The gluon contribution to polarised nucleon structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, G.G.; Roberts, R.G.
1990-08-01
As with all parton distributions in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) the separation of polarised nucleon structure functions into gluon and quark contributions must be specified. We consider a definition of the gluon contribution to polarised nucleon structure functions based on exclusive processes which is explicitly gauge invariant, has no regularisation ambiguities, is insensitive to infrared singularities and can be related to other polarised scattering processes. We discuss the relationship of this gluon definition to others that have recently been used and to the estimates that have been made of the gluon contribution using current algebra and other methods. A quantitative analysis of the structure function g 1 (x,Q 2 ) for polarised deep inelastic scattering is carried out, with the aim of examining the importance of the gluon contribution. Using the positivity of parton distributions the magnitude of Δg(x,Q 2 ) is constrained by a realistic estimate of the unpolarised glue. With the appropriate choice of the hard scattering cross-section, Δσ γg , we find that even with a maximally polarised glue (for x > 0.1), some polarised strange quark contribution is still needed by the data of the EMC. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayala, A.L.
1996-01-01
In this talk we present our detailed study (theory and numbers) on the shadowing corrections to the gluon structure functions for nuclei. Starting from rather controversial information on the nucleon structure function which is originated by the recent HERA data, we develop the Glauber approach for the gluon density in a nucleus based on Mueller formula and estimate the value of the shadowing corrections in this case. Then we calculate the first corrections to the Glauber approach and show that these corrections are big. Based on this practical observation we suggest the new evolution equation which takes into account the shadowing corrections and solve it. We hope to convince you that the new evolution equation gives a good theoretical tool to treat the shadowing corrections for the gluons density in a nucleus and, therefore, it is able to provide the theoretically reliable initial conditions for the time evolution of the nucleus-nucleus cascade. The initial conditions should be fixed both theoretically and phenomenologically before to attack such complicated problems as the mixture of hard and soft processes in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy or the theoretically reliable approach to hadron or/and parton cascades for high energy nucleus-nucleus interaction. 35 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab
Polarisation of quarks and gluons inside the nucleon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrieux, Vincent
2014-01-01
The work presented in this thesis is related to the study of the longitudinal spin structure of the nucleon. The aim is to determine the contribution to the spin 1/2 of the proton in terms of its constituents, quarks and gluons. The analysis is performed on the data taken with the COMPASS experiment, which benefits from a polarised muon beam at 200 GeV scattered off polarised protons from an ammonia target of 1.2 m long. The double longitudinal spin asymmetry of deep inelastic scattering cross-Section. The spin-Dependent structure function of the proton g:p is derived from these measurements, which extend the kinematic world coverage to unexplored region so far (0,0036 ≤ x≤ 0,57; 1,03 ≤ Q 2 (GeV/c) 2 ≤ 96 and 23 ≤ W 2 (GeV/c) 2 ≤ 320).The results obtained with a high statistical precision are included in a Next-To-Leading order QCD analysis of world g:p, g:d and g:n (proton, deuteron and neutron) data to parametrize the polarised quark and gluon distributions. The g: world coverage of the x and Q 2 kinematic domain, which is a key point in the sensitivity to the gluon polarisation ΔG, turns out to be too limited for an accurate ΔG determination. Nevertheless, the QCD analysis allows to determine the quark spin contributions to the proton spin to 0.26≤ΔΣ≤0.33 at Q 2 = 3 (GeV/c) 2 in the MSbar scheme. The dominant uncertainty on ΔΣ is related to the choice of functional forms assumed in the fit. Finally, the Bjorken sum rule, which constitutes a fundamental test of QCD, is verified on the COMPASS data alone with a precision of 9%. (author) [fr
First measurement of the gluon polarisation in the nucleon using D mesons at COMPASS
von Hodenberg, Martin
2005-01-01
The complicated structure of the nucleon has been studied with great success in deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering (DIS) experiments at CERN, SLAC and DESY. As a result the unpolarised structure functions have been measured accurately over a wide kinematic range. From these measurements it is possible to determine the gluon density in the nucleon with good accuracy via a so-called QCD fit. In the case of the spin structure of the nucleon the situation is different. Even after decades of experimental and theoretical efforts it remains to be understood how the spin of the nucleon of 1/2 in units of h-bar is to be accounted for in terms of contributions from the quarks and gluons inside the nucleon. Of particular interest is the question whether the polarised gluon density can explain the unexpected smallness of the quark contribution to the nucleon spin. The QCD fit, which worked well in the unpolarised case, yields a polarised gluon density Delta G which is only badly constrained. This is due to the fact...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adolph, C.; Braun, C.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Zink, A.; Aghasyan, M.; Birsa, R.; Dalla Torre, S.; Levorato, S.; Santos, C.; Sozzi, F.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, G.D.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Efremov, A.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Guskov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Kisselev, Yu.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Nagaytsev, A.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Rybnikov, A.; Savin, I.A.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Tasevsky, M.; Zavada, P.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Alexeev, M.G.; Amoroso, A.; Balestra, F.; Chiosso, M.; Gnesi, I.; Grasso, A.; Ivanov, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Longo, R.; Parsamyan, B.; Takekawa, S.; Andrieux, V.; Boer, M.; Curiel, Q.; Ferrero, A.; Fuchey, E.; Hose, N. d'; Kunne, F.; Levillain, M.; Magnon, A.; Marchand, C.; Neyret, D.; Platchkov, S.; Seder, E.; Thibaud, F.; Augustyniak, W.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kurek, K.; Marianski, B.; Sandacz, A.; Szabelski, A.; Sznajder, P.; Austregesilo, A.; Chung, S.U.; Friedrich, J.M.; Grabmueller, S.; Grube, B.; Haas, F.; Huber, S.; Kraemer, M.; Krinner, F.; Paul, S.; Uhl, S.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Pereira, F.; Veloso, J.; Badelek, B.; Barth, J.; Hahne, D.; Klein, F.; Pretz, J.; Schmieden, H.; Beck, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Eversheim, P.D.; Hinterberger, F.; Jahn, R.; Joosten, R.; Ketzer, B.; Mikhasenko, M.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Mallot, G.K.; Schoenning, K.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M. Jr.; Matousek, J.; Pesek, M.; Roskot, M.; Bordalo, P.; Franco, C.; Nunes, A.S.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Silva, L.; Stolarski, M.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Dasgupta, S.; Makke, N.; Martin, A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Buechele, M.; Fischer, H.; Gorzellik, M.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Joerg, P.; Koenigsmann, K.; Kremser, P.; Nowak, W.D.; Regali, C.; Schmidt, K.; Schopferer, S.; Sirtl, S.; Szameitat, T.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Chang, W.C.; Hsieh, C.Y.; Sawada, T.; Choi, I.; Giordano, F.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Heitz, R.; Kulinich, Y.; Makins, N.; Montuenga, P.; Peng, J.C.; Riedl, C.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dhara, L.; Sarkar, S.; Sinha, L.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Maggiora, A.; Panzieri, D.; Tosello, F.; Donskov, S.V.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kolosov, V.N.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Lednev, A.A.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Polyakov, V.A.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Doshita, N.; Hashimoto, R.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kondo, K.; Matsuda, H.; Michigami, T.; Miyachi, Y.; Nukazuka, G.; Suzuki, H.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Kurjata, R.P.; Marzec, J.; Rychter, A.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Fresne von Hohenesche, N. du; Harrach, D. von; Kabuss, E.; Nerling, F.; Ostrick, M.; Pochodzalla, J.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.
2017-01-01
Using a novel analysis technique, the gluon polarisation in the nucleon is re-evaluated using the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry measured in the cross section of semi-inclusive single-hadron muoproduction with photon virtuality Q 2 > 1 (GeV/c) 2 . The data were obtained by the COMPASS experiment at CERN using a 160 GeV/c polarised muon beam impinging on a polarised 6 LiD target. By analysing the full range in hadron transverse momentum p T , the different p T -dependences of the underlying processes are separated using a neural-network approach. In the absence of pQCD calculations at next-to-leading order in the selected kinematic domain, the gluon polarisation Δg/g is evaluated at leading order in pQCD at a hard scale of μ 2 = left angle Q 2 right angle = 3 (GeV/c) 2 . It is determined in three intervals of the nucleon momentum fraction carried by gluons, x g , covering the range 0.04 < x g < 0.28 and does not exhibit a significant dependence on x g . The average over the three intervals, left angle Δg/g right angle = 0.113 ± 0.038 (stat.) ± 0.036 (syst.) at left angle x g right angle ∼ 0.10, suggests that the gluon polarisation is positive in the measured x g range. (orig.)
Measurement of the gluon polarisation from open-charm production at COMPASS
Franco, C
The main purpose of the COMPASS experiment at CERN is the determination of the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin. To achieve this goal, COMPASS uses a naturally polarised muon beam with an energy of 160 GeV and a fixed polarised target. Two types of materials were used as a target: 6LiD (polarised deuterons) in 2002-2006 and NH3 (polarised protons) in 2007. The gluons in the nucleon can be accessed directly via the Photon Gluon Fusion (PGF) process. Among the channels studied by COMPASS, the production of open-charm mesons is the one that tags a PGF interaction in the most clean and efficient way. This thesis presents an estimation of the gluon polarisation, G/G, which is based on a measurement of the spin asymmetry resulting from the production of D0 mesons. These mesons are reconstructed through the invariant mass of their decay products. The purity of the D0 mass spectra was significantly improved through the use of a new method based on Neural Networks. The G/G result is also presented using the next...
Determination of the gluon polarisation from open charm production at COMPASS
Koblitz, Susanne
2009-01-01
One of the main goals of the COMPASS experiment at CERN is the determination of the gluon polarisation in the nucleon. It is determined from spin asymmetries in the scattering of 160 GeV/c polarised muons on a polarised LiD target. The gluon polarisation is accessed by the selection of photon-gluon fusion (PGF) events. The PGF-process can be tagged through hadrons with high transverse momenta or through charmed hadrons in the final state. The advantage of the open charm channel is that, in leading order, the PGF-process is the only process for charm production, thus no physical background contributes to the selected data sample. This thesis presents a measurement of the gluon polarisation from the COMPASS data taken in the years 2002-2004. In the analysis, charm production is tagged through a reconstructed D0-meson decaying in $D^{0}-> K^{-}pi^{+}$ (and charge conjugates). The reconstruction is done on a combinatorial basis. The background of wrong track pairs is reduced using kinematic cuts to the reconstruc...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Alekseev, M.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Austregisilio, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.; Chapiro, A.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Crespo, M.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dafni, T.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dinkelbach, A.; Donskov, S.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Efremov, A.V.; El Alaoui, A.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Friedrich, J.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmüller, S.; Grajek, O.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hagemann, R.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Heinsius, F.; Hermann, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Höppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Käfer, W.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Kiefer, J.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Komissarov, E.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Krämer, M.; Kral, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Le Goff, J.; Lednev, A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Y.; Moinester, M.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Negrini, S.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panebianco, S.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.; Pontecorvo, G.; Pretz, J.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Reggiani, D.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schröder, W.; Shevchenko, O.; Siebert, H.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takekawa, S.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Vossen, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Wenzl, K.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhao, J.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.
2009-01-01
Roč. 676, 1-3 (2009), s. 31-38 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : inelastic muon scattering * spin * asymmetry * gluon polarisation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.083, year: 2009
Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Chang, W.C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jorg, P.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kramer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; J.Matou s; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.C.; Pereira, F.; M. Pe s; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Roskot, M.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.
2017-01-01
Using a novel analysis technique, the gluon polarisation in the nucleon is re-evaluated using the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry measured in the cross section of semi-inclusive single-hadron muoproduction with photon virtuality $Q^2>1~({\\rm GeV}/c)^2$. The data were obtained by the COMPASS experiment at CERN using a 160 GeV/$c$ polarised muon beam impinging on a polarised $^6$LiD target. By analysing the full range in hadron transverse momentum $p_T$, the different $p_T$-dependences of the underlying processes are separated using a neural-network approach. In the absence of pQCD calculations at next-to-leading order in the selected kinematic domain, the gluon polarisation $\\Delta g/g$ is evaluated at leading order in pQCD at a hard scale of $\\mu^2 = \\langle Q^2\\rangle = 3(GeV=c)^2$. It is determined in three intervals of the nucleon momentum fraction carried by gluons, $x_g$, covering the range $0.04 \\!<\\! x_{ \\rm g}\\! <\\! 0.28$ . and does not exhibit a significant dependence on $x_{\\rm g}$. Average...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adolph, C.; Braun, C.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Zink, A. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Aghasyan, M.; Birsa, R.; Dalla Torre, S.; Levorato, S.; Santos, C.; Sozzi, F.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F. [INFN, Trieste (Italy); Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, G.D.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Efremov, A.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Guskov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Kisselev, Yu.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Nagaytsev, A.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Rybnikov, A.; Savin, I.A.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Tasevsky, M.; Zavada, P.; Zemlyanichkina, E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Alexeev, M.G. [University of Turin, Department of Physics, Turin (Italy); Amoroso, A.; Balestra, F.; Chiosso, M.; Gnesi, I.; Grasso, A.; Ivanov, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Longo, R.; Parsamyan, B.; Takekawa, S. [University of Turin, Department of Physics, Turin (Italy); INFN, Turin (Italy); Andrieux, V.; Boer, M.; Curiel, Q.; Ferrero, A.; Fuchey, E.; Hose, N. d'
2017-04-15
Using a novel analysis technique, the gluon polarisation in the nucleon is re-evaluated using the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry measured in the cross section of semi-inclusive single-hadron muoproduction with photon virtuality Q{sup 2} > 1 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The data were obtained by the COMPASS experiment at CERN using a 160 GeV/c polarised muon beam impinging on a polarised {sup 6}LiD target. By analysing the full range in hadron transverse momentum p{sub T}, the different p{sub T}-dependences of the underlying processes are separated using a neural-network approach. In the absence of pQCD calculations at next-to-leading order in the selected kinematic domain, the gluon polarisation Δg/g is evaluated at leading order in pQCD at a hard scale of μ{sup 2} = left angle Q{sup 2} right angle = 3 (GeV/c){sup 2}. It is determined in three intervals of the nucleon momentum fraction carried by gluons, x{sub g}, covering the range 0.04 < x{sub g} < 0.28 and does not exhibit a significant dependence on x{sub g}. The average over the three intervals, left angle Δg/g right angle = 0.113 ± 0.038{sub (stat.)} ± 0.036{sub (syst.)} at left angle x{sub g} right angle ∼ 0.10, suggests that the gluon polarisation is positive in the measured x{sub g} range. (orig.)
Determination of the gluon polarisation from open charm production at COMPASS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koblitz, Susanne
2009-01-01
One of the main goals of the COMPASS experiment at CERN is the determination of the gluon polarisation in the nucleon, ΔG/G. It is determined from spin asymmetries in the scattering of 160GeV/c polarised muons on a polarised LiD target. The gluon polarisation is accessed by the selection of photon-gluon fusion (PGF) events. The PGF-process can be tagged through hadrons with high transverse momenta or through charmed hadrons in the final state. The advantage of the open charm channel is that, in leading order, the PGF-process is the only process for charm production, thus no physical background contributes to the selected data sample. This thesis presents a measurement of the gluon polarisation left angle Δg/g right angle from the COMPASS data taken in the years 2002-2004. In the analysis, charm production is tagged through a reconstructed D 0 -meson decaying in D 0 → K - π + (and charge conjugates). The reconstruction is done on a combinatorial basis. The background of wrong track pairs is reduced using kinematic cuts to the reconstructed D 0 -candidate and the information on particle identification from the Ring Imaging Cerenkov counter. In addition, the event sample is separated into D 0 -candidates, where a soft pion from the decay of the D * -meson to a D 0 -meson, is found, and the D 0 -candidates without this tag. Due to the small mass difference between D * -meson and D 0 -meson the signal purity of the D * -tagged sample is about 7 times higher than in the untagged sample. The gluon polarisation left angle Δg/g right angle is measured from the event asymmetries for the for the different spin configurations of the COMPASS target. To improve the statistical precision of the final results, the events in the final sample are weighted. The use of a signal and a background weight allows the separation of left angle Δg/g right angle, and a possible asymmetry in the combinatorial background. This method results in an average value of the gluon polarisation
Determination of the gluon polarisation from open charm production at COMPASS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koblitz, Susanne
2009-01-27
One of the main goals of the COMPASS experiment at CERN is the determination of the gluon polarisation in the nucleon, {delta}G/G. It is determined from spin asymmetries in the scattering of 160GeV/c polarised muons on a polarised LiD target. The gluon polarisation is accessed by the selection of photon-gluon fusion (PGF) events. The PGF-process can be tagged through hadrons with high transverse momenta or through charmed hadrons in the final state. The advantage of the open charm channel is that, in leading order, the PGF-process is the only process for charm production, thus no physical background contributes to the selected data sample. This thesis presents a measurement of the gluon polarisation left angle {delta}g/g right angle from the COMPASS data taken in the years 2002-2004. In the analysis, charm production is tagged through a reconstructed D{sup 0}-meson decaying in D{sup 0}{yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} (and charge conjugates). The reconstruction is done on a combinatorial basis. The background of wrong track pairs is reduced using kinematic cuts to the reconstructed D{sup 0}-candidate and the information on particle identification from the Ring Imaging Cerenkov counter. In addition, the event sample is separated into D{sup 0}-candidates, where a soft pion from the decay of the D{sup *}-meson to a D{sup 0}-meson, is found, and the D{sup 0}-candidates without this tag. Due to the small mass difference between D{sup *}-meson and D{sup 0}-meson the signal purity of the D{sup *}-tagged sample is about 7 times higher than in the untagged sample. The gluon polarisation left angle {delta}g/g right angle is measured from the event asymmetries for the for the different spin configurations of the COMPASS target. To improve the statistical precision of the final results, the events in the final sample are weighted. The use of a signal and a background weight allows the separation of left angle {delta}g/g right angle, and a possible asymmetry in the combinatorial
Leading order determination of the gluon polarisation from DIS events with high-$p_T$ hadron pairs
Adolph, C; Alexakhin, V Yu; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Antonov, A A; Austregesilo, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bettinelli, M; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Burtin, E; Chaberny, D; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Dalla Torre, S; Das, S; Dasgupta, S S; Denisov, O.Yu; Dhara, L; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dunnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; jr., M.Finger; Fischer, H; Franco, C; von Hohenesche, N.du Fresne; Friedrich, J M; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gazda, R; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Grabmuller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Guthorl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Hedicke, S; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hess, C; Hinterberger, F; Horikawa, N; Hoppner, Ch; d'Hose, N; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, O; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jasinski, P; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu.A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koblitz, S; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Konigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Korzenev, A; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Kramer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K; Lauser, L; Le Goff, J M; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Mann, A; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matsuda, T; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu.V; Moinester, M A; Morreale, A; Mutter, A; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nassalski, J P; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Nowak, W D; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Padee, A; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E; Pesaro, G; Peshekhonov, D V; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pontecorvo, G; Pretz, J; Procureur, S L; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Rajotte, J F; Ramos, S; Rapatsky, V; Reicherz, G; Richter, A; Rocco, E; Rondio, E; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C.; Schluter, T; Schmidt, K; Schmitt, L; Schonning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Shevchenko, O.Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sissakian, A N; Slunecka, M; Smirnov, G I; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Wolbeek, J.Ter; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Tkatchev, L G; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Vandenbroucke, M; Virius, M; Vlassov, N V; Wang, L; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M; Zhuravlev, N; Zvyagin, A
2013-01-01
We present a determination of the gluon polarisation Delta g/g in the nucleon, based on the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry of DIS events with a pair of large transverse-momentum hadrons in the final state. The data were obtained by the COMPASS experiment at CERN using a 160 GeV/c polarised muon beam scattering off a polarised ^6LiD target. The gluon polarisation is evaluated by a Neural Network approach for three intervals of the gluon momentum fraction x_g covering the range 0.04 < x_g < 0.27. The values obtained at leading order in QCD do not show any significant dependence on x_g. Their average is Delta g/g = 0.125 +/- 0.060 (stat.) +/- 0.063 (syst.) at x_g=0.09 and a scale of mu^2 = 3~(GeV/c)^2.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Procureur, S.
2006-07-01
The main goal of the COMPASS experiment at CERN is the determination of the gluon polarisation in the nucleon, V. For this, the helicity asymmetry of the photon gluon fusion process is measured, in the scattering of polarized muons on a polarised deuteron target. This process can be tagged by the production of hadrons with high transverse momentum (pT), that allows to get a large statistics. On the other hand, a physical background remains and complicates the extraction of V. This PhD thesis presents different studies performed to optimize the determination of c in this channel. In particular, a study of the alignment of the 200 detection planes is presented, leading to an improvement of the spectrometer resolution. Performances of the 12 Micromegas detectors have also been determined during 2004 run. Then, the asymmetries obtained in the analysis of 2002 to 2004 data are calculated, for various high PT selections: production of 1 or 2 hadrons, at low or high Q2. An optimization of the selection, based on a neural network, has also been developed, and a detailed study of the experimental false asymmetry has been performed. V extraction is then described, based on Monte Carlo simulations (using PYTHIA or LEPTO). For the first time, the asymmetry of the so-called resolved photon processes is estimated. An improvement on the reconstruction of nucleon momentum fraction carried by the gluon is also proposed, by reconstructing pseudo-jets. Finally, small values obtained for GG are discussed, in terms of constraints on the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin. (author)
Holographic quark-gluon plasmas at finite quark density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bigazzi, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Cotrone, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino (Italy); Mas, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Tarrio, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Universiteit Utrecht, 3584 CE, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mayerson, D. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2012-07-15
Gravity solutions holographically dual to strongly coupled quark-gluon plasmas with non-zero quark density are reviewed. They are motivated by the urgency of finding novel tools to explore the phase diagram of QCD-like theories at finite chemical potential. After presenting the solutions and their regime of validity, some of their physical properties are discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Nonperturbative quark-gluon thermodynamics at finite density
Andreichikov, M. A.; Lukashov, M. S.; Simonov, Yu. A.
2018-03-01
Thermodynamics of the quark-gluon plasma at finite density is studied in the framework of the Field Correlator Method, where thermodynamical effects of Polyakov loops and color magnetic confinement are taken into account. Having found good agreement with numerical lattice data for zero density, we calculate pressure P(T,μ), for 0 integral form is found in this region, demonstrating analytic structure in the complex μ plane. The resulting multiple complex branch points are found at the Roberge-Weiss values of Imμ, with Reμ defined by the values of Polyakov lines and color magnetic confinement.
J/ψ-production mechanisms and determination of the gluon density at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, H.; Schuler, G.A.; Terron, J.
1992-02-01
We discuss photo- and leptoproduction of J/ψ-mesons at energies ranging from fixed-target experiments up to HERA. Elastic and diffractive production as well as various inelastic processes are studied. We investigate the range in which J/ψ-production is described by photon-gluon fusion in the colour-singlet model. We show how inelastic J/ψ production at HERA can be used to extract the gluon density. We estimate an accessible range of 3 x 10 -4 < x < 0.1 and discuss sources of errors in the reconstruction of the gluon density at HERA. (orig.)
Procureur, Sébastien
L\\'objectif principal de l\\'expérience COMPASS au CERN est la détermination de la polarisation des gluons dans le nucléon, $\\\\frac{\\\\Delta G}{G}$. On mesure pour cela l\\'asymétrie d\\'hélicité du processus de fusion photon gluon, dans la diffusion de muons polarisés sur une cible de deutérons polarisés. Ce processus peut être sélectionné par la production de hadrons à grande impulsion transverse ($p_T$), ce qui permet de disposer d\\'une grande statistique. En contrepartie, la présence d\\'un bruit de fond physique complique l\\'extraction de $\\\\frac{\\\\Delta G}{G}$. Ce mémoire de thèse présente différentes études menées afin d\\'optimiser la détermination de $\\\\frac{\\\\Delta G}{G}$ dans ce canal. Une étude sur l\\'alignement des quelques 200 plans de détection est notamment présentée, améliorant ainsi la résolution du spectromètre. Les performances des 12 détecteurs de type Micromegas ont également été déterminées au cours de la prise de données 2004. Puis, les asymétries obtenues...
The Mellin transform technique for the extraction of the gluon density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graudenz, D.
1995-06-01
A new method is presented to determine the gluon density in the proton from jet production in deeply inelastic scattering. By using the technique of Mellin transforms not only for the solution of the scale evolution equation of the parton densities but also for the evaluation of scattering cross sections, the gluon density can be extracted in next-to-leading order QCD. The method described in this paper is, however, more general, and can be used in situations where a repeated fast numerical evaluation of scattering cross sections for varying parton distribution functions is required. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dale, Stephen G.; Johnson, Erin R.
2015-01-01
Exploration of the solvated electron phenomena using density-functional theory (DFT) generally results in prediction of a localised electron within an induced solvent cavity. However, it is well known that DFT favours highly delocalised charges, rendering the localisation of a solvated electron unexpected. We explore the origins of this counterintuitive behaviour using a model Kevan-structure system. When a polarisable-continuum solvent model is included, it forces electron localisation by introducing a strong energetic bias that favours integer charges. This results in the formation of a large energetic barrier for charge-hopping and can cause the self-consistent field to become trapped in local minima thus converging to stable solutions that are higher in energy than the ground electronic state. Finally, since the bias towards integer charges is caused by the polarisable continuum, these findings will also apply to other classical polarisation corrections, as in combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. The implications for systems beyond the solvated electron, including cationic DNA bases, are discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dale, Stephen G., E-mail: sdale@ucmerced.edu [Chemistry and Chemical Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States); Johnson, Erin R., E-mail: erin.johnson@dal.ca [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, 6274 Coburg Road, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)
2015-11-14
Exploration of the solvated electron phenomena using density-functional theory (DFT) generally results in prediction of a localised electron within an induced solvent cavity. However, it is well known that DFT favours highly delocalised charges, rendering the localisation of a solvated electron unexpected. We explore the origins of this counterintuitive behaviour using a model Kevan-structure system. When a polarisable-continuum solvent model is included, it forces electron localisation by introducing a strong energetic bias that favours integer charges. This results in the formation of a large energetic barrier for charge-hopping and can cause the self-consistent field to become trapped in local minima thus converging to stable solutions that are higher in energy than the ground electronic state. Finally, since the bias towards integer charges is caused by the polarisable continuum, these findings will also apply to other classical polarisation corrections, as in combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. The implications for systems beyond the solvated electron, including cationic DNA bases, are discussed.
Extraction of the gluon density of the proton at small χ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.
1994-10-01
The gluon momentum density xg(x, Q 2 ) of the proton was extracted at Q 2 =20 GeV 2 for small values of x between 4x10 -4 and 10 -2 from the scaling violations of the proton structure function F 2 measured recently by ZEUS in deep inelastic neutral current ep scattering at HERA. The extraction was performed in two ways. Firstly, using a global NLO fit to the ZEUS data on F 2 at low x constrained by measurements from NMC at larger x; and secondly using published approximate methods for the solution of the GLAP QCD evolution equations. Consistent results are obtained. A substantial increase of the gluon density is found at small x in comparison with the NMC result obtained at larger values of x. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barber, D.P.
2015-10-01
I extend and update earlier work, summarised in an earlier paper (D.P. Barber, M. Voigt, AIP Conference Proceedings 1149 (28)), whereby the invariant polarisation-tensor field (ITF) for deuterons in storage rings was introduced to complement the invariant spin field (ISF). Taken together, the ITF and the ISF provide a definition of the equilibrium spin density-matrix field which, in turn, offers a clean framework for describing equilibrium spin-1 ensembles in storage rings. I show how to construct the ITF by stroboscopic averaging, I give examples, I discuss adiabatic invariance and I introduce a formalism for describing the effect of noise and damping.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panebianco, St
2005-09-15
The main aim of the COMPASS experiment is the measurement of the gluon polarization in the nucleon, which can be accessed by the spin asymmetry in the scattering of a polarized muon beam on a polarized nucleon target. The process sensitive to the gluon polarization is the photon-gluon fusion, which can be tagged in the cleanest way by looking at the production of D{sup 0} mesons. At COMPASS, D{sup 0} mesons are reconstructed from the invariant mass of their decay products. However, it is a rare process, dominated by a large combinatorial background. This thesis presents some studies devoted to the improvement of the charmed mesons reconstruction. The measurement of the efficiency and the space resolution of the 3 drift chamber stations of the COMPASS spectrometer is a necessary step in understanding the performances of the reconstruction of particle trajectories. The hadron identification, which is fundamental in the reconstruction of charmed meson decay, is performed by a RICH detector. A statistical treatment of signal and background, together with an upgrade project to replace the present front-end electronics, have been developed in order to improve the particle identification performances. The second part of this work concerns the spin asymmetry measurement, which requires the application of event selection criteria in order to minimize the noise over signal ratio in the D{sup 0} invariant mass, and the development of event-weighting methods to reduce the statistical error. This work presents a preliminary result, based on 2002-2004 statistics, which is the {delta}G/G measurement from open charm production. Although the error bars are large, the measured gluon polarization is compatible with zero. Given the present accuracy, this result is compatible with the existing direct measurements from other channels. However, it does not allow to distinguish between different theoretical models. (author)
Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Lelek, A.; Radescu, V.; Žlebčík, R.
2018-01-01
We study parton-branching solutions of QCD evolution equations and present a method to construct both collinear and transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton densities from this approach. We work with next-to-leading-order (NLO) accuracy in the strong coupling. Using the unitarity picture in terms of resolvable and non-resolvable branchings, we analyze the role of the soft-gluon resolution scale in the evolution equations. For longitudinal momentum distributions, we find agreement of our numerical calculations with existing evolution programs at the level of better than 1% over a range of five orders of magnitude both in evolution scale and in longitudinal momentum fraction. We make predictions for the evolution of transverse momentum distributions. We perform fits to the high-precision deep inelastic scattering (DIS) structure function measurements, and we present a set of NLO TMD distributions based on the parton branching approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cholewa, Axel
2011-02-01
A study of inclusive D *± meson production in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering at the H1 detector is presented for low photon virtualities. The results of these measurements have been used to determine unintegrated gluon densities with the Monte Carlo generator CASCADE. The phase space of the measurement is defined by photon virtualities inside 2 GeV 2 2 2 , and inelasticities inside 0.02 *± mesons is restricted to pseudo rapidities of vertical stroke η D * vertical stroke t D * >1.5 GeV and complements D *± meson production measurements at higher photon virtualities. Data taken in the years 2004-2007 during the HERA II running period have been analyzed yielding an integrated luminosity of 348 pb -1 . This significant increase in statistics compared to HERA I was exploited in the single and double differential cross sections which have been measured more differentiated than in previous measurements at H1. The single differential cross sections have been used in parameter fits of unintegrated gluon densities. For this purpose scattering events in electron-proton collisions were simulated with the Monte Carlo generator CASCADE and the deviation of the prediction of the simulation from the measured data was then minimized with the χ 2 method. Three different parametrizations of unintegrated gluon distributions have been used and compared. (orig.)
Unbiased Polarised Parton Distribution Functions and their Uncertainties
Nocera, Emanuele R.; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rojo, Juan
2012-01-01
We present preliminary results on the determination of spin-dependent, or polarised, Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) from all relevant inclusive polarised DIS data. The analysis is performed within the NNPDF approach, which provides a faithful and statistically sound representation of PDFs and their uncertainties. We describe how the NNPDF methodology has been extended to the polarised case, and compare our results with other recent polarised parton sets. We show that polarised PDF uncertainties can be sizeably underestimated in standard determinations, most notably for the gluon.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiler, T.
1981-01-01
An overview is presented of the attributes of gluons, deducible from experimental data. Particular attention is given to the photon-gluon fusion model of charm leptoproduction. The agreement with QCD and theoretical prejudice is qualitatively good
The polarised Λ production in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ravindran, V.
1997-01-01
The Q 2 evolution of polarised parton fragmentation functions is discussed using the Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations. The first moments of both the polarised quark and gluon fragmentation functions are shown to behave in a similar fashion at very high energies. This analysis is applicable to any hard processes involving the production of polarised hadrons. The polarised Λ hyperon production in e + e - annihilation where this can be realised is considered. We present complete α s (Q 2 ) corrections to the asymmetries discussed in the paper of Burkardt and Jaffe which demonstrates the extraction of various polarised fragmentation functions. To this order, these corrections are found to be scheme dependent similar to that of structure functions. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bacchetta, Alessandro; Jung, Hannes; Kutak, Krzysztof
2010-02-01
A method for tuning parameters in Monte Carlo generators is described and applied to a specific case. The method works in the following way: each observable is generated several times using different values of the parameters to be tuned. The output is then approximated by some analytic form to describe the dependence of the observables on the parameters. This approximation is used to find the values of the parameter that give the best description of the experimental data. This results in significantly faster fitting compared to an approach in which the generator is called iteratively. As an application, we employ this method to fit the parameters of the unintegrated gluon density used in the Cascade Monte Carlo generator, using inclusive deep inelastic data measured by the H1 Collaboration. We discuss the results of the fit, its limitations, and its strong points. (orig.)
Anaïs Schaeffer
2014-01-01
The polarisation of photons emitted in the decay of a bottom quark into a strange quark, as predicted by the Standard Model, has just been observed for the first time by the LHCb collaboration. More detailed research is still required to determine the value of this polarisation with precision. In this LHCb event, K, π and γ are emitted from a B+ → K+π-π+γ decay. This was investigated by the LHCb collaboration in order to study the photon (γ) polarisation. If we imagine that photons are like little spinning tops which spin around an axis aligned with their direction of propagation, we can identify two types of photons. Those that are “right-handed” turn in the same direction as a corkscrew, and those that are “left-handed” turn in the opposite direction. If for a large number of decays of a given type we can observe an imbalance between the production of right-han...
The gluon Sivers asymmetry measurements at COMPASS
Szabelski, Adam
2017-01-01
The Sivers function describes the correlation between the transverse spin of a nucleon and the transverse motion of its partons. As such, a nonzero Sivers effect for gluons could be a signature of their nonzero orbital angular momentum inside the nucleon. COMPASS has collected data of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering by impinging 160 GeV/$c$ muons on transversely polarised proton and deuteron targets. The gluon Sivers asymmetry is extracted from a high-$p_T$ hadron pair sample with the use of monte carlo simulations and the a neural network approach. The results of a similar analysis for a Collins-like asymmetry for gluons will also be given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang Lei; Liu Yuxin; Guo Hua
2005-01-01
Making use of the global color symmetry model (GCM) at finite chemical potential and with a sophisticated effective gluon propagator, the density dependence of the bag constant, the total energy and the radius of a nucleon in nuclear matter is investigated. A maximal nuclear matter density for the existence of the bag with three quarks confined within is given as about 8 times the normal nuclear matter density. The calculated results indicate that, before the maximal density is reached, the bag constant and the total energy of a nucleon decrease, and the radius of a nucleon increases, with the increasing of the nuclear matter density. As the maximal nuclear matter density is reached, the mass and the bag constant of the nucleon vanish and the radius becomes infinite suddenly. It manifests that a phase transition from nucleons to quarks takes place. Meanwhile, shortening the interaction range among quarks can induce the phase transition to happen easier
Unitarity bound for gluon shadowing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Levin, E.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan
2009-01-01
Although at small Bjorken x gluons originated from different nucleons in a nucleus overlap in the longitudinal direction, most of them are still well separated in the transverse plane and therefore cannot fuse. For this reason the gluon density in nuclei cannot drop at small x below a certain bottom bound, which we evaluated in a model independent manner assuming the maximal strength of gluon fusion. We also calculated gluon shadowing in the saturated regime using the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation and found the nuclear ratio to be well above the unitarity bound. The recently updated analysis of parton distributions in nuclei, including BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) data on high-p T hadron production at forward rapidities, led to strong gluon shadowing. Such strong shadowing and therefore the interpretation of the nuclear modification of the p T spectra in dA collisions at RHIC seem to be inconsistent with this unitarity bound.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Anders Bøggild
This paper is connected to the phd. project: “Social polarisation in Aarhus” and will discuss the concept of social polarisation and related concepts as poverty, marginalization and social exclusion in developing a research strategy in studying social polarisation in the city....
High energy evolution of soft gluon cascades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuvaev, A.; Wallon, S.
2006-01-01
In this paper we derive an evolution equation for the gluon density in soft gluon cascades emitted from any colored source, in the leading logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD. We show that this equation has the same form as the BFKL equation in the forward case. An explicit expression for the total cascade wavefunction involving an arbitrary number of soft gluons is obtained. Renormalization of the colored source wavefunction turns out to be responsible for the reggeization of the source. (orig.)
High energy evolution of soft gluon cascades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shuvaev, A. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg district (Russian Federation); Wallon, S. [Universite Paris XI, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay Cedex (France)
2006-04-15
In this paper we derive an evolution equation for the gluon density in soft gluon cascades emitted from any colored source, in the leading logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD. We show that this equation has the same form as the BFKL equation in the forward case. An explicit expression for the total cascade wavefunction involving an arbitrary number of soft gluons is obtained. Renormalization of the colored source wavefunction turns out to be responsible for the reggeization of the source. (orig.)
Nayak, Tapan; Sarkar, Sourav
2014-01-01
At extremely high temperatures and densities, protons and neutrons may dissolve into a "soup" of quarks and gluons, called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). For a few microseconds, shortly after the Big Bang, the Universe was filled with the QGP matter. The search and study of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is one of the most fundamental research topics of our times. The QGP matter has been probed by colliding heavy ions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva. By colliding heavy-ions at a speed close to that of light, scientists aim to obtain - albeit over a tiny volume of the size of a nucleus and for an infinitesimally short instant - a QGP state. This QGP state can be observed by dedicated experiments, as it reverts to hadronic matter through expansion and cooling. This volume presents some of the current theoretical and experimental understandings in the field of QGP.
High temperature gluon matter in the background gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elze, H.T.; Heinz, U.; Kajantie, K.; Toimela, T.
1987-01-01
The polarisation tensor of gluons in high temperature QCD matter is discussed in the background gauge and compared with that in the temporal axial A 0 = 0 gauge. In both of these the gluon polarisation tensor alone is sufficient to give the asymptotically free sign of the QCD beta function. The the former the beta function and the imaginary part of the polarisation tensor are coupled in such a way that asymptotic freedom implies instability of plasma oscillations. In the latter, due to the non-covariance of the gauge condition, the beta function and the imaginary part are decoupled in such a way that the sign of the imaginary part corresponds to stable plasma oscillations
Macquart, JP
2002-01-01
We discuss the constraints that recent observations place on circular polarisation in AGN. In many sources the circular polarisation is variable on short timescales, indicating that it originates in compact regions of the sources. The best prospects for gleaning further information about circular
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koller, K.; Krasemann, H.
1979-08-01
We investigate the Dalitz plot population and thrust angular distribution for the Orthoquarkonium decay Q anti Q → 3 scalar gluons. The Dalitz plot for scalar gluons is populated in corners where events are 2 jet like and this disagrees with existing Upsilon data. The scalar gluon thrust angular distribution is also in striking disagreement with the UPSILON data and so scalar gluons are completely ruled out. (orig.)
Charmonium states in quark-gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
crit- ical' behaviour of QCD phase transition. Starting from the temperature dependencies of the energy density and pressure from lattice QCD calculation, we extract the temperature dependencies of the scalar and spin-2 gluon condensates ...
Lansberg, Jean-Philippe
2016-12-27
We propose a simple and model-independent procedure to account for the impact of the nuclear modification of the gluon density as encoded in nuclear collinear PDF sets on two-to-two partonic hard processes in proton-nucleus collisions. This applies to a good approximation to quarkonium, D and B meson production, generically referred to H. Our procedure consists in parametrising the square of the parton scattering amplitude, A_{gg -> H X} and constraining it from the proton-proton data. Doing so, we have been able to compute the corresponding nuclear modification factors for J/psi, Upsilon and D^0 as a function of y and P_T at sqrt(s_NN)=5 and 8 TeV in the kinematics of the various LHC experiments in a model independent way. It is of course justified since the most important ingredient in such evaluations is the probability of each kinematical configuration. Our computations for D mesons can also be extended to B meson production. To further illustrate the potentiality of the tool, we provide --for the first t...
Polarisation effects in fibre lasers
Lin, J.T.; Morkel, P.R.; Reekie, L.; Payne, D.N.
1987-01-01
Two orthogonal polarisation eigenmodes have been observed in a single-mode fibre laser. Experimental investigation shows good agreement with theoretical analysis. Both Nd3+ and Er3+-doped single-polarisation single-mode fibre lasers have been demonstrated
Modelling the gluon propagator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leinweber, D.B.; Parrinello, C.; Skullerud, J.I.; Williams, A.G
1999-03-01
Scaling of the Landau gauge gluon propagator calculated at {beta} = 6.0 and at {beta} = 6.2 is demonstrated. A variety of functional forms for the gluon propagator calculated on a large (32{sup 3} x 64) lattice at {beta} = 6.0 are investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soeding, P.
1981-10-01
The production of hard noncollinear gluons in short distance processes is discussed, with emphasis on recent results from e + e - interactions. The jet phenomena observed in the e + e - continuum and in T decay are consistently described as due to the emission of QCD gluons while alternative explanations fail. The vector and color-nonsignlet nature of the radiated quanta is directly verified. (orig.)
Radiography with polarised neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulz, Michael L.
2010-08-20
In this thesis I present a new technique for the spatially resolved investigation of the magnetic properties of bulk samples. Standard one dimensional neutron depolarisation analysis is combined with neutron radiography to a method we call Neutron Depolarisation Imaging (NDI). The experimental setup which was installed at the neutron radiography beam line ANTARES at FRM II consists of a double crystal monochromator, neutron polariser, spin flipper, polarisation analyser and a position sensitive CCD detector. A comprehensive discussion of the requirements for these components is given and the limitations of the method are shown. The maximum spatial resolution which can be achieved with a neutron radiography setup is determined by the collimation of the neutron beam and the distance between sample and detector. Different types of polarisers have been tested and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A double crystal monochromator and a new type of polariser employing polarising neutron supermirrors based on the principle of an optical periscope were developed and tested during this work. Furthermore, NDI measurements on various samples of the weakly ferromagnetic materials Pd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} and Ni{sub 3}Al are presented. Neutron depolarisation radiography and tomography measurements were conducted with a spatial resolution as high as 0.3 mm on Pd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} and Ni{sub 3}Al samples. The feasibility of NDI experiments under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 kbar was shown on a sample of Ni{sub 3}Al using a modified Cu:Be clamp cell. A decrease of the ordering temperature by 2 K under hydrostatic pressure was determined from the NDI measurements and shows the potential of the method for further high pressure experiments. Additionally a method was developed which in principle allows to obtain the intrinsic dependence of the ordering temperature T{sub C} on the ordered moment Ms from NDI measurements on inhomogeneous samples containing regions with
Radiography with polarised neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulz, Michael L.
2010-01-01
In this thesis I present a new technique for the spatially resolved investigation of the magnetic properties of bulk samples. Standard one dimensional neutron depolarisation analysis is combined with neutron radiography to a method we call Neutron Depolarisation Imaging (NDI). The experimental setup which was installed at the neutron radiography beam line ANTARES at FRM II consists of a double crystal monochromator, neutron polariser, spin flipper, polarisation analyser and a position sensitive CCD detector. A comprehensive discussion of the requirements for these components is given and the limitations of the method are shown. The maximum spatial resolution which can be achieved with a neutron radiography setup is determined by the collimation of the neutron beam and the distance between sample and detector. Different types of polarisers have been tested and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A double crystal monochromator and a new type of polariser employing polarising neutron supermirrors based on the principle of an optical periscope were developed and tested during this work. Furthermore, NDI measurements on various samples of the weakly ferromagnetic materials Pd 1-x Ni x and Ni 3 Al are presented. Neutron depolarisation radiography and tomography measurements were conducted with a spatial resolution as high as 0.3 mm on Pd 1-x Ni x and Ni 3 Al samples. The feasibility of NDI experiments under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 kbar was shown on a sample of Ni 3 Al using a modified Cu:Be clamp cell. A decrease of the ordering temperature by 2 K under hydrostatic pressure was determined from the NDI measurements and shows the potential of the method for further high pressure experiments. Additionally a method was developed which in principle allows to obtain the intrinsic dependence of the ordering temperature T C on the ordered moment Ms from NDI measurements on inhomogeneous samples containing regions with different ordering temperatures. This
Gluon saturation in a saturated environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan
2011-01-01
A bootstrap equation for self-quenched gluon shadowing leads to a reduced magnitude of broadening for partons propagating through a nucleus. Saturation of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons acquire enhanced gluon density at small x, which boosts further the saturation scale. Solution of the reciprocity equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of Q sA 2 , in AA compared with pA collisions.
Neutron polarisers for diffraction experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cussen, L.D.; Goossens, D.J.; Hicks, T.J.
2000-01-01
Full text: Every neutron in a neutron beam has a spin which is either up or down. In an unpolarised beam, half the neutrons are up and half are down. A neutron polariser is a device which creates an imbalance in the number of up and down spin neutrons in the beam, thus giving a net beam polarisation. The three most common techniques for polarising neutron beams are supermirrors, Heusler alloy polarising monochromators and neutron spin filters. Supermirrors use the difference in refractive index for up and down spin neutrons at a magnetic/non-magnetic interface to selectively remove neutrons of one spin state from the beam. Heusler alloy polarisers give polarised beams through spin dependent Bragg reflection, and transmission filters work by preferentially absorbing the neutrons in one spin state. The most promising filter material is polarised gaseous 3 He, in which the lone neutron is polarised and then the atom will preferentially absorb a neutron of the opposite spin. All three techniques have different advantages. Here, we compare the three techniques by generating quality factors which relate closely to an instruments performance in an experiment and determining which polariser will give the best quality factor for a given type of experiment. We find that supermirrors give the best results when narrow angular divergence of the neutron beam is desired, while filters are best when short wavelengths and wide angular divergence is required. For a powder diffractometer, this implies that a supermirror would be used to polarise the incident beam, while a large array of supermirrors or a single curved transmission filter could be used to analyse the polarisation of the diffracted intensity. We note that while Heusler alloys have advantages in that they combine polarisation with monochromation, on purely performance based criteria, they are not competitive with supermirrors or well-developed transmission filter technology
POLARISATION PRESERVING OPTICAL FIBRE
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2000-01-01
A micro-structured optical fibre having a cladding comprising a number of elements having a non-circular cross-section. Each element has at least one part extending outside a circle having the same cross-sectional area as the element. These extending parts are directed in the same direction....... This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....
Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation
Davier, M; Malaescu, B; Zhang, Z
2016-01-01
Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle–antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e− annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingre...
Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Couchman, J.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija
2004-01-01
Elements of the spin density matrix for W bosons in e+e- -> W+W- -> qqln events are measured from data recorded by the OPAL detector at LEP. This information is used calculate polarised differential cross-sections and to search for CP-violating effects. Results are presented for W bosons produced in e+e- collisions with centre-of-mass energies between 183 GeV and 209 GeV. The average fraction of W bosons that are longitudinally polarised is found to be (23.9 +- 2.1 +- 1.1)% compared to a Standard Model prediction of (23.9 +- 0.1)%. All results are consistent with CP conservation.
Gluon contribution to the Sivers effect. COMPASS results on deuteron target
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szabelski Adam
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Sivers effect for gluons is connected to gluon orbital angular momentum which may be the missing part of the nucleon spin puzzle. We present a method of extraction of Sivers effect for gluons from COMPASS SIDIS data on transversely polarised target. In order to access the Sivers effect for gluons photon-gluon fusion (PGF process is used. To enhance the fraction of PGF in the sample high-pT hadron pair events are selected. The method is based on a assumption that there are 3 processes contributing to the muon-nucleon scattering: PGF, leading process and QCD Compton process. Then one performs a weighting procedure which enables to extract the asymmetries for the 3 contributing processes simultaneously. In order to do that a neural network trained by a Monte Carlo to assign to each event 3 probabilities corresponding to the 3 processes is needed. Finaly we show results of Sivers effect for gluons extraction on COMPASS data with transversely polarised deuteron target. APGFsinΦ2h–ΦS = −0.14 ± 0.15 (stat. at ‹XG› = 0.126.
Chala, Mikael; Perez, Gilad; Santiago, Jose
2015-01-01
We study the phenomenology of vector resonances in the context of natural composite Higgs models. A mild hierarchy between the fermionic partners and the vector resonances can be expected in these models based on the following arguments. Both direct and indirect (electroweak and flavor precision) constraints on fermionic partners are milder than the ones on spin one resonances. Also the naturalness pressure coming from the top partners is stronger than that induced by the gauge partners. This observation implies that the search strategy for vector resonances at the LHC needs to be modified. In particular, we point out the importance of heavy gluon decays (or other vector resonances) to top partner pairs that were overlooked in previous experimental searches at the LHC. These searches focused on simplified benchmark models in which the only new particle beyond the Standard Model was the heavy gluon. It turns out that, when kinematically allowed, such heavy-heavy decays make the heavy gluon elusive, and the bou...
