WorldWideScience

Sample records for polar science working

  1. Polar Science Is Cool!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Children are fascinated by the fact that polar scientists do research in extremely cold and dangerous places. In the Arctic they might be viewed as lunch by a polar bear. In the Antarctic, they could lose toes and fingers to frostbite and the wind is so fast it can rip skin off. They camp on ice in continuous daylight, weeks from any form of…

  2. TREC Dynamic Domain: Polar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    similarity. However, not all teams that submitted web crawls to this dataset applied their jaccard- similarity algorithms . 4.2 Data Format ...analysis. These algorithms were focused then on allowing better answers to the below representative science queries of our Polar data: 1. What...

  3. Exploring Science Through Polar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bell, R. E.; Zadoff, L.; Kelsey, R.

    2003-12-01

    Exploring the Poles is a First Year Seminar course taught at Barnard College, Columbia University. First Year Seminars are required of incoming students and are designed to encourage critical analysis in a small class setting with focused discussion. The class links historical polar exploration with current research in order to: introduce non-scientists to the value of environmental science through polar literature; discuss issues related to venturing into the unknown that are of relevance to any discipline: self-reliance, leadership, preparation, decisions under uncertainty; show students the human face of science; change attitudes about science and scientists; use data to engage students in exploring/understanding the environment and help them learn to draw conclusions from data; integrate research and education. These goals are met by bringing analysis of early exploration efforts together with a modern understanding of the polar environment. To date to class has followed the efforts of Nansen in the Fram, Scott and Amundsen in their race to the pole, and Shackleton's Endurance. As students read turn-of-the-century expedition journals, expedition progress is progressively revealed on an interactive map showing the environmental context. To bring the exploration process to life, students are assigned to expedition teams for specific years and the fates of the student "expeditions" are based on their own decisions. For example, in the Arctic, they navigate coastal sea ice and become frozen into the ice north of Siberia, re-creating Nansen's polar drift. Fates of the teams varied tremendously: some safely emerged at Fram Strait in 4 years, while others nearly became hopelessly lost in the Beaufort Gyre. Students thus learn about variability in the current polar environment through first hand experience, enabling them to appreciate the experiences, decisions, and, in some cases, the luck, of polar explorers. Evaluation by the Columbia Center for New Media, Teaching

  4. Polar Science Weekend: A University / Science Center Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, H. L.; Moritz, R. E.; Lettvin, E.; Schatz, D.; Russell, L.

    2008-12-01

    Polar Science Weekend (PSW) is a four-day event featuring hands-on activities, live demonstrations, and a variety of exhibits about the polar regions and current polar research, presented by scientists from the University of Washington's Polar Science Center, and held at Seattle's Pacific Science Center. PSW was conceived and organized jointly by the Polar Science Center and Pacific Science Center, which is Washington State's most well-attended museum. The first PSW in March 2006 drew over 5000 visitors, and subsequent PSWs in 2007 and 2008 have both surpassed that figure. The success of this university / science center partnership has made PSW an annual event, and has served as a model for Pacific Science Center's Portal to the Public program, in which partnerships with other scientific institutions have been built. Researchers at the Polar Science Center (PSC) study the physical processes controlling high-latitude oceans, atmosphere, sea ice, and ice sheets, and are involved in numerous IPY projects. PSC scientists also engage in many outreach efforts such as classroom visits and public lectures, but PSW stands out as the highlight of the year. The partnership with Pacific Science Center brings access to facilities, publicity, and a large audience that would not otherwise be readily available to PSC. Pacific Science Center, constructed for the 1962 World's Fair in Seattle, serves more than one million visitors per year. Pacific Science Center's mission is to inspire a lifelong interest in science, math and technology by engaging diverse communities through interactive and innovative exhibits and programs. PSW helps to advance this mission by bringing students, teachers, and families face-to-face with scientists who work in some of the most remote and challenging places on earth, to learn first-hand about polar research in a fun and informal setting. This is made possible only by the partnership with PSC. In this talk we will present descriptions and photos of PSW

  5. Summary of the polarized beam working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Dyck, O. van.

    1989-05-01

    The polarized beam working group reviewed the AGS Bookster and TRIUMF KAON Factory facilities, heard an overview of the subject of siberian snakes, discussed internal polarized gas targets, and made recommendations for further study

  6. Social Work and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlert, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Interest has grown in the past few years about the place of social work in science. Questions remain, such as whether social work should be considered a science, and if so, where it fits into the constellation of sciences. This article attempts to shed light on these questions. After briefly considering past and present constructions of science…

  7. Polar Perspectives on Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennermalm, A. K.; Salzman, H.; Gustafson, D.

    2014-12-01

    The rapidly changing climate and environment in polar regions in the 20th and 21st centuries are well documented by scientists. Yet, this understanding is not well disseminated to students and the general public because the language of science is often inaccessible to these groups. To increase participation in science about the changing Polar regions, we organized a series of interdisciplinary events at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, in 2013/14 called "Polar Perspectives on Art and Science". This series brought five artist/scholars to Rutgers and reached a broad audience of students, faculty and the general public. Accompanying this series were two high-profile events. First, the Zimmerli Art Museum's academic-year-long exhibit, "Glacial Perspectives," displayed paintings and photographs by Diane Burko documenting rapidly changing glacial, and polar landscapes. Second, the "Let Us Talk About Water" event included a screening of the documentary "Chasing Ice" followed by a panel discussion at the Rutgers Cinema. Financial support was provided by Zimmerli Art Museum's Andrew W. Mellon Endowment Fund, Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrological Sciences, Inc., Rutgers Centers for Global Advancement and International Affairs, GAIA, and many other Rutgers institutes and departments. Student feedback on the "Polar Perspectives on Science and Art" suggest that art was effective in enhancing engagement and understanding of contemporary polar change. Furthermore, the many events created a forum for reoccurring and stimulating discussions among people with their academic home in widely different disciplines, including humanities, and physical and social sciences.

  8. Bringing Polar Science to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruccoli, A.; Madsen, J. M.; Porter, M.

    2004-12-01

    The NSF sponsored IceCube (OPP-0236449) and Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic (TEA) projects have developed a model for engaging K-12 teachers in a variety of scientific disciplines using polar science as a unifying theme. An intensive workshop, Science in the Ice, provided teachers with background content knowledge and seed ideas for activities aligned with national teaching standards. These activities were used to support the introduction of authentic science investigations related to current polar research in the classroom. The pilot workshop, sponsored by the NSF supported Math-Science Partnership SCALE (0227016), demonstrated the viability of this approach for involving a continuum of teachers from novice to master in a meaningful professional development model that can lead to sustainable classroom changes. This model for teacher professional development is based on the premise that the most robust educational outreach efforts involve teachers that are prepared, supported, and connected to a network of researchers and educators. This network can also serve to both stimulate interest in polar research and as a vehicle for delivering classroom materials related to the International Polar Year. An overview of Science in the Ice will be provided to show how the natural fascination with extreme environments can be used to introduce on-going research to the classroom from multiple disciplines---glaciology, geology, and astrophysics---with a common thread of polar science. The case for involving teachers now to fully capitalize on the potential of the International Polar Year, by providing professional development opportunities including field experiences with researchers, will be made.

  9. Joint Science Education Project: Learning about polar science in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee Reed, Lynn

    2014-05-01

    The Joint Science Education Project (JSEP) is a successful summer science and culture opportunity in which students and teachers from the United States, Denmark, and Greenland come together to learn about the research conducted in Greenland and the logistics involved in supporting the research. They conduct experiments first-hand and participate in inquiry-based educational activities alongside scientists and graduate students at a variety of locations in and around Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, and on the top of the ice sheet at Summit Station. The Joint Committee, a high-level forum involving the Greenlandic, Danish and U.S. governments, established the Joint Science Education Project in 2007, as a collaborative diplomatic effort during the International Polar Year to: • Educate and inspire the next generation of polar scientists; • Build strong networks of students and teachers among the three countries; and • Provide an opportunity to practice language and communication skills Since its inception, JSEP has had 82 student and 22 teacher participants and has involved numerous scientists and field researchers. The JSEP format has evolved over the years into its current state, which consists of two field-based subprograms on site in Greenland: the Greenland-led Kangerlussuaq Science Field School and the U.S.-led Arctic Science Education Week. All travel, transportation, accommodations, and meals are provided to the participants at no cost. During the 2013 Kangerlussuaq Science Field School, students and teachers gathered data in a biodiversity study, created and set geo- and EarthCaches, calculated glacial discharge at a melt-water stream and river, examined microbes and tested for chemical differences in a variety of lakes, measured ablation at the edge of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and learned about fossils, plants, animals, minerals and rocks of Greenland. In addition, the students planned and led cultural nights, sharing food, games, stories, and traditions of

  10. Semantic-enabled Spatiotemporal Web Portal for Polar Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.

    2014-12-01

    It is essential for Intergovernmental and scientists to study, monitor and analyze the geographic data in polar regions. Polarregions are likely to respond rapidly and more severely to the climate changesthan any other area on the Earth.They also have significant importance for Global warming research. The ocean water around the Antarctic and Arctic is a crucial part of the ocean's thermohaline circulation. The Polar Cyberinfrastructure Program was built to acquire, share, access, analyze the polar data for Arctic and Antarctic communities. The polar data are becoming big and bring challenges for Polar Cyberinfrastructure Program including: 1) it is difficultfor polar data users to discover most relevant data based on the understanding the behavior; 2) the quality of polar data service is essential to use the polar data, however, it varies for users in different locations and different time. The semantic enabled discovery and volunteer computing are used in the Polar Cyberinfrastructurefor tackling these challenges: 1) semantic search and knowledge reasoning to improve the discovery recall and precision of polar data; 2) volunteer computing is used to gather volunteers computing resources around the world to improve the quality evaluationaccuracy of polar data service. Keywords: Polar Science, Cyberinfrastructure, Semantic, Volunteer Computing

  11. 2011 Joint Science Education Project: Research Experience in Polar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, J.; Ader, V.

    2011-12-01

    The Joint Science Education Project (JSEP), sponsored by the National Science Foundation, is a two-part program that brings together students and teachers from the United States, Greenland, and Denmark, for a unique cross-cultural, first-hand experience of the realities of polar science field research in Greenland. During JSEP, students experienced research being conducted on and near the Greenland ice sheet by attending researcher presentations, visiting NSF-funded field sites (including Summit and NEEM field stations, both located on the Greenland ice sheet), and designing and conducting research projects in international teams. The results of two of these projects will be highlighted. The atmospheric project investigated the differences in CO2, UVA, UVB, temperature, and albedo in different Arctic microenvironments, while also examining the interaction between the atmosphere and water present in the given environments. It was found that the carbon dioxide levels varied: glacial environments having the lowest levels, with an average concentration of 272.500 ppm, and non-vegetated, terrestrial environments having the highest, with an average concentration of 395.143 ppm. Following up on these results, it is planned to further investigate the interaction of the water and atmosphere, including water's role in the uptake of carbon dioxide. The ecology project investigated the occurrence of unusual large blooms of Nostoc cyanobacteria in Kangerlussuaq area lakes. The water chemistry of the lakes which contained the cyanobacteria and the lakes that did not were compared. The only noticeable difference was of the lakes' acidity, lakes containing the blooms had an average pH value of 8.58, whereas lakes without the blooms had an average pH value of 6.60. Further investigation of these results is needed to determine whether or not this was a cause or effect of the cyanobacteria blooms. As a next step, it is planned to attempt to grow the blooms to monitor their effects on

  12. United States Naval Academy Polar Science Program; Undergraduate Research and Outreach in Polar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    The United States Naval Academy (USNA) Polar Science Program (PSP), has been very active completing its own field campaign out of Barrow, AK, sent students to the South Pole, participated in STEM activities and educated over 100 future Naval Officers about the Polar Regions. Each activity is uniquely different, but has the similar undertone of sharing the recent rapid changes in the Cryosphere to a wide range of audiences. There is further room for development and growth through future field campaigns and new collaborations. The Naval Academy Ice Experiment (NAICEX) 2013 was based out of the old Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (NARL) in Barrow, AK. In joint collaboration with the University of Delaware, University of Washington, and Naval Research Laboratory we successfully took multiple measurements for over a week on the fast ice just offshore. Five undergraduate students from USNA, as well as 3 graduate students from University of Delaware participated, as well as multiple professors and instructors from each institution. Data collected during the experiment will be used in capstone courses and thesis research. There was also an outreach component to the experiment, where local students from Barrow H.S. have been assigned to the USNA ice observations project for their own high school course work. Local students will be analyzing data that will contribute into the larger research effort at USNA through coordinated remote efforts and participation in future field experiments. The USNA STEM office is one of the most robust in the entire country. The USNA PSP is active within this program by developing polar specific modules that are integrated varying length outreach opportunities from a few hours to week long camps. USNA PSP also engages in educator training that is held at the Naval Academy each summer. Through this program of educating the educators, the far reaching levels of awareness are multiplied exponentially. Also, the USNA Oceanography Department has

  13. Teach the Teacher! Building ROV's to Teach Polar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) a non-profit corporation consisting of institutions organized and operated for educational, professional, or scientific purposes, received funding from Lockheed Martin to design and host a workshop for teachers. Middle School teachers participated in a three-day Polar Workshop designed to enlighten teachers regarding marine polar science and exploration through the use of remotely operated vehicles, or ROVs. The Polar Workshop was offered as part of a teacher professional development activity that took at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. The workshop provided training for teachers alongside polar scientists and teacher mentors. The overall purpose of the workshop was to teach teachers about marine polar science and technology that could be used with students in classrooms. Teachers were teamed with a polar scientist and with a teacher mentor for the three-day project. Results from the evaluation of the Polar Workshop indicate this workshop was an excellent opportunity for the teachers who participated as well as for the scientists. In this presentation, we will share the evaluation data, best practices of the workshop model, and how teacher mentors, scientists, and graduate students can help teach teachers successfully.

