats so far enrolled.

  7. Magnetostatics of the uniformly polarized torus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; De Graef, Marc; Millev, Yonko

    2009-01-01

    We provide an exhaustive description of the magnetostatics of the uniformly polarized torus and its derivative self-intersecting (spindle) shapes. In the process, two complementary approaches have been implemented, position-space analysis of the Laplace equation with inhomogeneous boundary...... conditions and a Fourier-space analysis, starting from the determination of the shape amplitude of this topologically non-trivial body. The stray field and the demagnetization tensor have been determined as rapidly converging series of toroidal functions. The single independent demagnetization......-tensor eigenvalue has been determined as a function of the unique aspect ratio α of the torus. Throughout the range of values of the ratio, corresponding to a multiply connected torus proper, the axial demagnetization factor Nz remains close to one half. There is no breach of smoothness of Nz(α) at the topological...

  8. Polarized Neutron Reflectometry of Nickel Corrosion Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mary H; Welbourn, Rebecca J L; Zarbakhsh, Ali; Gutfreund, Philipp; Clarke, Stuart M

    2015-06-30

    Polarized neutron reflectometry has been used to investigate the detailed adsorption behavior and corrosion inhibition mechanism of two surfactants on a nickel surface under acidic conditions. Both the corrosion of the nickel surface and the structure of the adsorbed surfactant layer could be monitored in situ by the use of different solvent contrasts. Layer thicknesses and roughnesses were evaluated over a range of pH values, showing distinctly the superior corrosion inhibition of one negatively charged surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) compared to a positively charged example (dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide) due to its stronger binding interaction with the surface. It was found that adequate corrosion inhibition occurs at significantly less than full surface coverage.

  9. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282

  10. the QTc interval — cardiovascular safetyin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern psychiatry is in the fortunate position of having access to a wide range of medications, with differing efficacy and side- effect profiles, available for the treatment of psychotic disorders. Among these are the phenothiazines, butyrophenone and thioxanthene derivates, also known as the typical antipsychotics, and the ...

  11. The polarized platypus polarized neutron reflectometry made possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saerbeck, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The magnetic moment of the neutron, together with it's highly penetrating non destructive manner, make polarized neutron reflectometry an excellent tool to study magnetic phenomena across surfaces and interfaces of thin films. Unlike other magnetometry techniques which ordinarily yield only average magnetization values or, in case of probes with higher spatial resolution (e.g. electron microscopy or scanning tunnelling microscopy), show a high surface sensitivity, PNR together with magnetic x-ray scattering provides the ability to spatially resolve vector magnetization well beneath the surface [1] The ability to obtain vector magnetization profiles across interfaces and surfaces of thin films and multilayers offers the intriguing possibility to study systematically magnetic configurations and magnetic exchange interactions through intervening layers. In this paper we present the performance of the new polarization system installed on the time of flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS at ANSTO's Bragg Institute. The spin state of the neutrons is polarized and analysed by spatial separation of different neutron spin states using polarizing Fe/Si supermirrors before, and after the sample stage. The supermirrors have a large wavelength acceptance bandwidth of 3 A to 12 A. To control the desired spin direction of the incoming and reflected beam from the sample, two sets of RF spin flippers are installed. In the free space between the spin flippers and the sample stage the neutron spin direction is maintained by two sets of magnetic guide field coils. The new sample environment for studies of magnetic samples includes a 1 T electromagnet and a closed cycle refrigerator which gives access to a temperature range from 4K to 3 50 K .

  12. Polarized few-nucleon targets: new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusser, O.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements in producing polarized few-nucleon targets for nuclear and particle physics experiments. The emphasis is on progress with polarized gas targets intended for experiments at electron and proton storage rings. (author) 54 refs., 1 tab

  13. {tau} polarization in SUSY cascade decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S.Y. [Chonbuk Univ., Jeonju (Korea), Dept. of Physics and RIPC]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hagiwara, K. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan); Kim, Y.G. [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea). ARCSEC; Mawatari, K. [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul (Korea). School of Physics; Zerwas, P.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2006-12-15

    {tau} leptons emitted in cascade decays of supersymmetric particles are polarized. The polarization may be exploited to determine spin and mixing properties of the neutralinos and stau particles involved. (orig.)