Charmonium states in quark-gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
undergo abrupt changes across the phase transition as does the energy density. 2. The gluon matter. The order parameters for QCD phase transition are the thermal Wilson line for pure gauge theory, and the quark condensates for QCD with massless quarks. For realistic QCD none of them are order parameters in the strict ...
Searching for the quarks and gluons plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerschel, C.; Kluberg, L.
1989-01-01
Some investigations involving quark matter, at CERN, are discussed. The CERN available oxygen and sulfur beams, with energy about 200 GeV/nuclei, allow the obtention of high energy densities, never reached before. The possibilities of investigating (at CERN) the quarks and gluons plasma are considered. The first and unexpected results obtained from the NA38 experiment are overviewed [fr
The polarisation of nova Vulpeculae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, P.G.; Maza, J.; Angel, J.R.P.
1977-01-01
Measurements of the linear polarisation of the nova Vulpeculae made in 1976 are reported. The observations were made with the 90 inch telescope of the Steward Observatory, Arizona during evenings of October 1976 using a dual-channel cell polarimeter and GaAs photomultipliers. Results are shown graphically and in tabular form. The polarisation appears to have an interstellar rather than intrinsic origin, and can be used to estimate the reddening and distance of the nova. There was no evidence of interstellar circular polarisation larger than 0.08%. A distance modulus of 11 +- 1 would be consistent with all the data, although a larger value would be possible. (U.K.)
Polarised nuclei for neutron science: recent applications and perspectives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glaettli, Hans
2004-01-01
Neutron scattering on nuclei is spin dependent, particularly strongly for 1 H. The means to achieve large nuclear polarisations and its use for structure analysis or as spin-handling device are reviewed. High resolution (diffraction) as well as low resolution (SANS) measurements can benefit from polarised nuclei by changing selectively the form factors of Bragg reflections or the contrasts (the scattering length density profiles) in SANS. The internal structure of ribosomes and the conformation of polymers in solution have been investigated by this method. A numerical simulation is presented to show the influence of steady-state polarisation of protons on the scattering from a protein-ARN model complex. In addition, a more recent technique, time-resolved SANS is described. It makes use of spatial polarisation gradients created around paramagnetic centres at the onset of nuclear polarisation. Such polarisation domains can enhance considerably the scattering amplitude of free radicals and thus contribute to determine their positions inside a complex protein. Examples of possible future experiments are proposed which combine simultaneously the selectivity of solid-state NMR techniques and neutron scattering
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Quark gluon plasma; heavy ion collisions; equation of state; hadron gas; early universe. PACS Nos 25.75-q; .... is, therefore, necessary to perform calculation with different number of lattice points (or different lattice .... dynamical model assumes that the initial condition in heavy-ion collision corresponds to a state in local ...
Magnetic Fields Boosted by Gluon Vortices in Color Superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrer, Efrain J.; Incera, Vivian de la
2006-01-01
We investigate the effects of an external magnetic field in the gluon dynamics of a color superconductor with three massless quark flavors. In the framework of gluon mean-field theory at asymptotic densities, we show that the long-range component H(tilde sign) of the external magnetic field that penetrates the color-flavor locked phase produces an instability when its strength becomes larger than the Meissner mass of the charged gluons. As a consequence, the magnetic field causes the formation of a vortex state characterized by the condensation of charged gluons and the creation of magnetic flux tubes. Inside the flux tubes, the magnetic field is stronger than the applied one. This antiscreening effect is connected to the anomalous magnetic moment of the gluon field. We suggest how this same mechanism could serve to remove the chromomagnetic instabilities existing in gapless color superconductivity
Infrared behavior of the gluon propagator in nonequilibrium situations
Cooper, F; Nayak, G C
2002-01-01
The infrared behavior of the medium modified gluon propagator in nonequilibrium situations is studied in the covariant gauge using the Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time path formalism. It is shown that the magnetic screening mass is nonzero at the one loop level whenever the initial gluon distribution function is nonisotropic with the assumption that the distribution function of the gluon is not divergent at zero transverse momentum. For isotropic gluon distribution functions, such as those describing local equilibrium, the magnetic mass at the one loop level is zero, which is consistent with finite temperature field theory results. Assuming that a reasonable initial gluon distribution function can be obtained from a perturbative QCD calculation of minijets, we determine these out of equilibrium values for the initial magnetic and Debye screening masses at energy densities appropriate to BNL RHIC and CERN LHC. We also compare the magnetic masses obtained here with those obtained using finite temperature lattice Q...
PANTHER - Polarisation Analysis with Thermal neutron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deen, P.P.; Fennell, T.; Schober, H.; Orecchini, A.; Rols, S.; Andersen, K.H.; Stewart, J.R.
2011-01-01
PANTHER will build on the success of IN4, the world's most intense time-of-flight spectrometer. A large position-sensitive detector (PSD) will improve data collection rates significantly, the background will be greatly reduced, and it will incorporate features indispensable for magnetic studies (small angles, polarisation analysis, high magnetic field devices). The new instrument will enable rapid surveys of (Q,ω) space, as well as more detailed studies in fields ranging from magnetism to the structural excitations - phonon densities of states, dispersion of collective modes and molecular vibrations - that govern the behaviour of many important physical and chemical systems. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Januschek, Friederike
2011-01-01
The cross sections for Neutral Current e + p Deep Inelastic Scattering (NC DIS) with longitudinally polarised positron beams were measured at a centre-of-mass energy √(s)=318 GeV using the ZEUS detector at HERA. Single-differential cross sections as a function of the virtuality of the exchanged boson, Q 2 , of the inelasticity, y, and of the Bjorken scaling variable, x, and reduced cross sections (as a function of x and Q 2 ) were measured in the phase space region defined as Q 2 >185 GeV 2 , y 2 >0.004. The results, based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 135.5 pb -1 , are given for zero polarisation for the whole sample, as well as for both positive and negative values of the longitudinal polarisation of the positron beam. The measured cross sections are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model. The proton structure function xF 3 is measured and the interference term xF γZ 3 is extracted as a function of x at Q 2 =1500 GeV 2 by extrapolating the measurements done at different Q 2 values. The presented measurements of the polarised e + p NC DIS cross sections, the xF 3 structure function and the xF γZ 3 interference term exceed the precision of previous ZEUS measurements. The uncertainties of the Parton Density Functions (PDFs) for the gluon and the u-valence quark are expected to be reduced at high-x values when the presented results are included in the PDF fits of the proton. A study is presented to further reduce PDF uncertainties for the gluon at very high x (above 10 -1 ) through the inclusion of DIS dijet cross sections in a ZEUS-JETS-like PDF fit. An irradiation facility to study the X-ray-induced radiation damage of silicon sensors for the European XFEL was set up at HASYLAB. Nine gate-controlled diodes were irradiated with doses from 1 kGy to 1 GGy in several irradiation steps and the surface current I surf and the flatband voltage V fb were measured after each irradiation. It was found that both, I surf and V fb , strongly
Constraining the double gluon distribution by the single gluon distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszów, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland); Lewandowska, Emilia; Serino, Mirko [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Snyder, Zachary [Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Staśto, Anna M., E-mail: astasto@phys.psu.edu [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
2015-11-12
We show how to consistently construct initial conditions for the QCD evolution equations for double parton distribution functions in the pure gluon case. We use to momentum sum rule for this purpose and a specific form of the known single gluon distribution function in the MSTW parameterization. The resulting double gluon distribution satisfies exactly the momentum sum rule and is parameter free. We also study numerically its evolution with a hard scale and show the approximate factorization into product of two single gluon distributions at small values of x, whereas at large values of x the factorization is always violated in agreement with the sum rule.
Adolph, C; Alexakhin, V Yu; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Antonov, A A; Austregesilo, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Bedfer, Y; Berlin, A; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bettinelli, M; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Buchele, M; Burtin, E; Capozza, L; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Dalla Torre, S; Das, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dunnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Grabmuller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Guthorl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hess, C; Hinterberger, F; Horikawa, N; Hoppner, Ch; d'Hose, N; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, O; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Jasinski, P; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koblitz, S; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Konigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Korzenev, A; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Kramer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Lauser, L; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Liska, T; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Mann, A; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Morreale, A; Mutter, A; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Nowak, W D; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Padee, A; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Perevalova, E; Pesaro, G; Peshekhonov, D V; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Rajotte, J F; Ramos, S; Rapatsky, V; Reicherz, G; Rocco, E; Rondio, E; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schluter, T; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, K; Schmitt, L; Schmiden, H; Schonning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sissakian, A N; Slunecka, M; Smirnov, G I; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Steiger, L; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Suzuki, H; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Ter Wolbeek, J; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Tkatchev, L G; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Vandenbroucke, M; Virius, M; Vlassov, N V; Wang, L; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M; Zhuravlev, N; Zvyagin, A
2013-01-01
The gluon polarisation in the nucleon was measured using open charm production by scattering 160 GeV/c polarised muons off longitudinally polarised protons or deuterons. The data were taken by the COMPASS collaboration between 2002 and 2007. A detailed account is given of the analysis method that includes the application of neural networks. Several decay channels of $D^0$ mesons are investigated. Longitudinal spin asymmetries of the D meson production cross-sections are extracted in bins of $D^0$ transverse momentum and energy. At leading order QCD accuracy the average gluon polarisation is determined as $(\\Delta g/g)^{LO}=-0.06 \\pm 0.21 (stat.) \\pm 0.08 (syst.)$ at the scale $ \\approx 13$ (GeV/c)$^2$ and an average gluon momentum fraction $\\approx$ 0.11. The average gluon polarisation is also obtained at next-to-leading order QCD accuracy as $(\\Delta g/g) NLO = -0.13 \\pm 0.15 (stat.) \\pm 0.15 (syst.)$ at the scale $ \\approx $ 13 (GeV/c)$^2$ and $ \\approx $ 0.20.
Small angle polarised neutron scattering investigation of magnetic nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergenti, I.; Deriu, A.; Savini, L.; Bonetti, E.; Spizzo, F.; Hoell, H.
2003-01-01
Small angle scattering of polarised neutron (SANSPOL) is a powerful technique for the determination of magnetisation, density and compositional profiles of nanostructured particles. We present here some examples of the magnetic profile determination using the SANSPOL technique and we discuss in detail its advantage with respect to the conventional small angle neutron scattering approach
HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.
2005-04-11
matter at extremely high density and temperature--a medium in which the predictions of QCD can be tested, and new phenomena explored, under conditions where the relevant degrees of freedom, over nuclear volumes, are expected to be those of quarks and gluons, rather than of hadrons. This is the realm of the quark gluon plasma, the predicted state of matter whose existence and properties are now being explored by the RHIC experiments.
HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.
2005-01-01
density and temperature--a medium in which the predictions of QCD can be tested, and new phenomena explored, under conditions where the relevant degrees of freedom, over nuclear volumes, are expected to be those of quarks and gluons, rather than of hadrons. This is the realm of the quark gluon plasma, the predicted state of matter whose existence and properties are now being explored by the RHIC experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weinzierl, Stefan, E-mail: weinzierl@uni-mainz.de
2017-03-13
This report is centred around tree-level scattering amplitudes in pure Yang–Mills theories, the most prominent example is given by the tree-level gluon amplitudes of QCD. I will discuss several ways of computing these amplitudes, illustrating in this way recent developments in perturbative quantum field theory. Topics covered in this review include colour decomposition, spinor and twistor methods, off- and on-shell recursion, MHV amplitudes and MHV expansion, the Grassmannian and the amplituhedron, the scattering equations and the CHY representation. At the end of this report there will be an outlook on the relation between pure Yang–Mills amplitudes and scattering amplitudes in perturbative quantum gravity.
Polarisation control of DFB fibre lasers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Varming, Poul; Philipsen, Jacob Lundgreen; Berendt, Martin Ole
1998-01-01
The polarisation properties of a distributed feedback (DFB) fibre laser are investigated. It is shown experimentally that the birefringence of the UV induced phase-shift is the dominating effect controlling the polarisation properties of the laser......The polarisation properties of a distributed feedback (DFB) fibre laser are investigated. It is shown experimentally that the birefringence of the UV induced phase-shift is the dominating effect controlling the polarisation properties of the laser...
Quark and Gluon Relaxation in Quark-Gluon Plasmas
Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.
1993-01-01
The quasiparticle decay rates for quarks and gluons in quark-gluon plasmas are calculated by solving the kinetic equation. Introducing an infrared cutoff to allow for nonperturbative effects, we evaluate the quasiparticle lifetime at momenta greater than the inverse Debye screening length to leading order in the coupling constant.
Axions and polarisation of quasars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Payez, A.; Cudell, J. R.; Hutsemekers, D.
2008-01-01
We present results showing that, thanks to axion-photon mixing in external magnetic fields, it is actually possible to produce an effect similar to the one needed to explain the large-scale coherent orientations of quasar polarisation vectors in visible light that have been observed in some regions of the sky
Polarisation Encryption/Decryption Module
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2002-01-01
A polarisation encryption/decryption module comprising at least two array based modulating devices, preferably spatial light modulators (SLMs), at least one array based intensity detector, and at least one source of electromagnetic radiation. A local region of information displayed on a first...
Production and recombination of gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Temiraliev, A.T.
2006-01-01
Full text: Nonlinear Markov process of parton production has been considered. The Kolmogorov equation is applied for the evolution equation based on the approximation of independent gluons production in every decay act. We introduced a 'crossing' parameter and used the combination relations to obtain nonlinear recombination equation for the evolution of gluon structure function. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaizot, J.P.
1992-01-01
Various aspects of the physics of the quark-gluon plasma are presented. Known properties of the transition from hadronic matter to the quark-gluon plasma are recalled. Progress in the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions is discussed on two examples. Some recent theoretical developments are mentioned. (author) 24 refs.; 5 figs
Measurement of the charged-pion polarisability at COMPASS
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
For more than a decade, COMPASS has been tackling the measurement of the electromagnetic polarizability of the charged pion, which describes the stiffness of the pion against deformation in electromagnetic fields. Previous experiments date back to the 1980's in Serpukhov (Russia), where the Primakoff method for realizing interactions of charged pions with quasi-real photons was first employed. Later also other techniques in photon-nucleon and photon-photon collisions were carried out at different machines. The COMPASS measurement demonstrates that the charged-pion polarizability is significantly smaller than the previous results, roughly by a factor two, with the smallest uncertainties realized so far. The pion polarisability is of fundamental interest in the low-energy sector of quantum chromodynamics. It is directly linked to the quark-gluon substructure and dynamics of the pion, the lightest bound system of strong interaction.
The quark gluon plasma; Le plasma de quarks et de gluons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granier de Cassagnac, R. [Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. Leprince-Ringuet, 91 - Palaiseau (France)
2010-05-15
The quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is a state of matter in which the universe was expected to be a few micro-seconds after the big-bang. Violent collisions of heavy ions are supposed to re-create this state in particle accelerators. Numerous signatures of this fugacious state have already been observed at the RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider). The first evidence of the violence of collisions is the number of generated particles: about 6000 per collision, mostly hadrons. This figure seems high but in fact is less than theoretically expected and is the first sign of the formation of a QGP that saturates the density of gluons. Another sign, observed at the RHIC is the damping of the particle jets that are produced in the collision. This damping is consistent with the crossing of a medium whose density is so high that it can not be made of hadrons but of partons. In the RHIC experiments the collective behaviour of quarks and gluons shows that they are strongly interacting with one another. This fact supports the idea that the QGP is more a perfect liquid rather than an ideal gas in which quarks and gluons move freely. (A.C.)
Few, Sheridan; Chia, Cleaven; Teo, Daniel; Kirkpatrick, James; Nelson, Jenny
2017-07-19
Electronic polarisation contributes to the electronic landscape as seen by separating charges in organic materials. The nature of electronic polarisation depends on the polarisability, density, and arrangement of polarisable molecules. In this paper, we introduce a microscopic, coarse-grained model in which we treat each molecule as a polarisable site, and use an array of such polarisable dipoles to calculate the electric field and associated energy of any arrangement of charges in the medium. The model incorporates chemical structure via the molecular polarisability and molecular packing patterns via the structure of the array. We use this model to calculate energies of charge pairs undergoing separation in finite fullerene lattices of different chemical and crystal structures. The effective dielectric constants that we estimate from this approach are in good quantitative agreement with those measured experimentally in C 60 and phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) films, but we find significant differences in dielectric constant depending on packing and on direction of separation, which we rationalise in terms of density of polarisable fullerene cages in regions of high field. In general, we find lattices containing molecules of more isotropic polarisability tensors exhibit higher dielectric constants. By exploring several model systems we conclude that differences in molecular polarisability (and therefore, chemical structure) appear to be less important than differences in molecular packing and separation direction in determining the energetic landscape for charge separation. We note that the results are relevant for finite lattices, but not necessarily for infinite systems. We propose that the model could be used to design molecular systems for effective electronic screening.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fredriksson, S.
1984-01-01
The Stockholm diquark is a very small (0.1-0.2 fm), bound pair of two unequal quarks in spin 0 and colour 3*. If it exists, it is expected to simulate many of the trends presently attributed to perturbative gluon processes. The Stockholm group (S. Ekelin, M. Jaendel, T.I. Larson and myself) is therefore looking for reactions where the non-perturbative QCD phenomenon of diquark formation would give signatures completely different from those of perturbative gluonic contributions. I report here on some new suggestions for diquark effects in deep inelastic scattering, with emphasis on neutron-proton differences, proton production in the current fragmentation region and nuclear target (''EMC'') effects
Medium size polarised deuteron target
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiselev, Yu.F.; Polyakov, V.V.; Kovalev, A.I.; Bunyatova, E.I.; Borisov, N.S.; Trautman, V.Yu.; Werner, K.; Kozlenko, N.G.
1984-03-01
A frozen polarised deuteron target based on ethanediol with a high percentage of deuterium is described. Analytical expressions for the NMR spectrum correction for non-linearity of the Q-meter are obtained and a method for the determination of the asymmetry is developed. Experimental results confirm the thermal mixing theory for deuteron and proton spin systems with a dipole-dipole reservoir of electron spins.
Bootstrapping quarks and gluons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chew, G.F.
1979-04-01
Dual topological unitarization (DTU) - the approach to S-matrix causality and unitarity through combinatorial topology - is reviewed. Amplitudes associated with triangulated spheres are shown to constitute the core of particle physics. Each sphere is covered by triangulated disc faces corresponding to hadrons. The leading current candidate for the hadron-face triangulation pattern employs 3-triangle basic subdiscs whose orientations correspond to baryon number and topological color. Additional peripheral triangles lie along the hadron-face perimeter. Certain combinations of peripheral triangles with a basic-disc triangle can be identified as quarks, the flavor of a quark corresponding to the orientation of its edges that lie on the hadron-face perimeter. Both baryon number and flavor are additively conserved. Quark helicity, which can be associated with triangle-interior orientation, is not uniformly conserved and interacts with particle momentum, whereas flavor does not. Three different colors attach to the 3 quarks associated with a single basic subdisc, but there is no additive physical conservation law associated with color. There is interplay between color and quark helicity. In hadron faces with more than one basic subdisc, there may occur pairs of adjacent flavorless but colored triangles with net helicity +-1 that are identifiable as gluons. Broken symmetry is an automatic feature of the bootstrap. T, C and P symmetries, as well as up-down flavor symmetry, persist on all orientable surfaces.
Bootstrapping quarks and gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chew, G.F.
1979-04-01
Dual topological unitarization (DTU) - the approach to S-matrix causality and unitarity through combinatorial topology - is reviewed. Amplitudes associated with triangulated spheres are shown to constitute the core of particle physics. Each sphere is covered by triangulated disc faces corresponding to hadrons. The leading current candidate for the hadron-face triangulation pattern employs 3-triangle basic subdiscs whose orientations correspond to baryon number and topological color. Additional peripheral triangles lie along the hadron-face perimeter. Certain combinations of peripheral triangles with a basic-disc triangle can be identified as quarks, the flavor of a quark corresponding to the orientation of its edges that lie on the hadron-face perimeter. Both baryon number and flavor are additively conserved. Quark helicity, which can be associated with triangle-interior orientation, is not uniformly conserved and interacts with particle momentum, whereas flavor does not. Three different colors attach to the 3 quarks associated with a single basic subdisc, but there is no additive physical conservation law associated with color. There is interplay between color and quark helicity. In hadron faces with more than one basic subdisc, there may occur pairs of adjacent flavorless but colored triangles with net helicity +-1 that are identifiable as gluons. Broken symmetry is an automatic feature of the bootstrap. T, C and P symmetries, as well as up-down flavor symmetry, persist on all orientable surfaces
Resolving dispersion and induction components for polarisable molecular simulations of ionic liquids
Pádua, Agílio A. H.
2017-05-01
One important development in interaction potential models, or atomistic force fields, for molecular simulation is the inclusion of explicit polarisation, which represents the induction effects of charged or polar molecules on polarisable electron clouds. Polarisation can be included through fluctuating charges, induced multipoles, or Drude dipoles. This work uses Drude dipoles and is focused on room-temperature ionic liquids, for which fixed-charge models predict too slow dynamics. The aim of this study is to devise a strategy to adapt existing non-polarisable force fields upon addition of polarisation, because induction was already contained to an extent, implicitly, due to parametrisation against empirical data. Therefore, a fraction of the van der Waals interaction energy should be subtracted so that the Lennard-Jones terms only account for dispersion and the Drude dipoles for induction. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory is used to resolve the dispersion and induction terms in dimers and to calculate scaling factors to reduce the Lennard-Jones terms from the non-polarisable model. Simply adding Drude dipoles to an existing fixed-charge model already improves the prediction of transport properties, increasing diffusion coefficients, and lowering the viscosity. Scaling down the Lennard-Jones terms leads to still faster dynamics and densities that match experiment extremely well. The concept developed here improves the overall prediction of density and transport properties and can be adapted to other models and systems. In terms of microscopic structure of the ionic liquids, the inclusion of polarisation and the down-scaling of Lennard-Jones terms affect only slightly the ordering of the first shell of counterions, leading to small decreases in coordination numbers. Remarkably, the effect of polarisation is major beyond first neighbours, significantly weakening spatial correlations, a structural effect that is certainly related to the faster dynamics of
Neutron scattering from polarised proton domains
Van den Brandt, B; Kohbrecher, J; Konter, J A; Mango, S; Glattli, H; Leymarie, E; Grillo, I; May, R P; Jouve, H; Stuhrmann, H B; Stuhrmann, H B; Zimmer, O
2002-01-01
Time-dependent small-angle polarised neutron scattering from domains of polarised protons has been observed at the onset of dynamic nuclear polarisation in a frozen solution of 98% deuterated glycerol-water at 1 K containing a small concentration of paramagnetic centres (EHBA-Cr sup V). Simultaneous NMR measurements show that the observed scattering arises from protons around the Cr sup V -ions which are polarised to approx 10% in a few seconds, much faster than the protons in the bulk. (authors)
Polarised antibranes from Smarr relations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen-Maldonado, Diego [Institute of Physics, University of Amsterdam,Science Park, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Diaz, Juan; Gautason, Fridrik Freyr [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, K.University Leuven,Celestijnenlaan 200D B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)
2016-05-30
We study the backreaction of smeared and localised anti M2-branes placed at the tip of the CGLP background. To this end we derive a Smarr relation for backreacted antibranes at zero and finite temperature. For extremal antibranes we show that if smeared they cannot have regular horizons, whereas localised M2-branes can potentially be regular when polarised into M5-branes, in agreement with the probe result of Klebanov and Pufu. We further discuss antibranes at finite temperature and argue that localised antibrane solutions with regular horizons are not excluded.
M 82 - A radio continuum and polarisation study. II. Polarisation and rotation measures
Adebahr, B.; Krause, M.; Klein, U.; Heald, G.; Dettmar, R.-J.
2017-12-01
Context. The composition and morphology of the interstellar medium in starburst galaxies has been well investigated, but the magnetic field properties are still uncertain. The nearby starburst galaxy M 82 provides a unique opportunity to investigate the mechanisms leading to the amplification and reduction of turbulent and regular magnetic fields. Aims: An investigation of the magnetic field properties in M 82 will give insight into mechanisms to generate and maintain a magnetic field as well as depolarisation mechanisms. Possible scenarios of the contribution of the magnetic field to the star-formation rate are evaluated. Methods: Archival data from the Very Large Array (VLA) were combined and re-reduced to cover the wavelength regime at λ3 cm and λ6 cm. Complementary data from the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) at λ18 cm and λ22 cm were reduced and analysed using the RM-Synthesis technique. Results: All observations revealed polarised emission in the inner part of the galaxy, while extended polarised emission up to a distance of 2 kpc from the disk was only detected at λ18 cm and λ22 cm. The observations hint at a magnetised bar in the inner part of the galaxy. We calculate the mass inflow rate due to magnetic stress of the bar to 7.1 M⊙ yr-1, which can be a significant contribution to the star-formation rate (SFR) of M 82 of 13 M⊙ yr-1. The halo shows polarised emission, which might be the remnant of a regular disk field. Indications for a helical field in the inner part of the outflow cone are provided. The coherence length of the magnetic field in the centre could be estimated to 50 pc, which is similar to the size of giant molecular clouds. Using polarisation spectra more evidence for a close coupling of the ionised gas and the magnetic field as well as a two-phase magnetic field topology were found. Electron densities in the halo (⟨ ne ⟩ ≈ 0.009 cm-3) are similar to the ones found in the Milky Way. Conclusions: The magnetic field
On the electromagnetic polarisabilities of the nucleon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harun ar Rashid, A.M.
1982-10-01
The dynamic electric and magnetic polarisabilities of the nucleon are calculated taking the photon-nucleon resonance vertex-function ambiguity parameters into account. The annihilation channel in the Compton scattering amplitude is also evaluated from the chiral effective Lagrangian. It is found that the electric and magnetic polarisabilities of the proton are of the same order of magnitude. (author)
Polarisation of Social Studies Textbooks in Pakistan
Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas
2011-01-01
This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social…
A simple model for the nuclear unintegrated gluon distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Betemps, Marcos Andre [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Conjunto Agrotecnico Visconde da Graca; Machado, Magno Valerio Trindade [UNIPAMPA - Universidade Federal do Pampa, Bage, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas
2009-07-01
Full text. The knowledge of the QCD dynamics at high energies is essential in understanding the hadronic interactions studied at current (HERA, Tevatron) and future (LHC) accelerators. In the physics of saturation the relevant observable is the forward scattering amplitude of a quark-antiquark dipole on a target. It enters several processes at high energy like deep inelastic scattering (DIS), photoproduction and hadron-hadron scattering. Its quantum evolution has recently been the object of many studies. The Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation valid in the large N{sub c} limit and in the mean field approximation provides a tool to study the rapidity behavior of the gluon distribution in a large momentum range including the saturation region where the effects of gluon recombination, taken into account in the non-linear term, become important. The main features of analytical solutions of BK have been used to parametrize the unintegrated gluon distribution, {phi}(k; Y ), which is the Fourier-transform of dipole-target amplitude. The knowledge of the corresponding nuclear unintegrated gluon distribution is indeed crucial. It is the basic object required to calculate physical observables in the k{sub T} factorized picture employed by the gluon saturation models. The solution of non-linear evolution equations for dense nuclear gluon density has been suggested as one of the relevant mechanisms of pA and AA collisions at collider energies. Here we study a simple parameterization for the unintegrated gluon distribution using the knowledge of asymptotic solutions of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, describing high-energy QCD in the presence of saturation effects. A satisfactory description of nuclear shadowing at small-x is obtained and it allows us to understand the qualitative behavior shown by data. (author)
Quark-gluon plasma: Status of heavy ion physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD), deﬁned on a discrete space–time lattice, leads to a spectacular non-perturbative prediction of a new state of matter, called quark-gluon plasma (QGP), at sufﬁciently high temperatures or equivalently large energy densities. The experimental programs of CERN, Geneva and BNL, ...
Quark-gluon plasma and the little bang
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLerran, L.
1981-06-01
A space-time picture of the fragmentation and central regions is presented for extremely high energy head-on heavy nucleus collisions. The energy densities of the matter produced in such collisions are estimated. Speculations concerning the possible formation of a quark-gluon plasma are discussed, as are possible experimental signals for analyzing such a plasma
The unconfined quarks and gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdus Salam
1977-01-01
The consequences of the lepton-hadron gauge unification hypothesis with unconfined quarks and gluons being the hall-mark are discussed. Quark and gluon decays into leptons are shown to provide a new source of multileptonic production in NN, νN and μN collisions. A theorem is stated and proved which highlights the differences between the dynamics of gauge versus non-gauge 1 - particles. Empirical manifestations of gauge coloured mesons are discussed. The question of exact confinement or not is concluded to be in the end an empirical one and must be settled in the laboratory
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Emissions of soft gluons from energetic particles play an important role in collider processes. While the basic physics of soft emissions is simple, it gives rise to a variety of interesting and intricate phenomena (non-global logs, Glauber phases, super-leading logs, factorization breaking). After an introduction, I will review progress in resummation methods such as Soft-Collinear Effective Theory driven by a better understanding of soft emissions. I will also show some new results for computations of soft-gluon effects in gap-between-jets and isolation-cone cross sections.
A simple model for the nuclear unintegrated gluon distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Betemps, M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Conjunto Agrotecnico Visconde da Graca, CAVG, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Machado, M.V.T. [Universidade Federal do Pampa, Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas, Bage, RS (Brazil)
2010-02-15
The solution of non-linear evolution equations for dense nuclear gluon density has been suggested as one of the relevant mechanisms of pA and AA collisions at collider energies. Here we study a simple parameterization for the unintegrated gluon distribution using the knowledge of asymptotic solutions of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, describing high-energy QCD in the presence of saturation effects. A satisfactory description of nuclear shadowing at small x is obtained and it allows us to understand the qualitative behavior shown by the data. (orig.)
Costa, Miguel S.; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.
2016-05-03
We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nygaard, Peter Vagn; Geiker, Mette Rica
2012-01-01
, are in some studies considered the main reasons for the variations. This paper presents an experimental study on the quantitative effect of polarisation time and current on the measured polarisation resistance – and thus the corrosion current density – of passively and actively corroding steel. Two...... electrochemical techniques often used in instruments for on-site corrosion rate measurements are investigated. On passively corroding reinforcement the measured polarisation resistance was for both techniques found to be highly affected by the polarisation time and current and no plateaus at either short or long......Both on-site investigations and laboratory studies have shown that different corrosion rates are obtained when different commercially available corrosion rate instruments are used. The different electrochemical techniques and the measurement parameters used, i.e. polarisation current and time...
Polarisation Dynamics in Ferroelectric Materials
Buchacher, Till
Ferroelectric materials have established themselves as indispensable in key applications such as piezoelectric transducers and energy storage devices. While the use of ferroelectrics in these fields dates back more than 50 years, little progress has been made to extend applications of ferroelectrics into new fields. To a large extend the observed slow progress is not caused by a lack of potential applications, but to by the inherent complexity associated with a structural phase transition, combined with strong coupling of polarisation, strain and temperature, and the strong modification of the phenomena by material defects. This thesis takes a look at prospective applications in energy storage for pulse power applications, solid state cooling and non-volatile random access memory and identifies key issues that need to be resolved. The thesis delivers time-domain based approaches to determine ferroelectric switching behaviour of bulk materials and thin films down to sub-ns time scales. The approach permitted study of how information written to a ferroelectric memory decays as a result of multiple non-destructive read operations. Furthermore simultaneous direct measurements of temperature and ferroelectric switching established a direct link between the retarded switching phenomenon observed in ferroelectrics and temperature changes brought by the electrocaloric effect. By comparison with analytical models and numerical simulation a large localised temperature change on the scale of individual domains is postulated. It implies a much larger coupling between switching and local temperature than has been previously considered. In extension of the model the frequency dependence of polarisation fatigue under bipolar conditions is explained by the occurrence of large temperature gradients in the material.
Polarisation-sensitive optical elements in azobenzene polyesters and peptides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramanujam, P.S.; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Berg, Rolf Henrik
2006-01-01
In this article, we describe fabrication of polarisation holographic optical elements in azobenzene polyesters. Both liquid crystalline and amorphous side-chain polyesters have been utilised. Diffractive optical elements such as lenses and gratings that are sensitive to the polarisation...... of the incident light have been fabricated with polarisation holography. Computer-generated optical elements and patterns have also been written with a single polarised laser beam. Recording of polarisation defects enabling easy visualisation is also shown to be feasible in azobenzene polyesters....
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Adolph, C.; Aghasyan, M.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N. V.; Anosov, V.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E. R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlák, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Chang, W.-C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekapm, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Yu.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jarý, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W. D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pešek, M.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Roskot, M.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salač, R.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolík, J.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Stolarski, M.; Šulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Závada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.
2017-01-01
Roč. 77, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-12, č. článku 209. ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : lepton-nucleon scattering * spin structure * proton * deuteron Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 5.331, year: 2016
Stealth gluons at hadron colliders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barcelo, R., E-mail: rbarcelo@ugr.es [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Carmona, A., E-mail: adrian@ugr.es [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Masip, M., E-mail: masip@ugr.es [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Santiago, J., E-mail: jsantiago@ugr.es [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)
2012-01-16
We find that a heavy gluon G of mass 800-900 GeV with small, mostly axial-vector couplings to the light quarks and relatively large vector and axial-vector couplings to the top quark can explain the tt{sup Macron} forward-backward asymmetry observed at the Tevatron with no conflict with other top-quark or dijet data. The key ingredient is a complete treatment of energy-dependent width effects and a new decay mode G{yields}qQ, where q is a standard quark and Q a vector-like quark of mass 400-600 GeV. We show that this new decay channel makes the heavy gluon invisible in the tt{sup Macron} invariant mass distribution and discuss its implications at the Tevatron and the LHC.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Januschek, Friederike
2012-05-15
The cross sections for Neutral Current e{sup +}p Deep Inelastic Scattering (NC DIS) with longitudinally polarised positron beams were measured at a centre-of-mass energy {radical}(s)=318 GeV using the ZEUS detector at HERA. Single-differential cross sections as a function of the virtuality of the exchanged boson, Q{sup 2}, of the inelasticity, y, and of the Bjorken scaling variable, x, and reduced cross sections (as a function of x and Q{sup 2}) were measured in the phase space region defined as Q{sup 2}>185 GeV{sup 2}, y<0.9 and y(1-x){sup 2}>0.004. The results, based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 135.5 pb{sup -1}, are given for zero polarisation for the whole sample, as well as for both positive and negative values of the longitudinal polarisation of the positron beam. The measured cross sections are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model. The proton structure function xF{sub 3} is measured and the interference term xF{sup {gamma}}{sup Z}{sub 3} is extracted as a function of x at Q{sup 2}=1500 GeV{sup 2} by extrapolating the measurements done at different Q{sup 2} values. The presented measurements of the polarised e{sup +}p NC DIS cross sections, the xF{sub 3} structure function and the xF{sup {gamma}}{sup Z}{sub 3} interference term exceed the precision of previous ZEUS measurements. The uncertainties of the Parton Density Functions (PDFs) for the gluon and the u-valence quark are expected to be reduced at high-x values when the presented results are included in the PDF fits of the proton. A study is presented to further reduce PDF uncertainties for the gluon at very high x (above 10{sup -1}) through the inclusion of DIS dijet cross sections in a ZEUS-JETS-like PDF fit. An irradiation facility to study the X-ray-induced radiation damage of silicon sensors for the European XFEL was set up at HASYLAB. Nine gate-controlled diodes were irradiated with doses from 1 kGy to 1 GGy in several irradiation steps and the surface current I
Nucleon Polarisabilities and Effective Field Theories
Griesshammer, Harald W.
2017-09-01
Low-energy Compton scattering probes the nucleon's two-photon response to electric and magnetic fields at fixed photon frequency and multipolarity. It tests the symmetries and strengths of the interactions between constituents, and with photons. For convenience, this energy-dependent information is often compressed into the two scalar dipole polarisabilities αE 1 and βM 1 at zero photon energy. These are fundamental quantities, and important for the proton charge radius puzzle and the Lamb shift of muonic hydrogen. Combined with emerging lattice QCD computations, they provide stringent tests for our understanding of hadron structure. Extractions of the proton and neutron polarisabilities from all published elastic data below 300 MeV in Chiral Effective Field Theory with explicit Δ (1232) are now available. This talk emphasises χEFT as natural bridge between lattice QCD and ongoing or approved efforts at HI γS, MAMI and MAX-lab. Chiral lattice extrapolations from mπ > 200 MeV to the physical point compare well to lattice computations. Combining χEFT with high-intensity experiments with polarised targets and polarised beams will extract not only scalar polarisabilities, but in particular the four so-far poorly explored spin-polarisabilities. These parametrise the stiffness of the spin in external electro-magnetic fields (nucleonic bi-refringence/Faraday effect). New chiral predictions for proton, deuteron and 3He observables show intriguing sensitivities on spin and neutron polarisabilities. Data consistency and a model-independent quantification of residual theory uncertainties by Bayesian analysis are also discussed. Proton-neutron differences explore the interplay between chiral symmetry breaking and short-distance Physics. Finally, I address their impact on the neutron-proton mass difference, big-bang nucleosynthesis, and their relevance for anthropic arguments. Supported in part by DOE DE-SC0015393 and George Washington University.
Probes of one quark-gluon plasma in high energy collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kajantie, K.; McLerran, L.
1987-01-01
Quark gluon plasma is the high-temperature high-density phase of matter described by the laws of quantum chromodynamics. At low temperatures and densities quarks, gluons, and color fields are confined to the interiors of strongly interacting particles, hadrons. At high temperatures and densities the hadrons overlap and lose their identity; quarks, gluons and color fields are not confined within hadrons but can move over distances larger than the hadron size, 1 fm. The authors expect that the early universe, when it was younger than about 10/sup -5/s, was filled with quark gluon plasma (and, at least, photons and leptons). The possible observational consequences-relic cold strange quark matter, energy density inhomgeneities, black holes, gravitational radiation, etc. are rather speculative and so far no observational evidence exists. Cold quark gluon plasma or quark matter could also exist in the present universe in the interiors of compact stellar systems. Here also no convincing observational evidence exists, although changes in cooling rates have been suggested as such. Information on possible quark gluon plasma can be gained, however, by studying ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions or very high multiplicity fluctuations in hadron-hadron collisions. What the signals could be is the subject of this review
Spherically symmetric quark-gluon plasma field configurations
Nachbagauer, Herbert
1995-01-01
We study field configurations in a hot quark-gluon plasma with spherical symmetry. We show that the electric fields point into radial direction and solve the effective non-abelian equations of motions. The corresponding charge density has a localized contribution which has a gauge invariant interpretation as a pointlike color charge. We discuss configurations oscillating periodically in time. Furthermore, we calculate the electric field induced by a constant local charge that is removed from ...
Hwa, Rudolph C
2004-01-01
This is a review monograph on quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Different theoretical and experimental aspects of the program to produce QGP in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are covered by experts in the field. This is the third volume in a series on the subject, and the first such monograph to focus on the implications of the experimental results from RHIC, the relativistic heavy-ion collider at the National Brookhaven Laboratory. The review articles will be useful to experienced researchers as well as to graduate students entering the field. Contents: Thermodynamics and In-Medium Hadron Properti
Anisotropic-hydrodynamics approach to a quark-gluon fluid mixture
Florkowski, Wojciech; Maksymiuk, Ewa; Ryblewski, Radoslaw
2018-01-01
The anisotropic-hydrodynamics framework is used to describe a mixture of quark and gluon fluids. The effects of quantum statistics, finite quark mass, and finite baryon number density are taken into account. The results of anisotropic hydrodynamics are compared with exact solutions of the coupled kinetic equations for quarks and gluons in the relaxation time approximation. An overall very good agreement between the hydrodynamic and kinetic-theory results is found.
The influence of differently polarised microwave radiation on chromatin in human cells.
Shckorbatov, Yuriy G; Pasiuga, Vladimir N; Kolchigin, Nicolay N; Grabina, Valentin A; Batrakov, Dmitry O; Kalashnikov, Vladimir V; Ivanchenko, Dmitry D; Bykov, Viktor N
2009-04-01
To determine the possible biological effects of differently polarised microwave radiation on the chromatin state in human cells. Isolated human buccal epithelium cells were irradiated by microwaves of frequency f = 35 GHz and surface power density E = 30 microW/cm(2). The state of chromatin in human cells was determined by methods of light and electron microscopy. The state of cell membranes was evaluated by the method of vital indigo carmine staining. The microwave-induced condensation of chromatin in human cells is revealed. Degree of microwave-induced condensation depends on the state of polarisation of electromagnetic wave: In some cases left circularly polarised waves induce less effect than linearly polarised radiation. The linearly polarised electromagnetic waves induce cell membrane damage revealed by increase of cell staining. The data obtained are discussed in connection with mechanisms of biological effects of electromagnetic fields. The data obtained in this work demonstrate important biological effects of monochromatic microwave irradiation at 35 GHz. Low-level microwave irradiation induces chromatin condensation in human cells and damages of cell membranes.
Measurement of W Polarisation at LEP
Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hakobyan, R S; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M
2003-01-01
The three different helicity states of W bosons produced in the reaction e+ e- -> W+ W- -> l nu q q~ at LEP are studied using leptonic and hadronic W decays. Data at centre-of-mass energies \\sqrt s = 183-209 GeV are used to measure the polarisation of W bosons, and its dependence on the W boson production angle. The fraction of longitudinally polarised W bosons is measured to be 0.218 \\pm 0.027 \\pm 0.016 where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation.
Towards high resolution polarisation analysis using double polarisation and ellipsoidal analysers
Martin-Y-Marero, D
2002-01-01
Classical polarisation analysis methods lack the combination of high resolution and high count rate necessary to cope with the demand of modern condensed-matter experiments. In this work, we present a method to achieve high resolution polarisation analysis based on a double polarisation system. Coupling this method with an ellipsoidal wavelength analyser, a high count rate can be achieved whilst delivering a resolution of around 10 mu eV. This method is ideally suited to pulsed sources, although it can be adapted to continuous sources as well. (orig.)
Ward identities for amplitudes with reggeized gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartles, J.; Vacca, G.P.
2012-05-01
Starting from the effective action of high energy QCD we derive Ward identities for Green's functions of reggeized gluons. They follow from the gauge invariance of the effective action, and allow to derive new representations of amplitudes containing physical particles as well as reggeized gluons. We explicitly demonstrate their validity for the BFKL kernel, and we present a new derivation of the kernel.
Duality and multi-gluon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mangano, M.; Parke, S.; Xu Zhan
1988-01-01
For the six-gluon scattering process we give explicit and simple expressions for the amplitude and its square. To achieve this we use an analogy with string theories to identify a unique procedure for writing the multi-gluon scattering amplitudes in terms of a sum of gauge invariant dual sub-amplitudes multiplied by an appropriate color (Chan-Paton) factor. The sub-amplitudes defined in this way are invariant under cyclic permutations, satisfy powerful identities which relate different non-cyclic permutations and factorize in the soft gluon limit, the two-gluon collinear limit and on multi-gluon poles. Also, to leading order in the number of colors these sub-amplitudes sum incoherently in the square of the full matrix element. The results contained here are important for Monte Carlo studies of multi-jet processes at hadron colliders as well as for understanding the general structure of QCD. (orig.)
Quark and gluon structure of the nucleon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Straumann, U.
1997-01-01
Recently deep inelastic physics in the very low Bjorken x region has made significant progress due to the large kinematical region covered by the HERA experiments by now. Stringent tests of perturbative QCD predictions on the evolution of the parton density functions in the nucleon are possible over 5 (4) orders of magnitude in x (Q 2 ). Newer results from structure function studies on scaling violations, the charm contribution and the effect of longitudinally polarized virtual photons give a consistent picture of a strongly rising gluon density distribution towards low x. Some aspects of the search for an indication of BFKL like behaviour in the low x regime are presented and data covering the region at low Q 2 are shown, where perturbative QCD is believed to be no longer valid.--This contribution concentrates on HERA results, but other data are also taken into account where appropriate. In a second part the events observed at HERA in excess over the standard model prediction at very high Q 2 are discussed
Gluons and gravitons at one loop from ambitwistor strings
Geyer, Yvonne; Monteiro, Ricardo
2018-03-01
We present new and explicit formulae for the one-loop integrands of scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric gauge theory and gravity, valid for any number of particles. The results exhibit the colour-kinematics duality in gauge theory and the double-copy relation to gravity, in a form that was recently observed in supersymmetric theories. The new formulae are expressed in a particular representation of the loop integrand, with only one quadratic propagator, which arises naturally from the framework of the loop-level scattering equations. The starting point in our work are the expressions based on the scattering equations that were recently derived from ambitwistor string theory. We turn these expressions into explicit formulae depending only on the loop momentum, the external momenta and the external polarisations. These formulae are valid in any number of spacetime dimensions for pure Yang-Mills theory (gluon) and its natural double copy, NS-NS gravity (graviton, dilaton, B-field), and we also present formulae in four spacetime dimensions for pure gravity (graviton). We perform several tests of our results, such as checking gauge invariance and directly matching our four-particle formulae to previously known expressions. While these tests would be elaborate in a Feynman-type representation of the loop integrand, they become straightforward in the representation we use.
Quark-gluon plasma in strong magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2013-04-01
One of the fundamental problems in subatomic physics is the determination of properties of matter at extreme temperatures, densities and electromagnetic fields. The modern ultrarelativistic heavy-ion experiments are able to study such states (the quark-gluon plasma) and indicate that the physics at extreme conditions differs drastically from what is known from the conventional observations. Also the theoretical methods developed mostly within the perturbative framework face various conceptual problems and need to be replaced by a nonperturbative approach. In this thesis we study the physics of the strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma in external magnetic fields as well as general electromagnetic and topological properties of the QCD and QCD-like systems. We develop and apply various nonperturbative techniques, based on e.g. gauge-gravity correspondence, lattice QCD simulations, relativistic hydrodynamics and condensed-matter-inspired models.
Quark-gluon plasma in strong magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2013-04-15
One of the fundamental problems in subatomic physics is the determination of properties of matter at extreme temperatures, densities and electromagnetic fields. The modern ultrarelativistic heavy-ion experiments are able to study such states (the quark-gluon plasma) and indicate that the physics at extreme conditions differs drastically from what is known from the conventional observations. Also the theoretical methods developed mostly within the perturbative framework face various conceptual problems and need to be replaced by a nonperturbative approach. In this thesis we study the physics of the strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma in external magnetic fields as well as general electromagnetic and topological properties of the QCD and QCD-like systems. We develop and apply various nonperturbative techniques, based on e.g. gauge-gravity correspondence, lattice QCD simulations, relativistic hydrodynamics and condensed-matter-inspired models.
Planetary polarisation measurements with small telescopes
Masding, Philip; Rossi, Loic; Miles, Phil
2017-04-01
We have developed a method for measuring the linear polarisation of planets which is accessible to experienced amateur astronomers. The method requires a telescope with an aperture of about 20cm or more together with a linear polarising filter and a planetary imaging camera. Many suitable cameras are available and they can record uncompressed video at frame rates of 10 to 60 per second. Typically this rate will depend on the brightness of the source and size of the telescope. An ideal camera will be monochrome and is used with separate colour filters and a polarising filter. The method is to attach the colour and polarising filters to the camera and record a series of video clips. After recording each video clip the camera and filters are rotated by about 20 degrees until the total rotation is over 180 degrees. Each video clip is then stacked to produce a single low noise image. Most stacking software can sort the video frames according to quality, so the stack is based on a selected percentage of the best frames. There are several freeware stacking programs available which are primarily used for planetary imaging in general but are very suitable for polarisation. Original videos are mostly 8 bit but noise allows the combined stack to have a higher effective resolution and it is saved in 16 bit format. The stacked images are currently processed in Matlab, although the algorithms are being incorporated in Winjupos which is freeware. Results so far have been primarily for Jupiter, but we also have some data for Venus. The Matlab code is used to register the stacked frames (removing any camera rotation) and in the case of Jupiter, compensate for rotation of the planet during the video capture process. Accurate image registration is crucial for this method. A disk function is also applied to allow for the changing illumination angle as the planet rotates. A least squares function calculates the best fit cos squared curve for the variation of light at each point in the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cipriano, P.; Dooling, S.; Grebenyuk, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Katsas, P.; Hautmann, F.; Oxford Univ.; Jung, H.; Antwerpen Univ.
2013-08-01
In the forthcoming high-luminosity phase at the LHC many of the most interesting QCD measurements so far become prohibitively difficult due to the high pile-up. We suggest a program of QCD measurements based on the observed Higgs boson which can be started now and can be carried through also in the large pile-up environment at high luminosity. It focuses on gluonic processes at high mass scales, and their distinctive QCD features compared to classic probes such as Drell-Yan. It explores the strong-interaction sector of the Standard Model both at high transverse momenta and at low transverse momenta, by investigating issues on gluon fusion processes which have never been addressed experimentally before. We discuss a few specific examples and present results of Monte Carlo simulations.
Polarisation of electroweak gauge bosons at the LHC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vryonidou Eleni
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We present results for the polarisation of gauge bosons produced at the LHC. Polarisation effects for W bosons manifest themselves in the angular distributions of the lepton and in the distributions of lepton transverse momentum and missing transverse energy. The polarisation is discussed for a range of different processes producing W bosons such as W+jets and W from top production. The relative contributions of the different polarisation states vary from process to process, reflecting the dynamics of the underlying hardscattering process. We also calculate the polarisation of the Z boson produced in association with QCD jets at the LHC.