  14. EU-PolarNet: Connecting Science with Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebow, N.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid changes occurring in the Polar Regions are significantly influencing global climate with consequences for global society. European and international polar research has contributed critical knowledge to identifying the processes behind these rapid changes but datasets from the Polar Regions are still insufficient to fully understand and more effectively predict the effects of change on our climate and society. This situation can only be improved by a more holistic integrated scientific approach, a higher degree of coordination of polar research and closer cooperation with all relevant actors on an international level. The objectives of EU-PolarNet are to establish an on-going dialogue between policy-makers, business and industry leaders, local communities and scientists to increase mutual understanding and identify new ways of working that will deliver economic and societal benefits. The results of this dialogue will be brought together in an Integrated European Research Programme that will be co-designed with all relevant stakeholders and coordinated with the activities of polar research nations beyond Europe. This programme will be accompanied by a feasible implementation plan to provide the Polar community with the capability to define the nature of environmental risks so that governments can design policy measures to mitigate them and businesses and other stakeholders benefit from the opportunities that are opening up in the Polar Regions.

  15. Work flows in life science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, I.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of computer science technology in the life science domain has resulted in a new life science discipline called bioinformatics. Bioinformaticians are biologists who know how to apply computer science technology to perform computer based experiments, also known as in-silico or dry lab

  16. POLAR-PALOOZA Polar Researchers and Arctic Residents Engage, Inform and Inspire Diverse Public Audiences by sharing Polar Science and Global Connections during the International Polar Year, using a New Model of Informal Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.

    2006-12-01

    (Please note that the POLAR-PALOOZA initiative described in this Abstract is-as of 9/7/2006-"pending" for possible support from NSF and NASA as part of this year's IPY solicitation. Subject to decisions expected by 9/30, this presentation would either be withdrawn, or amplified with specific participants, locations and dates.) Despite the success of well-regarded movies like "March of the Penguins", the polar regions remain a great unknown for most people. Public knowledge about the Arctic and Antarctic, and the critical role of the Poles in the entire Earth system, is nonexistent, incomplete or burdened with misperceptions. The International Polar Years of 2007-2009-and associated "I*Y" science years such as IHY, IYPE and eGY-present a unique opportunity to change this. The people who can best effect this change are those who know the Poles best, through living or working there. Based on innovative but proven models, POLAR-PALOOZA will use three complementary strategies to engage, inform and inspire large public audiences. (1) A national tour, under the working title "Stories from a Changing Planet", will include in-person presentations at science centers, museums, libraries and schools across North America, including Canada and Mexico. The presentations will be augmented by High Definition Video taped on location at the Poles, audio and video podcasts, and special education and outreach activities for targeted audiences. "Stories from a Changing Planet" will provide diverse audiences with an exciting opportunity to meet and interact directly with polar experts, and to appreciate why the Poles and the research done there are directly relevant to their lives. (2) The "HiDef Video Science Story Capture Corps" is a team of professional videographers, using the latest generation of low-cost, high-quality cameras, deployed to both Poles. They will document the work of multiple researchers and projects, rather than focusing on one topic for a single broadcast program

  17. Individuals with greater science literacy and education have more polarized beliefs on controversial science topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Although Americans generally hold science in high regard and respect its findings, for some contested issues, such as the existence of anthropogenic climate change, public opinion is polarized along religious and political lines. We ask whether individuals with more general education and greater science knowledge, measured in terms of science education and science literacy, display more (or less) polarized beliefs on several such issues. We report secondary analyses of a nationally representative dataset (the General Social Survey), examining the predictors of beliefs regarding six potentially controversial issues. We find that beliefs are correlated with both political and religious identity for stem cell research, the Big Bang, and human evolution, and with political identity alone on climate change. Individuals with greater education, science education, and science literacy display more polarized beliefs on these issues. We find little evidence of political or religious polarization regarding nanotechnology and genetically modified foods. On all six topics, people who trust the scientific enterprise more are also more likely to accept its findings. We discuss the causal mechanisms that might underlie the correlation between education and identity-based polarization. PMID:28827344

  18. Individuals with greater science literacy and education have more polarized beliefs on controversial science topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Caitlin; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2017-09-05

    Although Americans generally hold science in high regard and respect its findings, for some contested issues, such as the existence of anthropogenic climate change, public opinion is polarized along religious and political lines. We ask whether individuals with more general education and greater science knowledge, measured in terms of science education and science literacy, display more (or less) polarized beliefs on several such issues. We report secondary analyses of a nationally representative dataset (the General Social Survey), examining the predictors of beliefs regarding six potentially controversial issues. We find that beliefs are correlated with both political and religious identity for stem cell research, the Big Bang, and human evolution, and with political identity alone on climate change. Individuals with greater education, science education, and science literacy display more polarized beliefs on these issues. We find little evidence of political or religious polarization regarding nanotechnology and genetically modified foods. On all six topics, people who trust the scientific enterprise more are also more likely to accept its findings. We discuss the causal mechanisms that might underlie the correlation between education and identity-based polarization.

  19. Communicating polar sciences to school children through a scientific expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacarra, Maite; Lamarque, Gaelle; Koenig, Zoé; Bourgain, Pascaline; Mathilde Thierry, Anne

    2015-04-01

    APECS-France, the French national committee of the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), was created in 2013 to improve the dissemination of polar sciences towards the general public and school children in particular, through activities developed in French for French schools. During the autumn of 2014, a young polar oceanographer from the University Pierre and Marie Curie, Zoé Koenig, participated in an expedition on board a sailing vessel in the Southern Ocean. APECS-France set up a new education and outreach project called "Zoé en Expé". Using different media, about 800 children, aged 6 to 12, and from 40 schools, were actively involved in the project. Interactions between Zoé and the students occurred before, during, and after the expedition, through a newsletter, a blog updated in real-time during the expedition, webinars (interactive video-conferences), and visits in classrooms when possible. Teachers were given a list of websites dedicated to polar and oceanographic science outreach and activities adapted to the age and level of the students were offered. Different activities were developed around the expedition, depending on teachers' objectives and children affinities. In particular, students were able to relate to the expedition by imagining a day in the life of Chippy, the mascot of the expedition. They were then asked to draw and/or write Chippy's adventures. APECS-France is now planning to edit a children's book using students' drawings as well as photographs taken during the expedition. Older students were also able to follow in real-time sensors released in the Southern Ocean by Zoé, measuring salinity and temperature. Throughout this 3-month project, children were able to study a wide range of topics (oceanography, biology, history, geography…). The expedition and the educational project allowed raising the awareness of children about the fragile and badly known Antarctic environment.

  20. Building Transferable Knowledge and Skills through an Interdisciplinary Polar Science Graduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, L. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Albert, M. R.; Ayres, M.

    2015-12-01

    Modern graduate education must extend beyond disciplinary content to prepare students for diverse careers in science. At Dartmouth, a graduate program in Polar Environmental Change uses interdisciplinary study of the polar regions as a core from which students develop skills and knowledge for tackling complex environmental issues that require cooperation across scientific disciplines and with educators, policy makers, and stakeholders. Two major NSF-funded initiatives have supported professional development for graduate students in this program, including an IGERT (Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship) and leadership of JSEP's (Joint Science Education Project) Arctic Science Education Week in Greenland. We teach courses that emphasize the links between science and the human dimensions of environmental change; host training sessions in science communication; invite guest speakers who work in policy, academia, journalism, government research, etc.; lead an international field-based training that includes policy-focused meetings and a large outreach component; provide multiple opportunities for outreach and collaboration with local schools; and build outreach and education into graduate research programs where students instruct and mentor high school students. Students from diverse scientific disciplines (Ecology, Earth Science, and Engineering) participate in all of the above, which significantly strengthens their interdisciplinary view of polar science and ability to communicate across disciplines. In addition, graduate students have developed awareness, confidence, and the skills to pursue and obtain diverse careers. This is reflected in the fact that recent graduates have acquired permanent and post-doctoral positions in academic and government research, full-time teaching, and also in post-docs focused on outreach and science policy. Dartmouth's interdisciplinary approach to graduate education is producing tomorrow's leaders in science.

  1. PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating: Science Education from the Poles to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Breen, K.; Warburton, J.; Fischer, K.; Wiggins, H.; Owens, R.; Polly, B.; Wade, B.; Buxbaum, T.

    2007-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program celebrating the International Polar Year (IPY) that advances polar science education by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic. Currently in its second year, the program fosters the integration of research and education to produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations, improved teacher content knowledge through experiences in scientific inquiry, and broad public interest and engagement in polar science. Through PolarTREC, over 40 U.S. teachers will spend two to six weeks in the Arctic or Antarctic, working closely with researchers in the field as an integral part of the science team. Research projects focus on a wide range of IPY science themed topics such as sea-ice dynamics, terrestrial ecology, marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and long-term climate change. While in the field, teachers and researchers will communicate extensively with their colleagues, communities, and hundreds of students of all ages across the globe, using a variety of tools including satellite phones, online journals, podcasts and interactive "Live from IPY" calls and web-based seminars. The online outreach elements of the project convey these experiences to a broad audience far beyond the classrooms of the PolarTREC teachers. In addition to field research experiences, PolarTREC will support teacher professional development and a sustained community of teachers, scientists, and the public through workshops, Internet seminars, an e-mail listserve, and teacher peer groups. To learn more about PolarTREC visit the website at: http://www.polartrec.com or contact info@polartrec.com or 907-474-1600. PolarTREC is funded by NSF and managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the US (ARCUS).

  2. PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating: Innovative Science Education from the Poles to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Breen, K.; Wiggins, H. V.; Larson, A.; Behr, S.

    2006-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program celebrating the International Polar Year (IPY) that will advance polar science education by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic. PolarTREC builds on the strengths of the existing TREC program in the Arctic, an NSF supported program managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the US (ARCUS), to embrace a wide range of activities occurring at both poles during and after IPY. PolarTREC will foster the integration of research and education to produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations, improved teacher content knowledge through experiences in scientific inquiry, and broad public interest and engagement in polar science and IPY. PolarTREC will enable thirty-six teachers to spend two to six weeks in the Arctic or Antarctic, working closely with researchers investigating a wide range of IPY science themed topics such as sea-ice dynamics, terrestrial ecology, marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and long-term climate change. While in the field, teachers and researchers will communicate extensively with their colleagues, communities, and hundreds of students of all ages across the globe, using a variety of tools including satellite phones, online journals, podcasts and interactive "Live from IPY" calls and web-based seminars. The online outreach elements of the project convey these experiences to a broad audience far beyond the classrooms of the PolarTREC teachers. In addition to field research experiences, PolarTREC will support teacher professional development and a sustained community of teachers, scientists, and the public through workshops, Internet seminars, an e-mail listserve, and teacher peer groups. For further information on PolarTREC, contact Wendy Warnick, ARCUS Executive Director at warnick@arcus.org or 907-474-1600 or visit www.arcus.org/trec/

  3. Social Work Science and Knowledge Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Reed, Martena

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article advances understanding of social work science by examining the content and methods of highly utilized or cited journal articles in social work. Methods: A data base of the 100 most frequently cited articles from 79 social work journals was coded and categorized into three primary domains: content, research versus…

  4. Developing and testing multimedia educational tools to teach Polar Sciences in the Italian school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, Maddalena; Cattadori, Matteo; Bianchi, Cristiana; Zattin, Massimiliano; Talarico, Franco Maria

    2013-04-01

    In the last few years science education moved forward rapidly by connecting the expertise and enthusiasm of polar educators worldwide. The interest in Polar Sciences determined the creation of a global professional network for those that educate in, for, and about the Polar Regions. In Italy, this cooperation is well represented by APECS-Italy, the Italian section of the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) that is composed by young researchers and teachers of the Italian School. The Polar Regions represent one of the best natural environments where students can investigate directly on global changes. In this sense, the working group UNICAMearth of the Geology Division of School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino (Italy), promotes the arrangement of instructional resources based on real data coming from the research world. Our project aims to develop innovative teaching resources and practices designed to bring the importance of the Polar Regions closer to home. Consequently, Polar Sciences could become a focus point in the new national school curricula, where Earth Sciences have to be thought and learnt in an integrated way together with other sciences. In particular, M. Macario is producing a teaching tool package, starting from a case study, which includes a dozen of full lesson plans based on multimedia tools (images, smart board lessons and videos of lab experiments) as well as on hands-on activities about polar issues and phenomena. Among the resources the teaching tool package is referring to, there is also an App for tablet named CLAST (CLimate in Antartica from Sediments and Tectonics). This App has been designed by a team made up of polar scientists belonging to the University of Siena and University of Padova, two science teachers of the Museo delle Scienze (MUSE) of Trento other than M. Macario. CLAST has been funded by two Research Projects, CLITEITAM ("CLImate-TEctonics Interactions along the TransAntarctic Mountains

  5. Teaching Political Science through Memory Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Maria; Wendt, Maria; Ase, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of a research project where we have tried to elaborate more socially inclusive ways of teaching and learning political science by making use of a specific feminist method of analyzing social relations--memory work. As a method, memory work involves writing and interpreting stories of personal experience,…

  6. Scientific Research in Polar Seas – ERICON Science Perspective 2015-2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmott, V.; Azzolini, R.; von Brandt, A.; Brinkhuis, H.; Camerlenghi, A.; Coakley, B.; De Santis, L.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Rebesco, M.; Thiede, J.; and other contributors, .

    2012-01-01

    Polar sciences are a modern branch of the natural sciences involving large groups of researchers, and sophisticated instrumentation contributing indispensable data for a better understanding of the polar regions and their impact on the global environment. The fact that a lot of the necessary

  7. Entanglement of science teacher's lives and work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer

    This thesis focuses on science teachers’ lived experience, their social position and their teaching. The guiding question for the documented research has been: How is science teachers’ work related to their lives? The aim was to situate the voice and body of science teachers in the contemporary era...... of educational restructuring. The teachers’ work and lives in the contemporary school settings are based on the continuity of their experiences and the relations that have formed them. The interaction between critical influences and tensions shapes the personal and professional experiences, and further produces...... negative or positive outcomes in terms of teachers’ sense of commitment, resilience, well-being and capacity to teach. Personal and professional events constitute and shape a teacher’s past and present experiences. They may not be conspicuous at first glance, but they somehow affect the way the teacher...