  14. Summary of the polarized beam working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Dyck, O. van.

    1989-05-01

    The polarized beam working group reviewed the AGS Bookster and TRIUMF KAON Factory facilities, heard an overview of the subject of siberian snakes, discussed internal polarized gas targets, and made recommendations for further study

  15. Topology and robustness in the Drosophila segment polarity network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T Ingolia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A complex hierarchy of genetic interactions converts a single-celled Drosophila melanogaster egg into a multicellular embryo with 14 segments. Previously, von Dassow et al. reported that a mathematical model of the genetic interactions that defined the polarity of segments (the segment polarity network was robust (von Dassow et al. 2000. As quantitative information about the system was unavailable, parameters were sampled randomly. A surprisingly large fraction of these parameter sets allowed the model to maintain and elaborate on the segment polarity pattern. This robustness is due to the positive feedback of gene products on their own expression, which induces individual cells in a model segment to adopt different stable expression states (bistability corresponding to different cell types in the segment polarity pattern. A positive feedback loop will only yield multiple stable states when the parameters that describe it satisfy a particular inequality. By testing which random parameter sets satisfy these inequalities, I show that bistability is necessary to form the segment polarity pattern and serves as a strong predictor of which parameter sets will succeed in forming the pattern. Although the original model was robust to parameter variation, it could not reproduce the observed effects of cell division on the pattern of gene expression. I present a modified version that incorporates recent experimental evidence and does successfully mimic the consequences of cell division. The behavior of this modified model can also be understood in terms of bistability in positive feedback of gene expression. I discuss how this topological property of networks provides robust pattern formation and how large changes in parameters can change the specific pattern produced by a network.

  16. Polarized ionic source of the tandem accelerator in Kyoto University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Masanobu; Kuwamoto, Shuichi; Takahashi, Seiji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics] [and others

    1997-02-01

    A polarized ion source developed under the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics was transferred to the tandem accelerator in Kyoto University at beginning of 1993 to constitute a displacement of incidence into the accelerator. This was an atomic beam type polarized ion source, which is designed to adopt permanent magnets for 6 poles magnet to polarize the electron, to take out atomic nucleus on a shape of positive ion by ECR ionizer after transferring its polarization through transition using radio frequency (RFT), to make it negative ion by charge conversion using alkaline metal vapor, and to put it into the tandem accelerator. Test of the positive ion was finished at the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics, and test in Kyoto University was required after its negative ionization. As the estimated cost was unsufficient and entrance into the ion source facility in the tandem accelerator building was limited in Kyoto University, step of development was slow. Here is reported on present state of the ion source which is now operating stably. (G.K.)

  17. Exploring Science Through Polar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bell, R. E.; Zadoff, L.; Kelsey, R.

    2003-12-01

    Exploring the Poles is a First Year Seminar course taught at Barnard College, Columbia University. First Year Seminars are required of incoming students and are designed to encourage critical analysis in a small class setting with focused discussion. The class links historical polar exploration with current research in order to: introduce non-scientists to the value of environmental science through polar literature; discuss issues related to venturing into the unknown that are of relevance to any discipline: self-reliance, leadership, preparation, decisions under uncertainty; show students the human face of science; change attitudes about science and scientists; use data to engage students in exploring/understanding the environment and help them learn to draw conclusions from data; integrate research and education. These goals are met by bringing analysis of early exploration efforts together with a modern understanding of the polar environment. To date to class has followed the efforts of Nansen in the Fram, Scott and Amundsen in their race to the pole, and Shackleton's Endurance. As students read turn-of-the-century expedition journals, expedition progress is progressively revealed on an interactive map showing the environmental context. To bring the exploration process to life, students are assigned to expedition teams for specific years and the fates of the student "expeditions" are based on their own decisions. For example, in the Arctic, they navigate coastal sea ice and become frozen into the ice north of Siberia, re-creating Nansen's polar drift. Fates of the teams varied tremendously: some safely emerged at Fram Strait in 4 years, while others nearly became hopelessly lost in the Beaufort Gyre. Students thus learn about variability in the current polar environment through first hand experience, enabling them to appreciate the experiences, decisions, and, in some cases, the luck, of polar explorers. Evaluation by the Columbia Center for New Media, Teaching