Ultralight glueballs in Quark-Gluon Plasma
Kochelev, Nikolai
2016-03-01
We consider the dynamics of the scalar and pseudoscalar glueballs in the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). By using the instanton model for the QCD vacuum we give the arguments that the nonperturbative gluon-gluon interaction is qualitatively different in the confinement and deconfinement phases. Based on this observation it is shown that above T c the values of the scalar and pseudoscalar glueball masses might be very small. The estimation of the temperature of scale invariance restoration, at which the scalar glueball becomes massless, is given. We also discuss the Bose—Einstein condensation of the glueballs and the superfluidity of the glueball matter in QGP.
Dynamical gluon mass in QCD processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ducati, M.B. Gay; Sauter, W. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Fenomenologia de Particulas de Altas Energias (GFPAE)
2007-06-15
We perform phenomenological applications of modified gluon propagators and running coupling constants in scattering processes in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The modified forms of propagators and running coupling constant are obtained by non-perturbative methods. The processes investigated includes the diffractive ones - proton-proton elastic scattering, light vector meson photo-production and double vector meson production in gamma-gamma scattering - as well as the pion and kaon meson form factors. The results are compared with experimental data (if available), showing a good agreement with a gluon with dynamical mass but do not indicate the correct gluon propagator functional form. (author)
Constituent gluon interpretation of glueballs and gluelumps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boulanger, N.; Buisseret, F.; Mathieu, V.; Semay, C.
2008-01-01
Arguments are given that support the interpretation of the lattice QCD glueball and gluelump spectra in terms of bound states of massless constituent gluons with helicity 1. In this scheme, we show that the mass hierarchy of the currently known gluelumps and glueballs is mainly due to the number of constituent gluons and can be understood within a simple flux tube model. It is also argued that the lattice QCD 0 +- glueball should be seen as a four-gluon bound state. We finally predict the mass of the 0 - state, not yet computed in lattice QCD. (orig.)
Gluons and the NJL coupling constant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braghin, Fábio L.; Barros Jr, Ednaldo [Instituto de Física, Univ. Fed. de Goiás, P.B.131, Campus II, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Paulo Jr, Ademar [Instituto de Física, Univ. Fed. de Goiás, P.B.131, Campus II, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO, Brazil and Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Tocantins, Palmas, TO (Brazil)
2014-11-11
The QCD origin of the NJL model is re-analysed by considering the gluon condensate of order two . The key point is the treatment of the gluon interactions. To linearize the action the auxiliary variable method is employed to introduce a scalar variable φ(x) that yield such condensate by means of its value in the vacuum, and then another auxiliary variable that corresponds to an antisymmetric gluon configuration φ(x). For that, besides that, two different possible limits of the fourth order non local quark interaction that may contribute to the NJL coupling are compared.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aswal, V.K.; Brandt, B. van den; Hautle, P.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Konter, J.A.; Michels, A.; Piegsa, F.M.; Stahn, J.; Petegem, S. van; Zimmer, O.
2008-01-01
A transmission neutron polariser (Fe/Si supermirror) has been successfully implemented in the small angle neutron scattering instrument SANS-I at the SINQ neutron source. The polariser is needed for investigations of magnetic nanostructures as well as for spin contrast variation techniques relying on the spin-dependent neutron scattering length of polarised nuclei. The V-shaped polariser is installed in the first section of the collimator system of the SANS instrument and its performance is optimised for neutrons with a wavelength between 0.5 and 1.0 nm. For a precise polarisation analysis of a beam with selectable incident divergence, such as in SANS experiments, an opaque spin filter is ideal. We used a solid polarised proton target exploiting the strong spin-dependent neutron scattering cross-section of hydrogen and determined the neutron beam polarisation to a precision of δp/p∼0.5% for different collimations in a broad wavelength band
Aswal, V. K.; van den Brandt, B.; Hautle, P.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Konter, J. A.; Michels, A.; Piegsa, F. M.; Stahn, J.; Van Petegem, S.; Zimmer, O.
2008-02-01
A transmission neutron polariser (Fe/Si supermirror) has been successfully implemented in the small angle neutron scattering instrument SANS-I at the SINQ neutron source. The polariser is needed for investigations of magnetic nanostructures as well as for spin contrast variation techniques relying on the spin-dependent neutron scattering length of polarised nuclei. The V-shaped polariser is installed in the first section of the collimator system of the SANS instrument and its performance is optimised for neutrons with a wavelength between 0.5 and 1.0 nm. For a precise polarisation analysis of a beam with selectable incident divergence, such as in SANS experiments, an opaque spin filter is ideal. We used a solid polarised proton target exploiting the strong spin-dependent neutron scattering cross-section of hydrogen and determined the neutron beam polarisation to a precision of δp/p˜0.5% for different collimations in a broad wavelength band.
Measurement of the Tau Polarisation at LEP
Heister, A.; Barate, R.; De Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, Philippe; Goy, C.; Lees, J.P.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M.P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J.M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Grauges, E.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L.M.; Pacheco, A.; Ruiz, H.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Azzurri, P.; Boix, G.; Buchmuller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Clerbaux, B.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R.W.; Frank, M.; Greening, T.C.; Hansen, J.B.; Harvey, John; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kado, M.; Mato, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, Gigi; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Spagnolo, P.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tournefier, E.; Ward, J.; Wright, A.E.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, P.H.; Nilsson, B.S.; Waananen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J.C.; Rouge, A.; Rumpf, M.; Swynghedauw, M.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G.P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Halley, A.W.; Lynch, J.G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Thompson, A.S.; Wasserbaech, S.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E.E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D.M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P.J.; Girone, M.; Marinelli, N.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Thompson, J.C.; Ghete, V.M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Bowdery, C.K.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Pearson, M.R.; Robertson, N.A.; Giehl, I.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.G.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeintiz, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Leroy, O.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; David, A.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Huttmann, K.; Lutjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Manner, W.; Moser, H.G.; Settles, R.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.F.; Heusse, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Nikolic, Irina; Veillet, J.J.; Videau, I.; Yuan, C.; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, T.; Calderini, G.; Ciulli, V.; Foa, L.; Giassi, A.; Ligabue, F.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciaba, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Blair, G.A.; Cowan, G.; Green, M.G.; Medcalf, T.; Strong, J.A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J.H.; Clifft, R.W.; Edgecock, T.R.; Norton, P.R.; Tomalin, I.R.; Bloch-Devaux, Brigitte; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lancon, E.; Lemaire, M.C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A.M.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C.N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Affholderbach, K.; Boehrer, Armin; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Misiejuk, A.; Ngac, A.; Prange, G.; Sieler, U.; Giannini, G.; Rothberg, J.; Armstrong, S.R.; Cranmer, K.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D.P.S.; Gao, Y.; Gonzalez, S.; Hayes, O.J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; Kile, J.; McNamara, P.A., III; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y.B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I.J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.
2001-01-01
The polarisation of $\\tau$'s produced in Z decay is measured using 160 pb$^{-1}$ of data accumulated at LEP by the ALEPH detector between 1990 and 1995. The variation of the polarisation with polar angle yields the two parameters ${\\cal A}_e = 0.1504 \\pm 0.0068 $ and ${\\cal A}_{\\tau} = 0.1451 \\pm 0.0059$ which are consistent with the hypothesis of $e$-$\\tau$ universality. Assuming universality, the value ${\\cal A}_{e\\mbox{-}\\tau} = 0.1474 \\pm 0.0045$ is obtained from which the effective weak mixing angle $\\sin^2 {\\theta_{\\mathrm{W}}^{\\mathrm{eff}}} =0.23147 \\pm 0.00057 $ is derived.
A medium size polarised deuteron target
Kiselev, Yu. F.; Polyakov, V. V.; Kovalev, A. I.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Borisov, N. S.; Trautman, V. Yu.; Werner, K.; Kozlenko, N. G.
1984-03-01
A frozen polarised deuteron target based on ethanediol with a high percentage of deuterium is described. Analytical expressions for the NMR spectrum correction for non-linearity of the Q-meter are obtained and a method for the determination of the asymmetry is developed. Experimental results confirm the thermal mixing theory for deuteron and proton spin systems with a dipole-dipole reservoir of electron spins.
Social Polarisation and the Danish Welfare State
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove Valborg
Globalisation and the information society tend - according to leading theories - to increase social polarisation and create dual cities. Studies have shown that the tendencies are more complicated in several of the European cities and the welfare state seems to have an impact on the development. ...... a preliminary picture of Aarhus looking at the distribution of poverty and wealth showing some indicators towards inequality. Furthermore we discuss central theories, concepts and measured indicators...
The structure of the gluon propagator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leinweber, D.B.; Parrinello, C.; Skullerud, J.I.; Williams, A.G
1999-03-01
The gluon propagator has been calculated for quenched QCD in the Landau gauge at {beta} = 6.0 for volumes 16{sup 3} x 48 and 32{sup 3} x 64, and at {beta} 6.2 for volume 24{sup 3} x 48. The large volume and different lattice spacings allow us to identify and minimise finite volume and finite lattice spacing artefacts. We also study the tensor structure of the gluon propagator, confirming that it obeys the lattice Landau gauge condition.
Identified particles in quark and gluon jets
Abreu, P; Adye, T; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbi, M S; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djama, F; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katargin, A; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Novák, M; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Pain, R; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Podobnik, T; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Rybin, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sahr, O; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Serbelloni, L; Shellard, R C; Siegrist, P; Silvestre, R; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G
1997-01-01
A sample of about 1.4 million hadronic \\z decays, selected among the data recorded by the DELPHI detector at LEP during 1994, was used to measure for the first time the momentum spectra of \\kp, \\ko, \\p, \\l and their antiparticles in gluon and quark jets. As observed for inclusive charged particles, the production spectra of identified particles were found to be softer in gluon jets than in quark jets, with a higher total multiplicity.
Oxide coating of Co-ferrofluids studied by polarised SANS
Kammel, M.; Wiedenmann, A.; Heinemann, A.; Bönnemann, H.; Matoussevitch, N.
2006-11-01
A new series of Cobalt ferrofluids with remarkable air stability have been prepared by subsequent smooth oxidation. We report on polarised small-angle neutron scattering (SANSPOL) investigations of the unknown nuclear and magnetic nanostructures. In order to evaluate the effect of the smooth oxidation step, beneficial for the air stability we compared the results with measurements on cobalt ferrofluids prepared similarly but without this step. SANSPOL combined with isotope contrast variation using deuterated solvents revealed a ferromagnetic core stabilized by a non-magnetic shell of organic surfactants. Only in the smoothly oxidised samples we found an additional non-magnetic layer on the surface of cobalt, the scattering length density of which corresponds closely to that of Co-oxides.
Viscosities in the Gluon-Plasma within a Quasiparticle Model
Bluhm, M; Redlich, K
2009-01-01
A phenomenological quasiparticle model, featuring dynamically generated self-energies of excitation modes, successfully describes lattice QCD results relevant for the QCD equation of state and related quantities both at zero and non-zero net baryon density. Here, this model is extended to study bulk and shear viscosities of the gluon-plasma within an effective kinetic theory approach. In this way, the compatibility of the employed quasiparticle ansatz with the apparent low viscosities of the strongly coupled deconfined gluonic medium is shown.
The gluon structure of hadrons and nuclei from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shanahan, Phiala A. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
2018-04-01
I discuss recent lattice QCD studies of the gluon structure of hadrons and light nuclei. After very briefly highlighting new determinations of the gluon contributions to the nucleon's momentum and spin, presented by several collaborations over the last year, I describe first calculations of gluon generalised form factors. The generalised transversity gluon distributions are of particular interest since they are purely gluonic; they do not mix with quark distributions at leading twist. In light nuclei they moreover provide a clean signature of non-nucleonic gluon degrees of freedom, and I present the first evidence for such effects, based on lattice QCD calculations. The planned Electron-Ion Collider, designed to access gluon structure quantities, will have the capability to test this prediction, and measure a range of gluon observables including generalised gluon distributions and transverse momentum dependent gluon distributions, within the next decade.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, D.; Adeva, B.; Akdogan, T.; Arik, E.; Arvidson, A.; Badelek, B; Bardin, G.; Baum, G.; Berglund, P.; Betev, L.; Birsa, R.; Bjoerkholm, P.; Bonner, B.E.; Botton, N. de E-mail: nico.de.botton@cern.ch; Boutemeur, M.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Bueltmann, S.; Burtin, E.; Cavata, C.; Clocchiatti, M.; Crabb, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Cuhadar, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dantzig, R. van; Derro, B.; Deshpande, A.; Dhawan, S.; Dulya, C.; Dyring, A.; Eichblatt, S.; Faivre, J.C.; Fasching, D.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandez, C.; Forthmann, S.; Frois, B.; Gallas, A.; Garzon, J.A.; Gatignon, L.; Gaussiran, T.; Gilly, H.; Giorgi, M.; Goeler, E. von; Goertz, S.; Golutvin, I.A.; Gracia, G.; Groot, N. de; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Haft, K.; Harrach, D. von; Hasegawa, T.; Hautle, P.; Hayashi, N.; Heusch, C.A.; Horikawa, N.; Hughes, V.W.; Igo, G.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kabuss, E.M.; Kageya, T.; Karev, A.; Kessler, H.J.; Ketel, T.J.; Kiryluk, J.; Kiryushin, I.; Kishi, A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klostermann, L.; Kraemer, D.; Krivokhijine, V.; Kroeger, W.; Kukhtin, V.; Kurek, K.; Kyynaeraeinen, J.; Lamanna, M.; Landgraf, U.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lehar, F.; Lesquen, A. de; Lichtenstadt, J.; Lindqvist, T.; Litmaath, M.; Lowe, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Marie, F.; Martin, A.; Martino, J.; Matsuda, T.; Mayes, B.; McCarthy, J.S.; Medved, K.; Meyer, W.; Middelkoop, G. van; Miller, D.; Miyachi, Y.; Mori, K.; Moromisato, J.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nassalski, J.; Naumann, L.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Oberski, J.E.J.; Ogawa, A.; Ozben, C.; Pereira, H.; Perrot-Kunne, F.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piegaia, R.; Pinsky, L.; Platchkov, S.; Plo, M.; Pose, D.; Postma, H.; Pretz, J.; Pussieux, T.; Raedel, G.; Rijllart, A.; Reicherz, G.; Roberts, J.B.; Rock, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Rondio, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Sabo, I.; Saborido, J.; Sandacz, A; Savin, I.; Schiavon, P.; Schiller, A.; Schueler, K.P.; Seitz, R.; Semertzidis, Y.; Sergeev, S.; Shanahan, P.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simeoni, F.; Smirnov, G.I.; Staude, A.; Steinmetz, A. [and others
2000-03-21
A muon beam polarimeter was built for the SMC experiment at the CERN SPS, for beam energies of 100 and 190 GeV. The beam polarisation is determined from the asymmetry in the elastic scattering off the polarised electrons of a ferromagnetic target whose magnetisation is periodically reversed. At muon energies of 100 and 190 GeV the measured polarisation is P{sub {mu}}=-0.80{+-}0.03 (stat.){+-}0.02 (syst.) and P{sub {mu}}=-0.797{+-}0.011 (stat.){+-}0.012 (syst.), respectively. These results agree with measurements of the beam polarisation using a shape analysis of the decay positron energy spectrum.
Constituent gluons and the static quark potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Greensite, Jeff [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States); Szczepaniak, Adam P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-04-01
We suggest that Hamiltonian matrix elements between physical states in QCD might be approximated, in Coulomb gauge, by "lattice-improved" tree diagrams; i.e. tree diagram contributions with dressed ghost, transverse gluon, and Coulomb propagators obtained from lattice simulations. Such matrix elements can be applied to a variational treatment of hadronic states which include constituent gluons. As an illustration and first application of this hybrid approach, we derive a variational estimate of the heavy quark potential for distances up to 2.5 fm. The Coulomb string tension in SU(3) gauge theory is about a factor of four times greater than the asymptotic string tension. In our variational approach, using for simplicity a single variational parameter, we can reduce this overshoot by nearly the factor required. The building blocks of our approach are Coulomb gauge propagators, and in this connection we present new lattice results for the ghost and transverse gluon propagators in position space.
Broadband microwave photonic phase shifter based on polarisation rotation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xue, Weiqi; Öhman, Filip; Blaaberg, Søren
2008-01-01
A broadband microwave photonic phase shifter is presented based on the polarisation properties of a Mach-Zehnder intensity modulator and nonlinear polarisation rotation in a semiconductor optical amplifier. The system can realise about 150deg phase shift in the frequency range from 50 MHz to 19 GHz....
Usage of polarisation features of landmines for improved automatic detection
Jong, W. de; Cremer, F.; Schutte, K.; Storm, J.
2000-01-01
In this paper the landmine detection performance of an infrared and a visual light camera both equipped with a polarisation filter are compared with the detection performance of these cameras without polarisation filters. Sequences of images have been recorded with in front of these cameras a
Gluon fragmentation in T(1S) decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bienlein, J.K.
1983-05-01
In T(1S) decays most observables (sphericity, charged multiplicity, photonic energy fraction, inclusive spectra) can be understood assuming that gluons fragment like quarks. New results from LENA use the (axis-independent) Fox-Wolfram moments for the photonic energy deposition. Continuum reactions show 'standard' Field-Feynman fragmentation. T(1S) decays show a significant difference in the photonic energy topology. It is more isotropic than with the Field-Feynman fragmentation scheme. Gluon fragmentation into isoscalar mesons (a la Peterson and Walsh) is excluded. But if one forces the leading particle to be isoscalar, one gets good agreement with the data. (orig.)
High energy multi-gluon exchange amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaroszewicz, T.
1980-11-01
We examine perturbative high energy n-gluon exchange amplitudes calculated in the Coulomb gauge. If n exceeds the minimum required by the t-channel quantum numbers, such amplitudes are non-leading in lns. We derive a closed system of coupled integral equations for the corresponding two-particle n-gluon vertices, obtained by summing the leading powers of ln(N μ psup(μ)), where psup(μ) is the incident momentum and Nsup(μ) the gauge-defining vector. Our equations are infra-red finite, provided the external particles are colour singlets. (author)
Gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
2007-06-15
We describe how to compute planar gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling in N = 4 super Yang Mills by using the gauge/string duality. The computation boils down to finding a certain classical string configuration whose boundary conditions are determined by the gluon momenta. The results are infrared divergent. We introduce the gravity version of dimensional regularization to define finite quantities. The leading and subleading IR divergencies are characterized by two functions of the coupling that we compute at strong coupling. We compute also the full finite form for the four point amplitude and we find agreement with a recent ansatz by Bern, Dixon and Smirnov.
Spin polarisation with electron Bessel beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schattschneider, P., E-mail: schattschneider@ifp.tuwien.ac.at [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Wien, A-1040 Wien (Austria); USTEM, Technische Universität Wien, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Grillo, V. [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); CNR-IMEM, Parco delle Scienze 37a, I-43100 Parma (Italy); Aubry, D. [Centrale Supelec, MSSMast CNRS 8579, F-92295 Châtenay-Malabry (France)
2017-05-15
The theoretical possibility to use an electron microscope as a spin polarizer is studied. It turns out that a Bessel beam passing a standard magnetic objective lens is intrinsically spin polarized when post-selected on-axis. In the limit of infinitely small detectors, the spin polarisation tends to 100 %. Increasing the detector size, the polarisation decreases rapidly, dropping below 10{sup −4} for standard settings of medium voltage microscopes. For extremely low voltages, the Figure of Merit increases by two orders of magnitude, approaching that of existing Mott detectors. Our findings may lead to new desings of spin filters, an attractive option in view of its inherent combination with the electron microscope, especially at low voltage. - Highlights: • TEM round magnetic lenses can act as spin polarizers when a Bessel beam is sent through. • This is found on theoretical grounds and demonstrated numerically for a few cases. • The effect is small, but can reach a Figure of Merit similar to existing Mott detectors. • This opens the possibility to construct nanometer-sized spin filters or detectors.
Circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence and electroluminescence of iridium complexes.
Li, Tian-Yi; Jing, Yi-Ming; Liu, Xuan; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Lin; Tang, Zhiyong; Zheng, You-Xuan; Zuo, Jing-Lin
2015-10-08
Nearly all the neutral iridium complexes widely used as dopants in PhOLEDs are racemic mixtures; however, this study observed that these complexes can be separated into stable optically active Λ and ∆ isomers and that their chirality is an intrinsic property. The circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence (CPPPL) signals of Λ/Δ isomers are perfect mirror images with opposite polarisation and equal intensity exhibiting a "handedness" for the polarisation. For the first time, we applied the Λ/Δ iridium isomers as emitters in OLEDs, and the circularly polarised phosphorescent electroluminescence (CPPEL) spectra reveal completely positive or negative broad peaks consistent with the CPPPL spectra. The results demonstrate that the Λ/Δ isomers have potential application for 3D OLEDs because they can exhibit high efficiency and luminance, and 3D display technology based on circularly polarised light is the most comfortable for the eyes.
Proceedings of the second workshop on polarised target materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Court, G.R.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Cox, S.F.J.; Cragg, D.A.
1980-10-01
The proceedings are reported of a second international workshop which was convened to consider the use of polarised targets in nuclear research and in particular the experimental difficulties imposed by the limitations of target materials with respect to their relatively low hydrogen content and susceptibility to radiation damage. Papers presented were entitled: (1) Introduction and general review. (2) Theory of dynamic nuclear polarisation. (3) Radiation induced paramagnetic centres in organic and inorganic materials. (4) Dynamic nuclear polarisation with radiation induced free radicals. (5) Radiation damage of chemically doped materials. (6) Chemical doping. (7) Techniques and instrumentation. (8) The use of polarised nuclei in physics with neutrons. (9) The use of polarised targets in high energy physics. (U.K.)
Measurement of QCD gluon propagator at finite temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saito, Takuya [Hiroshima Univ., Information Media Center, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Nakamura, Atsushi [Yamagata Univ., Faculty of Education, Yamagata (Japan); Sakai, Sunao [Hiroshima Univ., Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)
2002-09-01
We calculate gluon screening masses in quenched SU(3) lattice gauge theory at finite temperature by using stochastic gauge fixing method. Although gluon propagator is gauge dependent quantity and is not physical object, we extract the screening masses of SU(3) gluon by the behaviour of gauge fixed gluon propagator. We examine temperature dependences of the electric and magnetic screening masses at the regions, T/T{sub c} = 1 - 6. We also check their gauge dependence is very small. (author)
Gluon 2- and 3-Point Correlation Functions on the Lattice
Parrinello, Claudio
1993-01-01
I present some preliminary results, obtained in collaboration with C. Bernard and A. Soni, for the lattice evaluation of 2- and 3-point gluon correlation functions in momentum space, with emphasis on the amputated 3-gluon vertex function. The final goal of this approach is the study of the running QCD coupling constant as defined from the amputated 3-gluon vertex.
2- and 3-point gluon correlation functions on the lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parrinello, C. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom))
1994-04-01
I present some preliminary results, obtained in collaboration with C. Bernard and A. Soni, for the lattice evaluation of 2- and 3-point gluon correlation functions in momentum space, with emphasis on the amputated 3-gluon vertex function. The final goal of this approach is the study of the running QCD coupling constant as defined from the amputated 3-gluon vertex. (orig.)
Squeezed colour states in gluon jet
Kilin, S. YA.; Kuvshinov, V. I.; Firago, S. A.
1993-01-01
The possibility of the formation of squeezed states of gluon fields in quantum chromodynamics due to nonlinear nonperturbative self interaction during jet evolution in the process of e(+)e(-) annihilation into hadrons, which are analogous to the quantum photon squeezed states in quantum electrodynamics, is demonstrated. Additionally, the squeezing parameters are calculated.
Electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Successive equilibration of quark degrees of freedom and its effects on electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma are discussed. The effects of the variation of vector meson masses and decay widths on photon production from hot strongly interacting matter formed after Pb + Pb and S + Au collisions at CERN SPS ...
Exploring Quarks, Gluons and the Higgs Boson
Johansson, K. Erik
2013-01-01
With real particle collision data available on the web, the amazing dynamics of the fundamental particles of the standard model can be explored in classrooms. Complementing the events from the ATLAS experiment with animations of the fundamental processes on the quark and gluon level makes it possible to better understand the invisible world of…
tt in the soft-gluon approximation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
April 2002 physics pp. 575–590. QCD corrections to decay-lepton polar and azimuthal angular distributions in ee+ee- t t in the soft-gluon approximation. SAURABH D RINDANI ... accurate determination of its couplings will have to await the construction of a linear e ·e collider. ..... is the azimuthal angle of the l· momentum.
Electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Successive equilibration of quark degrees of freedom and its effects on electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma are discussed. ... It has been shown that the present photon spectra measured by WA80 and WA98 Collaborations can not distinguish between the formation of quark matter and hadronic matter in the ...
NA50 quark-gluon plasma experiment
1997-01-01
View of the NA50 detector, which studies quark-gluon plasma. The picture shows one of the six hodoscopes, made of 48 scintillator counters, used in the muon trigger of the NA50 spectrometer. The picture shows one of the six hodoscopes, made of 48 scintillator counters, used in the muon trigger of the NA50 spectrometer
Status of the quark gluon plasma search
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A selection of results are discussed that support the conclusion that strongly interacting quark gluon plasma is produced in heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL. Author Affiliations. Terry C Awes1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831. Pramana – Journal of Physics. Current Issue ...
d'Enterria, David
2012-01-01
The impact of isolated-photon data from proton-(anti)proton collisions at RHIC, SppbarS, Tevatron and LHC energies, on the parton distribution functions of the proton is studied using a recently developed Bayesian reweighting method. The impact on the gluon density of the 35 existing isolated-gamma measurements is quantified using next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculations complemented with the NNPDF2.1 parton densities. The NLO predictions are found to describe well most of the datasets from 200 GeV up to 7 TeV centre-of-mass energies. The isolated-photon spectra recently measured at the LHC are precise enough to constrain the gluon distribution and lead to a moderate reduction (up to 20%) of its uncertainties around fractional momenta x~0.02. As a particular case, we show that the improved gluon density reduces the PDF uncertainty for the Higgs boson production cross section in the gluon-fusion channel by more than 20% at the LHC. We conclude that present and future isolated-photon measuremen...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scharenberg, R.P.; Hirsch, A.S.
1990-01-01
This report discusses the: Fermilab experiment 735, a search for the quark-gluon plasma; an exclusive study of nuclear fragmentation using the EOS-TPC; and a study of the central rapidity region at the relativistic heavy ion collider
Polarisation resonance in X-ray diffraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodman, P.; Paterson, D.; Matheson, S.
1994-01-01
The study of crystal structures by means of dynamic X-ray diffraction has placed a challenge to theoreticians to revise the X-ray diffraction theory based on Maxwell's equation. In this paper the feasibility of using 'polarisation resonance' as a tool in the determination of absolute configuration for asymmetric structures is investigated. Two (left- and right-handed), σ + and σ- , circular polarization states for 3-beam conditions are considered. Moreover, extending interaction into the 3 rd. dimension (normal to the beam) opens the possibility of absolute configuration determination of asymmetric structures in 3 dimensions. The computational scheme used is shown in terms of scattering diagrams. 7 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs
Polarisation analysis on the LET time-of-flight spectrometer
Nilsen, G. J.; Košata, J.; Devonport, M.; Galsworthy, P.; Bewley, R. I.; Voneshen, D. J.; Dalgliesh, R.; Stewart, J. R.
2017-06-01
We present a design for implementing uniaxial polarisation analysis on the LET cold neutron time-of-flight spectrometer, installed on the second target station at ISIS. The polarised neutron beam is to be produced by a transmission-based supermirror polariser with the polarising mirrors arranged in a “double-V” formation. This will be followed by a Mezei-type precession coil spin flipper, selected for its small spatial requirements, as well as a permanent magnet guide field to transport the beam polarisation to the sample position. The sample area will contain a set of holding field coils, whose purpose is to produce a highly homogenous magnetic field for the wide-angle 3He analyser cell. To facilitate fast cell changes and reduce the risk of cell failure, we intend to separate the cell and cryostat from the vacuum of the sample tank by installing both in a vessel at atmospheric pressure. When the instrument upgrade is complete, the performance of LET is expected to be commensurate with existing and planned polarised cold neutron spectrometers at other sources. Finally, we discuss the implications of performing uniaxial polarisation analysis only, and identify quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) on ionic conducting materials as an interesting area to apply the technique.
Null point of discrimination in crustacean polarisation vision.
How, Martin J; Christy, John; Roberts, Nicholas W; Marshall, N Justin
2014-07-15
The polarisation of light is used by many species of cephalopods and crustaceans to discriminate objects or to communicate. Most visual systems with this ability, such as that of the fiddler crab, include receptors with photopigments that are oriented horizontally and vertically relative to the outside world. Photoreceptors in such an orthogonal array are maximally sensitive to polarised light with the same fixed e-vector orientation. Using opponent neural connections, this two-channel system may produce a single value of polarisation contrast and, consequently, it may suffer from null points of discrimination. Stomatopod crustaceans use a different system for polarisation vision, comprising at least four types of polarisation-sensitive photoreceptor arranged at 0, 45, 90 and 135 deg relative to each other, in conjunction with extensive rotational eye movements. This anatomical arrangement should not suffer from equivalent null points of discrimination. To test whether these two systems were vulnerable to null points, we presented the fiddler crab Uca heteropleura and the stomatopod Haptosquilla trispinosa with polarised looming stimuli on a modified LCD monitor. The fiddler crab was less sensitive to differences in the degree of polarised light when the e-vector was at -45 deg than when the e-vector was horizontal. In comparison, stomatopods showed no difference in sensitivity between the two stimulus types. The results suggest that fiddler crabs suffer from a null point of sensitivity, while stomatopods do not. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Single top polarisation as a window to new physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A., E-mail: jaas@ugr.es [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Degrande, C. [CERN, Theory Department, Geneva 23 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Khatibi, S. [School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-06-10
We discuss the effect of heavy new physics, parameterised in terms of four-fermion operators, in the polarisation of single top (anti-)quarks in the t-channel process at the LHC. It is found that for operators involving a right-handed top quark field the relative effect on the longitudinal polarisation is twice larger than the relative effect on the total cross section. This enhanced dependence on possible four-fermion contributions makes the polarisation measurements specially interesting, in particular at high momenta.
Exploiting cellophane birefringence to generate radially and azimuthally polarised vector beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalwe, Johnston; Ominde, Calvine; Rurimo, Geoffrey; Neugebauer, Martin; Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter
2015-01-01
We exploit the birefringence of cellophane to convert a linearly polarised Gaussian beam into either a radially or azimuthally polarised beam. For that, we fabricated a low-cost polarisation mask consisting of four segments of cellophane. The fast axis of each segment is oriented appropriately in order to rotate the polarisation of the incident linearly polarised beam as desired. To ensure the correct operation of the polarisation mask, we tested the polarisation state of the generated beam by measuring the spatial distribution of the Stokes parameters. Such a device is very cost efficient and allows for the generation of cylindrical vector beams of high quality. (paper)
Bose–Einstein condensation and thermalization of the quark–gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Gelis, François; Liao, Jinfeng; McLerran, Larry; Venugopalan, Raju
2012-01-01
In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, the matter formed shortly after the collision is a dense, out of equilibrium, system of gluons characterized by a semi-hard momentum scale Q s . Simple power counting arguments indicate that this system is over-occupied: the gluon occupation number is parametrically large when compared to a system in thermal equilibrium with the same energy density. On short time scales, soft elastic scattering tends to drive the system toward the formation of a Bose–Einstein condensate that contains a large fraction of the gluons while contributing little to the energy density. The lifetime and existence of this condensate depends on whether inelastic processes, that occur on the same time scale as elastic processes, preferably increase or decrease the number of gluons. During this overpopulated stage, and all the way to thermalization, the system behaves as a strongly interacting fluid, even though the elementary coupling constant is small. Finally, we argue that while complete isotropization may never be reached, the system may yet evolve for a long time with a fixed anisotropy between average longitudinal and transverse momenta.
Leading order determination of the gluon polarisation from DIS events with high-pT hadron pairs
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Adolph, C.; Alekseev, M.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A. A.; Austregisilio, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Burtin, E.; Chaberny, D.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.V.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Höppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lednev, A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Y.; Moinester, M.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nowak, W. D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.; Pontecorvo, G.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlütter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Wang, L.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.
2013-01-01
Roč. 718, č. 3 (2013), s. 922-930 ISSN 0370-2693 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : deep-inelastic-scattering * neutron spin structure * lepton-nucleon scatterin * monte-carlo generator * proton * deuteron Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 6.019, year: 2013
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waheed, A.; Furlan, G.
1995-10-01
Identifying reliable signatures of the Quark-Gluon Plasma formation in the ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions will be the major goal of the future experiments at BNL (RHIC) and CERN (LHC). As these experiments are expected to give new dimensions to this field of research, it is worth considering to review the main aspects of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). In this paper we discuss briefly some of the important features of the ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions and the physics of the QGP. Finally we make a few suggestions based on the most recent developments in the field, with the hope that perhaps questions to the related matters will be answered in the future investigations. (author). 191 refs, 15 figs
Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Close, F.E.
1989-12-01
These lectures discuss the particle-nuclear interface -- a general introduction to the ideas and application of colored quarks in nuclear physics, color, the Pauli principle, and spin flavor correlations -- this lecture shows how the magnetic moments of hadrons relate to the underlying color degree of freedom, and the proton's spin -- a quark model perspective. This lecture reviews recent excitement which has led some to claim that in deep inelastic polarized lepton scattering very little of the spin of a polarized proton is due to its quarks. This lecture discusses the distribution functions of quarks and gluons in nucleons and nuclei, and how knowledge of these is necessary before some quark-gluon plasma searches can be analyzed. 56 refs., 2 figs
Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Close, F.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))
1989-12-01
These lectures discuss the particle-nuclear interface -- a general introduction to the ideas and application of colored quarks in nuclear physics, color, the Pauli principle, and spin flavor correlations -- this lecture shows how the magnetic moments of hadrons relate to the underlying color degree of freedom, and the proton's spin -- a quark model perspective. This lecture reviews recent excitement which has led some to claim that in deep inelastic polarized lepton scattering very little of the spin of a polarized proton is due to its quarks. This lecture discusses the distribution functions of quarks and gluons in nucleons and nuclei, and how knowledge of these is necessary before some quark-gluon plasma searches can be analyzed. 56 refs., 2 figs.
Higgs production in gluon fusion beyond NNLO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ball, Richard D.; Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Marzani, Simone; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2013-01-01
We construct an approximate expression for the cross section for Higgs production in gluon fusion at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N 3 LO) in α s with finite top mass. We argue that an accurate approximation can be constructed by exploiting the analyticity of the Mellin space cross section, and the information on its singularity structure coming from large N (soft gluon, Sudakov) and small N (high energy, BFKL) all order resummation. We support our argument with an explicit comparison of the approximate and the exact expressions up to the highest (NNLO) order at which the latter are available. We find that the approximate N 3 LO result amounts to a correction of 17% to the NNLO QCD cross section for production of a 125 GeV Higgs at the LHC (8 TeV), larger than previously estimated, and it significantly reduces the scale dependence of the NNLO result
Higgs production in gluon fusion beyond NNLO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ball, Richard D. [Tait Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bonvini, Marco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchroton, DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Forte, Stefano, E-mail: forte@mi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Marzani, Simone [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, England (United Kingdom); Ridolfi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)
2013-09-21
We construct an approximate expression for the cross section for Higgs production in gluon fusion at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N{sup 3}LO) in α{sub s} with finite top mass. We argue that an accurate approximation can be constructed by exploiting the analyticity of the Mellin space cross section, and the information on its singularity structure coming from large N (soft gluon, Sudakov) and small N (high energy, BFKL) all order resummation. We support our argument with an explicit comparison of the approximate and the exact expressions up to the highest (NNLO) order at which the latter are available. We find that the approximate N{sup 3}LO result amounts to a correction of 17% to the NNLO QCD cross section for production of a 125 GeV Higgs at the LHC (8 TeV), larger than previously estimated, and it significantly reduces the scale dependence of the NNLO result.
The gluon beam function at two loops
Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Stahlhofen, Maximilian; Tackmann, Frank J.
2014-08-01
The virtuality-dependent beam function is a universal ingredient in the resummation for observables probing the virtuality of incoming partons, including N -jettiness and beam thrust. We compute the gluon beam function at two-loop order. Together with our previous results for the two-loop quark beam function, this completes the full set of virtuality-dependent beam functions at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). Our results are required to account for all collinear initial-state radiation effects on the N -jettiness event shape through N3LL order. We present numerical results for both the quark and gluon beam functions up to NNLO and N3LL order. Numerically, the NNLO matching corrections are important. They reduce the residual matching scale dependence in the resummed beam function by about a factor of two.
The gluon beam function at two loops
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Stahlhofen, Maximilian; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group
2014-05-15
The virtuality-dependent beam function is a universal ingredient in the resummation for observables probing the virtuality of incoming partons, including N-jettiness and beam thrust. We compute the gluon beam function at two-loop order. Together with our previous results for the two-loop quark beam function, this completes the full set of virtuality-dependent beam functions at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). Our results are required to account for all collinear ISR effects to the N-jettiness event shape through N{sup 3}LL order. We present numerical results for both the quark and gluon beam functions up to NNLO and N{sup 3}LL order. Numerically, the NNLO matching corrections are important. They reduce the residual matching scale dependence in the resummed beam function by about a factor of two.
A precise measurement of the $\\tau$ polarisation at LEP-1
Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Ajinenko, I; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Bracko, M; Branchini, P; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerdyukov, L N; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, Sven Olof; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huber, M; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moraes, D; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neufeld, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Niezurawski, P; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A
2001-01-01
The $\\tau$ polarisation has been studied with the $\\eett$ data collected by the DELPHI detector at LEP in 1993, 1994 and 1995 around the $\\Z$ resonance firstly through the exclusive decay channels $\\mbox{\\rm e}\
Soft gluon emission in coloured quark scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frenkel, J.; Meuldemans, R.; Mohammad, I.; Taylor, J.C.
1977-01-01
In order to investigate the infrared behaviour of non-Abelian gauge theories the leading logarithms in the bremsstrahlung of two soft gluons by a coloured quark scattered in an external colourless potential have been calculated. In the calculations only diagrams containing exactly one Yang-Mills vertex have been used alongside with the dimensional infrared regularization. An expression is obtained exhibiting a crucial difference between QCD and QED
The Gluon Propagator without lattice Gribov copies
Alexandrou, C; Follana, E; Forcrand, Ph. de
2001-01-01
We study the gluon propagator on the lattice using the Laplacian gauge which is free of lattice Gribov copies. We compare our results with those obtained in the Landau gauge on the lattice, as well as with various approximate solutions of the Dyson Schwinger equations. We find a finite value $\\sim (250 \\rm{MeV})^{-2}$ for the zero-momentum propagator, and a pole mass $\\sim 640 \\pm 110$ MeV.
Working group report: Quark gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
8Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-GU Seoul 120-749, Korea. 9Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, ..... ¯p/p ratio relative to p+p or d+Au collisions at high pT [7]. (ii) The high pT p+¯p production is gluon-dominated while π+ + π− has significant contribution from quark jets [5]. The higher energy loss for ...
Gluon saturation beyond (naive) leading logs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beuf, Guillaume
2014-12-15
An improved version of the Balitsky–Kovchegov equation is presented, with a consistent treatment of kinematics. That improvement allows to resum the most severe of the large higher order corrections which plague the conventional versions of high-energy evolution equations, with approximate kinematics. This result represents a further step towards having high-energy QCD scattering processes under control beyond strict Leading Logarithmic accuracy and with gluon saturation effects.
The gluon propagator in momentum space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard, C. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Parrinello, C. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Soni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)
1992-12-31
We consider quenched QCD on a 16{sup 3}{times}40 lattice at {beta}=6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others.
The gluon propagator in momentum space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard, C. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics); Parrinello, C. (New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Soni, A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))
1992-01-01
We consider quenched QCD on a 16[sup 3][times]40 lattice at [beta]=6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others.
The gluon propagator in momentum space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard, C. (Dept. of Physics, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Parrinello, C. (Physics Dept., New York Univ., NY (United States) Physics Dept., Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Soni, A. (Physics Dept., Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))
1993-03-01
We consider quenched QCD on a 16[sup 3] x 40 lattice at [beta] = 6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others. (orig.)
From Color Fields to Quark Gluon Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fries, Rainer J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455 (United States); Kapusta, Joseph I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455 (United States); Li, Yang [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455 (United States)
2006-08-07
We discuss a model for the energy distribution and the early space-time evolution of a heavy ion collision. We estimate the gluon field generated in the wake of hard processes and through primordial fluctuations of the color charges in the nuclei. Without specifying the dynamical mechanism of thermalization we calculate the energy momentum tensor of the following plasma phase. The results of this model can be used as initial conditions for a further hydrodynamic evolution.
Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oprisa, D.
2006-05-15
In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full {alpha}' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the {alpha}' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)
Quark-gluon mixing in scalar mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eremyan, Sh.S.; Nazaryan, A.E.
1986-01-01
Scalar mesons are considered within the quark-gluon mixing model. It is shown that there exists decouplet of scalar particles consisting of S* (975), ε (1400), S*' (1700), δ (980) and κ (1350) resonances. It has turned out that the long ago known S* (975)-resonance is a nearly pure glouball. A good description of all available experimental data on scalar meson decays is obtained
Gaucher, Emmanuel; Gesret, Alexandrine; Noble, Mark; Kohl, Thomas
2016-04-01
Earthquake location is most of the time computed using the arrival time of the seismic waves observed on monitoring networks. However, three-component seismometers enable measurement of the seismic wave polarisation which is also hypocentre dependent. This information is necessary when considering single-station locations but may also be applied to local and sparse seismic networks with poor coverage to better constrain the local earthquake hypocentres, as typically seen in hydraulic fracturing or geothermal field monitoring. In this work, we propose a new Bayesian formulation that integrates the information associated with the P-wave polarisation into a probabilistic earthquake location scheme. The approach takes a single 3C-sensor perspective and uses the covariance matrix to quantify the polarisation. This matrix contains all necessary axial information including uncertainties. According to directional statistics, the tri-variate Gaussian distribution represented by the covariance matrix corresponds to an angular central Gaussian distribution when axial data are considered. This property allows us defining a simple probability density function associated with a modelled polarisation vector given the observed covariance matrix. With this approach, the non-linearity of the location problem is kept. Unlike existing least-square misfit functions, this formulation does not reduce the polarisation to a single axis and avoids inexact estimate of a priori angular uncertainties. Furthermore, it replaces the polarisation information in the spherical data space, which yields correct probability density normalisation and prevents from any weighting when combined with e.g. travel-time probability density function. We first present the Bayesian formalism. Then, several synthetic tests on a 1D velocity model are performed to illustrate the technique and to show the effect of integrating the polarisation information. In this synthetic test, we also compare the results with an
Measurement of the Tau Lepton Polarisation at LEP2
Abdallah, J.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, Sandra F.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, Pierre; Apel, W-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, Jean-Eudes; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, Antonio; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, Eli; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, Mikael; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, Michal; Bonesini, Maurizio; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, Olga; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, Marko; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, Tiziano; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, Paolo; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, Roberto; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, Fabio; Costa, M.J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; da Silva, T.; Da Silva, W.; Dedovich, D.; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Alessandro; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, Barbara; De Maria, N.; De Min, A.; de Paula, L.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, Tord; Ellert, Mattias; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, Maria Catarina; Fanourakis, George K.; Feindt, Michael; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, Miriam; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Philippe; Gazis, Evangelos; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, Vincent; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S-O.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Jackson, John Neil; Jarlskog, Goran; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E.K.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, Gabrijel; Kerzel, U.; King, B.T.; Kjaer, N.J.; Kluit, Peter; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, Jacques; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, Pierre; Lyons, Louis; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, Athanasios; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, Francisco; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Nulty, R.Mc; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, Winfried A.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim Filho, Luiz Martins; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, Henryk; Papadopoulou, Th.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, Andrea; Petrolini, Alessandro; Piedra, Jonatan; Pieri, L.; Pierre, Francois; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, Peter; Richard, F.; Ridky, Jan; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann, Vanina; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, Martin; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Taffard, A.C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, Petr; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, Clara; Turluer, M-L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, Giovanni; Van Dam, P.; Van Eldik, J.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, Patrice; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, Lorenzo; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, Danilo; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, Alexandre
2008-01-01
A first measurement of the average polarisation P_tau of tau leptons produced in e+e- annihilation at energies significantly above the Z resonance is presented. The polarisation is determined from the kinematic spectra of tau hadronic decays. The measured value P_tau = -0.164 +/- 0.125 is consistent with the Standard Model prediction for the mean LEP energy of 197 GeV.
Polarisation modulated crosscorrelation spectroscopy on a pulsed neutron source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cywinski, R.; Williams, W.G.
1984-07-01
A crosscorrelation technique is introduced by which a total scattering polarisation analysis spectrometer on a pulsed neutron source can be modified to give full neutron polarisation and energy analysis without changing the physical configuration of the instrument. Its implementation on the proposed POLARIS spectrometer at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source is described, and the expected dynamic (Q, ω) range and resolution evaluated. (author)
Glauber gluons and multiple parton interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaunt, Jonathan R.
2014-05-15
We show that for hadronic transverse energy E{sub T} in hadron-hadron collisions, the classic Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) argument for the cancellation of Glauber gluons breaks down at the level of two Glauber gluons exchanged between the spectators. Through an argument that relates the diagrams with these Glauber gluons to events containing additional soft scatterings, we suggest that this failure of the CSS cancellation actually corresponds to a failure of the 'standard' factorisation formula with hard, soft and collinear functions to describe E{sub T} at leading power. This is because the observable receives a leading power contribution from multiple parton interaction (or spectator-spectator Glauber) processes. We also suggest that the same argument can be used to show that a whole class of observables, which we refer to as MPI sensitive observables, do not obey the standard factorisation at leading power. MPI sensitive observables are observables whose distributions in hadron-hadron collisions are disrupted strongly by the presence of multiple parton interactions (MPI) in the event. Examples of further MPI sensitive observables include the beam thrust B{sup +}{sub a,b} and transverse thrust.
Glauber gluons and multiple parton interactions
Gaunt, Jonathan R.
2014-07-01
We show that for hadronic transverse energy E T in hadron-hadron collisions, the classic Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) argument for the cancellation of Glauber gluons breaks down at the level of two Glauber gluons exchanged between the spectators. Through an argument that relates the diagrams with these Glauber gluons to events containing additional soft scatterings, we suggest that this failure of the CSS cancellation actually corresponds to a failure of the `standard' factorisation formula with hard, soft and collinear functions to describe E T at leading power. This is because the observable receives a leading power contribution from multiple parton interaction (or spectator-spectator Glauber) processes. We also suggest that the same argument can be used to show that a whole class of observables, which we refer to as MPI sensitive observables, do not obey the standard factorisation at leading power. MPI sensitive observables are observables whose distributions in hadron-hadron collisions are disrupted strongly by the presence of multiple parton interactions (MPI) in the event. Examples of further MPI sensitive observables include the beam thrust B {/a, b +} and transverse thrust.
Quark and gluon condensate in vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vajnshtejn, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.; Shifman, M.A.
1979-01-01
The mechanism of quark confinement has been reviewed. The fact that coloured particles in a free state cannot be observed is connected with specific properties of vacuum in quantum chromodynamics. The basic hypothesis consists in the existence of vacuum fields, quark and gluon condensates, which affect the coloured objects. The vacuum transparent relative to noncharged ''white'' states serves as a source of the force acting upon the coloured particles. It has been a sucess to examine strictly the action of the vacuum fields on quarks when the distance between them is relatively small and the force of the vacuum fields on quarks is relatively small too. It is shown that the interaction with the vacuum fields manifests itself earlier than the forces connected with the gluon exchange do. It is assumed that the vacuum condensate of quarks and gluons and its relation to properties of resonances and to the bag model exist in reality. The dispersion sum rules are used for calculating masses and lepton widths of resonances
Optically induced dynamic nuclear spin polarisation in diamond
Scheuer, Jochen; Schwartz, Ilai; Chen, Qiong; Schulze-Sünninghausen, David; Carl, Patrick; Höfer, Peter; Retzker, Alexander; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Isoya, Junichi; Luy, Burkhard; Plenio, Martin B.; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor
2016-01-01
The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depends strongly on nuclear spin polarisation and, motivated by this observation, dynamical nuclear spin polarisation has recently been applied to enhance MRI protocols (Kurhanewicz et al 2011 Neoplasia 13 81). Nuclear spins associated with the 13C carbon isotope (nuclear spin I = 1/2) in diamond possess uniquely long spin lattice relaxation times (Reynhardt and High 2011 Prog. Nucl. Magn. Reson. Spectrosc. 38 37). If they are present in diamond nanocrystals, especially when strongly polarised, they form a promising contrast agent for MRI. Current schemes for achieving nuclear polarisation, however, require cryogenic temperatures. Here we demonstrate an efficient scheme that realises optically induced 13C nuclear spin hyperpolarisation in diamond at room temperature and low ambient magnetic field. Optical pumping of a nitrogen-vacancy centre creates a continuously renewable electron spin polarisation which can be transferred to surrounding 13C nuclear spins. Importantly for future applications we also realise polarisation protocols that are robust against an unknown misalignment between magnetic field and crystal axis.