  8. Work Values of Mortuary Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Thomas; Duys, David K.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a descriptive study in an area significantly lacking validation. The focus of the study was the work values held by mortuary science students from 3 educational programs in the Midwest. The Values Scale (D. Nevill & D. Super, 1989) was used to measure the career-related values of a sample group of 116. According to…

  9. PoSSUM: Polar Suborbital Science in the Upper Mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimuller, J. D.; Fritts, D. C.; Thomas, G. E.; Taylor, M. J.; Mitchell, S.; Lehmacher, G. A.; Watchorn, S. R.; Baumgarten, G.; Plane, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Project PoSSUM (www.projectpossum.org) is a suborbital research project leveraging imaging and remote sensing techniques from Reusable Suborbital Launch Vehicles (rSLVs) to gather critical climate data through use of the PoSSUM Observatory and the PoSSUM Aeronomy Laboratory. An acronym for Polar Suborbital Science in the Upper Mesosphere, PoSSUM grew from the opportunity created by the Noctilucent Cloud Imagery and Tomography Experiment, selected by the NASA Flight Opportunities Program as Experiment 46-S in March 2012. This experiment will employ an rSLV (e.g. the XCOR Lynx Mark II) launched from a high-latitude spaceport (e.g. Eielson AFB, Alaska or Kiruna, Sweden) during a week-long deployment scheduled for July 2015 to address critical questions concerning noctilucent clouds (NLCs) through flights that transition the cloud layer where the clouds will be under direct illumination from the sun. The 2015 Project PoSSUM NLC campaign will use the unique capability of rSLVs to address key under-answered questions pertaining to NLCs. Specifically, PoSSUM will answer: 1) What are the small-scale dynamics of NLCs and what does this tell us about the energy and momentum deposition from the lower atmosphere? 2) What is the seasonal variability of NLCs, mesospheric dynamics, and temperatures? 3) Are structures observed in the OH layer coupled with NLC structures? 4) How do NLCs nucleate? and 5) What is the geometry of NLC particles and how do they stratify? Instrumentation will include video and still-frame visible cameras (PoSSUMCam), infrared cameras, a mesospheric temperatures experiment, a depolarization LiDAR, a mesospheric density and temperatures experiment (MCAT), a mesospheric winds experiment, and a meteoric smoke detector (MASS). The instrument suite used on PoSSUM will mature through subsequent campaigns to develop an integrated, modular laboratory (the ';PoSSUM Observatory') that will provide repeatable, low cost, in-situ NLC and aeronomy observations as well

  10. Fostering science communication and outreach through video production in Dartmouth's IGERT Polar Environmental Change graduate program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond Wagner, C. R.; McDavid, L. A.; Virginia, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Dartmouth's NSF-supported IGERT Polar Environmental Change graduate program has focused on using video media to foster interdisciplinary thinking and to improve student skills in science communication and public outreach. Researchers, educators, and funding organizations alike recognize the value of video media for making research results more accessible and relevant to diverse audiences and across cultures. We present an affordable equipment set and the basic video training needed as well as available Dartmouth institutional support systems for students to produce outreach videos on climate change and its associated impacts on people. We highlight and discuss the successes and challenges of producing three types of video products created by graduate and undergraduate students affiliated with the Dartmouth IGERT. The video projects created include 1) graduate student profile videos, 2) a series of short student-created educational videos for Greenlandic high school students, and 3) an outreach video about women in science based on the experiences of women students conducting research during the IGERT field seminar at Summit Station and Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. The 'Science in Greenland--It's a Girl Thing' video was featured on The New York Times Dot Earth blog and the Huffington Post Green blog among others and received international recognition. While producing these videos, students 1) identified an audience and created story lines, 2) worked in front of and behind the camera, 3) utilized low-cost digital editing applications, and 4) shared the videos on multiple platforms from social media to live presentations. The three video projects were designed to reach different audiences, and presented unique challenges for content presentation and dissemination. Based on student and faculty assessment, we conclude that the video projects improved student science communication skills and increased public knowledge of polar science and the effects of climate change.

  11. Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group for Hydrologic Science: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The following working objectives were adopted: (1) define the current state of knowledge concerning the role of multispectral imaging science in hydrology; (2) identify critical areas where gaps in our knowledge limit opportunities for significant improvements in our understanding of the hydrologic processes; (3) evaluate the potential of multispectral imaging sciences as tools to close these gaps in knowledge; and (4) develop guidelines for a series of remote-sensing-based experiments that would help close these gaps in knowledge and, thereby, provide man with the improved scientific base necessary for better utilization of the world's water resource. The resulting documentation is intended to provide guidance for multispectral imaging programs in the hydrologic sciences with special emphasis on the visible and infrared (IR) wavelengths.

  12. Integrating Felting in Elementary Science Classrooms to Facilitate Understanding of the Polar Auroras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy Terrill

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS emphasize conceptual science instruction that draws on students’ ability to make observations, explain natural phenomena, and examine concept relationships. This paper explores integrating the arts, in the form of felting, in elementary science classrooms as a way for students to model and demonstrate understanding of the complex scientific processes that cause the polar auroras. The steps for creating felting, and using the felting artwork students create for assessing science learning, are described.

  13. The State and Future of Mars Polar Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Stephen M.; Crisp, David; Fisher, David A.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Thomas, Peter C.; Wynn-Williams, David D.; Zurek, Richard W.; Barnes, Jeffrey R.; Bills, Bruce G.

    2000-01-01

    As the planet's principal cold traps, the martian polar regions have accumulated extensive mantles of ice and dust that cover individual areas of approx. 10(exp 6)sq km and total as much as 3-4 km thick. From the scarcity of superposed craters on their surface, these layered deposits are thought to he comparatively young-preserving a record of the seasonal and climatic cycling of atmospheric CO2, H2O, and dust over the past approx. 10(exp 5)-10(exp 8) years. For this reason, the martian polar deposits may serve as a Rosetta Stone for understanding the geologic and climatic history of the planet-documenting variations in insolation (due to quasiperiodic oscillations in the planet's obliquity and orbital elements), volatile mass balance, atmospheric composition, dust storm activity, volcanic eruptions, large impacts, catastrophic floods, solar luminosity, supernovae, and perhaps even a record of microbial life. Beyond their scientific value, the polar regions may soon prove important for another reason-providing a valuable and accessible reservoir of water to support the long-term human exploration of Mars. In this paper we assess the current state of Mars polar research, identify the key questions that motivate the exploration of the polar regions, discuss the extent to which current missions will address these questions, and speculate about what additional capabilities and investigations may be required to address the issues that remain outstanding.

  14. The State and Future of Mars Polar Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, S.M.; Crisp, D.; Fisher, D.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Smrekar, S.E.; Thomas, P.C.; Wynn-Williams, D. D.; Zurek, R.W.; Barnes, J.R.; Bills, B.G.; Blake, E.W.; Calvin, W.M.; Cameron, J.M.; Carr, M.H.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Clow, G.D.; Cutts, J.A.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Durham, W.B.; Fanale, F.P.; Farmer, J.D.; Forget, F.; Gotto-Azuma, K.; Grard, R.; Haberle, R.M.; Harrison, W.; Harvey, R.; Howard, A.D.; Ingersoll, A.P.; James, P.B.; Kargel, J.S.; Kieffer, H.H.; Larsen, J.; Lepper, K.; Malin, M.C.; McCleese, D.J.; Murray, B.; Nye, J.F.; Paige, D.A.; Platt, S.R.; Plaut, J.J.; Reeh, N.; Rice, J.W.; Smith, D.E.; Stoker, C.R.; Tanaka, K.L.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Thorsteinsson, T.; Wood, S.E.; Zent, A.; Zuber, M.T.; Zwally, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    As the planet's principal cold traps, the martian polar regions have accumulated extensive mantles of ice and dust that cover individual areas of ???106 km2 and total as much as 3-4 km thick. From the scarcity of superposed craters on their surface, these layered deposits are thought to be comparatively young - preserving a record of the seasonal and climatic cycling of atmospheric CO2, H2O, and dust over the past ???105-108 years. For this reason, the martian polar deposits may serve as a Rosetta Stone for understanding the geologic and climatic history of the planet - documenting variations in insolation (due to quasiperiodic oscillations in the planet's obliquity and orbital elements), volatile mass balance, atmospheric composition, dust storm activity, volcanic eruptions, large impacts, catastrophic floods, solar luminosity, supernovae, and perhaps even a record of microbial life. Beyond their scientific value, the polar regions may soon prove important for another reason - providing a valuable and accessible reservoir of water to support the long-term human exploration of Mars. In this paper we assess the current state of Mars polar research, identify the key questions that motivate the exploration of the polar regions, discuss the extent to which current missions will address these questions, and speculate about what additional capabilities and investigations may be required to address the issues that remain outstanding. ?? 2000 Academic Press.

  15. Introduction to the fifth Mars Polar Science special issue: key questions, needed observations, and recommended investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Stephen M.; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Byrne, Shane; Durham, William; Fisher, David; Forget, Francois; Hecht, Michael; Smith, Peter; Tamppari, Leslie; Titus, Timothy; Zurek, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The Fifth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration – which was held from September 12–16, 2011, at the Pike’s Waterfront Lodge in Fairbanks, Alaska – is the latest in a continuing series of meetings that are intended to promote the exchange of knowledge and ideas between planetary and terrestrial scientists interested in Mars polar and climate research (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/polar2011/polar20113rd.html). The conference was sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA’s Mars Program Office, University of Alaska Fairbanks, International Association of Cryospheric Sciences and the Centre for Research in Earth and Space Sciences at York University.

  16. Women Working in Engineering and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Bernadette; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The presentation will focus on topics of interest to young women pursuing an engineering or scientific career, such as intrinsic personality traits of most engineers, average salaries for the various types of engineers, appropriate preparation classes at the high school and undergraduate levels, gaining experience through internships, summer jobs and graduate school, skills necessary but not always included in engineering curricula (i.e., multimedia, computer skills, communication skills), the work environment, balancing family and career, and sexual harassment. Specific examples from the speaker's own experience in NASA's Space Life Sciences Program will be used to illustrate the above topics. In particular, projects from Extravehicular Activity and Protective Systems research and Regenerative Life Support research will be used as examples of real world problem-solving to enable human exploration of the solar system.

  17. The Science of Social Work and Its Relationship to Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Jeane W.

    2014-01-01

    As John Brekke has observed, social work does not use the word "science" to define itself, suggesting a need to articulate a science of social work. This article discusses the science of social work and its relationship to social work practice in the United States, arguing that a "rapprochement" between practice and science…

  18. Citizen Science & Open Science: Synergies & Future Areas of Work

    OpenAIRE

    DITOs Consortium

    2018-01-01

    Citizen Science (CS) and Open Science (OS) are among the most discussed topics in current research and innovation policy, and are becoming increasingly related. This policy brief was developed with contributions from a mixed group of experts from both fields. It aims at informing decision makers who have adopted Citizen Science or Open Science on the synergies between these approaches and the benefits of considering them together. By showcasing initiatives implemented in Europe, this document...

  19. On the importance for climate science communication - the climate office for polar regions and sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffeisen, Renate; Lemke, Peter; Dethloff, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge for national and international action and cooperation. A wide variation in the vulnerability is to be expected across different regions, due to regional differences in local environmental conditions, preexisting stresses to ecosystems, current resource-use patterns, and the framework of factors affecting decision-making including government policies, prices, preferences, and values. Thus, considerable regional impact differences will be faced as a result of climate change. Being aware will help to prepare for these inevitable consequences in time. Climate change is nowhere more strongly expressed than in the polar regions which respond to even small changes in climate. Given the major role played by these regions within the Earth's climate system the climate office for polar regions and sea level rise is hosted by the Foundation Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) which conducts research in the Arctic, the Antarctic and at temperate latitudes since 1980. The major goal of the climate office is to encourage the communication and dialogue between science and public. Primarily, this is done by the unique close contact and cooperation to the research center scientists. A continuous exchange is supported beyond the research center towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. The climate office represents polar aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting research institute e.g. the understanding of the ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions, the animal and plant kingdoms of the Arctic and Antarctic, and the evolution of the polar continents and seas. The climate office translates the scientific work into English, making complex issues accessible to policymakers and the public. It compiles, evaluates, comprehensively process and transparently communicate the latest findings from polar related climate research. The paper will present different

  20. Science, Innovation, and Social Work: Purpose: Clash or Convergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Marilyn L.

    2017-01-01

    Social work as a human services profession has been distinctive for its inclusion of research as a required element of practice and instrument in instigating reform. At the present time, the relationship of social work to science and a redefinition of social work as a science have reentered our national dialogue with new force. This expansion of…

  1. Collaborative Science Work in the Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Denise A.

    Not all students with disabilities receive special education accommodations in science class. Without special education support, students with disabilities are unable to comprehend and apply science concepts. Implementing a co-teaching model could be a remedy for this lack of supports. Framed by constructivist theory, this study sought to determine if there was a difference in science assessment scores between students in a co-taught science class and those in a regular education science class. Following a pretest-posttest control group design, this study examined the relation between two teaching models and achievement in science. Using a convenience sample of 84 students drawn from a population of 144 fourth grade special education students in a public school district located in the Southeastern United States, analysis of variance was used to compare the mean growth of the two groups. The data revealed no statistically significant difference in mean gain scores between the two groups. Additional studies using a larger sample and longer trial are needed. Implications for social change include understanding instructional strategies that allow educators to differentiate for diverse learners in mainstreamed classrooms as well as removing barriers for underrepresented groups, thereby allowing equal access to science related professions.

  2. Mars Science Laboratory at Work, Artist's Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life, is in development for a launch opportunity in 2009. This picture is an artist's concept portraying what the advanced rover would look like when examining a rock outcrop on Mars. The arm extending from the front of the rover is designed both to position some of the rover's instruments close to selected targets and also to collect samples for onboard analysis by other instruments. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  3. Antarctic Super Heroes: Using a Graphic Novel to Teach Students About Polar Science. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, V.; Palsole, S.; Rojas, C.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso received an IPY grant from the US National Science Foundation to take undergraduate and graduate students, as well as teachers, to Antarctica over winter break 2007. The program, called IPY-ROAM (International Polar Year - Research and Educational Experiences in Antarctica for Minorities) aimed to increase the number of underrepresented minorities in the sciences, and increase public awareness about the polar regions. Education and outreach activities have been designed to teach people of all ages about polar science. For example, an interactive museum exhibit was designed to describe how the polar regions are being affected by climate change, and how individuals can make a difference. Our latest outreach strategy involves taking the large amount of educational materials collected for the museum display and making it available to a broader audience. We have created a graphic novel where the story of the ROAM Antarctic trip and existing educational materials are communicated using a combination of comic strips, fact sheets, and classroom activities. Photographic images from the ROAM trip were digitized and converted to a comic strip format. These images were combined with text from film footage collected by a documentary film, as well as personal anecdotes, to convey the successes of the program and the primary messages participants wanted to share with the public. The graphic novel will be made available to local school groups and online, at our website: www.ipyroam.org.