  18. Polar Cooperative Navigation Algorithm for Multi-Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Considering Communication Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To solve the navigation accuracy problems of multi-Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (multi-UUVs in the polar region, a polar cooperative navigation algorithm for multi-UUVs considering communication delays is proposed in this paper. UUVs are important pieces of equipment in ocean engineering for marine development. For UUVs to complete missions, precise navigation is necessary. It is difficult for UUVs to establish true headings because of the rapid convergence of Earth meridians and the severe polar environment. Based on the polar grid navigation algorithm, UUV navigation in the polar region can be accomplished with the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS in the grid frame. To save costs, a leader-follower type of system is introduced in this paper. The leader UUV helps the follower UUVs to achieve high navigation accuracy. Follower UUVs correct their own states based on the information sent by the leader UUV and the relative position measured by ultra-short baseline (USBL acoustic positioning. The underwater acoustic communication delay is quantized by the model. In this paper, considering underwater acoustic communication delay, the conventional adaptive Kalman filter (AKF is modified to adapt to polar cooperative navigation. The results demonstrate that the polar cooperative navigation algorithm for multi-UUVs that considers communication delays can effectively navigate the sailing of multi-UUVs in the polar region.

  19. Polar Cooperative Navigation Algorithm for Multi-Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Considering Communication Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheping; Wang, Lu; Wang, Tongda; Yang, Zewen; Chen, Tao; Xu, Jian

    2018-03-30

    To solve the navigation accuracy problems of multi-Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (multi-UUVs) in the polar region, a polar cooperative navigation algorithm for multi-UUVs considering communication delays is proposed in this paper. UUVs are important pieces of equipment in ocean engineering for marine development. For UUVs to complete missions, precise navigation is necessary. It is difficult for UUVs to establish true headings because of the rapid convergence of Earth meridians and the severe polar environment. Based on the polar grid navigation algorithm, UUV navigation in the polar region can be accomplished with the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS) in the grid frame. To save costs, a leader-follower type of system is introduced in this paper. The leader UUV helps the follower UUVs to achieve high navigation accuracy. Follower UUVs correct their own states based on the information sent by the leader UUV and the relative position measured by ultra-short baseline (USBL) acoustic positioning. The underwater acoustic communication delay is quantized by the model. In this paper, considering underwater acoustic communication delay, the conventional adaptive Kalman filter (AKF) is modified to adapt to polar cooperative navigation. The results demonstrate that the polar cooperative navigation algorithm for multi-UUVs that considers communication delays can effectively navigate the sailing of multi-UUVs in the polar region.

  20. Fabrication, Polarization of Electrospun Polyvinylidene Fluoride Electret Fibers and Effect on Capturing Nanoscale Solid Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Lolla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF fiber mats with average fiber diameters (≈200 nm, ≈2000 nm were fabricated by controlled electrospinning conditions. These fiber mats were polarized using a custom-made device to enhance the formation of the electret β-phase ferroelectric property of the fibers by simultaneous uniaxial stretching of the fiber mat and heating the mat to the Curie temperature of the PVDF polymer in a strong electric field of 2.5 kV/cm. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area analyses were performed to characterize both the internal and external morphologies of the fiber mat samples to study polarization-associated changes. MATLAB simulations revealed the changes in the paths of the electric fields and the magnetic flux inside the polarization field with inclusion of the ferroelectric fiber mats. Both polarized and unpolarized fiber mats were challenged as filters against NaCl particles with average particle diameters of about 150 nm using a TSI 8130 to study capture efficiencies and relative pressure drops. Twelve filter experiments were conducted on each sample at one month time intervals between experiments to evaluate the reduction of the polarization enhancement over time. The results showed negligible polarization loss for the 200-nm fiber sample. The polarized mats had the highest filter efficiencies and lowest pressure drops.