WorldWideScience

Sample records for polarities fundamental questions

  1. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  2. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  3. Why worship? Revisiting a fundamental liturgical question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Cilliers

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the fundamental liturgical question as to the motive and intention of worship is addressed within the framework of four related liturgical tensions, namely between being and becoming, between time and space, between awe and expression, and between laughter and lament. In order to do this, some classical voices from the past are listened to, for instance, Schleiermacher, Kierkegaard, Moltmann, Tillich, Otto, Bakhtin and Buber, but more contemporary views are also considered. These four tensions are described in the light of the key terms: ‘already’ and ‘not yet’, and some implications for present-day liturgical practices are drawn.

  4. Fundamental research with polarized slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupchitsky, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    In the last twenty years polarized beams of slow neutrons have been used effectively in fundamental research in nuclear physics. This book gives a thorough introduction to these experimental methods including the most recent techniques of generating and analyzing polarized neutron beams. It clearly shows the close relationship between elementary particle physics and nuclear physics. The book not only addresses specialists but also those interested in the foundations of elementary particle and nuclear physics. With 42 figs

  5. The response of Baruch Spinoza to the fundamental question of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to the fundamental question of philosophy and his indebtedness to the common patrimony of philosophy. For Spinoza, something exists and it is substance, God, nature (three names for the same reality). For Spinoza, we can know it through intuition. Keywords: Spinoza; Fundamental Questions; Philosophy; Patrimony ...

  6. The Big Science Questions About Mercury's Ice-Bearing Polar Deposits After MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, N. L.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Mercury’s polar deposits provide many well-characterized locations that are known to have large expanses of exposed water ice and/or other volatile materials — presenting unique opportunities to address fundamental science questions.

  7. The value of fundamental science: some personal questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagert, N.H.

    1996-11-01

    This essay deals with the importance of science to society, both as a part of the process of wealth creation and as an essential component of our culture in general. The histories of both science and technology are briefly sketched. The argument is made that science comes from separate roots in our society from technology, and has developed in parallel with it for most of history. However, since 1850 science has become an essential part of the technological component of the wealth generation processes that have marked Western society for the past 500 years. This essential role is the provision of the knowledge base upon which new technologies can be based, since many, but not all, technologies depend on a fundamental base of knowledge that is not obvious to the average intelligent practitioner of that technology. Much of the scientific work that is done is carried out to enhance the knowledge base needed to solve direct problems and much of this is carried out by industries and government agencies. However, because the results of scientific investigations are never predictable, in our present society there is really no alternative to the funding of the more speculative science by governments. In our society much of this speculative research is carried out in universities. Nevertheless this speculative science is important to the wealth creation processes because it forms the basis of brand new unpredicted technologies. Science is also a fundamental part of our western culture, and has provided much of the basis of our view of the world and our place in it. Thus some support from society as a whole is justifiable on this basis. In many ways this sort of science has attracted public interest and support precisely because the public is interested in the basic questions of who we are and what is our place in the universe. The public interest in the scientific answers to these questions is particularly apparent in popular geographic magazines. (author)

  8. The value of fundamental science: some personal questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagert, N H

    1996-11-01

    This essay deals with the importance of science to society, both as a part of the process of wealth creation and as an essential component of our culture in general. The histories of both science and technology are briefly sketched. The argument is made that science comes from separate roots in our society from technology, and has developed in parallel with it for most of history. However, since 1850 science has become an essential part of the technological component of the wealth generation processes that have marked Western society for the past 500 years. This essential role is the provision of the knowledge base upon which new technologies can be based, since many, but not all, technologies depend on a fundamental base of knowledge that is not obvious to the average intelligent practitioner of that technology. Much of the scientific work that is done is carried out to enhance the knowledge base needed to solve direct problems and much of this is carried out by industries and government agencies. However, because the results of scientific investigations are never predictable, in our present society there is really no alternative to the funding of the more speculative science by governments. In our society much of this speculative research is carried out in universities. Nevertheless this speculative science is important to the wealth creation processes because it forms the basis of brand new unpredicted technologies. Science is also a fundamental part of our western culture, and has provided much of the basis of our view of the world and our place in it. Thus some support from society as a whole is justifiable on this basis. In many ways this sort of science has attracted public interest and support precisely because the public is interested in the basic questions of who we are and what is our place in the universe. The public interest in the scientific answers to these questions is particularly apparent in popular geographic magazines. (author). 49 refs.

  9. Probing Fundamental Symmetries: Questioning the Very Basics of Conservation Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanmurthy, Prajwal

    2017-09-01

    Is the Lorentz-CPT symmetry, a core component of the standard model, valid? To what extent are the CP and T symmetries broken in the strong sector? What are we doing about the existing strong-CP problem? Do neutrons oscillate (like neutral kaons) or break the (Baryon - Lepton) number conservation? In this presentation, we will go over some of the experiments probing fundamental symmetries trying to answer the above questions. I will, very briefly, introduce the CompEx & nEx experiments probing the Lorentz symmetry in the electromagnetic (EM) sector, the nEDM experiment probing CP and T symmetries in the strong sector, NStar experiment searching for neutron oscillations, MASS & BDX experiments searching for axion like particles & dark matter. We will then briefly touch upon the highlights of these experiments and focus on the path we are taking towards answering those questions while also connecting the dots [experiments] with CEU. PM would like to acknowledge support from SERI SNSF Grant 2015.0594.

  10. Fundamental Questions in Astrophysics: Guidelines for Future UV Observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I

    2006-01-01

    Modern astrophysics is a mature science that has evolved from its early phase of discovery and classification to a physics-oriented discipline focused in finding answers to fundamental problems ranging from cosmology to the origin and diversity of life-sustainable systems in the Universe. For this very reason, progress of modern astrophysics requires the access to the electromagnetic spectrum in the broadest energy range. The Ultraviolet is a fundamental energy domain since it is one of the most powerful tool to study plasmas at temperatures in the 3,000-300,000~K range as well as electronic transitions of the most abundant molecules in the Universe. Moreover, the UV radiation field is a powerful astrochemical and photoionizing agent. This book describes the fundamental problems in modern astrophysics that cannot progress without easy and wide-spread access to modern UV instrumentation.

  11. Adaptive Review of Three Fundamental Questions in Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    In the recent decades, the amazing changes have occurred in the theoretical physics and the rate of its improvement has been rising very extensively. The neutron and positron were discovered in 1932 which before that only electron, proton and photon were known. Today, the Standard Model of elemen......In the recent decades, the amazing changes have occurred in the theoretical physics and the rate of its improvement has been rising very extensively. The neutron and positron were discovered in 1932 which before that only electron, proton and photon were known. Today, the Standard Model....... Perhaps it is only a part of a bigger picture of the modern physics which includes the deeper and hidden layer of subatomic world that has been dipped into the darkness of the universe. The question is, where is the hidden part of modern physics? Hidden part of modern physics lies beyond the uncertainty...... principle. Included in the sub quantum scale, where quantum interactions between photons and gravitons done. Hidden and dark side of modern physics is also a place where charged particles absorb and emit energy quanta, without any description of the mechanism of absorption and emission by charged particles...

  12. Positive, negative, and bipolar questions: The effect of question polarity on ratings of text readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Kamoen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For decades, survey researchers have known that respondents give different answers to attitude questions worded positively (X is good. Agree-Disagree, negatively (X is bad. Agree-Disagree or on a bipolar scale (X is bad-good. This makes survey answers hard to interpret, especially since findings on exactly how the answers are affected are conflicting. In the current paper, we present twelve studies in which the effect of question polarity was measured for a set of thirteen contrastive adjectives. In each study, the same adjectives were used so the generalizability of wording effects across studies could be examined for each word pair. Results show that for five of the word pairs an effect of question wording can be generalized. The direction of these effects are largely consistent: respondents generally give the same answers to positive and bipolar questions, but they are more likely to disagree with negative questions than to agree with positive questions or to choose the positive side of the bipolar scale. In other words, respondents express their opinions more positively when the question is worded negatively. Even though answers to the three wording alternatives sometimes differ, results also show that reliable answers can be obtained with all three wording alternatives. So, for survey practice, these results suggest that all three wording alternatives may be used for attitude measurement.

  13. Induced Polarization Influences the Fundamental Forces in DNA Base Flipping

    OpenAIRE

    Lemkul, Justin A.; Savelyev, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    Base flipping in DNA is an important process involved in genomic repair and epigenetic control of gene expression. The driving forces for these processes are not fully understood, especially in the context of the underlying dynamics of the DNA and solvent effects. We studied double-stranded DNA oligomers that have been previously characterized by imino proton exchange NMR using both additive and polarizable force fields. Our results highlight the importance of induced polarization on the base...

  14. The Concept of Ideology in Analysis of Fundamental Questions in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säther, Jostein

    The use of the concept of `ideology' in interpretation of science education curricula, textbooks and various practises is reviewed, and examples are given by referring to Norwegian curricula and textbooks. The term is proposed to be used in a broad sense about any kind of action-oriented theory based on a system of ideas, or any attempt to approach politics in the light of a system of ideas. Politics in this context is about shaping of education, and is related to forces (i.e., hypothetical impacts of idea systems) which may legitimise, change, or criticise social practices. The focus is (although not in every case) on the hidden, unconscious and critical aspects. The notion ideological aspects is proposed to be related to metaphysical-ontological, epistemological and axiological claims and connotations. Examples of educational issues concerning e.g., aims, compartmentalisation, integration, and fundamentally different ideas about truth, learning and man are mentioned. Searching for a single and unifying concept for the discussing of all of science education's fundamental questions seems however in vain. Therefore a wide range of concepts seems necessary to deepen our understanding of ``the fundamental questions''.

  15. 6th international conference on Mars polar science and exploration: Conference summary and five top questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Isaac B.; Diniega, Serina; Beaty, David W.; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Becerra, Patricio; Bramson, Ali; Clifford, Stephen M.; Hvidberg, Christine S.; Portyankina, Ganna; Piqueux, Sylvain; Spiga, Aymeric; Titus, Timothy N.

    2018-01-01

    We provide a historical context of the International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration and summarize the proceedings from the 6th iteration of this meeting. In particular, we identify five key Mars polar science questions based primarily on presentations and discussions at the conference and discuss the overlap between some of those questions. We briefly describe the seven scientific field trips that were offered at the conference, which greatly supplemented conference discussion of Mars polar processes and landforms. We end with suggestions for measurements, modeling, and laboratory and field work that were highlighted during conference discussion as necessary steps to address key knowledge gaps.

  16. The Neurobiology of Emotion-Cognition Interactions: Fundamental Questions and Strategies for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadas eOkon-Singer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the emergence of powerful new tools for assaying the brain and a remarkable acceleration of research focused on the interplay of emotion and cognition. This work has begun to yield new insights into fundamental questions about the nature of the mind and important clues about the origins of mental illness. In particular, this research demonstrates that stress, anxiety, and other kinds of emotion can profoundly influence key elements of cognition, including selective attention, working memory, and cognitive control. Often, this influence persists beyond the duration of transient emotional challenges, partially reflecting the slower molecular dynamics of catecholamine and hormonal neurochemistry. In turn, circuits involved in attention, executive control, and working memory contribute to the regulation of emotion. The distinction between the ‘emotional’ and the ‘cognitive’ brain is fuzzy and context-dependent. Indeed, there is compelling evidence that brain territories and psychological processes commonly associated with cognition, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and working memory, play a central role in emotion. Furthermore, putatively emotional and cognitive regions influence one another via a complex web of connections in ways that jointly contribute to adaptive and maladaptive behavior. This work demonstrates that emotion and cognition are deeply interwoven in the fabric of the brain, suggesting that widely held beliefs about the key constituents of ‘the emotional brain’ and ‘the cognitive brain’ are fundamentally flawed. We conclude by outlining several strategies for enhancing future research. Developing a deeper understanding of the emotional-cognitive brain is important, not just for understanding the mind but also for elucidating the root causes of its disorders.

  17. Questioning the foundations of physics which of our fundamental assumptions are wrong?

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Brendan; Merali, Zeeya

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book look at way in which the fundaments of physics might need to be changed in order to make progress towards a unified theory. They are based on the prize-winning essays submitted to the FQXi essay competition “Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?”, which drew over 270 entries. As Nobel Laureate physicist Philip W. Anderson realized, the key to understanding nature’s reality is not anything “magical”, but the right attitude, “the focus on asking the right questions, the willingness to try (and to discard) unconventional answers, the sensitive ear for phoniness, self-deception, bombast, and conventional but unproven assumptions.” The authors of the eighteen prize-winning essays have, where necessary, adapted their essays for the present volume so as to (a) incorporate the community feedback generated in the online discussion of the essays, (b) add new material that has come to light since their completion and (c) to ensure accessibility to a broad audience of re...

  18. Shifting economics: fundamental questions and Amartya K. Sen’s pragmatic humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Natarajan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Amartya K. Sen’s body of work is an unrelenting project that consistently and coherently re-focuses the attention of economists and economics towards foundational questions. His capabilities framework has offered an expanded space of evaluation to directly judge the well-being of people and society. Through a detailed survey of Sen’s intellectual development, his readdressing fundamental rigidities in economic methodology, and his new framework for evaluation, this paper argues that Sen has inculcated new habits of mind, and engendered a social momentum in economic thought that takes human complexity and the richness of societal diversity into account. Creating a social momentum in economic thought through refocused habits of mind can have a sustainable impact in economics only if its scope is not sub-discipline specific, if it provides an inclusive framework, and if it builds bridges within and outside the discipline chiefly between economics and moral philosophy. Sen’s approach is pragmatic, courteous, and persuasive, but not divisive. It is expansive, yet contextual; it is humanistic. In Sen, economics is an inquiry into the nature and causes of human development.

  19. Numerical analysis of fundamental characteristics of superconducting magnetic bearings for a polarization modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terachi, Yusuke; Terao, Yutaka; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Yuki; Matsumura, Tomotake; Sugai, Hajime; Utsunomiya, Shin; Kataza, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    We have carried out numerical analysis of mechanical properties of a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB). A contactless bearing operating at below 10 K with low rotational energy loss is an attractive feature to be used as a rotational mechanism of a polarization modulator for a cosmic microwave background experiment. In such application, a rotor diameter of about 400 mm forces us to employ a segmented magnet. As a result, there is inevitable spatial gap between the segments. In order to understand the path towards the design optimizations, 2D and 3D FEM analyses were carried out to examine fundamental characteristics of the SMBs for a polarization modulator. Two axial flux type SMBs were dealt with in the analysis: (a) the SMB with axially magnetized permanent magnets (PMs), and (b) the SMB with radially magnetized PMs and steel components for magnetic flux paths. Magnetic flux lines and density distributions, electromagnetic force characteristics, spring constants, etc. were compared among some variations of the SMBs. From the numerical analysis results, it is discussed what type, configuration and design of SMBs are more suitable for a polarization modulator. (paper)

  20. Fundamental questions in the combined use of radiation and chemicals in the treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkind, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    The author gives answers in regard to combined chemotherapy/radiotherapy basic questions. A discussion of cell properties, dosimetry, treatment-induced cellular changes, cell killing enhancement, and general properties of antineoplastic drugs is given with experimental data being cited for reference material

  1. Interspecific competition in plants: how well do current methods answer fundamental questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J; Wayne, P; Bazzaz, F A

    2001-02-01

    Accurately quantifying and interpreting the processes and outcomes of competition among plants is essential for evaluating theories of plant community organization and evolution. We argue that many current experimental approaches to quantifying competitive interactions introduce size bias, which may significantly impact the quantitative and qualitative conclusions drawn from studies. Size bias generally arises when estimates of competitive ability are erroneously influenced by the initial size of competing individuals. We employ a series of quantitative thought experiments to demonstrate the potential for size bias in analysis of four traditional experimental designs (pairwise, replacement series, additive series, and response surfaces) either when only final measurements are available or when both initial and final measurements are collected. We distinguish three questions relevant to describing competitive interactions: Which species dominates? Which species gains? and How do species affect each other? The choice of experimental design and measurements greatly influences the scope of inference permitted. Conditions under which the latter two questions can give biased information are tabulated. We outline a new approach to characterizing competition that avoids size bias and that improves the concordance between research question and experimental design. The implications of the choice of size metrics used to quantify both the initial state and the responses of elements in interspecific mixtures are discussed. The relevance of size bias in competition studies with organisms other than plants is also discussed.

  2. The Role of polarized positrons and electrons in revealing fundamental interactions at the linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    Moortgat-Pick, G.; Alexander, G.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Babich, A.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Barber, D.; Bartl, A.; Brachmann, A.; Chen, S.; Clarke, J.; Clendenin, J.E.; Dainton, J.; Desch, K.; Diehl, M.; Dobos, B.; Dorland, Tyler McMillan; Dreiner, H.K.; Eberl, H.; Ellis, John R.; Flottmann, K.; Fraas, H.; Franco-Sollova, F.; Franke, F.; Freitas, A.; Goodson, J.; Gray, J.; Han, A.; Heinemeyer, S.; Hesselbach, S.; Hirose, T.; Hohenwarter-Sodek, K.; Juste, A.; Kalinowski, J.; Kernreiter, T.; Kittel, O.; Kraml, S.; Langenfeld, U.; Majerotto, W.; Martinez, A.; Martyn, H.U.; Mikhailichenko, A.; Milstene, C.; Menges, W.; Meyners, N.; Monig, K.; Moffeit, K.; Moretti, S.; Nachtmann, O.; Nagel, F.; Nakanishi, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Nowak, H.; Omori, T.; Osland, P.; Pankov, A.A.; Paver, N.; Pitthan, R.; Poschl, R.; Porod, W.; Proulx, J.; Richardson, P.; Riemann, S.; Rindani, S.D.; Rizzo, T.G.; Schalicke, A.; Schuler, P.; Schwanenberger, C.; Scott, D.; Sheppard, J.; Singh, R.K.; Sopczak, A.; Spiesberger, H.; Stahl, A.; Steiner, H.; Wagner, A.; Weber, A.M.; Weiglein, G.; Wilson, G.W.; Woods, M.; Zerwas, P.; Zhang, J.; Zomer, F.

    2008-01-01

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) is well-suited for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model and for precisely unraveling the structure of the underlying physics. The physics return can be maximized by the use of polarized beams. This report shows the paramount role of polarized beams and summarizes the benefits obtained from polarizing the positron beam, as well as the electron beam. The physics case for this option is illustrated explicitly by analyzing reference reactions in different physics scenarios. The results show that positron polarization, combined with the clean experimental environment provided by the linear collider, allows to improve strongly the potential of searches for new particles and the identification of their dynamics, which opens the road to resolve shortcomings of the Standard Model. The report also presents an overview of possible designs for polarizing both beams at the ILC, as well as for measuring their polarization.

  3. The Role of polarized positrons and electrons in revealing fundamental interactions at the linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moortgat-Pick, G.; /CERN /Durham U., IPPP; Abe, T.; Alexander, G.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Babich, A.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Barber, D.; Bartl, A.; Brachmann, A.; Chen, S.; Clarke,; Clendenin, J.E.; Dainton, J.; Desch, K.; Diehl, M.; Dobos, B.; Dorland, T.; Eberl, H.; Ellis, John R.; Flottman, K.; Frass, H.; /CERN /Durham U., IPPP /Colorado U. /Tel-Aviv

    2005-07-01

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) is well-suited for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model and for precisely unraveling the structure of the underlying physics. The physics return can be maximized by the use of polarized beams. This report shows the paramount role of polarized beams and summarizes the benefits obtained from polarizing the positron beam, as well as the electron beam. The physics case for this option is illustrated explicitly by analyzing reference reactions in different physics scenarios. The results show that positron polarization, combined with the clean experimental environment provided by the linear collider, allows to improve strongly the potential of searches for new particles and the identification of their dynamics, which opens the road to resolve shortcomings of the Standard Model. The report also presents an overview of possible designs for polarizing both beams at the ILC, as well as for measuring their polarization.

  4. Revealing Fundamental Interactions: the Role of Polarized Positrons and Electrons at the Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moortgat-Pick, G.; /CERN /Durham U., IPPP; Abe, T.; Alexander, G.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Babich, A.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Barber, D.; Bartl, A.; Brachmann, A.; Chen, S.; Clarke,; Clendenin, J.E.; Dainton, J.; Desch, K.; Diehl, M.; Dobos, B.; Dorland, T.; Eberl, H.; Ellis, John R.; Flottman, K.; Frass, H.; /CERN /Durham U., IPPP /Colorado U. /Tel-Aviv

    2005-07-06

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) is well-suited for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model and for precisely unraveling the structure of the underlying physics. The physics return can be maximized by the use of polarized beams. This report shows the paramount role of polarized beams and summarizes the benefits obtained from polarizing the positron beam, as well as the electron beam. The physics case for this option is illustrated explicitly by analyzing reference reactions in different physics scenarios. The results show that positron polarization, combined with the clean experimental environment provided by the linear collider, allows to improve strongly the potential of searches for new particles and the identification of their dynamics, which opens the road to resolve shortcomings of the Standard Model. The report also presents an overview of possible designs for polarizing both beams at the ILC, as well as for measuring their polarization.

  5. Revealing Fundamental Interactions: the Role of Polarized Positrons and Electrons at the Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moortgat-Pick, G.; CERN, Durham U. IPPP; Abe, T.; Alexander, G.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Babich, A.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Barber, D.; Bartl, A.; Brachmann, A.; Chen, S.; Clarke, J.; Clendenin, J.E.; Dainton, J.; Desch, K.; Diehl, M.; Dobos, B.; Dorland, T.; Eberl, H.; Ellis, John R.; Flottman, K.; Frass, H.

    2005-01-01

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) is well-suited for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model and for precisely unraveling the structure of the underlying physics. The physics return can be maximized by the use of polarized beams. This report shows the paramount role of polarized beams and summarizes the benefits obtained from polarizing the positron beam, as well as the electron beam. The physics case for this option is illustrated explicitly by analyzing reference reactions in different physics scenarios. The results show that positron polarization, combined with the clean experimental environment provided by the linear collider, allows to improve strongly the potential of searches for new particles and the identification of their dynamics, which opens the road to resolve shortcomings of the Standard Model. The report also presents an overview of possible designs for polarizing both beams at the ILC, as well as for measuring their polarization

  6. Impact of polarized e- and e+ beams at a future linear collider and a Z-factory. Pt. I. Fundamentals in polarization and electroweak precision physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid

    2010-12-01

    The main goal of new physics searches at a future Linear Collider is the precise determination of the underlying new physics model. The physics potential of the ILC as well as the multi-TeV option collider CLIC have to be optimized with regard to expected results from the LHC. The exploitation of spin effects plays a crucial role in this regard. After a short status report of the Linear Collider design and physics requirements, this article explains fundamentals in polarization and provides an overview of the impact of these spin effects in electroweak precision physics. (orig.)

  7. Polarization of electron-positron vacuum by strong magnetic field in theory with fundamental mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyshevskij, V.G.; ); Rodionov, V.N.

    2003-01-01

    The exact Lagrangian function of the intensive constant magnetic field, replacing the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian in the traditional quantum electrodynamics, is calculated within the frames of the theory with the fundamental mass in the single-loop approximation. It is established that the obtained generalization of the Lagrangian function is substantial by arbitrary values of the magnetic field. The calculated Lagrangian in the weak field coincides with the known Heisenberg-Euler formula. The Lagrangian dependence on the field in the extremely strong fields completely disappears and it tends in this area to the threshold value, which is determined by the fundamental and lepton mass ratio [ru

  8. The answer is questions: accelerated-nursing students report practice questions are fundamental to first-time NCLEX-RN success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blozen, Barbara B

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of anecdotal reports on demographic characteristics and academic success of accelerated-nursing students; yet few empirical studies have examined accelerated-nursing students NCLEX-RN success. Applying Knowles' adult learning theory as a guiding framework, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, from the accelerated-nursing students' perspective, the factors reported as contributing to their success on the NCLEX-RN. The research questions aimed to elicit participants' descriptions of their experiences and factors contributing to their success via individual interviews. The most significant finding the participants identified as the factor that contributed to their success was the practicing of NCLEX-RN questions. The findings of this study have several implications for educational policy and practice for universities and schools of nursing as the information gained from this study applies to recruitment and retention as well as curriculum and educational strategies in an accelerated-nursing program.

  9. Robust forecasts on fundamental physics from the foreground-obscured, gravitationally-lensed CMB polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errard, Josquin [Sorbonne Universités, Institut Lagrange de Paris (ILP), 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Feeney, Stephen M.; Jaffe, Andrew H. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Peiris, Hiranya V., E-mail: josquin.errard@lpnhe.in2p3.fr, E-mail: s.feeney@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: h.peiris@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: a.jaffe@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-01

    Recent results from the BICEP, Keck Array and Planck Collaborations demonstrate that Galactic foregrounds are an unavoidable obstacle in the search for evidence of inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. Beyond the foregrounds, the effect of lensing by intervening large-scale structure further obscures all but the strongest inflationary signals permitted by current data. With a plethora of ongoing and upcoming experiments aiming to measure these signatures, careful and self-consistent consideration of experiments' foreground- and lensing-removal capabilities is critical in obtaining credible forecasts of their performance. We investigate the capabilities of instruments such as Advanced ACTPol, BICEP3 and Keck Array, CLASS, EBEX10K, PIPER, Simons Array, SPT-3G and SPIDER, and projects as COrE+, LiteBIRD-ext, PIXIE and Stage IV, to clean contamination due to polarized synchrotron and dust from raw multi-frequency data, and remove lensing from the resulting co-added CMB maps (either using iterative CMB-only techniques or through cross-correlation with external data). Incorporating these effects, we present forecasts for the constraining power of these experiments in terms of inflationary physics, the neutrino sector, and dark energy parameters. Made publicly available through an online interface, this tool enables the next generation of CMB experiments to foreground-proof their designs, optimize their frequency coverage to maximize scientific output, and determine where cross-experimental collaboration would be most beneficial. We find that analyzing data from ground, balloon and space instruments in complementary combinations can significantly improve component separation performance, delensing, and cosmological constraints over individual datasets. In particular, we find that a combination of post-2020 ground- and space-based experiments could achieve constraints such as σ(r)∼1.3×10{sup −4}, σ(n{sub t})∼0

  10. I Don't Know. The Effect of Question Polarity on No-opinion Answers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamoen, N.; van de Pol, Jasper; Krouwel, A.P.M.; de Vreese, Claes; Holleman, Bregje

    2018-01-01

    A new type of political attitude survey that has gained popularity in Europe and in the United States is the voting advice application (VAA). VAAs provide users with a voting advice based on their answers to a set of attitude questions. In the calculation of this advice, no-opinion answers are

  11. Summaries of reports of the 30. Conference on low-temperature physics. Pt. 1. Fundamental questions of superconductivity including HTSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Thesis of reporsts of the 30th Conference on low-temperature physics are presented. Fundamental problems of superconductivity are discussed including HTSC in bulk crystals, in thin films of Josephson junctions, ceramics and heterostructures. Specific features of superconductor structure and magnetic properties and also different mechanisms of superconductivity are analyzed

  12. Questioning the Role of Children's Indigenous Games of Africa on Development of Fundamental Movement Skills: A Preliminary Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoka, Philemon A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper interrogates the role children's indigenous games of Africa can play in the development of fundamental movement skills relevant in modernized sports. On a daily basis, children in Africa play varieties of traditional games that vary between tribes, communities and distances. However, the efficacy of these games in the development of…

  13. General questions of methods of teaching fractal geometry to university students in conditions of fundamentalization of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Семенович Корнилов

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In article methodical aspects, components of fundamental training of students of physical and mathematical specialties of higher educational institutions of fractal geometry are discussed. The attention to use in the course of such training of means of informatization is paid.

  14. The major age as a requirement for the registral rectification of sex and the name: a question of fundamental rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Sánchez Freyre

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional transcendence of the requirement of majority for the recognition of the right to sexual identity and the change in the registration of sex in the Civil Registry in the case of transsexual people and their incardination in the limitations to the capacity to act Minors. Diversity of legal treatment of the age and its legislative and jurisprudential treatment in attention to the progressive acquisition of discernment and ability to understand and to issue its will in the best interest of the minor. The principle of the best interest of the child as a frame of reference to analyze each specific case in defense of fundamental rights in general and its concretion in the case of minors. The difficulty of assessing this indeterminate legal concept.

  15. The polarization and the fundamental sensitivity of 39K (133Cs)-85Rb-4He hybrid optical pumping spin exchange relaxation free atomic magnetometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Hua; Jing, Dong-Yang; Wang, Liang-Liang; Li, Yang; Quan, Wei; Fang, Jian-Cheng; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2017-07-28

    The hybrid optical pumping spin exchange relaxation free (SERF) atomic magnetometers can realize ultrahigh sensitivity measurement of magnetic field and inertia. We have studied the 85 Rb polarization of two types of hybrid optical pumping SERF magnetometers based on 39 K- 85 Rb- 4 He and 133 Cs- 85 Rb- 4 He respectively. Then we found that 85 Rb polarization varies with the number density of buffer gas 4 He and quench gas N 2 , pumping rate of pump beam and cell temperature respectively, which will provide an experimental guide for the design of the magnetometer. We obtain a general formula on the fundamental sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping SERF magnetometer due to shot-noise. The formula describes that the fundamental sensitivity of the magnetometer varies with the number density of buffer gas and quench gas, the pumping rate of pump beam, external magnetic field, cell effective radius, measurement volume, cell temperature and measurement time. We obtain a highest fundamental sensitivity of 1.5073 aT/Hz 1/2 (1 aT = 10 -18 T) with 39 K- 85 Rb- 4 He magnetometer between above two types of magnetometers when 85 Rb polarization is 0.1116. We estimate the fundamental sensitivity limit of the hybrid optical pumping SERF magnetometer to be superior to 1.8359 × 10 -2 aT/Hz 1/2 , which is higher than the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of 1 aT/Hz 1/2 of K SERF atomic magnetometer.

  16. Polarized electron beams elastically scattered by atoms as a tool for testing fundamental predictions of quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapor, Maurizio

    2018-03-29

    Quantum information theory deals with quantum noise in order to protect physical quantum bits (qubits) from its effects. A single electron is an emblematic example of a qubit, and today it is possible to experimentally produce polarized ensembles of electrons. In this paper, the theory of the polarization of electron beams elastically scattered by atoms is briefly summarized. Then the POLARe program suite, a set of computer programs aimed at the calculation of the spin-polarization parameters of electron beams elastically interacting with atomic targets, is described. Selected results of the program concerning Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms are presented together with the comparison with experimental data about the Sherman function for low kinetic energy of the incident electrons (1.5eV-350eV). It is demonstrated that the quantum-relativistic theory of the polarization of electron beams elastically scattered by atoms is in good agreement with experimental data down to energies smaller than a few eV.