Deeply virtual Compton scattering off longitudinally polarised protons at HERMES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahon, David Francis
2010-03-01
This thesis details the simultaneous extraction of three polarisation-dependent asymmetries in the distribution of real photons from the ep→epγ interaction and its indistinguishable deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes at the HERMES fixed-target experiment at Desy. The data analysed were taken using a longitudinally polarised 27.57 GeV positron beam incident on a longitudinally polarised hydrogen gas target. The extracted asymmetries include two single-spin asymmetries A UL and A LU which depend on the polarisation of the target and beam respectively, averaged over all other polarisation states. The double-spin asymmetry A LL dependent on the product of the beam and target polarisations is extracted for the first time. The asymmetry amplitudes extracted relate to combinations of Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), predominantly H and H. The extracted amplitudes are presented across the HERMES kinematic range alongside theoretical predictions from a GPD model based on double distributions. Large sin φ and cos(0φ) amplitudes are observed for A UL and A LL respectively, with an unexpectedly large sin(2φ) amplitude for A UL . The results for the A UL and A LL asymmetries are broadly compatible with theory predictions, and the extracted A LU amplitudes are compatible with HERMES results extracted from a significantly larger data set. It is foreseen that these results will form input to future global data-based GPD models which aim to provide a better understanding of GPDs. (orig.)
Adams, D; Adeva, B; Akdogan, T; Arik, E; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birsa, R; Björkholm, P; Bonner, B E; De Botton, N R; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Clocchiatti, M; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gatignon, L; Gaussiran, T; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Golutvin, I A; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kishi, A; Kiselev, Yu F; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nagaitsev, A P; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Pussieux, T; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Reicherz, G; Roberts, J B; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Schüler, K P; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y K; Sergeev, S; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zamiatin, N I; Zhao, J
2000-01-01
A muon beam polarimeter was built for the SMC experiment at the CERN SPS, for beam energies of 100 and 190 GeV. The beam polarisation is determined from the asymmetry in the elastic scattering off the polarised electrons of a ferromagnetic target whose magnetisation is periodically reversed. At muon energies of 100 and 190~GeV the measured polarisation is $P_{\\mu}=-0.80 \\pm 0.03 (stat.)\\pm 0.02 (syst.)$ and $P_{\\mu}=-0.797 \\pm 0.011 (stat.)\\pm 0.012 (syst.)$, respectively. These results agree with measurements of the beam polarisation using a shape analysis of the decay positron energy spectrum.
Three gluon jets as a test of QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koller, K.; Walsh, T.F.
1977-10-01
As a test of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), we suggest looking for gluon jets in the decay of a heavy quark-antiquark bound state produced in e + e - -annihilation, Q anti Q → 3 gluons → 3 gluon jets. In particular, we point out that these events form a jet Dalitz plot, and we calculate the gluon or jet distributions (including the effect of polarized e + e - -beams). This process affords a test of the gluon spin. It is the analogue of two-jet angular distributions in e + e - %→ q anti q → 2 quark jets. We also estimate multiplicities and momentum distributions of hadrons in Q anti Q → 3 gluons → hadrons, using the recently discovered UPSILON (9.4) as an example. (orig.) [de
Tunable three-axis magnetoresistance sensor with a spin-polarised current
Chang, Jui-Hang; Chang, Ching-Ray
2015-10-01
A three-axis magnetic tunnel junction sensor with three ferromagnetic layers to achieve a linear and hysteresis-free response is proposed and studied analytically. We show that the orientation of the easy axis of the sensor and the sensitivity are tunable by changing the density of a injected spin-polarised current. Additionally, the sensors integrated in a full Wheatstone bridge can have perpendicular and transverse sensing capability in different initial magnetisation arrangements. A value of 0.35% TMR/Oe is observed in sensing the perpendicular field. These findings indicate that a three-axis sensor can be fabricated more easily on a flat substrate.
Information-entropic analysis of Korteweg-de Vries solitons in the quark-gluon plasma
Goncalves da Silva, A.; da Rocha, Roldão
2017-11-01
Solitary waves propagation of baryonic density perturbations, ruled by the Korteweg-de Vries equation in a mean-field quark-gluon plasma model, are investigated from the point of view of the theory of information. A recently proposed continuous logarithmic measure of information, called configurational entropy, is used to derive the soliton width, defining the pulse, for which the informational content of the soliton spatial profile is more compressed, in the Shannon's sense.
Gluon fragmentation into 3 PJ quarkonium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, J.P.
1995-01-01
The functions of the gluon fragmentation into 3 P j quarkonium are calculated to order α 2 s . With the recent progress in analysing quarkonium systems in QCD it is possible show how the so called divergence in the limit of the zero-binding energy, which is related to P-wave quarkonia, is treated correctly in the case of fragmentation functions. The obtained fragmentation functions satisfy explicitly at the order of α 2 s the Altarelli-Parisi equation and when z → 0 they behave as z -1 as expected. 19 refs., 7 figs
A new prescription for soft gluon resummation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbate, Riccardo; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2007-01-01
We present a new prescription for the resummation of the divergent series of perturbative corrections, due to soft gluon emission, to hard processes near threshold in perturbative QCD (threshold resummation). This prescription is based on Borel resummation, and contrary to the commonly used minimal prescription, it does not introduce a dependence of resummed physical observables on the kinematically unaccessible x→0 region of parton distributions. We compare results for resummed deep-inelastic scattering obtained using the Borel prescription and the minimal prescription and exploit the comparison to discuss the ambiguities related to the resummation procedure
Effective gluon operators and neutron dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bigi, I.; Ural'tsev, N.G.
1991-01-01
The role of the purely gluon CP odd six-dimension effective arising in various CP-breaking models is discussed. This operators of most interest in the nonminimal Higgs sector models, the right W models and supersymmetric theories, where it may induce the neutron dipole moment at the level of the experimental restriction. The method for evaluating the magnitude d n is proposed and the reasons are given in favor that the original Weiberg's estimate based on the naive Dimensional Analysis is overdone significantly. The Peccei -Quinn mechanism, impact on the magnitude of d n , which generally may be very essential, is discussed
The Theory of Quark and Gluon Interactions
Ynduráin, Francisco J
2006-01-01
F. J. Ynduráin's book on Quantum Chromodynamics has become a classic among advanced textbooks. First published in 1983, and translated into Russian in 1986, it now sees its fourth edition. It addresses readers with basic knowledge of field theory and particle phenomenology. The author presents the basic facts of quark and gluon physics in pedagogical form. Theory is always confronted with experimental findings. The reader will learn enough to be able to follow modern research articles. This fourth edition presents a new section on heavy quark effective theories, more material on lattice QCD and on chiral perturbation theory.
Patel, Parul; Srivastava, Hari Shanker; Navalgund, Ranganath R.
2006-12-01
In this paper an attempt to model wheat yield is made by exploiting characteristic interaction of cross-polarised SAR with wheat crop. SAR backscatter from a crop field is affected by the density, structure, volume and the moisture content of various components of plant (viz. head, stem, leaf) alongwith soil moisture. Hence, to effectively handle the influence of each of these components of the plant on SAR backscatter, a plant parameter, termed as Interaction Factor (IF) is conceptualised by combining volume, moisture, height for each of the component and density of plant. For this purpose, detailed experiment over farmers' fields was carried out in synchrony with SAR acquisition involving in-depth measurements on volume, moisture content and height of various components of wheat plant, number of grains, plant density and soil moisture. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that IF Head significantly affects the shallow incidence angle, cross-polarised C-band SAR backscatter. IF Head is also highly correlated to the number of grains. This is attributed to the fact that parameters of the wheat head from which IF Head is calculated, namely moisture, volume and height, determine eventual number of grains. The study offers an approach for estimating wheat yield by retrieving number of grains from shallow incidence angle cross-polarised SAR data.
Classical gluon fields of relativistic color charges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zadora, A. S.
2016-01-01
The objective of the present study is to consider in more detail the exotic color-charge-glow effect discovered recently and to analyze its possible physical manifestations associated with the treatment of ensembles of color-charged particles at a classical level. The ways in which this effect may appear in arbitrary systems consisting of pointlike massive particles and admitting the partition into elementary configurations like color charges and color dipoles are studied. The possible influence of this effect on particle dynamics (in particular, on gluon distributions) is also examined. Particle collisions at a given impact parameters are considered for a natural regularization of emerging expressions. It is shown that, in the case of reasonable impact-parameter values, collisions may proceed in the electrodynamic mode, in which case the charge-glow contribution to field strengths is suppressed in relation to what we have in the electrodynamic picture. From an analysis of the color-echo situation, it follows that the above conclusion remains valid for more complicated particle configurations as well, since hard gluon fields may arise only owing to a direct collision rather than owing to any echo-like effects.
Polarisation dynamics of a birefringent Fabry-Perot cavity
Ejlli, A.; Della Valle, F.; Zavattini, G.
2018-02-01
Optical Fabry-Perot cavities always show a non-degeneracy of two orthogonal polarisation states. This is due to the unavoidable birefringence of dielectric mirrors whose effects are extremely important in Fabry-Perot-based high-accuracy polarimeters: in birefringent cavities, ellipticities and rotations mix. We have developed and present here a theory of the polarisation state dynamics in a birefringent Fabry-Perot resonator, and we validate it through measurements performed with the polarimeter of the PVLAS experiment. The measurements are performed while a laser is frequency-locked to the cavity, and provide values for the phase difference between the two orthogonal polarisation components introduced by the combination of the two cavity mirrors (equivalent wave-plate) and for the finesse of the cavity. The theoretical formulas and the experimental data agree well showing that the consequences of the mirror birefringence must be taken into account in this and in any other similar experiment.
Deeply virtual Compton scattering off longitudinally polarised protons at HERMES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahon, David Francis
2010-06-15
This thesis details the simultaneous extraction of three polarisation-dependent asymmetries in the distribution of real photons from the ep{yields}ep{gamma} interaction and its indistinguishable deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes at the HERMES fixed-target experiment at Desy. The data analysed were taken using a longitudinally polarised 27.57 GeV positron beam incident on a longitudinally polarised hydrogen gas target. The extracted asymmetries include two single-spin asymmetries A{sub UL} and A{sub LU} which depend on the polarisation of the target and beam respectively, averaged over all other polarisation states. The double-spin asymmetry A{sub LL} dependent on the product of the beam and target polarisations is extracted for the first time. The asymmetry amplitudes extracted relate to combinations of Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), predominantly H and H. The extracted amplitudes are presented across the HERMES kinematic range alongside theoretical predictions from a GPD model based on double distributions. Large sin {phi} and cos(0{phi}) amplitudes are observed for A{sub UL} and A{sub LL} respectively, with an unexpectedly large sin(2{phi}) amplitude for A{sub UL}. The results for the A{sub UL} and A{sub LL} asymmetries are broadly compatible with theory predictions, and the extracted A{sub LU} amplitudes are compatible with HERMES results extracted from a significantly larger data set. It is foreseen that these results will form input to future global data-based GPD models which aim to provide a better understanding of GPDs. (orig.)
The Laplacian Gauge Gluon Propagator in $SU(N_{c})$
Alexandrou, C; Follana, E; Forcrand, Ph. de
2002-01-01
We examine the gluon propagator in the Laplacian gauge in quenched lattice QCD as a function of the number of colours. We observe a weak dependence on $N_c$ over the whole momentum range. This implies an almost $N_c$-independent gluon pole mass in units of the string tension.
χc charmonium - a tool to investigate gluon polarization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batunin, A.V.; Slabospitskij, S.R.
1986-01-01
Production of particles with a hidden charm Χ C in polarized parton beams (quarks or gluons) is studied. Parton polarization is shown to cause the changes of angular distributions of Χ C meson decay products, which allows one to investigate possible gluon polarization in hadrons
Proton-proton elastic scattering with massive gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sauter, Werner K.; Ducati, M.B. Gay
2001-01-01
In this contribution different approaches to generate a gluon mass are discussed. More specially a recent result for the gluon propagator with a dynamical mass, proposal by Gorbar and Natale, is used in connection with the Landshoff-Nachtmann model for the Pomeron to describe the elastic differential cross section for pp scattering, with good agreement. (author)
Linearly Polarized Gluons and the Higgs Transverse Momentum Distribution
Boer, Daniel; den Dunnen, Wilco J.; Pisano, Cristian; Schlegel, Marc; Vogelsang, Werner
2012-01-01
We study how gluons carrying linear polarization inside an unpolarized hadron contribute to the transverse momentum distribution of Higgs bosons produced in hadronic collisions. They modify the distribution produced by unpolarized gluons in a characteristic way that could be used to determine
Suppression of maximal linear gluon polarization in angular asymmetries
Boer, Daniel; Mulders, Piet J.; Zhou, Jian; Zhou, Ya-jin
2017-01-01
We perform a phenomenological analysis of the cos 2 phi azimuthal asymmetry in virtual photon plus jet production induced by the linear polarization of gluons in unpolarized pA collisions. Although the linearly polarized gluon distribution becomes maximal at small x, TMD evolution leads to a Sudakov
Transverse-momentum-dependent gluon distributions from JIMWLK evolution
Marquet, C.; Petreska, E.; Roiesnel, C.
2016-01-01
Transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) gluon distributions have different operator definitions, depending on the process under consideration. We study that aspect of TMD factorization in the small-x limit, for the various unpolarized TMD gluon distributions encountered in the literature. To do this, we
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Bhosle, N.B.; Evans, L.V.; Edyvean, R.G.J.
The composition of monosaccharides and their variation in concentration in Amphora coffeaeformis cells on non-polarised and cathodically polarised 304 stainless steel were examined when cells were grown under continous illumination at 18~'C for 8 d...
The polariser beamline at TRIUMF for nuclear structure physics
Voss, A.; Pearson, M. R.; Levy, C. D. P.; Billowes, J.; Buchinger, F.; Chow, K. H.; Crawford, J. E.; Hossein, M. D.; Kiefl, R. F.; Macfarlane, W. A.; Mané, E.; Morris, G. D.; Parolin, T. J.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Shelbaya, O. T. J.; Smadella, M.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.
2011-10-01
Originally built to provide polarised ion beams for condensed matter experiments, the polariser beamline at TRIUMF is coupled to both beta-NMR and beta-NQR spectrometers. In addition, the beam can be passed through a radio-frequency quadrupole cooler and buncher (RFQ) providing bunched beams. Recently, a laser spectroscopy and beta-NQR program was started to investigate the ground state structure of exotic nuclei. Results from recent experiments including zero-field beta-NQR studies to determine the quadrupole moment of the halo nucleus Li-11 and laser spectroscopy to determine the charge radius of Rb-74.
Nonperturbative quark, gluon, and meson correlators of unquenched QCD
Cyrol, Anton K.; Mitter, Mario; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Strodthoff, Nils
2018-03-01
We present nonperturbative first-principle results for quark, gluon, and meson 1PI correlation functions of two-flavor Landau-gauge QCD in the vacuum. These correlation functions carry the full information about the theory. They are obtained by solving their functional renormalization group equations in a systematic vertex expansion, aiming at apparent convergence. This work represents a crucial prerequisite for quantitative first-principle studies of the QCD phase diagram and the hadron spectrum within this framework. In particular, we have computed the gluon, ghost, quark, and scalar-pseudoscalar meson propagators, as well as gluon, ghost-gluon, quark-gluon, quark, quark-meson, and meson interactions. Our results stress the crucial importance of the quantitatively correct running of different vertices in the semiperturbative regime for describing the phenomena and scales of confinement and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking without phenomenological input.
Bound states of quarks and gluons and hadronic transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro, Antonio Soares de.
1990-05-01
A potential which incorporates the concepts of confinement and asymptotic freedom, previously utilized in the description of the spectroscopy of mesons and baryons, is extended to the gluon sector. The mass spectroscopy of glueballs and hybrids is analyzed considering only pairwise potentials and massive constituent gluons. The mass spectrum of the color octet two-gluon system is adopted as a suitable description of the intermediate states of hadronic transitions, within the framework of the multipole expansion for quantum chromodynamics. The spin-dependent effects in the gluonium spectrum, associated with the Coulombian potential, are calculated through the inverted first Born approximation for the gluon-gluon scattering. (author). 102 refs, 1 fig, 13 tabs
Infrared polarisation measurements of surface and buried anti-personnel landmines
Cremer, F.; Jong, W. de; Schutte, K.
2001-01-01
Linear polarisation of Thermal InfraRed (TIR) radiation occurs whenever radiation is reflected or emitted from a smooth surface (such as the top of a landmine) and observed from a grazing angle. The background (soil and vegetation) is generally much rougher and therefore has less pronounced linear polarised radiation. This difference in polarisation can be used to enhanced detection of land mines using TIR cameras. A measurement setup is constructed for measurement of polarised TIR images. Th...
About the effects of polarising optics on lidar signals and the Δ90 calibration
V. Freudenthaler
2016-01-01
This paper provides a model for assessing the effects of polarising optics on the signals of typical lidar systems, which is based on the description of the individual optical elements of the lidar and of the state of polarisation of the light by means of the Muller-Stokes formalism. General analytical equations are derived for the dependence of the lidar signals on polarisation parameters, for the linear depolarisation ratio, and for the signals of different polarisation calibration setups. ...
Proceedings, QCD-TNT-III, From Quarks and Gluons to Hadronic Matter: A Bridge too Far?
2013-01-01
In the third edition of the QCD-TNT workshop the traditional focus of the last two editions (that is gaining a firmer grasp on the infrared behavior of the QCD Green's functions) will be slightly shifted towards attempts to implement the transition from the fundamental (quarks and gluons) to the effective (mesons and hadrons) degrees of freedom. So in addition to the traditional QCD-TNT themes (e.g., confinement, gluon mass generation, lattice simulations in different gauges, QCD at finite temperature and density) we plan to have more phenomenologically oriented topics (e.g., experimental reviews, determination of form factors from first principle, construction of Bethe-Salpeter kernels). In addition, a special session will be dedicated to review talks, summarizing the state-of-the-art, as well as highlighting the future perspectives, of simulating non-Abelian gauge fields using ultracold neutral atoms trapped in optical lattices, and other systems.
Transport coefficients of Quark-Gluon plasma with full QCD potential
J. P., Prasanth; Bannur, Vishnu M.
2018-05-01
The shear viscosity η, bulk viscosity ζ and their ratio with the entropy density, η / s, ζ / s have been studied in a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) within the cluster expansion method. The cluster expansion method allows us to include the interaction between the partons in the deconfined phase and to calculate the equation of state of quark-gluon plasma. It has been argued that the interactions present in the equation of state, the modified Cornell potential significantly contributes to the viscosity. The results obtained within our approaches agree with lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) equation of state. We obtained η / s ≈ 0 . 128 within the temperature range T /Tc ∈ [ 0 . 9 , 1 . 5 ] which is very close to the theoretical lower bound η / s ≥ 1 /(4 π) in Yang-Mills theory. We also demonstrate that the effects of ζ / s at freezeout are possibly large.
Gluon distributions in nucleons and pions at a low resolution scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christiansen, H.R.
2000-10-01
In this paper we study the gluon distribution functions in nucleons and pions at a low resolution Q 2 scale. This is an important issue since parton densities at low Q 2 have always been taken as an external input which is adjusted through DGLAP evolution to fit the experimental data at higher scales. Here, in the framework of a model recently developed, it is shown that the hypothetical cloud of neutral pions surrounding nucleons and pions appears to be responsible for the characteristic valence-like gluon distributions needed at the initial low scale. As an additional result, we get the remarkable prediction that neutral and charged ions have different intrinsic sea flavor contents. (author)
A semi-classical analogue of the relation between the chiral and the gluon QCD condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ribeiro, José Emílio F.T., E-mail: emilioribeiro@tecnico.ulisboa.pt; Antonov, Dmitri
2015-01-05
We present a semi-classical analogue of the relation between chiral and gluon QCD condensates, in which a condensation of a massless scalar field is provided by a classical field, instead of a quantum Yang–Mills field. For the classical field, we choose a gravitational field of a spherically symmetric object. The size of such an object becomes then a classical-physics analogue of the QCD vacuum correlation length, whereas the squared curvature of the gravitational field plays the role of the gluon condensate. Finally, by iterating the emerging contribution to the trace of the energy–momentum tensor, we prove that the energy density of the object remains of the same order of magnitude, i.e. no instability of the system occurs.
A semi-classical analogue of the relation between the chiral and the gluon QCD condensates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Emílio F.T. Ribeiro
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We present a semi-classical analogue of the relation between chiral and gluon QCD condensates, in which a condensation of a massless scalar field is provided by a classical field, instead of a quantum Yang–Mills field. For the classical field, we choose a gravitational field of a spherically symmetric object. The size of such an object becomes then a classical-physics analogue of the QCD vacuum correlation length, whereas the squared curvature of the gravitational field plays the role of the gluon condensate. Finally, by iterating the emerging contribution to the trace of the energy–momentum tensor, we prove that the energy density of the object remains of the same order of magnitude, i.e. no instability of the system occurs.
A semi-classical analogue of the relation between the chiral and the gluon QCD condensates
Ribeiro, José Emílio F. T.; Antonov, Dmitri
2015-01-01
We present a semi-classical analogue of the relation between chiral and gluon QCD condensates, in which a condensation of a massless scalar field is provided by a classical field, instead of a quantum Yang-Mills field. For the classical field, we choose a gravitational field of a spherically symmetric object. The size of such an object becomes then a classical-physics analogue of the QCD vacuum correlation length, whereas the squared curvature of the gravitational field plays the role of the gluon condensate. Finally, by iterating the emerging contribution to the trace of the energy-momentum tensor, we prove that the energy density of the object remains of the same order of magnitude, i.e. no instability of the system occurs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castro, Antonio Soares de
1990-05-01
A potential which incorporates the concepts of confinement and asymptotic freedom, previously utilized in the description of the spectroscopy of mesons and baryons, is extended to the gluon sector. The mass spectroscopy of glueballs and hybrids is analyzed considering only pairwise potentials and massive constituent gluons. The mass spectrum of the color octet two-gluon system is adopted as a suitable description of the intermediate states of hadronic transitions, within the framework of the multipole expansion for quantum chromodynamics. The spin-dependent effects in the gluonium spectrum, associated with the Coulombian potential, are calculated through the inverted first Born approximation for the gluon-gluon scattering. (author). 102 refs, 1 fig, 13 tabs.
Very boosted Higgs in gluon fusion
Grojean, Christophe; Schlaffer, Matthias; Weiler, Andreas
2014-01-01
The Higgs production and decay rates offer a new way to probe new physics beyond the Standard Model. While dynamics aiming at alleviating the hierarchy problem generically predict deviations in the Higgs rates, the current experimental analyses cannot resolve the long- and short-distance contributions to the gluon fusion process and thus cannot access directly the coupling between the Higgs and the top quark. We investigate the production of a boosted Higgs in association with a high-transverse momentum jet as an alternative to the $t\\bar{t}h$ channel to pin down this crucial coupling. Presented first in the context of an effective field theory, our analysis is then applied to models of partial compositeness at the TeV scale and of natural supersymmetry.
Gluon Green functions free of quantum fluctuations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Athenodorou
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This letter reports on how the Wilson flow technique can efficaciously kill the short-distance quantum fluctuations of 2- and 3-gluon Green functions, remove the ΛQCD scale and destroy the transition from the confining non-perturbative to the asymptotically-free perturbative sector. After the Wilson flow, the behavior of the Green functions with momenta can be described in terms of the quasi-classical instanton background. The same behavior also occurs, before the Wilson flow, at low-momenta. This last result permits applications as, for instance, the detection of instanton phenomenological properties or a determination of the lattice spacing only from the gauge sector of the theory.
Very boosted Higgs in gluon fusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grojean, C. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain). ICREA at IFAE; Salvioni, E. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Padova Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica e Astronomica; INFN, Sezione di Padova (Italy); Schlaffer, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Weiler, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2013-12-15
The Higgs production and decay rates offer a new way to probe new physics beyond the Standard Model. While dynamics aiming at alleviating the hierarchy problem generically predict deviations in the Higgs rates, the current experimental analyses cannot resolve the long- and short-distance contributions to the gluon fusion process and thus cannot access directly the coupling between the Higgs and the top quark. We investigate the production of a boosted Higgs in association with a high-transverse momentum jet as an alternative to the t anti th channel to pin down this crucial coupling. Presented rst in the context of an effective field theory, our analysis is then applied to models of partial compositeness at the TeV scale and of natural supersymmetry.
Physics of the quark - gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-09-01
This document gathers 31 contributions to the workshop on the physics of quark-gluon plasma that took place in Palaiseau in september 2001: 1) gamma production in heavy collisions, 2) BRAHMS, 3) experimental conference summary, 4) modelling relativistic nuclear collisions, 5) microscopic reaction dynamics at SPS and RHIC, 6) direct gamma and hard scattering at SPS, 7) soft physics at RHIC, 8) results from the STAR experiment, 9) quarkonia: experimental possibilities, 10) elliptic flow measurements with PHENIX, 11) charmonium production in p-A collisions, 12) anisotropic flow at the SPS and RHIC, 13) deciphering the space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions with correlation measurements, 14) 2-particle correlation at RHIC, 15) particle spectra at AGS, SPS and RHIC, 16) strangeness production in STAR, 17) strangeness production in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS, 18) heavy ion physics at CERN after 2000 and before LHC, 19) NEXUS guideline and theoretical consistency, 20) introduction to high p{sub T} physics at RHIC, 21) a novel quasiparticle description of the quark-gluon plasma, 22) dissociation of excited quarkonia states, 23) high-mass dimuon and B {yields} J/{psi} production in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, 24) strange hyperon production in p + p and p + Pb interactions from NA49, 25) heavy quarkonium hadron cross-section, 26) a new method of flow analysis, 27) low mass dilepton production and chiral symmetry restoration, 28) classical initial conditions for nucleus-nucleus collisions, 29) numerical calculation of quenching weights, 30) strangeness enhancement energy dependence, and 31) heavy quarkonium dissociation.
Physics of the quark - gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2001-09-01
This document gathers 31 contributions to the workshop on the physics of quark-gluon plasma that took place in Palaiseau in september 2001: 1) gamma production in heavy collisions, 2) BRAHMS, 3) experimental conference summary, 4) modelling relativistic nuclear collisions, 5) microscopic reaction dynamics at SPS and RHIC, 6) direct gamma and hard scattering at SPS, 7) soft physics at RHIC, 8) results from the STAR experiment, 9) quarkonia: experimental possibilities, 10) elliptic flow measurements with PHENIX, 11) charmonium production in p-A collisions, 12) anisotropic flow at the SPS and RHIC, 13) deciphering the space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions with correlation measurements, 14) 2-particle correlation at RHIC, 15) particle spectra at AGS, SPS and RHIC, 16) strangeness production in STAR, 17) strangeness production in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS, 18) heavy ion physics at CERN after 2000 and before LHC, 19) NEXUS guideline and theoretical consistency, 20) introduction to high p T physics at RHIC, 21) a novel quasiparticle description of the quark-gluon plasma, 22) dissociation of excited quarkonia states, 23) high-mass dimuon and B → J/Ψ production in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, 24) strange hyperon production in p + p and p + Pb interactions from NA49, 25) heavy quarkonium hadron cross-section, 26) a new method of flow analysis, 27) low mass dilepton production and chiral symmetry restoration, 28) classical initial conditions for nucleus-nucleus collisions, 29) numerical calculation of quenching weights, 30) strangeness enhancement energy dependence, and 31) heavy quarkonium dissociation
Diffusion polarisation of the hydrogen electrode I. Theory
Cosijn, A.H.M.
1961-01-01
This paper is concerned with the presentation of general equations for the current-potential relationship at the stationary hydrogen electrode, on the basis of pure diffusion polarisation, for solutions containing completely dissociated acids or bases and for solutions containing weak monobasic
A polarised SUSANS facility to study magnetic systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A polarised SUSANS facility to study magnetic systems. APOORVA G WAGH1, VEER CHAND RAKHECHA1, MARKUS STROBL2 and. WOLFGANG TREIMER2. 1Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. 2Berlin Neutron Scattering Center, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker ...
Polarisation, Radicalisation and Social Policy: Evaluating the Theories of Change
Lub, Vasco
2013-01-01
This article evaluates the validity of "theories of change" of anti-polarisation and anti-radicalisation interventions. Assumptions of four dominant social policies are confronted with the literature. In addition, epistemological issues are discussed. Notions of "what works and why", do not equate to straightforward…
Antireflecting sublayers for neutron thin film polarising mirrors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Childs, F.; Penfold, J.; Williams, W.G.
1981-09-01
Measurements of the neutron polarising capability of Iron/Cobalt thin film mirrors deposited onto various Gadolinium-rich antireflecting sublayers are presented and the results compared with theoretical predictions. Excellent results were obtained in the cold neutron region though a degradation in performance is predicted in the thermal region at wavelengths approximately 1A. (author)
Optical/Infrared Polarised Emission in X-ray Binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David M. Russell
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, evidence for synchrotron emission in both black-hole (BH and neutron star X-ray binaries has been mounting, from optical/infrared spectral, polarimetric, and fast timing signatures. The synchrotron emission of jets can be highly linearly polarised, depending on the configuration of the magnetic field (B-field. Optical and infrared (OIR polarimetric observations of X-ray binaries are presented in this brief review. The OIR polarimetric signature of relativistic jets is detected at levels of ∼1–10%, similarly to for active galactic nuclei (AGN cores. This reveals that the magnetic geometry in the compact jets may be similar for supermassive and stellar-mass BHs. The B-fields near the jet base in most of these systems appear to be turbulent, variable and on average, aligned with the jet axis, although there are some exceptions. These measurements probe the physical conditions in the accretion (outflow and demonstrate a new way of connecting inflow and outflow, using both rapid timing and polarisation. Variations in polarisation could be due to rapid changes of the ordering of the B-field in the emitting region, or in one case, flares from individual ejections or collisions between ejecta. It is predicted that in some cases, variable levels of X-ray polarisation from synchrotron emission originating in jets will be detected from accreting galactic BHs with upcoming spaceborne X-ray polarimeters.
Polarised Drell-Yan measurements at $\\mathrm{COMPASS}$
Chiosso, Michela
2015-01-01
Much of the information that exists today about Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distribution Functions (TMDs) comes from SIDIS measurements with unpolarised and polarised beams and targets where they appear convoluted with fragmentation functions (FFs). Drell-Yan (DY) measurements are complementary to those by SIDIS experiments, as they allow to measure convolutions of only Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) without involving FFs. Moreover, given the T-odd character of both Sivers and Boer-Mulders functions, the sign of these TMDs is expected to be reversed when observed from SIDIS or from DY. Measurements of SIDIS were performed by Compass in the period 2002 to 2007 and in 2010, using a naturally polarised μ+ beam and a solid state target polarised either longitudinally or transversely with respect to the beam direction. Now the COMPASS Experiment has the unique opportunity to access TMDs from single-polarised Drell-Yan processes as well, in the same kinematical domain of the SIDIS data and with the ...
Metastability in spin polarised Fermi gases and quasiparticle decays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sadeghzadeh, Kayvan; Bruun, Georg; Lobo, Carlos
2011-01-01
We investigate the metastability associated with the first order transition from normal to superfluid phases in the phase diagram of two-component polarised Fermi gases.We begin by detailing the dominant decay processes of single quasiparticles.Having determined the momentum thresholds of each pr...
Flux and polarisation spectra of water clouds on exoplanets
Karalidi, T.; Stam, D.M.; Hovenier, J.W.
2011-01-01
Context. A crucial factor for a planet’s habitability is its climate. Clouds play an important role in planetary climates. Detecting and characterising clouds on an exoplanet is therefore crucial when addressing this planet’s habitability. Aims. We present calculated flux and polarisation spectra of
Optimising polarised neutron scattering measurements--XYZ and polarimetry analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cussen, L.D.; Goossens, D.J.
2002-01-01
The analytic optimisation of neutron scattering measurements made using XYZ polarisation analysis and neutron polarimetry techniques is discussed. Expressions for the 'quality factor' and the optimum division of counting time for the XYZ technique are presented. For neutron polarimetry the optimisation is identified as analogous to that for measuring the flipping ratio and reference is made to the results already in the literature
Optimising polarised neutron scattering measurements--XYZ and polarimetry analysis
Cussen, L D
2002-01-01
The analytic optimisation of neutron scattering measurements made using XYZ polarisation analysis and neutron polarimetry techniques is discussed. Expressions for the 'quality factor' and the optimum division of counting time for the XYZ technique are presented. For neutron polarimetry the optimisation is identified as analogous to that for measuring the flipping ratio and reference is made to the results already in the literature.
A polarised SUSANS facility to study magnetic systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Using a right-angled magnetic air prism, we have achieved a separation of ∼ 10 arcsec between ∼ 2 arcsec wide up- and down-spin peaks of 5.4 Å neutrons. The polarised neutron option has thus been introduced into the SUSANS instrument. Strongly spin-dependent SUSANS spectra have been observed over ±1.3 ...
Macrophage polarisation: immune responses of carp against parasites
Joerink, M.
2006-01-01
In the studies described in this thesis we used a natural host-parasite model of two parasites ( Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii ) infecting common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), to obtain more knowledge about the phenomenon of macrophage polarisation in 'the evolutionary older' teleosts
Rapidity evolution of gluon TMD from low to moderate x
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balitsky, I.
2016-01-01
I discuss how the rapidity evolution of gluon transverse momentum dependent distribution (TMD) changes from nonlinear evolution at small x << 1 to linear evolution at moderate x ∼ 1. I have described the rapidity evolution of gluon TMD in the whole range of Bjorken x B and the whole range of transverse momentum. It should be emphasized that with our definition of rapidity cutoff the leading-order matrix elements of TMD operators are UV-finite so the rapidity evolution is the only evolution and it describes all the dynamics of gluon TMDs in the leading-log approximation
Identified Charged Particles in Quark and Gluon Jets
Abreu, P.; Adye, T.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, Z.; Alderweireld, T.; Alekseev, G.D.; Alemany, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Almehed, S.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andersson, P.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barao, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.Yu.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Beilliere, P.; Belokopytov, Yu.; Belous, K.; Benekos, N.C.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Bigi, M.; Bilenky, Mikhail S.; Bizouard, M.A.; Bloch, D.; Blom, H.M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borgland, A.W.; Borisov, G.; Bosio, C.; Botner, O.; Boudinov, E.; Bouquet, B.; Bourdarios, C.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bozovic, I.; Bozzo, M.; Bracko, M.; Branchini, P.; Brenner, R.A.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buran, T.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Cabrera, S.; Caccia, M.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Carroll, L.; Caso, C.; Castillo Gimenez, M.V.; Cattai, A.; Cavallo, F.R.; Chabaud, V.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, P.; Checchia, P.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chierici, R.; Shlyapnikov, P.; Chochula, P.; Chorowicz, V.; Chudoba, J.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cortina, E.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Crawley, H.B.; Crennell, D.; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Crosetti, G.; Cuevas Maestro, J.; Czellar, S.; Davenport, M.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; Delpierre, P.A.; Demaria, N.; De Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Dijkstra, H.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Dolbeau, J.; Doroba, K.; Dracos, M.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Duperrin, A.; Durand, J.D.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ekspong, G.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Engel, J.P.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayot, J.; Feindt, M.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Ferro, F.; Fichet, S.; Firestone, A.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fontanelli, F.; Franek, B.; Frodesen, A.G.; Fruhwirth, R.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Galloni, A.; Gamba, D.; Gamblin, S.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gaspar, C.; Gaspar, M.; Gasparini, U.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gele, D.; Geralis, T.; Ghodbane, N.; Gil Botella, Ines; Glege, F.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Gopal, G.; Gorn, L.; Guz, Yu.; Gracco, V.; Grahl, J.; Graziani, E.; Gris, P.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hahn, F.; Hahn, S.; Haider, S.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hansen, J.; Harris, F.J.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Heising, S.; Hernandez, J.J.; Herquet, P.; Herr, H.; Hessing, T.L.; Heuser, J.M.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Hoorelbeke, S.; Houlden, M.; Hrubec, J.; Huber, M.; Huet, K.; Hughes, G.J.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, P.; Janik, R.; Jarlskog, C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Juillot, P.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Karafasoulis, K.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.C.; Keranen, R.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Khomenko, B.A.; Khovanskii, N.N.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.J.; Kinvig, A.; Kjaer, N.J.; Klapp, O.; Klein, Hansjorg; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kuznetsov, O.; Krammer, M.; Kriznic, E.; Krumshtein, Z.; Kubinec, P.; Kurowska, J.; Kurvinen, K.; Lamsa, J.W.; Lane, D.W.; Lapin, V.; Laugier, J.P.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Lefebure, V.; Leinonen, L.; Leisos, A.; Leitner, R.; Lenzen, G.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Libby, J.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lippi, I.; Loerstad, B.; Loken, J.G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Mahon, J.R.; Maio, A.; Malek, A.; Malmgren, T.G.M.; Maltezos, S.; Malychev, V.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthiae, G.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McCubbin, M.; McKay, R.; McNulty, R.; McPherson, G.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Migliore, E.; Mirabito, L.; Mitaroff, W.A.; Mjornmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moller, Rasmus; Monig, Klaus; Monge, M.R.; Moraes, D.; Moreau, X.; Morettini, P.; Morton, G.; Muller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mulet-Marquis, C.; Muresan, R.; Murray, W.J.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Naraghi, F.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.L.; Navas, Sergio; Nawrocki, K.; Negri, P.; Neufeld, N.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nielsen, B.S.; Niezurawski, P.; Nikolenko, M.; Nomokonov, V.; Nygren, A.; Obraztsov, V.F.; Olshevskii, A.G.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Orazi, G.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Pain, R.; Paiva, R.; Palacios, J.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Pavel, T.; Pegoraro, M.; Peralta, L.; Pernicka, M.; Perrotta, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolini, A.; Phillips, H.T.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Privitera, P.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahmani, H.; Rames, J.; Ratoff, P.N.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Redaelli, Nicola Giuseppe; Regler, M.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.B.; Resvanis, L.K.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Rohne, O.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosinsky, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Royon, C.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ruiz, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sacquin, Y.; Sadovskii, A.; Sajot, G.; Salt, J.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sannino, M.; Schwemling, P.; Schwering, B.; Schwickerath, U.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seager, P.; Sedykh, Yu.; Seemann, F.; Segar, A.M.; Seibert, N.; Sekulin, R.; Shellard, R.C.; Siebel, M.; Simard, L.; Simonetto, F.; Sisakian, A.N.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, G.R.; Solovianov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassoff, Tz.; Spiriti, E.; Squarcia, S.; Stanescu, C.; Stanic, S.; Stanitzki, M.; Stevenson, K.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Strub, R.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Taffard, A.; Chikilev, O.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Thomas, J.; Timmermans, Jan; Tinti, N.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Tobin, M.; Todorova, S.; Tomaradze, A.G.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Tortosa, P.; Transtromer, G.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Ullaland, O.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallazza, E.; Van Dam, Piet; Vanden Boeck, W.; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Ventura, L.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verlato, M.; Vertogradov, L.S.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vlasov, E.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Voulgaris, G.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Walck, C.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.H.; Wilkinson, G.R.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Wolf, G.; Yi, J.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zoller, P.; Zucchelli, G.C.; Zumerle, G.
2000-01-01
A sample of 2.2 million hadronic \\z decays, selected fythe {\\sc Delphi} detector at {\\sc Lep} during 1994-199nimprovedmeasurement of inclusive distributions of \\pie, \\kp anrantiparticles in gluon and quark jets. The production l identified particles were found to be softer in gluon kjets, with a higher multiplicity in gluon jets as obseecharged particles. A significant proton enhancement indindicating that baryon production proceeds directly fr.The maxima, $\\xi^*$, of the $\\xi$-distributions for kakjets are observed to be different. The study of isoscanshows no indication of an excess of $\\phi(1020)$ produ.
The SU(3) running coupling from lattice gluons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parrinello, C. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; UKQCD Collaboration
1995-04-01
We provide numerical results for the running coupling in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory as determined from an analysis of lattice two and three-point gluon correlation functions. The coupling is evaluated directly, from first principles, by defining suitable renormalisation constants from the lattice triple gluon vertex and gluon propagator. For momenta larger than 2GeV, the coupling is found to run according to the 2-loop asymptotic formula. The influence of lattice artifacts on the results appears negligible within the precision of our measurements, although further work on this point is in progress. ((orig.)).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdulkareem Sarki Karasuwa
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The design of spectrally-efficient, high-throughput satellite (HTS systems with capacity approaching one terabit per second requires operating at Ka-band frequencies and above, where there are several gigahertz of allocated radio spectrum, using multiple spot beams with dual orthogonal polarisation mode. At these high frequencies, rain attenuation poses a major obstacle to the design of high-availability satellite links which are needed for the realisation of ubiquitous broadband multimedia communication services including high-speed Internet access at rural and remote locations. Furthermore, depolarisation-induced interference in such systems could have a performance-limiting impact if a co-channel cross-polar signal combines with system noise to drive the carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (CNIR below an acceptable threshold. This paper employs real measurement data to investigate the impact of depolarisation-induced interference on dual-polarised HTS systems for temperate and tropical climatic regions. Scenarios that cause significant system performance degradation are analysed, including the effects of signal frequency, antenna size, and regional rainfall rate. The impact of depolarisation on system performance is quantified by the reductions in the CNIR and link availability of a dual-polarised system when compared with those of a similarly-dimensioned single-polarised system.
High-density limit of quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, E.
1983-01-01
By means of a formal expansion of the partition function presumably valid at large baryon densities, the propagator of the quarks is expressed in terms of the gluon propagator. This result is interpreted as implying that correlations between quarks and gluons are unimportant at high enough density, so that a kind of mean-field approximation gives a very accurate description of the physical system
Method for determination of the polarisation nonreciprocity in a fibre ring interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andronova, Irina A; Gelikonov, V M; Gelikonov, G V
2000-01-01
A method is proposed for observation of the polarisation nonreciprocity of fibre ring interferometers (FRIs) by placing a rotating polariser at the output of an interferometer ahead of a photodetector. It is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that the absence of a signal for any position of the transmission axis of the polariser at the FRI output is a criterion of the absence of the polarisation nonreciprocity. It is suggested that the coaxial alignment of the anisotropic FRI components be monitored during assembly to ensure the polarisation nonreciprocity on the basis of the absence of a signal at the output of a rotating polariser. It is also shown that, when the conditions for the polarisation nonreciprocity are fulfilled, the signal from the output of a beam splitter located flush against the fibre loop output carries information about the phase characteristics of the beam splitter. (laser gyroscopes)
Diffractive hard photoproduction at HERA and evidence for the gluon content of the pomeron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.
1995-01-01
Inclusive jet cross sections for events with a large rapidity gap with respect to the proton direction from the reaction ep→jet+X with quasi-real photons have been measured with the ZEUS detector. The cross sections refer to jets with transverse energies E T jet >8 GeV. The data show the characteristics of a diffractive process mediated by pomeron exchange. Assuming that the events are due to the exchange of a pomeron with partonic structure, the quark and gluon content of the pomeron is probed at a scale ∼(E T jet ) 2 . A comparison of the measurements with model predictions based on QCD plus Regge phenomenology requires a contribution of partons with a hard momentum density in the pomeron. A combined analysis of the jet cross sections and recent ZEUS measurements of the diffractive structure function in deep inelastic scattering gives the first experimental evidence for the gluon content of the pomeron in diffractive hard scattering processes. The data indicate that between 30% and 80% of the momentum of the pomeron carried by partons is due to hard gluons. (orig.)
On the application of gluon to heavy quarkonium fragmentation function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi Wei; Wang Jianxiong
2007-01-01
We analyze the uncertainties induced by different definitions of the momentum fraction z in the application of gluon to heavy quarkonium fragmentation function. We numerically calculate the initial g→J/ψ fragmentation functions by using the non-covariant definitions of z with finite gluon momentum and find that these fragmentation functions have strong dependence on the gluon momentum k. As |k|→∞, these fragmentation functions approach to the fragmentation function in the light-cone definition. We find that when |k| is small (for instance in the typical energy scale (about 4-20GeV) of the gluon production at the hadron colliders, such as Tevatron and LHC), large uncertainty remains while the in-covariant definitions of z are employed in the application of the fragmentation functions. (authors)
Differences between quark and gluon jets at LEP1
Boutemeur, Madjid
1997-01-01
A report is ven here on the differences between quark and gluon initiated jets as measured in LEPl. Various measurements, agree qualitatively on the differences between quark and gluon jets. However a direct quantitative comparison among the measurements as well as comparisons between the measurements and analytical calculations are difficult. This is due to the dependence of the results on the selected event topologies and used jet finding algorithms. Topology dependence of the charged particle multiplicity in quark and gluon jets is studied by ALEPH and transverse momentum-like scales are proposed to account for it. OPAL produced the first quantitative test of QCD analytic prediction for the ratio of the mean particle multiplicity between gluon and quark jets valid, at least, for 39 GeV jets.
Calculation of parton fragmentation functions from jet calculus: gluon applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lassila, K.E.; Ng, A.
1985-01-01
A method is presented for calculation of general parton fragmentation functions based on jet calculus plus meson and baryon wave functions. Results for gluon fragmentation into mesons and baryons are discussed and related to recent information on upsilon decay into gluons. The expressions derived can be used directly in e + e - cross section predictions and will need to be folded in with baryon parton distribution functions when used in p-barp collisions. (author)
Can an infrared-vanishing gluon propagator confine quarks?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that the solution of the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation in QCD obtained with a gluon propagator of the form D(q) ∼ q 2 /[q 4 +b 4 ] and a quark-gluon vertex that is free of kinematic singularities does not describe a confined particle and that there is always a value of b 2 = b c 2 such that chiral symmetry is not dynamically broken for b 2 > b c 2
Investigation of the splitting of quark and gluon jets
Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brown, R; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerruti, C; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Collins, P; Colomer, M; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Almagne, B; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Ghodbane, N; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Konoplyannikov, A K; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolenko, M; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F
1998-01-01
The splitting processes in identified quark and gluon jets are investigated using longitudinal and transverse observables. The jets are selected from symmetric three-jet events measured in Z decays L with the {\\sc Delphi} detector in 1991-1994. Gluon jets are identified using heavy quark anti-tagging. Scaling violations in identified gluon jets are observed for the first time. The scale energy dependence of the gluon fragmentation function is found to be about two times larger than for the corresponding quark jets, consistent with the QCD expectation $C_A/C_F$. The primary splitting of gluons and quarks into subjets agrees with fragmentation models and, for specific regions of the jet resolution $y$, with NLLA calculations. The maximum of the ratio of the primary subjet splittings in quark and gluon jets is $2.77\\pm0.11\\pm0.10$. Due to non-perturbative effects, the data are below the expectation at small $y$. The transition from the perturbative to the non-perturbative domain appears at smaller $y$ for quark ...
Threshold π0 photoproduction on transverse polarised protons at MAMI
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Schumann
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Polarisation-dependent differential cross sections σT associated with the target asymmetry T have been measured for the reaction γp→→pπ0 with transverse target polarisation from π0 threshold to photon energies of 190 MeV. The data were obtained using a frozen-spin butanol target with the Crystal Ball / TAPS detector set-up and the Glasgow photon tagging system at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. Results for σT have been used in combination with our previous measurements of the unpolarised cross section σ0 and the beam asymmetry Σ for a model-independent determination of S- and P-wave multipoles in the π0 threshold region, which includes for the first time a direct determination of the imaginary part of the E0+ multipole.
Measurement of the tau polarisation at the Z resonance
Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Mours, B.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fenandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mattison, T.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, W.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Haywood, S.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Lusiani, A.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Lannutti, J.; Levinthal, D.; Mermikides, M.; Sawyer, L.; Wasserbaech, S.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Belk, A. T.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Dugeay, S.; Greene, A. M.; Hassaed, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Nash, J.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Rotscheidt, H.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; Denis, R. St.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jaffe, D. E.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Carter, J. M.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Edwards, M.; Fisher, S. M.; Jones, T. J.; Norton, P. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Thompson, J. C.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Aubert, J.-J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Carney, R. E.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hatfield, F.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Cinabro, D.; Conway, J. S.; Cowen, D. F.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Jared, R. C.; Leclaire, B. W.; Lishka, C.; Pan, Y. B.; Pater, J. R.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.
1993-09-01
Using 18.8 pb-1 of data collected in 1990 and 1991, ALEPH has measured the tau polarisation in the decay modes τ→ ev bar v, τ→μ v bar v, τ→πν, τ→ρν and τ→ a 1ν, using both the individual tau decay kinematics and the event acollinearity. The measurement of the tau polarisation as a function of the production polar angle yields the two parameters A τ and A e , where A l =2 g {/v l } g {/A l }/( g {/v l })2+( g {/A l })2] The results A τ=0.143±0.023 and A e =0.120±0.026 are consistent with the hypothesis of electron-tau universality. Assuming universality yields a measurement of the effective weak mixing angle sin2θ{/w eff}=0.2332±0.0022.