  4. Three voices: women working in nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear science and technology is a fascinating and growing work area for women. This short video portrays three professional women working within this field for the International Atomic Energy Agency

  5. The Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Results of the deliberations of the six multispectral imaging science working groups (Botany, Geography, Geology, Hydrology, Imaging Science and Information Science) are summarized. Consideration was given to documenting the current state of knowledge in terrestrial remote sensing without the constraints of preconceived concepts such as possible band widths, number of bands, and radiometric or spatial resolutions of present or future systems. The findings of each working group included a discussion of desired capabilities and critical developmental issues.

  6. Using International Polar Days to Engage and Experiment with Science - Outreach Partnerships in IPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, R. A.; Munro, N.; Carlson, D.; Pauls, M.; Zicus, S.

    2008-12-01

    The International IPY Education, Outreach, and Communication Committee developed quarterly International Polar Days in response to pressure from educators and media wishing to remain involved in IPY, throughout IPY. Between September 2007 and March 2009 these events focus on aspects of polar research that are both specific enough to allow depth of understanding, but also broad enough to highlight the interconnectivity of polar science. Each day has experimented with different communication tools including multilingual activity and summary sheets, live radio and web events, press releases, local lectures and engagement at conferences. A virtual balloon launch helps us to assess our reach and develop plans for the next event. The talk will present an evaluation from the balloon launch as well as lessons learnt from activities that had varying degrees of success.

  7. Science Education and the Work of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's seminal essay, "The Origin of the Work of Art", captures much of what is original and enduring in his philosophical offering. Although his essay takes as its subject the relationship between art, the work of art and the artist; Heidegger's inquiry covers conceptual ground that is particularly pertinent to…

  8. A Rising Tide for Polar Science: Efforts of the U.S. National Committee for the International Polar Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, M. R.

    2003-12-01

    The polar regions, fascinating yet distant and cold places, hold the keys to our changing world. While the upcoming IPY is the 50th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year and the 125th anniversary of the first International Polar Year, it also falls at a crucial time in rapid changes in environmental and social systems that may affect all peoples of the Earth. Further warming of the Arctic, changing ecosystems and opening pathways for ocean travel, impact not only the people there but also the shipping, economics, and strategic considerations of distant nations. Yet potential further warming of the Arctic may be understood by clues in the Antarctic ice. How are the polar regions changing, and how swiftly may those changes affect the entire Earth? This is but one question emerging from community discussions of the science of the upcoming IPY. Our emerging ability to investigate previously unexplored areas is increasing our understanding of the wide world we live in, through interdisciplinary studies and tools for connections. Autonomous vehicles, genomics, and remote sensing technologies are just a few of the emerging areas that may provide new tools for investigating previously inaccessible realms. At the same time, tools such as the internet are making the world smaller, enabling instant communications between the peoples of the world. Joint international investigations enhance our ability to understand one another as well as our ability to understand our world and our universe. Rapid communications and international involvement can revolutionize the way we educate young scientists and our future leaders in a complex and changing world. Involving and educating people - young scientists, college students, school children, and the public - will be included as hallmarks of the IPY. The people are here. New tools are emerging. The ideas, or scientific goals, of the IPY are being crafted jointly through broad involvement of the scientific community, through

  9. Dry Laboratories in Science Education : Computer-based Practical Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, P.A.; Huisman, W.

    1998-01-01

    Practical (laboratory) work in science education has traditionally been used to allow students to rediscover already known concepts and ideas, to demonstrate concepts taught in the classroom or, in the case of inquirybased science curricula, to teach concepts. Often, these laboratory practicals do

  10. Lowering the barriers for accessing distributed geospatial big data to advance spatial data science: the PolarHub solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2017-12-01

    Data is the crux of science. The widespread availability of big data today is of particular importance for fostering new forms of geospatial innovation. This paper reports a state-of-the-art solution that addresses a key cyberinfrastructure research problem—providing ready access to big, distributed geospatial data resources on the Web. We first formulate this data-access problem and introduce its indispensable elements, including identifying the cyber-location, space and time coverage, theme, and quality of the dataset. We then propose strategies to tackle each data-access issue and make the data more discoverable and usable for geospatial data users and decision makers. Among these strategies is large-scale web crawling as a key technique to support automatic collection of online geospatial data that are highly distributed, intrinsically heterogeneous, and known to be dynamic. To better understand the content and scientific meanings of the data, methods including space-time filtering, ontology-based thematic classification, and service quality evaluation are incorporated. To serve a broad scientific user community, these techniques are integrated into an operational data crawling system, PolarHub, which is also an important cyberinfrastructure building block to support effective data discovery. A series of experiments were conducted to demonstrate the outstanding performance of the PolarHub system. We expect this work to contribute significantly in building the theoretical and methodological foundation for data-driven geography and the emerging spatial data science.

  11. The United States Polar Rock Repository: A geological resource for the Earth science community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, Annie M.; Elliot, David H.; Codispoti, Julie E.

    2007-01-01

    The United States Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) is a U. S. national facility designed for the permanent curatorial preservation of rock samples, along with associated materials such as field notes, annotated air photos and maps, raw analytic data, paleomagnetic cores, ground rock and mineral residues, thin sections, and microfossil mounts, microslides and residues from Polar areas. This facility was established by the Office of Polar Programs at the U. S. National Science Foundation (NSF) to minimize redundant sample collecting, and also because the extreme cold and hazardous field conditions make fieldwork costly and difficult. The repository provides, along with an on-line database of sample information, an essential resource for proposal preparation, pilot studies and other sample based research that should make fieldwork more efficient and effective. This latter aspect should reduce the environmental impact of conducting research in sensitive Polar Regions. The USPRR also provides samples for educational outreach. Rock samples may be borrowed for research or educational purposes as well as for museum exhibits.

  12. Working Alongside Scientists. Impacts on Primary Teacher Beliefs and Knowledge About Science and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dayle; Moeed, Azra

    2017-05-01

    Current curriculum demands require primary teachers to teach about the Nature of Science; yet, few primary teachers have had opportunity to learn about science as a discipline. Prior schooling and vicarious experiences of science may shape their beliefs about science and, as a result, their science teaching. This qualitative study describes the impact on teacher beliefs about science and science education of a programme where 26 New Zealand primary (elementary) teachers worked fulltime for 6 months alongside scientists, experiencing the nature of work in scientific research institutes. During the 6 months, teachers were supported, through a series of targeted professional development days, to make connections between their experiences working with scientists, the curriculum and the classroom. Data for the study consisted of mid- and end-of-programme written teacher reports and open-ended questionnaires collected at three points, prior to and following 6 months with the science host and after 6 to 12 months back in school. A shift in many teachers' beliefs was observed after the 6 months of working with scientists in combination with curriculum development days; for many, these changes were sustained 6 to 12 months after returning to school. Beliefs about the aims of science education became more closely aligned with the New Zealand curriculum and its goal of developing science for citizenship. Responses show greater appreciation of the value of scientific ways of thinking, deeper understanding about the nature of scientists' work and the ways in which science and society influence each other.

  13. Practical work in secondary science a minds-on approach

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahams, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Practical work is an essential feature of secondary science education. However, questions have been raised by some science educators about its effectiveness as a teaching and learning strategy. Whilst such an approach is generally effective in getting pupils to do things with objects and materials, it is seen as relatively ineffective in developing their conceptual understanding of the associated scientific ideas and concepts. Ian Abrahams argues that this is because it is practiced as a 'hands-on' rather than 'minds-on' activity. Abrahams draws together theory and practice on effective teaching and learning in practical work in science - covering biology, chemistry and physics. He provides clear guidance to ensure that students are encouraged and supported to be 'minds-on' as well as a 'hands-on' so that they can make the most of this learning experience. An invaluable text for inspiringaspiring andexperienced secondary science professionals, especially for those on M-level secondary science PGCE programmes.

  14. How Science Works: Bringing the World of Science into the Classroom through Innovative Blended Media Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windale, Mark

    2010-01-01

    During the past three years, a team from the Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University, the University of Salford, the University of York, Glasshead and Teachers TV, has been working in collaboration to develop a series of blended media resources to support the teaching and learning of How Science Works (HSW) at Key Stages 3 and…

  15. Shaping Social Work Science: What Should Quantitative Researchers Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shenyang

    2015-01-01

    Based on a review of economists' debates on mathematical economics, this article discusses a key issue for shaping the science of social work--research methodology. The article describes three important tasks quantitative researchers need to fulfill in order to enhance the scientific rigor of social work research. First, to test theories using…

  16. Work function mediated by deposition of ultrathin polar FeO on Pt(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shuangzan; Qin, Zhihui; Guo, Qinmin; Cao, Gengyu, E-mail: gycao@wipm.ac.cn

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Growth of FeO layers on Pt(111) is found to consecutively reduce the work function of the system. • The electrostatic compression effect and the structural relaxation make major contributions to the reductions. • Significant rectifying effect observed in the FeO layer is induced by band alignment shift as work function changing. - Abstract: Significant work function changes from bare Pt(111) surface to 1 monolayer and 2 monolayers of ultrathin iron oxide (FeO) films on it are investigated by means of scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS). With FeO layer-by-layer growth, a continuous reduction of the work function along with the surface vacuum level (VL) shifting is observed. We found that the compression of the electron spill-out at the metal-oxide interface and the substantial reconstruction of 2 ML FeO film, respectively, make major contributions to the first and the second reductions of the work function. The rectifying effect in FeO films is also observed, which is attributed to the downward shift of band alignment imposed by the total change in surface dipole. Our work shows that the polar oxide films play an important role to adjust surface electronic structures for enhancing device functionality.

  17. Science Communication during the International Polar Year 2007-2008: Successes and Recommendations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D. J.; Ipy Education, Outreach; Communication Committee

    2010-12-01

    This IPY (International Polar Year 2007-2008) represented one of the largest international scientific research efforts ever undertaken. It stimulated the active engagement of thousands of teachers, students, and citizens around the globe through international collaboration and cooperation, careful cultivation of a global community of enthusiastic professional science communicators and educators, and creative use of free technologies. From music performances in Alaska to tree planting in Malaysia, hundreds of events and activities around the world demonstrated the public enthusiasm and the broad impact of IPY. This paper describes the core concepts and tangible activities developed and implemented by the IPY international Education, Outreach, and Communication (EOC) Committee and community and the International Programme Office (IPO) between March 2006 and December 2009. We present methods and accomplishments and address two questions: 1) How did these activities come about? 2) How do the ideas, tools, experiences, and successes from this IPY apply more broadly to science communication?

  18. The Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group. Volume 2: Working group reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of the various multispectral imaging science working groups are presented. Current knowledge of the spectral and spatial characteristics of the Earth's surface is outlined and the present and future capabilities of multispectral imaging systems are discussed.

  19. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B

    2012-08-01

    Researchers have envisioned an electron-ion collider with ion species up to heavy ions, high polarization of electrons and light ions, and a well-matched center-of-mass energy range as an ideal gluon microscope to explore new frontiers of nuclear science. In its most recent Long Range Plan, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) of the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation endorsed such a collider in the form of a 'half-recommendation.' As a response to this science need, Jefferson Lab and its user community have been engaged in feasibility studies of a medium energy polarized electron-ion collider (MEIC), cost-effectively utilizing Jefferson Lab's already existing Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). In close collaboration, this community of nuclear physicists and accelerator scientists has rigorously explored the science case and design concept for this envisioned grand instrument of science. An electron-ion collider embodies the vision of reaching the next frontier in Quantum Chromodynamics - understanding the behavior of hadrons as complex bound states of quarks and gluons. Whereas the 12 GeV Upgrade of CEBAF will map the valence-quark components of the nucleon and nuclear wave functions in detail, an electron-ion collider will determine the largely unknown role sea quarks play and for the first time study the glue that binds all atomic nuclei. The MEIC will allow nuclear scientists to map the spin and spatial structure of quarks and gluons in nucleons, to discover the collective effects of gluons in nuclei, and to understand the emergence of hadrons from quarks and gluons. The proposed electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab will collide a highly polarized electron beam originating from the CEBAF recirculating superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) linear accelerator (linac) with highly polarized light-ion beams or unpolarized light- to heavy-ion beams from a new ion accelerator and storage complex. Since the very

  20. Mathematics education a spectrum of work in mathematical sciences departments

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Pao-sheng; Pollatsek, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Many in the mathematics community in the U.S. are involved in mathematics education in various capacities. This book highlights the breadth of the work in K-16 mathematics education done by members of US departments of mathematical sciences. It contains contributions by mathematicians and mathematics educators who do work in areas such as teacher education, quantitative literacy, informal education, writing and communication, social justice, outreach and mentoring, tactile learning, art and mathematics, ethnomathematics, scholarship of teaching and learning, and mathematics education research. Contributors describe their work, its impact, and how it is perceived and valued. In addition, there is a chapter, co-authored by two mathematicians who have become administrators, on the challenges of supporting, evaluating, and rewarding work in mathematics education in departments of mathematical sciences. This book is intended to inform the readership of the breadth of the work and to encourage discussion of its val...

  1. PoLAR Voices: Informing Adult Learners about the Science and Story of Climate Change in the Polar Regions Through Audio Podcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinney, A.; Murray, M. S.; Gobroski, K. A.; Topp, R. M.; Pfirman, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The resurgence of audio programming with the advent of podcasting in the early 2000s spawned a new medium for communicating advances in science, research, and technology. To capitalize on this informal educational outlet, the Arctic Institute of North America partnered with the International Arctic Research Center, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the UA Museum of the North to develop a podcast series called PoLAR Voices for the Polar Learning and Responding (PoLAR) Climate Change Education Partnership. PoLAR Voices is a public education initiative that uses creative storytelling and novel narrative structures to immerse the listener in an auditory depiction of climate change. The programs will feature the science and story of climate change, approaching topics from both the points of view of researchers and Arctic indigenous peoples. This approach will engage the listener in the holistic story of climate change, addressing both scientific and personal perspectives, resulting in a program that is at once educational, entertaining and accessible. Feedback is being collected at each stage of development to ensure the content and format of the program satisfies listener interests and preferences. Once complete, the series will be released on thepolarhub.org and on iTunes. Additionally, blanket distribution of the programs will be accomplished via radio broadcast in urban, rural and remote areas, and in multiple languages to increase distribution and enhance accessibility.