  17. Tumor-associated macrophages as a paradigm of macrophage plasticity, diversity, and polarization: lessons and open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Alberto; Locati, Massimo

    2013-07-01

    Macrophages are present in all body compartments, including cancerous tissues, and their functions are profoundly affected by signals from the microenvironment under homeostatic and pathological conditions. Tumor-associated macrophages are a major cellular component of cancer-related inflammation and have served as a paradigm for the plasticity and functional polarization of mononuclear phagocytes. Tumor-associated macrophages can exert dual influence of cancer depending on the activation state, with classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) cells generally exerting antitumoral and protumoral functions, respectively. These are extremes in a continuum of polarization states in a universe of diversity. Tumor-associated macrophages affect virtually all aspects of tumor tissues, including stem cells, metabolism, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Progress has been made in defining signaling molecules, transcription factors, epigenetic changes, and repertoire of microRNAs underlying macrophage polarization. Preclinical and early clinical data suggest that macrophages may serve as tools for the development of innovative diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in cancer and chronic nonresolving inflammatory diseases.

  18. The Antarctic Master Directory - a fundamental data management element for the International Polar Year 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfen, G.; Bauer, R.

    2004-12-01

    A successful International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007-2008 will extend the scientific spirit of international collaboration and exploration first undertaken in earlier IPYs and the 1957/58 International Geophysical Year (IGY) to the current era of advanced collection and analysis technology. The IGY not only led to a number of important scientific achievements; it also established an enduring data system - the World Data Centers - which continues today. Effective utilization of the vast arrays of data which will result from the coming IPY will challenge data managers and scientists alike. Coordinating the collection, assembly, archival and international exchange of disparate and voluminous data sets requires advance planning and the involvement of the relevant science agencies and data managers to utilize and extend existing capabilities. The IPY Planning Group has identified key objectives indicating that data management is an essential part of the IPY planning process including: - Ensure data collected under the IPY are made available in an open and timely manner - Intensify the recovery of relevant historical data and ensure that these also are made openly available - Develop and embrace new technological and logistical capabilities The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and Committee of Managers of National Antarctic Programmes (COMNAP) have established the Joint Committee on Antarctic Data Management (JCADM) to develop the Antarctic Master Directory (AMD) to enable scientists to find and access the data sets collected more than 22 countries in the Antarctic. Incorporating concepts developed as part of the AMD and extending them to cover the scope of the IPY is an important part of a successful IPY data management program. This paper identifies major aspects of the AMD and how it can serve the IPY.

  19. Some fundamental questions concerning the kinetic theory of electrons in molecular gases and the e H2 vibrational cross section controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, R. E.; White, R. D.; Morrison, Michael A.

    2003-10-01

    We commence a fundamental re-examination of the kinetic theory of charged particle swarms in molecular gases, focusing on collisional excitation of molecular rotational and ro-vibrational states by electrons. Modern day analysis of electron swarms has been based upon the kinetic equation of Wang-Chang et al, which simply treats all processes as scalar energy excitations, and ignores angular momentum conservation and the vector dynamics associated with rotational excitation. It is pointed out that there is no alternative, more exact kinetic equation readily available for electrons which enables one to directly ascertain the degree of error introduced by this approximation. Thus in this preliminary study, we approach the problem indirectly, from the standpoint of the neutral molecules, using the Waldmann-Snider quantum kinetic equation, and insist that an electron-molecule collision must look the same from the perspective of both electron and molecule. We give a formula for quantitatively assessing the importance of scalar versus vectorial treatments of rotational excitation by looking at the post-collisional 'echo' produced by an electron swarm as it passes through the gas. It is then pointed out that in order to remedy any deficiency, it will be necessary to introduce a kinetic collisional operator non-local in space to properly account for angular momentum conservation, as has long been established in the literature. This is a major exercise and given the preliminary nature of this study, we consider the inclusion of such effects from a formal point of view only. In particular we show how non-local effects lead to a spatially dependent 'source' term in the equation of continuity, and hence to corrections for both drift velocity and diffusion coefficients. The magnitude of these corrections has yet to be established.

  20. Some fundamental questions concerning the kinetic theory of electrons in molecular gases and the e-H2 vibrational cross section controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, R E; White, R D; Morrison, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    We commence a fundamental re-examination of the kinetic theory of charged particle swarms in molecular gases, focusing on collisional excitation of molecular rotational and ro-vibrational states by electrons. Modern day analysis of electron swarms has been based upon the kinetic equation of Wang-Chang et al, which simply treats all processes as scalar energy excitations, and ignores angular momentum conservation and the vector dynamics associated with rotational excitation. It is pointed out that there is no alternative, more exact kinetic equation readily available for electrons which enables one to directly ascertain the degree of error introduced by this approximation. Thus in this preliminary study, we approach the problem indirectly, from the standpoint of the neutral molecules, using the Waldmann-Snider quantum kinetic equation, and insist that an electron-molecule collision must look the same from the perspective of both electron and molecule. We give a formula for quantitatively assessing the importance of scalar versus vectorial treatments of rotational excitation by looking at the post-collisional 'echo' produced by an electron swarm as it passes through the gas. It is then pointed out that in order to remedy any deficiency, it will be necessary to introduce a kinetic collisional operator non-local in space to properly account for angular momentum conservation, as has long been established in the literature. This is a major exercise and given the preliminary nature of this study, we consider the inclusion of such effects from a formal point of view only. In particular we show how non-local effects lead to a spatially dependent 'source' term in the equation of continuity, and hence to corrections for both drift velocity and diffusion coefficients. The magnitude of these corrections has yet to be established

  1. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Questioning the Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  3. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  4. Some fundamental questions about R-curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolednik, O.

    1992-01-01

    With the help of two simple thought experiments it is demonstrated that there exist two physically different types of fracture toughness. The crack-growth toughness, which is identical to the Griffith crack growth resistance, R, is a measure of the non-reversible energy which is needed to produce an increment of new crack area. The size of R is reflected by the slopes of the R-curves commonly used. So an increasing J-Δa-curve does not mean that the crack-growth resistance increases. The fracture initiation toughness, J i , is a normalized total energy (related to the ligament area) which must be put into the specimen up to fracture initiation. Only for ideally brittle materials R and J i have equal sizes. For small-scale yielding a relationship exists between R and J i , ao a one-parameter description of fracture processes is applicable. For large-scale yielding R and J i are not strictly related and both parameters are necessary to describe the fracture process. (orig.) [de

  5. Tag questions Tag questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brazil

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called 'tag' structures of English have received a lot of attention in language teaching programmes, attention that is not hard to justify when one considers the problems and anxiety they can occasion for many foreign learners. Most teachers one speaks to seem fairly willing to agree, however, that traditional treatments of the topic leave much to be desired. It happens, also, that, when considered collectively, the tags and some related phenomena have a special heoretical interest. For they constitute a field in which it seems essential to bring together insights that derive from the study of several aspects of linguistic organisation, aspects which in some recent work have been held to need distinctive kinds of descriptive category to handle. Traditional treatments have found it necessary to recognise different syntactic types (e.g. 'same polarity' and 'reversed polarity' tags and ifferent intonational treatments ("falling'and 'rising' tag; while the way the communicative significance of the various permutations is described normally requires reference to the expectations they signal regarding the immediately following behaviour of the other party (in the common phrase, 'What kind of answer they expect'. This last consideration places the matter squarely in the arena of recent work on the analysis of interactive discourse. The so-called 'tag' structures of English have received a lot of attention in language teaching programmes, attention that is not hard to justify when one considers the problems and anxiety they can occasion for many foreign learners. Most teachers one speaks to seem fairly willing to agree, however, that traditional treatments of the topic leave much to be desired. It happens, also, that, when considered collectively, the tags and some related phenomena have a special heoretical interest. For they constitute a field in which it seems essential to bring together insights that derive from the study of several aspects

  6. Complexation-mediated electromembrane extraction of highly polar basic drugs – a fundamental study with catecholamines in urine as model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Elena; Vårdal, Linda; Vidal, Lorena

    2017-01-01

    Complexation-mediated electromembrane extraction (EME) of highly polar basic drugs (log P ... as complexation reagent, and selectively formed boronate esters by reversible covalent binding with the model analytes at the sample/SLM interface. This enhanced the mass transfer of the highly polar model analytes across the SLM, and EME of basic drugs with log P in the range -1 to -2 was shown for the first...... chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and evaluated for quantification of epinephrine and dopamine. Standard addition calibration was applied to a pooled human urine sample. Calibration curves using standards between 25 and 125 μg L-1 gave a high level of linearity with a correlation coefficient...

  7. Neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firk, F.W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Some recent experiments involving polarized neutrons are discussed; they demonstrate how polarization studies provide information on fundamental aspects of nuclear structure that cannot be obtained from more traditional neutron studies. Until recently, neutron polarization studies tended to be limited either to very low energies or to restricted regions at higher energies, determined by the kinematics of favorable (p, vector n) and (d, vector n) reactions. With the advent of high intensity pulsed electron and proton accelerators and of beams of vector polarized deuterons, this is no longer the case. One has entered an era in which neutron polarization experiments are now being carried out, in a routine way, throughout the entire range from thermal energies to tens-of-MeV. The significance of neutron polarization studies is illustrated in discussions of a wide variety of experiments that include the measurement of T-invariance in the β-decay of polarized neutrons, a search for the effects of meson exchange currents in the photo-disintegration of the deuteron, the determination of quantum numbers of states in the fission of aligned 235 U and 237 Np induced by polarized neutrons, and the double- and triple-scattering of fast neutrons by light nuclei

  8. Arguing against fundamentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kerry

    This paper aims to open up discussion on the relationship between fundamentality and naturalism, and in particular on the question of whether fundamentality may be denied on naturalistic grounds. A historico-inductive argument for an anti-fundamentalist conclusion, prominent within the contemporary metaphysical literature, is examined; finding it wanting, an alternative 'internal' strategy is proposed. By means of an example from the history of modern physics - namely S-matrix theory - it is demonstrated that (1) this strategy can generate similar (though not identical) anti-fundamentalist conclusions on more defensible naturalistic grounds, and (2) that fundamentality questions can be empirical questions. Some implications and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed.

  9. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepost, R.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented

  10. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  11. pH sensing by lipids in membranes: The fundamentals of pH-driven migration, polarization and deformations of lipid bilayer assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Miglena I; Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Seigneuret, Michel; Staneva, Galya; Kodama, Atsuji; Sakuma, Yuka; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro; Imai, Masayuki; Puff, Nicolas

    2018-03-06

    Most biological molecules contain acido-basic groups that modulate their structure and interactions. A consequence is that pH gradients, local heterogeneities and dynamic variations are used by cells and organisms to drive or regulate specific biological functions including energetic metabolism, vesicular traffic, migration and spatial patterning of tissues in development. While the direct or regulatory role of pH in protein function is well documented, the role of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in modulating the properties of lipid assemblies such as bilayer membranes is only beginning to be understood. Here, we review approaches using artificial lipid vesicles that have been instrumental in providing an understanding of the influence of pH gradients and local variations on membrane vectorial motional processes: migration, membrane curvature effects promoting global or local deformations, crowding generation by segregative polarization processes. In the case of pH induced local deformations, an extensive theoretical framework is given and an application to a specific biological issue, namely the structure and stability of mitochondrial cristae, is described. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Emergence of Complex Behavior in Biomembranes edited by Marjorie Longo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Four Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  13. Radiology fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harjit

    2011-01-01

    ""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag

  14. Fundamental Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, Hannu; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl Johan

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.

  15. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  16. Spin polarized atom traps and fundamental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusser, O.

    1994-10-01

    Plans are described to couple a neutral atom trap to an upgraded version of TRIUMF's TISOL on-line mass separator. The unique properties of trapped and cooled atoms promise improvements of some symmetry tests of the Standard Model of the electroweak and strong interactions. (author). 33 refs., 3 figs

  17. Curiosity Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  18. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  19. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  20. Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste

  1. Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste

  2. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  3. Fundamentals of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Rajani Ballav

    2008-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA is a comprehensive Text Book, which can be used by students and teachers of All Indian Universities. The Text has easy, understandable form and covers all topics of UGC Curriculum. There are lots of worked out examples which helps the students in solving the problems without anybody's help. The Problem sets have been designed keeping in view of the questions asked in different examinations.

  4. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  5. Polarity in Mammalian Epithelial Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roignot, Julie; Peng, Xiao; Mostov, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarity is fundamental for the architecture and function of epithelial tissues. Epithelial polarization requires the intervention of several fundamental cell processes, whose integration in space and time is only starting to be elucidated. To understand what governs the building of epithelial tissues during development, it is essential to consider the polarization process in the context of the whole tissue. To this end, the development of three-dimensional organotypic cell culture model...

  6. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non-humans......In this work the network asks “If I wrote you a love letter would you write back?” Like the love letters which appeared mysteriously on the noticeboards of Manchester University’s Computer Department in the 1950s, thousands of texts circulate as computational processes perform the questions......, that circulates across networks. If I wrote you a love letter would you write back? (and thousands of other questions’ ) (封不回的情書?千言萬語無人回 was commissioned by the Microwave International New Media Festival 2012....

  7. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  8. Polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The book on 'polarized neutrons' is intended to inform researchers in condensed matter physics and chemistry of the diversity of scientific problems that can be investigated using polarized neutron beams. The contents include chapters on:- neutron polarizers and instrumentation, polarized neutron scattering, neutron polarization analysis experiments and precessing neutron polarization. (U.K.)

  9. Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, E.

    1994-01-01

    The author provides a summary of the proposed and published statistical (systematic) uncertainties from the world experiments on nucleon spin structure function integrals. By the time these programs are complete, there will be a vast resource of data on nucleon spin structure functions. Each program has quite different experimental approaches regarding the beams, targets, and spectrometers thus ensuring systematically independent tests of the spin structure function measurements. Since the field of spin structure function measurements began, there has been a result appearing approximately every five years. With advances in polarized target technology and high polarization in virtually all of the lepton beams, results are now coming out each year; this is a true signature of the growth in the field. Hopefully, the experiments will provide a consistent picture of nucleon spin structure at their completion. In summary, there are still many open questions regarding the internal spin structure of the nucleon. Tests of QCD via the investigation of the Bjorken sum rule is a prime motivator for the field, and will continue with the next round of precision experiments. The question of the origin of spin is still a fundamental problem. Researchers hope is that high-energy probes using spin will shed light on this intriguing mystery, in addition to characterizing the spin structure of the nucleon

  10. Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The author provides a summary of the proposed and published statistical (systematic) uncertainties from the world experiments on nucleon spin structure function integrals. By the time these programs are complete, there will be a vast resource of data on nucleon spin structure functions. Each program has quite different experimental approaches regarding the beams, targets, and spectrometers thus ensuring systematically independent tests of the spin structure function measurements. Since the field of spin structure function measurements began, there has been a result appearing approximately every five years. With advances in polarized target technology and high polarization in virtually all of the lepton beams, results are now coming out each year; this is a true signature of the growth in the field. Hopefully, the experiments will provide a consistent picture of nucleon spin structure at their completion. In summary, there are still many open questions regarding the internal spin structure of the nucleon. Tests of QCD via the investigation of the Bjorken sum rule is a prime motivator for the field, and will continue with the next round of precision experiments. The question of the origin of spin is still a fundamental problem. Researchers hope is that high-energy probes using spin will shed light on this intriguing mystery, in addition to characterizing the spin structure of the nucleon.

  11. La nouvelle vague in polarized neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.

    1986-01-01

    Polarized neutron research, like many other subjects in neutron scattering developed in the footsteps of Cliff Shull. The classical polarized neutron technique he pioneered was generalized around 1970 to vectorial beam polarizations and this opened up the way to a ''nouvelle vague'' of neutron scattering experiments. In this paper I will first reexamine the old controversy on the question whether the nature of the neutron magnetic moment is that of a microscopic dipole or of an Amperian current loop. The problem is not only of historical interest, but also of relevance to modern applications. This will be followed by a review of the fundamentals on spin coherence effects in neutron beams and scattering, which are the basis of vectorial beam polarization work. As an example of practical importance, paramagnetic scattering will be discussed. The paper concludes with some examples of applications of the vector polarization techniques, such as study of ferromagnetic domains by neutron beam depolarization and Neutron Spin Echo high resolution inelastic spectroscopy. The sample results presented demonstrate the new opportunities this novel approach opened up in neutrons scattering research. (orig.)

  12. Instrumentation with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Muenzer, W.; Ostermann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering with polarization analysis is an indispensable tool for the investigation of novel materials exhibiting electronic, magnetic, and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition, polarized neutrons are necessary for neutron spin precession techniques that path the way to obtain extremely high resolution in space and time. Last but not least, polarized neutrons are being used for fundamental studies as well as very recently for neutron imaging. Many years ago, neutron beam lines were simply adapted for polarized beam applications by adding polarizing elements leading usually to unacceptable losses in neutron intensity. Recently, an increasing number of beam lines are designed such that an optimum use of polarized neutrons is facilitated. In addition, marked progress has been obtained in the technology of 3 He polarizers and the reflectivity of large-m supermirrors. Therefore, if properly designed, only factors of approximately 2-3 in neutron intensity are lost. It is shown that S-benders provide neutron beams with an almost wavelength independent polarization. Using twin cavities, polarized beams with a homogeneous phase space and P>0.99 can be produced without significantly sacrificing intensity. It is argued that elliptic guides, which are coated with large m polarizing supermirrors, provide the highest flux.

  13. Polarization-preserving holey fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2001-01-01

    In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization......In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization...

  14. Non-commutativity in polar coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, James P. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2017-05-15

    We reconsider the fundamental commutation relations for non-commutative R{sup 2} described in polar coordinates with non-commutativity parameter θ. Previous analysis found that the natural transition from Cartesian coordinates to the traditional polar system led to a representation of [r, φ] as an everywhere diverging series. In this article we compute the Borel resummation of this series, showing that it can subsequently be extended throughout parameter space and hence provide an interpretation of this commutator. Our analysis provides a complete solution for arbitrary r and θ that reproduces the earlier calculations at lowest order and benefits from being generally applicable to problems in a two-dimensional non-commutative space. We compare our results to previous literature in the (pseudo-)commuting limit, finding a surprising spatial dependence for the coordinate commutator when θ >> r{sup 2}. Finally, we raise some questions for future study in light of this progress. (orig.)

  15. INTRODUCTION : THE EU-NETWORK CRAYNET- IMPACTS ON FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUTY-GROSSET C.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The European network CRAYNET “European crayfish as keystone species-linking science, management and economics with sustainable environmental quality” emphasises knowledge-based management strategies. The CRAYNET meetings concentrate on certain topics: monitoring in conservation and management of natives; interaction between natives and aliens; control of aliens; habitat restoration; reintroduction and restocking; legislation; education. The Irish meeting (Kilkenny, 2003 “The endangered native crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes: bioindicator and heritage species” initiated debates about (1 what is a bioindicator, a flagship species or a heritage species?; (2 the problem of species complexes and the need to clarify and resolve taxonomy before management; and (3 what is meant by biodiversity in the context of European crayfish? The Norwegian meeting (Halden, 2003 “European native, crayfish with a special focus on Astacus astacus: linking socioeconomics and conservation ” involved roundtables about (1 threats to indigenous population of crayfish at a landscape level; (2 exploitation, conservation, legislation; (3 reintroduction of indigenous crayfish, habitat restoration and monitoring; and (4 the urgent need for joint research about pathology. The present meeting (Innsbruck, 2004 “European native crayfish in relation to land-use and habitat deterioration with a special focus on Austropotamobius torrentim” aims to identify the species protection programs, to examine if legislation is working well in protecting vulnerable species, the state of advances about conservation genetics and how to make progress in education of the public. A permanent connection between the 12 core members provides opportunities to check the needed lines of research, to prepare recommendations, and to gather information for an atlas on the distribution of crayfish species in Europe as well as to prepare leaflets for the public.

  16. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  17. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong; Alfadly, Modar; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  18. Degrees of polarization for a quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Soto, L L; Soederholm, J; Yustas, E C; Klimov, A B; Bjoerk, G

    2006-01-01

    Unpolarized light is invariant with respect to any SU(2) polarization transformation. Since this fully characterizes the set of density matrices representing unpolarized states, we introduce the degree of polarization of a quantum state as its distance to the set of unpolarized states. We discuss different candidates of distance, and show that they induce fundamentally different degrees of polarization

  19. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Science is all about testing the things we take for granted including some of the most fundamental aspects of how we understand our universe. Is the speed of light in a vacuum the same for all photons regardless of their energy? Is the rest mass of a photon actually zero? A series of recent studies explore the possibility of using transient astrophysical sources for tests!Explaining Different Arrival TimesArtists illustration of a gamma-ray burst, another extragalactic transient, in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]Suppose you observe a distant transient astrophysical source like a gamma-ray burst, or a flare from an active nucleus and two photons of different energies arrive at your telescope at different times. This difference in arrival times could be due to several different factors, depending on how deeply you want to question some of our fundamental assumptions about physics:Intrinsic delayThe photons may simply have been emitted at two different times by the astrophysical source.Delay due to Lorentz invariance violationPerhaps the assumption that all massless particles (even two photons with different energies) move at the exact same velocity in a vacuum is incorrect.Special-relativistic delayMaybe there is a universal speed for massless particles, but the assumption that photons have zero rest mass is wrong. This, too, would cause photon velocities to be energy-dependent.Delay due to gravitational potentialPerhaps our understanding of the gravitational potential that the photons experience as they travel is incorrect, also causing different flight times for photons of different energies. This would mean that Einsteins equivalence principle, a fundamental tenet of general relativity (GR), is incorrect.If we now turn this problem around, then by measuring the arrival time delay between photons of different energies from various astrophysical sources the further away, the better we can provide constraints on these

  20. Three questions on Lorentz violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, Alfredo [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Charles University of Prague - V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Physics ' E. R. Caianiello' , University of Salerno and I.N.F.N. Naples, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno - Via Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    We review the basics of the two most widely used approaches to Lorentz violation - the Standard Model Extension and Noncommutative Field Theory - and discuss in some detail the example of the modified spectrum of the synchrotron radiation. Motivated by touching upon such a fundamental issue as Lorentz symmetry, we ask three questions: What is behind the search for Lorentz violation? Is String Theory a physical theory? Is there an alternative to Supersymmetry?.

  1. Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.

    2005-01-01

    We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…

  2. The polarization of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    It is insufficient to know coordinates and momentum to describe a state of a neutron. It is necessary to define a spin orientation. As far as it is known from quantum mechanics, a half spin has a projection in the positive direction or in the negative direction. The probability of both projections in an unpolarized beam is equal. If a direction exists, in which the projection is more probably then beam is called polarized in this direction. It is essential to know polarization of neutrons for characteristics of a neutron source, which is emitting it. The question of polarization of fast neutrons came up in 50's. The present work is the review of polarization of fast neutrons and methods of polarization analysis. This also includes information about polarization of fast neutrons from first papers, which described polarization in the D(d,n) 3 He, 7 Li (p,n) 7 Be, T(p,n) 3 He reactions. (authors)

  3. Vectorial optical fields fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Polarization is a vector nature of light that plays an important role in optical science and engineering. While existing textbook treatments of light assume beams with spatially homogeneous polarization, there is an increasing interest in vectorial optical fields with spatially engineered states of polarization. New effects and phenomena have been predicted and observed for light beams with these unconventional polarization states. This edited review volume aims to provide a comprehensive overview and summarize the latest developments in this important emerging field of optics. This book will cover the fundamentals including mathematical and physical descriptions, experimental generation, manipulation, focusing, propagation, and the applications of the engineered vectorial optical fields in focal field engineering, plasmonic focusing and optical antenna, single molecular imaging, optical tweezers/trapping, as well as optical measurements and instrumentations. Readership: Students, professionals, post-graduat...

  4. Rhetorical questions or rhetorical uses of questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špago Džemal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore whether some rhetorical questions contain certain linguistic elements or forms which would differentiate them from answer-eliciting and action-eliciting questions, and thereby hint at their rhetorical nature even outside the context. Namely, despite the fact that the same questions can be rhetorical in one context, and answer-eliciting in another, some of them are more likely to be associated with rhetorical or non-rhetorical use. The analysis is based on extensive data (over 1200 examples of rhetorical questions taken from 30 plays by two British and two American writers, and the results are expected to give an insight into whether we can talk about rhetorical questions or just a rhetorical use of questions.

  5. Une question interdite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legendre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Is legal history a left-over or is it waiting for a takeover bid (just like a company in serious trouble which would allow the expression of new analyses and outlines for a better understanding of the contemporary western world? Its propositions of erudition, are they just interesting for small academic circles, or could they open a new pathway for fundamental reflections on the phenomenon of norms in general and the structure of its evolution in the special case of norm-production coming from Roman Christianity? And what is the significance of the idea of »legal tradition«, an idea forged in Western Europe, within the framework of a presumed global westernization without any counter-balance? The essay discusses the illegibility of legal history in today’s culture. Under the well reflected motto »The Forbidden Question« it concludes firmly: To renovate itself, this discipline has to perform its work in a new way, guided by a very precise and distinct vision on theory. The author examines the conditions for this.

  6. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.

  7. Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Sandra L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a study of Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia. Islamic fundamentalism is defined as the return to the foundations and principles of Islam including all movements based on the desire to create a more Islamic society. After describing the practices and beliefs of Islam, this thesis examines the three aspects of universal Islamic fundamentalism: revivalism, resurgence, and radicalism. It analyzes the role of Islam in Indonesia under Dutch colonial rule, an alien Christian imperialist po...

  8. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  9. Fundamentals of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, V

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav

  10. Fundamental principles of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugajski, S.

    1980-01-01

    After introducing general versions of three fundamental quantum postulates - the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle - the question of whether the three principles are sufficiently strong to restrict the general Mackey description of quantum systems to the standard Hilbert-space quantum theory is discussed. An example which shows that the answer must be negative is constructed. An abstract version of the projection postulate is introduced and it is demonstrated that it could serve as the missing physical link between the general Mackey description and the standard quantum theory. (author)

  11. Polarized proton beams since the ZGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses research involving polarized proton beams since the ZGS's demise. He begins by reminding the attendee that in 1973 the ZGS accelerated the world's first high energy polarized proton beam; all in attendance at this meeting can be proud of this accomplishment. A few ZGS polarized proton beam experiments were done in the early 1970's; then from about 1976 until 1 October 1979, the majority of the ZGS running time was polarized running. A great deal of fundamental physics was done with the polarized beam when the ZGS ran as a dedicated polarized proton beam from about Fall 1977 until it shut down on 1 October 1979. The newly created polarization enthusiats then dispersed; some spread polarized seeds al over the world by polarizing beams elsewhere; some wound up running the High Energy and SSC programs at DOE

  12. The Polarization of Achernar

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, D.

    2005-11-01

    Recent near-infrared measurements of the angular diameter of Achernar (the bright Be star alpha Eridani) with the ESO VLT interferometer have been interpreted as the detection of an extremely oblate photosphere, with a ratio of equatorial to polar radius of at least 1.56 ± 0.05 and a minor axis orientation of 39° ± 1° (from North to East). The optical linear polarization of this star during an emission phase in 1995 September was 0.12 ± 0.02% at position angle 37° ± 8° (in equatorial coordinates), which is the direction of the projection of the rotation axis on the plane of the sky according to the theory of polarization by electron scattering in an equatorially flattened circumstellar disk. These two independent determinations of the orientation of the rotation axis are therefore in agreement. The observational history of correlations between Hα emission and polarization as found in the literature is that of a typical Be star, with the exception of an interesting question raised by the contrast between Schröder's measurement of a small polarization perpendicular to the projected rotation axis in 1969--70 and Tinbergen's measurement of zero polarization in 1974.5, both at times when emission was reportedly absent.

  13. Nuclear questions; Le nucleaire en questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-02-15

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  14. Materials Fundamentals of Gate Dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Demkov, Alexander A

    2006-01-01

    This book presents materials fundamentals of novel gate dielectrics that are being introduced into semiconductor manufacturing to ensure the continuous scalling of the CMOS devices. This is a very fast evolving field of research so we choose to focus on the basic understanding of the structure, thermodunamics, and electronic properties of these materials that determine their performance in device applications. Most of these materials are transition metal oxides. Ironically, the d-orbitals responsible for the high dielectric constant cause sever integration difficulties thus intrinsically limiting high-k dielectrics. Though new in the electronics industry many of these materials are wel known in the field of ceramics, and we describe this unique connection. The complexity of the structure-property relations in TM oxides makes the use of the state of the art first-principles calculations necessary. Several chapters give a detailed description of the modern theory of polarization, and heterojunction band discont...

  15. The fundamentals of stellar astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, G.W. II.

    1989-01-01

    A broad overview of theoretical stellar astrophysics is presented in a textbook intended for graduate students. Chapters are devoted to fundamental principles, assumptions, theorems, and polytropes; energy sources and sinks; the flow of energy through the star and the construction of stellar models; the theory of stellar evolution; relativistic stellar structure; the structure of distorted stars; stellar pulsation and oscillation. Also discussed are the flow of radiation through the stellar atmosphere, the solution of the radiative-transfer equation, the environment of the radiation field, the construction of a stellar model atmosphere, the formation and shape of spectral lines, LTE breakdown, illuminated and extended stellar atmospheres, and the transfer of polarized radiation. Diagrams, graphs, and sample problems are provided. 164 refs

  16. Fundamental neutron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deslattes, R.; Dombeck, T.; Greene, G.; Ramsey, N.; Rauch, H.; Werner, S.

    1984-01-01

    Fundamental physics experiments of merit can be conducted at the proposed intense neutron sources. Areas of interest include: neutron particle properties, neutron wave properties, and fundamental physics utilizing reactor produced γ-rays. Such experiments require intense, full-time utilization of a beam station for periods ranging from several months to a year or more

  17. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  18. Measuring the sea quark polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makdisi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Spin is a fundamental degree of freedom and measuring the spin structure functions of the nucleon should be a basic endeavor for hadron physics. Polarization experiments have been the domain of fixed target experiments. Over the years large transverse asymmetries have been observed where the prevailing QCD theories predicted little or no asymmetries, and conversely the latest deep inelastic scattering experiments of polarized leptons from polarized targets point to the possibility that little of the nucleon spin is carried by the valence quarks. The possibility of colliding high luminosity polarized proton beams in the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides a great opportunity to extend these studies and systematically probe the spin dependent parton distributions specially to those reactions that are inaccessible to current experiments. This presentation focuses on the measurement of sea quark and possibly the strange quark polarization utilizing the approved RHIC detectors

  19. Relativities of fundamentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kerry

    2017-08-01

    S-dualities have been held to have radical implications for our metaphysics of fundamentality. In particular, it has been claimed that they make the fundamentality status of a physical object theory-relative in an important new way. But what physicists have had to say on the issue has not been clear or consistent, and in particular seems to be ambiguous between whether S-dualities demand an anti-realist interpretation of fundamentality talk or merely a revised realism. This paper is an attempt to bring some clarity to the matter. After showing that even antecedently familiar fundamentality claims are true only relative to a raft of metaphysical, physical, and mathematical assumptions, I argue that the relativity of fundamentality inherent in S-duality nevertheless represents something new, and that part of the reason for this is that it has both realist and anti-realist implications for fundamentality talk. I close by discussing the broader significance that S-dualities have for structuralist metaphysics and for fundamentality metaphysics more generally.