Constraining new resonant physics with top spin polarisation information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Englert, Christoph; Nordstroem, Karl [University of Glasgow, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Ferrando, James [DESY Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)
2017-06-15
We provide a comprehensive analysis of the power of including top quark-polarisation information to kinematically challenging top pair resonance searches, for which ATLAS and CMS start losing sensitivity. Following the general modelling and analysis strategies pursued by the experiments, we analyse the semi-leptonic and the di-lepton channels and show that including polarisation information can lead to large improvements in the limit setting procedures with large data sets. This will allow us to set stronger limits for parameter choices where sensitivity from the invariant mass of the top pair is not sufficient. This highlights the importance of spin observables as part of a more comprehensive set of observables to gain sensitivity to BSM resonance searches. (orig.)
Polarisation of microwave emission from reconnecting twisted coronal loops
Gordovskyy, M.; Browning, P. K.; Kontar, E. P.
2017-08-01
Context. Magnetic reconnection and particle acceleration due to the kink instability in twisted coronal loops can be a viable scenario for confined solar flares. Detailed investigation of this phenomenon requires reliable methods for observational detection of magnetic twist in solar flares, which may not be possible solely through extreme UV and soft X-ray thermal emission. Polarisation of microwave emission in flaring loops can be used as one of the detection criteria. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of magnetic twist in flaring coronal loops on the polarisation of gyro-synchrotron microwave (GSMW) emission, and determine whether it could provide a means for magnetic twist detection. Methods: We consider time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic and test-particle models developed using the LARE3D and GCA codes to investigate twisted coronal loops that relax after kink instability. Synthetic GSMW emission maps (I and V Stokes components) are calculated using GX simulator. Results: It is found that flaring twisted coronal loops produce GSMW radiation with a gradient of circular polarisation across the loop. However, these patterns may be visible only for a relatively short period of time owing to fast magnetic reconfiguration after the instability. Their visibility also depends on the orientation and position of the loop on the solar disk. Typically, it would be difficult to see these characteristic polarisation patterns in a twisted loop seen from the top (I.e. close to the centre of the solar disk), but easier in a twisted loop seen from the side (I.e. observed very close to the limb).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaempfer, B.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Pavlenko, O.P.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev; Gorenstein, M.I.; Peshier, A.; Soff, G.
1994-07-01
The influence of a non-vanishing baryon charge on the rapidity distribution of dileptons produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is studied. We employ a frozen motion model with scaling invariant expansion of the hadronizing quark-gluon plasma as well as a realistic rapidity distribution of secondary particles (i.e., pions and baryons) expected for RHIC energies. We find a considerable suppression of the dilepton production yield at large rapidities due to the finite baryon density. To discriminate the thermal dileptons from Drell-Yan background we propose to utilize the dilepton yield scaled suitably by the pion multiplicity as function of rapidity. (orig.)
The independent quark-gluon string model for heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toneev, V.D.; Amelin, N.S.; Gudima, K.K.
1989-06-01
A dynamical model of independent quark-gluon strings is formulated for ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. The formation and fragmentation of the strings are described in terms of the dual parton model. The consideration of the nuclear interaction is based on a coupled system of relativistic Boltzmann-like kinetic equations including the concept of the hadron formation time. The evolution of energy and baryonic densities is discussed for central O+Au collisions. The calculated characteristics for both the central and fragmentation rapidity region are compared with the recent CERN experimental data to disentangle the contributions of different nuclear effects. (orig.)
A Model of Polarisation Rotations in Blazars from Kink Instabilities in Relativistic Jets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krzysztof Nalewajko
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a simple model of polarisation rotation in optically thin relativistic jets of blazars. The model is based on the development of helical (kink mode of current-driven instability. A possible explanation is suggested for the observational connection between polarisation rotations and optical/gamma-ray flares in blazars, if the current-driven modes are triggered by secular increases of the total jet power. The importance of intrinsic depolarisation in limiting the amplitude of coherent polarisation rotations is demonstrated. The polarisation rotation amplitude is thus very sensitive to the viewing angle, which appears to be inconsistent with the observational estimates of viewing angles in blazars showing polarisation rotations. Overall, there are serious obstacles to explaining large-amplitude polarisation rotations in blazars in terms of current-driven kink modes.
Knights, Patrick; Ryburn, Finlay; Tungate, Garry; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos
2018-01-01
An experiment for the advanced undergraduate laboratory which allows students to study the effect of photon polarisation in Compton scattering and to explore q\\ uantum entanglement is described. The quantum entangled photons are produced through electron-positron annihilation in the $S$-state, and their polarisations a\\ re analysed using the Compton scattering cross-section dependence on the photon polarisation. The equipment necessary for this experiment is available at a typ\\ ical undergrad...
Leksin, G A
2002-01-01
Features of deep inelastic nuclear reactions proceeding on dense fluctuations of nuclear matter (fluctons) are briefly considered. Fluctons, which can be many-quark bags or drops of quark-gluon plasma, are studied. Their properties are discussed, viz., characteristic parameters of nuclear matter inside a flucton - temperature and density close to the critical values for a phase transition. These values can be reached or exceeded if the flucton-flucton collision events are separated. The separation method is discussed
1.28 Tb/s wavelength conversion for polarisation multiplexed RZ-DPSK signals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist; Galili, Michael
2010-01-01
All-optical wavelength conversion for single wavelength channel 1.28-Tb/s polarisation multiplexed RZ-DPSK signals was demonstrated using a 100-m polarisation-maintaining highly nonlinear fibre (PM-HNLF). Error free performance for the converted signal was achieved.......All-optical wavelength conversion for single wavelength channel 1.28-Tb/s polarisation multiplexed RZ-DPSK signals was demonstrated using a 100-m polarisation-maintaining highly nonlinear fibre (PM-HNLF). Error free performance for the converted signal was achieved....
Very high coupling of TM polarised light in photonic crystal directional couplers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borel, Peter Ingo; Thorhauge, Morten; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn
2003-01-01
The experimental and simulated spectra for TE and TM polarised light for the transmission through photonic crystal directional couplers are presented. The 3D FDTD simulations successfully explain all the major features of the experimental spectra as well as the actual transmission level. Especially...... noteworthy is the transmission level, experimentally found to be above -3 dB in the wavelength range 1520-1690 nm, for TM polarised light in the coupled channel. It is noted that even though band calculations show that the propagation of the TM polarisation takes place below the TM valence band, very high...... and spectrally smooth coupling is observed for the TM polarisation in this wavelength range....
In-medium effects in the holographic quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rust, Felix Christian
2009-08-05
In this dissertation we use the gauge/gravity duality to investigate various properties of strongly coupled gauge theories, which we interpret as models for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). In particular, we use variants of the D3/D7 setup as an implementation of the top-down approach of connecting string theory with phenomenologically relevant gauge theories. We focus on the effects of finite temperature and finite density on fundamental matter in the holographic quark-gluon plasma, which we model as the N = 2 hypermultiplet in addition to the N=4 gauge multiplet of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. As a key ingredient we develop a setup in which we can describe vector meson spectra in the holographic plasma at finite temperature and either baryon or isospin density. The description of vector meson excitations allows for a demonstration of the splitting of their spectrum at finite isospin chemical potential. In the effort to better understand transport processes in the QGP, we then study various diffusion coefficients in the quark-gluon plasma, including their dependence on temperature and particle density. In particular, we perform a simple calculation to obtain the diffusion coefficient of baryon charge and we derive expressions to obtain the isospin diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, we make use of an effective model to study the diffusion behavior of mesons in the plasma by setting up a kinetic model. Finally, we observe the implications of finite temperature and finite baryon or isospin density on the phase structure of fundamental matter in the holographic plasma. As one consequence we find a phase transition in the baryon diffusion coefficient which vanishes at a critical value of the particle density. The critical density we quantify matches the values of the according critical densities previously found in the phase transitions of other quantities. More important, we observe a new phase transition occurring when the isospin chemical potential excesses a
Quark and gluon tagging in dijet mass resonance search
Kellermann, Edgar
2013-01-01
Several models beyond the Standard Model predict new phenomena in particle physics, which would appear as resonant signals in dijet mass distributions. An example for such a resonance is the excited quark q, which is a consequence of Compositeness Models postulating that quarks and leptons are build by more fundamental particles. The main signature of an excited quark would be a dijet event, originated from the radiation of a gluon from the original excited quark when going back to its non-excited state, leading to a quark and a gluon in the final state (with a branching ratio of 83%) . Other examples are the heavy vector bosonsW0 decaying to two quarks and colour octet scalar S8 decaying to two gluons.
Worldline calculation of the three-gluon vertex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmadiniaz, N.; Schubert, C.
2012-01-01
The three-gluon vertex is a basic object of interest in nonabelian gauge theory. At the one-loop level, it has been calculated and analyzed by a number of authors. Here we use the worldline formalism to unify the calculations of the scalar, spinor and gluon loop contributions to the one-loop vertex, leading to an extremely compact representation in terms of field strength tensors. We verify its equivalence with previously obtained representations, and explain the relation of its structure to the low-energy effective action. The sum rule found by Binger and Brodsky for the scalar, spinor and gluon loop contributions in the present approach relates to worldline supersymmetry.
Transverse Flow of Gluon Fields in Heavy Ion Collision
Chen, Guangyao; Fries, Rainer J.
2014-09-01
We describe the dynamics of initial gluon fields in heavy ion collision using a formal recursive solution of the Yang Mills equations and solving for the energy momentum tensor analytically in a boost-invariant setup. We generalize the original McLerran-Venugopalan (MV) model in order to allow for realistic nuclear profiles. This leads to a transverse flow of gluon fields. This flow pattern is inherited by the quark gluon plasma fluid after thermalization. Its most interesting aspect is a rapidity-odd flow component. We show that this rapidity-odd flow does not break boost invariance and that it emerges naturally from the Yang Mills equations. It leads to directed flow of particles and introduces angular momentum to the system.
Transport quasiparticles and transverse interactions in quark-gluon plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baym, Gordon
1996-01-01
Calculations of the properties of interacting quark-gluon plasmas are beset by infrared divergences associated with the fact that magnetic interactions, i.e., those occurring through exchange of transverse gluons, are, in the absence of a 'magnetic mass''in QCD, not screened. In this lecture we discuss the effects of magnetic interactions on the transport coefficients and the quasiparticle structure of quark-gluon plasmas. We describe how inclusion of dynamical screening effects - corresponding to Landau damping of the virtual quanta exchanged - leads to finite transport scattering rates. In the weak coupling limit, dynamical screening effects dominate over a magnetic mass. We illustrate the breakdown of the quasi particle structure of degenerate plasmas caused by long-ranged magnetic interactions, describe the structure of fermion quasiparticles in hot relativistic plasmas, and touch briefly on the problem of the lifetime of quasiparticle in the presence of long-ranged magnetic interactions. (author)
Transverse momentum of gluons in ep-scattering at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cholewa, A.
2005-11-01
A Monte Carlo analysis of the phase space of hard interacting gluons in ep-scattering is presented. The event generator CASCADE is used in combination with the program HZTOOL to identify the accessible regions of phase space of present HERA measurements. A map of the k t -x g -plane is presented to show that in the region -3≤log g ≤-1 transverse gluon momenta of up to k t >or sim 20 GeV are accessible to HERA measurements. Furthermore the observables x γ and the transverse jet energy E T are found to be highly sensitive to the transverse momentum and the longitudinal momentum fraction of gluons. (orig.) (orig.)
Early Time Dynamics of Gluon Fields in High Energy Nuclear Collisions
Kapusta, Joseph I.; Chen, Guangyao; Fries, Rainer J.; Li, Yang
2016-12-01
Nuclei colliding at very high energy create a strong, quasi-classical gluon field during the initial phase of their interaction. We present an analytic calculation of the initial space-time evolution of this field in the limit of very high energies using a formal recursive solution of the Yang-Mills equations. We provide analytic expressions for the initial chromo-electric and chromo-magnetic fields and for their energy-momentum tensor. In particular, we discuss event-averaged results for energy density and energy flow as well as for longitudinal and transverse pressure of this system. Our results are generally applicable if τ < 1 /Qs. The transverse energy flow of the gluon field exhibits hydrodynamic-like contributions that follow transverse gradients of the energy density. In addition, a rapidity-odd energy flow also emerges from the non-abelian analog of Gauss' Law and generates non-vanishing angular momentum of the field. We will discuss the space-time picture that emerges from our analysis and its implications for observables in heavy ion collisions.
A gauge quantum field theory of confined quarks and gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voelkel, A.H.
1983-01-01
A SU(3)-gauge quantum field theory with a quark triplet, an antiquark triplet and a self-conjugate gluon octet as basic fields is investigated. In virtue of a non trivial coupling between the representation of the translation group and the SU(3)-colour charge of the basic fields it is proved: (i) The basic quark, antiquark and gluon fields are confined. (ii) Every statevector of the physical Hilbert space is a SU(3)-colour singlet state. (iii) Poincare invariance holds in the physical Hilbert space. (orig.)
Check of the bootstrap conditions for the gluon Reggeization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papa, A.
2000-01-01
The property of gluon Reggeization plays an essential role in the derivation of the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) equation for the cross sections at high energy √s in perturbative QCD. This property has been proved to all orders of perturbation theory in the leading logarithmic approximation and it is assumed to be valid also in the next-to-leading logarithmic approximation, where it has been checked only to the first three orders of perturbation theory. From s-channel unitarity, however, very stringent 'bootstrap' conditions can be derived which, if fulfilled, leave no doubts that gluon Reggeization holds
The hard gluon component of the QCD Pomeron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, A.R.
1996-01-01
The authors argue that deep-inelastic diffractive scaling provides fundamental insight into the QCD Pomeron. The logarithmic scaling violations seen experimentally are in conflict with the scale-invariance of the BFKL Pomeron and with phenomenological two-gluon models. Instead the Pomeron appears as a single gluon at short-distances, indicating the appearance of a Super-Critical phase of Reggeon Field Theory. That the color compensation takes place at a longer distance is consistent with the Pomeron carrying odd color charge parity
Depolarisation effects in resonance absorption neutron polarising filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayers, J.
1982-06-01
The depolarisation of a neutron beam passing through a system of magnetically misaligned single domain particles is examined and simulated using a Monte-Carlo programme. The results of the simulations are in excellent agreement with those of analytic calculations within the regimes where such calculations are applicable. The simulations have been used in the estimation of the polarising efficiency and transmittance of a resonance absorption filter containing partially aligned particles of SmCo 5 . It is shown that the application of strong magnetic fields (approximately equal to 2T) should significantly improve the filter performance. A method of measuring this improvement is suggested. (author)
Orientation, alignment and polarisation in electron-helium collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beijers, J.P.M.
1987-01-01
In this thesis electron-photon coincidence experiments to study the excitation of helium by electron impact are updated. This is achieved by cross firing a well collimated and mono-energetic electron beam with a thermal helium beam and measuring the angular and/or polarisation distribution of the decay photons in coincidence with the inelastically scattered electrons. In this way target parameters are determined for the 2 1 P, 3 1 P, 3 1 D and 3 3 P states of helium. (Auth.)
Phase noise cancellation in polarisation-maintaining fibre links
Rauf, B.; Vélez López, M. C.; Thoumany, P.; Pizzocaro, M.; Calonico, D.
2018-03-01
The distribution of ultra-narrow linewidth laser radiation is an integral part of many challenging metrological applications. Changes in the optical pathlength induced by environmental disturbances compromise the stability and accuracy of optical fibre networks distributing the laser light and call for active phase noise cancellation. Here we present a laboratory scale optical (at 578 nm) fibre network featuring all polarisation maintaining fibres in a setup with low optical powers available and tracking voltage-controlled oscillators implemented. The stability and accuracy of this system reach performance levels below 1 × 10-19 after 10 000 s of averaging.
Infrared behaviour of three and four gluon vertices in Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandt, F.T.; Frenkel, J.
1985-01-01
The structure of the 3-point function with one and two external gluons on-shell is studied in a general covariant gauge. The contributions which result in one loop approximation are expressed in terms of simple functions containing collinear and soft singularities. Furthermore, the contributions associated with the 4-point vertex when all external gluons are on-shell are analysed. As an application of these results, the infrared structure of gluon-gluon scattering amplitude is studied. (Author) [pt
Tunable polarisation-maintaining filter based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scolari, Lara; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Weirich, Johannes
2008-01-01
A tunable and polarisation-maintaining all-in-fibre filter based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre is demonstrated. Its polarisation extinction ratio reaches 14 dB at 1550 nm wavelength. Its spectral tunability range spans over 250 nm in the temperature range 30–70°C. The measured...
Time-resolved proton polarisation (TPP) images tyrosyl radical sites in bovine liver catalase.
Zimmer, Oliver; Jouve, Hélène M.; Stuhrmann, Heinrich B.
2017-05-01
A differentiation between dynamic polarised protons close to tyrosyl radical sites in catalase and those of the bulk is achieved by time-resolved polarised neutron scattering. Three radical sites, all of them being close to the molecular centre and the heme, appear to be equally possible. Among these is tyr-369 the radial site of which had previously been proven by EPR.
Polarisation basis transformation of weather radar measurements in the power domain
Otto, T.; Lu, J.; Chandra, M.
2009-01-01
Polarisation diversity in radar remote sensing proved to be very successful in a variety of applications. Hydrometeors as raindrops or ice crystals are anisotropic radar targets giving rise to the use of polarisation diversity in weather radars. One advanced polarimetric weather radar is DLR's
Design of a Polarised Positron Source Based on Laser Compton Scattering
Araki, S; Honda, Y; Kurihara, Y; Kuriki, M; Okugi, T; Omori, T; Taniguchi, T; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J; Artru, X; Chevallier, M; Strakhovenko, V M; Bulyak, E; Gladkikh, P; Mönig, K; Chehab, R; Variola, A; Zomer, F; Guiducci, S; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Zimmermann, Frank; Sakaue, K; Hirose, T; Washio, M; Sasao, N; Yokoyama, H; Fukuda, M; Hirano, K; Takano, M; Takahashi, T; Sato, H; Tsunemi, A; Gao, J; Soskov, V
2005-01-01
We describe a scheme for producing polarised positrons at the ILC from polarised X-rays created by Compton scattering of a few-GeV electron beam off a CO2 or YAG laser. This scheme is very energy effective using high finesse laser cavities in conjunction with an electron storage ring.
Gluon condensation and modelling of quark confinement in QCD-motivated Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bel'kov, A.A.; Ebert, D.; Emel'yanenko, A.V.
1992-01-01
The possibility of modelling of a quark propagator without poles realizing quark confinement is considered on the basis of a nonperturbative gluon propagator including gluon condensation and a dynamical gluon mass. The property of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is retained providing us with a reasonable pattern of low-lying meson properties. 2 figs.; 1 tab
Dual gluons and monopoles in 2+1 dimensional Yang-Mills theory
Anishetty, Ramesh; Majumdar, Pushan; Sharatchandra, H. S.
1998-01-01
2+1-dimensional Yang-Mills theory is reinterpreted in terms of metrics on 3-manifolds. The dual gluons are related to diffeomorphisms of the 3-manifold. Monopoles are identified with points where the Ricci tensor has triply degenerate eigenvalues. The dual gluons have the desired interaction with these monopoles. This would give a mass for the dual gluons resulting in confinement.
Same sign di-lepton candles of the composite gluons
Azatov, Aleksandr; Ghosh, Diptimoy; Ray, Tirtha Sankar
2015-01-01
Composite Higgs models, where the Higgs boson is identified with the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-Boson (pNGB) of a strong sector, typically have light composite fermions (top partners) to account for a light Higgs. This type of models generically also predicts the existence of heavy vector fields (composite gluons) which appear as an octet of QCD. These composite gluons generically become very broad resonances once phase-space allows them to decay into two composite fermions. This makes their traditional experimental searches, which are designed to look for narrow resonances, quite ineffective. In this paper we, as an alternative, propose to utilize the impact of composite gluons on the production of top partners to constrain their parameter space. We place constraints on the parameters of the composite resonances using the 8 TeV LHC data and also assess the reach of the 14 TeV LHC. We find that the high luminosity LHC will be able to probe composite gluon masses up to $\\sim 6$ TeV, even in the broad resonance reg...
Interference effects in medium-induced gluon radiation
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge
2011-01-01
As a step towards understanding the in-medium evolution of a hard jet, we consider the interference pattern for the medium induced gluon radiation produced by a color singlet quark-antiquark antenna embedded in a QCD medium with size L. We focus on the typical kinematics for medium-induced gluon radiation in the BDMPS-Z regime, that is, short formation times \\tau_f >\\theta_c = 2/\\sqrt{\\hat q L^3}, with \\hat q the `jet quenching' parameter. We demonstrate that, for a dipole opening angle \\theta_{q\\bar q} larger than \\theta_c, the interference between the medium-induced gluon emissions by the quark and the antiquark is parametrically suppressed with respect to the corresponding direct emissions. Physically, this is so since the direct emissions can be delocalized anywhere throughout the medium and thus yield contributions proportional to L. On the contrary, the interference occurs only between gluons emitted at very early times, within the characteristic time scales for quantum and color coherence between the t...
Strangeness and quark gluon plasma: Aspects of theory and experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eggers, H.C.; Rafelski, J.
1990-07-01
A survey of our current understanding of the strange particle signature of quark gluon plasma is presented. Emphasis is placed on the theory of strangeness production in the plasma and recent pertinent experimental results. Useful results on spectra of thermal particles are given. (orig.)
Gluon transport equations with condensate in the small angle approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blaizot, Jean-Paul [Institut de Physique Théorique (IPhT), CNRS/URA2306, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Liao, Jinfeng [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)
2016-05-15
We derive the set of kinetic equations that control the evolution of gluons in the presence of a condensate. We show that the dominant singularities remain logarithmic when the scattering involves particles in the condensate. This allows us to define a consistent small angle approximation.
Study of Leading Hadrons in Gluon and Quark Fragmentation
Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, D; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, M; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N; Benvenuti, A C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brunet, J M; Brückman, P; Buschbeck, B; Buschmann, P; Bérat, C; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F; Chapkin, M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Dalmau, J; De Angelis, A; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L; Della Ricca, G; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J; Föth, H; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Kuznetsov, O; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; López, J M; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Maréchal, B; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Mönig, K; Müller, U; Münich, K; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, F; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Rídky, J; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Sekulin, R L; Shlyapnikov, P; Siebel, M; Sisakian, A; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Van Eldik, J; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M; de Boer, Wim; van Dam, P; Åsman, B; Österberg, K
2006-01-01
The study of quark jets in e+e- reactions at LEP has demonstrated that the hadronisation process is reproduced well by the Lund string model. However, our understanding of gluon fragmentation is less complete. In this study enriched quark and gluon jet samples of different purities are selected in three-jet events from hadronic decays of the Z collected by the DELPHI experiment in the LEP runs during 1994 and 1995. The leading systems of the two kinds of jets are defined by requiring a rapidity gap and their sum of charges is studied. An excess of leading systems with total charge zero is found for gluon jets in all cases, when compared to Monte Carlo Simulations with JETSET (with and without Bose-Einstein correlations included) and ARIADNE. The corresponding leading systems of quark jets do not exhibit such an excess. The influence of the gap size and of the gluon purity on the effect is studied and a concentration of the excess of neutral leading systems at low invariant masses (<~ 2 GeV/c^2) is observed...
Photons from quark gluon plasma and hot hadronic matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The productions of real photons from quark gluon plasma and hot hadronic matter formed after the nucleus–nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energies are discussed. The effects of the spectral shift of the hadrons at finite temperature on the production of photons are investigated. On the basis of the present ...
The angular ordering in soft-gluon emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tesima, K.
1987-01-01
The way to evaluate multi-parton cross-sections systematically is discussed. In the leading-double-log approximation in QCD, the successive emission of soft gluons is at successively smaller angles. The angular ordering, however, is violated in the next-to-leading order
The quark gluon plasma: Lattice computations put to experimental test
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
journal of. November 2003 physics pp. 877–888. The quark gluon plasma: Lattice computations put to experimental test. SOURENDU GUPTA. Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute ... lattice gauge theory is the only theoretical tool of direct relevance to experiments currently ... In this talk I will concentrate on other.
The extent of strangeness equilibration in quark gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
τi and the chemical equilibration is assumed to proceed via gluon multiplication process. (gg °ggg) and quark production process (gg ... It is then sufficient to solve the problem forz =0. The master equations governing the ... For solving eqs (1) and (3) numerically, we use the initial conditions ob- tained from SSPC model [6].
The gluon mass generation mechanism: A concise primer
Aguilar, A. C.; Binosi, D.; Papavassiliou, J.
2016-04-01
We present a pedagogical overview of the nonperturbative mechanism that endows gluons with a dynamical mass. This analysis is performed based on pure Yang-Mills theories in the Landau gauge, within the theoretical framework that emerges from the combination of the pinch technique with the background field method. In particular, we concentrate on the Schwinger-Dyson equation satisfied by the gluon propagator and examine the necessary conditions for obtaining finite solutions within the infrared region. The role of seagull diagrams receives particular attention, as do the identities that enforce the cancellation of all potential quadratic divergences.We stress the necessity of introducing nonperturbative massless poles in the fully dressed vertices of the theory in order to trigger the Schwinger mechanism, and explain in detail the instrumental role of these poles in maintaining the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin symmetry at every step of the mass-generating procedure. The dynamical equation governing the evolution of the gluon mass is derived, and its solutions are determined numerically following implementation of a set of simplifying assumptions. The obtained mass function is positive definite, and exhibits a power law running that is consistent with general arguments based on the operator product expansion in the ultraviolet region. A possible connection between confinement and the presence of an inflection point in the gluon propagator is briefly discussed.
The quark-gluon model for particle production processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkovitskij, P.E.
1983-01-01
The quark-gluon model for hadronization of strings produced in soft and hard processes is suggested. The model is based on the distribution functions of valence quarks in hadrons which have correct Regge behaviour. The simplest case is discussed in which only the longitudinal degrees of freedom are taken into account
Gauge-invariant three-gluon vertex in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornwall, J.M.; Papavassiliou, J.
1989-01-01
By resumming the Feynman graphs which contribute to any gauge-invariant process we explicitly construct, at one-loop order, a three-gluon vertex for QCD which is completely independent of the choice of gauge. This vertex satisfies a Ward identity of the type encountered in ghost-free gauges, relating the vertex to the proper self-energy of a previously constructed gluon propagator, also found by resumming graphs; like the vertex, this self-energy is completely gauge invariant. We also derive the gauge-invariant propagator and vertex via a second related technique which minimizes the dependence on embedding these objects in a gauge-invariant process; the same results are found as in the first technique. These results motivate a toy model of the nonlinear Schwinger-Dyson equation satisfied by the exact gauge-invariant three-gluon vertex. This model is nonperturbative and has infrared singularities, which we can remove via gluon mass generation; it shows many interesting features expected of QCD, such as a β function which is not Borel summable in perturbation theory
Bounds on the gluon mass from nucleon decay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avila, M.A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Morelos (Mexico)
2001-04-01
Permanent confinement of quarks is assumed to hold in QCD. However, if the gluon has a small mass it is possible to produce-quarks in hadron decays, high-energy reactions or in the early-universe. This situation is modelled by a quark-diquark potential composed of a linear (or harmonic) plus a Yukawa term. We compare our prediction for the proton decay with the experimental lower bound on its life-time, and obtain an upper bound on the gluon mass. [Spanish] Se supone se cumple el confinamiento permanente de quarks en cromodinamica cuantica. Si el gluon tiene masa pequena es posible producir quarks libres en decaimiento hadronicos, reacciones de altas energias o en el universo temprano. Esta situacion es modelada por un potencial quark-diquark, compuesto de un termino lineal (o armonico) mas un termino Yukawa. Comparamos nuestra prediccion para el decaimiento del proton con la cota inferior experimental de su vida media y obtenemos una cota superior sobre la masa del gluon.
Direct Probes of Linearly Polarized Gluons inside Unpolarized Hadrons
Boer, D.; Brodsky, S. J.; Mulders, P.J.G.; Pisano, C.
2011-01-01
We show that linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized hadrons can be directly probed in jet or heavy quark pair production in electron-hadron collisions. We discuss the simplest cos2 asymmetries and estimate their maximal value, concluding that measurements of the unknown linearly polarized
Linear polarization of gluons and photons in unpolarized collider experiments
Pisano, C.; Boer, D.; Brodsky, S. J.; Buffing, M.G.A.; Mulders, P.J.G.
2013-01-01
We study azimuthal asymmetries in heavy quark pair production in unpolarized electron-proton and proton-proton collisions, where the asymmetries originate from the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized hadrons. We provide cross section expressions and study the maximal asymmetries allowed
How Resummation Depresses the Gluon at Small x
Forte, Stefano; Ball, Richard D.; Forte, Stefano; Altarelli, Guido; Ball, Richard D.
2006-01-01
We summarize recent progress in the resummation of perturbative evolution at small x. We show that the problem of incorporating BFKL small x logs in GLAP evolution is now completely solved, and that the main effect of small x resummation is to reduce the growth of the gluon at small x in the HERA and LHC regions.
Status of the quark gluon plasma search
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The main impetus for the field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions since its inception with nuclear beams at the AGS and SPS more than 20 years ago has been to study the properties of nuclear matter under conditions of extremely high density and pressure. As QCD became recognized as the appropriate theory of the strong ...
Working group report: Quark gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The 10th Workshop on High Energy Physics Phenomenology (WHEPP-10) was held at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai during January 2–13, 2008. One of our working grops (WG) is QCD and QGP. The discussions of QGP WG include matter at high density, lattice QCD, charmonium states in QGP, viscous ...
Polarisation Dynamics of Vector Soliton Molecules in Mode Locked Fibre Laser
Tsatourian, Veronika; Sergeyev, Sergey V.; Mou, Chengbo; Rozhin, Alex; Mikhailov, Vitaly; Rabin, Bryan; Westbrook, Paul S.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.
2013-01-01
Two fundamental laser physics phenomena - dissipative soliton and polarisation of light are recently merged to the concept of vector dissipative soliton (VDS), viz. train of short pulses with specific state of polarisation (SOP) and shape defined by an interplay between anisotropy, gain/loss, dispersion, and nonlinearity. Emergence of VDSs is both of the fundamental scientific interest and is also a promising technique for control of dynamic SOPs important for numerous applications from nano-optics to high capacity fibre optic communications. Using specially designed and developed fast polarimeter, we present here the first experimental results on SOP evolution of vector soliton molecules with periodic polarisation switching between two and three SOPs and superposition of polarisation switching with SOP precessing. The underlying physics presents an interplay between linear and circular birefringence of a laser cavity along with light induced anisotropy caused by polarisation hole burning. PMID:24193374
Polarisation in the auroral red line during coordinated EISCAT Svalbard Radar/optical experiments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Barthélémy
2011-06-01
Full Text Available The polarisation of the atomic oxygen red line in the Earth's thermosphere is observed in different configurations with respect to the magnetic field line at high latitude during several coordinated Incoherent Scatter radar/optical experiment campaigns. When pointing northward with a line-of-sight nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field, we show that, as expected, the polarisation is due to precipitated electrons with characteristic energies of a few hundreds of electron Volts. When pointing toward the zenith or southward with a line-of-sight more parallel to the magnetic field, we show that the polarisation practically disappears. This confirms experimentally the predictions deduced from the recent discovery of the red line polarisation. We show that the polarisation direction is parallel to the magnetic field line during geomagnetic activity intensification and that these results are in agreement with theoretical work.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
QCD predicts a phase transition between hadronic matter and a quark-gluon plasma at high energy density. The relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a new facility dedicated to the experimental study of matter under extreme conditions. Already the first round of experimental results at ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ken. Color-superconducting and other phases may exist at high baryon density and low temperature [3], whereas at high temperature the quarks and gluons are de- confined and chiral symmetry is restored. The early universe descended from high. T at extremely small μB. Neutron star cores have high μB and very low T.
Nearly perfect fluidity: from cold atomic gases to hot quark gluon plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaefer, Thomas; Teaney, Derek
2009-01-01
Shear viscosity is a measure of the amount of dissipation in a simple fluid. In kinetic theory shear viscosity is related to the rate of momentum transport by quasi-particles, and the uncertainty relation suggests that the ratio of shear viscosity η to entropy density s in units of ℎ/k B is bounded by a constant. Here, ℎ is Planck's constant and k B is Boltzmann's constant. A specific bound has been proposed on the basis of string theory where, for a large class of theories, one can show that η/s ≥ ℎ/(4πk B ). We will refer to a fluid that saturates the string theory bound as a perfect fluid. In this review we summarize theoretical and experimental information on the properties of the three main classes of quantum fluids that are known to have values of η/s that are smaller than ℎ/k B . These fluids are strongly coupled Bose fluids, in particular liquid helium, strongly correlated ultracold Fermi gases and the quark gluon plasma. We discuss the main theoretical approaches to transport properties of these fluids: kinetic theory, numerical simulations based on linear response theory and holographic dualities. We also summarize the experimental situation, in particular with regard to the observation of hydrodynamic behavior in ultracold Fermi gases and the quark gluon plasma.
Critical point in the phase diagram of primordial quark-gluon matter from black hole physics
Critelli, Renato; Noronha, Jorge; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Portillo, Israel; Ratti, Claudia; Rougemont, Romulo
2017-11-01
Strongly interacting matter undergoes a crossover phase transition at high temperatures T ˜1012 K and zero net-baryon density. A fundamental question in the theory of strong interactions, QCD, is whether a hot and dense system of quarks and gluons displays critical phenomena when doped with more quarks than antiquarks, where net-baryon number fluctuations diverge. Recent lattice QCD work indicates that such a critical point can only occur in the baryon dense regime of the theory, which defies a description from first principles calculations. Here we use the holographic gauge/gravity correspondence to map the fluctuations of baryon charge in the dense quark-gluon liquid onto a numerically tractable gravitational problem involving the charge fluctuations of holographic black holes. This approach quantitatively reproduces ab initio results for the lowest order moments of the baryon fluctuations and makes predictions for the higher-order baryon susceptibilities and also for the location of the critical point, which is found to be within the reach of heavy-ion collision experiments.
Energy dependence of jet transport parameter and parton saturationin quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Wang, Xin-Nian
2007-06-24
We study the evolution and saturation of the gluondistribution function in the quark-gluon plasma as probed by apropagating parton and its effect on the computation of jet quenching ortransport parameter $\\hat q $. For thermal partons, the saturation scale$Q2_s$ is found to be proportional to the Debye screening mass $\\mu_D2$.For hard probes, evolution at small $x=Q2_s/6ET$ leads to jet energydependence of hat q. We study this dependence for both a conformal gaugetheory in weak and strong coupling limit and for (pure gluon) QCD. Theenergy dependence can be used to extract the shear viscosity $\\eta$ ofthe medium since $\\eta$ can be related to the transport parameter forthermal partons in a transport description. We also derive upper boundson the transport parameter for both energetic and thermal partons. Thelater leads to a lower bound on shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratiowhich is consistent with the conjectured lower bound $\\eta/s\\geq 1/4\\pi$.Implications on the study of jet quenching at RHIC and LHC and the bulkproperties of the dense matter are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blaizot, Jean-Paul [Institut de Physique Théorique, CNRS/URA 2306, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Liao, Jinfeng [Physics Dept. and CEEM, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); McLerran, Larry [Physics Dept., Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Physics Department, China Central Normal University, Wuhan (China)
2014-11-15
To understand the evolution of a dense system of gluons, such as those produced in the early stages of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, is an important and challenging problem. We describe the approach to thermal equilibrium using the small angle approximation for gluon scattering in a Boltzmann equation that includes the effects of Bose statistics. The role of Bose statistical factors in amplifying the rapid growth of the population of the soft modes is essential. With these factors properly taken into account, one finds that elastic scattering alone provides an efficient mechanism for populating soft modes, and in fact leads to rapid infrared local thermalization. Furthermore, recent developments suggest that high initial overpopulation plays a key role and may lead to dynamical Bose–Einstein condensation. The kinetics of condensation is an interesting problem in itself. By solving the transport equation for initial conditions with a large enough initial phase-space density the equilibrium state contains a Bose condensate, and we present numerical evidence that such over-occupied systems reach the onset of Bose–Einstein condensation in a finite time. It is also found that the approach to condensation is characterized by a scaling behavior. Finally we discuss a number of extensions of the present study.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Liao, Jinfeng; McLerran, Larry
2014-01-01
To understand the evolution of a dense system of gluons, such as those produced in the early stages of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, is an important and challenging problem. We describe the approach to thermal equilibrium using the small angle approximation for gluon scattering in a Boltzmann equation that includes the effects of Bose statistics. The role of Bose statistical factors in amplifying the rapid growth of the population of the soft modes is essential. With these factors properly taken into account, one finds that elastic scattering alone provides an efficient mechanism for populating soft modes, and in fact leads to rapid infrared local thermalization. Furthermore, recent developments suggest that high initial overpopulation plays a key role and may lead to dynamical Bose–Einstein condensation. The kinetics of condensation is an interesting problem in itself. By solving the transport equation for initial conditions with a large enough initial phase-space density the equilibrium state contains a Bose condensate, and we present numerical evidence that such over-occupied systems reach the onset of Bose–Einstein condensation in a finite time. It is also found that the approach to condensation is characterized by a scaling behavior. Finally we discuss a number of extensions of the present study
Gluon saturation and baryon stopping in the SPS, RHIC, and LHC energy regions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Shuang; Feng Shengqin
2012-01-01
A new geometrical scaling method with a gluon saturation rapidity limit is proposed to study the gluon saturation feature of the central rapidity region of relativistic nuclear collisions. The net-baryon number is essentially transported by valence quarks that probe the saturation regime in the target by multiple scattering. We take advantage of the gluon saturation model with geometric scaling of the rapidity limit to investigate net baryon distributions, nuclear stopping power and gluon saturation features in the SPS and RHIC energy regions. Predictions for net baryon rapidity distributions, mean rapidity loss and gluon saturation feature in central Pb + Pb collisions at the LHC are made in this paper. (authors)
Improving the Simulation of Quark and Gluon Jets with Herwig 7 arXiv
Reichelt, Daniel; Siodmok, Andrzej
2017-12-16
The properties of quark and gluon jets, and the differences between them, are increasingly important at the LHC. However, Monte Carlo event generators are normally tuned to data from $e^+e^-$ collisions which are primarily sensitive to quark-initiated jets. In order to improve the description of gluon jets we make improvements to the perturbative and the non-perturbative modelling of gluon jets and include data with gluon-initiated jets in the tuning for the first time. The resultant tunes significantly improve the description of gluon jets and are now the default in Herwig 7.1.
Quark and gluon jet properties in symmetric three-jet events
Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G
1996-01-01
Quark and gluon jets with the same energy, 24GeV, are compared in symmetric three-jet configurations from hadronic Z decays observed by the ALEPH detector. Jets are defined using the Durham algorithm. Gluon jets are identified using an anti-tag on b jets, based on either a track impact parameter method or a high transverse momentum lepton tag. The comparison of gluon and mixed flavour quark jets shows that gluon jets have a softer fragmentation function, a larger angular width and a higher particle multiplicity. Evidence is also presented which shows that the corresponding differences between gluon and heavy flavour jets are significantly smaller.
Improving the simulation of quark and gluon jets with Herwig 7
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reichelt, Daniel [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Richardson, Peter [CERN, Theory Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Durham University, Department of Physics, IPPP, Durham (United Kingdom); Siodmok, Andrzej [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland)
2017-12-15
The properties of quark and gluon jets, and the differences between them, are increasingly important at the LHC. However, Monte Carlo event generators are normally tuned to data from e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions which are primarily sensitive to quark-initiated jets. In order to improve the description of gluon jets we make improvements to the perturbative and the non-perturbative modelling of gluon jets and include data with gluon-initiated jets in the tuning for the first time. The resultant tunes significantly improve the description of gluon jets and are now the default in Herwig 7.1. (orig.)
Exclusive $\\rho^0$ muoproduction on transversely polarised protons and deuterons
Adolph, C.; Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A.A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthorl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Wang, L.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.
2012-01-01
The transverse target spin azimuthal asymmetry A_UT in hard exclusive production of rho^0 mesons was measured at COMPASS by scattering 160 GeV/c muons off transversely polarised protons and deuterons. The measured asymmetry is sensitive to the nucleon helicity-flip generalised parton distributions E^q, which are related to the orbital angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon. The Q^2, x_B and p_t^2 dependence of A_UT is presented in a wide kinematic range. Results for deuterons are obtained for the first time. The measured asymmetry is small in the whole kinematic range for both protons and deuterons, which is consistent with the theoretical interpretation that contributions from GPDs E^u and E^d approximately cancel.
Polarisation and precise calibration of the LEP beam energy
Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre
2002-01-01
We report in this article on two issues of precision accelerator physics, performed at the LEP collider, that challenged international collaborations. The first result is an increase of the polarisation degree from an almost vanishing natural level to 50%, opening the way to energy calibration by resonant depolarisation. The second result is a systematic and precise determination of the collider centre-of- mass energy correcting for subtle effects such as the azimuthal variation of the beam energy, the magnet temperature, the effects of parasitic earth currents and terrestrial tides. It resulted in an extremely accurate test of the standard model and set significant constraints on the top quark and Higgs masses. (16 refs).
Vacuum polarisation in some static nonuniform magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calucci, G.
1995-11-01
Vacuum polarisation in QED in presence of some configurations of external magnetic fields is investigated. The configuration considered correspond to fields is investigated. The configuration considered correspond to fields lying in a plane and without sources. The motion of a Dirac electron in this field configuration is studied and arguments are found to conclude that the lowest level gives the most important contribution. The result is that the main effect is not very different from the uniform case, the possibilities of calculating the corrections due to the uniformity is explicitly shown. A typical effect of nonuniformity of the field shows out in the refractivity of the field shows out in the refractivity of the vacuum
Monte Carlo evidence for the gluon-chain model of QCD string formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greensite, J.; San Francisco State Univ., CA
1988-08-01
The Monte Carlo method is used to calculate the overlaps string vertical stroken gluons>, where Ψ string [A] is the Yang-Mills wavefunctional due to a static quark-antiquark pair, and vertical stroken gluons > are orthogonal trial states containing n=0, 1, or 2 gluon operators multiplying the true ground state. The calculation is carried out for SU(2) lattice gauge theory in Coulomb gauge, in D=4 dimensions. It is found that the string state is dominated, at small qanti q separations, by the vacuum ('no-gluon') state, at larger separations by the 1-gluon state, and, at the largest separations attempted, the 2-gluon state begins to dominate. This behavior is in qualitative agreement with the gluon-chain model, which is a large-N colors motivated theory of QCD string formation. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clarke, P.
1990-08-01
The implementation of polarised beams at SLC, and hopefully LEP, is an important development. This will allow access to a range of precision measurements which exploit the parity violating nature of the Z boson. This report gives an introduction to the basic quantities which may be measured with polarised beams. These are the left-right asymmetry (A LR ), forward-backward asymmetries with and without polarisation (A R FB , A L FB , A FB ) and the ''improved'' polarised forward-backward asymmetry (A pol FB ). The final state polarisation measurement is also discussed. (author)
Spin Polarisabilities and Compton Scattering from χEFT: Bridging QCD and Data
Griesshammer, Harald W.; McGovern, Judith A.; Phillips, Daniel R.
2017-01-01
Compton scattering from protons and neutrons probes their two-photon response in electric and magnetic fields of real photons, exploring the symmetries and interaction strengths of the internal degrees of freedom. With the scalar polarisabilities αE 1 and βM 1 now reasonably understood, the focus turns to the so-far poorly explored spin-polarisabilities. They parametrise the stiffness of the nucleon spin in external electro-magnetic fields, analogous to rotations of the polarisation of light by optically active media (bi-refringence/Faraday effect) and are particularly sensitive to the directional dependence of the πNγ interactions dictated by chiral symmetry and its breaking. This contribution addresses the potential of Chiral Effective Field Theory to relate between lattice QCD and ongoing or approved efforts at MAX-lab, HI γS and MAMI. We discuss high-intensity experiments with polarised targets and polarised beams which will allow the extraction of the spin-polarisabilities; χEFT predictions which indicate which observables for polarised protons, deuterons and 3 He are particularly sensitive; convergence, residual theoretical uncertainties and possibilities for improvement; and chiral extrapolations in mπ for lattice computations. Supported in part by UK STFC, US DOE and George Washington University.
Lamy, H.; Barthelemy, M.; Simon Wedlund, C.; Lilensten, J.; Bommier, V.
2011-12-01
Polarisation of light is a key observable to provide information about asymmetry or anisotropy within a radiative source. Following the pioneering and controversial work of Duncan in 1959, the polarisation of auroral emission lines in the Earth's upper atmosphere has been overlooked for a long time, even though the red intense auroral line (6300Å) produced by collisional impacts with electrons precipitating along magnetic field lines is a good candidate to search for polarisation. This problem was investigated again by Lilensten et al (2006) and observations were obtained by Lilensten et al (2008) confirming that the red auroral emission line is polarised. More recent measurements obtained by Barthélemy et al (2011) are presented and discussed. The results are compared to predictions of the theoretical work of Bommier et al (2011) and are in good agreement. Following these encouraging results, a new dedicated spectropolarimeter is currently under construction between BIRA-IASB and IPAG to provide simultaneously the polarisation of the red line and of other interesting auroral emission lines such as N2+ 1NG (4278Å), other N2 bands, etc... Perspectives regarding the theoretical polarisation of some of these lines will be presented. The importance of these polarisation measurements in the framework of atmospheric modeling and geomagnetic activity will be discussed.
Investigating pitting in X65 carbon steel using potentiostatic polarisation
Mohammed, Sikiru; Hua, Yong; Barker, R.; Neville, A.
2017-11-01
Although pitting corrosion in passive materials is generally well understood, the growth of surface pits in actively-corroding materials has received much less attention to date and remains poorly understood. One of the key challenges which exists is repeatedly and reliably generating surface pits in a practical time-frame in the absence of deformation and/or residual stress so that studies on pit propagation and healing can be performed. Another pertinent issue is how to evaluate pitting while addressing general corrosion in low carbon steel. In this work, potentiostatic polarisation was employed to induce corrosion pits (free from deformation or residual stress) on actively corroding X65 carbon steel. The influence of applied potential (50 mV, 100 mV and 150 mV vs open circuit potential) was investigated over 24 h in a CO2-saturated, 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at 30 °C and pH 3.8. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilised to examine pits, while surface profilometry was conducted to measure pit depth as a function of applied potential over the range considered. Analyses of light pitting (up to 120 μm) revealed that pit depth increased linearly with increase in applied potential. This paper relates total pit volume (measured using white light interferometry) to dissipated charge or total mass loss (using the current response for potentiostatic polarisation in conjunction with Faraday's law). By controlling the potential of the surface (anodic) the extent of pitting and general corrosion could be controlled. This allowed pits to be evaluated for their ability to continue to propagate after the potentiostatic technique was employed. Linear growth from a depth of 70 μm at pH 3.8, 80 °C was demonstrated. The technique offers promise for the study of inhibition of pitting.
Abbiendi, G.; Ainsley, C.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Baumann, S.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauke, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Stumpf, L.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tarem, S.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Toya, D.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Vachon, B.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.
2001-01-01
Measurements are presented of the polarisation of W+W- boson pairs produced in e+e- collisions, and of CP-violating WWZ and WWGamma trilinear gauge couplings. The data were recorded by the OPAL experiment at LEP during 1998, where a total integrated luminosity of 183 pb^-1 was obtained at a centre-of-mass energy of 189 GeV. The measurements are performed through a spin density matrix analysis of the W boson decay products. The fraction of W bosons produced with longitudinal polarisation was found to be sigma_L/sigma_total = (21.0 +- 3.3 +- 1.6)% where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. The joint W boson pair production fractions were found to be sigma_TT/sigma_total = (78.1 +- 9.0 +- 3.2) %, sigma_LL/sigma_total = (20.1 +- 7.2 +- 1.8) % and sigma_TL/sigma_total = (1.8 +- 14.7 +- 3.8) %. In the CP-violating trilinear gauge coupling sector we find kappa_z = -0.20 +0.10 -0.07, g^z_4 = -0.02 +0.32 -0.33 and lambda_z = -0.18 +0.24 -0.16, where errors include both statistical and systematic u...
The physics of hot and dense quark-gluon matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kharzeev, Dmitri E. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
2012-05-10
This technical report describes the work done under the DOE grant DE-FG-88ER41723 (final award number DE-SC0005645), "The physics of hot and dense quark-gluon matter", during the year of 12/01/2010 through 11/30/2011. As planned in the proposal, the performed research focused along two main thrusts: 1) topological effects in hot quark-gluon matter and 2) phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions. The results of research are presented in 12 papers published in reputable refereed journals (Physical Review Letters, Physical Review, Physics Letters and Nuclear Physics). All of the performed research is directly related to the experimental programs of DOE, especially at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Much of it also has broader interdisciplinary implications - for example, the work on the non-dissipative chiral magnetic current is directly relevant for quantum computing. The attached report describes the performed work in detail.