  2. THE NEAR-INTEGER WORKING POINT FOR POLARIZED PROTONS IN THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MONTAG,C.; BAI, M.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; CALAGA, R.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    To achieve the RHIC polarized proton enhanced luminosity goal of 150.10{sup 30} cm{sup -2}sec{sup -} on average in stores at 250 GeV, the luminosity needs to be increased by a factor of 3 compared to what was achieved in 2006. Since the number of bunches is already at its maximum of 1 1 1, limited by the injection kickers and the experiments' time resolution, the luminosity can only be increased by either increasing the bunch intensity and/or reducing the beam emittance. This leads to a larger beam-beam tuneshift parameter. Operations during 2006 has shown that the beam-beam interaction is already dominating the luminosity lifetime. To overcome this limitation, a near-integer working point is under study. We will present recent results of these studies.

  3. Natural Language Processing (NLP), Machine Learning (ML), and Semantics in Polar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Ramdeen, S.

    2017-12-01

    One of the interesting features of Polar Science is that it historically has been extremely interdisciplinary, encompassing all of the physical and social sciences. Given the ubiquity of specialized terminology in each field, enabling researchers to find, understand, and use all of the heterogeneous data needed for polar research continues to be a bottleneck. Within the informatics community, semantics has broadly accepted as a solution to these problems, yet progress in developing reusable semantic resources has been slow. The NSF-funded ClearEarth project has been adapting the methods and tools from other communities such as Biomedicine to the Earth sciences with the goal of enhancing progress and the rate at which the needed semantic resources can be created. One of the outcomes of the project has been a better understanding of the differences in the way linguists and physical scientists understand disciplinary text. One example of these differences is the tendency for each discipline and often disciplinary subfields to expend effort in creating discipline specific glossaries where individual terms often are comprised of more than one word (e.g., first-year sea ice). Often each term in a glossary is imbued with substantial contextual or physical meaning - meanings which are rarely explicitly called out within disciplinary texts; meaning which are therefore not immediately accessible to those outside that discipline or subfield; meanings which can often be represented semantically. Here we show how recognition of these difference and the use of glossaries can be used to speed up the annotation processes endemic to NLP, enable inter-community recognition and possible reconciliation of terminology differences. A number of processes and tools will be described, as will progress towards semi-automated generation of ontology structures.

  4. Magnetic Braking Revisited: An Activity for "How Science Works"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Gren; Twidle, John

    2008-01-01

    The National Curriculum for 14-16 year old students in England contains a mandatory element called "How science works". Included in this material is interpretation of data, collecting data from primary sources, using ICT tools, and developing an argument and drawing conclusions. What follows is an activity, based on magnetic braking,…

  5. A Science of Social Work? Response to John Brekke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ian

    2014-01-01

    I take the opportunity provided by John Brekke's (2012) article to respond to the general assumptions and approaches that may be brought when considering the question of a science of social work. I consider first, what should be our frames of reference, our communities of interest, or our boundaries of inclusion, for such a discussion?…

  6. Effect of project work on secondary school students science process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of students' project work on secondary school science process skills acquisition in Biology. The study was carried out in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State. Three research questions guided the study and three null hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of ...

  7. Scientists and Science Education: Working at the Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, E. K.

    2004-05-01

    "Are we alone?" "Where did we come from?" "What is our future?" These questions lie at the juncture of astronomy and biology: astrobiology. It is intrinsically interdisciplinary in its study of the origin, evolution and future of life on Earth and beyond. The fundamental concepts of origin and evolution--of both living and non-living systems--are central to astrobiology, and provide powerful themes for unifying science teaching, learning, and appreciation in classrooms and laboratories, museums and science centers, and homes. Research scientists play a key role in communicating the nature of science and joy of scientific discovery with the public. Communicating the scientific discoveries with the public brings together diverse professionals: research scientists, graduate and undergraduate faculty, educators, journalists, media producers, web designers, publishers and others. Working with these science communicators, research scientists share their discoveries through teaching, popular articles, lectures, broadcast and print media, electronic publication, and developing materials for formal and informal education such as textbooks, museum exhibits and documentary television. There's lots of activity in science communication. Yet, the NSF and NASA have both identified science education as needing improvement. The quality of schools and the preparation of teachers receive national attention via "No Child Left Behind" requirements. The number of students headed toward careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is not sufficient to meet national needs. How can the research community make a difference? What role can research scientists fulfill in improving STEM education? This talk will discuss the interface between research scientists and science educators to explore effective roles for scientists in science education partnerships. Astronomy and astrobiology education and outreach projects, materials, and programs will provide the context for

  8. Revising laboratory work: sociological perspectives on the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobér, Anna

    2017-09-01

    This study uses sociological perspectives to analyse one of the core practices in science education: schoolchildren's and students' laboratory work. Applying an ethnographic approach to the laboratory work done by pupils at a Swedish compulsory school, data were generated through observations, field notes, interviews, and a questionnaire. The pupils, ages 14 and 15, were observed as they took a 5-week physics unit (specifically, mechanics). The analysis shows that the episodes of laboratory work could be filled with curiosity and exciting challenges; however, another picture emerged when sociological concepts and notions were applied to what is a very common way of working in the classroom. Laboratory work is characterised as a social activity that is expected to be organised as a group activity. This entails groups becoming, to some extent, `safe havens' for the pupils. On the other hand, this way of working in groups required pupils to subject to the groups and the peer effect, sometimes undermining their chances to learn and perform better. In addition, the practice of working in groups when doing laboratory work left some pupils and the teacher blaming themselves, even though the outcome of the learning situation was a result of a complex interplay of social processes. This article suggests a stronger emphasis on the contradictions and consequences of the science subjects, which are strongly influenced by their socio-historical legacy.

  9. Understanding How Science Works: The Nature of Science as The Foundation for Science Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, William F.

    2017-01-01

    The nature of science (NOS) is a phrase used to represent the rules of the game of science. Arguably, NOS is the most important content issue in science instruction because it helps students understand the way in which knowledge is generated and validated within the scientific enterprise. This article offers a proposal for the elements of NOS that…

  10. Working with "rookies": A case study of science teachers mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Thomas Francis

    To gain insight into the world of mentoring new science teachers it is imperative to examine how a veteran science teacher is influenced through his or her work mentoring a new teacher. The impacts of mentoring new teachers have been extensively researched within the literature, documenting many of the factors that may enhance the teaching abilities of new teachers (Hobson, Ashby, Malderez & Tomlinson, 2008; Ingersoll & Kralik, 2004; Wang & Odell, 2002). A thorough search of the literature reveals an unbalanced representation of research focusing on the many influences mentoring may bring to a new teacher while ignoring the impact on the mentor. It is when the activity of mentoring a new teacher is examined within the theoretical frame work of social cognitive learning, it is apparent that not only are two individuals participating in working together, but also that research needs to investigate both sides of the relationship. Also, since the mentoring relationship is situated within a community of practice, it becomes important to utilize a situated learning theoretical framework in tandem with social cognitive learning to provide the clearest picture of this dynamic social relationship. This case study seeks to share the impacts experienced by mentors through their work with new teachers and provide balance to the other side of research into the social partnership of mentoring. Five science teachers mentoring new teachers online, through the University of Minnesota's Science Engineering, Math Mentoring Program (STEMMP) and Science Teacher Induction Network (TIN), participated in this study that explores their experiences through a phenomenographic lens and follows an interpretive research approach. Four main themes emerged that identified how science teacher mentors were impacted from mentoring which included: (1) impacts to their teaching practice, (2) perceptions influenced from feedback, (3) enhanced reflection, and (4) enhancement of self-efficacy. The

  11. Python data science handbook essential tools for working with data

    CERN Document Server

    VanderPlas, Jake

    2016-01-01

    For many researchers, Python is a first-class tool mainly because of its libraries for storing, manipulating, and gaining insight from data. Several resources exist for individual pieces of this data science stack, but only with the Python Data Science Handbook do you get them all—IPython, NumPy, Pandas, Matplotlib, Scikit-Learn, and other related tools. Working scientists and data crunchers familiar with reading and writing Python code will find this comprehensive desk reference ideal for tackling day-to-day issues.

  12. 75 FR 57520 - NASA Advisory Council; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Supporting Research and Technology Working...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Science Subcommittee; Supporting Research and Technology Working Group; Meeting AGENCY: National... announces a meeting of the Supporting Research and Technology Working Group of the Planetary Science... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Michael New, Planetary Science Division, National Aeronautics and Space...

  13. Communicating Ocean Sciences College Courses: Science Faculty and Educators Working and Learning Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halversen, C.; Simms, E.; McDonnell, J. D.; Strang, C.

    2011-12-01

    scientists with experience using exemplary, research-based instructional materials that incorporate current learning theories and teaching strategies; 5) promote mutually beneficial collaborations between scientists and educators co-teaching the course; and 6) provide underrepresented K-12 students and visitors to informal science institutions with ocean sciences instruction and the opportunity to interact with the next generation of scientists. Evaluation findings over five years show that the course can be an effective mechanism to introduce scientists to education research and improve post-secondary science instruction. Students improved in their understanding of how people learn and how to effectively communicate. Science faculty reported that the course provided them with a heightened awareness and practical knowledge of learning theory and education research, and as a result, they felt they became more effective educators and communicators. This has implications for their work with future and fellow scientists, and the general public.

  14. Stellar Works: Searching for the Lives of Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Jennifer Elizabeth

    While women have had a profound impact in the world of science, they struggle to gain an equal foothold in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields today. This has led to considerable public and private sector efforts to recruit women into these arenas. In order to understand how schools and nonprofits engage today's young women in STEM studies, this account includes time spent both in high school science classrooms and with ChickTech--a Portland-based organization that works to provide a pathway into tech careers for high school-aged girls. A historical perspective reveals that modern women aren't treading into completely uncharted territory, in spite of the current disparity of representation in today's STEM arenas. This perspective is offered via an examination of the lives of a group of extraordinary women who worked in astronomy at Harvard College Observatory from the late 1800s into the 1960s. While several noteworthy women are discussed, the focus here is on Cecilia Payne, the first person to earn a Ph.D. in astronomy at Harvard, and one of the 20th century's greatest astronomers. A great many people have never heard of her...yet.

  15. Mercury Orbiter: Report of the Science Working Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, John W.; Slavin, James A.; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Farquhar, Robert W.; Akasofu, Syun I.; Baker, Daniel N.; Cattell, Cynthia A.; Cheng, Andrew F.; Chupp, Edward L.; Clark, Pamela E.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of the Mercury Orbiter Science Working Team which held three workshops in 1988 to 1989 under the auspices of the Space Physics and Planetary Exploration Divisions of NASA Headquarters. Spacecraft engineering and mission design studies at the Jet Propulsion Lab were conducted in parallel with this effort and are detailed elsewhere. The findings of the engineering study, summarized herein, indicate that spin stabilized spacecraft carrying comprehensive particles and fields experiments and key planetology instruments in high elliptical orbits can survive and function in Mercury orbit without costly sun shields and active cooling systems.

  16. Response: From Fish and Bicycles to a Science of Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jeanne Cay

    2012-01-01

    John Brekke challenges the field and profession of social work to define and develop the "science of social work". This response to Brekke's paper identifies the premises undergirding a discussion of the science of social work related to (1) a definition of "science";; (2 ) an organizing principle for social work; (3) a…

  17. Production of a Science Documentary and Its Usefulness in Teaching the Nature of Science: Indirect Experience of How Science Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Young; Yi, Sang Wook; Cho, Eun Hee

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we produced a documentary which portrays scientists at work and critically evaluated the use of this film as a teaching tool to help students develop an understanding of the nature of science. The documentary, "Life as a Scientist: People in Love with 'Caenorhabditis elegans,' a Soil Nematode" encompasses the…

  18. Fiscal 1982 plans of works in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Science and Technology Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    National Institute of Radiological Sciences, since its establishment in 1957, has engaged in the research and other works on the radiation injuries in human bodies, the medical utilization of radiation and the training and education of personnel in the field. The plans of works in fiscal 1982 in the NIRS are described. As special research works, there are the estimation of the degree of danger due to low level radiation for human bodies, environmental radiation exposure due to nuclear facilities, etc., the medical utilization of particle accelerators, and the biological effects of tritium in nuclear fusion reactor development. Ordinary research works include physics, chemistry, genetics, pharmacy, clinical research, etc. In other areas of activities are radiation risk evaluation, radioactivity investigation, technological aid, personnel education and training, and medical work. (Mori, K.)

  19. The Mystery of “those icy climes” (Shelley 269): Literature, Science and Early Nineteenth-century Polar Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Lanone, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Nineteenth-century science probed into the mystery of ice, from the structure of snowflakes to glaciers to Polar exploration. Literature reflects this attempt to understand the shifting nature of ice, a transparent yet deceptive—neither liquid nor truly solid—elemental structure. While glaciers become the sublime site of Romantic poetic epiphany, Mary Shelley subverts the euphoric associations of pristine settings by choosing to locate a crucial confrontation between creature and creator in t...