  20. Fundamental studies of molecular multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.C.; Compton, R.N.

    1984-04-01

    For several years the authors have performed fundamental studies of molecular multiphoton ionization (MPI). We will present a potpourri of techniques and results chosen to illustrate the interesting complexities of molecular MPI. Techniques used include time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, supersonic expansion cooling of molecular beams, harmonic generation, two-color laser MPI, and polarization spectroscopy. Whenever possible the relevance of these results to resonance ionization spectroscopy schemes will be delineated. 23 references, 10 figures

  1. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  2. Polarized advanced fuel reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The d- 3 He reaction has the same spin dependence as the d-t reaction. It produces no neutrons, so that if the d-d reactivity could be reduced, it would lead to a neutron-lean reactor. The current understanding of the possible suppression of the d-d reactivity by spin polarization is discussed. The question as to whether a suppression is possible is still unresolved. Other advanced fuel reactions are briefly discussed. 11 refs

  3. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  4. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...

  5. Fundamentals of electrochemical science

    CERN Document Server

    Oldham, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Key Features* Deals comprehensively with the basic science of electrochemistry* Treats electrochemistry as a discipline in its own right and not as a branch of physical or analytical chemistry* Provides a thorough and quantitative description of electrochemical fundamentals

  6. Fundamentals of ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the fundamentals of ion exchange mechanisms and their thermodynamics are described. A range of ion exchange materials is considered and problems of communication and technology transfer between scientists working in the field are discussed. (UK)

  7. Land Prices and Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Nakamura; Yumi Saita

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term relationship between macro economic fundamentals and the weighted-average land price indicators, which are supposed to be more appropriate than the official land price indicators when analyzing their impacts on the macro economy. In many cases, we find the cointegrating relationships between the weighted-average land price indicators and the discounted present value of land calculated based on the macro economic fundamentals indicators. We also find that the ...

  8. Fundamentals of structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Roy R

    2006-01-01

    From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e

  9. Information security fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r

  10. Religious fundamentalism and conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz

    2006-01-01

    This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...

  11. Fundamentals of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Mulholland, Henry

    1968-01-01

    Fundamentals of Statistics covers topics on the introduction, fundamentals, and science of statistics. The book discusses the collection, organization and representation of numerical data; elementary probability; the binomial Poisson distributions; and the measures of central tendency. The text describes measures of dispersion for measuring the spread of a distribution; continuous distributions for measuring on a continuous scale; the properties and use of normal distribution; and tests involving the normal or student's 't' distributions. The use of control charts for sample means; the ranges

  12. Fundamentalism and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Pigliucci

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The many facets of fundamentalism. There has been much talk about fundamentalism of late. While most people's thought on the topic go to the 9/11 attacks against the United States, or to the ongoing war in Iraq, fundamentalism is affecting science and its relationship to society in a way that may have dire long-term consequences. Of course, religious fundamentalism has always had a history of antagonism with science, and – before the birth of modern science – with philosophy, the age-old vehicle of the human attempt to exercise critical thinking and rationality to solve problems and pursue knowledge. “Fundamentalism” is defined by the Oxford Dictionary of the Social Sciences1 as “A movement that asserts the primacy of religious values in social and political life and calls for a return to a 'fundamental' or pure form of religion.” In its broadest sense, however, fundamentalism is a form of ideological intransigence which is not limited to religion, but includes political positions as well (for example, in the case of some extreme forms of “environmentalism”.

  13. Ionic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ferroelectricity occurs in many different kinds of materials. Many of the technologically important solids, which are ferroelectric, can be classified as ionic. Any microscopic theory of ferroelectricity must contain a description of local polarization forces. We have collaborated in the development of a theory of ionic polarization which is quite successful. Its basic assumption is that the polarization is derived from the properties of the individual ions. We have applied this theory successfully to diverse subjects as linear and nonlinear optical response, phonon dispersion, and piezoelectricity. We have developed numerical methods using the local Density approximation to calculate the multipole polarizabilities of ions when subject to various fields. We have also developed methods of calculating the nonlinear hyperpolarizability, and showed that it can be used to explain light scattering experiments. This paper elaborates on this polarization theory

  14. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  15. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  16. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  17. Polarization measurement for internal polarized gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhenyu; Ye Yunxiu; Lv Haijiang; Mao Yajun

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an introduction to internal polarized gaseous targets, polarization method, polarization measurement method and procedure. To get the total nuclear polarization of hydrogen atoms (including the polarization of the recombined hydrogen molecules) in the target cell, authors have measured the parameters relating to atomic polarization and polarized hydrogen atoms and molecules. The total polarization of the target during our measurement is P T =0.853 ± 0.036. (authors)

  18. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  19. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price

  20. On the intonation of German intonation questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, Caterina; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    German questions and statements are distinguished not only by lexical and syntactic but also by intonational means. This study revisits, for Northern Standard German, how questions are signalled intonationally in utterances that have neither lexical nor syntactic cues. Starting from natural......, but represents a separate attitudinal meaning dimension. Moreover, the findings support that both prenuclear and nuclear fundamental frequency (F0) patterns must be taken into account in the analysis of tune meaning....

  1. Fundamentals of turbomachines

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the working principles of all kinds of turbomachines. The same theoretical framework is used to analyse the different machine types. Fundamentals are first presented and theoretical concepts are then elaborated for particular machine types, starting with the simplest ones.For each machine type, the author strikes a balance between building basic understanding and exploring knowledge of practical aspects. Readers are invited through challenging exercises to consider how the theory applies to particular cases and how it can be generalised.   The book is primarily meant as a course book. It teaches fundamentals and explores applications. It will appeal to senior undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering and to professional engineers seeking to understand the operation of turbomachines. Readers will gain a fundamental understanding of turbomachines. They will also be able to make a reasoned choice of turbomachine for a particular application and to understand its operation...

  2. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  3. Infosec management fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Infosec Management Fundamentals is a concise overview of the Information Security management concepts and techniques, providing a foundational template for both experienced professionals and those new to the industry. This brief volume will also appeal to business executives and managers outside of infosec who want to understand the fundamental concepts of Information Security and how it impacts their business decisions and daily activities. Teaches ISO/IEC 27000 best practices on information security management Discusses risks and controls within the context of an overall information securi

  4. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kunzman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately help strengthen the broader civic fabric.

  5. Fundamentals of continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, John W

    2014-01-01

    A concise introductory course text on continuum mechanics Fundamentals of Continuum Mechanics focuses on the fundamentals of the subject and provides the background for formulation of numerical methods for large deformations and a wide range of material behaviours. It aims to provide the foundations for further study, not just of these subjects, but also the formulations for much more complex material behaviour and their implementation computationally.  This book is divided into 5 parts, covering mathematical preliminaries, stress, motion and deformation, balance of mass, momentum and energ

  6. Pragmatic electrical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Fundamentals introduces the fundamentals of the energy-delivery part of electrical systems. It begins with a study of basic electrical circuits and then focuses on electrical power. Three-phase power systems, transformers, induction motors, and magnetics are the major topics.All of the material in the text is illustrated with completely-worked examples to guide the student to a better understanding of the topics. This short lecture book will be of use at any level of engineering, not just electrical. Its goal is to provide the practicing engineer with a practi

  7. Fundamentals of reactor chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Eiko

    1981-12-01

    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)

  8. Sources of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.

    1983-01-01

    Various sources of polarized neutrons are reviewed. Monoenergetic source produced with unpolarized or polarized beams, white sources of polarized neutrons, production by transmissions through polarized hydrogen targets and polarized thermal neutronsare discussed, with appropriate applications included. (U.K.)

  9. Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gülçat, Ülgen

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the author introduces the concept of unsteady aerodynamics and its underlying principles. He provides the readers with a comprehensive review of the fundamental physics of free and forced unsteadiness, the terminology and basic equations of aerodynamics ranging from incompressible flow to hypersonics. The book also covers modern topics related to the developments made in recent years, especially in relation to wing flapping for propulsion. The book is written for graduate and senior year undergraduate students in aerodynamics and also serves as a reference for experienced researchers. Each chapter includes ample examples, questions, problems and relevant references.   The treatment of these modern topics has been completely revised end expanded for the new edition. It now includes new numerical examples, a section on the ground effect, and state-space representation.

  10. A laboratory scale fundamental time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, R.V.

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a fundamental time (or fundamental length) has been conjectured in many contexts. However, the ''stability of physical theories principle'' seems to be the one that provides, through the tools of algebraic deformation theory, an unambiguous derivation of the stable structures that Nature might have chosen for its algebraic framework. It is well-known that c and ℎ are the deformation parameters that stabilize the Galilean and the Poisson algebra. When the stability principle is applied to the Poincare-Heisenberg algebra, two deformation parameters emerge which define two time (or length) scales. In addition there are, for each of them, a plus or minus sign possibility in the relevant commutators. One of the deformation length scales, related to non-commutativity of momenta, is probably related to the Planck length scale but the other might be much larger and already detectable in laboratory experiments. In this paper, this is used as a working hypothesis to look for physical effects that might settle this question. Phase-space modifications, resonances, interference, electron spin resonance and non-commutative QED are considered. (orig.)

  11. Fundamentals of astrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the motion of the center of mass of a spacecraft; this discipline is generally called astrodynamics. The book focuses on an analytical treatment of the motion of spacecraft and provides insight into the fundamentals of spacecraft orbit dynamics. A large number of topics are

  12. Safety analysis fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.C.D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the safety analysis fundamentals in reactor design. This study includes safety analysis done to show consequences of postulated accidents are acceptable. Safety analysis is also used to set design of special safety systems and includes design assist analysis to support conceptual design. safety analysis is necessary for licensing a reactor, to maintain an operating license, support changes in plant operations

  13. Fundamentals and Optimal Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Rossi, Martín

    2016-01-01

    of regulatory institutions such as revenue sharing, salary caps or luxury taxes. We show, theoretically and empirically, that these large differences in adopted institutions can be rationalized as optimal responses to differences in the fundamental characteristics of the sports being played. This provides...

  14. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  15. Industrial separation processes : fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de A.B.; Bosch, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Separation processes on an industrial scale comprise well over half of the capital and operating costs. They are basic knowledge in every chemical engineering and process engineering study. This book provides comprehensive and fundamental knowledge of university teaching in this discipline,

  16. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  17. Grenoble Fundamental Research Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A summary of the various activities of the Fundamental Research Institute, Grenoble, France is given. The following fields are covered: Nuclear physics, solid state physics, physical chemistry, biology and advanced techniques. Fore more detailed descriptions readers are referred to scientific literature [fr

  18. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  19. Fundamental Metallurgy of Solidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The text takes the reader through some fundamental aspects of solidification, with focus on understanding the basic physics that govern solidification in casting and welding. It is described how the first solid is formed and which factors affect nucleation. It is described how crystals grow from...

  20. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  1. Introduction and fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This introduction discusses advances in the fundamental sciences which underlie the applied science of health physics and radiation protection. Risk assessments in nuclear medicine are made by defining the conditions of exposure, identification of adverse effects, relating exposure with effect, and estimation of the overall risk for ionizing radiations

  2. Fundamentals of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, J A

    1986-01-01

    A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.

  3. Fast fundamental frequency estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    Modelling signals as being periodic is common in many applications. Such periodic signals can be represented by a weighted sum of sinusoids with frequencies being an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. Due to its widespread use, numerous methods have been proposed to estimate the funda...

  4. Interviewers' question rewording: not always a bad thing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Marieke; Ongena, Yfke; Huiskes, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Although correct question reading is a fundamental assumption of standardized interviewing, in surveys, interviewers will not always read all questions exactly as worded. In this study the deviations in question reading by interviewers were analyzed. In addition, we studied if these deviations were

  5. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  6. Live your questions now

    OpenAIRE

    Brownrigg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...

  7. Physics with polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    As a distinct field, elementary particle physics is now approximately forty years old. In all that time, only a few of the thousands of experiments that have been performed have made use of spin polarized particle beams (with apologies to those who have studied neutrino interactions, polarized beam are defined to refer to the case in which the experimenter has control over the polarization direction). If the discussion is restricted to spin polarized electron beams, the number of experiments becomes countable with the fingers of one hand (with several to spare). There are two reasons for this lack of interest. The first is that spin polarized beams are difficult to produce, accelerate, and transport. The second reason is that any physical process that can occur during the collision of a polarized particle with another (polarized or not) can also occur during the collision of unpolarized particles. One might ask then, why has any effort been expended on the subject. The answer, at least in the case of polarized electron beams, is that electron accelerators and storage rings have in recent years achieved sufficient energy to begin to probe the weak interaction directly. The weak interaction distinguishes between left- and right-handed fermionic currents. Left-handed particles interact in a fundamentally different way than their right-handed counterparts. If the experimenter wishes to explore or exploit this difference, he (or she) must either prepare the spin state of the incident particles or analyze the spin state of outgoing particles. For reasons of genearlity and improved statistical precision, the former is usually preferable to the latter. The first of these lectures will review some of the techniques necessary for the production, transport, and monitoring of polarized electron (or positron) beams. The second lecture will survey some of the physics possibilities of polarized electron-positron collisions

  8. Polarization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Brief review is presented of the high energy polarization study including experimental data and the theoretical descriptions. The mostimportant proposals at the biggest accelerators and the crucial technical developments are also listed which may become a main-line of spin physics. 35 refs.; 10 figs.; 4 tabs

  9. Polar Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These three images were taken on three different orbits over the north polar cap in April 1999. Each shows a different part of the same ice-free trough. The left and right images are separated by a distance of more than 100 kilometers (62 miles). Note the similar layers in each image.

  10. CMB polarization at large angular scales: Data analysis of the POLAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, Christopher W.; Keating, Brian G.; Oliveira-Costa, Angelica de; Tegmark, Max; Timbie, Peter T.

    2003-01-01

    The coming flood of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments, spurred by the recent detection of CMB polarization by the DASI and WMAP instruments, will be confronted by many new analysis tasks specific to polarization. For the analysis of CMB polarization data sets, the devil is truly in the details. With this in mind, we present details of the data analysis for the POLAR experiment, which recently led to the tightest upper limits on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation at large angular scales. We discuss the data selection process, map-making algorithms, offset removal, and likelihood analysis which were used to find upper limits on the polarization. Stated using the modern convention for reporting CMB Stokes parameters, these limits are 5.0 μK on both E- and B-type polarization at 95% confidence. Finally, we discuss simulations used to test our analysis techniques and to probe the fundamental limitations of the experiment

  11. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field...

  12. Accelerating and storing polarized hadron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1990-10-01

    Polarization hadron experiments at high energies continue to generate surprises. Many questions remain unanswered or unanswerable within the frame work of QCD. These include such basic questions as to why at high energies the polarization analyzing power in pp elastic scattering remains high, why hyperons are produced with high polarizations etc. It is, therefore, interesting to investigate the possibilities of accelerating and storing polarized beams in high energy colliders. On the technical side the recent understanding and confirmation of the actions of partial and multiple Siberian snakes made it possible to contemplate accelerating and storing polarized hadron beams to multi-TeV energies. In this paper, we will examine the equipment, the operation and the procedure required to obtain colliding beams of polarized protons at TeV energies

  13. Fundamentals of differential beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Pan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a systematic study of the fundamental theory and methods of beamforming with differential microphone arrays (DMAs), or differential beamforming in short. It begins with a brief overview of differential beamforming and some popularly used DMA beampatterns such as the dipole, cardioid, hypercardioid, and supercardioid, before providing essential background knowledge on orthogonal functions and orthogonal polynomials, which form the basis of differential beamforming. From a physical perspective, a DMA of a given order is defined as an array that measures the differential acoustic pressure field of that order; such an array has a beampattern in the form of a polynomial whose degree is equal to the DMA order. Therefore, the fundamental and core problem of differential beamforming boils down to the design of beampatterns with orthogonal polynomials. But certain constraints also have to be considered so that the resulting beamformer does not seriously amplify the sensors’ self noise and the mism...

  14. Fundamentals of Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    Choosing an intermediate-level geophysics text is always problematic: What should we teach students after they have had introductory courses in geology, math, and physics, but little else? Fundamentals of Geophysics is aimed specifically at these intermediate-level students, and the author's stated approach is to construct a text “using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and equations in which the student can follow each derivation step-by-step.” Moreover, for Lowrie, the Earth is round, not flat—the “fundamentals of geophysics” here are the essential properties of our Earth the planet, rather than useful techniques for finding oil and minerals. Thus this book is comparable in both level and approach to C. M. R. Fowler's The Solid Earth (Cambridge University Press, 1990).

  15. Fundamental superstrings as holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabholkar, A.; Murthy, S.

    2007-06-01

    The worldsheet of a macroscopic fundamental superstring in the Green-Schwarz light-cone gauge is viewed as a possible boundary hologram of the near horizon region of a small black string. For toroidally compactified strings, the hologram has global symmetries of AdS 3 x S d-1 x T 8-d ( d = 3, . . . , 8), only some of which extend to local conformal symmetries. We construct the bulk string theory in detail for the particular case of d = 3. The symmetries of the hologram are correctly reproduced from this exact worldsheet description in the bulk. Moreover, the central charge of the boundary Virasoro algebra obtained from the bulk agrees with the Wald entropy of the associated small black holes. This construction provides an exact CFT description of the near horizon region of small black holes both in Type-II and heterotic string theory arising from multiply wound fundamental superstrings. (author)

  16. Fundamental superstrings as holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabholkar, Atish; Murthy, Sameer

    2008-01-01

    The worldsheet of a macroscopic fundamental superstring in the Green-Schwarz light-cone gauge is viewed as a possible boundary hologram of the near horizon region of a small black string. For toroidally compactified strings, the hologram has global symmetries of AdS 3 x S d-1 x T 8-d (d = 3, ..., 8), only some of which extend to local conformal symmetries. We construct the bulk string theory in detail for the particular case of d = 3. The symmetries of the hologram are correctly reproduced from this exact worldsheet description in the bulk. Moreover, the central charge of the boundary Virasoro algebra obtained from the bulk agrees with the Wald entropy of the associated small black holes. This construction provides an exact CFT description of the near horizon region of small black holes both in Type-II and heterotic string theory arising from multiply wound fundamental superstrings

  17. What is Fundamental?

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Discussing what is fundamental in a variety of fields, biologist Richard Dawkins, physicist Gerardus 't Hooft, and mathematician Alain Connes spoke to a packed Main Auditorium at CERN 15 October. Dawkins, Professor of the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, explained simply the logic behind Darwinian natural selection, and how it would seem to apply anywhere in the universe that had the right conditions. 't Hooft, winner of the 1999 Physics Nobel Prize, outlined some of the main problems in physics today, and said he thinks physics is so fundamental that even alien scientists from another planet would likely come up with the same basic principles, such as relativity and quantum mechanics. Connes, winner of the 1982 Fields Medal (often called the Nobel Prize of Mathematics), explained how physics is different from mathematics, which he described as a "factory for concepts," unfettered by connection to the physical world. On 16 October, anthropologist Sharon Traweek shared anecdotes from her ...

  18. Fundamentals of gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  19. Fundamentals of Filament Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0110 FUNDAMENTALS OF FILAMENT INTERACTION Martin Richardson UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA Final Report 06/02/2017 DISTRIBUTION...of Filament Interaction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA95501110001 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin Richardson 5d. PROJECT...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Martin Richardson a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 407-823-6819 Standard Form

  20. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.

    1978-05-01

    The basic processes of living cells which are relevant to an understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with man are described. Particular reference is made to cell death, cancer induction and genetic effects. This is the second of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the bases of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the International Commision on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Others consider basic radiation physics and the biological effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  1. Fundamentals of queueing theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Donald; Thompson, James M; Harris, Carl M

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""This is one of the best books available. Its excellent organizational structure allows quick reference to specific models and its clear presentation . . . solidifies the understanding of the concepts being presented.""-IIE Transactions on Operations Engineering Thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field, Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, Fourth Edition continues to present the basic statistical principles that are necessary to analyze the probabilistic nature of queues. Rather than pre

  2. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  3. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  4. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton

    2016-01-01

    This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating @@), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.

  5. Fundamental concepts on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    The fundamental concepts on energy and the different forms in which it is manifested are presented. Since it is possible to transform energy in a way to other, the laws that govern these transformations are discussed. The energy transformation processes are an essential compound in the capacity humanizes to survive and be developed. The energy use brings important economic aspects, technical and political. Because this, any decision to administer energy system will be key for our future life

  6. Fundamentals of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Qureshi, K.A.; Minhas, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    This book is being presented to introduce the fundamentals of technology of powder metallurgy. An attempt has been made to present an overall view of powder metallurgy technology in the first chapter, whereas chapter 2 to 8 deal with the production of metal powders. The basic commercial methods of powder production are briefly described with illustrations. Chapter 9 to 12 describes briefly metal powder characteristics and principles of testing, mixing, blending, conditioning, compaction and sintering. (orig./A.B.)

  7. Fundamentals of Physical Volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Bruce

    2010-04-01

    Fundamentals haunt me. Certain words ignite unavoidable trains of thought, trains that begin in a cascade, unexpectedly leaping chasm after chasm, rushing from single words to whole paragraphs to full books to men's lives. So it is with me with seeing the word “fundamental” in print. I cannot evade the euphoric excitement of thinking that someone has found something terribly original and simple, understandable by every journeyman, explaining everything.

  8. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.

    1978-04-01

    A review is presented of basic radiation physics with particular relevance to radiological protection. The processes leading to the production and absorption of ionising radiation are outlined, and the important dosimetric quantities and their units of measurements. The review is the first of a series of reports presenting the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the ICRP. (author)

  9. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating π), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.

  10. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  11. Value of Fundamental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  12. Applications of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.

    1993-01-01

    The additional spin degree of freedom of the neutron can be made use of in neutron scattering work in two fundamental ways: (a) directly for the identification of magnetic scattering effects and (b) indirectly as a spectroscopic tool for modulating and analysing beams. Although strong magnetic scattering contributions can often be studied by unpolarized neutrons, a fully unambiguous separation of nuclear and magnetic phenomena can only be achieved by the additional information provided by polarized neutrons, especially if one of the two kinds of contributions is weak compared to the other. In the most general case a sample with both magnetic and nuclear features can be characterized by as many as 16 independent dynamic correlation functions instead of the single well known S(q, ω) for non-magnetic nuclear scattering only. Polarization analysis in principle allows one to determine all these 16 functions. The indirect applications of polarized neutrons are also steadily gaining importance. The most widely used method of this kind, the application of Larmor precessions for high resolution energy analysis in Neutron Spin Echo spectroscopy opened up a whole new domain in inelastic neutron scattering which was not accessible to any other spectroscopic method with or without neutrons before. (author)

  13. Polarity, veridicality and temporal connectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez Valencia, Victor; Wouden van der, Ton; Zwarts, Frans

    1993-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the semantical properties of before, after, and related elements. In particular, we shall raise the question whether the occurrence of negative polarity items in before-clauses can be described in terms of the semantic structure of the

  14. EDITORIAL: Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung; Kneissl, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Throughout the history of group-III-nitride materials and devices, scientific breakthroughs and technological advances have gone hand-in-hand. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the discovery of the nucleation of smooth (0001) GaN films on c-plane sapphire and the activation of p-dopants in GaN led very quickly to the realization of high-brightness blue and green LEDs, followed by the first demonstration of GaN-based violet laser diodes in the mid 1990s. Today, blue InGaN LEDs boast record external quantum efficiencies exceeding 80% and the emission wavelength of the InGaN-based laser diode has been pushed into the green spectral range. Although these tremenduous advances have already spurred multi-billion dollar industries, there are still a number of scientific questions and technological issues that are unanswered. One key challenge is related to the polar nature of the III-nitride wurtzite crystal. Until a decade ago all research activities had almost exclusively concentrated on (0001)-oriented polar GaN layers and heterostructures. Although the device characteristics seem excellent, the strong polarization fields at GaN heterointerfaces can lead to a significant deterioration of the device performance. Triggered by the first demonstration non-polar GaN quantum wells grown on LiAlO2 by Waltereit and colleagues in 2000, impressive advances in the area of non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors and devices have been achieved. Today, a large variety of heterostructures free of polarization fields and exhibiting exceptional electronic and optical properties have been demonstrated, and the fundamental understanding of polar, semipolar and non-polar nitrides has made significant leaps forward. The contributions in this Semiconductor Science and Technology special issue on non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors provide an impressive and up-to-date cross-section of all areas of research and device physics in this field. The articles cover a wide range of

  15. Modeling the fundamental characteristics and processes of the spacecraft functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenov, V. I.; Osin, M. I.; Zakharov, Y. V.

    1986-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of modeling of spacecraft characteristics by using computing means are considered. Particular attention is devoted to the design studies, the description of physical appearance of the spacecraft, and simulated modeling of spacecraft systems. The fundamental questions of organizing the on-the-ground spacecraft testing and the methods of mathematical modeling were presented.

  16. Fundamental Rights, European Private Law, and Financial Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.; Micklitz, H.-W.

    2014-01-01

    Although it seems to be undisputed today that the harmonisation of private law in the EU cannot take place without due regard for fundamental rights, many questions still exist as to how and to what extent European private law can and should be influenced by fundamental rights. This chapter aims to

  17. Frequently Asked Questions: The Higgs!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? How does the Higgs mechanism work? What is the difference in physics between strong evidence and a discovery? Why do physicists speak in terms of "sigmas"? Find out here!   Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? Because it could be the answer to the question: how does Nature decide whether or not to assign mass to particles? All the fundamental particles making up matter – the electron, the quarks, etc. – have masses. Moreover, quantum physics requires that forces are also carried by particles. The W and Z particles that carry the weak force responsible for radioactivity must also have masses, whereas the photon, the carrier of the electromagnetic force, has no mass at all. This is the root of the “Higgs problem”: how to give masses to the fundamental particles and break the symmetry between the massive W and Z and the massless photon? Just assigning masses by hand...

  18. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  19. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  20. Repetitive Questioning Exasperates Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.

  1. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  2. FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOMECHANICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Knudson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book provides a broad and in-depth theoretical and practical description of the fundamental concepts in understanding biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of human movement. PURPOSE The aim is to bring together up-to-date biomechanical knowledge with expert application knowledge. Extensive referencing for students is also provided. FEATURES This textbook is divided into 12 chapters within four parts, including a lab activities section at the end. The division is as follows: Part 1 Introduction: 1.Introduction to biomechanics of human movement; 2.Fundamentals of biomechanics and qualitative analysis; Part 2 Biological/Structural Bases: 3.Anatomical description and its limitations; 4.Mechanics of the musculoskeletal system; Part 3 Mechanical Bases: 5.Linear and angular kinematics; 6.Linear kinetics; 7.Angular kinetics; 8.Fluid mechanics; Part 4 Application of Biomechanics in Qualitative Analysis :9.Applying biomechanics in physical education; 10.Applying biomechanics in coaching; 11.Applying biomechanics in strength and conditioning; 12.Applying biomechanics in sports medicine and rehabilitation. AUDIENCE This is an important reading for both student and educators in the medicine, sport and exercise-related fields. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a helpful guide to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in exercise and sport biomechanics. ASSESSMENT The text provides a constructive fundamental resource for biomechanics, exercise and sport-related students, teachers and researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion. It is also very useful since being clearly written and presenting several ways of examples of the application of biomechanics to help teach and apply biomechanical variables and concepts, including sport-related ones

  3. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  4. Mathematical analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bashirov, Agamirza

    2014-01-01

    The author's goal is a rigorous presentation of the fundamentals of analysis, starting from elementary level and moving to the advanced coursework. The curriculum of all mathematics (pure or applied) and physics programs include a compulsory course in mathematical analysis. This book will serve as can serve a main textbook of such (one semester) courses. The book can also serve as additional reading for such courses as real analysis, functional analysis, harmonic analysis etc. For non-math major students requiring math beyond calculus, this is a more friendly approach than many math-centric o

  5. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  6. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.

    1978-04-01

    A brief review is presented of the early and late effects of ionising radiation on man, with particular emphasis on those aspects of importance in radiological protection. The terminology and dose response curves, are explained. Early effects on cells, tissues and whole organs are discussed. Late somatic effects considered include cancer and life-span shortening. Genetic effects are examined. The review is the third of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria, such as those of the ICRP. (u.K.)

  7. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  8. Fundamental composite electroweak dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    Using the recent joint results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations on the Higgs boson, we determine the current status of composite electroweak dynamics models based on the expected scalar sector. Our analysis can be used as a minimal template for a wider class of models between the two limitin...... space at the effective Lagrangian level. We show that a wide class of models of fundamental composite electroweak dynamics are still compatible with the present constraints. The results are relevant for the ongoing and future searches at the Large Hadron Collider....

  9. Fundamentals of Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Heagney, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    With sales of more than 160,000 copies, Fundamentals of Project Management has helped generations of project managers navigate the ins and outs of every aspect of this complex discipline. Using a simple step-by-step approach, the book is the perfect introduction to project management tools, techniques, and concepts. Readers will learn how to: ò Develop a mission statement, vision, goals, and objectives ò Plan the project ò Create the work breakdown structure ò Produce a workable schedule ò Understand earned value analysis ò Manage a project team ò Control and evaluate progress at every stage.

  10. Fundamentals of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Calculus encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and FunctionsThe DerivativeUsing the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Techniques of DifferentiationIntegral CalculusIntegration TechniquesFunctions

  11. Fundamentals of attosecond optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zenghu

    2011-01-01

    Attosecond optical pulse generation, along with the related process of high-order harmonic generation, is redefining ultrafast physics and chemistry. A practical understanding of attosecond optics requires significant background information and foundational theory to make full use of these cutting-edge lasers and advance the technology toward the next generation of ultrafast lasers. Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics provides the first focused introduction to the field. The author presents the underlying concepts and techniques required to enter the field, as well as recent research advances th

  12. Scientific and technological fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    Specific ultimate repositories in a given geological formation have to be assessed on the basis of a safety analysis, taking into account the site specifics of the repository system 'Overall geological situation - ultimate disposal facility - waste forms'. The fundamental possibilities and limits of waste disposal are outlined. Orientation values up to about 10 6 years are derived for the isolation potential of ultimate disposal mines, and about 10 4 years for the calculation of effects of emplaced radioactive wastes also on man. (DG) [de

  13. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  14. Fundamental formulas of physics

    CERN Document Server

    1960-01-01

    The republication of this book, unabridged and corrected, fills the need for a comprehensive work on fundamental formulas of mathematical physics. It ranges from simple operations to highly sophisticated ones, all presented most lucidly with terms carefully defined and formulas given completely. In addition to basic physics, pertinent areas of chemistry, astronomy, meteorology, biology, and electronics are also included.This is no mere listing of formulas, however. Mathematics is integrated into text, for the most part, so that each chapter stands as a brief summary or even short textbook of

  15. Fundamentals of Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Franc, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The present book is aimed at providing a comprehensive presentation of cavitation phenomena in liquid flows. It is further backed up by the experience, both experimental and theoretical, of the authors whose expertise has been internationally recognized. A special effort is made to place the various methods of investigation in strong relation with the fundamental physics of cavitation, enabling the reader to treat specific problems independently. Furthermore, it is hoped that a better knowledge of the cavitation phenomenon will allow engineers to create systems using it positively. Examples in the literature show the feasibility of this approach.