Running coupling corrections to high energy inclusive gluon production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, W.A.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.
2011-01-01
We calculate running coupling corrections for the lowest-order gluon production cross section in high energy hadronic and nuclear scattering using the BLM scale-setting prescription. In the final answer for the cross section the three powers of fixed coupling are replaced by seven factors of running coupling, five in the numerator and two in the denominator, forming a 'septumvirate' of running couplings, analogous to the 'triumvirate' of running couplings found earlier for the small-x BFKL/BK/JIMWLK evolution equations. It is interesting to note that the two running couplings in the denominator of the 'septumvirate' run with complex-valued momentum scales, which are complex conjugates of each other, such that the production cross section is indeed real. We use our lowest-order result to conjecture how running coupling corrections may enter the full fixed-coupling k T -factorization formula for gluon production which includes nonlinear small-x evolution.
The soft-gluon current at one-loop order
Catani, S
2000-01-01
We study the soft limit of one-loop QCD amplitudes and we derive the process-independent factorization formula that controls the singular behaviour in this limit. This is obtained from the customary eikonal factorization formula valid at tree (classical) level by introducing a generalized soft-gluon current that embodies the quantum corrections. We compute the explicit expression of the soft-gluon current at one-loop order. It contains purely non-abelian correlations between the colour charges of each pair of hard-momentum partons in the matrix element. This leads to colour correlations between (two and) three hard partons in the matrix element squared. Exploiting colour conservation, we recover QED-like factorization for the square of the matrix elements with two and three hard partons.
Gluon propagator in non-Abelian Weizsaecker-Williams fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayala, A.; Jalilian-Marian, J.; McLerran, L.; Venugopalan, R.
1995-01-01
We carefully compute the gluon propagator in the background of a non-Abelian Weizsaecker-Williams field. This background field is generated by the valence quarks in very large nuclei. We find contact terms in the small fluctuation equations of motion which induce corrections to a previously incorrect result for the gluon propagator in such a background field. The well-known problem of the Hermiticity of certain operators in the light cone gauge is resolved for the Weizsaecker-Williams background field. This is achieved by working in a gauge where singular terms in the equations of motion are absent and then gauge transforming the small fluctuation fields to the light cone gauge
On the zero crossing of the three-gluon vertex
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Athenodorou, A. [Department of Physics, University of Cyprus, POB 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Binosi, D., E-mail: binosi@ectstar.eu [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas - ECT* and Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Villa Tambosi, Strada delle Tabarelle 286, I-38050 Villazzano (Italy); Boucaud, Ph. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique (UMR8627), CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); De Soto, F. [Dpto. Sistemas Físicos, Químicos y Naturales, Univ. Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Papavassiliou, J. [Department of Theoretical Physics and IFIC, University of Valencia-CSIC, E-46100, Valencia (Spain); Rodríguez-Quintero, J. [Department of Integrated Sciences, University of Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Zafeiropoulos, S. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2016-10-10
We report on new results on the infrared behavior of the three-gluon vertex in quenched Quantum Chromodynamics, obtained from large-volume lattice simulations. The main focus of our study is the appearance of the characteristic infrared feature known as ‘zero crossing’, the origin of which is intimately connected with the nonperturbative masslessness of the Faddeev–Popov ghost. The appearance of this effect is clearly visible in one of the two kinematic configurations analyzed, and its theoretical origin is discussed in the framework of Schwinger–Dyson equations. The effective coupling in the momentum subtraction scheme that corresponds to the three-gluon vertex is constructed, revealing the vanishing of the effective interaction at the exact location of the zero crossing.
Quark/gluon jet discrimination: a reproducible analysis using R
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
The power to discriminate between light-quark jets and gluon jets would have a huge impact on many searches for new physics at CERN and beyond. This talk will present a walk-through of the development of a prototype machine learning classifier for differentiating between quark and gluon jets at experiments like those at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A new fast feature selection method that combines information theory and graph analytics will be outlined. This method has found new variables that promise significant improvements in discrimination power. The prototype jet tagger is simple, interpretable, parsimonious, and computationally extremely cheap, and therefore might be suitable for use in trigger systems for real-time data processing. Nested stratified k-fold cross validation was used to generate robust estimates of model performance. The data analysis was performed entirely in the R statistical programming language, and is fully reproducible. The entire analysis workflow is data-driven, automated a...
Recursive Neural Networks in Quark/Gluon Tagging
CERN. Geneva
2018-01-01
Vidyo contribution Based on the natural tree-like structure of jet sequential clustering, the recursive neural networks (RecNNs) embed jet clustering history recursively as in natural language processing. We explore the performance of RecNN in quark/gluon discrimination. The results show that RecNNs work better than the baseline BDT by a few percent in gluon rejection at the working point of 50\\% quark acceptance. We also experimented on some relevant aspects which might influence the performance of networks. It shows that even only particle flow identification as input feature without any extra information on momentum or angular position is already giving a fairly good result, which indicates that most of the information for q/g discrimination is already included in the tree-structure itself.
Evolution of gluon TMDs from small to moderate x
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tarasov, Andrey [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-05-01
Recently we obtained an evolution equation of gluon TMDs, which addresses a problem of unification of different kinematic regimes. It describes evolution in the whole range of Bjorken $x_B$ and the whole range of transverse momentum $k_\\perp$. In this notes I study different limits of this evolution equation and show how it yields several well-known and some previously unknown results.
RHIC AND THE PURSUIT OF THE QUARK-GLUON PLASMA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MITCHELL,J.T.
2001-07-25
There is a fugitive on the loose. Its name is Quark-Gluon Plasma, alias the QGP. The QGP is a known informant with knowledge about the fundamental building blocks of nature that we wish to extract. This briefing will outline the status of the pursuit of the elusive QGP. We will cover what makes the QGP tick, its modus operandi, details on how we plan to hunt the fugitive down, and our level of success thus far.
Hybrids as a signature of quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbas, Afsar; Paria, Lina [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar-751005 (India)
1997-07-01
We show that the dynamics of the quark - gluon plasma is such that during hadronization the creation of hybrids will predominate over the creation of mesons, giving a novel signature of the existence of QGP. At T=0 the qq-barg hybrids are known to decay strongly into a pair of mesons. We find that at temperatures relevant to the QGP, this channel is forbidden. This would lead to significant modifications of the photonic signals of the QGP. (author)
Gluon and charm content of the η' meson and instantons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuryak, E.V.; Zhitnitsky, A.R.
1998-01-01
Motivated by recent CLEO measurements of the B→η ' 'K decay, we evaluate the gluon and charm content of the η ' ' meson using the interacting instanton liquid model of the QCD vacuum. Our main result is left-angle 0|g 3 f abc G μν a G να b G αμ c |η ' 'right-angle=-(2
A two-gluon exchange model of elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richards, D.G.
1985-01-01
A two-gluon exchange (2GE) model of elastic hadron-hadron scattering is presented employing scalar quarks to facilitate the construction of a simple yet realistic hadronic wave function. The amplitude is calculated both in the forward direction and for non-zero values of t, and the results compared with that generated by pomeron exchange calculations which currently provide the best description of the data. (orig.)
Electromagnetic radiation by quark-gluon plasma in magnetic field
Tuchin, Kirill
2012-01-01
The electromagnetic radiation by quark-gluon plasma in strong magnetic field is calculated. The contributing processes are synchrotron radiation and one--photon annihilation. It is shown that in relativistic heavy--ion collisions at RHIC and LHC synchrotron radiation dominates over the annihilation. Moreover, it constitutes a significant part of all photons produced by the plasma at low transverse momenta; its magnitude depends on the plasma temperature and the magnetic field strength. Electr...
Radiation spectrum of a massive quark–gluon antenna
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calvo, M.R., E-mail: manoel.rodriguez@usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Institut de Physique Théorique de Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Moldes, M.R., E-mail: manoel.rodriguez-moldes@usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Salgado, C.A., E-mail: carlos.salgado@usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)
2014-12-15
We compute the color coherence effects for soft gluon radiation off antennas containing heavy quarks in the presence of a QCD medium. The analysis is performed resumming the multiple scattering of the partonic system with the medium. The main conclusion is that decorrelation due to color rotation is more effective in the case in which at least one of the emitters of the antenna is a heavy quark.
Phenomenological Review on Quark-Gluon Plasma: Concepts vs. Observations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pasechnik, R.; Šumbera, Michal
2017-01-01
Roč. 3, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 7. ISSN 2218-1997 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031; GA ČR GA13-20841S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : extreme states of matter * heavy ion collisions * QCD critical point * quark-gluon plasma * saturation phenomena * QCD vacuum Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics
Superconvergent gluon propagator and the quark-antiquark potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oehme, R.; Chicago Univ., IL; Chicago Univ., IL
1989-01-01
Superconvergence of the gluon propagator, together with the asymptotically negative sign of the discontinuity, imply that the structure function has a representation which corresponds to an approximately linear quark-antiquark potential, provided the number of flavors is less than ten. For more than ten flavors, there is no indication for a linear potential within this framework. The connection with metric confinement is emphasized. Possible dipole terms are considered briefly. (orig.)
RHIC and the pursuit of the quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitchell, J.T.
2001-01-01
There is a fugitive on the loose. Its name is Quark-Gluon Plasma, alias the QGP. The QGP is a known informant with knowledge about the fundamental building blocks of nature that we wish to extract. This briefing will outline the status of the pursuit of the elusive QGP. We will cover what makes the QGP tick, its modus operandi, details on how we plan to hunt the fugitive down, and our level of success thus far
On the scattering of gluons in the GKP string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianchi, Lorenzo; Hamburg Univ.; Bianchi, Marco S.
2015-11-01
We compute the one-loop S-matrix for the light bosonic excitations of the GKP string at strong coupling. These correspond, on the gauge theory side, to gluon insertions in the GKP vacuum. We perform the calculation by Feynman diagrams in the worldsheet theory and we compare the result to the integrability prediction, finding perfect agreement for the scheme independent part. For scheme dependent rational terms we test different schemes and find that a recent proposal reproduces exactly the integrability prediction.
Transport phenomena in a plasma of confining gluons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ryblewski Radoslaw
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The plasma of confining gluons resulting from the Gribov quantization is considered. In the fluid dynamical framework the non-equilibrium properties of the system are studied. In the linear response approximation the formulas for the bulk, ζ, and shear, η, viscosities of the plasma are calculated analytically. Surprisingly, the approximate scaling of the ζ/η ratio reveals the strong-coupling properties of the system under consideration.
Transport phenomena in a plasma of confining gluons
Ryblewski, Radoslaw
2016-11-01
The plasma of confining gluons resulting from the Gribov quantization is considered. In the fluid dynamical framework the non-equilibrium properties of the system are studied. In the linear response approximation the formulas for the bulk, ζ, and shear, η, viscosities of the plasma are calculated analytically. Surprisingly, the approximate scaling of the ζ/η ratio reveals the strong-coupling properties of the system under consideration.
Resummation and power corrections by Dressed Gluon Exponentiation
Gardi, Einan; Gardi, Einan; Rathsman, Johan
2002-01-01
Event-shape distributions in $e^+e^-$ annihilation offer a unique lab oratory for understanding perturbative and non-perturbative aspects of QCD. Dressed Gluon Exponentiation is a resummation method designed to evaluate differ ential cross sections close to a kinematic threshold and provide the basis for parametrization of power corrections. The method and its application in the case of the thrust and the heavy jet mass distributions in the two-jet region are briefly presented.
Squark cascade decays to charginos/neutralinos. Gluon radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horsky, R.; Kraemer, M. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik E; Mueck, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zerwas, P.M. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik E]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique
2008-03-15
The momentum spectrum and the polarization of charginos and neutralinos in squark decays are affected by gluon radiation in the decay process q{yields}q{chi}(g). We determine these corrections and study their impact on the [ql] invariant mass distributions for leptonic {chi} decays. The higher-order corrections, though small in general, can be sizeable near pronounced edges of the final-state distributions. (orig.)
Heavy-quark expansion, factorization and 8-dimensional gluon condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagan, E.; Latorre, J.I.; Pascual, P.; Tarrach, R.
1985-01-01
We analyze the phenomenon of heavy-quark condensation within the framework of the QCD sum rule approach, and apply the consequences of this analysis to the heavy-quark expansion. This technique allows one to relate 6-dimensional quark condensates with quartic 8-dimensional gluon condensates. Factorization of the quark condensates together with the specific feature of 3 condensates, which we believe to be well-founded. (orig.)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Adolph, C.; Alekseev, M.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A. A.; Austregisilio, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.V.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Höppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Y.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nowak, W. D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlütter, T.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, K.; Schmiden, H.; Schmitt, L.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.; Zvyagin, A.
2013-01-01
Roč. 87, č. 5 (2013), 052018:1-22 ISSN 1550-7998 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : dependent structure-function * Monte-Carlo generator Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 4.864, year: 2013
Two-gluon and trigluon glueballs from dynamical holography QCD
Chen, Yi-dian; Huang, Mei
2016-12-01
We study the scalar, vector and tensor two-gluon and trigluon glueball spectra in the framework of the 5-dimension dynamical holographic QCD model, where the metric structure is deformed self-consistently by the dilaton field. For comparison, the glueball spectra are also calculated in the hard-wall and soft-wall holographic QCD models. In order to distinguish glueballs with even and odd parities, we introduce a positive and negative coupling between the dilaton field and glueballs, and for higher spin glueballs, we introduce a deformed 5-dimension mass. With this set-up, there is only one free parameter from the quadratic dilaton profile in the dynamical holographic QCD model, which is fixed by the scalar glueball spectra. It is found that the two-gluon glueball spectra produced in the dynamical holographic QCD model are in good agreement with lattice data. Among six trigluon glueballs, the produced masses for 1±- and 2-- are in good agreement with lattice data, and the produced masses for 0--, 0+- and 2+- are around 1.5 GeV lighter than lattice results. This result might indicate that the three trigluon glueballs of 0--, 0+- and 2+- are dominated by the three-gluon condensate contribution. Supported by the NSFC (11175251, 11621131001), DFG and NSFC (CRC 110), CAS Key Project KJCX2-EW-N01, K.C.Wong Education Foundation, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS
Quarks and gluons in nuclear and particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Hove, L.
1988-01-01
This paper provides a broad overview of strong interactions, or nuclear forces, as ones understanding has expanded over the past 25 years. The major particles and models are briefly touched upon. The author expands upon the field theories which have evolved to explain the experimental work, and the present model of quarks and gluons which form the components of hadrons. The standard model has been very successful in explaining much of the newly acquired experimental data. But the property of confinement, where the partons, (quarks and gluons), are not observed seperately has precluded observation of these particles. He touches on the manifestation of these particles in high energy physics, where they model the observed particles and resonances, and are responsible for the production of hadronic jets. However in nuclear physics, one does not need to postulate the existance of these particles to explain the properties of nuclei, until one deals with interaction energies in the range of GeV. The author then touches on the area of ultra-relativistic nuclear physics, where the partons must play a role in the effects which are observed. In particular he discusses deep inelastic lepton scattering on nuclei, the Drell-Yan process in nuclei, and ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Finally he gives a brief discussion of the quark-gluon plasma, which is postulated to form during very high energy collisions, manifesting itself as a brief deconfinement of the partons into an equilibrium plasma
Physics and astrophysics of quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1993-01-01
The quark gluon plasma - matter too hot or dense for quarks to crystallize into particles - played a vital role in the formation of the Universe. Efforts to recreate and understand this type of matter are forefront physics and astrophysics, and progress was highlighted in the Second International Conference on Physics and Astrophysics of Quark Gluon Plasma (ICPA-QGP 93), held in Calcutta from 19-23 January. (The first conference in the series was held in Bombay in February 1988). Although primarily motivated towards enlightening the Indian physics community in this new and rapidly evolving area, in which India now plays an important role, the conference also catered for an international audience. Particular emphasis was placed on the role of quark gluon plasma in astrophysics and cosmology. While Charles Alcock of Lawrence Livermore looked at a less conventional picture giving inhomogeneous ('clumpy') nucleosynthesis, David Schramm (Chicago) covered standard big bang nucleosynthesis. The abundances of very light elements do not differ appreciably for these contrasting scenarios; the crucial difference between them shows up for heavier elements like lithium-7 and -8 and boron-11. Richard Boyd (Ohio State) highlighted the importance of accurate measurements of the primordial abundances of these elements for clues to the cosmic quark hadron phase transition. B. Banerjee (Bombay) argued, on the basis of lattice calculations, for only slight supercooling in the cosmic quark phase transition - an assertion which runs counter to the inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis scenario
Experimental study of rapidity gaps in gluon jets
Gary, J W
2003-01-01
Gluon jets are selected from hadronic Z/sup 0/ decay events produced in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilations, collected with the OPAL detector at LEP. A subsample of these jets is identified which exhibit a large gap in the rapidity distribution of particles within the jet. These jets are observed to demonstrate a high degree of sensitivity to the presence of color reconnection, i.e. higher order QCD processes affecting the underlying color structure. We test two QCD Monte Carlo programs which implement color reconnection: one in the Ariadne Monte Carlo and the other by Rathsman in the Pythia Monte Carlo. We find these models can describe our gluon jet measurements only if very large values are used for the cutoff parameters which serve to terminate the parton showers, and conclude that color reconnection as implemented in these models is disfavored. Further, we use our data on gluon jets with a rapidity gap to search for glueball-like objects in the leading part of those jets. We do not find any clear evidence for...
Holographic quark gluon plasma with flavor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaminski, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany)
2009-01-15
In this work I explore theoretical and phenomenological implications of chemical potentials and charge densities inside a strongly coupled thermal plasma, using the gauge/gravity correspondence. Strong coupling effects discovered in this model theory are interpreted geometrically and may be taken as qualitative predictions for heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. In particular I examine the thermodynamics, spectral functions, transport coefficients and the phase diagram of the strongly coupled plasma. For example stable mesons, which are the analogs of the QCD Rho-mesons, are found to survive beyond the deconfinement transition. A phase transition resembling 2-flavor QCD is discovered. The momentum diffusion rate of charmonium at strong coupling is significantly reduced compared to the weak coupling result, in reminiscence of the universal viscosity bound. This paper is based on partly unpublished work performed in the context of my PhD thesis. New results and ideas extending significantly beyond those published until now are stressed. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
The Effect of Cobalt-Sublattice Disorder on Spin Polarisation in Co2FexMn1−xSi Heusler Alloys
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philip J. Hasnip
2014-02-01
Full Text Available In this work we present a theoretical study of the effect of disorder on spin polarisation at the Fermi level, and the disorder formation energies for Co2FexMn1−xSi (CFMS alloys. The electronic calculations are based on density functional theory with a Hubbard U term. Chemical disorders studied consist of swapping Co with Fe/Mn and Co with Si; in all cases we found these are detrimental for spin polarisation, i.e., the spin polarisation not only decreases in magnitude, but also can change sign depending on the particular disorder. Formation energy calculation shows that Co–Si disorder has higher energies of formation in CFMS compared to Co2MnSi and Co2FeSi, with maximum values occurring for x in the range 0.5–0.75. Cross-sectional structural studies of reference Co2MnSi, Co2Fe0.5Mn0.5Si, and Co2FeSi by Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy are in qualitative agreement with total energy calculations of the disordered structures.
Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, U; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W-D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, P; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, D; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, M; Baubillier, M; Becks, K-H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N; Benvenuti, A; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Buschbeck, B; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F; Chapkin, M; Charpentier, Ph; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, Ph; Gazis, E; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S-O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J-C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, F; Nawrocki, K; Némécek, S; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevski, A; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, Th D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Radojicic, D; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Sekulin, R; Siebel, M; Sisakian, A; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M-L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M
2009-01-01
In a study of the reaction e-e+ -> W-W+ with the DELPHI detector, the probabilities of the two W particles occurring in the joint polarisation states transverse-transverse (TT), longitudinal-transverse plus transverse-longitudinal (LT) and longitudinal-longitudinal (LL) have been determined using the final states WW -> l nu q qbar (l = e, mu). The two-particle joint polarisation probabilities, i.e. the spin density matrix elements rho_TT, rho_LT, rho_LL, are measured as functions of the W- production angle, theta_W-, at an average reaction energy of 198.2 GeV. Averaged over all cos(theta_W-), the following joint probabilities are obtained: rho_TT = (67 +/- 8)%, rho_LT = (30 +/- 8)%, rho_LL = (3 +/- 7)% . These results are in agreement with the Standard Model predictions of 63.0%, 28.9% and 8.1%, respectively. The related polarisation cross-sections sigma_TT, sigma_LT and sigma_LL are also presented.
The Quark-Gluon Plasma Equation of State and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. I. Abou-Salem
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The quark-gluon plasma (QGP equation of state within a minimal length scenario or Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP is studied. The Generalized Uncertainty Principle is implemented on deriving the thermodynamics of ideal QGP at a vanishing chemical potential. We find a significant effect for the GUP term. The main features of QCD lattice results were quantitatively achieved in case of nf=0, nf=2, and nf=2+1 flavors for the energy density, the pressure, and the interaction measure. The exciting point is the large value of bag pressure especially in case of nf=2+1 flavor which reflects the strong correlation between quarks in this bag which is already expected. One can notice that the asymptotic behavior which is characterized by Stephan-Boltzmann limit would be satisfied.
The quark gluon plasma equation of state and the expansion of the early Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanches, S.M.; Navarra, F.S.; Fogaça, D.A.
2015-01-01
Our knowledge of the equation of state of the quark gluon plasma has been continuously growing due to the experimental results from heavy ion collisions, due to recent astrophysical measurements and also due to the advances in lattice QCD calculations. The new findings about this state may have consequences on the time evolution of the early Universe, which can be estimated by solving the Friedmann equations. The solutions of these equations give the time evolution of the energy density and also of the temperature in the beginning of the Universe. In this work we compute the time evolution of the QGP in the early Universe, comparing several equations of state, some of them based on the MIT bag model (and on its variants) and some of them based on lattice QCD calculations. Among other things, we investigate the effects of a finite baryon chemical potential in the evolution of the early Universe
Equation of state and viscosities from a gravity dual of the gluon plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Yaresko
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Employing new precision data of the equation of state of the SU(3 Yang–Mills theory (gluon plasma the dilaton potential of a gravity-dual model is adjusted in the temperature range (1–10Tc within a bottom-up approach. The ratio of bulk viscosity to shear viscosity follows then as ζ/η≈πΔvs2 for Δvs2<0.2 and achieves a maximum value of 0.94 at Δvs2≈0.3, where Δvs2≡1/3−vs2 is the non-conformality measure and vs2 is the velocity of sound squared, while the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density is known as (4π−1 for the considered set-up with Hilbert action on the gravity side.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burtin, Etienne
1996-01-01
This research thesis reports the development of a muon-based polarimeter which implements elastic scattering of muons on a target of polarised electrons. In its first part, it describes the deeply inelastic scattering process, and presents the theoretical framework for the interpretation of experimental results. The author describes the experimental installation, and the measurement of the beam polarisation by elastic scattering on a target of polarised electrons. He reports the analysis of data obtained with a 190 GeV beam, the discussion and assessment of error sources, the comparison of these results with other measurements using the muon in-flight disintegration, and with the prediction obtained by the beam line simulation. He finally reports the results of the SMC experiment obtained for the proton and the deuteron, and demonstrates the verification of the Bjorken sum rule
Early-time dynamics of gluon fields in high energy nuclear collisions
Chen, Guangyao; Fries, Rainer J.; Kapusta, Joseph I.; Li, Yang
2015-12-01
Nuclei colliding at very high energy create a strong, quasiclassical gluon field during the initial phase of their interaction. We present an analytic calculation of the initial space-time evolution of this field in the limit of very high energies using a formal recursive solution of the Yang-Mills equations. We provide analytic expressions for the initial chromoelectric and chromomagnetic fields and for their energy-momentum tensor. In particular, we discuss event-averaged results for energy density and energy flow as well as for longitudinal and transverse pressure of this system. For example, we find that the ratio of longitudinal to transverse pressure very early in the system behaves as pL/pT=-[1 -3/2 a (Qτ ) 2] /[1 -1/a (Qτ ) 2] +O (Qτ ) 4 , where τ is the longitudinal proper time, Q is related to the saturation scales Qs of the two nuclei, and a =ln(Q2/m̂2) with m ̂ a scale to be defined later. Our results are generally applicable if τ ≲1 /Q . As already discussed in a previous paper, the transverse energy flow Si of the gluon field exhibits hydrodynamiclike contributions that follow transverse gradients of the energy density ∇iɛ . In addition, a rapidity-odd energy flow also emerges from the non-Abelian analog of Gauss' law and generates nonvanishing angular momentum of the field. We discuss the space-time picture that emerges from our analysis and its implications for observables in heavy-ion collisions.
A polarisation modulation scheme for measuring vacuum magnetic birefringence with static fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zavattini, G.; Ejlli, A. [Universita di Ferrara, Dipt. di Fisica e Scienze della Terra (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Della Valle, F. [Universita di Trieste, Dipt. di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, TS (Italy); Ruoso, G. [INFN, Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy)
2016-05-15
A novel polarisation modulation scheme for polarimeters based on Fabry-Perot cavities is presented. The application to the measurement of the magnetic birefringence of vacuum with the HERA superconducting magnets in the ALPS-II configuration is discussed. (orig.)
Inclusive and semi-inclusive analysis from polarised deep-inelastic muon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kageya, T.
1999-01-01
We present new results for the spin-dependent structure function on the proton and for the polarised quark distributions in the nucleon from semi-inclusive spin asymmetries. With the inclusive asymmetry from deep inelastic scattering of polarised muons on polarised protons, it is found that the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule is violated. Using our results for Γ d 1 , the Bjorken sum rule is confirmed with an accuracy of about 15%. From semi-inclusive spin asymmetries and SMC inclusive spin asymmetries, we determine the polarised quark distributions of valence u and d quarks to be positive and negative, respectively, while the non-strange sea distribution to be consistent with zero
Parnell, S R; Washington, A L; Li, K; Yan, H; Stonaha, P; Li, F; Wang, T; Walsh, A; Chen, W C; Parnell, A J; Fairclough, J P A; Baxter, D V; Snow, W M; Pynn, R
2015-02-01
We present a new instrument for spin echo small angle neutron scattering (SESANS) developed at the Low Energy Neutron Source at Indiana University. A description of the various instrument components is given along with the performance of these components. At the heart of the instrument are a series of resistive coils to encode the neutron trajectory into the neutron polarisation. These are shown to work well over a broad range of neutron wavelengths. Neutron polarisation analysis is accomplished using a continuously operating neutron spin filter polarised by Rb spin-exchange optical pumping of (3)He. We describe the performance of the analyser along with a study of the (3)He polarisation stability and its implications for SESANS measurements. Scattering from silica Stöber particles is investigated and agrees with samples run on similar instruments.
Effects of the particle spin polarisation on the unstable modes in the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
. In this article, the contribution of the electron spin on the growth rate of the temperature anisotropy of electromagnetic instabilities has been investigated. Results show that polarisation of the electron spin will restrict the instability growth rate ...
On cloud ice induced absorption and polarisation effects in microwave limb sounding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Eriksson
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Microwave limb sounding in the presence of ice clouds was studied by detailed simulations, where clouds and other atmospheric variables varied in three dimensions and the full polarisation state was considered. Scattering particles were assumed to be horizontally aligned oblate spheroids with a size distribution parameterized in terms of temperature and ice water content. A general finding was that particle absorption is significant for limb sounding, which is in contrast to the down-looking case, where it is usually insignificant. Another general finding was that single scattering can be assumed for cloud optical paths below about 0.1, which is thus an important threshold with respect to the complexity and accuracy of retrieval algorithms. The representation of particle sizes during the retrieval is also discussed. Concerning polarisation, specific findings were as follows: Firstly, no significant degree of circular polarisation was found for the considered particle type. Secondly, for the ±45° polarisation components, differences of up to 4 K in brightness temperature were found, but differences were much smaller when single scattering conditions applied. Thirdly, the vertically polarised component has the smallest cloud extinction. An important goal of the study was to derive recommendations for future limb sounding instruments, particularly concerning their polarisation setup. If ice water content is among the retrieval targets (and not just trace gas mixing ratios, then the simulations show that it should be best to observe any of the ±45° and circularly polarised components. These pairs of orthogonal components also make it easier to combine information measured from different positions and with different polarisations.
Anwendung der spektralen induzierten Polarisation in der archäologischen Prospektion
Schleifer, Norbert
2006-01-01
Die Induzierte Polarisation (IP) ist ein geoelektrisches Verfahren und wurde ursprünglich zur Exploration von Erzvorkommen entwickelt. Neben metallischen Leitern, tragen auch Tonminerale, der Porenraum und die chemische Zusammensetzung der Porenlösung zur Polarisierbarkeit eines Unter-grundes bei. Die spektrale Induzierte Polarisation (SIP) untersucht die Polarisierbarkeit in einem Frequenzbereich von 1 mHz bis 1 kHz und nutzt diese aufgezeichneten Spektren zur Unterscheidung von Materialien....
Polarisation vision: overcoming challenges of working with a property of light we barely see
Foster, James J.; Temple, Shelby E.; How, Martin J.; Daly, Ilse M.; Sharkey, Camilla R.; Wilby, David; Roberts, Nicholas W.
2018-04-01
In recent years, the study of polarisation vision in animals has seen numerous breakthroughs, not just in terms of what is known about the function of this sensory ability, but also in the experimental methods by which polarisation can be controlled, presented and measured. Once thought to be limited to only a few animal species, polarisation sensitivity is now known to be widespread across many taxonomic groups, and advances in experimental techniques are, in part, responsible for these discoveries. Nevertheless, its study remains challenging, perhaps because of our own poor sensitivity to the polarisation of light, but equally as a result of the slow spread of new practices and methodological innovations within the field. In this review, we introduce the most important steps in designing and calibrating polarised stimuli, within the broader context of areas of current research and the applications of new techniques to key questions. Our aim is to provide a constructive guide to help researchers, particularly those with no background in the physics of polarisation, to design robust experiments that are free from confounding factors.
Polarised quark distributions in the nucleon from semi-inclusive spin asymmetries
Adeva, B; Arik, E; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birsa, R; De Botton, N R; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Eichblatt, S; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, S; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiselev, Yu F; Krämer, Dietrich; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Litmaath, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Reicherz, G; Roberts, J; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Roscherr, B; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J
1998-01-01
We present a measurement of semi-inclusive spin asymmetries for positively and negatively charged hadrons from deep inelastic scattering of polarised muons on polarised protons and deuterons in the range $0.003$1~GeV$^2$. Compared to our previous publication on this subject, with the new data the statistical errors have been reduced by nearly a factor of two. From these asymmetries and our inclusive spin asymmetries we determine the polarised quark distributions of valence quarks and non-strange sea quarks at $Q^2$=10~GeV$^2$. The polarised $u$ valence quark distribution, $\\Delta u_v(x)$, is positive and the polarisation increases with $x$. The polarised $d$ valence quark distribution, $\\Delta d_v(x)$, is negative and the non-strange sea distribution, $\\Delta \\bar q(x)$, is consistent with zero over the measured range of $x$. We find for the first moments $\\int_0^1 \\Delta u_v(x) {\\rm d}x = 0.77 \\pm 0.10 \\pm 0.08$, $\\int_0^1 \\Delta d_v(x) {\\rm d}x = -0.52 \\pm 0.14 \\pm 0.09$ and $\\int_0^1 \\Delta \\bar q(x) {\\rm ...
A QCD derivation of the additive quark model from two and three gluon exchanges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1982-06-01
The contributions to the Pomeron from two and three gluon exchanges are shown to give the correct combinatorial factors for the additive quark model relation between meson and baryon Pomeron couplings, even though two-quark and three-quark operators are involved. Similar results hold for the contributions to hadron masses from three-gluon vertices as well as one-gluon exchange. The color algebra reduces the multiquark couplings to a linear function of quark number. (author)
The PLUTO experiment at DORIS (DESY) and the discovery of the gluon (A recollection)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stella, Bruno R. [Rome-3 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Meyer, Hans-Juergen
2010-08-15
With the aim of determining the contribution of the PLUTO experiment at the DORIS e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring to the discovery of the gluon, as members of this former collaboration we have reconsidered all the scientific material produced by PLUTO in 1978 and the first half of 1979. It is clear that the experiment demonstrated the main decay of the Y(9.46 GeV) resonance to be mediated by 3 gluons, by providing evidence for the agreement of this hypothesis with average values and differential distributions of all possible experimental variables and by excluding all other possible alternative models. Moreover PLUTO measured in June 1979 the matrix element of the 3-gluon decay to be quantitatively as expected by QCD (even after hadronization) and, having checked the possibility to correctly trace the gluons' directions, demonstrated the spin 1 nature of the gluon by excluding spin 0 and spin 1/2. The hadronization of the gluon like a quark jet, hypothesized in the 3-gluon jet Monte Carlo simulation, was compatible with the topological data at this energy and was shown to be an approximation at 10% level for the multiplicity ({approx} < p {sub vertical} {sub stroke} {sub vertical} {sub stroke} {sub >}{sup -1}); the right expected gluon fragmentation was needed for the inclusive distributions; this was the first experimental study of (identified) gluon jets. In the following measurements at the PETRA storage ring, these results were confirmed by PLUTO and by three contemporaneous experiments by evidencing at higher energies the gluon radiation (''bremsstrahlung''), the softer one, by jet broadening, and the hard one, by the emission of (now clearly visible) gluon jets by quarks. The gluon's spin 1 particle nature was also confirmed. The PLUTO results on Y decays had been confirmed both by contemporaneous experiments at DORIS (partially) and later (also partially) were confirmed by more sophisticated detectors. (orig.)
Exclusive $\\omega$ meson muoproduction on transversely polarised protons
Adolph, C.; Aghasyan, M.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buechele, M.; Chang, W. -C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S. -U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Duennweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmueller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; dHose, N.; Hsieh, C. -Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Joerg, P.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Koenigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kraemer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y. -S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J. -C.; Pereira, F.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Roskot, M.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schoenning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wallner, S.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.
2017-01-01
Exclusive production of $\\omega$ mesons was studied at the COMPASS experiment by scattering $160~\\mathrm{GeV}/\\mathit{c}$ muons off transversely polarised protons. Five single-spin and three double-spin azimuthal asymmetries were measured in the range of photon virtuality $1~(\\mathrm{GeV}/\\mathit{c})^2 < Q^2 < 10~(\\mathrm{GeV}/\\mathit{c})^2$, Bjorken scaling variable $0.003 < x_{\\mathit{Bj}} < 0.3$ and transverse momentum squared of the $\\omega$ meson $0.05~(\\mathrm{GeV}/\\mathit{c})^2 < p_{T}^{2} < 0.5~(\\mathrm{GeV}/\\mathit{c})^2$. The measured asymmetries are sensitive to the nucleon helicity-flip Generalised Parton Distributions (GPD) $E$ that are related to the orbital angular momentum of quarks, the chiral-odd GPDs $H_{T}$ that are related to the transversity Parton Distribution Functions, and the sign of the $\\pi\\omega$ transition form factor. The results are compared to recent calculations of a GPD-based model.
Radio Polarisation Study of High Rotation Measure AGNs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yik Ki Ma
2017-10-01
Full Text Available As radio polarised emission from astrophysical objects traverse through foreground magnetised plasma, the physical conditions along the lines of sight are encrypted in the form of rotation measure (RM. We performed broadband spectro-polarimetric observations of high rotation measure ( | RM | ≳ 300 rad m − 2 sources away from the Galactic plane ( | b | > 10 ∘ selected from the NVSS RM catalogue. The main goals are to verify the NVSS RM values, which could be susceptible to n π -ambiguity, as well as to identify the origin of the extreme RM values. We show that 40 % of our sample suffer from n π -ambiguity in the NVSS RM catalogue. There are also hints of RM variabilities over ∼20 years epoch for most of our sources, as revealed by comparing the RM values of the two studies in the same frequency ranges after correcting for n π -ambiguity. At last, we demonstrate the possibility of applying QU-fitting to study the ambient media of AGNs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colas, L.; Paume, M.; Zou, X.L.; Chareau, J.M.; Guiziou, L.; Hoang, G.T.; Michelot, Y.; Gresillon, D.
1997-03-01
Magnetic fluctuations (radial size ∼ 5 mm) are measured by a cross polarisation scattering (CPS) diagnostic in TORE SUPRA. These fluctuations are investigated quantitatively in the ohmic and low confinement regimes over a wide range of plasma currents, densities and additional heating powers. Simultaneously, electron heat diffusivities expected from these fluctuations are compared to those obtained by profile analysis. A radial profile of the magnetic fluctuations in the gradient region ( 0.3 e mag = πqRv th (δ B r / B) 2 . Both the order of magnitude and the parametric dependence of χ e mag show similarities with electron diffusivities determined by transport analysis. In particular, a threshold is observed for the dependence of fluctuation-induced heat fluxes on the local temperature gradient, which is close to the critical gradient observed for the measured heat fluxes. (author)
Double-soft behavior for scalars and gluons from string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vecchia, Paolo Di [The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Marotta, Raffaele [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo ed. 6, via Cintia, 80126, Napoli (Italy); Mojaza, Matin [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)
2015-12-22
We compute the leading double-soft behavior for gluons and for the scalars obtained by dimensional reduction of a higher dimensional pure gauge theory, from the scattering amplitudes of gluons and scalars living in the world-volume of a Dp-brane of the bosonic string. In the case of gluons, we compute both the double-soft behavior when the two soft gluons are contiguous as well as when they are not contiguous. From our results, that are valid in string theory, one can easily get the double-soft limit in gauge field theory by sending the string tension to infinity.
Vertex of three and four gluons in the Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandt, F.T.C.
1986-01-01
In a general covariant gauge, the structure of the three-point function with one and two external gluons on shell is studied. The contributions which result in the one-loop approximation are expressed in terms of simple functions containing collinear and soft singularities. Furthermore, the contributions asociated with the four-point vertex when all external gluons are on-sheel, are analysed. As an application of these results, the infrared structure of the gluon-gluon scattering amplitude, is studied. (author) [pt
Quarkonium states in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo Yun
2009-09-10
In this work we study the properties of quarkonium states in a quark-gluon plasma which, due to expansion and non-zero viscosity, exhibits a local anisotropy in momentum space. We determine the hard-loop resummed gluon propagator in an anisotropic QCD plasma in general linear gauges and define a potential between heavy quarks from the Fourier transform of its static limit. This potential which arises due to one-gluon exchange describes the force between a quark and anti-quark at short distances. It is closer to the vacuum potential as compared to the isotropic Debye screened potential which indicates the reduced screening in an anisotropic QCD plasma. In addition, angular dependence appears in the potential; we find that there is stronger attraction on distance scales on the order of the inverse Debye mass for quark pairs aligned along the direction of anisotropy than for transverse alignment. The potential at long distances, however, is non-perturbative and modeled as a QCD string which is screened at the same scale as the Coulomb field. At asymptotic separation the potential energy is non-zero and inversely proportional to the temperature. With a phenomenological potential model which incorporates the different behaviors at short and long distances, we solve the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation. Our numerical results show that quarkonium binding is stronger at non-vanishing viscosity and expansion rate, and that the anisotropy leads to polarization of the P-wave states. Furthermore, we determine viscosity corrections to the imaginary part of the heavy-quark potential in the weak-coupling hard-loop approximation. The imaginary part is found to be smaller (in magnitude) than at vanishing viscosity. This implies a smaller decay width of quarkonium bound states in an anisotropic plasma. (orig.)
Quarkonium states in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Yun
2009-01-01
In this work we study the properties of quarkonium states in a quark-gluon plasma which, due to expansion and non-zero viscosity, exhibits a local anisotropy in momentum space. We determine the hard-loop resummed gluon propagator in an anisotropic QCD plasma in general linear gauges and define a potential between heavy quarks from the Fourier transform of its static limit. This potential which arises due to one-gluon exchange describes the force between a quark and anti-quark at short distances. It is closer to the vacuum potential as compared to the isotropic Debye screened potential which indicates the reduced screening in an anisotropic QCD plasma. In addition, angular dependence appears in the potential; we find that there is stronger attraction on distance scales on the order of the inverse Debye mass for quark pairs aligned along the direction of anisotropy than for transverse alignment. The potential at long distances, however, is non-perturbative and modeled as a QCD string which is screened at the same scale as the Coulomb field. At asymptotic separation the potential energy is non-zero and inversely proportional to the temperature. With a phenomenological potential model which incorporates the different behaviors at short and long distances, we solve the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation. Our numerical results show that quarkonium binding is stronger at non-vanishing viscosity and expansion rate, and that the anisotropy leads to polarization of the P-wave states. Furthermore, we determine viscosity corrections to the imaginary part of the heavy-quark potential in the weak-coupling hard-loop approximation. The imaginary part is found to be smaller (in magnitude) than at vanishing viscosity. This implies a smaller decay width of quarkonium bound states in an anisotropic plasma. (orig.)
Interactions of quarks and gluons with nuclei at intermediate energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
1994-04-01
Some processes involving the interaction of medium energy quarks and gluons with nuclear matter are described. Possible mechanisms for the A-dependence of the energy loss of leading protons produced in proton-nucleus collisions are given, and an experiment which may help to distinguish these mechanisms is described. A possible color transparency experiment at CEBAF is described. Experiments to measure energy loss of quarks in nuclear matter and the formation time of hadrons are discussed along with the possibilities of measuring {sigma}{sub J}/{psi} and {sigma}{sub {psi}{prime}} at CEBAF.
Soft-gluon resolution scale in QCD evolution equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Hautmann
2017-09-01
Full Text Available QCD evolution equations can be recast in terms of parton branching processes. We present a new numerical solution of the equations. We show that this parton-branching solution can be applied to analyze infrared contributions to evolution, order-by-order in the strong coupling αs, as a function of the soft-gluon resolution scale parameter. We examine the cases of transverse-momentum ordering and angular ordering. We illustrate that this approach can be used to treat distributions which depend both on longitudinal and on transverse momenta.
Threshold region for Higgs boson production in gluon fusion.
Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2012-09-07
We provide a quantitative determination of the effective partonic kinematics for Higgs boson production in gluon fusion in terms of the collider energy at the LHC. We use the result to assess, as a function of the Higgs boson mass, whether the large m(t) approximation is adequate and Sudakov resummation advantageous. We argue that our results hold to all perturbative orders. Based on our results, we conclude that the full inclusion of finite top mass corrections is likely to be important for accurate phenomenology for a light Higgs boson with m(H)~125 GeV at the LHC with √s=14 TeV.
Quark-Gluon Plasma: from lattice simulations to experimental results
Aarts, G.; Allton, C.; Kelly, A.; Skullerud, J.-I.; Kim, S.; Harris, T.; Ryan, S. M.; Lombardo, M. P.
2014-07-01
Theoretical studies of quarkonia can elucidate some of the important properties of the quark-gluon plasma, the state of matter realised when the temperature exceeds (150) MeV, currently probed by heavy-ion collisions experiments at BNL and the LHC. We report on our results of lattice studies of bottomonia for temperatures in the range 100 MeV lessapprox T lessapprox 450 MeV, introducing and discussing the methodologies we have applied. Of particular interest is the analysis of the spectral functions, where Bayesian methods borrowed and adapted from nuclear and condensed matter physics have proven very successful.
Analytic all-plus-helicity gluon amplitudes in QCD
Dunbar, David C.; Godwin, John H.; Jehu, Guy R.; Perkins, Warren B.
2017-12-01
We detail the calculation of two-loop all-plus-helicity amplitudes for pure Yang-Mills theory. The four-dimensional unitarity methods and augmented recursion techniques we have developed, together with a knowledge of the singular structure of the amplitudes, allow us to compute these in compact analytic forms. Specifically we present the computation and analytic results for the six- and seven-gluon leading color two-loop amplitudes, these being the first QCD two-loop amplitudes beyond five points.
Photon emission from quark-gluon plasma out of equilibrium
Hauksson, Sigtryggur; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles
2018-01-01
The photon emission from a nonequilibrium quark-gluon plasma is analyzed. We derive an integral equation that describes photon production through quark-antiquark annihilation and quark bremsstrahlung. It includes coherence between different scattering sites, also known as the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect. These leading-order processes are studied for the first time together in an out-of-equilibrium field theoretical treatment that enables the inclusion of viscous corrections to the calculation of electromagnetic emission rates. In the special case of an isotropic, viscous, plasma the integral equation only depends on three constants, which capture the nonequilibrium nature of the medium.
Quark gluon plasma: Overview and experimental results from E-735
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turkot, F.; Alexopoulos, T.; Allen, C.
1988-01-01
A brief review of the phenomenology associated with the effort to produce and observe quark-gluon plasma in particle collisions is presented. E-735 has taken data during the 1987 Tevatron-Collider run at /square root/s = 1.8 TeV in pursuit of this goal. Results in the correlation of with multiplicity for charged particles and p/sub t/ distributions for Λ/sup o/ and /bar Lambda//sup o/ are presented. 32 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs
Gluon fragmentation into {sup 3} P{sub J} quarkonium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, J.P.
1995-10-01
The functions of the gluon fragmentation into {sup 3}P{sub j} quarkonium are calculated to order {alpha}{sup 2}{sub s}. With the recent progress in analysing quarkonium systems in QCD it is possible show how the so called divergence in the limit of the zero-binding energy, which is related to P-wave quarkonia, is treated correctly in the case of fragmentation functions. The obtained fragmentation functions satisfy explicitly at the order of {alpha} {sup 2}{sub s} the Altarelli-Parisi equation and when z {yields} 0 they behave as z{sup -1} as expected. 19 refs., 7 figs.
Very high energy probes of the quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ludlam, T.; Paige, F.; Madansky, L.
1984-01-01
Among the penetrating probes of nuclear matter the most frequently discussed have been those which involve the detection of photons or leptons with m/sub T/ approx. = P/sub T/ < 3 GeV. This is the expected range of emission from a hot, thermalized plasma of quarks and gluons. The suggestion has been made that in very high energy collisions of nuclei the properties of high P/sub T/ jets may also reflect the characteristics of the nuclear medium through which the parent partons have propagated just after the collision. In this note we expand on the possible uses of such a probe
Quark-gluon plasma searches: today and tomorrow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geist, W.M.
1991-01-01
Selected recent data from ion collisions at high energy are discussed in the frame-work of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) searches. The purpose of these experiments is to measure the volume where a high temperature QGP may have been formed, determine its characteristic temperature, verify chemical equilibrium, establish deconfinement of this phase of matter, and/or find anything that differs from natural extrapolations from pp and pA collisions. Refined methods and new theoretical ideas for future experiments with heavier beams and/or at higher energies are briefly outlined. (G.P.) 49 refs., 28 figs
Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Svaiter, N.F.
2005-01-01
In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy
The theory of quark and gluon interactions. 4. ed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yndurain, F.J.
2006-01-01
First published in 1983, this book has become a classic among advanced textbooks. The new fourth edition maintains the high standard of its predecessors. The book offers basic knowledge of field theory and particle phenomenology. The author presents the basic facts of quark and gluon physics in pedagogical form. Explanations of theory are supported throughout with experimental findings. The text provides readers with sufficient understanding to follow modern research articles. This fourth edition presents a new section on heavy quark effective theories, more material on lattice QCD and on chiral perturbation theory. (orig.)
Quantum field kinetics of QCD: Quark-gluon transport theory for light-cone-dominated processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geiger, K.
1996-01-01
A quantum-kinetic formalism is developed to study the dynamical interplay of quantum and statistical-kinetic properties of nonequilibrium multiparton systems produced in high-energy QCD processes. The approach provides the means to follow the quantum dynamics in both space-time and energy-momentum, starting from an arbitrary initial configuration of high-momentum quarks and gluons. Using a generalized functional integral representation and adopting the open-quote open-quote closed-time-path close-quote close-quote Green function techniques, a self-consistent set of equations of motions is obtained: a Ginzburg-Landau equation for a possible color background field, and Dyson-Schwinger equations for the two-point functions of the gluon and quark fields. By exploiting the open-quote open-quote two-scale nature close-quote close-quote of light-cone-dominated QCD processes, i.e., the separation between the quantum scale that specifies the range of short-distance quantum fluctuations, and the kinetic scale that characterizes the range of statistical binary interactions, the quantum field equations of motion are converted into a corresponding set of open-quote open-quote renormalization equations close-quote close-quote and open-quote open-quote transport equations.close-quote close-quote The former describe renormalization and dissipation effects through the evolution of the spectral density of individual, dressed partons, whereas the latter determine the statistical occurrence of scattering processes among these dressed partons. The renormalization equations and the transport equations are coupled, and, hence, must be solved self-consistently. This amounts to evolving the multiparton system, from a specified initial configuration, in time and full seven-dimensional phase space, constrained by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (Abstract Truncated)
Belfield, Louise A; Bennett, Jon H; Abate, Wondwossen; Jackson, Simon K
2017-09-01
The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of concurrent LPS and cytokine priming, reflective of the in vivo milieu, on macrophage production of key periodontitis associated cytokines TNF, IL-1β and IL-6. THP-1 cells were pre-treated with combinations of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), concurrently with polarising cytokines IFNγ and IL-4, or PMA as a non-polarised control. Production of key periodontitis associated cytokines in response to subsequent LPS challenge were measured by enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with cells incubated with IFNγ or IL-4 alone in the "polarisation" phase, macrophages that were incubated with LPS during the first 24h displayed a down-regulation of TNF and IL-1β production upon secondary LPS treatment in the "activation" phase. In all three macrophage populations (M0, M1 and M2), pre-treatment with P. gingivalis LPS during the polarisation process led to a significant decrease in TNF production in response to subsequent activation by LPS (p=0.007, p=0.002 and p=0.004, respectively). Pre-treatment with E. coli LPS also led to a significant down-regulation in TNF production in all three macrophage populations (pLPS during polarisation also led to the down-regulation of IL-1β in the M1 population (pLPS challenge, whereby production of key periodontitis associated cytokines TNF and IL-1β is reduced after exposure to LPS during the polarisation phase, even in the presence of inflammatory polarising cytokines. This diminished cytokine response may lead to the reduced ability to clear infection and transition to chronic inflammation seen in periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belorizky, E.; Berthier, Y.; Devine, R.A.B.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 38 - Grenoble; Levy, P.M.; Niez, J.J.