  20. Educators Who Work in Science: The Narratives of Women Negotiating Careers in Academic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, Kimberly C.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this life story narrative study was to explore how women scientists develop views of self that enable them to negotiate careers within academic science. I framed the study using feminist standpoint theory as my theoretical foundation, and used possible selves theory as my conceptual framework. Eight women scientists working in academe described their journey regarding their views of self and career-related experiences. The study produced two key findings. First, seven themes emerged from my data analysis; these themes suggest that these women shared significant experiences in their quest to become scientists. Second, my feminist analysis of the participants' narratives indicates that distinct, but submerged gender-related tensions shaped their views of themselves as scientists and their science career decisions. These tensions include career choice and advancement constrained by family obligations, work environments that do not recognize or undervalue their skills and contributions to the profession, and perceived pressure to de-feminize their behavior to blend in to their work environment. Not unlike other women negotiating careers in academic science, they generally accepted their status as women to be an inherent part of their career pursuits and viewed workplace challenges as an opportunity to prove their competency. Seven of the eight women did not attribute their challenges to gender differences. However, the combined narratives revealed underlying conflicts between their views of self as women and as scientists resulting from their experiences in, and perceptions of, academic science environments. The study's principal theoretical contribution, from the feminist standpoint perspective, highlights the pervasive and unseen influence of gender dynamics. In this study, the participants developed views of themselves, not as scientists, but as "educators who work in science." This critical distinction enabled these participants, perhaps unknowingly

  1. Boundary-Work in Science Education: A Case Study of GM Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The term "boundary-work" is used to refer to the constant effort to draw and re-draw the boundary of science; it has long been portrayed as constructed by the stakeholders of science to demarcate science from non-science to establish the authority of science. Twenty-nine semi-structured interviews were carried out with students from one…

  2. How to Teach High-School Students "How Science Really Works?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losiak, Anna; Students, High-School; Winiarska, Anna; Parys-Wasylkiewicz, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    terrestrial glaciers and Martian North Polar Residual Cap. 3) Students were responsible for physically preparing scientific equipment (within a given budget). 4) Students prepared detailed procedures which were used during the experiment. The experiment was performed by the Austrian Space Forum analog astronauts during the Mars Analog Mission AMADEE-15 between 2nd and 14th of August 2015 at the Kaunertal Glacier in Austria. 5) During and after the mission students analyzed data collected during the experiment. 6) Students presented their findings during the regional science fair (Dolnoslaski Festiwal Nauki). Despite the fact the quality of the data produced during the experiment was not satisfactory, the project was a success in terms of explaining students "How Science Really Works" (e.g., how much depends on the properly designed and executed procedures).

  3. The Third Annual NASA Science Internet User Working Group Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Brian S. (Editor); Gary, J. Patrick (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Science Internet (NSI) User Support Office (USO) sponsored the Third Annual NSI User Working Group (NSIUWG) Conference March 30 through April 3, 1992, in Greenbelt, MD. Approximately 130 NSI users attended to learn more about the NSI, hear from projects which use NSI, and receive updates about new networking technologies and services. This report contains material relevant to the conference; copies of the agenda, meeting summaries, presentations, and descriptions of exhibitors. Plenary sessions featured a variety of speakers, including NSI project management, scientists, and NSI user project managers whose projects and applications effectively use NSI, and notable citizens of the larger Internet community. The conference also included exhibits of advanced networking applications; tutorials on internetworking, computer security, and networking technologies; and user subgroup meetings on the future direction of the conference, networking, and user services and applications.

  4. Absolute Geostrophic Velocity Inverted from the Polar Science Center Hydrographic Climatology (PHC3.0) of the Arctic Ocean with the P-Vector Method (NCEI Accession 0156425)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset (called PHC-V) comprises 3D gridded climatological fields of absolute geostrophic velocity of the Arctic Ocean inverted from the Polar science center...

  5. Satellite stories: capturing professional experiences of academic health sciences librarians working in delocalized health sciences programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, Jackie; Horsman, Amanda Rose

    2018-01-01

    Health sciences training programs have progressively expanded onto satellite campuses, allowing students the opportunity to learn in communities away from an academic institution's main campus. This expansion has encouraged a new role for librarians to assume, in that a subset of health sciences librarians identify as "satellite librarians" who are permanently located at a distance from the main campus. Due to the unique nature of this role and lack of existing data on the topic, the authors investigated the experiences and perceptions of this unique group of information professionals. An electronic survey was distributed to health sciences librarians via two prominent North American email discussion lists. Questions addressed the librarians' demographics, feelings of social inclusion, technological support, autonomy, professional support, and more. Eighteen surveys were analyzed. While several respondents stated that they had positive working relationships with colleagues, many cited issues with technology, scheduling, and lack of consideration as barriers to feeling socially included at both the parent and local campuses. Social inclusion, policy creation, and collection management issues were subject to their unique situations and their colleagues' perceptions of their roles as satellite librarians. The results from this survey suggest that the role of the academic health sciences librarian at the satellite campus needs to be clearly communicated and defined. This, in turn, will enhance the experience for the librarian and provide better service to the client.

  6. Using Mathematics in Science: Working with Your Mathematics Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Changes to the mathematics and science curriculums are designed to increase rigour in mathematics, and place greater emphasis on mathematical content in science subjects at key stages 3, 4 and 5 (ages 11-18). One way to meet the growing challenge of providing increased emphasis on mathematics in the science curriculum is greater collaboration…

  7. Epistemology, Practical Work and Academic Skills in Science Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the inherent flaws in considering and using the epistemology of the natural sciences as equivalent to a pedagogic basis for teaching and learning in the natural sciences. It begins with a discussion of the difference between practising science and learning to practice

  8. Living. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Beverley

    One area explored in the second (in-depth) phase of the Learning in Science Project was "children's science," defined as views of the world and the meanings for words that children have and bring with them to science lessons. The investigation reported focuses on the concepts of "living" held by 32 students in four different…

  9. Sciencey Girls: Discourses Supporting Working-Class Girls to Identify with Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Spela

    2018-01-01

    Women from working class and some ethnic minority backgrounds continue to be underrepresented in science, particularly in areas such as physical sciences and engineering. Many find it difficult to see science as something that is "for them", which then has implications for their learning and participation in science. In this paper, I…

  10. A lesson from science in polar extreme environments: ethics and social values for primary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Longa, Federica; Crescimbene, Massimo; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Romano, Vincenzo; Cesaroni, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    One of the relevant objectives of the researchers should be filling the gap between the scientific research and the school. Such objective should be pursued methodically, through commitment, foresight and cooperation. In this frame the idea to communicate and to share the experience of the scientific research in Antarctica with the public and with the school is a challenge that a team of INGV researchers, engaged for many years in scientific missions in Antarctica, carries on with great enthusiasm within the several outreach activities of the Italian National Program for Antarctic Research (PNRA). The outreach activities, aiming to disseminate the knowledge and the culture of the polar regions, have been mainly addressed to a public of adults and students of the secondary school (11-19 years). Recently, the researchers matured the need to realize outreach paths addressed to pupils of the primary school (8-10 years), taking the advantage of the multidisciplinary themes offered by the Antarctic research. The present work reports the experience of the outreach laboratory "On a mission to the South Pole", realized in the frame of events organized by INGV (ScienzAperta 2012 e 2014) and dedicated to the primary school. The educational themes developed within the laboratory concern the research in Antarctica, with particular focus on the human aspects, the geophysics and the progress of new technologies. The innovative aspect of the laboratory stands in the strategy to deal with Antarctica with an educational aim, proposing Antarctica as a natural laboratory, not only from a scientific point of view, but also as a laboratory of shared human experiences. The didactic path, based on interactive methodology that uses the role-paly and the experiential activities, enable the children to acquire the knowledge on Antarctica (knowledge); to explore the Antarctic characteristics as a natural laboratory and to experiment an emotional education through individual and team

  11. Many Paths toward Discovery: A Module for Teaching How Science Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca M.; Perez, Kathryn E.

    2018-01-01

    Improving students' understanding of how science works requires explicit instruction. Here, we test the efficacy of a module based on two previously published activities (the "Cube Puzzle" and the case study "Asteroids and Dinosaurs") that teach how science works to college science majors. Students also use the How Science…

  12. A Working Framework for Enabling International Science Data System Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Hardman, Sean; Crichton, Daniel J.; Martinez, Santa; Law, Emily; Gordon, Mitchell K.

    2016-07-01

    For diverse scientific disciplines to interoperate they must be able to exchange information based on a shared understanding. To capture this shared understanding, we have developed a knowledge representation framework that leverages ISO level reference models for metadata registries and digital archives. This framework provides multi-level governance, evolves independent of the implementation technologies, and promotes agile development, namely adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, continuous improvement, and rapid and flexible response to change. The knowledge representation is captured in an ontology through a process of knowledge acquisition. Discipline experts in the role of stewards at the common, discipline, and project levels work to design and populate the ontology model. The result is a formal and consistent knowledge base that provides requirements for data representation, integrity, provenance, context, identification, and relationship. The contents of the knowledge base are translated and written to files in suitable formats to configure system software and services, provide user documentation, validate input, and support data analytics. This presentation will provide an overview of the framework, present a use case that has been adopted by an entire science discipline at the international level, and share some important lessons learned.

  13. The Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group. Volume 3: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The status and technology requirements for using multispectral sensor imagery in geographic, hydrologic, and geologic applications are examined. Critical issues in image and information science are identified.

  14. Under-Ice Science in the Polar Regions with Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, C.; Murphy, C.; Singh, H.; Das, S. B.; Jackson, R. H.; Kukulya, A.; Littlefield, R.; Maksym, T. L.; Plueddemann, A. J.; Sohn, R. A.; Straneo, F.; Wilkinson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Developments in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technology over the last decade have enabled scientists to study areas of the ocean at high latitude that were previously unapproachable. In particular, advances in acoustic communications, robotic autonomy and navigation, and compact sensor technology allow AUVs to work in close proximity to sea ice, glacial fronts, and the sea floor under multi-year pack ice. We describe the technology that enabled several expeditions to both polar regions that have used Seabed-class AUVs as the primary platform for making scientific measurements. We also describe current and upcoming missions using the smaller Seabed-100 and REMUS-100 AUVs for shallow-water work near glacial fronts. Several problems must be solved in order to successfully use robots under ice. Acoustic communications must be robust enough for operators on the surface to inform the AUV of changing conditions so that the vehicle can safely return to open water on the surface - during the AGAVE and IceBell expeditions, we experienced sea ice drift rates of tens of centimeters per second, and moving ice floes that constrained the availability of open water. AUV navigation must be flexible enough for the robot to switch reference frames during a mission depending on the conditions and on the scientific objective. During a single deployment during the IceBell expedition, it was typical for the robot to switch from ship-relative (using acoustic transponders), to ice-relative (using a doppler velocity log), to ice-relative (using a distinct set of acoustic transponders), and back again; an AUV may also need to navigate relative to the sea floor (as during the AGAVE expedition). Making ice-relative measurements also requires taking ice floe rotation into account, and on-board navigation relative to a rotating frame may be necessary. Finally, specialized scenarios such as when navigating near a glacial front require navigation relative to vertical, rather than horizontal

  15. Connecting polar research to NGSS STEM classroom lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, R.; Kast, D.

    2016-12-01

    Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are designed to bring consistent, rigorous science teaching across the United States. Topics are categorized as Performance Expectations (PE), Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI), Cross-Cutting Concepts (CCC), and Science and Engineering Practices (SEP). NGSS includes a focus on environmental science and climate change across grade levels. Earth and planetary sciences are required at the high school level. Integrating polar science lessons into NGSS classrooms brings relevant, rigorous climate change curriculum across grade levels. Polar science provides opportunities for students to use current data during lessons, conduct their own field work, and collaborate with scientists. Polar science provides a framework of learning that is novel to most students. Inquiry and engagement are high with polar science lessons. Phenomenon related to polar science provide an excellent tool for science teachers to use to engage students in a lesson, stimulate inquiry, and promote critical thinking. When taught effectively, students see the connections between their community, polar regions and climate change, regardless of where on the planet students live. This presentation describes examples of how to effectively implement NGSS lessons by incorporating polar science lessons and field research. Examples of introductory phenomenon and aligned PEs, CCCs, DCIs, and SEPs are given. Suggested student activities, assessments, examples of student work, student research, labs, and PolarTREC fieldwork, use of current science data, and connections to scientists in the field are provided. The goals of the presentation are to give teachers a blueprint to follow when implementing NGSS lessons, and give scientists an understanding of the basics of NGSS so they may be better able to relate their work to U.S. science education and be more effective communicators of their science findings.

  16. Putting science to work in developing a climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerone, Ralph J

    2009-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences is an honorific society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. This Viewpoint explores the interconnection between scientific research and policy making in developing a climate policy.

  17. Applying laser speckle images to skin science: skin lesion differentiation by polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Sotoodian, Bahman; Kalai, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is a worldwide health problem. It is the most common cancer in the countries with a large white population; furthermore, the incidence of malignant melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, has been increasing steadily over the last three decades. There is an urgent need to develop in-vivo, noninvasive diagnostic tools for the disease. This paper attempts to response to the challenge by introducing a simple and fast method based on polarization and laser speckle. The degree of maintaining polarization estimates the fraction of linearly maintaining polarization in the backscattered speckle field. Clinical experiments of 214 skin lesions including malignant melanomas, squamous cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, nevi, and seborrheic keratoses demonstrated that such a parameter can potentially diagnose different skin lesion types. ROC analyses showed that malignant melanoma and seborrheic keratosis could be differentiated by both the blue and red lasers with the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Also malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma could be separated by the blue laser (AUC = 0.9), while nevus and seborrheic keratosis could be identified using the red laser (AUC = 0.7). These experiments demonstrated that polarization could be a potential in-vivo diagnostic indicator for skin diseases.

  18. Electron paramagnetic resonance and dynamic nuclear polarization of char suspensions: surface science and oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarkson, R B; Odintsov, B M; Ceroke, P J

    1998-01-01

    ; they can be calibrated and used for oximetry. Biological stability and low toxicity make chars good sensors for in vivo measurements. Scalar and dipolar interactions of water protons at the surfaces of chars may be utilized to produce dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of the nuclear spin population...