  16. Fundamentals of magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Getzlaff, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade a tremendous progress has taken place in understanding the basis of magnetism, especially in reduced dimensions. In the first part, the fundamentals of magnetism are conveyed for atoms and bulk-like solid-state systems providing a basis for the understanding of new phenomena which exclusively occur in low-dimensional systems as the giant magneto resistance. This wide field is discussed in the second part and illustrated by copious examples. This textbook is particularly suitable for graduate students in physical and materials sciences. It includes numerous examples, exercises, and references.

  17. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Chemistry Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. The handbook includes information on the atomic structure of matter; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions involved with corrosion processes; water chemistry control, including the principles of water treatment; the hazards of chemicals and gases, and basic gaseous diffusion processes. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the chemical properties of materials and the way these properties can impose limitations on the operation of equipment and systems

  18. Nanomachines fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This first-hand account by one of the pioneers of nanobiotechnology brings together a wealth of valuable material in a single source. It allows fascinating insights into motion at the nanoscale, showing how the proven principles of biological nanomotors are being transferred to artificial nanodevices.As such, the author provides engineers and scientists with the fundamental knowledge surrounding the design and operation of biological and synthetic nanomotors and the latest advances in nanomachines. He addresses such topics as nanoscale propulsions, natural biomotors, molecular-scale machin

  19. Fundamentals of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2007-01-01

    Now in a new full-color edition, Fundamentals of Photonics, Second Edition is a self-contained and up-to-date introductory-level textbook that thoroughly surveys this rapidly expanding area of engineering and applied physics. Featuring a logical blend of theory and applications, coverage includes detailed accounts of the primary theories of light, including ray optics, wave optics, electromagnetic optics, and photon optics, as well as the interaction of photons and atoms, and semiconductor optics. Presented at increasing levels of complexity, preliminary sections build toward more advan

  20. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids)

  1. STEP and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-09-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 1013 to one part in 1018 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels.

  2. STEP and fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-01-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 10 13 to one part in 10 18 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels. (paper)

  3. Quivers, words and fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattioli, Paolo; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2015-01-01

    A systematic study of holomorphic gauge invariant operators in general N=1 quiver gauge theories, with unitary gauge groups and bifundamental matter fields, was recently presented in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2013)094. For large ranks a simple counting formula in terms of an infinite product was given. We extend this study to quiver gauge theories with fundamental matter fields, deriving an infinite product form for the refined counting in these cases. The infinite products are found to be obtained from substitutions in a simple building block expressed in terms of the weighted adjacency matrix of the quiver. In the case without fundamentals, it is a determinant which itself is found to have a counting interpretation in terms of words formed from partially commuting letters associated with simple closed loops in the quiver. This is a new relation between counting problems in gauge theory and the Cartier-Foata monoid. For finite ranks of the unitary gauge groups, the refined counting is given in terms of expressions involving Littlewood-Richardson coefficients.

  4. Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    18 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-outlined polygons on a frost-covered surface in the south polar region of Mars. In summer, this surface would not be bright and the polygons would not have dark outlines--these are a product of the presence of seasonal frost. Location near: 77.2oS, 204.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  5. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  6. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    ? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic......As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena...... imagination, as a prerequisite for generating alternative research questions. The third part makes explicit anthropologist Maurice Godelier's theoretical imagination, carving out some specific theoretical parts which may be used in the generating process. The conclusion then suggests a number of questions...

  7. Fundamentals of Structural Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome J

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Engineering provides a balanced, seamless treatment of both classic, analytic methods and contemporary, computer-based techniques for conceptualizing and designing a structure. The book’s principle goal is to foster an intuitive understanding of structural behavior based on problem solving experience for students of civil engineering and architecture who have been exposed to the basic concepts of engineering mechanics and mechanics of materials. Making it distinct from many other undergraduate textbooks, the authors of this text recognize the notion that engineers reason about behavior using simple models and intuition they acquire through problem solving. The approach adopted in this text develops this type of intuition  by presenting extensive, realistic problems and case studies together with computer simulation, which allows rapid exploration of  how a structure responds to changes in geometry and physical parameters. This book also: Emphasizes problem-based understanding of...

  8. Making physics more fundamental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-07-15

    The stellar death throes of supernovae have been seen and admired since time immemorial. However last year's was the first to come under the combined scrutiny of space-borne radiation detectors and underground neutrino monitors as well as terrestrial optical telescopes and even gravity wave antennae. The remarkable results underline the power of modern physics to explain and interrelate processes in the furthest reaches of the cosmos and the deep interior of nuclear particles. In recent years this common ground between 'Big Bang' cosmology and particle physics has been regularly trodden and retrodden in the light of fresh new insights and new experimental results, and thinking has steadily converged. In 1983, the first Symposium on Astronomy, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics, organized by CERN and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), was full of optimism, with new ideas ('inflation') to explain how the relatively small variations in the structure of the Universe could have arisen through the quantum structure of the initial cataclysm.

  9. Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations.  These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...

  10. Fundamentals of sustainable neighbourhoods

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avi

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces architects, engineers, builders, and urban planners to a range of design principles of sustainable communities and illustrates them with outstanding case studies. Drawing on the author’s experience as well as local and international case studies, Fundamentals of Sustainable Neighbourhoods presents planning concepts that minimize developments' carbon footprint through compact communities, adaptable and expandable dwellings, adaptable landscapes, and smaller-sized yet quality-designed housing. This book also: Examines in-depth global strategies for minimizing the residential carbon footprint, including district heating, passive solar gain, net-zero residences, as well as preserving the communities' natural assets Reconsiders conceptual approaches in building design and urban planning to promote a better connection between communities and nature Demonstrates practical applications of green architecture Focuses on innovative living spaces in urban environments

  11. Fundamental partial compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-11-07

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  12. Theory of fundamental interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    In the present article the theory of fundamental interactions is derived in a systematic way from the first principles. In the developed theory there is no separation between space-time and internal gauge space. Main equations for basic fields are derived. In is shown that the theory satisfies the correspondence principle and gives rise to new notions in the considered region. In particular, the conclusion is made about the existence of particles which are characterized not only by the mass, spin, charge but also by the moment of inertia. These are rotating particles, the particles which represent the notion of the rigid body on the microscopical level and give the key for understanding strong interactions. The main concepts and dynamical laws for these particles are formulated. The basic principles of the theory may be examined experimentally not in the distant future. 29 refs

  13. Fundamentals of Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, William

    1997-10-01

    This unique textbook presents a comprehensive overview of the fundamental principles of geophysics. Unlike most geophysics textbooks, it combines both the applied and theoretical aspects to the subject. The author explains complex geophysical concepts using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and easy-to-follow equations. After placing the Earth in the context of the solar system, he describes each major branch of geophysics: gravitation, seismology, dating, thermal and electrical properties, geomagnetism, paleomagnetism and geodynamics. Each chapter begins with a summary of the basic physical principles, and a brief account of each topic's historical evolution. The book will satisfy the needs of intermediate-level earth science students from a variety of backgrounds, while at the same time preparing geophysics majors for continued study at a higher level.

  14. Fundamentals of PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keizo

    1997-01-01

    Elemental analysis based on the particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) is a novel technique to analyze trace elements. It is a very simple method, its sensitivity is very high, multiple elements in a sample can be simultaneously analyzed and a few 10 μg of a sample is enough to be analyzed. Owing to these characteristics, the PIXE analysis is now used in many fields (e.g. biology, medicine, dentistry, environmental pollution, archaeology, culture assets etc.). Fundamentals of the PIXE analysis are described here: the production of characteristic x-rays and inner shell ionization by heavy charged particles, the continuous background in PIXE spectrum, quantitative formulae of the PIXE analysis, the detection limit of PIXE analysis, etc. (author)

  15. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  16. Fundamental partial compositeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea; Vigiani, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Under certain assumptions on the dynamics of the scalars, successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough ‘square root’. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)_R-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  17. Fundamentals of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2017-01-01

    Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics, Third Edition is a clear and detailed introduction to quantum mechanics and its applications in chemistry and physics. All required math is clearly explained, including intermediate steps in derivations, and concise review of the math is included in the text at appropriate points. Most of the elementary quantum mechanical models-including particles in boxes, rigid rotor, harmonic oscillator, barrier penetration, hydrogen atom-are clearly and completely presented. Applications of these models to selected “real world” topics are also included. This new edition includes many new topics such as band theory and heat capacity of solids, spectroscopy of molecules and complexes (including applications to ligand field theory), and small molecules of astrophysical interest.

  18. Fundamentals of phosphors

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, William M; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from the second edition of the best-selling Handbook of Phosphors, Fundamentals of Phosphors covers the principles and mechanisms of luminescence in detail and surveys the primary phosphor materials as well as their optical properties. The book addresses cutting-edge developments in phosphor science and technology including oxynitride phosphors and the impact of lanthanide level location on phosphor performance.Beginning with an explanation of the physics underlying luminescence mechanisms in solids, the book goes on to interpret various luminescence phenomena in inorganic and organic materials. This includes the interpretation of the luminescence of recently developed low-dimensional systems, such as quantum wells and dots. The book also discusses the excitation mechanisms by cathode-ray and ionizing radiation and by electric fields to produce electroluminescence. The book classifies phosphor materials according to the type of luminescence centers employed or the class of host materials used and inte...

  19. Fundamentals of thinking, patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, O. M.; Gafurov, D. O.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    The authors analyze the fundamentals of thinking and propose to consider a model of the brain based on the presence of magnetic properties of gliacytes (Schwann cells) because of their oxygen saturation (oxygen has paramagnetic properties). The authors also propose to take into account the motion of electrical discharges through synapses causing electric and magnetic fields as well as additional effects such as paramagnetic resonance, which allows combining multisensory object-related information located in different parts of the brain. Therefore, the events of the surrounding world are reflected and remembered in the cortex columns, thus, creating isolated subnets with altered magnetic properties (patterns) and subsequently participate in recognition of objects, form a memory, and so on. The possibilities for the pattern-based thinking are based on the practical experience of applying methods and technologies of artificial neural networks in the form of a neuroemulator and neuromorphic computing devices.

  20. Questioning the Universe concepts in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadoff, Ahren

    2008-01-01

    UNITS AND POWERS OF TEN PHYSICS AND ITS METHODOLOGY  What Is Physics? Methodology The First Scientist Why Do You Believe? Back to the Questions How Do We Answer theQuestions? The Need to BeQuantitative Theories Models AestheticJudgments  MOTION Relating the Variables of Motion Graphs of One-Dimensional Motion Constant Speed Constant Acceleration Two-Dimensional Motion FORCES The Fundamental Forces A Specific Force Law: Newtonian Gravity Weight How Does Force Affect Motion? Newton's SecondLaw Newton, the Apple, and the Moon Combining Two Laws The Mass of the Earth Newton's Firs

  1. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...

  3. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  4. Polarization versus Temperature in Pyridinium Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, V. V.; Prezhdo, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic polarization and charge transfer effects play a crucial role in thermodynamic, structural, and transport properties of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). These nonadditive interactions constitute a useful tool for tuning physical chemical behavior of RTILs. Polarization and charge...... interactions changes negligibly between 300 and 900 K, while the average dipole moment increases due to thermal fluctuations of geometries. Our results contribute to the fundamental understanding of electronic effects in the condensed phase of ionic systems and foster progress in physical chemistry...

  5. Fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a

  6. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  7. Polar crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makosinski, S.

    1981-01-01

    In many applications polar cranes have to be repeatedly positioned with high accuracy. A guidance system is disclosed which has two pairs of guides. Each guide consists of two rollers carried by a sheave rotatable mounted on the crane bridge, the rollers being locatable one on each side of a guideway, e.g. the circular track on which the bridge runs. The pairs of guides are interconnected by respective rope loops which pass around and are locked to the respective pairs of sheaves in such a manner that movement of one guide results in equal movement of the other guide in a sense to maintain the repeatability of positioning of the centre of the bridge. A hydraulically-linked guide system is also described. (author)

  8. Fundamental Physics with Antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangst, J. S.

    Antihydrogen—the antimatter equivalent of the hydrogen atom—is of fundamental interest as a test bed for universal symmetries—such as CPT and the Weak Equivalence Principle for gravitation. Invariance under CPT requires that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same spectrum. Antimatter is of course intriguing because of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe—currently unexplained by the Standard Model. At the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) [1], several groups have been working diligently since 1999 to produce, trap, and study the structure and behaviour of the antihydrogen atom. One of the main thrusts of the AD experimental program is to apply precision techniques from atomic physics to the study of antimatter. Such experiments complement the high-energy searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Antihydrogen is the only atom of antimatter to be produced in the laboratory. This is not so unfortunate, as its matter equivalent, hydrogen, is one of the most well-understood and accurately measured systems in all of physics. It is thus very compelling to undertake experimental examinations of the structure of antihydrogen. As experimental spectroscopy of antihydrogen has yet to begin in earnest, I will give here a brief introduction to some of the ion and atom trap developments necessary for synthesizing and trapping antihydrogen, so that it can be studied.

  9. Strings and fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartl, Marco; Brunner, Ilka; Haack, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The basic idea, simple and revolutionary at the same time, to replace the concept of a point particle with a one-dimensional string, has opened up a whole new field of research. Even today, four decades later, its multifaceted consequences are still not fully conceivable. Up to now string theory has offered a new way to view particles as different excitations of the same fundamental object. It has celebrated success in discovering the graviton in its spectrum, and it has naturally led scientists to posit space-times with more than four dimensions - which in turn has triggered numerous interesting developments in fields as varied as condensed matter physics and pure mathematics. This book collects pedagogical lectures by leading experts in string theory, introducing the non-specialist reader to some of the newest developments in the field. The carefully selected topics are at the cutting edge of research in string theory and include new developments in topological strings, AdS/CFT dualities, as well as newly emerging subfields such as doubled field theory and holography in the hydrodynamic regime. The contributions to this book have been selected and arranged in such a way as to form a self-contained, graduate level textbook. (orig.)

  10. Fundamentals of precision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, Kimon

    2018-01-01

    Imagine a world where clinicians make accurate diagnoses and provide targeted therapies to their patients according to well-defined, biologically-informed disease subtypes, accounting for individual differences in genetic make-up, behaviors, cultures, lifestyles and the environment. This is not as utopic as it may seem. Relatively recent advances in science and technology have led to an explosion of new information on what underlies health and what constitutes disease. These novel insights emanate from studies of the human genome and microbiome, their associated transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, as well as epigenomics and exposomics—such ‘omics data can now be generated at unprecedented depth and scale, and at rapidly decreasing cost. Making sense and integrating these fundamental information domains to transform health care and improve health remains a challenge—an ambitious, laudable and high-yield goal. Precision dentistry is no longer a distant vision; it is becoming part of the rapidly evolving present. Insights from studies of the human genome and microbiome, their associated transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, and epigenomics and exposomics have reached an unprecedented depth and scale. Much more needs to be done, however, for the realization of precision medicine in the oral health domain. PMID:29227115

  11. Strings and fundamental physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartl, Marco [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Brunner, Ilka; Haack, Michael (eds.) [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    2012-07-01

    The basic idea, simple and revolutionary at the same time, to replace the concept of a point particle with a one-dimensional string, has opened up a whole new field of research. Even today, four decades later, its multifaceted consequences are still not fully conceivable. Up to now string theory has offered a new way to view particles as different excitations of the same fundamental object. It has celebrated success in discovering the graviton in its spectrum, and it has naturally led scientists to posit space-times with more than four dimensions - which in turn has triggered numerous interesting developments in fields as varied as condensed matter physics and pure mathematics. This book collects pedagogical lectures by leading experts in string theory, introducing the non-specialist reader to some of the newest developments in the field. The carefully selected topics are at the cutting edge of research in string theory and include new developments in topological strings, AdS/CFT dualities, as well as newly emerging subfields such as doubled field theory and holography in the hydrodynamic regime. The contributions to this book have been selected and arranged in such a way as to form a self-contained, graduate level textbook. (orig.)

  12. Fundamentals of klystron testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.W. Jr.

    1978-08-01

    Fundamentals of klystron testing is a text primarily intended for the indoctrination of new klystron group test stand operators. It should significantly reduce the familiarization time of a new operator, making him an asset to the group sooner than has been experienced in the past. The new employee must appreciate the mission of SLAC before he can rightfully be expected to make a meaningful contribution to the group's effort. Thus, the introductory section acquaints the reader with basic concepts of accelerators in general, then briefly describes major physical aspects of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Only then is his attention directed to the klystron, with its auxiliary systems, and the rudiments of klystron tube performance checks. It is presumed that the reader is acquainted with basic principles of electronics and scientific notation. However, to preserve the integrity of an indoctrination guide, tedious technical discussions and mathematical analysis have been studiously avoided. It is hoped that the new operator will continue to use the text for reference long after his indoctrination period is completed. Even the more experienced operator should find that particular sections will refresh his understanding of basic principles of klystron testing

  13. Making physics more fundamental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The stellar death throes of supernovae have been seen and admired since time immemorial. However last year's was the first to come under the combined scrutiny of space-borne radiation detectors and underground neutrino monitors as well as terrestrial optical telescopes and even gravity wave antennae. The remarkable results underline the power of modern physics to explain and interrelate processes in the furthest reaches of the cosmos and the deep interior of nuclear particles. In recent years this common ground between 'Big Bang' cosmology and particle physics has been regularly trodden and retrodden in the light of fresh new insights and new experimental results, and thinking has steadily converged. In 1983, the first Symposium on Astronomy, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics, organized by CERN and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), was full of optimism, with new ideas ('inflation') to explain how the relatively small variations in the structure of the Universe could have arisen through the quantum structure of the initial cataclysm

  14. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  15. Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. L.

    2005-06-01

    Quantum mechanics has evolved from a subject of study in pure physics to one with a wide range of applications in many diverse fields. The basic concepts of quantum mechanics are explained in this book in a concise and easy-to-read manner emphasising applications in solid state electronics and modern optics. Following a logical sequence, the book is focused on the key ideas and is conceptually and mathematically self-contained. The fundamental principles of quantum mechanics are illustrated by showing their application to systems such as the hydrogen atom, multi-electron ions and atoms, the formation of simple organic molecules and crystalline solids of practical importance. It leads on from these basic concepts to discuss some of the most important applications in modern semiconductor electronics and optics. Containing many homework problems and worked examples, the book is suitable for senior-level undergraduate and graduate level students in electrical engineering, materials science and applied physics. Clear exposition of quantum mechanics written in a concise and accessible style Precise physical interpretation of the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics Illustrates the important concepts and results by reference to real-world examples in electronics and optoelectronics Contains homeworks and worked examples, with solutions available for instructors

  16. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author of the book has had 25 years of experience at the Nuclear Chemistry of Prague Technical University. In consequence, the book is intended as a basic textbook for students of this field. Its main objectives are an easily understandable presentation of the complex subject and in spite of the uncertainty which still characterizes the definition and subjects of nuclear chemistry - a systematic classification and logical structure. Contents: 1. Introduction (history and definition); 2. General nuclear chemistry (physical fundamentals, hot atom chemistry, interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, radioactive elements, isotope effects, isotope exchange, chemistry of radioactive trace elements); 3. Methods of nuclear chemistry of nuclear chemistry (radiochemical methods, activation, separation and enrichment chemistry); 4. Preparative nuclear chemistry (isotope production, labelled compounds); 5. Analytival nuclear chemistry; 6. Applied nuclear chemistry (isotope applications in general physical and analytical chemistry). The book is supplemented by an annex with tables, a name catalogue and a subject index which will facilitate access to important information. (RB) [de

  17. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  18. Ten Questions about Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Fromm, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Self-Organization is of growing importance for large distributed computing systems. In these systems, a central control and manual management is exceedingly difficult or even impossible. Emergence is widely recognized as the core principle behind self-organization. Therefore the idea to use both principles to control and organize large-scale distributed systems is very attractive and not so far off. Yet there are many open questions about emergence and self-organization, ranging from a clear ...

  19. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  20. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  1. Good Administration as a Fundamental Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrét Vala Kristjánsdóttir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights lists good administration as a fundamental right. The scope of this right, as defined in Article 41 of the EU Charter, is limited to situations in which persons are dealing with the institutions and bodies of the European Union; this gives it a narrower scope than that of the Charter as a whole. This paper discusses the status of this right as a subjective, fundamental right and a codified principle of EU law. The focus is on the question of applicability of the right to situations in which persons are dealing with the institutions and bodies of Member States and questions are raised regarding the implications of Article 41 in this respect. The paper concludes that Article 41 of the Charter in fact limits the applicability of good administration to the institutions and bodies of the EU. This does not however, preclude the applicability of a general principle of good administration, as established by the European Court of Justice, to Member States and the formal recognition of this principle in the EU Charter seems to affect legal reasoning and contribute to some extent to the protection of administrative rules in the implementation of EU law.

  2. Physics with polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-06-01

    As a distinct field, elementary particle physics is now approximately forty years old. In all that time, only a few of the thousands of experiments that have been performed have made use of spin polarized particle beams. There are two reasons for this lack of interest. The first is that spin polarized beams are difficult to produce, accelerate, and transport. The second reason is that any physical process that can occur during the collision of a polarized particle with another (polarized or not) can also occur during the collision of unpolarized particles. One might ask then, why has any effort been expended on the subject? The answer, at least in the case of polarized electron beams, is that electron accelerators and storage rings have in recent years achieved sufficient energy to begin to probe the weak interaction directly. The weak interaction distinguishes between left- and right-handed fermionic currents. Left-handed particles interact in a fundamentally different way than their right-handed counterparts. If the experimenter wishes to explore or exploit this difference, he (or she) must either prepare the spin state of the incident particles or analyze the spin state of outgoing particles. For reasons, of generality and improved statistical precision, the former is usually preferable to the latter. The first of these lectures will review some of the techniques necessary for the production, transport, and monitoring of polarized electron (or positron) beams. The second lecture will survey some of the physics possibilities of polarized electron--positron collisions. 33 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Fundamentals - longitudinal motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    There are many ways to accelerate charged particles to high energy for physics research. Each has served its purpose but eventually has encountered fundamental limitations of one kind or another. Looking at the famous Livingston curve, the initial birth and final level-off of all types of accelerators is seen. In fact, in the mid-80s we personally witnessed the creation of a new type of collider - the Stanford Linear Collider. Also witnessed, was the resurgence of study into novel methods of acceleration. This paper will cover acceleration and longitudinal motion in a synchrotron. A synchrotron is a circular accelerator with the following three characteristics: (1) Magnetic guiding (dipole) and confinement (quadrupole) components are placed in a small neighborhood around the equilibrium orbit. (2) Particles are kept in resonance with the radio-frequency electric field indefinitely to achieve acceleration to higher energies. (3) Magnetic fields are varied adiabatically with the energy of the particle. D. Edwards described the transverse oscillations of particles in a synchrotron. Here the author talks about the longitudinal oscillations of particles. The phase stability principle was invented by V. Veksler and E. McMillan independently in 1945. The phase stability and strong focusing principle, invented by Courant and Livingston in 1952, enabled the steady energy gain of accelerators and storage rings witnessed during the past 30 years. This paper is a unified overview of the related rf subjects in an accelerator and a close coupling between accelerator physics and engineering practices, which is essential for the major progress in areas such as high intensity synchrotrons, a multistage accelerator complex, and anti-proton production and cooling, made possible in the past 20 years

  4. Theoretical model of polar cap auroral arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.R.; Burke, W.J.; USAF, Bedford, MA)

    1985-01-01

    A theory of the polar cap auroral arcs is proposed under the assumption that the magnetic field reconnection occurs in the cusp region on tail field lines during northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Requirements of a convection model during northward IMF are enumerated based on observations and fundamental theoretical considerations. The theta aurora can be expected to occur on the closed field lines convecting sunward in the central polar cap, while the less intense regular polar cap arcs can occur either on closed or open field lines. The dynamo region for the polar cap arcs is required to be on closed field lines convecting tailward in the plasma sheet which is magnetically connected to the sunward convection in the central polar cap. 43 references

  5. Fundamentals of nonlinear optical materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nonlinear optics; nonlinear polarization; optical fiber communication; optical switch- ing. PACS Nos 42.65Tg; ... The importance of nonlinear optics is to understand the nonlinear behavior in the induced polarization and to ..... but much work in material development and characterization remains to be done. 16. Conclusion.

  6. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  7. Fundamentals of Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gilles

    2005-03-01

    A total of more than 240 human space flights have been completed to date, involving about 450 astronauts from various countries, for a combined total presence in space of more than 70 years. The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard the International Space Station, continuing a permanent presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, investigations have been conducted on both humans and animal models to study the bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning, space motion sickness, the causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance, the changes in immune function, crew and crew-ground interactions, and the medical issues of living in a space environment, such as the effects of radiation or the risk of developing kidney stones. Some results of these investigations have led to fundamental discoveries about the adaptation of the human body to the space environment. Gilles Clément has been active in this research. This readable text presents the findings from the life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. Topics discussed in this book include: adaptation of sensory-motor, cardio-vascular, bone, and muscle systems to the microgravity of spaceflight; psychological and sociological issues of living in a confined, isolated, and stressful environment; operational space medicine, such as crew selection, training and in-flight health monitoring, countermeasures and support; results of space biology experiments on individual cells, plants, and animal models; and the impact of long-duration missions such as the human mission to Mars. The author also provides a detailed description of how to fly a space experiment, based on his own experience with research projects conducted onboard Salyut-7, Mir, Spacelab, and the Space Shuttle. Now is the time to look at the future of human spaceflight and what comes next. The future human exploration of Mars captures the imagination of both the

  8. Indian summer monsoon forcing on the deglacial polar cold reversals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Virupaxa K Banakar

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... because CO2, the fundamental forcing for deglaciation, and Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, ... The role of CO2 in causing these deglacial cold ..... Temperature changes in the polar regions with reference to their ...

  9. The question about paleoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartic, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    The author is treating questions about development of informatics in ancient Dacia during Y-th Century B.C. - 2-nd Century A.C. He is introducing a new terminology (paleoinformatics) in view of defining the interests of Daces in numbering, the elementary numbers theory and various aspects of numbers representation. A relation between elementary numbers theory and informatisation has been discussed. A particular interest has been given to calculation of the Circle length/Diameter ratio (number Pi), its calculation by Daces.

  10. Question of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Senjanovic, G.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the question of neutrino mass in theories in which neutrinos are four-component Dirac particles. Our analysis is done in the framework of left-right--symmetric theories. The requirement of calculability and natural smallness of neutrino mass leads to the following constraints: (i) left and right charged weak currents must be ''orthogonal'' to each other, and (ii) there should be no W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing at the three level. Finally, we exhibit a model in which, due to the existence of an unbroken symmetry of the total Lagrangian, the electron and muon neutrinos remain massless to all orders in perturbation theory

  11. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...... direction, and how the work of the interviewees fits in these respects. Interviews with David Bloor, Cristina Bicchieri, Richard Bradley, Lorraine Code, Hans van Ditmarsch, Miranda Fricker, Steve Fuller, Sanford Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Philip Kitcher, Martin Kusch, Jennifer Lackey, Helen E. Longino, Philip...

  12. Wide-band polarization controller for Si photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velha, P; Sorianello, V; Preite, M V; De Angelis, G; Cassese, T; Bianchi, A; Testa, F; Romagnoli, M

    2016-12-15

    A circuit for the management of any arbitrary polarization state of light is demonstrated on an integrated silicon (Si) photonics platform. This circuit allows us to adapt any polarization into the standard fundamental TE mode of a Si waveguide and, conversely, to control the polarization and set it to any arbitrary polarization state. In addition, the integrated thermal tuning allows kilohertz speed which can be used to perform a polarization scrambler. The circuit was used in a WDM link and successfully used to adapt four channels into a standard Si photonic integrated circuit.

  13. Quantum theory from questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, Philipp [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wever, Christopher [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to relativity, quantum theory has evaded a commonly accepted apprehension, in part because of the lack of physical statements that fully characterize it. In an attempt to remedy the situation, we summarize a novel reconstruction of the explicit formalism of quantum theory (for arbitrarily many qubits) from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S's state as O's ''catalogue of knowledge'' about S; no ontic assumptions are necessary. From the rules, one can derive, among other things, the state spaces, the unitary group, the von Neumann evolution and show that the binary questions correspond to Pauli operators. The reconstruction also offers new structural insights in the form of novel informational charges and informational complementarity relations which define the state spaces and the unitary group. This reconstruction permits a new perspective on quantum theory.

  14. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  15. Nuclear polarization and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaettli, H.

    1985-01-01

    Different possibilities for the use of polarized nuclei in thermal neutron scattering on condensed matter are reviewed. Highly polarized nuclei are the starting point for studying dipolar magnetic order. Systematic measurement of spin-dependent scattering lengths is possible on samples with polarized nuclei. Highly polarized hydrogen should help to unravel complicated structures in chemistry and biology. The use of polarized proton targets as an energy-independent neutron polarizer in the thermal and epithermal region should be considered afresh. (author)

  16. Physics fundamentals for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1999-01-01

    be forthcoming soon. Recent results on JET and TFTR have confirmed qualitative understanding of α particle driven toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs). Present predictions for TAE effects in ITER are favourable, but require further work. The large stored energies in ITER have focused attention on disruption physics. Databases for thermal and current quenches, vertical displacement events (VDEs) and halo currents have enabled thermomechanical design. Some questions remain open as to the production, confinement and localization of runaway electrons in potentially unstable plasmas and mitigation strategies have been proposed. Other crucial ITER needs such as diagnostics, control and heating appear to have acceptable solutions. All this rich physics requires experimental validation by a reactor-scale plasma and care has been taken to provide sufficient flexibility for ITER to cover a wide range of scenarios. (author)

  17. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2010-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Featuring the fundamental framework along with the history and background of communication technologies, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 12th edition helps you stay ahead of these ever-changing and emerging technologies.As always, every chapter ha

  18. Fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton robots

    OpenAIRE

    Schiele, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a new theoretical framework for analyzing physical human robot interaction (pHRI) with exoskeletons, and (2) a clear set of design rules of how to build wearable, portable exoskeletons to easily and...

  19. SPQR - Spectroscopy: Prospects, Questions & Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, M. R.

    2014-06-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in mapping out the spectrum of hadrons over the past decade with plans to make further advances in the decade ahead. Baryons and mesons, both expected and unexpected, have been found, the results of precision experiments often with polarized beams, polarized targets and sometimes polarization of the final states. All these hadrons generate poles in the complex energy plane that are consequences of the strong coupling regime of QCD. They reveal how this works.

  20. Amorphous Phase Mediated Crystallization: Fundamentals of Biomineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many biomineralization systems start from transient amorphous precursor phases, but the exact crystallization pathways and mechanisms remain largely unknown. The study of a well-defined biomimetic crystallization system is key for elucidating the possible mechanisms of biomineralization and monitoring the detailed crystallization pathways. In this review, we focus on amorphous phase mediated crystallization (APMC pathways and their crystallization mechanisms in bio- and biomimetic-mineralization systems. The fundamental questions of biomineralization as well as the advantages and limitations of biomimetic model systems are discussed. This review could provide a full landscape of APMC systems for biomineralization and inspire new experiments aimed at some unresolved issues for understanding biomineralization.