1979-01-01
NMR of the rare earth nuclei in cubic RE-X 2 compounds has shown that the self polarisation field, Hsub(sp) gives an important contribution to the total hyperfine field at the RE nuclei. Both orbital and spin polarisations of the conduction bands arise through anisotropic exchange interaction between the ordered magnetic moments of the rare earth and the conduction electrons. These polarisations are further reflected through orbital, magnetic dipole dipole and contact or core polarisation terms in Hsub(sp). Due to the complexity of the problem, group symmetry arguments are used to determine the independant parameters of the problem for cubic compounds
Two-gluon correlations in heavy–light ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wertepny, Douglas E.
2014-01-01
We derive the cross-section for two-gluon production in heavy–light ion collisions in the saturation/Color Glass Condensate framework. This calculation includes saturation effects to all orders in one of the nuclei (heavy ion) along with a single saturation correction in the projectile (light ion). The calculation of the correlation function predicts (qualitatively) two identical ridge-like correlations, near- and away-side. This prediction was later supported by experimental findings in p + A collisions at the LHC. Concentrating on the energy and geometry dependence of the correlation functions we find that the correlation function is nearly center-of-mass energy independent. The geometry dependence of the correlation function leads to an enhancement of near- and away-side correlations for the tip-on-tip U + U collisions when compared with side-on-side U + U collisions, an exactly opposite behavior from the correlations generated by the elliptic flow of the quark–gluon plasma
New signals of quark-gluon-hadron mixed phase formation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bugaev, K.A.; Sagun, V.V.; Ivanytskyi, A.I.; Zinovjev, G.M. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Oliinychenko, D.R. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Goethe University, FIAS, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ilgenfritz, E.M. [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Nikonov, E.G. [JINR, Laboratory for Information Technologies, Dubna (Russian Federation); Taranenko, A.V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-08-15
Here we present several remarkable irregularities at chemical freeze-out which are found using an advanced version of the hadron resonance gas model. The most prominent of them are the sharp peak of the trace anomaly existing at chemical freeze-out at the center-of-mass energy 4.9 GeV and two sets of highly correlated quasi-plateaus in the collision energy dependence of the entropy per baryon, total pion number per baryon, and thermal pion number per baryon which we found at the center-of-mass energies 3.8-4.9 GeV and 7.6-10 GeV. The low-energy set of quasi-plateaus was predicted a long time ago. On the basis of the generalized shock-adiabat model we demonstrate that the low-energy correlated quasi-plateaus give evidence for the anomalous thermodynamic properties inside the quark-gluon-hadron mixed phase. It is also shown that the trace anomaly sharp peak at chemical freeze-out corresponds to the trace anomaly peak at the boundary between the mixed phase and quark gluon plasma. We argue that the high-energy correlated quasi-plateaus may correspond to a second phase transition and discuss its possible origin and location. Besides we suggest two new observables which may serve as clear signals of these phase transformations. (orig.)
Resummation improved rapidity spectrum for gluon fusion Higgs production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebert, Markus A.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Michel, Johannes K.L.; Muenster Univ.
2017-02-01
Gluon-induced processes such as Higgs production typically exhibit large perturbative corrections. These partially arise from large virtual corrections to the gluon form factor, which at timelike momentum transfer contains Sudakov logarithms evaluated at negative arguments ln 2 (-1)=-π 2 . It has been observed that resumming these terms in the timelike form factor leads to a much improved perturbative convergence for the total cross section. We discuss how to consistently incorporate the resummed form factor into the perturbative predictions for generic cross sections differential in the Born kinematics, including in particular the Higgs rapidity spectrum. We verify that this indeed improves the perturbative convergence, leading to smaller and more reliable perturbative uncertainties, and that this is not affected by cancellations between resummed and unresummed contributions. Combining both fixed-order and resummation uncertainties, the perturbative uncertainty for the total cross section at N 3 LO+N 3 LL φ ' is about a factor of two smaller than at N 3 LO. The perturbative uncertainty of the rapidity spectrum at NNLO+NNLL φ ' is similarly reduced compared to NNLO. We also study the analogous resummation for quark-induced processes, namely Higgs production through bottom quark annihilation and the Drell-Yan rapidity spectrum. For the former the resummation leads to a small improvement, while for the latter it confirms the already small uncertainties of the fixed-order predictions.
Gluon saturation and Feynman scaling in leading neutron production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Carvalho
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we extend the color dipole formalism for the study of leading neutron production in e+p→e+n+X collisions at high energies and estimate the related observables which were measured at HERA and could be analyzed in future electron–proton (ep colliders. In particular, we calculate the Feynman xF distribution of leading neutrons, which is expressed in terms of the pion flux and the photon–pion total cross section. In the color dipole formalism, the photon–pion cross section is described in terms of the dipole–pion scattering amplitude, which contains information about the QCD dynamics at high energies and gluon saturation effects. We consider different models for the scattering amplitude, which have been used to describe the inclusive and diffractive ep HERA data. Moreover, the model dependence of our predictions with the description of the pion flux is analyzed in detail. We demonstrate the recently released H1 leading neutron spectra can be described using the color dipole formalism and that these spectra could help us to observe more clearly gluon saturation effects in future ep colliders.
Medium-induced gluon radiation beyond the eikonal approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Apolinário, Liliana, E-mail: lilianamarisa.cunha@usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Armesto, Néstor [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Milhano, Guilherme [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Salgado, Carlos A. [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)
2014-12-15
In this work we improve existing calculations of radiative energy loss by computing corrections that implement energy–momentum conservation, previously only implemented a posteriori, in a rigorous way. Using the path-integral formalism, we compute in-medium splittings allowing transverse motion of all particles in the emission process, thus relaxing the assumption that only the softest particle is permitted such movement. This work constitutes the extension of the computation carried out for x→1 in L. Apolinario et al. (2012) [5], to all values of x, the momentum fraction of the energy of the parent parton carried by the emitted gluon. In order to accomplish a general description of the whole in-medium showering process, in this work we allow for arbitrary formation times for the emitted gluon (the limit of small formation times was previously employed in J.-P. Blaizot et al., 2013 [6], for the g→gg splitting). We provide general expressions and their realisation in the path integral formalism within the harmonic oscillator approximation.
Actomyosin polarisation through PLC-PKC triggers symmetry breaking of the mouse embryo.
Zhu, Meng; Leung, Chuen Yan; Shahbazi, Marta N; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena
2017-10-13
Establishment of cell polarity in the mammalian embryo is fundamental for the first cell fate decision that sets aside progenitor cells for both the new organism and the placenta. Yet the sequence of events and molecular mechanism that trigger this process remain unknown. Here, we show that de novo polarisation of the mouse embryo occurs in two distinct phases at the 8-cell stage. In the first phase, an apical actomyosin network is formed. This is a pre-requisite for the second phase, in which the Par complex localises to the apical domain, excluding actomyosin and forming a mature apical cap. Using a variety of approaches, we also show that phospholipase C-mediated PIP 2 hydrolysis is necessary and sufficient to trigger the polarisation of actomyosin through the Rho-mediated recruitment of myosin II to the apical cortex. Together, these results reveal the molecular framework that triggers de novo polarisation of the mouse embryo.The molecular trigger that establishes cell polarity in the mammalian embryo is unclear. Here, the authors show that de novo polarisation of the mouse embryo at the 8-cell stage is directed by Phospholipase C and Protein kinase C and occurs in two phases: polarisation of actomyosin followed by the Par complex.
The PoGO+ view on Crab off-pulse hard X-ray polarisation
Chauvin, M.; Florén, H.-G.; Friis, M.; Jackson, M.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kawano, T.; Kiss, M.; Mikhalev, V.; Mizuno, T.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Uchida, N.; Pearce, M.
2018-02-01
The linear polarisation fraction and angle of the hard X-ray emission from the Crab provide unique insight into high energy radiation mechanisms, complementing the usual imaging, timing and spectroscopic approaches. Results have recently been presented by two missions operating in partially overlapping energy bands, PoGO+ (18-160 keV) and AstroSat CZTI (100-380 keV). We previously reported PoGO+ results on the polarisation parameters integrated across the light-curve and for the entire nebula-dominated off-pulse region. We now introduce finer phase binning, in light of the AstroSat CZTI claim that the polarisation fraction varies across the off-pulse region. Since both missions are operating in a regime where errors on the reconstructed polarisation parameters are non-Gaussian, we adopt a Bayesian approach to compare results from each mission. We find no statistically significant variation in off-pulse polarisation parameters, neither when considering the mission data separately nor when they are combined. This supports expectations from standard high-energy emission models.
Evidence from optical polarisation for a galactic-scale uniform magnetic field in M104
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scarrott, S.M.; White, C.; Pallister, W.S.; Solinger, A.B.
1977-01-01
A map is presented of the linear optical polarisation of the Sombrero Galaxy (M104) that gives clear evidence for the existence of a magnetic field that maintains the same projected direction over an estimated volume of some 10 3 kpc 3 . Detailed knowledge of the polarisation pattern in a nebula is stated to be a powerful tool for further understanding of a nebula. The observations described were made with the 1 m telescope of the Wise Observatory, Israel, during May 1976 using the B waveband of the UBV system, together with a polarimeter and a 4 cm electronographic camera. Measurements were made at 1000 points within the galaxy. The map is superimposed on a photograph of M104, and its main features are described. It is stated that there is little doubt that the observed polarisation pattern was due to the scattering and extinction of light by statistically aligned dust grains. The alignment of the grains is most probably due to magnetic effects, and unless some unexpected mechanism is occurring the grains must be magnetically aligned. The findings are discussed. It is stated that the fact that scattering from aligned grains is occurring makes M104 a likely candidate for the observation of circular polarisation, and such an observation would tend to confirm the interpretation of the linear polarisation. It seems that the observations are concerned with the most extensive homogeneous magnetic field so far observed and it is tempting to speculate that it may be primordial in origin. (U.K.)
Observations of the Polarisation of the Anomalous Microwave Emission: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. A. Rubiño-Martín
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The observational status of the polarisation of the anomalous microwave emission (AME is reviewed, both for individual compact Galactic regions as well as for the large-scale Galactic emission. There are six Galactic regions with existing polarisation constraints in the relevant range of 10–40 GHz: four dust clouds (Perseus, ρ Ophiuchi, LDN1622, and Pleiades and two HII regions (LPH96 and the Helix nebula. These constraints are discussed in detail and are complemented by deriving upper limits on the polarisation of the AME for those objects without published WMAP constraints. For the case of large-scale emission, two recent works, based on WMAP data, are reviewed. Currently, the best constraints on the fractional polarisation of the AME, at frequencies near the peak of the emission (i.e., 20–30 GHz, are at the level of ~1% (95.4% confidence level. Finally, we compare these constraints with the predictions of some theoretical AME models and discuss the possible impact of polarised AME on future primordial B-mode experiments.
Certain exclusive processes in QCD taking into account two-gluon states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baier, V.N.; Grozin, A.G.
1982-01-01
The wave functions and evolution equations for mesons are classified completely taking into account two-gluon states and then are compared to the Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations. The form factors of completely neutral mesons and the probabilities for exclusive decays of quarkonium states are found taking into account two-gluon states
A solution of the DGLAP equation for gluon at low x
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We obtain a solution of the DGLAP equation for the gluon at low ﬁrst by expanding the gluon in a Taylor series and then using the method of characteristics. We test its validity by comparing it with that of Glück, Reya and Vogt. The convergence criteria of the approximation used are also discussed. We also calculate ...
Low-energy behavior of gluons and gravitons from gauge invariance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
di Vecchia, Paolo; Bern, Zvi; Davies, Scott
2014-01-01
We show that at tree level, on-shell gauge invariance can be used to fully determine the first subleading soft-gluon behavior and the first two subleading soft-graviton behaviors. Our proofs of the behaviors for n-gluon and n-graviton tree amplitudes are valid in D dimensions and are similar to Low...
Nucleation rate of the quark-gluon plasma droplet at finite quark ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The nucleation rate of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) droplet is computed at ﬁnite quark chemical potential. In the course of computing the nucleation rate, the ﬁnite size effects of the QGP droplet are taken into account. We consider the phenomenological ﬂow parameter of quarks and gluons, which is dependent on quark ...
Dilepton production from quark gluon plasma using non-equilibrium thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinha, B.
1984-01-01
The importance of the approach phase to the thermodynamic equilibrium has been investigated for dilepton production from quark-gluon plasma - an effective temperature for the quarks as Brounian particle in a heat bath of gluons has been suggested. The spectrum for low invariant mass is, as a consequence, sharper
LPM Interference and Cherenkov-like Gluon Bremsstrahlung in DenseMatter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majumder, Abhijit; Wang, Xin-Nian
2005-07-26
Gluon bremsstrahlung induced by multiple parton scattering in a finite dense medium has a unique angular distribution with respect to the initial parton direction. A dead-cone structure with an opening angle; theta2{sub 0}; approx 2(1-z)/(zLE) for gluons with fractional energy z arises from the Landau-Pomeran chuck-Migdal (LPM) interference. In a medium where the gluon's dielectric constant is; epsilon>1, the LPM interference pattern is shown to become Cherenkov-like with an increased opening angle determined by the dielectric constant$/cos2/theta{sub c}=z+(1-z)//epsilon$. For a large dielectric constant/epsilon; gg 1+2/z2LE, the corresponding total radiative parton energy loss is about twice that from normal gluon bremsstrahlung. Implications of this Cherenkov-like gluon bremsstrahlung to the jet correlation pattern in high-energy heavy-ion collisions is discussed.
Behaviors of Early Time Gluon Fields in High Energy Nuclear Collisions
Chen, Guangyao; Fries, Rainer
2010-11-01
We discuss the properties of the early time gluon fields in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions in a quasi-classical approximation. Using recursive solutions of the Yang-Mills equations for two intersecting color currents on the light cone, we describe the classical gluon field and its energy momentum tensor at small proper times τ after the collision of two nuclei. We explicitly check energy momentum conservation up to forth order. We compute multi-gluon correlation functions in the McLerran-Venugopalan model which are necessary to calculate the expectation value of the energy momentum tensor. An interpolation with linear gluon fields at large times provides a good approximation of the full time evolution. Our results can also be used to create an event-by- event sample of early time gluon fields.
Regularization of the light-cone gauge gluon propagator singularities using sub-gauge conditions
Chirilli, Giovanni A.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Wertepny, Douglas E.
2015-12-01
Perturbative QCD calculations in the light-cone gauge have long suffered from the ambiguity associated with the regularization of the poles in the gluon propagator. In this work we study sub-gauge conditions within the light-cone gauge corresponding to several known ways of regulating the gluon propagator. Using the functional integral calculation of the gluon propagator, we rederive the known sub-gauge conditions for the θ-function gauges and identify the sub-gauge condition for the principal value (PV) regularization of the gluon propagator's light-cone poles. The obtained sub-gauge condition for the PV case is further verified by a sample calculation of the classical Yang-Mills field of two collinear ultrarelativistic point color charges. Our method does not allow one to construct a sub-gauge condition corresponding to the well-known Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescription for regulating the gluon propagator poles.
The quark-gluon vertex in Landau gauge bound-state studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, Richard
2015-01-01
We present a practical method for the solution of the quark-gluon vertex for use in Bethe-Salpeter and Dyson-Schwinger calculations. The efficient decomposition into the necessary covariants is detailed, with the numerical algorithm outlined for both real and complex Euclidean momenta. A truncation of the quark-gluon vertex, that neglects explicit back-coupling to enable the application to bound-state calculations, is given together with results for the quark propagator and quark-gluon vertex for different quark flavours. The relative impact of the various components of the quark-gluon vertex is highlighted with the flavour dependence of the effective quark-gluon interaction obtained, thus providing insight for the construction of phenomenological models within the rainbow ladder. Finally, we solve the corresponding Green's functions for complex Euclidean momenta as required in future bound-state calculations. (orig.)
Landau damping of gluons in the two-flavor color superconducting Fulde-Ferrell phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, Rishi [TIFR, Mumbai (India)
2017-03-15
We clarify aspects of gluon propagation in the two-flavor crystalline color superconducting phase of quark matter by analyzing the screening and Landau damping of gluons in the two-flavor Fulde-Ferrell (FF) phase. The paired quarks in the FF phase feature gapless excitations and therefore lead to Debye screening of the longitudinal t{sup 1}, t{sup 2}, and t{sup 3} gluons and Landau damping of transverse t{sup 1}, t{sup 2}, and t{sup 3} gluons. This is a marked difference from the 2SC phase where both of these are unscreened. The transverse t{sup 1}, t{sup 2}, and t{sup 3} gluons are long ranged in the zero energy limit and hence the interaction mediated by these is the most important mechanism for the scattering of the paired quarks. Therefore they play an important role in determining their transport properties. (orig.)
Quark and gluon jet properties in symmetric three-jet events
Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Palla, F.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bonvicini, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Abt, I.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Denis, R. St.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Rankin, C.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Ragusa, F.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Bellantoni, L.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I. J.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration
1996-02-01
Quark and gluon jets with the same energy, 24 GeV, are compared in symmetric three-jet configurations from hadronic Z decays observed by the ALEPH detector. Jets are defined using the Durham algorithm. Gluon jets are identified using an anti-tag on b jets, based on a track impact parameter method. The comparison of gluon and mixed flavour quark jets shows that gluon jets have a softer fragmentation function, a larger angular width and a higher particle multiplicity, Evidence is presented which shows that the corresponding differences between gluon and b jets are significantly smaller. In a statistically limited comparison the multiplicity in c jets was found to be comparable with that observed for the jets of mixed quark flavour.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kraemer, S.; Malzer, S.; Doehler, G.H.; Neumann, S.; Prost, W.; Tegude, F.J.
2005-01-01
Ordered materials provide new possibilities for optical device applications. Through a strong polarisation anisotropy of absorption a high functional polarisation-sensitive switch can be fabricated which in addition is nearly independent on the optical power. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Modelling the circular polarisation of Earth-like exoplanets: constraints on detecting homochirality
Hogenboom, Michael; Stam, Daphne; Rossi, Loic; Snik, Frans
2016-04-01
The circular polarisation of light is a property of electromagnetic radiation from which extensive information can be extracted. It is oft-neglected due to its small signal relative to linear polarisation and the need for advanced instrumentation in measuring it. Additionally, numerical modelling is complex as the full Stokes vector must always be computed. Circular polarisation is commonly induced through the multiple scattering of light by aerosols te{hansen} and multiple reflections of light by rough surfaces te{circplanets}. Most interestingly, distinctive spectral circular polarimetric behaviour is exhibited by light reflected by organisms due to the homochiral molecular structure of all known organisms te{chiralbailey}. Especially fascinating is the unique circular polarimetric behaviour of light reflected by photosynthesising organisms at the absorption wavelength of the chlorophyll pigment te{circpolchar}. This presents the previously unexplored possibility of circular polarimetry as a method for identifying and characterising the presence of organisms, a method which could be applied in the hunt for extraterrestrial life. To date, few telescopes exist that measure circular polarisation and none that have been deployed in space. Observations of the circular polarisation reflected by other planets in the solar system have been made with ground-based telescopes, with significant results te{circplanets}. However, none of these observations have been made at the phase angles at which exoplanets will be observed. Also, none have been made of the Earth, which is the logical starting point for the study of biologically induced circular polarisation signals. This introduces the need for numerical modelling to determine the extent to which circular polarisation is present in light reflected by exoplanets or the Earth. In this study, we model the multiple scattering and reflection of light using the doubling-adding method te{dehaan}. We will present circular
How does the Quark-Gluon Plasma know the collision energy?
McInnes, Brett
2018-02-01
Heavy ion collisions at the LHC facility generate a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) which, for central collisions, has a higher energy density and temperature than the plasma generated in central collisions at the RHIC. But sufficiently peripheral LHC collisions give rise to plasmas which have the same energy density and temperature as the "central" RHIC plasmas. One might assume that the two versions of the QGP would have very similar properties (for example, with regard to jet quenching), but recent investigations have suggested that they do not: the plasma "knows" that the overall collision energy is different in the two cases. We argue, using a gauge-gravity analysis, that the strong magnetic fields arising in one case (peripheral collisions), but not the other, may be relevant here. If the residual magnetic field in peripheral LHC plasmas is of the order of at least eB ≈ 5mπ2, then the model predicts modifications of the relevant quenching parameter which approach those recently reported.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vang, Jakob Rabjerg; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl
2015-01-01
A high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell model capable of simulating both steady state and dynamic operation is presented. The purpose is to enable extraction of unknown parameters from sets of impedance spectra and polarisation curves. The model is fitted to two polarisation curves and four...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slavcheva, G., E-mail: gsk23@bath.ac.uk [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kavokin, A.V., E-mail: A.Kavokin@soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Spin Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 1, Ulyanovskaya 198504 (Russian Federation)
2014-11-15
Optical pumping of excited exciton states in a semiconductor quantum well embedded in a microcavity is a tool for realisation of ultra-compact terahertz (THz) lasers based on stimulated optical transition between excited (2p) and ground (1s) exciton state. We show that the probability of two-photon absorption by a 2p-exciton is strongly dependent on the polarisation of both pumping photons. Five-fold variation of the threshold power for terahertz lasing by switching from circular to co-linear pumping is predicted. We identify photon polarisation configurations for achieving maximum THz photon generation quantum efficiency.
Measurement of recoil photon polarisation in the electron-proton elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buon, Jean
1965-02-01
This research thesis reports and discusses an experiment which aimed at checking the validity of the Born approximation at the first order in the elastic scattering of high energy electrons on protons. In this experiment, the recoil proton polarisation is measured in an elastic scattering of electrons with energy of 950 MeV and scattering at about 90 degrees in the mass centre system. The author describes the experimental installation, its operation and data collection, reports the analysis of photos and polarisation calculations and errors [fr
Generation and transmission performance of 40Gbit/s polarisation shift keying signal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chi, Nan; Xu, Lin; Yu, S.
2005-01-01
A novel scheme for generation of a 40 Gbit/s binary polarisation shift keying signal based on a LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed. The signal is successfully transmitted over 50 km standard singlemode fibre with 0.6 dB penalty.......A novel scheme for generation of a 40 Gbit/s binary polarisation shift keying signal based on a LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed. The signal is successfully transmitted over 50 km standard singlemode fibre with 0.6 dB penalty....
Barantsev, K. A.; Popov, E. N.; Litvinov, A. N.
2017-09-01
A mathematical model of the interaction of bichromatic laser radiation with alkali metal atoms in an optically dense gas cell at above room temperature is constructed. Within the framework of the model, complete hyperfine and Zeeman structures of alkali metal atom levels are considered, which allows the propagation of radiation polarisation along the cell and the effect of a constant magnetic field to be correctly taken into account. It is found that the selective detection of polarisation radiation components carries additional information in comparison with a signal of total intensity.
BFKL Pomeron, Reggeized gluons and Bern-Dixon-Smirnov amplitudes
Bartels, J; Sabio Vera, Agustin
2009-01-01
After a brief review of the BFKL approach to Regge processes in QCD and in supersymmetric (SUSY) gauge theories we propose a strategy for calculating the next-to-next-to-leading order corrections to the BFKL kernel. They can be obtained in terms of various cross-sections for Reggeized gluon interactions. The corresponding amplitudes can be calculated in the framework of the effective action for high energy scattering. In the case of N=4 SUSY it is also possible to use the Bern-Dixon-Smirnov (BDS) ansatz. For this purpose the analytic properties of the BDS amplitudes at high energies are investigated, in order to verify their self-consistency. It is found that, for the number of external particles being larger than five, these amplitudes, beyond one loop, are not in agreement with the BFKL approach which predicts the existence of Regge cuts in some physical channels.
Double virtual corrections for gluon scattering at NNLO
Gehrmann-De Ridder, Aude; Gehrmann, Thomas; Glover, E. W. N.; Pires, Joao
2013-02-01
We use the antenna subtraction method to isolate the double virtual infrared singularities present in gluonic scattering amplitudes at next-to-next-to-leading order. In previous papers, we derived the subtraction terms that rendered (a) the double real radiation tree-level process finite in the single and double unresolved regions of phase space and (b) the mixed single real radiation one-loop process both finite and well behaved in the unresolved regions of phase space. Here, we show how to construct the double virtual subtraction term using antenna functions with both initial- and final-state partons which remove the explicit infrared poles present in the two-loop amplitude. As an explicit example, we write down the subtraction term for the four-gluon two-loop process. The infrared poles are explicitly and locally cancelled in all regions of phase space leaving a finite remainder that can be safely evaluated numerically in four-dimensions.
Quarks and gluons in the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Welzbacher, Christian Andreas
2016-07-14
In this dissertation we study the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter by approaching the theory of quantum chromodynamics in the functional approach of Dyson-Schwinger equations. With these quantum (field) equations of motions we calculate the non-perturbative quark propagator within the Matsubara formalism. We built up on previous works and extend the so-called truncation scheme, which is necessary to render the infinite tower of Dyson-Schwinger equations finite and study phase transitions of chiral symmetry and the confinement/deconfinement transition. In the first part of this thesis we discuss general aspects of quantum chromodynamics and introduce the Dyson-Schwinger equations in general and present the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation together with its counterpart for the gluon. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is introduced which is necessary to perform two-body bound state calculations. A view on the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics is given, including the discussion of order parameter for chiral symmetry and confinement. Here we also discuss the dependence of the phase structure on the masses of the quarks. In the following we present the truncation and our results for an unquenched N{sub f} = 2+1 calculation and compare it to previous studies. We highlight some complementary details for the quark and gluon propagator and discus the resulting phase diagram, which is in agreement with previous work. Results for an equivalent of the Columbia plot and the critical surface are discussed. A systematically improved truncation, where the charm quark as a dynamical quark flavour is added, will be presented in Ch. 4. An important aspect in this investigation is the proper adjustment of the scales. This is done by matching vacuum properties of the relevant pseudoscalar mesons separately for N{sub f} = 2+1 and N f = 2+1+1 via a solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. A comparison of the resulting N{sub f} = 2+1 and N{sub f} = 2+1+1 phase diagram indicates
Bremsstrahlung from an Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Plasma
Mustafa, Munshi G.; Mustafa, Munshi G.; Thoma, Markus H.
2000-01-01
The photon production rate from a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma likely to be produced at RHIC (BNL) and LHC (CERN) energies is computed taking into account bremsstrahlung. The plasma is assumed to be in local thermal equilibrium, but with a phase space distribution that deviates from the Fermi or Bose distribution by space-time dependent factors (fugacities). The photon spectrum is obtained by integrating the photon rate over the space-time history of the plasma, adopting a boost invariant cylindrically symmetric transverse expansion of the system with different nuclear profile functions. Initial conditions obtained from a self-screened parton cascade calculation and, for comparison, from the HIJING model are used. Compared to the equilibrium case a suppression of the photon yield by one to three orders of magnitude is observed. Furthermore the photon production due to bremsstrahlung from the chemically nonequilibrated plasma dominates over the emission from Compton scattering and quark-antiquar...
Electromagnetic radiation and collectivity in small quark-gluon droplets
Shen, Chun; Paquet, Jean-François; Denicol, Gabriel S.; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles
2017-08-01
We study the multiplicity and rapidity dependence of thermal and prompt photon production in p+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV, using a (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamic framework. Direct photon anisotropic flow coefficients v2,3γ and nuclear modification factor RpPbγ (pT) are presented in both the p-going (backward) and the Pb-going (forward) directions. The interplay between initial state cold nuclear effect and final state thermal enhancement at different rapidity regions is discussed. The proposed rapidity dependent thermal photon enhancement and direct photon anisotropic flow observables can elucidate non-trivial longitudinal dynamics of hot quark-gluon plasma droplets created in small collision systems.
Approach to equilibrium of quarkonium in quark-gluon plasma
Yao, Xiaojun; Müller, Berndt
2018-01-01
We calculate the dissociation and recombination rates of Υ (1 S ) in quark-gluon plasma by using potential nonrelativistic QCD. We then study the dynamical in-medium evolution of the b b ¯-Υ system in a periodic box via the Boltzmann equation and explore how the system reaches equilibrium. We find that interactions between the free heavy quarks and the medium are necessary for the system to reach equilibrium. We find that the angular distribution of Υ (1 S ) probes the stages at which recombination occurs. Finally, we study the system under a longitudinal expansion and show that different initial conditions evolve to distinct final ratios of hidden and open b flavors. We argue that experimental measurements of the ratio could address open questions in the quarkonium production in heavy ion collisions.
Thermal photons from gluon fusion with magnetic fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayala Alejandro
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We compute the production of thermal photons in relativistic heavy-ion collisions by gluon fusion in the presence of an intense magnetic field, and during the early stages of the reaction. This photon yield is an excess over calculations that do not consider magnetic field effects. We add this excess to recent hydrodynamic calculations that are close to describing the experimental transverse momentum distribution in RHIC and LHC. We then show that with reasonable values for the temperature, magnetic field strength, and strong coupling constant, our results provide a very good description of such excess. These results support the idea that the origin of at least some of the photon excess observed in heavy-ion experiments may arise from magnetic field induced processes.
Strangeness chemical equilibration in a quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann
2007-01-01
We study, in the dynamically evolving quark-gluon plasma (QGP) fireball formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the growth of strangeness yield toward and beyond the chemical equilibrium. We account for the contribution of the direct strangeness production and evaluate the thermal-QCD strangeness production mechanisms. The specific yield of strangeness per entropy, s/S, is the primary target variable. We explore the effect of collision impact parameter, i.e., fireball size, on kinetic strangeness chemical equilibration in QGP. Insights gained in studying the RHIC data with regard to the dynamics of the fireball are applied to the study of strangeness production at the LHC. We use these results and consider the strange hadron relative particle yields at RHIC and LHC in a systematic fashion. We consider both the dependence on s/S and the direct dependence on the participant number
Anomalous quark and gluon contents of light hadrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsuda, T. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory); Kunihiro, T. (Ryukoku Univ., Otsu-City (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology)
1992-09-14
The sea-quark contents such as anti ss, anti cc, anti bb... of the low-lying baryons in the octet and decuplet are calculated with a combined use of the trace anomaly of QCD and a chiral quark model. We find (i) the empirical value of the [pi]-N sigma term ([proportional to] 45 MeV) can be reproduced with a rather small anti ss content of nucleon consistently with the Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula, (ii) the probability to find a charm quark in nucleon is found to be 0.5% which is consistent with the experimental analysis of the charm structure function of the proton and is necessary to account for the J/[psi]-production in proton-nucleous collisions and (iii) both strange and heavy quarks are equally important for the Higgs-nucleon coupling. The heavy-quark and gluon contents of pion and kaon are briefly mentioned. (orig.).
Renormalization group analysis of the gluon mass equation
Aguilar, A. C.; Binosi, D.; Papavassiliou, J.
2014-04-01
We carry out a systematic study of the renormalization properties of the integral equation that determines the momentum evolution of the effective gluon mass in pure Yang-Mills theory, without quark effects taken into account. A detailed, all-order analysis of the complete kernel appearing in this particular equation, derived in the Landau gauge, reveals that the renormalization procedure may be accomplished through the sole use of ingredients known from the standard perturbative treatment of the theory, with no additional assumptions. However, the subtle interplay of terms operating at the level of the exact equation gets distorted by the approximations usually employed when evaluating the aforementioned kernel. This fact is reflected in the form of the obtained solutions, for which the deviations from the correct behavior are best quantified by resorting to appropriately defined renormalization-group invariant quantities. This analysis, in turn, provides a solid guiding principle for improving the form of the kernel, and furnishes a well-defined criterion for discriminating between various possibilities. Certain renormalization-group inspired Ansätze for the kernel are then proposed, and their numerical implications are explored in detail. One of the solutions obtained fulfills the theoretical expectations to a high degree of accuracy, yielding a gluon mass that is positive definite throughout the entire range of physical momenta, and displays in the ultraviolet the so-called "power-law" running, in agreement with standard arguments based on the operator product expansion. Some of the technical difficulties thwarting a more rigorous determination of the kernel are discussed, and possible future directions are briefly mentioned.
Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Khouri, T.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Tafoya, D.; Baudry, A.; Etoka, S.; Humphreys, E. M. L.; Jones, T. J.; Kemball, A.; O'Gorman, E.; Pérez-Sánchez, A. F.; Richards, A. M. S.
2017-07-01
Aims: Polarisation observations of circumstellar dust and molecular (thermal and maser) lines provide unique information about dust properties and magnetic fields in circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars. Methods: We use Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 5 science verification observations of the red supergiant VY CMa to study the polarisation of SiO thermal/maser lines and dust continuum at 1.7 mm wavelength. We analyse both linear and circular polarisation and derive the magnetic field strength and structure, assuming the polarisation of the lines originates from the Zeeman effect, and that of the dust originates from aligned dust grains. We also discuss other effects that could give rise to the observed polarisation. Results: We detect, for the first time, significant polarisation ( 3%) of the circumstellar dust emission at millimeter wavelengths. The polarisation is uniform with an electric vector position angle of 8°. Varying levels of linear polarisation are detected for the J = 4 - 328SiO v = 0, 1, 2, and 29SiO v = 0, 1 lines, with the strongest polarisation fraction of 30% found for the 29SiO v = 1 maser. The linear polarisation vectors rotate with velocity, consistent with earlier observations. We also find significant (up to 1%) circular polarisation in several lines, consistent with previous measurements. We conclude that the detection is robust against calibration and regular instrumental errors, although we cannot yet fully rule out non-standard instrumental effects. Conclusions: Emission from magnetically aligned grains is the most likely origin of the observed continuum polarisation. This implies that the dust is embedded in a magnetic field >13 mG. The maser line polarisation traces the magnetic field structure. The magnetic field in the gas and dust is consistent with an approximately toroidal field configuration, but only higher angular resolution observations will be able to reveal more detailed field structure. If the
A study of differences between quark and gluon jets using vertex tagging of quark jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Acton, P.D.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Allport, P.P.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Astbury, A.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bahn, G.A.; Baines, J.T.M.; Ball, A.H.; Banks, J.; Barlow, R.J.; Barnett, S.; Batley, J.R.; Beaudoin, G.; Beck, A.; Beck, G.A.; Becker, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K.W.; Bella, G.; Bentkowski, P.; Berlich, P.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Binder, U.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Boden, B.; Bosch, H.H.; Breuker, H.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, R.M.; Buijs, A.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Chu, S.L.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Clayton, J.C.; Collins, W.J.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooper, M.; Coupland, M.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.M.; De Jong, S.; Del Pozo, L.A.; Deng, H.; Dieckmann, A.; Dittmar, M.; Dixit, M.S.; Do Couto e Silva, E.; Duboscq, J.E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Dumas, D.J.P.; Elcombe, P.A.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fierro, M.; Fincke; OPAL Collaboration
1993-06-01
Quark and gluon jets with equal energies are identified in three-jet hadronic Z[sup 0] events, using reconstructed secondary vertices from heavy quark decay in conjunction with energy ordering of the jets to anti-tag the gluon jets. Selection of jets from a symmetric event topology allows their properties to be compared in a simple and direct manner. The jets under study have an energy of about 24 GeV. It is observed that gluon jets have a larger angular width than quark jets and yield a softer particle energy spectrum. Correspondingly, the mean particle multiplicity is found to be larger for gluon than for quark jets. Correcting the distributions for residual misidentification of the quark and gluon jets, the ratio of mean particle multiplicity of gluon relative to quark jets is measured to be
Thermodynamics and jet-quenching in the quark-gluon plasma from an AdS/QCD model
Lilleskov, Elias; Bartz, Sean
2015-10-01
The Anti-de Sitter Space/Conformal Field Theory Correspondence (AdS/CFT) has been used to study both hadronic dynamics and the thermodynamics and jet quenching behavior of the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy ion collisions. We attempt to connect the two regimes by adapting an AdS/QCD model previously used to study meson spectra to apply to the quark-gluon plasma. The model includes three fields: a dilaton to introduce confinement, and chiral and glueball condensates to reflect the zero-temperature dynamics. We dynamically solve the Einstein field equations to numerically determine the metric, which asymptotically describes an anti-de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole solution. We then numerically calculate the temperature as a function of the black hole horizon location. Next, we determine the behavior of the entropy density, the speed of sound, and the jet quenching parameter as functions of the temperature. These quantities approach the behavior of a conformal plasma in the high temperature limit. The minimum of the temperature-horizon plot is interpreted as the plasma's deconfinement temperature, found to be 104 MeV.
Crack growth during poling and polarisation reversal in commercial piezoceramics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Algueró, M.
1999-12-01
Full Text Available The growth of Vicker´s cracks during the poling of piezoelectric ceramics was studied for two PZT based compositions with different tetragonal distortion of the perovskite structure. Studies on the two compositions with different poling electric fields and similar initial crack lengths showed that crack growth was not proportional to the induced stress free longitudinal strain by 90º domain reorientation. This observation is not consistent with the previously proposed mechanism of crack growth based on a strain mismatch between the material at the crack flanks and the rest of the ceramic. This mismatch was proposed to occur because of the reduction of the electric field within the crack flanks. The reasons for the disappearance of the mismatch are discussed here, and an alternative mechanism of crack growth consistent with our results is proposed, which takes into account the electrically induced stress gradient at the crack tip, produced by the piezoelectric effect. Cracks were also found to grow during a small number of subsequent polarisation reversals, the explanation of which must be due to some other additional effect.
Se ha estudiado el crecimiento de grietas Vicker durante la polarización de cerámicas piezoeléctricas para dos modificaciones del PZT con distinta distorsión tetragonal de la estructura perovskita. Los resultados en función del campo eléctrico de polarización y la longitud inicial de la grieta muestran que el crecimiento no es proporcional a la deformación libre de tensión inducida por orientación de dominios de 90º. Esta observación no es consistente con el mecanismo de crecimiento de grieta propuesto anteriormente, basado en el desajuste de deformación entre el material a los flancos de la grieta y el resto de la cerámica. Este desajuste se producía por la atenuación del campo eléctrico en los flancos de la grieta. Se discute la causa de la desaparición de este desajuste de deformación, y se
Gluon transport equation with effective mass and dynamical onset of Bose–Einstein condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Jiang, Yin; Liao, Jinfeng
2016-01-01
We study the transport equation describing a dense system of gluons, in the small scattering angle approximation, taking into account medium-generated effective masses of the gluons. We focus on the case of overpopulated systems that are driven to Bose–Einstein condensation on their way to thermalization. The presence of a mass modifies the dispersion relation of the gluon, as compared to the massless case, but it is shown that this does not change qualitatively the scaling behavior in the vicinity of the onset.
Where and how the quark-gluon matter should be searched for?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strugalski, Z.
1997-01-01
The experimentally based answers are presented to the questions: 1) Where and how the quark-gluon matter should be searched for? 2) How to create objects of highly excited quark-gluon matter? 3) How to study the phase transitions in excited quark-gluon matter? In the argumentation, experimental information has been used about hadron passages through layers of intranuclear matter, about mechanisms of hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions, and about energy transfer from hadronic projectiles to target nuclei
First doubly polarised photoproduction on 3He at the photon beam of MAMI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguar Bartolome, Patricia
2010-11-01
A first experiment with a polarised 3 He target was carried out in July 2009 at the MAMI accelerator in Mainz in a photon energy range between 200 MeV and 800 MeV. The aim of this measurement was to investigate the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule on the neutron. The use of the data obtained with the polarised 3 He target, compared to existing data on the deuteron, gives a complementary and more direct access to the neutron, due to the spin structure of the 3 He. The measurement of the helicity dependence of the inclusive total photoabsorption cross section required a beam of tagged circularly polarised photons incident on the longitudinally polarised 3 He target. The data were taken using the 4π Crystal Ball photon spectrometer in combination with TAPS as a forward wall and complemented by a threshold Cherenkov detector used to on-line suppress the background from electromagnetic events. The development and preparation of the different components of the 3 He experimental setup was an important part of this work and are described in detail in this thesis. The detector system and the analysis method were tested by the measurement of the unpolarised total inclusive photoabsorption cross section on liquid hydrogen. The results obtained are in good agreement with previous published data. Preliminary results of the unpolarised total photoabsorption cross section, as well as the helicity dependent photoabsorption cross section difference on 3 He compared with several theoretical models will also be presented. (orig.)
EFA6 regulates selective polarised transport and axon regeneration from the axon initial segment
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Eva, R.; Koseki, H.; Kanamarlapudi, V.; Fawcett, James
2017-01-01
Roč. 130, č. 21 (2017), s. 3663-3675 ISSN 0021-9533 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : axon regeneration * axon transport * neuronal polarisation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 4.431, year: 2016
Polarisation in spin-echo experiments: Multi-point and lock-in measurements
Tamtögl, Anton; Davey, Benjamin; Ward, David J.; Jardine, Andrew P.; Ellis, John; Allison, William
2018-02-01
Spin-echo instruments are typically used to measure diffusive processes and the dynamics and motion in samples on ps and ns time scales. A key aspect of the spin-echo technique is to determine the polarisation of a particle beam. We present two methods for measuring the spin polarisation in spin-echo experiments. The current method in use is based on taking a number of discrete readings. The implementation of a new method involves continuously rotating the spin and measuring its polarisation after being scattered from the sample. A control system running on a microcontroller is used to perform the spin rotation and to calculate the polarisation of the scattered beam based on a lock-in amplifier. First experimental tests of the method on a helium spin-echo spectrometer show that it is clearly working and that it has advantages over the discrete approach, i.e., it can track changes of the beam properties throughout the experiment. Moreover, we show that real-time numerical simulations can perfectly describe a complex experiment and can be easily used to develop improved experimental methods prior to a first hardware implementation.
Effects of the particle spin polarisation on the unstable modes in the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Hengameh Khanzadeh
2017-12-20
Dec 20, 2017 ... cross-section compared to the fusion interaction cross- section [10]. The impact of the particle spin polarisation on the electromagnetic instabilities present in the veloc- ity space depends on the electromagnetic instabilities. The basic theory will be introduced initially according to two different kinetic models ...
The history of polarisation measurements: their role in studies of magnetic fields
Wielebinski, R.
2015-03-01
Radio astronomy gave us new methods to study magnetic fields. Synchrotron radiation, the main cause of comic radio waves, is highly linearly polarised with the `E' vector normal to the magnetic field. The Faraday Effect rotates the `E' vector in thermal regions by the magnetic field in the line of sight. Also the radio Zeeman Effect has been observed.
Variable and Polarised Near-infrared Emission from the Galactic Centre
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Shahzamanian, B.; Eckart, A.; Valencia-S, M.; Witzel, G.; Zamaninasab, M.; Zajaček, Michal; Sabha, N.; García-Marín, M.; Karas, Vladimír; Peissker, F.; Karssen, G.; Parsa, M.; Grosso, N.; Mossoux, E.; Porquet, D.; Jalali, B.; Horrobin, M.; Buchholz, R. M.; Dovčiak, Michal; Kunneriath, Devaky; Bursa, Michal; Zensus, A.; Schödel, R.; Moultaka, J.; Straubmeier, C.
2015-01-01
Roč. 159, March (2015), s. 41-45 ISSN 0722-6691 Grant - others:EU(XE) COST Action MP0905; EU(XE) COST action MP1104; DAAD(DE) DAAD-15-14 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : polarisation effects * galactic center * observations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manea, A.
2011-01-01
Polarisation-dependent sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to investigate the orientation of molecules on metallic surfaces. In particular, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of dodecanethiol (DDT) and of p-nitro thiophenol (p-NTP), grown on Pt and on Au, have been chosen as models to highlight the ability of combining ppp and ssp polarizations sets (representing the polarisation of the involved beams in the conventional order of SFG, Vis and IR beam) to infer orientational information at metallic interfaces. Indeed, using only the ppp set of data, as it is usually done for metallic surfaces, is not sufficient to determine the full molecular orientation. We show here that simply combining ppp and ssp polarizations enables both the tilt and rotation angles of methyl groups in DDT SAMs to be determined. Moreover, for p-NTP, while the SFG active vibrations detected with the ppp polarisation alone provide no orientational information, however, the combination with ssp spectra enables to retrieve the tilt angle of the p-NTP 1,4 axis. Though orientational information obtained by polarisation-dependent measurements has been extensively used at insulating interfaces, we report here their first application to metallic surfaces. (author)
Polarisation of the Balmer-α emission in crossed electric and magnetic fields
Thorman, Alex
2018-03-01
An analysis of the polarisation structure of the Balmer-α emission in the presence of electric and magnetic fields is presented, with an emphasis on motional Stark effect polarimetry for fusion plasma diagnostics. When the fields are orthogonal, as is the case for neutral heating beams injected into a magnetised plasma, some degeneracy remains in the Stark-Zeeman energy levels and the magnetic quantum number is not well defined. The polarisation structure from the degenerate states is underdetermined and therefore volatile to weaker interactions that resolve this degeneracy, a critical subtlety that has previously been overlooked. A perturbation theory analysis finds distinct polarisation structures for the σ emission that apply when the fine-structure and microscopic electric fields are considered. It is found that only the σ ± 1 polarisation orientation is sensitive to upper-state populations (which are non-statistically weighted for neutral beam injection into a target gas), but with appropriate viewing geometries and beam injection directions the effect can be made negligible.
Multi-scalar geographies of polarisation and peripheralisation: A case study of Czechia
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šimon, Martin
2017-01-01
Roč. 16, č. 37 (2017), s. 125-137 ISSN 1732-4254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10602S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : polarisation * peripheralisation * accessibility Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology http://apcz.umk.pl/czasopisma/index.php/BGSS/article/download/bog-2017-0029/12494
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2004-01-01
The ANSTO's Instrument Workshop on Polarised and Inelastic Cold Neutron Scattering, was held at Lucas Heights on 27-28 January. 30 participants attended, from 6 Australian Universities, 3 ANSTO Divisions, and 5 overseas countries in Asia, Europe and North America. All participants had the opportunity to give their vision for work in 2005 and beyond. The recommendation was that ANSTO proceed with a monochromator/ shield/ polariser system and appropriate dance floor on a cold guide, in such a way that alternative secondary spectrometers (3-axis, LONGPOL-type, reflectometry) can be installed. If the National Science Council of Taiwan proceeds with its cold 3-axis project, ANSTO should then implement the LONGPOL / polarised-beam reflectometry option. If not, ANSTO should implement the cold 3-axis spectrometer. The workshop came to the following additional conclusions: There was a strong sense that any 3-axis spectrometer should have a multi-analyser/multidetector combination, or at least an upgrade path to this. At this stage, there is no case for 2 cold-neutron triple-axis spectrometers at the RRR. The desired Q-range is 0.02-5 Angstroms -1 ; with an energy transfer range of 20 μeV - 15 meV. The instrument is likely to run unpolarised for 2/3 of the time and polarised for the remainder, and the instrument(s) should be designed to allow easy changeover between polarised and unpolarised operation. We expect roughly equal interest/demand in studying single crystals, powders, surfaces/interfaces and naturally disordered systems. There was a strong sense that the facility should eventually have a cold-neutron time-of-flight spectrometer of the IN5 or IN6 type, with a polarised incident beam option, and designed in such a way that polarisation analysis could be implemented if inexpensive large-area analysers become available. This should be a high priority for the next wave of instruments that ANSTO plans to build after 2005
Shear viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma in a kinetic theory approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Puglisi, A.; Plumari, S.; Scardina, F.; Greco, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania, Italy and Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 63, I-95125 Catania (Italy)
2014-05-09
One of the main results of heavy ions collision (HIC) at relativistic energy experiments is the very small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, close to the conjectured lower bound η/s=1/4π for systems in the infinite coupling limit. Transport coefficients like shear viscosity are responsible of non-equilibrium properties of a system: Green-Kubo relations give us an exact expression to compute these coefficients. We compute shear viscosity numerically using Green-Kubo relation in the framework of Kinetic Theory solving the relativistic transport Boltzmann equation in a finite box with periodic boundary conditions. We investigate a system of particles interacting via anisotropic and energy dependent cross-section in the range of temperature of interest for HIC. Green-Kubo results are in agreement with Chapman-Enskog approximation while Relaxation Time approximation can underestimates the viscosity of a factor 2. The correct analytic formula for shear viscosity can be used to develop a transport theory with a fixed η/s and have a comparison with physical observables like elliptic flow.