  19. Malaysia's EOC Strategy in Strengthening the Science Knowledge, Awareness and National Interest towards the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabudin, Ahmad Firdaus Ahmad; Said, Noor Azzah; Rahim, Rashidah Abdul; Ng, Theam Foo

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine Malaysia's involvement in the Polar Regions, in the context of education, outreach, and communication (EOC), and consequently, to determine the effectiveness of these initiatives. Using qualitative and quantitative research analyses, this study found that Malaysia's experiences in EOC can be used to increase public…

  20. CMB polarization systematics due to beam asymmetry: Impact on inflationary science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimon, Meir; Keating, Brian; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Hivon, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization provides a unique window into cosmological inflation; the amplitude of the B-mode polarization from last scattering is uniquely sensitive to the energetics of inflation. However, numerous systematic effects arising from optical imperfections can contaminate the observed B-mode power spectrum. In particular, systematic effects due to the coupling of the underlying temperature and polarization fields with elliptical or otherwise asymmetric beams yield spurious systematic signals. This paper presents a nonperturbative analytic calculation of some of these signals. We show that results previously derived in real space can be generalized, formally, by including infinitely many higher-order corrections to the leading order effects. These corrections can be summed and represented as analytic functions when a fully Fourier-space approach is adopted from the outset. The formalism and results presented in this paper were created to determine the susceptibility of CMB polarization probes of the primary gravitational wave signal but can be easily extended to the analysis of gravitational lensing of the CMB.

  1. Social Work as an Action Science: A Perspective from Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Peter

    2014-01-01

    It is a surprising fact that social work is not conceived as a scientific discipline in many countries and especially in the United States. It is surprising because the extent of academic social work programs and the scientific output of people working at schools of social work are significant. And it is surprising anyway if social work is…

  2. Understanding requirements work in e-science projects

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Ka Lai

    2013-01-01

    The e-science vision is to create infrastructures to enable faster, better and more collaborative science to be carried out in the 21st Century. The goal is for these infrastructures to allow scientists to collaborate routinely, scaling geographical and disciplinary boundaries; to create ad hoc arrangements datasets, equipment or computational power to solve larger, more complex scientific problems; to federate remote datasets, hence, aiding scientists in data discovery and eve...

  3. Theoretical Computer Science for the Working Category Theorist

    OpenAIRE

    Yanofsky, Noson S.

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical computer science discusses foundational issues about computations. It asks and answers questions such as "What is a computation?", "What is computable?", "What is efficiently computable?","What is information?", "What is random?", "What is an algorithm?", etc. We will present many of the major themes and theorems with the basic language of category theory. Surprisingly, many interesting theorems and concepts of theoretical computer science are easy consequences of functoriality an...

  4. Communicating polar science to the general public: sharing the social media experience of @OceanSeaIceNPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösel, Anja; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Gerland, Sebastian; Meyer, Amelie; Hudson, Stephen R.; King, Jennifer; Itkin, Polona; Cohen, Lana; Dodd, Paul; de Steur, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The findings of climate science need to be communicated to the general public. Researchers are encouraged to do so by journalists, policy-makers and funding agencies and many of us want to become better science communicators. But how can we do this at the lab or small research group level without specifically allocated resources in terms of funds and communication officers? And how do we sustain communication on a regular basis and not just during the limited lifetime of a specific project? One of the solutions is to use the emerging platform of social media, which has become a powerful and inexpensive tool for communicating science to different target audiences. Many research institutions and individual researchers are already advanced users of social media, but small research groups and labs remain underrepresented. The group of oceanographers, sea ice and atmospheric scientists at the Norwegian Polar Institute (@OceanSeaIceNPI( will share our experiences developing and maintaining researcher-driven outreach for over a year through Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. We will present our solutions to some of the practical considerations such as identifying key target groups, defining the framework for sharing responsibilities and interactions within the research group, and choosing an up-to-date and appropriate social medium. By sharing this information, we aim to inspire and assist other research groups and labs in conducting their own effective science communication.

  5. The anxieties of a science diplomat: field coproduction of climate knowledge and the rise and fall of Hans Ahlmann's polar warming".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörlin, Sverker

    2011-01-01

    In the decades between the world wars there were several attempts to document and explain perceived tendencies of atmospheric warming. Hans Ahlmann, a seminal figure in modern glaciology and a science policy adviser and diplomat, constructed a theory of "polar warming" using field results from glacier melting in the Arctic. This article aims to link the rise and fall of "polar warming" with Ahlmann's style of fieldwork. In Ahlmann's view, fieldwork should (1) enhance credibility of polar climate science by emulating laboratory methods and (2) secure knowledge in remote places through collaboration with local residents and fieldworkers. The bodily nature of this style of knowledge production turned out to be an asset in establishing Ahlmann's theory of polar warming but ultimately proved nonresilient to theories of anthropogenic climate change, which became influential from the 1950s onward.

  6. Response: Social Work, Science, Social Impact--Crafting an Integrative Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurius, Paula S.; Kemp, Susan P.

    2012-01-01

    Shifts in the ways that science is being undertaken and marshaled toward social change argue for a new kind of professional competence. Taking the view that the science of social work is centrally about the relationship of research to social impact, the authors extend Fong's focus on transdisciplinary and translational approaches to science,…

  7. How nature works the science of self-organized criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Bak, Per

    1996-01-01

    This is an acclaimed book intended for the general reader who is interested in science. The author is a physicist who is well-known for his development of the property called "self-organized criticality", a property or phenomenon that lies at the heart of large dynamical systems. It can be used to analyse systems that are complicated, and which are part of the new science of complexity. It is a unifying concept that can be used to study phenomena in fields as diverse as economics, astronomy, the earth sciences, and physics. The author discusses his discovery of self-organized criticality; its relation to the world of classical physics; computer simulations and experiments which aid scientists' understanding of the property; and the relation of the subject to popular areas such as fractal geometry and power laws; cellular automata, and a wide range of practical applications.

  8. THE ROLE OF SCHOOL TECHNICIANS IN PROMOTING SCIENCE THROUGH PRACTICAL WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne T. Helliar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the role of practical work in UK’s secondary school science lessons, the impact that practical work has in the promotion of science, the challenges created through use of non-specialist science teachers and a possible additional role for science technicians. The paper considers how improved deployment of suitably experienced school science technicians and their recognition, by schools’ management, for their involvement in the delivery of training in the use of practical work, for less experienced teachers, could benefit schools and their students. This together with its companion paper endeavours to show how the more effective use of practical work and technicians can encourage more students to select science at higher, non-compulsory levels.

  9. Science and technology awareness for preschool children: a working model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available to see what happens in the future. Start today, learn from mistakes, but make sure to create opportunities where learning can take place. TekkiTots is an intervention to introduce Science and Technology to preschool children. Age appropriate content...

  10. Science 101: How Does Speech-Recognition Software Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2016-01-01

    This column provides background science information for elementary teachers. Many innovations with computer software begin with analysis of how humans do a task. This article takes a look at how humans recognize spoken words and explains the origins of speech-recognition software.

  11. Implementing SPRINTT [Student Polar Research with IPY National(and International)Teacher Training] in 5th Grade Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    I implemented the new NSF-funded SPRINTT (Student Polar Research with IPY National (and International) Teacher Training) curriculum with a 5th grade science class. SPRINTT, developed at U.S. Satellite Laboratory, Inc., is a 5-8 week science program teaching 5th through 10th graders to investigate climate change using polar data. The program includes perspectives of both Western scientists and the indigenous Northern population. The course contains three phases: Phase 1 includes content, data interpretation, and hands-on experiments to study Frozen Water, Frozen Land, and Food; Phase 2 (optional) includes further content on specific polar topics; and Phase 3 is a scaffolded research investigation. Before the course, teachers were trained via live webinars. This curriculum capitalizes on children’s innate fascination with our planet’s final frontier and combines it with the politically and scientifically relevant topic of climate change. In 2009, I used SPRINTT with 23 heterogeneous fifth grade students at National Presbyterian School in Washington DC for an environmental science unit. Overall, it was a success. The students met most of the learning objectives and showed enthusiasm for the material. I share my experiences to help other educators and curriculum developers. The Phase 1 course includes earth science (glaciers, sea ice, weather and climate, greenhouse gases, seasons, and human impacts on environments), life science (needs of living things, food and energy transfer, adaptations, and ecosystems and biomes) and physical science (phases of matter). Tailoring the program, I focused on Phase 1, the most accessible material and content, while deemphasizing the more cumbersome Phase 3 online research project. Pre-assessments documented the students’ misconceptions and informed instruction. The investigations were appropriately educational and interesting. For example, students enjoyed looking at environmental factors and their impact on the people in the

  12. Implementation Science: Why It Matters for the Future of Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2016-01-01

    Bridging the gap between research and practice is a critical frontier for the future of social work. Integrating implementation science into social work can advance our profession's effort to bring research and practice closer together. Implementation science examines the factors, processes, and strategies that influence the uptake, use, and…

  13. Making Science Homework Work: The Perspectives of Exemplary African American Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong; Coats, Linda T.; Davidson, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Despite the best intentions to close the achievement gap, the underachievement of African American students in science is a persistent problem. It is surprising to note, however, that research on science education has often failed to consider students' cultural diversity as it relates to science education. On the few occasions…

  14. As Science Evolves, How Can Science Policy? NBER Working Paper No. 16002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Getting science policy right is a core objective of government that bears on scientific advance, economic growth, health, and longevity. Yet the process of science is changing. As science advances and knowledge accumulates, ensuing generations of innovators spend longer in training and become more narrowly expert, shifting key innovations (i)…

  15. LEMDist: e-learning and e-science work space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Gurman, J.; Hernandez Duarte, M.; Garza Rivera, J.; Arjona Raoman, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    LEMDist is an implementation for remote access to laboratory equipment in a grid environment. The actual functionality for these applications includes the remote data acquisition from real laboratory equipment in the grid environment. The access has been implemented for instruments with standard serial or USB interface. Experiments for Basic Chemistry and Food Engineering will be presented. The instruments are reached via authentication and authorization grid services and a interface grid device commands. Other services had been implemented for Food Engineering; they include a modeling process for freezing times of meat calculation and texture analysis from frozen meat images. Taking advantage of Grid infrastructure and experimental laboratory equipment the design model based on a categorical approach had been driven to build a technological platform to support different pedagogical approach in natural science teaching and e-science applications, implementing other services. (Author)

  16. ESIP Earth Sciences Data Analytics (ESDA) Cluster - Work in Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this poster is to promote a common understanding of the usefulness of, and activities that pertain to, Data Analytics and more broadly, the Data Scientist; Facilitate collaborations to better understand the cross usage of heterogeneous datasets and to provide accommodating data analytics expertise, now and as the needs evolve into the future; Identify gaps that, once filled, will further collaborative activities. Objectives Provide a forum for Academic discussions that provides ESIP members a better understanding of the various aspects of Earth Science Data Analytics Bring in guest speakers to describe external efforts, and further teach us about the broader use of Data Analytics. Perform activities that:- Compile use cases generated from specific community needs to cross analyze heterogeneous data- Compile sources of analytics tools, in particular, to satisfy the needs of the above data users- Examine gaps between needs and sources- Examine gaps between needs and community expertise- Document specific data analytics expertise needed to perform Earth science data analytics Seek graduate data analytics Data Science student internship opportunities.

  17. Framing Education for a Science of Social Work: Missions, Curriculum, and Doctoral Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Rowena

    2012-01-01

    Social work education has historically been grounded in professional practice but recent discussions have urged a reconsideration of social work as a science. Social work is progressively doing more intervention work, service systems research, implementation research, and translational research which are elevating research standards to new levels…

  18. A WIDER ROLE FOR TECHNICIANS IN SCIENCE PRACTICAL WORK WITH SCHOOL STUDENTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy G. Harrison

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a study made on the impact of improved deployment of science technicians in the classroom could directly benefit students in practical science investigations. Science technicians are skilled individuals whose understanding of practical work is a valuable resource not being used of in support of students understanding of science. Aspects of practical work and technician support were scrutinised, through information attained from a post-16 student survey to improve understanding about this teaching tool, to establish if it was being used to its full potential within science lessons. Analysis was also made of students’ perceptions of school science. The main outcomes were that the majority of students enjoyed science practical work and felt that science could not be taught without it. Students studying science at pre-university level attained a greater understanding, through participating in relevant practical work, than students who had studied it at earlier, compulsory levels. Students reported that science technicians provide impact on student learning when contact time was the greatest.

  19. Sciencey Girls: Discourses Supporting Working-Class Girls’ to Identify with Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spela Godec

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Women from working class and some ethnic minority backgrounds continue to be underrepresented in science, particularly in areas such as physical sciences and engineering. Many find it difficult to see science as something that is “for them”, which then has implications for their learning and participation in science. In this paper, I discuss findings from a U.K.-based qualitative study with 15 working-class girls, aged 11 to 13, from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Data were collected over the course of one academic year, through interviews and discussion groups with the girls and interviews with their science teachers, and analysed through a post-structural gender lens. The paper foregrounds five science-identifying girls, who negotiated their identification and engagement with science through the following discursive strategies: (i rendering gender invisible, (ii drawing attention to the presence of women in science, (iii reframing “science people” as caring and nurturing, and (iv cultural discourses of desirability of science. The findings contribute to the understanding of how working class girls—who are often “othered” and constructed as “unintelligible” within the dominant discursive regime of prototypical science—find identification with science possible. The paper discusses the affordances and challenges of each discursive strategy.

  20. Electron paramagnetic resonance and dynamic nuclear polarization of char suspensions: surface science and oximetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.; Ceroke, P.J.; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, J.H.; Fruianu, M.; Belford, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon chars have been synthesized in our laboratory from a variety of starting materials, by means of a highly controlled pyrolysis technique. These chars exhibit electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) line shapes which change with the local oxygen concentration in a reproducible and stable fashion; they can be calibrated and used for oximetry. Biological stability and low toxicity make chars good sensors for in vivo measurements. Scalar and dipolar interactions of water protons at the surfaces of chars may be utilized to produce dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of the 1 H nuclear spin population in conjunction with electron Zeeman pumping. Low-frequency EPR, DNP and DNP-enhanced MRI all show promise as oximetry methods when used with carbon chars. (author)

  1. A Science of Social Work, and Social Work as an Integrative Scientific Discipline: Have We Gone Too Far, or Not Far Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, John S.

    2014-01-01

    There are two purposes to this article. The first is to update the science of social work framework. The second is to use recent discussions on the nature of realist science and on social work science to propose a definition of social work as an integrative scientific discipline that complements its definition as a profession.

  2. What Works in the Field? Evaluating Informal Science Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Grand

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Around the world, increasing numbers of people are attending informal science events, often ones that are part of multi-event festivals that cross cultural boundaries. For the researchers who take part, and the organizers, evaluating the events’ success, value, and effectiveness is hugely important. However, the use of traditional evaluation methods such as paper surveys and formal structured interviews poses problems in informal, dynamic contexts. In this article, we draw on our experience of evaluating events that literally took place in a field, and discuss evaluation methods we have found to be simple yet useful in such situations.