  1. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  2. The Coding Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-07-01

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  4. A question of emphasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Björnsdóttir, I

    2000-01-01

    of pharmaceuticals? Seven focus group discussions were conducted with pharmacy customers in different locations in May, August and October 1997. Widespread ignorance about the legislation was observed. Pharmacy customers preferred to discuss the role of physicians in 'irrational drug use' to discussing community...... pharmacies. A definite split was observed between urban and rural pharmacy customers; whereas definite changes were reported in the urban setting (lower prices and increased access), the rural population's perception is that it is being left out. Although the study design is not generalisable, it is clear......The reported results are part of the overall evaluation of the new drug distribution legislation that went into effect in March 1996, liberalising ownership of community pharmacies in Iceland. We addressed the following question: What impact did the legislation have on users' access to and costs...

  5. LINEARLY POLARIZED PROBES OF SURFACE CHIRALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERBIEST, T; KAURANEN, M; MAKI, JJ; TEERENSTRA, MN; SCHOUTEN, AJ; NOLTE, RJM; PERSOONS, A

    1995-01-01

    We present a new nonlinear optical technique to study surface chirality. We demonstrate experimentally that the efficiency of second-harmonic generation from isotropic chiral surfaces is different for excitation with fundamental light that is +45 degrees and -45 degrees linearly polarized with

  6. Neutron polarization in polarized 3He targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Payne, G.L.; Bernstein, A.M.; Chupp, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    Simple formulas for the neutron and proton polarizations in polarized 3 He targets are derived assuming (1) quasielastic final states; (2) no final-state interactions; (3) no meson-exchange currents; (4) large momentum transfers; (5) factorizability of 3 He SU(4) response-function components. Numerical results from a wide variety of bound-state solutions of the Faddeev equations are presented. It is found that this simple model predicts the polarization of neutrons in a fully polarized 3 He target to be 87%, while protons should have a slight residual polarization of -2.7%. Numerical studies show that this model works very well for quasielastic electron scattering

  7. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  8. How It's Made - Polarized Proton Beam (444th Brookhaven Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenski, Anatoli

    2008-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams at RHIC will provide fundamental tests of QCD, and the electro-weak interaction reveal the spin structure of the proton. Polarization asymmetries and parity violation are the strong signatures for identification of the fundamental processes, which are otherwise inaccessible. Such experiments require the maximum available luminosity and therefore polarization must be obtained as an extra beam quality without sacrificing intensity. There are proposals to polarize the high-energy proton beam in the storage rings by the Stern-Gerlach effect or spin-filter techniques. But so far, the only practically available option is acceleration of the polarized beam produced in the source and taking care of polarization survival during acceleration and storage. Two major innovations -- the 'Siberian Snake' technique for polarization preservation during acceleration and high current polarized proton sources make spin physics with the high-energy polarized beams feasible. The RHIC is the first high-energy collider, where the 'Siberian Snake' technique allowed of polarized proton beam acceleration up-to 250 GeV energy. The RHIC unique Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source produces sufficient polarized beam intensity for complete saturation of the RHIC acceptance. This polarization technique is based on spin-transfer collisions between a proton or atomic hydrogen beam of a few keV beam energy and optically pumped alkali metal vapors. From the first proposal and feasibility studies to the operational source this development can be considered as example of successful unification of individual scientists ingenuity, international collaboration and modern technology application for creation of a new polarization technique, which allowed of two-to-three order of magnitude polarized beam intensity increase sufficient for loading the RHIC to its full capacity for polarization studies.

  9. Polar Applications of Spaceborne Scatterometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Wind scatterometers were originally developed for observation of near-surface winds over the ocean. They retrieve wind indirectly by measuring the normalized radar cross section (σo) of the surface, and estimating the wind via a geophysical model function relating σo to the vector wind. The σo measurements have proven to be remarkably capable in studies of the polar regions where they can map snow cover; detect the freeze/thaw state of forest, tundra, and ice; map and classify sea ice; and track icebergs. Further, a long time series of scatterometer σo observations is available to support climate studies. In addition to fundamental scientific research, scatterometer data are operationally used for sea-ice mapping to support navigation. Scatterometers are, thus, invaluable tools for monitoring the polar regions. In this paper, a brief review of some of the polar applications of spaceborne wind scatterometer data is provided. The paper considers both C-band and Ku-band scatterometers, and the relative merits of fan-beam and pencil-beam scatterometers in polar remote sensing are discussed. PMID:28919936

  10. Fundamental volatility is regime specific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; MacDonald, R.; Vries, de C.G.

    2006-01-01

    A widely held notion holds that freely floating exchange rates are excessively volatile when judged against fundamentals and when moving from fixed to floating exchange rates. We re-examine the data and conclude that the disparity between the fundamentals and exchange rate volatility is more

  11. Fifty important research questions in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwis, Rachael E; Griffiths, Sarah M; Harrison, Xavier A; Aranega-Bou, Paz; Arce, Andres; Bettridge, Aimee S; Brailsford, Francesca L; de Menezes, Alexandre; Devaynes, Andrew; Forbes, Kristian M; Fry, Ellen L; Goodhead, Ian; Haskell, Erin; Heys, Chloe; James, Chloe; Johnston, Sarah R; Lewis, Gillian R; Lewis, Zenobia; Macey, Michael C; McCarthy, Alan; McDonald, James E; Mejia-Florez, Nasmille L; O'Brien, David; Orland, Chloé; Pautasso, Marco; Reid, William D K; Robinson, Heather A; Wilson, Kenneth; Sutherland, William J

    2017-05-01

    Microbial ecology provides insights into the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of microbial communities underpinning every ecosystem on Earth. Microbial communities can now be investigated in unprecedented detail, although there is still a wealth of open questions to be tackled. Here we identify 50 research questions of fundamental importance to the science or application of microbial ecology, with the intention of summarising the field and bringing focus to new research avenues. Questions are categorised into seven themes: host-microbiome interactions; health and infectious diseases; human health and food security; microbial ecology in a changing world; environmental processes; functional diversity; and evolutionary processes. Many questions recognise that microbes provide an extraordinary array of functional diversity that can be harnessed to solve real-world problems. Our limited knowledge of spatial and temporal variation in microbial diversity and function is also reflected, as is the need to integrate micro- and macro-ecological concepts, and knowledge derived from studies with humans and other diverse organisms. Although not exhaustive, the questions presented are intended to stimulate discussion and provide focus for researchers, funders and policy makers, informing the future research agenda in microbial ecology. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1994-03-01

    The author discusses a number of interrelated hadronic spin effects which test fundamental features of perturbative and non-perturbative QCD. For example, the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton and the axial coupling g A on the nucleon are shown to be related to each other for fixed proton radius, independent of the form of the underlying three-quark relativistic quark wavefunction. The renormalization scale and scheme ambiguities for the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule for the polarized structure functions can be eliminated by using commensurate scale relations with other observables. Other examples include (a) new constraints on the shape and normalization of the polarized quark and gluon structure functions of the proton at large and small x bj ; (b) consequences of the principle of hadron helicity retention in high x F inclusive reactions; (c) applications of hadron helicity conservation to high momentum transfer exclusive reactions; and (d) the dependence of nuclear structure functions and shadowing on virtual photon polarization. He also discusses the implications of a number of measurements which are in striking conflict with leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions, such as the extraordinarily large spin correlation A NN observed in large angle proton-proton scattering, the anomalously large ρπ branching ratio of the J/ψ, and the rapidly changing polarization dependence of both J/ψ and continuum lepton pair hadroproduction observed at large x F . The azimuthal angular dependence of the Drell-Yan process is shown to be highly sensitive to the projectile distribution amplitude, the fundamental valence light-cone wavefunction of the hadron

  13. Polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The author discusses a number of interrelated hadronic spin effects which test fundamental features of perturbative and nonperturbative QCD. For example, the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton and the axial coupling g{sub A} on the nucleon are shown to be related to each other for fixed proton radius, independent of the form of the underlying three-quark relativistic quark wavefunction. The renormalization scale and scheme ambiguities for the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule for the polarized structure functions can be eliminated by using commensurate scale relations with other observables. Other examples include (a) new constraints on the shape and normalization of the polarized quark and gluon structure functions of the proton at large and small x{sub bj}; (b) consequences of the principle of hadron retention in high x{sub F} inclusive reactions; (c) applications of hadron helicity conservation to high momentum transfer exclusive reactions; and (d) the dependence of nuclear structure functions and shadowing on virtual photon polarization. The author also discusses the implications of a number of measurements which are in striking conflict with leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions, such as the extraordinarily large spin correlation A{sub NN} observed in large angle proton-proton scattering, the anomalously large {rho}{pi} branching ratio of the J/{psi}, and the rapidly changing polarization dependence of both J/{psi} and continuum lepton pair hadroproduction observed at large x{sub F}. The azimuthal angular dependence of the Drell-Yan process is shown to be highly sensitive to the projectile distribution amplitude, the fundamental valence light-cone wavefunction of the hadron.

  14. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  15. 101 questions about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  16. Polarized neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Novitskij, V.V.; Alfimenkov, V.P.; Galinskij, E.M.; Mareev, Yu.D.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason', L.; Tsulaya, V.M.; Tsulaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The polarized neutron spectrometer, intended for studying the interaction of polarized neutrons with nuclei and condensed media in the area of energies from thermal up to several electron-volt, is developed at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna). Diffraction on the Co(92%)-Fe(8%) magnetized monocrystals is used for the neutron polarization and polarization analysis. The neutron polarization within the whole energy range equals ∼ 95% [ru

  17. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  18. Fundamental symmetry studies at Los Alamos using epithermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.D.; Bowman, J.D.; Yuan, V.W.

    1988-01-01

    Fundamental symmetry studies using intense polarized beams of epithermal neutrons are underway at the LANSCE facility of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Three classes of symmetry experiments can be explored: parity violation, and time reversal invariance violation for both parity-violating and parity-conserved observables. The experimental apparatus is described and performance illustrated with examples of recent measurements. Possible improvements in the facilities and prospective experiments are discussed. 15 refs., 10 figs

  19. Fundamental principles of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int

  20. Fundamental number theory with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mollin, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    An update of the most accessible introductory number theory text available, Fundamental Number Theory with Applications, Second Edition presents a mathematically rigorous yet easy-to-follow treatment of the fundamentals and applications of the subject. The substantial amount of reorganizing makes this edition clearer and more elementary in its coverage. New to the Second Edition           Removal of all advanced material to be even more accessible in scope           New fundamental material, including partition theory, generating functions, and combinatorial number theory           Expa

  1. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  3. Quantum mechanics I the fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals provides a graduate-level account of the behavior of matter and energy at the molecular, atomic, nuclear, and sub-nuclear levels. It covers basic concepts, mathematical formalism, and applications to physically important systems.

  4. Are fundamental constants really constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Reasons for suspecting that fundamental constants might change with time are reviewed. Possible consequences of such variations are examined. The present status of experimental tests of these ideas is discussed

  5. Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gülçat, Ülgen

    2010-01-01

    This introduction to the principles of unsteady aerodynamics covers all the core concepts, provides readers with a review of the fundamental physics, terminology and basic equations, and covers hot new topics such as the use of flapping wings for propulsion.

  6. Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after eachstep. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 15-20

  7. Fundamentals of electronic image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Weeks, Arthur R

    1996-01-01

    This book is directed to practicing engineers and scientists who need to understand the fundamentals of image processing theory and algorithms to perform their technical tasks. It is intended to fill the gap between existing high-level texts dedicated to specialists in the field and the need for a more practical, fundamental text on image processing. A variety of example images are used to enhance reader understanding of how particular image processing algorithms work.

  8. Qualitative insights on fundamental mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Mardari, G. N.

    2002-01-01

    The gap between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics has an important interpretive implication: the Universe must have an irreducible fundamental level, which determines the properties of matter at higher levels of organization. We show that the main parameters of any fundamental model must be theory-independent. They cannot be predicted, because they cannot have internal causes. However, it is possible to describe them in the language of classical mechanics. We invoke philosophical reas...

  9. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1985-01-01

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  10. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.; Ferreira, Luciana C.; Sequeira, Ana M.M.; Meekan, Mark G.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W. Don; Caley, M. Julian; Costa, Daniel P.; Eguí luz, Victor M.; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S.; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C.; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L.; Lowe, Christopher G.; Madsen, Peter T.; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A.; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Sims, David W.; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N.; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N.; Thums, Michele

    2016-01-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  13. Teacher's Questions in Reading Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliati Rohmah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present paper discusses an English teacher's questions in Reading classes at MAN Malang III. Types of questions, functions of teacher's questions, question levels and the strategies applied by the teacher were put as the research problems. Non-participant observa­tion was applied to collect the data with the researcher as the main in­strument aided by field-notes and a tape recorder. It was found that the distribution of the questions did not allow the students to talk longer and to think more analytically. Meanwhile, the strategies applied by the teacher helped the students to respond to the questions previously unanswered. The teacher is suggested to produce more open and refer­ential question as well as inference and evaluation questions as to give more chances for the students to think aloud more.

  14. Can we share questions? Performance of questions from different question banks in a single medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adrian; Nicholls, Anthony; Ricketts, Chris; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    To use progress testing, a large bank of questions is required, particularly when planning to deliver tests over a long period of time. The questions need not only to be of good quality but also balanced in subject coverage across the curriculum to allow appropriate sampling. Hence as well as creating its own questions, an institution could share questions. Both methods allow ownership and structuring of the test appropriate to the educational requirements of the institution. Peninsula Medical School (PMS) has developed a mechanism to validate questions written in house. That mechanism can be adapted to utilise questions from an International question bank International Digital Electronic Access Library (IDEAL) and another UK-based question bank Universities Medical Assessment Partnership (UMAP). These questions have been used in our progress tests and analysed for relative performance. Data are presented to show that questions from differing sources can have comparable performance in a progress testing format. There are difficulties in transferring questions from one institution to another. These include problems of curricula and cultural differences. Whilst many of these difficulties exist, our experience suggests that it only requires a relatively small amount of work to adapt questions from external question banks for effective use. The longitudinal aspect of progress testing (albeit summatively) may allow more flexibility in question usage than single high stakes exams.

  15. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  16. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  17. When is a research question not a research question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nancy E; Asano, Miho; Barbic, Skye Pamela

    2013-06-01

    Research is undertaken to answer important questions yet often the question is poorly expressed and lacks information on the population, the exposure or intervention, the comparison, and the outcome. An optimal research question sets out what the investigator wants to know, not what the investigator might do, nor what the results of the study might ultimately contribute. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent to which rehabilitation scientists optimally define their research questions. A cross-sectional survey of the rehabilitation research articles published during 2008. Two raters independently rated each question according to pre-specified criteria; a third rater adjudicated all discrepant ratings. The proportion of the 258 articles with a question formulated as methods or expected contribution and not as what knowledge was being sought was 65%; 30% of questions required reworking. The designs which most often had poorly formulated research questions were randomized trials, cross-sectional and measurement studies. Formulating the research question is not purely a semantic concern. When the question is poorly formulated, the design, analysis, sample size calculations, and presentation of results may not be optimal. The gap between research and clinical practice could be bridged by a clear, complete, and informative research question.

  18. Questions for Music Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  19. Orientalism of Islamic Fundamentalism: Assassins, Terrorists and other Western Phantoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirt Komel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to deconstruct the orientalist construction of Islamic fundamentalism, especially those discourses and images that are specifically related to the question of violence originally found in the mythologies of the alleged forerunners of modern terrorism, the so-called »Assassins«, mythologies still in circulation today.

  20. Polarization of very cold neutron using a permanent magnet quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Tamaki, E-mail: tyosioka@post.kek.j [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Mishima, Kenji; Ino, Takashi; Taketani, Kaoru; Muto, Suguru; Morishima, Takahiro; Shimizu, Hirohiko M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Oku, Takayuki; Suzuki, Junichi; Shinohara, Takenao; Sakai, Kenji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sato, Hiromi; Hirota, Katsuya; Otake, Yoshie [RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kitaguchi, Masaaki; Hino, Masahiro [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Seki, Yoshichika [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Yamada, Masako [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ichikawa, Masahiro [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    For the future fundamental physics experiments by using cold neutrons, we are developing a device which can measure the neutron polarization degree by accuracy significantly below 10{sup -3}. A quadrupole magnet is one of the promising candidate to measure the neutron polarization degree by such extremely high precision. We have performed a polarization experiment by using the quadrupole magnets at the Very Cold Neutron (VCN) port of the PF-2 in the Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL). As a result, we obtained the polarization degree P with very high accuracy P=0.9994{+-}0.0001(stat.){+-}0.0003(syst.), which meet our requirement significantly.

  1. Scattering with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the history of neutron scattering, it was shown very soon that the use of polarized neutron beams brings much more information than usual scattering with unpolarized neutrons. We shall develop here the different scattering methods that imply polarized neutrons: 1) polarized beams without polarization analysis, the flipping ratio method; 2) polarized beams with a uniaxial polarization analysis; 3) polarized beams with a spherical polarization analysis. For all these scattering methods, we shall give examples of the physical problems which can been solved by these methods, particularly in the field of magnetism: investigation of complex magnetic structures, investigation of spin or magnetization densities in metals, insulators and molecular compounds, separation of magnetic and nuclear scattering, investigation of magnetic properties of liquids and amorphous materials and even, for non magnetic material, separation between coherent and incoherent scattering. (author)

  2. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  3. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method used in cognitive therapy is guided discovery. There are various methods of guided discovery in cognitive therapy. The form of verbal exchange between the therapist and client which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as “socratic questioning”. In this method the goal is to make the client rediscover, with a series of questions, a piece of knowledge which he could otherwise know but is not presently conscious of. The Socratic Questioning consists of several steps, including: identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly rediscovered information and questioning the old distorted belief, and reaching a new conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are: questions for collecting information, questions revealing meanings, questions revealing beliefs, questions about behaviours during similar past experiences, analytic questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood, it is important to be empathetic and summarize the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues provided for each step. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 47-53

  4. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice...

  5. Fundamental questions of earthquake statistics, source behavior, and the estimation of earthquake probabilities from possible foreshocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of the probability that an ML 4.8 earthquake, which occurred near the southern end of the San Andreas fault on 24 March 2009, would be followed by an M 7 mainshock over the following three days vary from 0.0009 using a Gutenberg–Richter model of aftershock statistics (Reasenberg and Jones, 1989) to 0.04 using a statistical model of foreshock behavior and long‐term estimates of large earthquake probabilities, including characteristic earthquakes (Agnew and Jones, 1991). I demonstrate that the disparity between the existing approaches depends on whether or not they conform to Gutenberg–Richter behavior. While Gutenberg–Richter behavior is well established over large regions, it could be violated on individual faults if they have characteristic earthquakes or over small areas if the spatial distribution of large‐event nucleations is disproportional to the rate of smaller events. I develop a new form of the aftershock model that includes characteristic behavior and combines the features of both models. This new model and the older foreshock model yield the same results when given the same inputs, but the new model has the advantage of producing probabilities for events of all magnitudes, rather than just for events larger than the initial one. Compared with the aftershock model, the new model has the advantage of taking into account long‐term earthquake probability models. Using consistent parameters, the probability of an M 7 mainshock on the southernmost San Andreas fault is 0.0001 for three days from long‐term models and the clustering probabilities following the ML 4.8 event are 0.00035 for a Gutenberg–Richter distribution and 0.013 for a characteristic‐earthquake magnitude–frequency distribution. Our decisions about the existence of characteristic earthquakes and how large earthquakes nucleate have a first‐order effect on the probabilities obtained from short‐term clustering models for these large events.

  6. Quantifying remarks to the question of uncertainties of the 'general dose assessment fundamentals'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenk, H.D.; Vogt, K.J.

    1982-12-01

    Dose prediction models are always subject to uncertainties due to a number of factors including deficiencies in the model structure and uncertainties of the model input parameter values. In lieu of validation experiments the evaluation of these uncertainties is restricted to scientific judgement. Several attempts have been made in the literature to evaluate the uncertainties of the current dose assessment models resulting from uncertainties of the model input parameter values using stochastic approaches. Less attention, however, has been paid to potential sources of systematic over- and underestimations of the predicted doses due to deficiencies in the model structure. The present study addresses this aspect with regard to dose assessment models currently used for regulatory purposes. The influence of a number of basic simplifications and conservative assumptions has been investigated. Our systematic approach is exemplified by a comparison of doses evaluated on the basis of the regulatory guide model and a more realistic model respectively. This is done for 3 critical exposure pathways. As a result of this comparison it can be concluded that the currently used regularoty-type models include significant safety factors resulting in a systematic overprediction of dose to man up to two orders of magnitude. For this reason there are some indications that these models usually more than compensate the bulk of the stochastic uncertainties caused by the variability of the input parameter values. (orig.) [de

  7. Techniques in polarization physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausnitzer, G.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the current status of the technical tools necessary to perform different kinds of polarization experiments is presented, and the absolute and relative accuracy with which data can be obtained is discussed. A description of polarized targets and sources of polarized fast neutrons is included. Applications of polarization techniques to other fields is mentioned briefly. (14 figures, 3 tables, 110 references) (U.S.)

  8. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quint, Wolfgang; Vogel, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The individual topics are covered by leading experts in the respective fields of research. Provides readers with present theory and experiments in this field. A useful reference for researchers. This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  9. Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangping; Lan, Tzu-Hsiang; Tien, Chung-Hao; Gu, Min

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between light polarization and matter is the basis of many fundamental physical processes and applications. However, the electromagnetic wave nature of light in free space sets a fundamental limit on the three-dimensional polarization orientation of a light beam. Although a high numerical aperture objective can be used to bend the wavefront of a radially polarized beam to generate the longitudinal polarization state in the focal volume, the arbitrary three-dimensional polarization orientation of a beam has not been achieved yet. Here we present a novel technique for generating arbitrary three-dimensional polarization orientation by a single optically configured vectorial beam. As a consequence, by applying this technique to gold nanorods, orientation-unlimited polarization encryption with ultra-security is demonstrated. These results represent a new landmark of the orientation-unlimited three-dimensional polarization control of the light-matter interaction.

  10. Polarized Moessbauer transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the emission, absorption and scattering of polarized gamma rays are reviewed for a general case of combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions; various possibilities of obtaining polarized gamma sources are described and examples are given of the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with polarized gamma rays in solving problems of solid state physics. (A.K.)

  11. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  12. Calculation of polarization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-09-01

    Basically there are two areas of accelerator applications that involve beam polarization. One is the acceleration of a polarized beam (most likely a proton beam) in a synchrotron. Another concerns polarized beams in an electron storage ring. In both areas, numerical techniques have been very useful

  13. RFID design fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano-Nieto, Albert

    2010-01-01

    RFID is an increasingly pervasive tool that is now used in a wide range of fields. It is employed to substantiate adherence to food preservation and safety standards, combat the circulation of counterfeit pharmaceuticals, and verify authenticity and history of critical parts used in aircraft and other machinery-and these are just a few of its uses. Goes beyond deployment, focusing on exactly how RFID actually worksRFID Design Fundamentals and Applications systematically explores the fundamental principles involved in the design and characterization of RFID technologies. The RFID market is expl

  14. Fundamentals of multicore software development

    CERN Document Server

    Pankratius, Victor; Tichy, Walter F

    2011-01-01

    With multicore processors now in every computer, server, and embedded device, the need for cost-effective, reliable parallel software has never been greater. By explaining key aspects of multicore programming, Fundamentals of Multicore Software Development helps software engineers understand parallel programming and master the multicore challenge. Accessible to newcomers to the field, the book captures the state of the art of multicore programming in computer science. It covers the fundamentals of multicore hardware, parallel design patterns, and parallel programming in C++, .NET, and Java. It

  15. Qualitative insights on fundamental mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardari, Ghenadie N

    2007-01-01

    The gap between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics has an important interpretive implication: the Universe must have an irreducible fundamental level, which determines the properties of matter at higher levels of organization. We show that the main parameters of any fundamental model must be theory-independent. Moreover, such models must also contain discrete identical entities with constant properties. These conclusions appear to support the work of Kaniadakis on subquantum mechanics. A qualitative analysis is offered to suggest compatibility with relevant phenomena, as well as to propose new means for verification

  16. Astrophysical probes of fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, C.J.A.P.

    2009-01-01

    I review the motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inaccessible to experiment. I highlight the current controversial evidence for varying couplings and present some new results. Finally I focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements might be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with some advantages over standard methods. In particular I discuss what can be achieved with future spectrographs such as ESPRESSO and CODEX.

  17. Astrophysical probes of fundamental physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, C.J.A.P. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    I review the motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inaccessible to experiment. I highlight the current controversial evidence for varying couplings and present some new results. Finally I focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements might be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with some advantages over standard methods. In particular I discuss what can be achieved with future spectrographs such as ESPRESSO and CODEX.

  18. The fundamentals of mathematical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fikhtengol'ts, G M

    1965-01-01

    The Fundamentals of Mathematical Analysis, Volume 1 is a textbook that provides a systematic and rigorous treatment of the fundamentals of mathematical analysis. Emphasis is placed on the concept of limit which plays a principal role in mathematical analysis. Examples of the application of mathematical analysis to geometry, mechanics, physics, and engineering are given. This volume is comprised of 14 chapters and begins with a discussion on real numbers, their properties and applications, and arithmetical operations over real numbers. The reader is then introduced to the concept of function, i

  19. The fundamental interactions of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falla, D.F.

    1977-01-01

    Elementary particles are here discussed, in the context of the extent to which the fundamental interactions are related to the elementary constituents of matter. The field quanta related to the four fundamental interactions (electromagnetic, strong,weak and gravitational) are discussed within an historical context beginning with the conception of the photon. The discovery of the mesons and discoveries relevant to the nature of the heavy vector boson are considered. Finally a few recent speculations on the properties of the graviton are examined. (U.K.)

  20. Acceleration of polarized particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1992-05-01

    The spin kinetics of polarized beams in circular accelerators is reviewed in the case of spin-1/2 particles (electrons and protons) with emphasis on the depolarization phenomena. The acceleration of polarized proton beams in synchrotrons is described together with the cures applied to reduce depolarization, including the use of 'Siberian Snakes'. The in-situ polarization of electrons in storage rings due to synchrotron radiation is studied as well as depolarization in presence of ring imperfections. The applications of electron polarization to accurately calibrate the rings in energy and to use polarized beams in colliding-beam experiments are reviewed. (author) 76 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  1. Fundamental Properties of the SHIELD Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, John; Adams, Betsey; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha; Jones, Michael; McQuinn, Kristen; Rhode, Katherine; Salzer, John; Skillman, Evan

    2018-05-01

    The ALFALFA survey has significantly advanced our knowledge of the HI mass function (HIMF), particularly at the low mass end. From the ALFALFA survey, we have constructed a sample of all of the galaxies with HI masses less than 20 million solar masses. Observations of this 82 galaxy sample allow, for the first time, a characterization of the lowest HI mass galaxies at redshift zero. Specifically, this sample can be used to determine the low HI-mass ends of various fundamental scaling relations, including the critical baryonic Tully Fisher relation (BTFR) and the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relation. The M-Z relation and the BTFR are cosmologically important, but current samples leave the low-mass parameter spaces severely underpopulated. A full understanding of these relationships depends critically on accurate stellar masses of this complete sample of uniformly-selected galaxies. Here, we request imaging of the 70 galaxies in our sample that have not been observed with Spitzer. The proposed imaging will allow us to measure stellar masses and inclinations of the sample galaxies using a uniform observational approach. Comparison with (existing and in progress) interferometric HI imaging and with ground-based optical imaging and spectroscopy will enable a robust mass decomposition in each galaxy and accurate placements on the aforementioned scaling relationships. The observations proposed here will allow us to populate the mass continuum between mini-halos and bona fide dwarf galaxies, and to address a range of fundamental questions in galaxy formation and near-field cosmology.

  2. Another argument against fundamental scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    An argument, perhaps not as strong, which is based on the inclusion of interaction with external gravity into a theory describing strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions is presented. The argument is related to the basis of the common belief which favours a renormalizable action against a non-renormalizable action as a candidate for a fundamental theory. (author). 12 refs

  3. Fundamentals of Welding. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    These instructional materials assist teachers in improving instruction on the fundamentals of welding. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; and 27 references. Seven units of…

  4. Composing Europe's Fundamental Rights Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    2015-01-01

    The article offers a perspective on how the objective of a strong and coherent European protection standard pursued by the fundamental rights amendments of the Lisbon Treaty can be achieved, as it proposes a discursive pluralistic framework to understand and guide the relationship between the EU...

  5. Summary: fundamental interactions and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltun, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    The subjects of the talks of the first day of the workshop are discussed in terms of fundamental interactions, dynamical theory, and relevant degrees of freedom. Some general considerations are introduced and are used to confront the various approaches taken in the earlier talks

  6. Fundamental Composite (Goldstone) Higgs Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cacciapaglia, G.; Sannino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We provide a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian level, of models of composite Higgs dynamics where the Higgs itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak symmetry is embedded, either as a pseudo-Goldstone boson or as a massive excitation of the conden...... searches of new physics at the Large Hadron Collider....

  7. Fundamentals of Biomass pellet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens Kai; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2005-01-01

    Pelletizing experiments along with modelling of the pelletizing process have been carried out with the aim of understanding the fundamental physico-chemical mechanisms that control the quality and durability of biomass pellets. A small-scale California pellet mill (25 kg/h) located with the Biomass...

  8. Energy informatics: Fundamentals and standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyao Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on international standardization and power utility practices, this paper presents a preliminary and systematic study on the field of energy informatics and analyzes boundary expansion of information and energy system, and the convergence of energy system and ICT. A comprehensive introduction of the fundamentals and standardization of energy informatics is provided, and several key open issues are identified.

  9. Experiments in Fundamental Neutron Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Nico, J. S.; Snow, W. M.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments using slow neutrons address a growing range of scientific issues spanning nuclear physics, particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. The field of fundamental physics using neutrons has experienced a significant increase in activity over the last two decades. This review summarizes some of the recent developments in the field and outlines some of the prospects for future research.

  10. Brake Fundamentals. Automotive Articulation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Larry; And Others

    Designed for secondary and postsecondary auto mechanics programs, this curriculum guide contains learning exercises in seven areas: (1) brake fundamentals; (2) brake lines, fluid, and hoses; (3) drum brakes; (4) disc brake system and service; (5) master cylinder, power boost, and control valves; (6) parking brakes; and (7) trouble shooting. Each…

  11. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  12. Fundamentals: IVC and Computer Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gozalvez, Javier; Haerri, Jerome; Hartenstein, Hannes; Heijenk, Geert; Kargl, Frank; Petit, Jonathan; Scheuermann, Björn; Tieler, Tessa; Altintas, O.; Dressler, F.; Hartenstein, H.; Tonguz, O.K.