2013-01-01
Nuclear physics is an exciting, broadly faceted field. It spans a wide range of topics, reaching from nuclear structure physics to high-energy physics, astrophysics and medical physics (heavy ion tumor therapy). New developments are presented in this volume and the status of research is reviewed. A major focus is put on nuclear structure physics, dealing with superheavy elements and with various forms of exotic nuclei: strange nuclei, very neutron rich nuclei, nuclei of antimatter. Also quantum electrodynamics of strong fields is addressed, which is linked to the occurrence of giant nuclear systems in, e.g., U+U collisions. At high energies nuclear physics joins with elementary particle physics. Various chapters address the theory of elementary matter at high densities and temperature, in particular the quark gluon plasma which is predicted by quantum chromodynamics (QCD) to occur in high-energy heavy ion collisions. In the field of nuclear astrophysics, the properties of neutron stars and quark stars are d...
McLachlan, P.; Binley, A. M.; Chambers, J. E.
2016-12-01
The groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interface actively governs the transfer of water, nutrients and contaminants between groundwater systems and surface water environments. It is capable of mitigating environmental pollution by attenuating and transforming contaminants transported by groundwater discharging to the surface or by surface water recharging to the subsurface. The ability of the GW-SW interface to mitigate pollution is linked to its hydrological and physiochemical properties, the presence of grain surfaces, and its consequent ability to host diverse microbial populations. Despite its importance, characterising the GW-SW interface remains a challenge as traditional methods are often intrusive, environmentally damaging or labour intensive and so they often provide spatially sparse, or spatially restricted, information. There is therefore a requirement for methods which can provide information about the GW-SW interface at high spatial resolution and over large areas. In recent years there has been increased interest in using induced polarisation in field based exploration to characterise grain surface properties of unconsolidated geological materials. Induced polarisation may offer the potential to interrogate textural properties of the GW-SW interface, such as cation exchange and grain surface area which are important for determining the biogeochemical properties of the subsurface. Here we demonstrate the ability of induced polarisation measurements to reveal contrasts in the textural properties of two sites on a 200 m river meander (River Leith, Cumbria, UK). Previous work has revealed that both sites are distinctive in terms of their hydrology, fluvial deposits and biogeochemistry. We present in-stream induced polarisation measurements in addition to lab based measurements of induced polarisation, cation exchange capacity, grain size distribution and surface area on samples obtained from drilling.
Measurement of the Quark and Gluon Fragmentation Functions in $Z^0$ Hadronic Decays
Abreu, P; Adye, T; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbi, M S; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Colomer, M; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolenko, M; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Ortuno, S; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Serbelloni, L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siegrist, P; Silvestre, R; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Skaali, T B; Skatchkov, N; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Wlodek, T; Yi, J; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G
1999-01-01
The fragmentation functions and multiplicities in $b\\overline{b}$ and light quark events are compared. The measured transverse and longitudinal components of the fragmentation function allow the gluon fragmentation function to be evaluated.
Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinz, U.
1986-01-01
Using color kinetic theory, we discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered.
One-loop light-cone QCD, effective action for reggeized gluons and QCD RFT calculus
Bondarenko, S.; Lipatov, L.; Pozdnyakov, S.; Prygarin, A.
2017-09-01
The effective action for reggeized gluons is based on the gluodynamic Yang-Mills Lagrangian with external current for longitudinal gluons added, see Lipatov (Nucl Phys B 452:369, 1995; Phys Rep 286:131, 1997; Subnucl Ser 49:131, 2013; Int J Mod Phys Conf Ser 39:1560082, 2015; Int J Mod Phys A 31(28/29):1645011, 2016; EPJ Web Conf 125:01010, 2016). On the base of classical solutions, obtained in Bondarenko et al. (Eur Phys J C 77(8):527, 2017), the one-loop corrections to this effective action in light-cone gauge are calculated. The RFT calculus for reggeized gluons similarly to the RFT introduced in Gribov (Sov Phys JETP 26:414, 1968) is proposed and discussed. The correctness of the results is verified by calculation of the propagators of A+ and A- reggeized gluons fields and application of the obtained results is discussed as well.
Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heinz, U.
1986-01-01
Using color kinetic theory, we discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered
Towards the continuum limit of the lattice Landau gauge gluon propagator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, O.; Silva, P. J.
2011-01-01
The infrared behaviour of the lattice Landau gauge gluon propagator is discussed, combining results from simulations with different volumes and lattice spacings. In particular, the Cucchieri-Mendes bounds are computed and their implications for D(0) discussed.
Strangeness and the quark-gluon plasma: An experimenter`s perspective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Odyniec, G.
1994-02-01
Current status of experimental results on strange particle production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the relevance to the hypothetical quark-gluon plasma formation and the origin of the Universe.
Confined gluon from Minkowski space continuation of the PT-BFM SDE solution
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šauli, Vladimír
2012-01-01
Roč. 39, č. 3 (2012), 035003/1-035003/16 ISSN 0954-3899 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Minkowski pace * effective QCD * gluon mass generation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 5.326, year: 2012
Contiguous polarisation spectra of the Earth from 300-850 nm measured by GOME-2 onboard MetOp-A
Tilstra, L. G.; Lang, R.; Munro, R.; Aben, I.; Stammes, P.
2013-12-01
In this paper we present the first contiguous high-resolution spectra of the Earth's polarisation observed by a satellite instrument. The measurements of the Stokes fraction Q/I are performed by the spectrometer GOME-2 onboard the MetOp-A satellite. Polarisation measurements by GOME-2 are performed by onboard polarisation measurement devices (PMDs) and the high-resolution measurements discussed in this paper are taken in the special "PMD RAW" mode of operation. The spectral resolution of these PMD RAW polarisation measurements varies from 3 nm in the ultraviolet (UV) to 35 nm in the near-infrared wavelength range. We first compare measurements of the polarisation from cloud-free scenes with radiative transfer calculations for a number of cases. We find good agreement but also a spectral discrepancy at 800 nm, which we attribute to remaining imperfections in the calibration key data. Secondly, we study the polarisation of scenes with special scattering geometries that normally lead to near-zero Q/I. The GOME-2 polarisation spectra indeed show this behaviour and confirm the existence of the small discrepancy found earlier. Thirdly, we study the Earth polarisation for a variety of scenes. This provides a blueprint of Q/I over land and sea surfaces for various degrees of cloud cover. Fourthly, we compare the spectral dependence of measurements of Q/I in the UV with the generalised distribution function that was proposed in the past (Schutgens and Stammes, 2002) to describe the shape of the UV polarisation spectrum. The GOME-2 data confirm that these functions match the spectral behaviour captured by the GOME-2 PMD RAW mode.
Contiguous polarisation spectra of the Earth from 300 to 850 nm measured by GOME-2 onboard MetOp-A
Tilstra, L. G.; Lang, R.; Munro, R.; Aben, I.; Stammes, P.
2014-07-01
In this paper we present the first contiguous high-resolution spectra of the Earth's polarisation observed by a satellite instrument. The measurements of the Stokes fraction Q/I are performed by the spectrometer GOME-2 onboard the MetOp-A satellite. Polarisation measurements by GOME-2 are performed by onboard polarisation measurement devices (PMDs) and the high-resolution measurements discussed in this paper are taken in the special "PMD RAW" mode of operation. The spectral resolution of these PMD RAW polarisation measurements varies from 3 nm in the ultraviolet (UV) to 35 nm in the near-infrared wavelength range. We first compare measurements of the polarisation from cloud-free scenes with radiative transfer calculations for a number of cases. We find good agreement but also a spectral discrepancy at 800 nm, which we attribute to remaining imperfections in the calibration key data. Secondly, we study the polarisation of scenes with special scattering geometries that normally lead to near-zero Q/I. The GOME-2 polarisation spectra indeed show this behaviour and confirm the existence of the small discrepancy found earlier. Thirdly, we study the Earth polarisation for a variety of scenes. This provides a blueprint of Q/I over land and sea surfaces for various degrees of cloud cover. Fourthly, we compare the spectral dependence of measurements of Q/I in the UV with the generalised distribution function proposed by Schutgens and Stammes (2002) to describe the shape of the UV polarisation spectrum. The GOME-2 data confirm that these functions match the spectral behaviour captured by the GOME-2 PMD RAW mode.
K factor for Higgs boson production via gluon fusion process at hadron colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, H.
1992-01-01
In this paper soft gluon corrections for Higgs boson production at hadron colliders are calculated. It is found that the soft contributions for the Higgs boson production via gluon fusion process is large and it cannot be neglected even at SSC energy. Some qualitative discussions for the QCD corrections to the Higgs boson production at hadron colliders and their background processes are presented for various Higgs boson mass cases
Quark and gluon latent heats at the deconfinement phase transition in SU(3) gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kogut, J.; Matsuoka, H.; Stone, M.; Wyld, H.W.; Shenker, S.; Shigemitsu, J.; Sinclair, D.K.
1983-04-01
We have run computer simulations of the quark and gluon internal energies in SU(3) lattice gauge theory neglecting dynamical fermion loops. At the first-order deconfinement - chiral-symmetry restoration transition, the internal energies display large discontinuities which nearly saturate the Stefan-Boltzmann free quark and gluon limits. The total latent heat per unit volume is roughly 1.50 +- 0.50 GeV/fm 3 . We present critical remarks and timing estimates for fermion computer simulation methods
Thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma and dynamical formation of Bose-Einstein Condensate
Liao, Jinfeng
2012-01-01
We report recent progress on understanding the thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma during the early stage in a heavy ion collision. The initially high overpopulation in the pre-equilibrium gluonic matter (``glasma'') is shown to play a crucial role. The strongly interacting nature (and thus fast evolution) naturally arises as an {\\em emergent property} of this pre-equilibrium matter where the intrinsic coupling is weak but the highly occupied gluon states coherently amplify the scatterin...
The strong running coupling from an approximate gluon Dyson-Schwinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alkofer, R.; Hauck, A.
1996-01-01
Using Mandelstam's approximation to the gluon Dyson-Schwinger equation we calculate the gluon self-energy in a renormalisation group invariant fashion. We obtain a non-perturbative Β function. The scaling behavior near the ultraviolet stable fixed point is in good agreement with perturbative QCD. No further fixed point for positive values of the coupling is found: α S increases without bound in the infrared
The next-to-leading order (NLO) gluon distribution from DGLAP ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this section we present a general solution of the DGLAP gluon evolution equation at low x. .... evolution only. To solve this with a single boundary condition which can be any non-perturbative input distribution [16] of gluon at an initial scale Q2 = Q2. 0, viz.,. G(x, Q2 ... at any given point (x, t), the left-hand side of eq.
Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Esen, S; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jezabek, M; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manzali, M; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; 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The polarisation of prompt [Formula: see text] mesons is measured by performing an angular analysis of [Formula: see text] decays using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The polarisation is measured in bins of transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text] in the kinematic region [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and is compared to theoretical models. No significant polarisation is observed.
Measurement of $\\psi(2S)$ polarisation in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV
Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Bauer, Thomas; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Callot, Olivier; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coca, Cornelia; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farry, Stephen; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; 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Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jezabek, Marek; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Longstaff, Ian; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luisier, Johan; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manzali, Matteo; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Polok, Grzegorz; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redford, Sophie; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Sabatino, Giovanni; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sapunov, Matvey; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Senderowska, Katarzyna; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spinella, Franco; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teodorescu, Eliza; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Webber, Adam Dane; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wiggers, Leo; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander
2014-01-01
The polarisation of prompt $\\psi(2S)$ mesons is measured by performing an angular analysis of $\\psi(2S)\\rightarrow \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ decays using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The polarisation is measured in bins of transverse momentum $p_\\mathrm{T}$ and rapidity $y$ in the kinematic region $3.5
T -matrix approach to quark-gluon plasma
Liu, Shuai Y. F.; Rapp, Ralf
2018-03-01
A self-consistent thermodynamic T -matrix approach is deployed to study the microscopic properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), encompassing both light- and heavy-parton degrees of freedom in a unified framework. The starting point is a relativistic effective Hamiltonian with a universal color force. The input in-medium potential is quantitatively constrained by computing the heavy-quark (HQ) free energy from the static T -matrix and fitting it to pertinent lattice-QCD (lQCD) data. The corresponding T -matrix is then applied to compute the equation of state (EoS) of the QGP in a two-particle irreducible formalism, including the full off-shell properties of the selfconsistent single-parton spectral functions and their two-body interaction. In particular, the skeleton diagram functional is fully resummed to account for emerging bound and scattering states as the critical temperature is approached from above. We find that the solution satisfying three sets of lQCD data (EoS, HQ free energy, and quarkonium correlator ratios) is not unique. As limiting cases we discuss a weakly coupled solution, which features color potentials close to the free energy, relatively sharp quasiparticle spectral functions and weak hadronic resonances near Tc, and a strongly coupled solution with a strong color potential (much larger than the free energy), resulting in broad nonquasiparticle parton spectral functions and strong hadronic resonance states which dominate the EoS when approaching Tc.
Lattice study of the gluon propagator in momentum space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard, C. (Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)); Parrinello, C. (Physics Department, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, New York 10003 (United States) Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)); Soni, A. (Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States))
1994-02-01
We consider pure glue QCD at [beta]=5.7, [beta]=6.0, and [beta]=6.3. We evaluate the gluon propagator both in time at zero three-momentum and in momentum space. From the former quantity we obtain evidence for a dynamically generated effective mass, which at [beta]=6.0 and [beta]=6.3 increases with the time separation of the sources, in agreement with earlier results. The momentum space propagator [ital G]([ital k]) provides further evidence for mass generation. In particular, at [beta]=6.0, for 300 MeV[approx lt][ital k][approx lt]1 GeV, the propagator [ital G]([ital k]) can be fit to a continuum formula proposed by Gribov and others, which contains a mass scale [ital b], presumably related to the hadronization mass scale. For higher momenta Gribov's model no longer provides a good fit, as [ital G]([ital k]) tends rather to follow an inverse power law [approx]1/[ital k][sup 2+[gamma
Phenomenological aspects of an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez Guerrero, Mauricio
2010-04-30
In this work we investigate phenomenological aspects of an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma. In the first part of this thesis, we formulate phenomenologicalmodels that take into account the momentumspace anisotropy of the system developed during the expansion of the fireball at early-times. By including the proper-time dependence of the parton hard momentum scale, p{sub hard}({tau}), and the plasma anisotropy parameter, {xi}({tau}), the proposed models allow us to interpolate from 0+1 pre-equilibrated expansion at early-times to 0+1 ideal hydrodynamics at late times. We study dilepton production as a valuable observable to experimentally determine the isotropization time of the system as well as the degree of anisotropy developed at early-times. We generalize our interpolating models to include the rapidity dependence of p{sub hard} and consider its impact on forward dileptons. Next, we discuss how to constrain the onset of hydrodynamics by demanding two requirements of the solutions to the equations of motion of viscous hydrodynamics. We show this explicitly for 0+1 dimensional 2nd-order conformal viscous hydrodynamics and find that the initial conditions are non-trivially constrained. Finally, we demonstrate how to match the initial conditions for 0+1 dimensional viscous hydrodynamics from pre-equilibrated expansion. We analyze the dependence of the entropy production on the pre-equilibrium phase and discuss limitations of the standard definitions of the non-equilibrium entropy in kinetic theory. (orig.)
Phenomenological aspects of an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez Guerrero, Mauricio
2010-01-01
In this work we investigate phenomenological aspects of an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma. In the first part of this thesis, we formulate phenomenologicalmodels that take into account the momentumspace anisotropy of the system developed during the expansion of the fireball at early-times. By including the proper-time dependence of the parton hard momentum scale, p hard (τ), and the plasma anisotropy parameter, ξ(τ), the proposed models allow us to interpolate from 0+1 pre-equilibrated expansion at early-times to 0+1 ideal hydrodynamics at late times. We study dilepton production as a valuable observable to experimentally determine the isotropization time of the system as well as the degree of anisotropy developed at early-times. We generalize our interpolating models to include the rapidity dependence of p hard and consider its impact on forward dileptons. Next, we discuss how to constrain the onset of hydrodynamics by demanding two requirements of the solutions to the equations of motion of viscous hydrodynamics. We show this explicitly for 0+1 dimensional 2nd-order conformal viscous hydrodynamics and find that the initial conditions are non-trivially constrained. Finally, we demonstrate how to match the initial conditions for 0+1 dimensional viscous hydrodynamics from pre-equilibrated expansion. We analyze the dependence of the entropy production on the pre-equilibrium phase and discuss limitations of the standard definitions of the non-equilibrium entropy in kinetic theory. (orig.)
Average gluon and quark jet multiplicities at higher orders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolzoni, Paolo; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kotikov, Anatoly V. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics
2013-05-15
We develop a new formalism for computing and including both the perturbative and nonperturbative QCD contributions to the scale evolution of average gluon and quark jet multiplicities. The new method is motivated by recent progress in timelike small-x resummation obtained in the MS factorization scheme. We obtain next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic (NNLL) resummed expressions, which represent generalizations of previous analytic results. Our expressions depend on two nonperturbative parameters with clear and simple physical interpretations. A global fit of these two quantities to all available experimental data sets that are compatible with regard to the jet algorithms demonstrates by its goodness how our results solve a longstanding problem of QCD. We show that the statistical and theoretical uncertainties both do not exceed 5% for scales above 10 GeV. We finally propose to use the jet multiplicity data as a new way to extract the strong-coupling constant. Including all the available theoretical input within our approach, we obtain {alpha}{sub s}{sup (5)}(M{sub Z})=0.1199{+-}0.0026 in the MS scheme in an approximation equivalent to next-to-next-to-leading order enhanced by the resummations of ln(x) terms through the NNLL level and of ln Q{sup 2} terms by the renormalization group, in excellent agreement with the present world average.
NLO uncertainties in Higgs+2 jets from gluon fusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gangal, Shireen; Tackmann, Frank J.
2013-02-15
A central ingredient in establishing the properties of the newly discovered Higgs-like boson is to isolate its production via vector boson fusion (VBF). With the typical experimental selection cuts, the VBF sample is contaminated by a {proportional_to} 25% fraction from Higgs+2 jet production via gluon fusion (ggF) which has large perturbative uncertainties. We perform a detailed study of the perturbative uncertainties in the NLO predictions for pp{yields}H+2 jets via ggF used by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, with the VBF selection cuts of their current H{yields}{gamma}{gamma} analyses. We discuss in detail the application of the so-called ''ST method'' for estimating fixed-order perturbative uncertainties in this case, and also consider generalizations of it. Qualitatively, our results apply equally to other decay channels with similar VBF selection cuts. Typical VBF selections include indirect restrictions or explicit vetoes on additional jet activity, primarily to reduce non-Higgs backgrounds. We find that such restrictions have to be chosen carefully and are not necessarily beneficial for the purpose of distinguishing between the VBF and ggF production modes, since a modest reduction in the relative ggF contamination can be easily overwhelmed by its quickly increasing perturbative uncertainties.
The polarising effects in sintered kaolin | D'ujanga | Tanzania ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The polarizing effects in sintered kaolin samples were analysed in terms of the sample density (or porosity) using direct current (dc) techniques. More porous samples exhibited higher polarizing effects than the less porous ones. The conduction carriers in kaolin samples at room temperature were found to be mainly ...
Energy dependence of the differences between the quark and gluon jet fragmentation
Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; 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Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; 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Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G; Charpentier, Ph; Gavillet, Ph; Jarlskog, Ch; Papadopoulou, Th D
1996-01-01
Three jet events arising from decays of the Z boson, collected by the DELPHI detector, were used to measure differences in quark and gluon fragmentation. Gluon jets were anti-tagged by identifying b quark jets. Unbiased quark jets came from events with two jets plus one photon. Quark and gluon jet properties in different energy ranges were compared for the first time within the same detector. Quark and gluon jets of nearly the same energy in symmetric three jet event topologies were also compared. Using three independent methods, the average value of the ratio of the mean charged multiplicities of gluon and quark jets is \\[ =1.241\\pm 0.015\\ (stat.) \\pm 0.025\\ (syst.). \\] Gluon jets are broader and produce fragments with a softer energy spectrum than quark jets of equivalent energy. The string effect has been observed in fully symmetric three jet events. The measured ratio R_{\\gamma} of the charged particle flow in the q\\overline{q} inter-jet region of the q\\bar{q}g and q\\bar{q}\\gamma samples agrees with the p...
Measurement of the triple gluon vertex from double quark tagged 4-jet events
Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbi, M S; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Colomer, M; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Geryukov, L; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Konoplyannikov, A K; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolenko, M; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Ortuno, S; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Serbelloni, L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siegrist, P; Silvestre, R; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chernyaev, E; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Yi, J; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G
1997-01-01
The 4-jet events collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP1 in 1992, 1993 and 1994 are analysed to determine the contribution of the triple-gluon vertex. Two of the four jets are tagged as jets from $b$- or $c$-quarks using lifetime and lepton transverse momentum information. The 4-jet contributions from double-gluon bremsstrahlung, the triple-gluon vertex, and secondary quark-antiquark pair production then yield significantly different two-dimensional distributions in the generalized Nachtmann Reiter angle %$\\Theta^{*}_{NR}$ versus the opening angle of the two secondary jets. These distributions are used to fit $C_A/C_F$, the ratio of the coupling strength of the triple-gluon vertex to that of gluon bremsstrahlung, and $N_C/N_A$, the ratio of the number of quark colours to the number of gluons, giving \\begin{center} $C_A/C_F=2.51 \\pm 0.28$ ~and~ $N_C/N_A=0.38 \\pm 0.10$ \\end{center} in agreement with the values expected from QCD: \\begin{center} $C_A/C_F = 9/4 = 2.25$ ~and~ $N_C/N_A = 3/8 = 0.375$. \\end{center...
Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and tests of QCD analytic predictions
Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, A N; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bloomer, J E; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Bouwens, B T; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; do Couto e Silva, E; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Edwards, J E G; Estabrooks, P G; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ingram, M R; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Morii, M; Müller, U; Mihara, S; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oh, A; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pearce, M J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Rees, D L; Rigby, D; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Ros, E; Rossi, A M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Rylko, R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D
1999-01-01
Gluon jets are identified in e+e- hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon jets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The charged particle multiplicity distribution of the gluon jets is presented, and is analyzed for its mean, dispersion, skew, and curtosis values, and for its factorial and cumulant moments. The results are compared to the analogous results found for a sample of light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. We observe differences between the mean, skew and curtosis values of gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant moment results are compared to the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observe...
Linearly polarized small-x gluons in forward heavy-quark pair production
Marquet, C.; Roiesnel, C.; Taels, P.
2018-01-01
We use the color glass condensate (CGC) framework to study the production of forward heavy quark-antiquark pairs in unpolarized proton-nucleus or proton-proton collisions in the small-x regime. In the limit of nearly back-to-back jets, the CGC result simplifies into the transverse-momentum dependent (TMD) factorization approach. For massless quarks, the TMD factorization formula involves three unpolarized gluon TMDs: the Weizsäcker-Williams gluon distribution, the adjoint-dipole gluon distribution, and an additional one. When quark masses are kept nonzero, three new gluon TMDs appear—each partnered to one of the aforementioned distributions—which describe the distribution of linearly polarized gluons in the unpolarized small-x target. We show how these six gluon TMDs emerge from the CGC formulation, and we determine their expressions in terms of Wilson line correlators. We calculate them analytically in the McLerran-Venugopalan model, and further evolve them toward smaller values of x using a numerical implementation of Jalilian-Marian-Iancu-McLerran-Weigert-Leonidov-Kovner (JIMWLK) evolution.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Moučka, F.; Nezbeda, Ivo; Smith, W. R.
2013-01-01
Roč. 39, 14-15 (2013), s. 1125-1134 ISSN 0892-7022 Grant - others:GA MŠMT(CZ) LH12019; NSERCC(CA) OGP1041; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-35793P Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : multi-particle move MC * polarisable water * polarisable electrolytes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.119, year: 2013
Leptogenesis and tensor polarisation from a gravitational Chern-Simons term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyth, David H.; Quimbay, Carlos; Rodriguez, Yeinzon
2005-01-01
Within an effective field theory derived from string theory, the universal axion has to be coupled to the the gravitational Chern-Simons (gCS) term. During any era when the axion field is varying, the vacuum fluctuation of the gravitational wave amplitude will then be circularly polarised, generating an expectation value for the gCS term. The polarisation may be observable through the Cosmic Microwave Background, and the vacuum expectation value of the gCS term may generate the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. We argue here that such effects cannot be computed without further input from string theory, since the 'vacuum' in question is unlikely to be the field-theoretic one. (author)
Polarisation-insensitive strip-loaded waveguide for electro-optic modulators and switches
Sun, Jie; Chen, Changming; Gao, Lei; Sun, Xiaoqiang; Gao, Weinan; Ma, Chunsheng; Zhang, Daming
2009-06-01
A polarisation-insensitive electro-optic (EO) waveguide consisting of a dye-doped TiO2/SiO2 slab and a SU-8 strip-loaded rib is designed and fabricated. By optimizing the refractive index and size of waveguide, a trade-off between polarisation-insensitive condition and large EO efficiency (optical field interaction with the EO material) is obtained. The average transmission loss of the waveguide is less than 2.0 dB/cm. A Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer intensity modulator based on this waveguide with excellent poling stability is fabricated and measured, exhibiting 7 V half-wave voltage with 1.8 cm EO interaction length and 2.7 cm total length. This strip-loaded structure is proved to be a valuable application in EO modulators and switches.
Kurbatov, A. M.; Kurbatov, R. A.; Voloshin, V. V.; Vorob'ev, I. L.; Kolosovsky, A. O.
2016-12-01
Polarisation maintaining (PM) fibre is described with pure silica core and two depressed claddings for fibre optic gyro (FOG) sensing coil. Detailed mathematical simulation is presented by supermodes method, which is extremely necessary for such fibre. Simulation is fulfilled by frequency domain finite difference method (FDFDM), taking into account all details of realistic index profile with stress applying parts, while the leakage/bend loss occur in the region with complex index, surrounding the fibre. Cutoff and small bend loss are theoretically predicted and experimentally measured with excellent agreement between theory and experiment. Polarisation maintaining ability is measured in the form of conventional h-parameter (7.1·10-6 1/m) for 90-μm diameter fibre with birefringence value only 3.9·10-4.
Heavy flavour corrections to polarised and unpolarised deep-inelastic scattering at 3-loop order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ablinger, J.; Round, M.; Schneider, C.; Hasselhuhn, A.
2016-11-01
We report on progress in the calculation of 3-loop corrections to the deep-inelastic structure functions from massive quarks in the asymptotic region of large momentum transfer Q 2 . Recently completed results allow us to obtain the O(a 3 s ) contributions to several heavy flavour Wilson coefficients which enter both polarised and unpolarised structure functions for lepton-nucleon scattering. In particular, we obtain the non-singlet contributions to the unpolarised structure functions F 2 (x,Q 2 ) and xF 3 (x,Q 2 ) and the polarised structure function g 1 (x,Q 2 ). From these results we also obtain the heavy flavour contributions to the Gross-Llewellyn-Smith and the Bjorken sum rules.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, P.J. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1996-11-01
A semi-quantitative analysis is given of some of the ways in which spin-lattice interactions can modify the cross-sections observable in neutron scattering experiments. This analysis is applied to the scattering from the invar alloy Fe{sub 65}Ni{sub 35} using a model in which the magnetic moment is a function of the near neighbour separation. This model has been applied to clarify the results of inelastic scattering experiments carried out on Fe{sub 65}Ni{sub 35} using both polarised and unpolarised neutrons. The extra information obtainable using polarised neutrons as well as the difficulties and limitations of the technique for inelastic scattering are discussed. (author) 8 figs., 14 refs.
Measurement of top quark polarisation in $t$-channel single top quark production
Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Awad, Adel; El Sawy, Mai; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty
2016-04-13
A first measurement of the top quark spin asymmetry, sensitive to the top quark polarisation, in $t$-channel single top quark production is presented. It is based on a sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. A high-purity sample of $t$-channel single top quark events with an isolated muon is selected. Signal and background components are estimated using a fit to data. A differential cross section measurement, corrected for detector effects, of an angular observable sensitive to the top quark polarisation is performed. The differential distribution is used to extract a top quark spin asymmetry of 0.26 $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\pm$ 0.10 (syst), which is compatible with a $p$-value of 4.6% with the standard model prediction of 0.44.
Penetration depth of YBa2Cu3O7 measured by polarised neutron reflectometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynolds, J.M.; Nunez, V.; Boothroyd, A.T.; Bucknall, D.G.; Penfold, J.
1998-01-01
We have applied the technique of polarised neutron reflectometry (PNR) to investigate the magnetic field profile near the surface of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films at 4.3 K. The samples comprised 700-1400 nm of c-axis oriented, single crystal YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 deposited by laser ablation on SrTiO 3 substrates. The measurements were carried out on the CRISP reflectometer at the ISIS facility. The PNR technique measures the magnetic induction profile perpendicular to the surface, and so in our case the decay of flux in the c-direction was measured with a field applied parallel to the ab plane. We present preliminary data for the polarised and unpolarised reflectivity (orig.)
A neutron polarisation analysis study of the 'central' peak in single-crystal praseodymium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burke, S.K.; Stirling, W.G.; McEwen, K.A.; Salford Univ.
1981-01-01
The technique of neutron polarisation analysis has been used to examine the broad 'central' peak in paramagnetic praseodymium. Measurements over the temperature range 1.2-25 K show that these peaks, observed at reciprocal space positions (Q 1 , 0, 2m + 1) with Q 1 = 0.11 tau 100 , are entirely magnetic in character. The relationship between these short-range magnetic correlations and the long-range antiferromagnetic ordering process is discussed. (author)
First doubly polarised photoproduction on {sup 3}He at the photon beam of MAMI
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguar Bartolome, Patricia
2010-11-15
A first experiment with a polarised {sup 3}He target was carried out in July 2009 at the MAMI accelerator in Mainz in a photon energy range between 200 MeV and 800 MeV. The aim of this measurement was to investigate the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule on the neutron. The use of the data obtained with the polarised {sup 3}He target, compared to existing data on the deuteron, gives a complementary and more direct access to the neutron, due to the spin structure of the {sup 3}He. The measurement of the helicity dependence of the inclusive total photoabsorption cross section required a beam of tagged circularly polarised photons incident on the longitudinally polarised {sup 3}He target. The data were taken using the 4{pi} Crystal Ball photon spectrometer in combination with TAPS as a forward wall and complemented by a threshold Cherenkov detector used to on-line suppress the background from electromagnetic events. The development and preparation of the different components of the {sup 3}He experimental setup was an important part of this work and are described in detail in this thesis. The detector system and the analysis method were tested by the measurement of the unpolarised total inclusive photoabsorption cross section on liquid hydrogen. The results obtained are in good agreement with previous published data. Preliminary results of the unpolarised total photoabsorption cross section, as well as the helicity dependent photoabsorption cross section difference on {sup 3}He compared with several theoretical models will also be presented. (orig.)
Measurement of the W-boson polarisation in top-quark decays with the ATLAS detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knue, Andrea Helen
2013-01-01
A measurement of the W-boson polarisation in top-quark decays is presented. The top-antitop events were produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √(s)=7 TeV at the LHC. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of ∫ Ldt=4.7 fb -1 and was collected by the ATLAS experiment. The measurement was performed in the lepton+jets channel which is characterised by an isolated electron or muon, missing transverse energy and at least four jets. One of the jets has to be identified as a b-jet. The W-boson polarisation was studied using the angular distribution of the charged lepton in the rest frame of the W-boson. The event is fully reconstructed using a kinematic likelihood fit. The fractions of left-handed, right-handed and longitudinally polarised W-bosons were estimated from the data distribution using a binned likelihood fit. The W-helicity fractions obtained from the combined likelihood fit are: F 0 =0.659±0.02(stat.)±0.071(syst.), F L =0.317±0.014(stat.)±0.026 (syst.), F R =0.024±0.019(stat.)±0.057(syst.). Limits on anomalous Wtb-couplings were set. All results are in good agreement with the Standard Model predictions.
Studies of quarkonium production and polarisation with early data at ATLAS
Price, Darren David
2008-01-01
This thesis presents a range of studies of the production cross-section and polarisation of quarkonium at the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. As data-taking has not yet begun, these studies are conducted on fully simulated and reconstructed Monte Carlo samples. The main studies of this thesis are an analysis of the production cross-sections of J/psi and Upsilon mesons at ATLAS with 10 pb^-1 of data, along with an analysis of the polarisation of the J/psi and Upsilon that can provide information towards understanding the underlying QCD production mechanism. In addition, we are able to predict the observability of the three chi_c states through its radiative decays to J/psi. I present details of a new method of data-driven muon reconstruction efficiency determination using Inner Detector tracking information in quarkonium decays, and studies into the uses of quarkonia for detector performance, commissioning and data quality monitoring. Using a new method of measuring the polarisation distribution that reduces syst...
Pettersen, Øyvind; Maupin, Valérie
2002-04-01
Rayleigh waves recorded at the Geoscope station PAF on the Kerguelen Isles in the Indian Ocean, show strong polarisation anomalies in the period range 20-50 s, as demonstrated by dispersion analysis of 3-component recordings. The largest and most consistent anomalies are observed for events located in the southern part of the Java Trench. At 25 s the Rayleigh waves present transverse components with an amplitude of up to 55 per cent of the amplitude of the longitudinal components. The particle motion in the horizontal plane is largely elliptical. By comparison, very few and mostly small polarisation anomalies are detected at the nearby Geoscope stations AIS and CRZF on the Amsterdam and Crozet Isles, respectively. Wave path deviations from the epicentre-receiver great circle, as calculated in tomographic models of the Indian Ocean, cannot explain the polarisation anomalies. Using a multiple-scattering scheme for modelling surface waves in 3-D heterogeneous and anisotropic structures, we show that wavefield distortion due to the geometrical structure of the Kerguelen Plateau in the vicinity of the station cannot explain the anomalies either, but that anisotropy can. We infer the presence of an anisotropic structure in the lithosphere to the north of the Kerguelen Isles, containing 40 per cent oriented pyrolite, with fast axis tilting downwards in a north-north-east direction. The anisotropy may be caused by deformation of the lithosphere related to the Kerguelen hotspot.
Searches for the Anomalous Photon Polarisation in Radiative B Decays at LHCb
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00455305
This thesis is exploring the measurements of the photon polarisation in radiative $B$ decays at LHCb, which are mediated through $b\\to s\\gamma$ transitions. To ensure optimal physics performance, procedures to align the LHCb detector and to monitor the alignment quality over time are presented. Using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~\\text{fb}^{-1}$, collected in the year of 2011 at the centre-of-energy $\\sqrt{s} = 7$~TeV and the year of 2012 at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$~TeV in proton-proton collisions, the photon polarisation parameter $A^\\Delta$, which is related to the ratio of right- over left-handed photon polarisation amplitudes in $b\\to s\\gamma$ transitions, is measured by performing an untagged time-dependent analysis of more than $4000$ $B_s^0\\to \\phi\\gamma$ decays. From an unbinned simultaneous fit to the $B_s^0\\to\\phi\\gamma$ and the control channel $B^0\\to{K^*}^0\\gamma$ data samples, a value of $A^\\Delta = -0.98^{~+0.46}_{~-0.52}\\text{(stat.)}^{~+0.23}_{~-0.20}\\text{(syst.)}$ is measured. T...
Polarised structure functions and two-photon physics at Super-B
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shore, G.M. [Swansea University, Department of Physics, Swansea (United Kingdom)
2013-03-15
The potential of polarised, high-luminosity, moderate-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders for performing unique measurements in fundamental QCD is described, with particular reference to the proposed Super-B facility. An extensive programme of two-photon physics is proposed, focusing on measurements of the polarised photon structure functions g{sub 1}{sup {gamma}} and g{sub 2}{sup {gamma}} and pseudoscalar meson transition functions. The experimental requirements for Super-B to make the first measurement of the first moment sum rule for the off-shell polarised photon structure function g{sub 1}{sup {gamma}}(x, Q{sup 2}; K{sup 2}) are described in detail. Cross-section formulae and experimental issues for investigations of NLO and higher-twist effects in g{sub 1}{sup {gamma}} and g{sub 2}{sup {gamma}} together with exclusive two-photon meson production are presented. This programme of QCD studies complements the core mission of Super-B as a high-luminosity B factory investigating flavour physics and rare processes signalling new physics beyond the standard model. (orig.)
Quark number density and susceptibility calculation under one loop ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Somorendro Singh
2017-05-30
May 30, 2017 ... ball with different flow parametrization values and show the results of number density, susceptibility and speed of sound. 2. The free energy evolution. The free energies of quarks and gluons can be obtained through the thermodynamic canonical ensemble of the system. The partition function of the system ...
Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija
2004-01-01
We present the first experimental results based on the jet boost algorithm, a technique to select unbiased samples of gluon jets in e+e- annihilations, i.e. gluon jets free of biases introduced by event selection or jet finding criteria. Our results are derived from hadronic Z0 decays observed with the OPAL detector at the LEP e+e- collider at CERN. First, we test the boost algorithm through studies with Herwig Monte Carlo events and find that it provides accurate measurements of the charged particle multiplicity distributions of unbiased gluon jets for jet energies larger than about 5 GeV, and of the jet particle energy spectra (fragmentation functions) for jet energies larger than about 14 GeV. Second, we apply the boost algorithm to our data to derive unbiased measurements of the gluon jet multiplicity distribution for energies between about 5 and 18 GeV, and of the gluon jet fragmentation function at 14 and 18 GeV. In conjunction with our earlier results at 40 GeV, we then test QCD calculations for the en...
Monte Carlo study on the properties of gluon and quark jets
Kun Shi Zhang; Mei Ling Yu; Lian Shou Liu
2002-01-01
The 3-jet events produced in e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions at 91.2 GeV have been studied using Monte Carlo method. After applying two angular cuts the three angles between the jets are used to identify the individual jet in 3-jet events. The energy distributions of the three jets, the mean particle multiplicities, mean transverse momenta of the three jets in equal energy bins and their distributions have been analyzed. Comparing with the corresponding results from the quark jets in 2-jet events, a simple method to select gluon and quark jets from 3-jet events is obtained. The properties of the gluon and quark jets being selected using the introduced method are in qualitative agreement with the expectations of perturbative QCD. The ratio of the mean multiplicity between quark and gluon jets, /sub gluon///sub quark/, has been calculated. The results, again, agree with the experimental results from SLD, OPAL, ALEPH, and DELPHI Collaborations, indicating that the method proposed to select gluon and quark jets from ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Portheault, B.
2005-03-01
In 2003-2004 the HERA collider delivered e + p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam. We prescribe the measurement of inclusive Neutral and Charged Current DIS (deep inelastic scattering) cross section using the H1 detector. The total Charged Current cross section for Q 2 > 400 GeV 2 , y -1 and a Left-handed (P = -0,40) sample of 21,7 pb -1 yielding σcc (P = +0,33) = 34,67 pb ± 1,94 pb (stat) ± 1,66 pb (sys) C.20) σcc(P = -0,40) = 13,80 pb ± 1,04 pb (stat) ± 0,94 pb (sys). C.21) This result is consistent with the proportionality of the cross section with respect to the polarisation, in good agreement with the Standard Model expectations. The second part of this work is devoted to QCD analysis of the proton structure. The H1 data alone are used to extract flavor separated parton densities. This analysis is further used as a basis to extract various electroweak parameters, such as the W boson mass and the quarks couplings to the Z. Then a global QCD analysis of DIS and Drell Yan data is realized, focusing on the strange sea asymmetry which is found to be small: ∫ 0 1 x(s - s-bar)dx = (1,8 ± 3,8) x 10 -4 . The impact of new E866 data on high x partons densities is discussed and the extraction of the strong coupling is realized αs = 0,1197 ± (+0,0005 - 0,0007)(mod) ±0,006 (th). (author)
Doucet, Alexandre
Ce manuscrit presente la conception et la fabrication d'un miroir polarisant fabrique avec la methode de deposition par incidence oblique communement appelee en anglais GLAD (GLancing Angle Deposition). Cette methode de deposition par GLAD permet de changer la nanostructure des revetements avec l'inclinaison et la rotation du substrat par rapport au flux de materiau evapore. Ceci nous permet d'ajuster l'indice de refraction et d'obtenir des revetements birefringents avec un materiau intrinsequement isotrope. Puisque l'indice de refraction peut etre change, les miroirs sont fabriques avec un seul materiau contrairement aux methodes usuelles qui necessite deux materiaux. Les proprietes optiques des echantillons sont mesurees avec l'aide de l'ellipsometrie. Des images avec un microscope electronique a balayage par transmission permettent de verifier Ia structure des revetements deposes. Les miroirs sont utilises comme coupleurs de sortie du resonateur d'un laser avec un milieu actif d'(Yb3+0.1 Y 0.9)3Al5O12, ou plus simplement Yb: YAG, pompe optiquement avec une diode laser. Ces cristaux presentent des proprietes optiques interessantes pour leur utilisation comme milieu actif, mais avec une structure cristalline cubique, ils donnent lieu a des faisceaux polarises aleatoirement. Les miroirs que nous fabriquons permettent d'obtenir une emission polarisee lineairement sans avoir a ajouter d'autres elements au resonateur. Les tests sont faits en regime continu et pulse avec un absorbant saturable de Cr : Y AG. Deux materiaux sont etudies, soit le WO3 et le TiO2, et ils nous permettent d'obtenir une emission polarisee lineairement dans le mode TEM 00 avec un rapport d'extinction de 1000 (30 dB), mais seuls les miroirs de TiO2 permettent une emission pulsee periodique avec une densite de puissance crete pres de 700+/-80 MW/cm2. En etudiant le rapport d'extinction en fonction du temps de pompage, nous remarquons que l'etat de polarisation est beaucoup plus stable que celui
Constraints on the infrared behavior of the gluon propagator in Yang-Mills theories.
Cucchieri, A; Mendes, T
2008-06-20
We present rigorous upper and lower bounds for the zero-momentum gluon propagator D(0) of Yang-Mills theories in terms of the average value of the gluon field. This allows us to perform a controlled extrapolation of lattice data to infinite volume, showing that the infrared limit of the Landau-gauge gluon propagator in SU(2) gauge theory is finite and nonzero in three and in four space-time dimensions. In the two-dimensional case, we find D(0)=0, in agreement with Maas. We suggest an explanation for these results. We note that our discussion is general, although we apply our analysis only to pure gauge theory in the Landau gauge. Simulations have been performed on the IBM supercomputer at the University of São Paulo.
Event-by-Event Simulations of Early Gluon Fields in High Energy Nuclear Collisions
Nickel, Matthew; Rose, Steven; Fries, Rainer
2017-09-01
Collisions of heavy ions are carried out at ultra relativistic speeds at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider to create Quark Gluon Plasma. The earliest stages of such collisions are dominated by the dynamics of classical gluon fields. The McLerran-Venugopalan (MV) model of color glass condensate provides a model for this process. Previous research has provided an analytic solution for event averaged observables in the MV model. Using the High Performance Research Computing Center (HPRC) at Texas A&M, we have developed a C++ code to explicitly calculate the initial gluon fields and energy momentum tensor event by event using the analytic recursive solution. The code has been tested against previously known analytic results up to fourth order. We have also have been able to test the convergence of the recursive solution at high orders in time and studied the time evolution of color glass condensate.
The role of three-gluon correlation functions in the single spin asymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beppu Hiroo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study the twist-3 three-gluon contribution to the single spin asymmetry in the light-hadron production in pp collision in the framework of the collinear factorization. We derive the corresponding cross section formula in the leading order with respect to the QCD coupling constant. We also present a numerical calculation of the asymmetry at the RHIC energy, using a model for the three-gluon correlation functions suggested by the asymmetry for the D-meson production at RHIC. We found that the asymmetries for the light-hadron and the jet productions are very useful to constrain the magnitude and form of the correlation functions. Since the three-gluon correlation functions shift the asymmetry for all kinds of hadrons in the same direction, it is unlikely that they become a main source of the asymmetry.
Jet propagation and medium excitation in a quark–gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Tan; He, Yayun [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division Mailstop 70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94740 (United States); Zhu, Yan [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)
2014-11-15
We implement the complete set of elastic 2→2 parton scattering processes in the Linearized Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model to study the parton propagation inside a hot quark–gluon plasma. We calculate and compare the elastic energy loss and the transverse momentum distribution of quarks and gluons. We further simulate a single jet propagation and the induced medium excitation within a static quark–gluon plasma to study how the jet energy and profiles are modified by the jet-medium interaction and in particular the jet-induced wake. Effects of the recoiled thermal partons and the jet-induced wake on the jet energy loss and profiles are studied in detail.
Different methods for quark/gluon jet classification on real data from the DELPHI detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Transtroemer, G.
1999-05-01
Different methods to separate quark jets from gluon jets have been investigated and tested on data from the DELPHI experiment. A test sample of gluon jets was selected from bb-barg threejet events where the two b-jets had been identified using a lifetime tag and quark jet sample was obtained from qq-barγ events where the photon was required to have a high energy and to be well separated from the two jets. Three types of tests were made. Firstly, the jet energy, which is the variable most frequently used for quark/gluon jet separation, was compared with methods based of the differences in the fragmentation of quark and gluon jets. It was found that the fragmentation based classification provides significantly better identification than the jet energy only in events where the jets all have approximately the same energy. In Monte Carlo generated symmetric e + e - → qq-barg threejet events, where the jet energy does not provide any identification at all, the gluon jet was correctly assigned in 58 % of the events. More important, however, is that the identification has been divided into two independent parts, the energy part and the fragmentation part. Secondly, two different sets of fragmentation sensitive variables were tested. It was found that a slightly better identification could be achieved using information from all the particles of the jet rather than using only the leading ones. Thirdly, three types of statistical discrimination methods were compared: a cut on a single fragmentation variable; a cut on the Fisher statistical discriminant calculated from one set of variables; a cut on the output from an Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) trained on different sets of variables. The three types of classifiers gave about the same performance and one conclusion from this study was that the use of ANNs or Fisher statistical discrimination do not seem to improve the results significantly in quark/gluon jet separation on a jet to jet basis
The gluon propagator in non-Abelian Weizsaecker-Williams fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayala, A.; Jalilian-Marian, J.; McLerran, L.; Venugopalan, R.
1995-01-01
The authors carefully compute the gluon propagator in the background of a non-Abelian Weizsaecker-Williams field. This background field is generated by the valence quarks in very large nuclei. They find contact terms in the small fluctuation equations of motion which induce corrections to a previously incorrect result for the gluon propagator in such a background field. The well known problem of the Hermiticity of certain operators in Light Cone gauge is resolved for the Weizsaecker-Williams background field. This is achieved by working in a gauge where singular terms in the equations of motion are absent and then gauge transforming the small fluctuation fields to Light Cone gauge
Cross-channel analysis of quark and gluon generalized parton distributions with helicity flip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pire, B.; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.
2014-01-01
Quark and gluon helicity flip generalized parton distributions (GPDs) address the transversity quark and gluon structure of the nucleon. In order to construct a theoretically consistent parametrization of these hadronic matrix elements, we work out the set of combinations of those GPDs suitable for the SO(3) partial wave (PW) expansion in the cross-channel. This universal result will help to build up a flexible parametrization of these important hadronic non-perturbative quantities, using, for instance, the approaches based on the conformal PW expansion of GPDs such as the Mellin-Barnes integral or the dual parametrization techniques. (orig.)
Cross-channel analysis of quark and gluon generalized parton distributions with helicity flip
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pire, B. [CNRS, CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K. [Universite de Liege, IFPA, Departement AGO, Liege (Belgium); Szymanowski, L. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [Universite de Paris-Sud, CNRS, LPT, Orsay (France); Universite Paris 06, Faculte de Physique, UPMC, Paris (France)
2014-05-15
Quark and gluon helicity flip generalized parton distributions (GPDs) address the transversity quark and gluon structure of the nucleon. In order to construct a theoretically consistent parametrization of these hadronic matrix elements, we work out the set of combinations of those GPDs suitable for the SO(3) partial wave (PW) expansion in the cross-channel. This universal result will help to build up a flexible parametrization of these important hadronic non-perturbative quantities, using, for instance, the approaches based on the conformal PW expansion of GPDs such as the Mellin-Barnes integral or the dual parametrization techniques. (orig.)
Axial-vector gluons and the fine structure of heavy quark--antiquark systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feinberg, G.; Lynn, B.; Sucher, J.
1979-01-01
We point out that two models of the origin of spin-dependent forces in heavy quark systems make very different predictions about the relative size of these forces in c-barc and b-barb. The model in which these forces are relativistic corrections to vector or scalar gluon exchange predicts smaller spin-dependent effects in b-barb than in c-barc while a model in which these forces are due to exchange of axial-vector gluons predicts a similar size for spin-dependent splittings in the two systems