    The working group on “Fundamentals: IVC and Computer Science‿ discussed the lasting value of achieved research results as well as potential future directions in the field of inter- vehicular communication. Two major themes ‘with variations’ were the dependence on a specific technology (particularly

  13. Different Variants of Fundamental Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarczyński Waldemar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the fundamental portfolio of securities. This portfolio is an alternative for the classic Markowitz model, which combines fundamental analysis with portfolio analysis. The method’s main idea is based on the use of the TMAI1 synthetic measure and, in limiting conditions, the use of risk and the portfolio’s rate of return in the objective function. Different variants of fundamental portfolio have been considered under an empirical study. The effectiveness of the proposed solutions has been related to the classic portfolio constructed with the help of the Markowitz model and the WIG20 market index’s rate of return. All portfolios were constructed with data on rates of return for 2005. Their effectiveness in 2006- 2013 was then evaluated. The studied period comprises the end of the bull market, the 2007-2009 crisis, the 2010 bull market and the 2011 crisis. This allows for the evaluation of the solutions’ flexibility in various extreme situations. For the construction of the fundamental portfolio’s objective function and the TMAI, the study made use of financial and economic data on selected indicators retrieved from Notoria Serwis for 2005.

  14. Credit cycles and macro fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Kraeussl, R.G.W.; Lucas, A.; Monteiro, A.

    2009-01-01

    We use an intensity-based framework to study the relation between macroeconomic fundamentals and cycles in defaults and rating activity. Using Standard and Poor's U.S. corporate rating transition and default data over the period 1980-2005, we directly estimate the default and rating cycle from micro

  15. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  16. Experimental tests of fundamental symmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing experiments and projects to test our understanding of fundamental inter- actions and symmetries in nature have progressed significantly in the past few years. At high energies the long searched for Higgs boson has been found; tests of gravity for antimatter have come closer to reality;

  17. Escola de ensino fundamental(s em movimento – movimento na escola de ensino fundamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Hildebrandt-Stramann

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A escola de ensino fundamental na Alemanha sofreu movimento nos últimos 15 anos, porque, entre outros motivos, entrou movimento nessas escolas. Esse jogo de palavras chama atenção a duas linhas de trabalho que determinam a discussão na atual pedagogia escolar. O presente trabalho revela essas duas perspectivas. Uma das linhas está relacionada ao atual processo de mudança na pedagogia escolar. Essa prediz que a escola de ensino fundamental deve ser um lugar de aprendizagem e de vivência para as crianças. A outra linha tem a ver com o jogo de palavras ancorado a esses processos da pedagogia do movimento, a qual ganha cada vez maiores dimensões. A escola de ensino fundamental deve ser vista sob a perspectiva do movimento e transformada em um lugar de movimento.

  18. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  19. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  20. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-02-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  1. Generation of circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Stephon; Ochoa, Joseph; Kosowsky, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    The standard cosmological model, which includes only Compton scattering photon interactions at energy scales near recombination, results in zero primordial circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In this paper we consider a particular renormalizable and gauge-invariant standard model extension coupling photons to an external vector field via a Chern-Simons term, which arises as a radiative correction if gravitational torsion couples to fermions. We compute the transport equations for polarized photons from a Boltzmann-like equation, showing that such a coupling will source circular polarization of the microwave background. For the particular coupling considered here, the circular polarization effect is always negligible compared to the rotation of the linear polarization orientation, also derived using the same formalism. We note the possibility that limits on microwave background circular polarization may probe other photon interactions and related fundamental effects such as violations of Lorentz invariance.

  2. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  3. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  4. Workshop on polarized neutron filters and polarized pulsed neutron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi

    2004-07-01

    The workshop was held in KEK by thirty-three participants on April 26, 2004. The polarized neutron filter method was only discussed. It consists of three parts; the first part was discussed on the polarized neutron methods, the second part on the polarized neutron experiments and the third on the pulse neutron spectrometer and polarized neutron experiments. The six papers were presented such as the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, neutron polarization by proton polarized filter, soft master and neutron scattering, polarized neutron in solid physics, polarization experiments by chopper spectroscope and neutron polarization system in superHRPD. (S.Y.)

  5. Fundamental dilemmas in contemporary psychotherapy: a transtheoretical concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturo, Douglas J

    2002-01-01

    The transtheoretical nature of fundamental dilemmas in contemporary psychotherapy is explored. The basic distinction between technical and ethical dilemmas in clinical practice is discussed, as well as the ramifications for the psychotherapist. Clinical dilemmas identified by survey research studies and interviews with master psychotherapists are reviewed. In addition to dilemmas relevant to circumscribed areas of psychotherapy, such as brief therapy, managed mental health care, sexual questions, feminist therapy, dilemmas fundamental to the psychotherapeutic process as a whole are examined. Finally, clinical examples are provided that include such issues as hospitalization of the suicidal patient, dealing with known contraindications, treating the intractable patient, and self-care of the psychotherapist.

  6. OCA Oracle Database 11g SQL Fundamentals I

    CERN Document Server

    Ries, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This book is packed with real word examples. Each major certification topic is covered in a separate chapter, which helps to make understanding of concepts easier. At the end of each chapter, you will find a variety of practice questions to strengthen and test your learning. You will get a feel for the actual SQL Fundamentals I exam by solving practice papers modeled on it. This book is for anyone who needs the essential skills to pass the Oracle Database SQL Fundamentals I exam and use those skills in daily life as an SQL developer or database administrator.

  7. Fundamentals of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2016-01-01

    Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...

  8. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment

  9. Fundamentals of estuarine physical oceanography

    CERN Document Server

    Bruner de Miranda, Luiz; Kjerfve, Björn; Castro Filho, Belmiro Mendes de

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the complex system functions, variability and human interference in ecosystem between the continent and the ocean. It focuses on circulation, transport and mixing of estuarine and coastal water masses, which is ultimately related to an understanding of the hydrographic and hydrodynamic characteristics (salinity, temperature, density and circulation), mixing processes (advection and diffusion), transport timescales such as the residence time and the exposure time. In the area of physical oceanography, experiments using these water bodies as a natural laboratory and interpreting their circulation and mixing processes using theoretical and semi-theoretical knowledge are of fundamental importance. Small-scale physical models may also be used together with analytical and numerical models. The book highlights the fact that research and theory are interactive, and the results provide the fundamentals for the development of the estuarine research.

  10. Protection of fundamental rights today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Abich, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    Technical developments can both change the methods of dealing with existing conflicts, and cause new conflicts. Meyer-Abich analyzes five conflicts caused by the technological development in the solution of which the constitutional, liberal, and democratic protection of fundamental rights is not at all guaranteed. Meyer-Abich thinks that these new conflicts can be solved in the framework of the liberal constitutional state, if legal and political consequences are taken in order to guarantee the uncharged protection of fundamental rights under changing conditions. The necessary reforms can, however, only be realized if the way how state and science see themselves changes. Both have to give up their one-sidedness into which have been pushed by conflict which havbe been caused by the scientific and technical development. Only then it will be possible to solve the jemerging conflicts without eopardizing the integritiy of the society. (orig.) [de

  11. THE FUNDAMENTS OF EXPLANATORY CAUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela VLĂDILĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code in the specter of the legal life the division of causes removing the criminal feature of the offence in explanatory causes and non-attributable causes. This dichotomy is not without legal and factual fundaments and has been subjected to doctrinaire debates even since the period when the Criminal Code of 1969 was still in force. From our perspective, one of the possible legal fundaments of the explanatory causes results from that the offence committed is based on the protection of a right at least equal with the one prejudiced by the action of aggression, salvation, by the legal obligation imposed or by the victim’s consent.

  12. Modern measurements fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petri, D; Carbone, P; Catelani, M

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the modern role of measurement science for both the technically most advanced applications and in everyday and will help readers gain the necessary skills to specialize their knowledge for a specific field in measurement. Modern Measurements is divided into two parts. Part I (Fundamentals) presents a model of the modern measurement activity and the already recalled fundamental bricks. It starts with a general description that introduces these bricks and the uncertainty concept. The next chapters provide an overview of these bricks and finishes (Chapter 7) with a more general and complex model that encompasses both traditional (hard) measurements and (soft) measurements, aimed at quantifying non-physical concepts, such as quality, satisfaction, comfort, etc. Part II (Applications) is aimed at showing how the concepts presented in Part I can be usefully applied to design and implement measurements in some very impor ant and broad fields. The editors cover System Identification (Chapter 8...

  13. Fundamental investigations of catalyst nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Christian Fink

    and economic development in the 20th century. There is however a downside to this development and we are seeing significant pollution and pressure on resources. Catalysis therefore has an increasingly important role in limiting pollution and optimizing the use of resources. This development will depend on our...... fundamental understanding of catalytic processes and our ability to make use of that understanding. This thesis presents fundamental studies of catalyst nanoparticles with particular focus on dynamic processes. Such studies often require atomic-scale characterization, because the catalytic conversion takes...... important that we only study intrinsic structures and phenomena and not those that may be induced by the high energy electrons used to image the specimen. This requires careful consideration of the influence of the electron beam in order to understand, control and minimize that influence. I present four...

  14. Fundamentals of electronic systems design

    CERN Document Server

    Lienig, Jens

    2017-01-01

    This textbook covers the design of electronic systems from the ground up, from drawing and CAD essentials to recycling requirements. Chapter by chapter, it deals with the challenges any modern system designer faces: the design process and its fundamentals, such as technical drawings and CAD, electronic system levels, assembly and packaging issues and appliance protection classes, reliability analysis, thermal management and cooling, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), all the way to recycling requirements and environmental-friendly design principles. Enables readers to face various challenges of designing electronic systems, including coverage from various engineering disciplines; Written to be accessible to readers of varying backgrounds; Uses illustrations extensively to reinforce fundamental concepts; Organized to follow essential design process, although chapters are self-contained and can be read in any order.

  15. Fundamental research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moravesik, M.J.

    1964-01-01

    Technical assistance is today a widespread activity. Large numbers of persons with special qualifications in the applied sciences go to the developing countries to work on specific research and development projects, as do educationists on Fulbright or other programmes - usually to teach elementary or intermediate courses. But I believe that until now it has been rare for a person primarily interested in fundamental research to go to one of these countries to help build up advanced education and pure research work. Having recently returned from such an assignment, and having found it a most stimulating and enlightening experience, I feel moved to urge strongly upon others who may be in a position to do so that they should seek similar experience themselves. The first step is to show that advanced education and fundamental research are badly needed in the under-developed countries.

  16. Fundamentals of plastic optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Koike, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Polymer photonics is an interdisciplinary field which demands excellence both in optics (photonics) and materials science (polymer). However, theses disciplines have developed independently, and therefore the demand for a comprehensive work featuring the fundamentals of photonic polymers is greater than ever.This volume focuses on Polymer Optical Fiber and their applications. The first part of the book introduces typical optical fibers according to their classifications of material, propagating mode, and structure. Optical properties, the high bandwidth POF and transmission loss are discussed,

  17. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the structure and properties of metals. This volume contains the two modules: structure of metals (bonding, common lattic types, grain structure/boundary, polymorphis, alloys, imperfections in metals) and properties of metals (stress, strain, Young modulus, stress-strain relation, physical properties, working of metals, corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, tritium/material compatibility)

  18. The fundamental physical constants: initial data and recommended values by CODATA 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karshenbojm, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    The CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants are the most accurate and the most reliable constant values, applied over all branches of physics. Various questions related to the recommendations are considered

  19. Efficient question answering with question decomposition and multiple answer streams

    OpenAIRE

    Hartrumpf, Sven; Glöckner, Ingo; Leveling, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The German question answering (QA) system IRSAW (formerly: InSicht) participated in QA@CLEF for the fth time. IRSAW was introduced in 2007 by integrating the deep answer producer InSicht, several shallow answer producers, and a logical validator. InSicht builds on a deep QA approach: it transforms documents to semantic representations using a parser, draws inferences on semantic representations with rules, and matches semantic representations derived from questions and documents. InS...

  20. Fundamental requirements for petrochemical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, G. B.

    1999-01-01

    The development of NOVA Chemicals over the past 20 years is described as an illustration of how the petrochemical industry provides markets for natural gas, natural gas liquids and the products of crude oil distillation, and functions as a conduit for upgrading products which would otherwise be sold into the fuel market. Some fundamental characteristics of the business which are foundations for competitiveness are reviewed in the process. These fundamentals help to understand why the industry locates in certain geographic regions of the world, which are often remote from end-use markets. Chief among these fundamentals is access to an adequate supply of appropriately priced feedstock; this is the single most important reason why chemical companies continue to emphasize developments in areas of the world where feedstock are advantageously priced. The cost of operations is equally significant. Cost depends not so much on location but on the scale of operations, hence the tendency towards large scale plants. Plant and product rationalization, technology and product development synergies and leverage with suppliers are all opportunities for cost reduction throughout the product supply chain. The combination of lower natural gas cost in Alberta, the lower fixed cost of extraction and the economies of scale achieved by large scale operation (five billion pounds per year of polyethylene production capacity) are the crucial factors that will enable NOVA Chemicals to maintain its competitive position and to weather the highs and lows in industry price fluctuations

  1. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  3. Multiphoton polarization Bremsstrahlung effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovinskij, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    A general approach to induced polarization effects was formulated on the basis of theory of many particles in a strong periodic field. Correlation with the perturbation theory is shown and the types of effective polarization potentials both for isolated atoms and ions, and for ions in plasma, are provided. State of art in the theory of forced polarization Bremsstrahlung effect is analyzed and some outlooks for further experimental and theoretical studies are outlined [ru

  4. General multimode polarization splitter design in uniaxial media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Poliane A.; Silva, Daniely G.; Gabrielli, Lucas H.; Spadoti, Danilo H.; Junqueira, Mateus A. F. C.

    2018-03-01

    Quasiconformal transformation optics is used to design two-dimensional polarization beam splitters. The resulting media present inhomogeneous uniaxial permittivity and nonmagnetic response. The compact devices are theoretically designed and investigated for symmetrical and asymmetrical geometries, with footprint of 64 and 110 μm2, respectively. The polarization splitter performance is evaluated for the fundamental mode and third mode, exhibiting an insertion loss closer to 0 dB and extinction ratio above 40 dB over a broad wavelength range.

  5. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  6. Polarization of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    Linear polarization of starlight may be produced by electron scattering in the extended atmospheres of early type stars. Techniques are investigated for the measurement and interpretation of this polarization. Polarimetric observations were made of twelve visual double star systems in which at least one member was a B type star as a means of separating the intrinsic stellar polarization from the polarization produced in the interstellar medium. Four of the double stars contained a Be star. Evidence for intrinsic polarization was found in five systems including two of the Be systems, one double star with a short period eclipsing binary, and two systems containing only normal early type stars for which emission lines have not been previously reported. The interpretation of these observations in terms of individual stellar polarizations and their wavelength dependence is discussed. The theoretical basis for the intrinsic polarization of early type stars is explored with a model for the disk-like extended atmospheres of Be stars. Details of a polarimeter for the measurement of the linear polarization of astronomical point sources are also presented with narrow band (Δ lambda = 100A) measurements of the polarization of γ Cas from lambda 4000 to lambda 5800

  7. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  8. Fundamental functions in equilibrium thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, H.J. ter

    In the standard presentations of the principles of Gibbsian equilibrium thermodynamics one can find several gaps in the logic. For a subject that is as widely used as equilibrium thermodynamics, it is of interest to clear up such questions of mathematical rigor. In this paper it is shown that using

  9. Fundamental Hope and Practical Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloeser, Claudia; Stahl, Titus

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the question 'What makes hope rational?' We take Adrienne Martin's recent incorporation analysis of hope as representative of a tradition that views the rationality of hope as a matter of instrumental reasons. Against this tradition, we argue that an important subset of hope,

  10. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  11. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  12. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  13. RESULTS OF THE QUALITATIVE QUESTIONS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adam Graham

    In April of 2005, Governance, Equity and Health (GEH) held an all-partners' ... data collected – six respondents left a blank response for the question addressing level of ... Meeting participants were organized into five thematic working groups:.

  14. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    cluster-based query expan- sion, learning answering strategies, machine learning in NLP To my wife Monica Abstract During recent years, question...process is typically tedious and involves expertise in crafting and implement- ing these models (e.g. rule-based), utilizing NLP resources, and...questions. For languages that use capitalization (e.g. not Chinese or Arabic ) for named entities, IBQA can make use of NE classing (e.g. “Bob Marley

  15. Fundamental solutions of singular SPDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selesi, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fundamental solutions of linear SPDEs are constructed. → Wick-convolution product is introduced for the first time. → Fourier transformation maps Wick-convolution into Wick product. → Solutions of linear SPDEs are expressed via Wick-convolution with fundamental solutions. → Stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved. - Abstract: This paper deals with some models of mathematical physics, where random fluctuations are modeled by white noise or other singular Gaussian generalized processes. White noise, as the distributional derivative od Brownian motion, which is the most important case of a Levy process, is defined in the framework of Hida distribution spaces. The Fourier transformation in the framework of singular generalized stochastic processes is introduced and its applications to solving stochastic differential equations involving Wick products and singularities such as the Dirac delta distribution are presented. Explicit solutions are obtained in form of a chaos expansion in the Kondratiev white noise space, while the coefficients of the expansion are tempered distributions. Stochastic differential equations of the form P(ω, D) ◊ u(x, ω) = A(x, ω) are considered, where A is a singular generalized stochastic process and P(ω, D) is a partial differential operator with random coefficients. We introduce the Wick-convolution operator * which enables us to express the solution as u = s*A ◊ I ◊(-1) , where s denotes the fundamental solution and I is the unit random variable. In particular, the stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved, which in physical interpretation describes waves propagating with a random speed from randomly appearing point sources.

  16. Continuum mechanics using Mathematica fundamentals, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This textbook's methodological approach familiarizes readers with the mathematical tools required to correctly define and solve problems in continuum mechanics. Covering essential principles and fundamental applications, this second edition of Continuum Mechanics using Mathematica® provides a solid basis for a deeper study of more challenging and specialized problems related to nonlinear elasticity, polar continua, mixtures, piezoelectricity, ferroelectricity, magneto-fluid mechanics, and state changes (see A. Romano, A. Marasco, Continuum Mechanics: Advanced Topics and Research Trends, Springer (Birkhäuser), 2010, ISBN 978-0-8176-4869-5). Key topics and features: * Concise presentation strikes a balance between fundamentals and applications * Requisite mathematical background carefully collected in two introductory chapters and one appendix * Recent developments highlighted through coverage of more significant applications to areas such as wave propagation, fluid mechanics, porous media, linear elasticity....

  17. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2014-01-01

    A classic now in its 14th edition, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best resource for students and professionals looking to brush up on how these technologies have developed, grown, and converged, as well as what's in store for the future. It begins by developing the communication technology framework-the history, ecosystem, and structure-then delves into each type of technology, including everything from mass media, to computers and consumer electronics, to networking technologies. Each chapter is written by faculty and industry experts who p

  18. Quantum Uncertainty and Fundamental Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosto S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a simplified theoretical approach to infer some essential concepts on the fundamental interactions between charged particles and their relative strengths at comparable energies by exploiting the quantum uncertainty only. The worth of the present approach relies on the way of obtaining the results, rather than on the results themselves: concepts today acknowledged as fingerprints of the electroweak and strong interactions appear indeed rooted in the same theoretical frame including also the basic principles of special and general relativity along with the gravity force.

  19. Photovoltaics fundamentals, technology and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mertens, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Concise introduction to the basic principles of solar energy, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic cells, photovoltaic measurement techniques, and grid connected systems, overviewing the potential of photovoltaic electricity for students and engineers new to the topic After a brief introduction to the topic of photovoltaics' history and the most important facts, Chapter 1 presents the subject of radiation, covering properties of solar radiation, radiation offer, and world energy consumption. Chapter 2 looks at the fundamentals of semiconductor physics. It discusses the build-up of semiconducto

  20. Plasma expansion: fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engeln, R; Mazouffre, S; Vankan, P; Bakker, I; Schram, D C

    2002-01-01

    The study of plasma expansion is interesting from a fundamental point of view as well as from a more applied point of view. We here give a short overview of the way properties like density, velocity and temperature behave in an expanding thermal plasma. Experimental data show that the basic phenomena of plasma expansion are to some extent similar to those of the expansion of a hot neutral gas. From the application point of view, we present first results on the use of an expanding thermal plasma in the plasma-activated catalysis of ammonia, from N 2 -H 2 mixtures

  1. Fundamentals of gas particle flow

    CERN Document Server

    Rudinger, G

    1980-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas-Particle Flow is an edited, updated, and expanded version of a number of lectures presented on the "Gas-Solid Suspensions” course organized by the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Materials presented in this book are mostly analytical in nature, but some experimental techniques are included. The book focuses on relaxation processes, including the viscous drag of single particles, drag in gas-particles flow, gas-particle heat transfer, equilibrium, and frozen flow. It also discusses the dynamics of single particles, such as particles in an arbitrary flow, in a r

  2. Testing Fundamental Gravitation in Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turyshev, Slava G.

    2013-10-15

    General theory of relativity is a standard theory of gravitation; as such, it is used to describe gravity when the problems in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics are concerned. The theory is also relied upon in many modern applications involving spacecraft navigation, geodesy, and time transfer. Here we review the foundations of general relativity and discuss its current empirical status. We describe both the theoretical motivation and the scientific progress that may result from the new generation of high-precision tests that are anticipated in the near future.

  3. Current challenges in fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egana Ugrinovic, Daniel

    The discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider completed the Standard Model of particle physics. The Standard Model is a remarkably successful theory of fundamental physics, but it suffers from severe problems. It does not provide an explanation for the origin or stability of the electroweak scale nor for the origin and structure of flavor and CP violation. It predicts vanishing neutrino masses, in disagreement with experimental observations. It also fails to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, and it does not provide a particle candidate for dark matter. In this thesis we provide experimentally testable solutions for most of these problems and we study their phenomenology.

  4. Short-range fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  5. Fundamentals of affinity cell separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lyons, Veronica; Pappas, Dimitri

    2018-03-01

    Cell separations using affinity methods continue to be an enabling science for a wide variety of applications. In this review, we discuss the fundamental aspects of affinity separation, including the competing forces for cell capture and elution, cell-surface interactions, and models for cell adhesion. Factors affecting separation performance such as bond affinity, contact area, and temperature are presented. We also discuss and demonstrate the effects of nonspecific binding on separation performance. Metrics for evaluating cell separations are presented, along with methods of comparing separation techniques for cell isolation using affinity capture. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2014-01-01

    Revised throughout to cover the latest developments in the fast moving area of display technology, this 2nd edition of Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices, will continue to be a valuable resource for those wishing to understand the operation of liquid crystal displays. Significant updates include new material on display components, 3D LCDs and blue-phase displays which is one of the most promising new technologies within the field of displays and it is expected that this new LC-technology will reduce the response time and the number of optical components of LC-modules. Prof. Yang is a pion

  7. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the structure and properties of metals. This volume contains the following modules: thermal shock (thermal stress, pressurized thermal shock), brittle fracture (mechanism, minimum pressurization-temperature curves, heatup/cooldown rate limits), and plant materials (properties considered when selecting materials, fuel materials, cladding and reflectors, control materials, nuclear reactor core problems, plant material problems, atomic displacement due to irradiation, thermal and displacement spikes due to irradiation, neutron capture effect, radiation effects in organic compounds, reactor use of aluminum)

  8. Fundamental Vibration of Molecular Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, G. D.; Niu, M. L.; Salumbides, E. J.; Komasa, J.; Eikema, K. S. E.; Pachucki, K.; Ubachs, W.

    2013-05-01

    The fundamental ground tone vibration of H2, HD, and D2 is determined to an accuracy of 2×10-4cm-1 from Doppler-free laser spectroscopy in the collisionless environment of a molecular beam. This rotationless vibrational splitting is derived from the combination difference between electronic excitation from the X1Σg+, v=0, and v=1 levels to a common EF1Σg+, v=0 level. Agreement within 1σ between the experimental result and a full ab initio calculation provides a stringent test of quantum electrodynamics in a chemically bound system.

  9. Foam engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Containing contributions from leading academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a much needed update of foam science research. The first section of the book presents an accessible summary of the theory and fundamentals of foams. This includes chapters on morphology, drainage, Ostwald ripening, coalescence, rheology, and pneumatic foams. The second section demonstrates how this theory is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including foam fractionation, froth flotation and foam mitigation. It includes chapters on suprafroths, flotation of oil sands, foams in enhancing petroleum recovery, Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in foam, foams in glass manufacturing, fire-fighting foam technology and consumer product foams.

  10. Fundamental aspects of cathodic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, R.

    1979-01-01

    The main fundamental aspects and problems of cathodic sputtering used mainly for thin film deposition and sputter etching are discussed. Among many types of known sputtering techniques the radiofrequency /RF/ diode sputtering is the most universal one and is used for deposition of metals, alloys, metallic compounds, semiconductors and insulators. It seems that nowadays the largest number of working sputtering systems is of diode type. Sometimes also the dc or rf triode sputtering systems are used. The problems in these processes are practically equivalent and comparable with the problems in the diode method and therefore our discussion will be, in most cases applicable for both, the diode and triode methods

  11. Computing fundamentals digital literacy edition

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2014-01-01

    Computing Fundamentals has been tailor made to help you get up to speed on your Computing Basics and help you get proficient in entry level computing skills. Covering all the key topics, it starts at the beginning and takes you through basic set-up so that you'll be competent on a computer in no time.You'll cover: Computer Basics & HardwareSoftwareIntroduction to Windows 7Microsoft OfficeWord processing with Microsoft Word 2010Creating Spreadsheets with Microsoft ExcelCreating Presentation Graphics with PowerPointConnectivity and CommunicationWeb BasicsNetwork and Internet Privacy and Securit

  12. Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerr, Lester W

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and

  13. Macroscopic fundamental strings in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharonov, Y; Englert, F; Orloff, J

    1987-12-24

    We show that, when D greater than or equal to 4, theories of closed strings of closed strings in D, non-compact space-time dimensions exhibit a phase transition. The high-temperature phase is characterized by a condensate of arbitrarily long strings with Hausdorff dimension two (area filling curves). We suggest that this stringy phase is the ancestor of the adiabatic era. Fundamental strings could then both drive the inflation and seed, in a way reminiscent of the cosmic string mechanism, the large structures in the universe.

  14. Fundamental movement skills and habitual physical activity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Abigail; Reilly, John J; Kelly, Louise A; Montgomery, Colette; Williamson, Avril; Paton, James Y; Grant, Stan

    2005-04-01

    To test for relationships between objectively measured habitual physical activity and fundamental movement skills in a relatively large and representative sample of preschool children. Physical activity was measured over 6 d using the Computer Science and Applications (CSA) accelerometer in 394 boys and girls (mean age 4.2, SD 0.5 yr). Children were scored on 15 fundamental movement skills, based on the Movement Assessment Battery, by a single observer. Total physical activity (r=0.10, Pmovement skills score. Time spent in light-intensity physical activity was not significantly correlated with motor skills score (r=0.02, P>0.05). In this sample and setting, fundamental movement skills were significantly associated with habitual physical activity, but the association between the two variables was weak. The present study questions whether the widely assumed relationships between motor skills and habitual physical activity actually exist in young children.

  15. Observation of Polarization Vortices in Momentum Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiwen; Chen, Ang; Liu, Wenzhe; Hsu, Chia Wei; Wang, Bo; Guan, Fang; Liu, Xiaohan; Shi, Lei; Lu, Ling; Zi, Jian

    2018-05-01

    The vortex, a fundamental topological excitation featuring the in-plane winding of a vector field, is important in various areas such as fluid dynamics, liquid crystals, and superconductors. Although commonly existing in nature, vortices were observed exclusively in real space. Here, we experimentally observed momentum-space vortices as the winding of far-field polarization vectors in the first Brillouin zone of periodic plasmonic structures. Using homemade polarization-resolved momentum-space imaging spectroscopy, we mapped out the dispersion, lifetime, and polarization of all radiative states at the visible wavelengths. The momentum-space vortices were experimentally identified by their winding patterns in the polarization-resolved isofrequency contours and their diverging radiative quality factors. Such polarization vortices can exist robustly on any periodic systems of vectorial fields, while they are not captured by the existing topological band theory developed for scalar fields. Our work provides a new way for designing high-Q plasmonic resonances, generating vector beams, and studying topological photonics in the momentum space.

  16. A bistable model of cell polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Semplice

    Full Text Available Ultrasensitivity, as described by Goldbeter and Koshland, has been considered for a long time as a way to realize bistable switches in biological systems. It is not as well recognized that when ultrasensitivity and reinforcing feedback loops are present in a spatially distributed system such as the cell plasmamembrane, they may induce bistability and spatial separation of the system into distinct signaling phases. Here we suggest that bistability of ultrasensitive signaling pathways in a diffusive environment provides a basic mechanism to realize cell membrane polarity. Cell membrane polarization is a fundamental process implicated in several basic biological phenomena, such as differentiation, proliferation, migration and morphogenesis of unicellular and multicellular organisms. We describe a simple, solvable model of cell membrane polarization based on the coupling of membrane diffusion with bistable enzymatic dynamics. The model can reproduce a broad range of symmetry-breaking events, such as those observed in eukaryotic directional sensing, the apico-basal polarization of epithelium cells, the polarization of budding and mating yeast, and the formation of Ras nanoclusters in several cell types.

  17. Experimental techniques and physics in a polarized storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueren, M.

    1995-01-01

    In May 1994 spin rotators were brought into operation at HERA and for the first time longitudinal electron polarization was produced in a high energy storage ring. A Compton polarimeter is used for empirical optimization of the polarization to values of up to 70%. HERMES makes use of the stored polarized beam with an internal polarized target. The density of a gas target is increased by a storage cell by two orders of magnitude compared to a free gas jet. Data taking begins in 1995 with measurements on polarized spin structure functions and also on semi-inclusive polarized hadron production. The inclusive physics program is in competition with experiments at CERN and SLAC. The semi-inclusive physics program promises to solve basic questions of the spin structure of matter by decomposing the spin contributions of the different quark flavors. (author) 24 figs., 3 tabs., 44 refs

  18. Management of fire affected areas. Beyond the environmental question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    Fire is considered a natural element of the ecosystems. With exception of the polar areas, fire visited with more or less frequency all the earth biomes, determining the ecosystems characteristics, to the point that several species are fire-dependent to survive and are very resilient to their impact. Fire was a fundamental element for human evolution, which allowed us to cook, manipulation of metals, hunt, protect from predators and clear fields for agriculture. In some extension, we are only humans because of fire. In the last millennium fire was used to shape the landscape as we know today. One good example of this is the Mediterranean environment, a landscape where the ecology is not understood without the presence of fire. Until the end of the first half of the last century, fire was used frequently by farmers to landscape management. However, due to rural abandonment, change of life styles, disconnection with rural environment and lack of understanding of fire role in the ecosystems. The perception of fire changed and nowadays is understood by the population as a threat to the ecosystems, rather than a tool that helped to manage the landscape and help us in our evolution. This change of vision promoted the idea that fire has negative impacts in the ecosystems and should be banned from the nature. Something that is impossible. All these perceptions facilitated the implementation of fire-suppression policies, which today are recognized by science as one of the causes of the occurrence of frequent high-severity wildfires, with important impacts on the ecosystems, economy and society. However, most of the ecosystems can regenerate sooner or later, depending of the fire severity and the ecosystem affected. Thus, fire is not an ecological, but social and economic problem, due to lives loss and the temporary destruction of ecosystems, which local communities depend on. In this context, when we are managing fire affected areas, it goes much beyond environmental

  19. TRANSVERSELY POLARIZED Λ PRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BORER, D.

    2000-01-01

    Transversely polarized Λ production in hard scattering processes is discussed in terms of a leading twist T-odd fragmentation function which describes the fragmentation of an unpolarized quark into a transversely polarized Λ. We focus on the properties of this function and its relevance for the RHIC and HERMES experiments

  20. Our Polar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2009-01-01

    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  1. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  2. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  3. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Damask, Jay N

    2005-01-01

    The strong investments into optical telecommunications in the late 1990s resulted in a wealth of new research, techniques, component designs, and understanding of polarization effects in fiber. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications brings together recent advances in the field to create a standard, practical reference for component designers and optical fiber communication engineers. Beginning with a sound foundation in electromagnetism, the author offers a dissertation of the spin-vector formalism of polarization and the interaction of light with media. Applications discussed include optical isolators, optical circulators, fiber collimators, and a variety of applied waveplate and prism combinations. Also included in an extended discussion of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent loss (PDL), their representation, behavior, statistical properties, and measurement. This book draws extensively from the technical and patent literature and is an up-to-date reference for researchers and c...

  4. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  5. Can invertebrates see the e-vector of polarization as a separate modality of light?

    OpenAIRE

    Labhart, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The visual world is rich in linearly polarized light stimuli, which are hidden from the human eye. But many invertebrate species make use of polarized light as a source of valuable visual information. However, exploiting light polarization does not necessarily imply that the electric (e)-vector orientation of polarized light can be perceived as a separate modality of light. In this Review, I address the question of whether invertebrates can detect specific e-vector orientations in a ...

  6. Prospects of polarized fixed target Drell-Yan experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M X; Jiang, X; Crabb, D G; Chen, J P; Bai, M

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the Siverse transverse single spin asymmetry in Drell-Yan production in transversely polarized p+p collisions would have an opposite sign compared to what has been observed in the polarized Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) experiments. Experimental confirmation or disproval of this prediction would provide a novel fundamental test of QCD and shed new light on our theoretical understanding of the transverse spin physics phenomena. We discuss the prospects and physics sensitivities of polarized fixed target Drell-Yan experiments that could utilize the existing proton and other hadron beams at Fermilab, and polarized proton beams at RHIC with a polarized solid proton and/or neutron target option. We show that if realized, the new experiments would provide critical measurements of not only the sign change (or not) of Sivers functions, but also the information of quark and antiquark's Sivers distributions over a wide kinematic range.

  7. Building AN International Polar Data Coordination Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsifer, P. L.; Yarmey, L.; Manley, W. F.; Gaylord, A. G.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    In the spirit of the World Data Center system developed to manage data resulting from the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58, the International Polar Year 2007-2009 (IPY) resulted in significant progress towards establishing an international polar data management network. However, a sustained international network is still evolving. In this paper we argue that the fundamental building blocks for such a network exist and that the time is right to move forward. We focus on the Arctic component of such a network with linkages to Antarctic network building activities. A review of an important set of Network building blocks is presented: i) the legacy of the IPY data and information service; ii) global data management services with a polar component (e.g. World Data System); iii) regional systems (e.g. Arctic Observing Viewer; iv) nationally focused programs (e.g. Arctic Observing Viewer, Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service, Polar Data Catalogue, Inuit Knowledge Centre); v) programs focused on the local (e.g. Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic, Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre). We discuss current activities and results with respect to three priority areas needed to establish a strong and effective Network. First, a summary of network building activities reports on a series of productive meetings, including the Arctic Observing Summit and the Polar Data Forum, that have resulted in a core set of Network nodes and participants and a refined vision for the Network. Second, we recognize that interoperability for information sharing fundamentally relies on the creation and adoption of community-based data description standards and data delivery mechanisms. There is a broad range of interoperability frameworks and specifications available; however, these need to be adapted for polar community needs. Progress towards Network interoperability is reviewed, and a prototype distributed data systems is demonstrated. We

  8. Long wave polar modes in semiconductor heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Trallero-Giner, C; García-Moliner, F; Garc A-Moliner, F; Perez-Alvarez, R; Garcia-Moliner, F

    1998-01-01

    Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is concerned with the study of polar optical modes in semiconductor heterostructures from a phenomenological approach and aims to simplify the model of lattice dynamics calculations. The book provides useful tools for performing calculations relevant to anyone who might be interested in practical applications. The main focus of Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is planar heterostructures (quantum wells or barriers, superlattices, double barrier structures etc) but there is also discussion on the growing field of quantum wires and dots. Also to allow anyone reading the book to apply the techniques discussed for planar heterostructures, the scope has been widened to include cylindrical and spherical geometries. The book is intended as an introductory text which guides the reader through basic questions and expands to cover state-of-the-art professional topics. The book is relevant to experimentalists wanting an instructive presentatio...

  9. High Efficacy Green LEDs by Polarization Controlled MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Christian [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2013-03-31

    Amazing performance in GaInN/GaN based LEDs has become possible by advanced epitaxial growth on a wide variety of substrates over the last decade. An immediate push towards product development and worldwide competition for market share have effectively reduced production cost and generated substantial primary energy savings on a worldwide scale. At all times of the development, this economic pressure forced very fundamental decisions that would shape huge industrial investment. One of those major aspects is the choice of epitaxial growth substrate. The natural questions are to what extend a decision for a certain substrate will limit the ultimate performance and to what extent, the choice of a currently more expensive substrate such as native GaN could overcome any of the remaining performance limitations. Therefore, this project has set out to explore what performance characteristic could be achieved under the utilization of bulk GaN substrate. Our work was guided by the hypotheses that line defects such as threading dislocations in the active region should be avoided and the huge piezoelectric polarization needs to be attenuated – if not turned off – for higher performing LEDs, particularly in the longer wavelength green and deep green portions of the visible spectrum. At their relatively lower performance level, deep green LEDs are a stronger indicator of relative performance improvements and seem particular sensitive to the challenges at hand.

  10. Molecular electron recollision dynamics in intense circularly polarized laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Yuan, Kai-Jun

    2018-04-01

    Extreme UV and x-ray table top light sources based on high-order harmonic generation (HHG) are focused now on circular polarization for the generation of circularly polarized attosecond pulses as new tools for controlling electron dynamics, such as charge transfer and migration and the generation of attosecond quantum electron currents for ultrafast magneto-optics. A fundamental electron dynamical process in HHG is laser induced electron recollision with the parent ion, well established theoretically and experimentally for linear polarization. We discuss molecular electron recollision dynamics in circular polarization by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The control of the polarization of HHG with circularly polarized ionizing pulses is examined and it is shown that bichromatic circularly polarized pulses enhance recollision dynamics, rendering HHG more efficient, especially in molecules because of their nonspherical symmetry. The polarization of the harmonics is found to be dependent on the compatibility of the rotational symmetry of the net electric field created by combinations of bichromatic circularly polarized pulses with the dynamical symmetry of molecules. We show how the field and molecule symmetry influences the electron recollision trajectories by a time-frequency analysis of harmonics. The results, in principle, offer new unique controllable tools in the study of attosecond molecular electron dynamics.

  11. Radiation modification of polymers: fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    When polymers were first exposed to ionizing radiation some 50 years ago, the resultant changes were found to be complex and relatively non-selective. Most importantly, irradiation was seen to give a mix of bond forming and bond breaking processes, and different polymer types were classified into two groups according to which process predominated. For polymers in the 'crosslinking' category, large industrial applications emerged within the first two decades of the initiation of this field, including heat shrink products, high performance wire insulation and tire manufacturing. There has been continuing work toward development of a wide range of new applications based on polymers and radiation, and this field remains quite active today. One approach to finding new commercial processes has been to take advantage of a variety of different radiation-induced phenomena (for example, uses for chain scission have emerged for enhancing the processing properties of various bulk polymers, for recycling of rubber, and for microlithography and LIGA). Another approach has taken advantage of progress in the science of radiation chemistry, by employing our increasing knowledge to enhance and/or reduce competing processes through the use of additives, the design of specialized resins, controlling gaseous atmospheres, varying processing conditions such as temperature, post-irradiation treatments, etc. This presentation will survey some of the exciting developments in polymer radiation processing, and will point out some of the underlying phenomena that are being manipulated to further their success. We will finish by describing progress on fundamental isotope-labeling studies of one longstanding mechanistic complexity, oxidation chemistry, which is critical in many radiation processing applications, such as retarding post-irradiation degradation problems, enhancing chain scission where desired, altering surface polarity, and providing a useful pretreatment in grafting schemes

  12. Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in probability and statistics. We hear their views on the fields, aims, scopes, the future direction of research and how their work fits...... in these respects. Interviews with Nick Bingham, Luc Bovens, Terrence L. Fine, Haim Gaifman, Donald Gillies, James Hawthorne, Carl Hoefer, James M. Joyce, Joseph B. Kadane Isaac Levi, D.H. Mellor, Patrick Suppes, Jan von Plato, Carl Wagner, Sandy Zabell...

  13. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) Cryosphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) contains the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) product. APP is a fundamental CDR comprised of calibrated and navigated AVHRR channel...

  14. The human intestinal IgA response; burning questions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo eSpencer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that generate the human intestinal IgA response is fundamentally important if effective mucosal vaccination is to be successful and broadly applied. There have been several major advances in this field recently that have allowed us to feel optimistic that this will be achieved. However, there are still many unanswered questions. These questions have been used as a scaffold for this review that considers findings at the current leading edge alongside the many uncertainties in this field.

  15. Fundamental processes in ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ion plating is a generic term applied to film deposition processes in which the substrate surface and/or the depositing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles sufficient to cause changes in the interfacial region of film properties compared to a nonbombarded deposition. Ion plating is being accepted as an alternative coating technique to sputter deposition, vacuum evaporation and electroplating. In order to intelligently choose between the various deposition techniques, the fundamental mechanisms, relating to ion plating, must be understood. This paper reviews the effects of low energy ion bombardment on surfaces, interface formation and film development as they apply to ion plating and the implementation and applications of the ion plating process

  16. Fluid mechanics fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Cengel and Cimbala's Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, communicates directly with tomorrow's engineers in a simple yet precise manner. The text covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. The text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics. The highly visual approach enhances the learning of Fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented - in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively. McGraw-Hill is also proud to offer ConnectPlus powered by Maple with the third edition of Cengel/Cimbabla, Fluid Mechanics. This innovative and powerful new sy...

  17. Silicon photonics fundamentals and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Deen, M Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The creation of affordable high speed optical communications using standard semiconductor manufacturing technology is a principal aim of silicon photonics research. This would involve replacing copper connections with optical fibres or waveguides, and electrons with photons. With applications such as telecommunications and information processing, light detection, spectroscopy, holography and robotics, silicon photonics has the potential to revolutionise electronic-only systems. Providing an overview of the physics, technology and device operation of photonic devices using exclusively silicon and related alloys, the book includes: * Basic Properties of Silicon * Quantum Wells, Wires, Dots and Superlattices * Absorption Processes in Semiconductors * Light Emitters in Silicon * Photodetectors , Photodiodes and Phototransistors * Raman Lasers including Raman Scattering * Guided Lightwaves * Planar Waveguide Devices * Fabrication Techniques and Material Systems Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices outlines ...

  18. Fundamental Laser Welding Process Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1998-01-01

    In a number of systematic laboratory investigations the fundamental behavior of the laser welding process was analyzed by the use of normal video (30 Hz), high speed video (100 and 400 Hz) and photo diodes. Sensors were positioned to monitor the welding process from both the top side and the rear...... side of the specimen.Special attention has been given to the dynamic nature of the laser welding process, especially during unstable welding conditions. In one series of experiments, the stability of the process has been varied by changing the gap distance in lap welding. In another series...... video pictures (400 Hz), a clear impact on the seam characteristics has been identified when a hump occurs.Finally, a clear correlation between the position of the focus point, the resultant process type and the corresponding signal intensity and signal variation has been found for sheets welded...

  19. Queueing networks a fundamental approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    This handbook aims to highlight fundamental, methodological and computational aspects of networks of queues to provide insights and to unify results that can be applied in a more general manner.  The handbook is organized into five parts: Part 1 considers exact analytical results such as of product form type. Topics include characterization of product forms by physical balance concepts and simple traffic flow equations, classes of service and queue disciplines that allow a product form, a unified description of product forms for discrete time queueing networks, insights for insensitivity, and aggregation and decomposition results that allow subnetworks to be aggregated into single nodes to reduce computational burden. Part 2 looks at monotonicity and comparison results such as for computational simplification by either of two approaches: stochastic monotonicity and ordering results based on the ordering of the proces generators, and comparison results and explicit error bounds based on an underlying Markov r...

  20. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  1. Molecular imaging. Fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Covers a wide range of new theory, new techniques and new applications. Contributed by many experts in China. The editor has obtained the National Science and Technology Progress Award twice. ''Molecular Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications'' is a comprehensive monograph which describes not only the theory of the underlying algorithms and key technologies but also introduces a prototype system and its applications, bringing together theory, technology and applications. By explaining the basic concepts and principles of molecular imaging, imaging techniques, as well as research and applications in detail, the book provides both detailed theoretical background information and technical methods for researchers working in medical imaging and the life sciences. Clinical doctors and graduate students will also benefit from this book.

  2. Fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Chubb, Donald L

    2007-01-01

    This is a text book presenting the fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic(TPV) energy conversion suitable for an upper undergraduate or first year graduate course. In addition it can serve as a reference or design aid for engineers developing TPV systems. Mathematica design programs for interference filters and a planar TPV system are included on a CD-Rom disk. Each chapter includes a summary and concludes with a set of problems. The first chapter presents the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory necessary to calculate the optical properties of the components in a TPV optical cavity. Using a simplified model, Chapter 2 develops expressions for the maximum efficiency and power density for an ideal TPV system. The next three chapters consider the three major components in a TPV system; the emitter, filter and photovoltaic(PV) array. Chapter 3 applies the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory presented in Chapter 1 in the calculation of spectral emittance. From the spectral emittance t...

  3. Fundamental aspects of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorini, V.; Frigerio, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: general problems and crucial experiments; the classical behavior of measuring instruments; quantum interference effect for two atoms radiating a single photon; quantization and stochastic processes; quantum Markov processes driven by Bose noise; chaotic behavior in quantum mechanics; quantum ergodicity and chaos; microscopic and macroscopic levels of description; fundamental properties of the ground state of atoms and molecules; n-level systems interacting with Bosons - semiclassical limits; general aspects of gauge theories; adiabatic phase shifts for neutrons and photons; the spins of cyons and dyons; round-table discussion the the Aharonov-Bohm effect; gravity in quantum mechanics; the gravitational phase transition; anomalies and their cancellation; a new gauge without any ghost for Yang-Mills Theory; and energy density and roughening in the 3-D Ising ferromagnet

  4. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  5. Microwave engineering concepts and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Ahmad Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Detailing the active and passive aspects of microwaves, Microwave Engineering: Concepts and Fundamentals covers everything from wave propagation to reflection and refraction, guided waves, and transmission lines, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying principles at the core of microwave engineering. This encyclopedic text not only encompasses nearly all facets of microwave engineering, but also gives all topics—including microwave generation, measurement, and processing—equal emphasis. Packed with illustrations to aid in comprehension, the book: •Describes the mathematical theory of waveguides and ferrite devices, devoting an entire chapter to the Smith chart and its applications •Discusses different types of microwave components, antennas, tubes, transistors, diodes, and parametric devices •Examines various attributes of cavity resonators, semiconductor and RF/microwave devices, and microwave integrated circuits •Addresses scattering parameters and their properties, as well a...

  6. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rule, Gordon S

    2006-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful technique to study the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy is a comprehensive textbook that guides the reader from a basic understanding of the phenomenological properties of magnetic resonance to the application and interpretation of modern multi-dimensional NMR experiments on 15N/13C-labeled proteins. Beginning with elementary quantum mechanics, a set of practical rules is presented and used to describe many commonly employed multi-dimensional, multi-nuclear NMR pulse sequences. A modular analysis of NMR pulse sequence building blocks also provides a basis for understanding and developing novel pulse programs. This text not only covers topics from chemical shift assignment to protein structure refinement, as well as the analysis of protein dynamics and chemical kinetics, but also provides a practical guide to many aspects of modern spectrometer hardware, sample preparation, experimental set-up, and data pr...

  7. Phononic crystals fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Adibi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth analysis as well as an overview of phononic crystals. This book discusses numerous techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals and covers, among other material, sonic and ultrasonic structures, hypersonic planar structures and their characterization, and novel applications of phononic crystals. This is an ideal book for those working with micro and nanotechnology, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and acoustic devices. This book also: Presents an introduction to the fundamentals and properties of phononic crystals Covers simulation techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals Discusses sonic and ultrasonic, hypersonic and planar, and three-dimensional phononic crystal structures Illustrates how phononic crystal structures are being deployed in communication systems and sensing systems.

  8. Multiphase flow dynamics 1 fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2004-01-01

    Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. In its third extended edition this monograph contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present first volume the fundamentals of multiphase dynamics are provided. This third edition includes various updates, extensions and improvements in all book chapters.

  9. Fundamentals of reversible flowchart languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the fundamentals of reversible flowcharts. They are intended to naturally represent the structure and control flow of reversible (imperative) programming languages in a simple computation model, in the same way classical flowcharts do for conventional languages......, structured reversible flowcharts are as expressive as unstructured ones, as shown by a reversible version of the classic Structured Program Theorem. We illustrate how reversible flowcharts can be concretized with two example programming languages, complete with syntax and semantics: a low-level unstructured...... language and a high-level structured language. We introduce concrete tools such as program inverters and translators for both languages, which follow the structure suggested by the flowchart model. To further illustrate the different concepts and tools brought together in this paper, we present two major...

  10. Islamic Fundamentalism in Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena F. Parubochaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Islam takes the stage of recovery associated with the peculiar issues associated with the Muslim society. These characteristics are expressed in the spread of ideas of Islamic fundamentalism and its supporters’ confrontation with the rest of the world. This process has affected the Russian Muslims as well, the trend developed after the collapse of the Soviet Union when the post soviet muslims began to realize themselves as part of one of the Muslim Ummah, coming into conflict with the secular law of the Russian Federation. After the Soviet Union’s disintegration, the radical Islamic ideas have begun to appear in Russia, in the conditions of the growth of nationalism these thoughts found a fertile ground. One of these ideas was associated with the construction of Sharia state in the Muslim autonomous republics of the Russian Federation and their subsequent withdrawal from Russian’s membership. The situation for the Russian state in the Muslim republics aggravated the war in Chechnya. Through Chechnya mercenaries from Arab countries started to penetrate to the Russian territory, they also brought the money for the destabilization of the internal situation in Russia. Nevertheless, separatism did not find the mass support in neighboring regions such as Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia and Ingushetia. It is evidently that international Jihad ideas were supported financially from abroad. The issue of funding is a key part of the development of Islamic fundamentalism in Russia, the international Islamic funds and organizations gave huge financial assistance to them. At the present moment Russian authorities lead a fruitful and a successful fight against terrorism. In the future, after the completion of the antiterrorist operation in the Middle East hundreds of terrorists may return to Russia with huge experience that can threaten the security of the Russian state.

  11. Polar bears at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, S.; Rosentrater, L.; Eid, P.M. [WWF International Arctic Programme, Oslo (Norway)

    2002-05-01

    Polar bears, the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, spend much of their lives on the arctic sea ice. This is where they hunt and move between feeding, denning, and resting areas. The world population, estimated at 22,000 bears, is made up of 20 relatively distinct populations varying in size from a few hundred to a few thousand animals. About 60 per cent of all polar bears are found in Canada. In general, the status of this species is stable, although there are pronounced differences between populations. Reductions in the extent and thickness of sea ice has lead the IUCN Polar Bear Specialist Group to describe climate change as one of the major threats facing polar bears today. Though the long-term effects of climate change will vary in different areas of the Arctic, impacts on the condition and reproductive success of polar bears and their prey are likely to be negative. Longer ice-free periods resulting from earlier break-up of sea ice in the spring and later formation in the fall is already impacting polar bears in the southern portions of their range. In Canada's Hudson Bay, for example, bears hunt on the ice through the winter and into early summer, after which the ice melts completely, forcing bears ashore to fast on stored fat until freeze-up in the fall. The time bears have on the ice to hunt and build up their body condition is cut short when the ice melts early. Studies from Hudson Bay show that for every week earlier that ice break-up occurs, bears will come ashore 10 kg lighter and in poorer condition. It is likely that populations of polar bears dividing their time between land and sea will be severely reduced and local extinctions may occur as greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise and sea ice melts. Expected changes in regional weather patterns will also impact polar bears. Rain in the late winter can cause maternity dens to collapse before females and cubs have departed, thus exposing occupants to the elements and to predators. Such

  12. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2012-01-01

    Communication technologies surround us in every part of our lives: via television, web, blogging, mass media, and much more. How do people in business keep up with the latest and greatest trends, and how do they differentiate good information from bad information? How do they get help analyzing information and coming to conclusions about trends that will impact their businesses and business decisions? How do they consider the environmental and sustainability issues surrounding communication technology? This book answers these essential questions. It's for professionals and students working

  13. Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, E E

    2008-01-01

    This new streamlined text offers a one-semester treatment of the essentials of how the fission nuclear reactor works, the various approaches to the design of reactors, and their safe and efficient operation. The book includes numerous worked-out examples and end-of-chapter questions to help reinforce the knowledge presented. This textbook offers an engineering-oriented introduction to nuclear physics, with a particular focus on how those physics are put to work in the service of generating nuclear-based power, particularly the importance of neutron reactions and neutron behavior. Engin

  14. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  15. What Children Learn from Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…

  16. Lagrangian ocean analysis: Fundamentals and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sebille, Erik; Griffies, Stephen M.; Abernathey, Ryan; Adams, Thomas P.; Berloff, Pavel; Biastoch, Arne; Blanke, Bruno; Chassignet, Eric P.; Cheng, Yu; Cotter, Colin J.; Deleersnijder, Eric; Döös, Kristofer; Drake, Henri F.; Drijfhout, Sybren; Gary, Stefan F.; Heemink, Arnold W.; Kjellsson, Joakim; Koszalka, Inga Monika; Lange, Michael; Lique, Camille; MacGilchrist, Graeme A.; Marsh, Robert; Mayorga Adame, C. Gabriela; McAdam, Ronan; Nencioli, Francesco; Paris, Claire B.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Polton, Jeff A.; Rühs, Siren; Shah, Syed H. A. M.; Thomas, Matthew D.; Wang, Jinbo; Wolfram, Phillip J.; Zanna, Laure; Zika, Jan D.

    2018-01-01

    Lagrangian analysis is a powerful way to analyse the output of ocean circulation models and other ocean velocity data such as from altimetry. In the Lagrangian approach, large sets of virtual particles are integrated within the three-dimensional, time-evolving velocity fields. Over several decades, a variety of tools and methods for this purpose have emerged. Here, we review the state of the art in the field of Lagrangian analysis of ocean velocity data, starting from a fundamental kinematic framework and with a focus on large-scale open ocean applications. Beyond the use of explicit velocity fields, we consider the influence of unresolved physics and dynamics on particle trajectories. We comprehensively list and discuss the tools currently available for tracking virtual particles. We then showcase some of the innovative applications of trajectory data, and conclude with some open questions and an outlook. The overall goal of this review paper is to reconcile some of the different techniques and methods in Lagrangian ocean analysis, while recognising the rich diversity of codes that have and continue to emerge, and the challenges of the coming age of petascale computing.

  17. Roboethics: Fundamental Concepts and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros G. Tzafestas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies (e.g., IFR: International Federation of Robotics, 2016 predict that the number of robots (industrial, service/social, intelligent/autonomous will increase enormously in the future. Robots are directly involved in human life. Industrial robots, household robots, medical robots, assistive robots, sociable/entertainment robots, and war robots all play important roles in human life and raise crucial ethical problems for our society. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the fundamental concepts of robot ethics (roboethics and some future prospects of robots and roboethics, as an introduction to the present Special Issue of the journal Information on “Roboethics”. We start with the question of what roboethics is, as well as a discussion of the methodologies of roboethics, including a brief look at the branches and theories of ethics in general. Then, we outline the major branches of roboethics, namely: medical roboethics, assistive roboethics, sociorobot ethics, war roboethics, autonomous car ethics, and cyborg ethics. Finally, we present the prospects for the future of robotics and roboethics.

  18. Fundamental Principles of Stem Cell Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changbin; Yue, Jianhui; He, Na; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are highly promising resources for application in cell therapy, regenerative medicine, drug discovery, toxicology and developmental biology research. Stem cell banks have been increasingly established all over the world in order to preserve their cellular characteristics, prevent contamination and deterioration, and facilitate their effective use in basic and translational research, as well as current and future clinical application. Standardization and quality control during banking procedures are essential to allow researchers from different labs to compare their results and to develop safe and effective new therapies. Furthermore, many stem cells come from once-in-a-life time tissues. Cord blood for example, thrown away in the past, can be used to treat many diseases such as blood cancers nowadays. Meanwhile, these cells stored and often banked for long periods can be immediately available for treatment when needed and early treatment can minimize disease progression. This paper provides an overview of the fundamental principles of stem cell banking, including: (i) a general introduction of the construction and architecture commonly used for stem cell banks; (ii) a detailed section on current quality management practices; (iii) a summary of questions we should consider for long-term storage, such as how long stem cells can be stored stably, how to prevent contamination during long term storage, etc.; (iv) the prospects for stem cell banking.

  19. The Fundamentals Of Kants Moral Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Saraiva Lamounier Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article intends to study the moral thought in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, considered the first of the philosophers who composes the movement known as German Idealism, especially in the book "Critique of Practical Reason". To achieve the objective the article begins with the traces of the moral studies at Kants time and its fundamental questions as well as traces of his formation that influenced his writings. Soon after, it analyzes the Kantian thought itself, through the work "The Idea of Justice in Kant", from Joaquim Carlos Salgado, theoretical framework of this research. It will be analyzed the postulate of freedom and its relationship with the sollen and the moral law, the species of imperatives, the categorical imperative and equality, connections that the moral theory makes for the existence of positive law and that the author considers the greater pillar of the Idea of justice from the Prussian philosophers point of of view. The methodology used in the research is theoretical, based on the analysis of the theoretical framework and its relationship to other publications concerning the same subject.

  20. Fundamental Physics with Electroweak Probes of Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Saori

    2018-02-01

    The past decade has witnessed tremendous progress in the theoretical and computational tools that produce our understanding of nuclei. A number of microscopic calculations of nuclear electroweak structure and reactions have successfully explained the available experimental data, yielding a complex picture of the way nuclei interact with electroweak probes. This achievement is of great interest from the pure nuclear-physics point of view. But it is of much broader interest too, because the level of accuracy and confidence reached by these calculations opens up the concrete possibility of using nuclei to address open questions in other sub-fields of physics, such as, understanding the fundamental properties of neutrinos, or the particle nature of dark matter. In this talk, I will review recent progress in microscopic calculations of electroweak properties of light nuclei, including electromagnetic moments, form factors and transitions in between lowlying nuclear states along with preliminary studies for single- and double-beta decay rates. I will illustrate the key dynamical features required to explain the available experimental data, and, if time permits, present a novel framework to calculate neutrino-nucleus cross sections for A > 12 nuclei.

  1. Cosmic rays and tests of fundamental principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2011-03-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that cosmic rays experiments can test possible new physics directly generated at the Planck scale or at some other fundamental scale. By studying particle properties at energies far beyond the reach of any man-made accelerator, they can yield unique checks of basic principles. A well-known example is provided by possible tests of special relativity at the highest cosmic-ray energies. But other essential ingredients of standard theories can in principle be tested: quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle, energy and momentum conservation, effective space-time dimensions, hamiltonian and lagrangian formalisms, postulates of cosmology, vacuum dynamics and particle propagation, quark and gluon confinement, elementariness of particles…Standard particle physics or string-like patterns may have a composite origin able to manifest itself through specific cosmic-ray signatures. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays, but also cosmic rays at lower energies, are probes of both "conventional" and new Physics. Status, prospects, new ideas, and open questions in the field are discussed.

  2. Cosmic rays and tests of fundamental principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2011-01-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that cosmic rays experiments can test possible new physics directly generated at the Planck scale or at some other fundamental scale. By studying particle properties at energies far beyond the reach of any man-made accelerator, they can yield unique checks of basic principles. A well-known example is provided by possible tests of special relativity at the highest cosmic-ray energies. But other essential ingredients of standard theories can in principle be tested: quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle, energy and momentum conservation, effective space-time dimensions, hamiltonian and lagrangian formalisms, postulates of cosmology, vacuum dynamics and particle propagation, quark and gluon confinement, elementariness of particles... Standard particle physics or string-like patterns may have a composite origin able to manifest itself through specific cosmic-ray signatures. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays, but also cosmic rays at lower energies, are probes of both 'conventional' and new Physics. Status, prospects, new ideas, and open questions in the field are discussed.

  3. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  4. GUIDE FOR POLARIZED NEUTRONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, V.L.; Aichroth, R.W.

    1962-12-01

    The plane of polarization of a beam of polarized neutrons is changed by this invention, and the plane can be flipped back and forth quicitly in two directions in a trouble-free manner. The invention comprises a guide having a plurality of oppositely directed magnets forming a gap for the neutron beam and the gaps are spaced longitudinally in a spiral along the beam at small stepped angles. When it is desired to flip the plane of polarization the magnets are suitably rotated to change the direction of the spiral of the gaps. (AEC)

  5. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  6. The Hyperloop as a Source of Interesting Estimation Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Rhett

    2014-03-01

    The Hyperloop is a conceptual high speed transportation system proposed by Elon Musk. The basic idea uses passenger capsules inside a reduced pressure tube. Even though the actual physics of dynamic air flow in a confined space can be complicated, there are a multitude estimation problems that can be addressed. These back-of-the-envelope questions can be approximated by physicists of all levels as well as the general public and serve as a great example of the fundamental aspects of physics.

  7. The representation of neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron beam polarization representation is discussed under the headings; transfer matrices, coherent parity violation for neutrons, neutron spin rotation in helical magnetic fields, polarization and interference. (UK)

  8. Fundamentals and Techniques of Nonimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Gallagher, J. J.; Winston, R.

    2003-07-10

    This is the final report describing a long term basic research program in nonimaging optics that has led to major advances in important areas, including solar energy, fiber optics, illumination techniques, light detectors, and a great many other applications. The term ''nonimaging optics'' refers to the optics of extended sources in systems for which image forming is not important, but effective and efficient collection, concentration, transport, and distribution of light energy is. Although some of the most widely known developments of the early concepts have been in the field of solar energy, a broad variety of other uses have emerged. Most important, under the auspices of this program in fundamental research in nonimaging optics established at the University of Chicago with support from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences at the Department of Energy, the field has become very dynamic, with new ideas and concepts continuing to develop, while applications of the early concepts continue to be pursued. While the subject began as part of classical geometrical optics, it has been extended subsequently to the wave optics domain. Particularly relevant to potential new research directions are recent developments in the formalism of statistical and wave optics, which may be important in understanding energy transport on the nanoscale. Nonimaging optics permits the design of optical systems that achieve the maximum possible concentration allowed by physical conservation laws. The earliest designs were constructed by optimizing the collection of the extreme rays from a source to the desired target: the so-called ''edge-ray'' principle. Later, new concentrator types were generated by placing reflectors along the flow lines of the ''vector flux'' emanating from lambertian emitters in various geometries. A few years ago, a new development occurred with the discovery that making the design edge-ray a functional of some

  9. PREFACE: Fundamental Constants in Physics and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Volkmar; Kramer, Bernhard

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the 70th PTB Seminar which, the second on the subject "Fundamental Constants in Physics and Metrology", was held at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig from October 21 to 22, 1985. About 100 participants from the universities and various research institutes of the Federal Republic of Germany participated in the meeting. Besides a number of review lectures on various broader subjects there was a poster session which contained a variety of topical contributed papers ranging from the theory of the quantum Hall effect to reports on the status of the metrological experiments at the PTB. In addition, the participants were also offered the possibility to visit the PTB laboratories during the course of the seminar. During the preparation of the meeting we noticed that even most of the general subjects which were going to be discussed in the lectures are of great importance in connection with metrological experiments and should be made accessible to the scientific community. This eventually resulted in the idea of the publication of the papers in a regular journal. We are grateful to the editor of Metrologia for providing this opportunity. We have included quite a number of papers from basic physical research. For example, certain aspects of high-energy physics and quantum optics, as well as the many-faceted role of Sommerfeld's fine-structure constant, are covered. We think that questions such as "What are the intrinsic fundamental parameters of nature?" or "What are we doing when we perform an experiment?" can shed new light on the art of metrology, and do, potentially, lead to new ideas. This appears to be especially necessary when we notice the increasing importance of the role of the fundamental constants and macroscopic quantum effects for the definition and the realization of the physical units. In some cases we have reached a point where the limitations of our knowledge of a fundamental constant and

  10. [Meningococcal disease: frequently asked questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofré, José

    2012-12-01

    On account of an increase of serogroup W135 meningococcal disease (M.D.) observed in Santiago, Chile, during last two years the medical community has experienced an avidity to update their knowledge about M.D. treatment and its prevention. In a queries and answers mode, the following topics on M.D. are presented: nasopharyngeal carriage and its importance, immunity and protection against the disease, reasons to choice ceftriaxone as the first line antibiotic in treatment, rationality and indications of chemoprophylaxis, fundamentals and advantages of conjugate vaccines, its indications, schedules, contraindications and decisions making in public health.

  11. Interferometric polarization control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Novak, Giles

    2006-01-01

    We develop the Jones and Mueller matrices for structures that allow control of the path length difference between two linear orthogonal polarizations and consider the effect of placing multiple devices in series. Specifically, we find that full polarization modulation (measurement of Stokes Q, U, and V) can be achieved by placing two such modulators in series if the relative angles of the beam-splitting grids with respect to the analyzer orientation are appropriately chosen. Such a device has several potential advantages over a spinning wave plate modulator for measuring astronomical polarization in the far infrared through millimeter: (i) The use of small, linear motions eliminates the need for cryogenic rotational bearings; (ii) the phase flexibility allows measurement of circular as well as linear polarization; and (iii) this architecture allows for both multiwavelength and broadband modulation. We also present initial laboratory results

  12. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H B [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  13. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  14. Virtual and composite fundamentals in the ERM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knot, KHW; Sturm, JE

    1999-01-01

    A latent-variable approach is applied to identify the appropriate driving process for fundamental exchange rates in the ERM. From the time-series characteristics of so-called "virtual fundamentals" and "composite fundamentals", a significant degree of mean reversion can be asserted. The relative

  15. Teaching the Politics of Islamic Fundamentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Masoud

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the rise of Islamic fundamentalism since the Iranian Revolution has generated a number of issues of analytical significance for political science. Describes three main models in teaching and research on Islamic fundamentalism: Islamic exceptionalism, comparative fundamentalisms, and class analysis. Discusses the construction of a…

  16. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  17. No More Polarization, Please!

    OpenAIRE

    Reinholt, Mia

    2006-01-01

    The organizational science literature on motivation has for long been polarized into two main positions; the organizational economic position focusing on extrinsic motivation and the organizational behavior position emphasizing intrinsic motivation. With the rise of the knowledge economy and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on mot...

  18. Inertial polarization of dielectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Zavodovsky, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    It was proved that accelerated motion of a linear dielectric causes its polarization. Accelerated translational motion of a dielectric's plate leads to the positive charge of the surface facing the direction of motion. Metal plates of a capacitor were used to register polarized charges on a dielectric's surface. Potential difference between the capacitor plates is proportional to acceleration, when acceleration is constant potential difference grows with the increase of a dielectric's area, o...

  19. CLASSIFICATION FOR ANGLE-DEPENDENT POLARIZED PHOTOEMISSION SPECTRA USING MAGNETIC-MOMENTS ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERLAAN, G; THOLE, BT

    The angular distribution of photoelectrons from a core level or localized valence level excited with circularly or linearly polarized Xrays is shown to contain the complete one-electron information of the ground state of a magnetic polarized atom. We generalize the definition of the fundamental

  20. Fundamentals of the DIGES code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simos, N.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1994-08-01

    Recently the authors have completed the development of the DIGES code (Direct GEneration of Spectra) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper presents the fundamental theoretical aspects of the code. The basic modeling involves a representation of typical building-foundation configurations as multi degree-of-freedom dynamic which are subjected to dynamic inputs in the form of applied forces or pressure at the superstructure or in the form of ground motions. Both the deterministic as well as the probabilistic aspects of DIGES are described. Alternate ways of defining the seismic input for the estimation of in-structure spectra and their consequences in terms of realistically appraising the variability of the structural response is discussed in detaiL These include definitions of the seismic input by ground acceleration time histories, ground response spectra, Fourier amplitude spectra or power spectral densities. Conversions of one of these forms to another due to requirements imposed by certain analysis techniques have been shown to lead, in certain cases, in controversial results. Further considerations include the definition of the seismic input as the excitation which is directly applied at the foundation of a structure or as the ground motion of the site of interest at a given point. In the latter case issues related to the transferring of this motion to the foundation through convolution/deconvolution and generally through kinematic interaction approaches are considered.

  1. Gas cell neutralizers (Fundamental principles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehrer, B.

    1985-06-01

    Neutralizing an ion-beam of the size and energy levels involved in the neutral-particle-beam program represents a considerable extension of the state-of-the-art of neutralizer technology. Many different mediums (e.g., solid, liquid, gas, plasma, photons) can be used to strip the hydrogen ion of its extra electron. A large, multidisciplinary R and D effort will no doubt be required to sort out all of the ''pros and cons'' of these various techniques. The purpose of this particular presentation is to discuss some basic configurations and fundamental principles of the gas type of neutralizer cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the ''Gasdynamic Free-Jet'' neutralizer since this configuration has the potential of being much shorter than other type of gas cells (in the beam direction) and it could operate in nearly a continuous mode (CW) if necessary. These were important considerations in the ATSU design which is discussed in some detail in the second presentation entitled ''ATSU Point Design''

  2. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.E.; Catto, P.J.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The major portion of this program is devoted to critical ICH phenomena. The topics include edge physics, fast wave propagation, ICH induced high frequency instabilities, and a preliminary antenna design for Ignitor. This research was strongly coordinated with the world's experimental and design teams at JET, Culham, ORNL, and Ignitor. The results have been widely publicized at both general scientific meetings and topical workshops including the speciality workshop on ICRF design and physics sponsored by Lodestar in April 1992. The combination of theory, empirical modeling, and engineering design in this program makes this research particularly important for the design of future devices and for the understanding and performance projections of present tokamak devices. Additionally, the development of a diagnostic of runaway electrons on TEXT has proven particularly useful for the fundamental understanding of energetic electron confinement. This work has led to a better quantitative basis for quasilinear theory and the role of magnetic vs. electrostatic field fluctuations on electron transport. An APS invited talk was given on this subject and collaboration with PPPL personnel was also initiated. Ongoing research on these topics will continue for the remainder fo the contract period and the strong collaborations are expected to continue, enhancing both the relevance of the work and its immediate impact on areas needing critical understanding

  3. Levitated Optomechanics for Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muddassar; Bateman, James; Vovrosh, Jamie; Hempston, David; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2015-05-01

    Optomechanics with levitated nano- and microparticles is believed to form a platform for testing fundamental principles of quantum physics, as well as find applications in sensing. We will report on a new scheme to trap nanoparticles, which is based on a parabolic mirror with a numerical aperture of 1. Combined with achromatic focussing, the setup is a cheap and readily straightforward solution to trapping nanoparticles for further study. Here, we report on the latest progress made in experimentation with levitated nanoparticles; these include the trapping of 100 nm nanodiamonds (with NV-centres) down to 1 mbar as well as the trapping of 50 nm Silica spheres down to 10?4 mbar without any form of feedback cooling. We will also report on the progress to implement feedback stabilisation of the centre of mass motion of the trapped particle using digital electronics. Finally, we argue that such a stabilised particle trap can be the particle source for a nanoparticle matterwave interferometer. We will present our Talbot interferometer scheme, which holds promise to test the quantum superposition principle in the new mass range of 106 amu. EPSRC, John Templeton Foundation.

  4. Nanostructured metals. Fundamentals to applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grivel, J.-C.; Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Juul Jensen, D.; Mishin, O.V.; Nielsen, S.F.; Pantleon, W.; Toftegaard, H.; Winther, G.; Yu, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the today's world, materials science and engineering must as other technical fields focus on sustainability. Raw materials and energy have to be conserved and metals with improved or new structural and functional properties must be invented, developed and brought to application. In this endeavour a very promising route is to reduce the structural scale of metallic materials, thereby bridging industrial metals of today with emerging nanometals of tomorrow, i.e. structural scales ranging from a few micrometres to the nanometre regime. While taking a focus on metals with structures in this scale regime the symposium spans from fundamental aspects towards applications, uniting materials scientists and technologists. A holistic approach characterizes the themes of the symposium encompassing synthesis, characterization, modelling and performance where in each area significant progress has been made in recent years. Synthesis now covers top-down processes, e.g. plastic deformation, and bottom-up processes, e.g. chemical and physical synthesis. In the area of structural and mechanical characterization advanced techniques are now widely applied and in-situ techniques for structural characterization under mechanical or thermal loading are under rapid development in both 2D and 3D. Progress in characterization techniques has led to a precise description of different boundaries (grain, dislocation, twin, phase), and of how they form and evolve, also including theoretical modelling and simulations of structures, properties and performance. (au)

  5. The water, fundamental ecological base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, Luis Humberto

    1994-01-01

    To speak of ecology and the man's interaction with the environment takes, in fact implicit many elements that, actuating harmoniously generates a conducive entropy to a better to be, however it is necessary to hierarchy the importance of these elements, finding that the water, not alone to constitute sixty five percent of the total volume of the planet, or sixty percent of the human body, but to be the well called molecule of the life, it is constituted in the main element to consider in the study of the ecology. The water circulates continually through the endless hydrological cycle of condensation, precipitation, filtration, retention, evaporation, precipitation and so forth; however, due to the quick growth of the cities, its expansion of the green areas or its border lands, result of a demographic behavior and of inadequate social establishment; or of the advance industrial excessive, they produce irreparable alterations in the continuous processes of the water production, for this reason it is fundamental to know some inherent problems to the sources of water. The water, the most important in the renewable natural resources, essential for the life and for the achievement of good part of the man's goals in their productive function, it is direct or indirectly the natural resource more threatened by the human action

  6. Fundamentals of neurogastroenterology: basic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, David; Al-Chaer, Elie D; Aziz, Qasim; Collins, Stephen M; Ke, Meiyun; Taché, Yvette; Wood, Jackie D

    2006-04-01

    The focus of neurogastroenterology in Rome II was the enteric nervous system (ENS). To avoid duplication with Rome II, only advances in ENS neurobiology after Rome II are reviewed together with stronger emphasis on interactions of the brain, spinal cord, and the gut in terms of relevance for abdominal pain and disordered gastrointestinal function. A committee with expertise in selective aspects of neurogastroenterology was invited to evaluate the literature and provide a consensus overview of the Fundamentals of Neurogastroenterology textbook as they relate to functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). This review is an abbreviated version of a fuller account that appears in the forthcoming book, Rome III. This report reviews current basic science understanding of visceral sensation and its modulation by inflammation and stress and advances in the neurophysiology of the ENS. Many of the concepts are derived from animal studies in which the physiologic mechanisms underlying visceral sensitivity and neural control of motility, secretion, and blood flow are examined. Impact of inflammation and stress in experimental models relative to FGIDs is reviewed as is human brain imaging, which provides a means for translating basic science to understanding FGID symptoms. Investigative evidence and emerging concepts implicate dysfunction in the nervous system as a significant factor underlying patient symptoms in FGIDs. Continued focus on neurogastroenterologic factors that underlie the development of symptoms will lead to mechanistic understanding that is expected to directly benefit the large contingent of patients and care-givers who deal with FGIDs.

  7. Neutrino properties and fundamental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There are two components to this work. The first is a development of a new detection scheme for neutrinos. The observed deficit of neutrinos from the Sun may be due to either a lack of understanding of physical processes in the Sun or may be due to neutrinos oscillating from one type to another during their transit from the Sun to the Earth. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is designed to use a water Cerenkov detector employing one thousand tonnes of heavy water to resolve this question. The ability to distinguish muon and tau neutrinos from electron neutrinos is crucial in order to carry out a model-independent test of neutrino oscillations. We describe a developmental exploration of a novel technique to do this using 3 He proportional counters. Such a method offers considerable advantages over the initially proposed method of using Cerenkov light from capture on NaCl in the SNO. The second component of this work is an exploration of optimal detector geometry for a time-reversal invariance experiment. The question of why time moves only in the forward direction is one of the most puzzling problems in modern physics. We know from particle physics measurements of the decay of kaons that there is a charge-parity symmetry that is violated in nature, implying time-reversal invariance violation. Yet, we do not understand the origin of the violation of this symmetry. To promote such an understanding, we are developing concepts and prototype apparatus for a new, highly sensitive technique to search for time-reversal-invariance violation in the beta decay of the free neutron. The optimized detector geometry is seven times more sensitive than that in previous experiments. 15 refs

  8. MPL in Context: Some Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adail Sobral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian translation (2015 of Patrick Sériot's Preface to the French translation (2010 of Marxism and the Philosophy of Language (MPL provides a good opportunity to discuss this work and its relevance for the field of Human Sciences, considering different possible interpretations. In this sense, this work presents a discussion on questions that deserve, in our opinion, to be addressed both in Sériot's work (taken as an example of MPL's interpretation and in Voloshinov's.

  9. Asking questions: a management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, J E; Price, M

    1995-05-01

    The occupational health nurse manager does not have all the answers. In using a democratic style of leadership with well qualified professionals, the technique of questioning can be invaluable in clarifying the issue, brainstorming solutions, developing a course of action, and monitoring success. The personal rewards to the occupational health nurse manager will include a reputation for being an effective listener, a problem solver, and a valued member of the company's management team.

  10. 222 questions about the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina Gomez, M.; Cerrolaza Asenjo, J.A.; Garcia Alonso, J.M.; Iranzo Martin, J.E.; Lopez Perez, B.; Minguez Perres, E.; Minguez Torres, E.; Pascualena Cambra, M.T.; Poza Galiano, A. de la; Secades Ariz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The book presents with an easy language, questions about energy. The main topics are: - Energy and energy sources - Energy and society - The energy in the world - Basic concepts of Nuclear Physics - Basic concepts of radiological protection - Electric power - Nuclear Fuel cycle - Environmental impact - Radioactive wastes management - The risk in the electricity production - Standardization of Nuclear Safety - Economic aspects of electricity generation - Energy and Spanish economy

  11. Fusion of a polarized projectile with a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christley, J.A.; Johnson, R.C.; Thompson, I.J.

    1995-01-01

    The fusion cross sections for a polarized target with both unpolarized and polarized projectiles are studied. Expressions for the observables are given for the case when both nuclei are polarized. Calculations for fusion of an aligned 165 Ho target with 16 O and polarized 7 Li beams are presented

  12. RHIC spin: The first polarized proton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1994-01-01

    The very successful program of QCD and electroweak tests at the high energy hadron colliders have shown that the perturbative QCD has progressed towards becoming a ''precision'' theory. At the same time, it has been shown that with the help of Siberian Snakes it is feasible to accelerate polarized protons to high enough energies where the proven methods of collider physics can be used to probe the spin content of the proton but also where fundamental tests of the spin effects in the standard model are possible. With Siberian Snakes the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will be the first collider to allow for 250 GeV on 250 GeV polarized proton collisions

  13. BOOK REVIEWS: Quantum Mechanics: Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, A.

    2004-02-01

    electromagnetic interaction of a Dirac particle, the scattering of ultra-relativistic electrons and a treatment of bound states in a Coulomb field. Gottfried and Yan’s response both to the growing interest in work on foundational matters in general, and to the specific criticism of Bell on the previous edition is included in the chapter entitled `Interpretation'. This chapter appears to be something of a hybrid. The first four sections broadly discuss hidden variables. An account of the Einstein--Podolsky--Rosen approach is followed by a general study of hidden variables, including a discussion of what the authors call the Bell--Kochen--Specker theorem. Bell’s theorem is analysed in some detail; also included are the Clauser--Horne inequality and the experimental test of the Bell inequality by Aspect. There is an interesting discussion of locality. Granted that both quantum mechanics and experiment (the latter admittedly with a remaining loophole) are in conflict with what the authors call a classical conception of locality as embodied in the Bell inequality, they ask whether quantum mechanics is actually non-local if one uses a definition of locality entailing no ingredients unknown to quantum mechanics. Their answer is that it is a matter of taste. In the statistical distribution of measurement outcomes on separate systems in entangled states, there is no hint of non-locality and no question of superluminal signalling. But quantum mechanics displays perfect correlations between distant outcomes, even though Bell’s theorem demonstrates that pre-existing values cannot be assumed. The second part of this chapter is a discussion of the measurement procedure similar to that in the first edition. The authors aim to show how measurement results are obtained and displayed, and how the appropriate probabilities are determined. The expression of this intention, however, is accompanied by the statement that they are not attempting to derive the statistical interpretation of quantum

  14. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  15. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowben, P A; Wu Ning; Binek, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO 2 and Cr 2 O 3 illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values. (viewpoint)

  16. The evolution of tensor polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Lee, S.Y.; Ratner, L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the equation of motion for the vector polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization is derived. The evolution equation for the tensor polarization is studied in the presence of an isolate spin resonance and in the presence of a spin rotor, or snake

  17. The polarization of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The present work is the review of polarization of fast neutrons and methods of polarization analysis. This also includes information about polarization of fast neutrons from first papers, which described polarization in the D(d,n) 3 He, 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be, and T(p,n) 3 He reactions. (authors)

  18. Polarized particles in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Kondratenko, A.M.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Skrinskij, A.N.; Tumajkin, G.M.; Shatunov, Yu.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams on the VEPP-2M and SPEAK storage rings are described. Possible methods of producing polarized particle beams in storage rings as well as method of polarization monitoring are counted. Considered are the processes of radiation polarization of electrons and positrons. It is shown, that to preserve radiation polarization the introduction of regions with a strong sign-variable magnetic field is recommended. Methods of polarization measurement are counted. It is suggested for high energies to use dependence of synchrotron radiation power on transverse polarization of electrons and positrons. Examples of using polarizability of colliding beams in storage rings are presented

  19. Polarized electrons at Jefferson laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously. Initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  20. Polarized Electrons at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously.initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented.

  1. Polarization: A Must for Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidal M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent realistic simulations confirm that the polarization of the fuel would improve significantly the DT fusion efficiency. We have proposed an experiment to test the persistence of the polarization in a fusion process, using a terawatt laser hitting a polarized HD target. The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse producing a 3He and a neutron in the final state. The angular distribution of the neutrons and the change in the corresponding total cross section are related to the polarization persistence. The experimental polarization of DT fuel is a technological challenge. Possible paths for Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF and for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF are reviewed. For MCF, polarized gas can be used. For ICF, cryogenic targets are required. We consider both, the polarization of gas and the polarization of solid DT, emphasizing the Dynamic Nuclear polarization (DNP of HD and DT molecules.

  2. Open forum: Question and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.H.; Krupa, S.; Shen, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in this section is: With the end of the Cold War and the exchange of information improving between East and West, what roles should government agencies and non-government organizations from developed countries play in assisting less developed countries in developing a stronger environmental protection program? Responses presented here were obtained from Richard H. Schulze (President of Trinity Consultants, Inc.), Sagar Krupa (Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota), and Thomas T. Shen (Ph.D., D.AAEE, Retiree of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation)

  3. Nuclear power: Questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Uranium Institute, a London-based international association of industrial enterprises in the nuclear industry, published a report entitled The Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Based on an assessment by an international group of senior nuclear experts from eight countries, the report provides an authoritative explanation, for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application, and their implications. Some questions and answers are selected from that report; they address only a few of the subjects that the report itself examines in greater detail

  4. Astronomia Motivadora no Ensino Fundamental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    O objetivo principal deste trabalho é procurar desenvolver o interesse dos alunos pelas ciências através da Astronomia. Uma pesquisa com perguntas sobre Astronomia foi realizada junto a 161 alunos do Ensino Fundamental, com o intuito de descobrir conhecimentos prévios dos alunos sobre o assunto. Constatou-se, por exemplo, que 29,3% da 6ª série responderam corretamente o que é eclipse, 30,0% da 8ª série acertaram o que a Astronomia estuda, enquanto 42,3% dos alunos da 5ª série souberam definir o Sol. Pretende-se ampliar as turmas participantes e trabalhar, principalmente de forma prática com: dimensões e escalas no Sistema Solar, construção de luneta, questões como dia e noite, estações do ano e eclipses. Busca-se abordar, também, outros conteúdos de Física tais como a óptica na construção da luneta, e a mecânica no trabalho com escalas e medidas, e ao utilizar uma luminária para representar o Sol na questão do eclipse, e de outras disciplinas como a Matemática na transformação de unidades, regras de três; Artes na modelagem ou desenho dos planetas; a própria História com relação à busca pela origem do universo, e a Informática que possibilita a busca mais rápida por informações, além de permitir simulações e visualizações de imagens importantes. Acredita-se que a Astronomia é importante no processo ensino aprendizagem, pois permite a discussão de temas curiosos como, por exemplo, a origem do universo, viagens espaciais a existência ou não de vida em outros planetas, além de temas atuais como as novas tecnologias.

  5. Study by polarized muon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Experiments by using polarized muon beam are reported. The experiments were performed at Berkeley, U.S.A., and at Vancouver, Canada. The muon spin rotation is a useful method for the study of the spin polarization of conductive electrons in paramagnetic Pd metal. The muon Larmor frequency and the relaxation time can be obtained by measuring the time distribution of decay electrons of muon-electron process. The anomalous depolarization of negative muon spin rotation in the transitional metal was seen. The circular polarization of the negative muon X-ray was measured to make clear this phenomena. The experimental results show that the anomalous depolarization is caused at the 1-S-1/2 state. For the purpose to obtain the strong polarization of negative muon, a method of artificial polarization is proposed, and the test experiments are in progress. The study of the hyperfine structure of mu-mesic atoms is proposed. The muon capture rate was studied systematically. (Kato, T.)

  6. Polarized protons at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    The Physics case is presented for the use of polarized protons at RHIC for one or two months each year. This would provide a facility with polarizations of approx-gt 50% high luminosity ∼2.0 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , the possibility of both longitudinal and transverse polarization at the interaction regions, and frequent polarization reversal for control of systematic errors. The annual integrated luminosity for such running (∼10 6 sec per year) would be ∫ Ldt = 2 x 10 38 cm -2 -- roughly 20 times the total luminosity integrated in ∼ 10 years of operation of the CERN Collider (∼10 inverse picobarns, 10 37 cm -2 ). This facility would be unique in the ability to perform parity-violating measurements and polarization test of QCD. Also, the existence of p-p collisions in a new energy range would permit the study of ''classical'' reactions like the total cross section and elastic scattering, etc., and serve as a complement to measurements from p-bar p colliders. 11 refs

  7. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  8. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  9. Investor Outlook: The Unanswered Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2017-06-01

    The year 2016 was an exciting one for the field, with several notable successes outweighing a few setbacks. As the number of patients treated successfully (and safely) with gene therapy grows, the totality of evidence points to a robust platform with utility in orphan/ultra-orphan diseases as well as broader indications, and with hopefully increasing predictability of results. This year promises to feature more patients treated, more clinical data, and more gene therapy products in registration-enabling studies. For the field to continue to advance and mature into the next great drug delivery platform, a few unsolved and remaining questions need to be addressed, including the business model for cures, a broader safety/efficacy profile once more patients are treated, optimization of delivery (including next-generation approaches), and greater understanding of the impact of competitive dynamics. In this report, we detail the success and setbacks of 2016 and highlight the unanswered questions-and how the answers may shape the field in the years ahead.

  10. Are Quantum Theory Questions Epistemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How to displace-move quantum theory [Ǭ] questions-problems to philosophy? Seeing the collapse of our society’s cultural-intellectual-morals, the philosophy of the 21st century has to contribute to the formation of new principles-formalisms: the big task of the contemporary philosophy ©] is to innovate, to transform the building of the knowledge! Which is the role of the contemporary philosopher? (Noam Chomsky. Building science so that it is more human, out of the scientific mercantilism so that it does not continue transgressing that which is most precious: the thought-life. The ideas that I propose demand a deep cultural-epistemiologicscientific-philosophical-ethical rethinking that goes from quantum entities up to life in society. The starting idea is «the quantum [Ǭ], the paradigm of the contemporary science ©]» (Bernard D’Espagnat. I propose to displace-move questions of the quantum theory [Ǭ]: spin, measure, layering to the field of philosophy (φ to build generic symbols. Can the contemporary episteme model the collapse of the ? For a philosopher, can understanding the importance and the behaviour of the spin bring something new to philosophy ? Can information of the states of the spin be used to observe in a holographic way the pattern energy-information contained in the quantum entities? Is quantum [Ǭ] physics mechanical?

  11. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  12. Les questions de migrations internationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  13. Local Polar Fluctuations in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Omer; Guo, Yinsheng; Tan, Liang Z.; Egger, David A.; Hull, Trevor; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Zheng, Fan; Heinz, Tony F.; Kronik, Leeor; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Owen, Jonathan S.; Rappe, Andrew M.; Pimenta, Marcos A.; Brus, Louis E.

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid lead-halide perovskites have emerged as an excellent class of photovoltaic materials. Recent reports suggest that the organic molecular cation is responsible for local polar fluctuations that inhibit carrier recombination. We combine low-frequency Raman scattering with first-principles molecular dynamics (MD) to study the fundamental nature of these local polar fluctuations. Our observations of a strong central peak in the cubic phase of both hybrid (CH3 NH3 PbBr3 ) and all-inorganic (CsPbBr3 ) lead-halide perovskites show that anharmonic, local polar fluctuations are intrinsic to the general lead-halide perovskite structure, and not unique to the dipolar organic cation. MD simulations indicate that head-to-head Cs motion coupled to Br face expansion, occurring on a few hundred femtosecond time scale, drives the local polar fluctuations in CsPbBr3 .

  14. Local Polar Fluctuations in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, Omer; Guo, Yinsheng; Tan, Liang Z.; Egger, David A.; Hull, Trevor; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Zheng, Fan; Heinz, Tony F.; Kronik, Leeor; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Owen, Jonathan S.; Rappe, Andrew M.; Pimenta, Marcos A.; Brus, Louis E.

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid lead-halide perovskites have emerged as an excellent class of photovoltaic materials. Recent reports suggest that the organic molecular cation is responsible for local polar fluctuations that inhibit carrier recombination. We combine low-frequency Raman scattering with first-principles molecular dynamics (MD) to study the fundamental nature of these local polar fluctuations. Our observations of a strong central peak in the cubic phase of both hybrid (CH3NH3PbBr3) and all-inorganic (CsPbBr3) leadhalide perovskites show that anharmonic, local polar fluctuations are intrinsic to the general lead-halide perovskite structure, and not unique to the dipolar organic cation. MD simulations indicate that head-tohead Cs motion coupled to Br face expansion, occurring on a few hundred femtosecond time scale, drives the local polar fluctuations in CsPbBr3.

  15. Polarized source upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, T.B.; Rummel, R.L.; Carter, E.P.; Westerfeldt, C.R.; Lovette, A.W.; Edwards, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The decision was made this past year to move the Lamb-shift polarized ion source which was first installed in the laboratory in 1970. The motivation was the need to improve the flexibility of spin-axis orientation by installing the ion source with a new Wien-filter spin precessor which is capable of rotating physically about the beam axis. The move of the polarized source was accomplished in approximately two months, with the accelerator being turned off for experiments during approximately four weeks of this time. The occasion of the move provided the opportunity to rewire completely the entire polarized ion source frame and to rebuild approximately half of the electronic chassis on the source. The result is an ion source which is now logically wired and carefully documented. Beams obtained from the source are much more stable than those previously available

  16. Spin polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyde, H.R.; Hernadi, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    Several ground state properties of (electron) spin-polarized deuterium (D) such as the energy, single quasiparticle energies and lifetimes, Landau parameters and sound velocities are evaluated. The calculations begin with the Kolos-Wolneiwicz potential and use the Galitskii-FeynmanHartree-Fock (GFHF) approximation. The deuteron nucleas has spin I = 1, and spin states I/sub z/ = 1,0,-1. We explore D 1 , D 2 and D 3 in which, respectively, one spin state only is populated, two states are equally populated, and three states are equally populated. We find the GFHF describes D 1 well, but D 2 and D 3 less well. The Landau parameters, F/sub L/, are small compared to liquid 3 He and very small for doubly polarized D 1 (i.e. the F/sub L/ decrease with nuclear polarization)

  17. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Polarized electron sources for high energy accelerators took a significant step forward with the introduction of a new laser-driven photocathode source for the SLC in 1992. With an electron beam polarization of >80% and with ∼99% uptime during continuous operation, this source is a key factor in the success of the current SLC high-energy physics program. The SLC source performance is used to illustrate both the capabilities and the limitations of solid-state sources. The beam requirements for future colliders are similar to that of the SLC with the addition in most cases of multiple-bunch operation. A design for the next generation accelerator source that can improve the operational characteristics and at least minimize some of the inherent limitations of present sources is presented. Finally, the possibilities for producing highly polarized electron beams for high-duty-factor accelerators are discussed

  18. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......, to reconstruct the distribution of the Cole-Cole parameters of the earth. The accurate modeling of the transmitter waveform had a strong influence on the forward response, and we showed that the difference between a solution using a step response and a solution using the accurate modeling often is above 100...

  19. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  20. SPQR – Spectroscopy: Prospects, Questions & Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennington M.R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tremendous progress has been made in mapping out the spectrum of hadrons over the past decade with plans to make further advances in the decade ahead. Baryons and mesons, both expected and unexpected, have been found, the results of precision experiments often with polarized beams, polarized targets and sometimes polarization of the final states. All these hadrons generate poles in the complex energy plane that are consequences of the strong coupling regime of QCD. They reveal how this works.