  3. The Philosophical Works of Ludwik Fleck and Their Potential Meaning for Teaching and Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marc; Heering, Peter; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Eilks, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses essential elements of the philosophical works of Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961) and their potential interpretation for the teaching and learning of science. In the early twentieth century, Fleck made substantial contributions to understanding the sociological character of the nature of science and explaining the embedding of science in society. His works have several parallels to the later and very popular work, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, by Thomas S. Kuhn, although Kuhn only indirectly referred to the influence of Fleck on his own theories. Starting from a short review of the life of Ludwik Fleck, his philosophical work and its connections to Kuhn, this paper elaborates upon and illustrates how his theories can be considered for science education in order to provide learners with a better understanding of the nature of scientific endeavor and the bi-directional science-to-society links.

  4. Implementation Science: Why it matters for the future of social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J

    2016-01-01

    Bridging the gap between research and practice is a critical frontier for the future of social work. Integrating implementation science into social work can advance our profession's effort to bring research and practice closer together. Implementation science examines the factors, processes, and strategies that influence the uptake, use, and sustainability of empirically-supported interventions, practice innovations, and social policies in routine practice settings. The aims of this paper are to describe the key characteristics of implementation science, illustrate how implementation science matters to social work by describing several contributions this field can make to reducing racial and ethnic disparities in mental health care, and outline a training agenda to help integrate implementation science in graduate-level social work programs.

  5. Reusing Joint Polar Satellite System (jpss) Ground System Components to Process AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (omi) Science Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. F.; Jain, P.; Johnson, J.; Doiron, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    New Earth observation instruments are planned to enable advancements in Earth science research over the next decade. Diversity of Earth observing instruments and their observing platforms will continue to increase as new instrument technologies emerge and are deployed as part of National programs such as Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES), Landsat as well as the potential for many CubeSat and aircraft missions. The practical use and value of these observational data often extends well beyond their original purpose. The practicing community needs intuitive and standardized tools to enable quick unfettered development of tailored products for specific applications and decision support systems. However, the associated data processing system can take years to develop and requires inherent knowledge and the ability to integrate increasingly diverse data types from multiple sources. This paper describes the adaptation of a large-scale data processing system built for supporting JPSS algorithm calibration and validation (Cal/Val) node to a simplified science data system for rapid application. The new configurable data system reuses scalable JAVA technologies built for the JPSS Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) system to run within a laptop environment and support product generation and data processing of AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) science products. Of particular interest are the root requirements necessary for integrating experimental algorithms and Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) data access libraries into a science data production system. This study demonstrates the ability to reuse existing Ground System technologies to support future missions with minimal changes.

  6. Sciencey Girls: Discourses Supporting Working-Class Girls’ to Identify with Science

    OpenAIRE

    Spela Godec

    2018-01-01

    Women from working class and some ethnic minority backgrounds continue to be underrepresented in science, particularly in areas such as physical sciences and engineering. Many find it difficult to see science as something that is “for them”, which then has implications for their learning and participation in science. In this paper, I discuss findings from a U.K.-based qualitative study with 15 working-class girls, aged 11 to 13, from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Data were collected over the co...

  7. 2013 POLAR MARINE SCIENCE GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE AND GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR (MARCH 10-15, 2013 - FOUR POINTS SHERATON, VENTURA CA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Jeff S.

    2012-12-15

    As dynamic and thermodynamic processes associated with warming trends are impacting sea ice cover, oceanographic processes and atmosphere-ocean interactions across polar regions at unprecedented rate, observations and models show fundamentally different regional ecosystem responses. The non-linear and multi-directional biogeochemical responses of polar systems to atmospheric and oceanographic forcings emphasize the need to consider and reconcile observations and models at global and regional scales. The 9th GRC on Polar Marine Science will discuss recent developments and challenges emerging from contemporary and paleo-climate observations and models, encompassing regional and global scales. The GRC addresses the structure, functionalities and controls of polar marine systems through topics such as sea ice biogeochemistry, atmosphere-ocean forcings and interactions, food web trophodynamics, carbon and elemental cycling and fluxes, and a spectrum of ecological processes and interactions.

  8. Science 101: How Does an Electron Microscope Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion, electron microscopes are not used to look at electrons. They are used to look for structure in things that are too small to observe with an optical microscope, or to obtain images that are magnified much more than is obtainable with an optical microscope. To understand how electron microscopes work, it will help to go…

  9. "Solidarity and Support": Feminist Memory Work Focus Groups with Working-Class Women Studying Social Science Degrees in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michell, Dee; Beddoe, Liz; Fraser, Heather; Jarldorn, Michele

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on our use of a two-phased, feminist memory work in a project conducted with 11 women, social science students at an Australian university. We begin by describing government-led attempts to widen participation in Australian universities because 10 of the 11 women who participated in our project were from…

  10. Why Games Work and the Science of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Curtiss

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Navy formally added the Damage Control Trainer (DCT) to the recruit training program at Great Lakes, Illinois. Despite the incredibly dense training schedule at the Navy's boot camp, the instructors were willing to set aside two hours of time for recruits to play a game. Why? Because it worked. Even with just one hour of play, research showed that recruits gained a 50-80% improvement in performance that transferred to Battle Stations 21 (B821), the Navy's capstone training event. This paper explores why games makes these kinds of results possible. It argues that the things that are known to improve learning are almost exactly the same reasons why games work: the time-honored laws of learning. It concludes that the traditional gulf between instructional design and game design is really an issue of perspective, rather than fundamentals.

  11. Working-Class Women Study Social Science Degrees: Remembering Enablers and Detractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Heather; Michell, Dee; Beddoe, Liz; Jarldorn, Michele

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we report on a feminist memory work project conducted with 11 working-class women in Australia. Participants responded to the question: "what helps and hinders working-class women study social science degrees?" The women confirmed that to succeed at university, they needed opportunities, resources, support and…

  12. Boundary Work and Power in the Controversy over Therapeutic Touch in Finnish Nursing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolanto, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The boundary work approach has been established as one of the main ways to study controversies in science. However, it has been proposed that it does not meet the power dynamics of the scientific field sufficiently. This article concentrates on the intertwining of boundary work and power. It combines the boundary work approach developed by Thomas…

  13. Practical Work in Earth Sciences Education: an experience with students in the context of a National Science Programme in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Luis; Praja, Joäo; Thompson, David

    2002-02-01

    The programme Ciencia Viva of the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology aims to create a greater understanding of science and science education amongst scientists, teachers, school children and the general public, each of whom is encouraged to cooperate and interact through regular contacts. The purpose is to improve practical, experimental and other forms of investigative work. To accomplish such work in schools, an overview of the state of science education worldwide is presented in terms of old and new traditions of the teaching of the physical and historical sciences the latter including the teaching of fieldwork. Traditional practices are compared with those established recently in various parts of the world in which more carefully considered understanding of the nature of science and science education has been established. In illustration of good practice, an outline is offered of the nature and rationale of two sets of curricular materials. These were designed by a team comprising staff members of the University of Aveiro and secondary school teachers and were trialled in schools. These activities are concerned with the internal rock cycle and the internal energy of the Earth in relation to plate tectonic theory. They are also related to the processes of weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition of sedimentary rocks and structures (like wave and current ripple marks) which were formed as part of the external rock cycle driven by the Sun's energy. The account concludes with an outline of the sub programme 'Geology in Summer', a fieldwork programme which introduces a holistic understanding of the workings of the outer part of the Earth to the general public. Students' perspectives and teachers' views about these experiences are generally very positive and are presented at the end. The whole programme was evaluated by an international team of scientists and science educators.

  14. Minutes of TOPEX/POSEIDON Science Working Team Meeting and Ocean Tides Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This third TOPEX/POSEIDON Science Working Team meeting was held on December 4, 1994 to review progress in defining ocean tide models, precision Earth orbits, and various science algorithms. A related workshop on ocean tides convened to select the best models to be used by scientists in the Geophysical Data Records.

  15. Crafting a Future in Science: Tracing Middle School Girls' Identity Work over Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Angela Calabrese; Kang, Hosun; Tan, Edna; O'Neill, Tara B.; Bautista-Guerra, Juanita; Brecklin, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    The underrepresentation of girls from nondominant backgrounds in the sciences and engineering continues despite recent gains in achievement. This longitudinal ethnographic study traces the identity work that girls from nondominant backgrounds do as they engage in science-related activities across school, club, and home during the middle school…

  16. Beyond Contradiction: Exploring the Work of Secondary Science Teachers as They Embed Environmental Education in Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Traditional secondary science education draws on markedly different pedagogies than those made use of in contemporary environmental education, therefore, embedding environmental education within secondary science curriculum presents both epistemological and practical difficulties for teachers. This ethnographic study examines the work of six…

  17. Our Polar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2009-01-01

    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  18. What is Social Sciences and Humanities Research "Worth,"? Neoliberalism and the Framing of Social Sciences and Humanities Work in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson-Harden, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the discursive politics represented in attempts to frame social sciences and humanities work in the mould of neoliberal knowledge capitalism. The critique offered is inspired by Foucault's critical thought on neoliberalism and an interpretation of "neoliberal governmentality" that flows from his College…

  19. Evaluating the Development of Science Research Skills in Work-Integrated Learning through the Use of Workplace Science Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Susan M.; Zegwaard, Karsten E.; Dalgety, Jacinta

    2013-01-01

    Concept understanding, the development of analytical skills and a research mind set are explored through the use of academic tools common in a tertiary science education and relevant work-integrated learning (WIL) experiences. The use and development of the tools; laboratory book, technical report, and literature review are examined by way of…

  20. PolarTREC—A Model Program for Taking Polar Literacy into the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Timm, K.; Larson, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Polar TREC—Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, is a three-year (2007-2009) NSF-funded International Polar Year (IPY) teacher professional development program that advances Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education by improving teacher content knowledge and instructional practices through Teacher Research Experiences (TRE) in the Arctic and Antarctic. Leveraging profound changes and fascinating science taking place in the polar regions, PolarTREC broadly disseminates activities and products to students, educators, researchers, and the public, connecting them with the Arctic and Antarctica and sustaining the widespread interest in the polar regions and building on the enthusiasm that was generated through IPY. Central to the PolarTREC Teacher Research Experience Model, over 40 teachers have spent two to eight weeks participating in hands-on research in the polar regions and sharing their experiences with diverse audiences via live events, online multimedia journals, and interactive bulletin boards. The Connecting Arctic/Antarctic Researchers and Educators (CARE) Network unifies learning community members participants, alumni, and others, developing a sustainable association of education professionals networking to share and apply polar STEM content and pedagogical skills. Educator and student feedback from preliminary results of the program evaluation has shown that PolarTREC’s comprehensive program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes in key areas including amount of time spent in school exploring research activities, importance of understanding science for future work, importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today’s world, as well as increased self-reported knowledge and interest in numerous science content areas. Building

  1. Why the Interdisciplinary Team Approach Works: Insights from Complexity Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemins, Elizabeth L; Brant, Jeannine; Kersten, Diane; Mullette, Elizabeth; Dickerson, Dustin

    2016-07-01

    Although an interdisciplinary approach is considered best practice for caring for patients at the end of life, or in need of palliative care (PC) services, there is growing tension between healthcare organizations' need to contain costs and the provision of this beneficial, yet resource-intensive service. To support the interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach by recognizing organizations, teams, patients, and families as complex adaptive systems, illustrated by a qualitative study of the experiences, roles, and attributes of healthcare professionals (HCPs) who work with patients in need of PC services. In-depth, semi-structured interviews of PC health professionals were conducted, transcribed, and independently reviewed using grounded theory methodology and preliminary interpretations. A combined deductive and inductive iterative qualitative approach was used to identify recurring themes. The study was conducted in a physician-led, not-for-profit, multispecialty integrated health system serving three large, Western, rural states. A purposive sample of 10 HCPs who regularly provide PC services were interviewed. A positive team/patient experience was related to individual attributes, including self-awareness, spirit of inquiry, humility, and comfort with dying. IDT attributes included shared purpose, relational coordination, holistic thinking, trust, and respect for patient autonomy. Professional and personal motivations also contributed to a positive team/patient experience. Interdisciplinary PC teams have the potential to significantly impact patient and team experiences when caring for seriously ill patients. Findings from this study support interventions that focus on relationship building and application of a complex systems theory approach to team development.

  2. Innovative optical spectrometers for ice core sciences and atmospheric monitoring at polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Roberto; Alemany, Olivier; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Desbois, Thibault; Faïn, Xavier; Kassi, Samir; Kerstel, Erik; Legrand, Michel; Marrocco, Nicola; Méjean, Guillaume; Preunkert, Suzanne; Romanini, Daniele; Triest, Jack; Ventrillard, Irene

    2015-04-01

    In this talk recent developments accomplished from a collaboration between the Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique (LIPhy) and the Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement (LGGE) both in Grenoble (France), are discussed, covering atmospheric chemistry of high reactive species in polar regions and employing optical spectrometers for both in situ and laboratory measurements of glacial archives. In the framework of an ANR project, a transportable spectrometer based on the injection of a broadband frequency comb laser into a high-finesse optical cavity for the detection of IO, BrO, NO2 and H2CO has been realized.[1] The robust spectrometer provides shot-noise limited measurements for as long as 10 minutes, reaching detection limits of 0.04, 2, 10 and 200 ppt (2σ) for the four species, respectively. During the austral summer of 2011/12 the instrument has been used for monitoring, for the first time, NO2, IO and BrO at Dumont d'Urville Station at East of Antarctica. The measurements highlighted a different chemistry between East and West coast, with the halogen chemistry being promoted to the West and the OH and NOx chemistry on the East.[2] In the framework of a SUBGLACIOR project, an innovative drilling probe has been realized. The instrument is capable of retrieving in situ real-time vertical profiles of CH4 and δD of H2O trapped inside the ice sheet down to more than 3 km of depth within a single Antarctic season. The drilling probe containing an embedded OFCEAS (optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy) spectrometer will be extremely useful for (i) identify potential sites for investigating the oldest ice (aiming 1.5 Myrs BP records for resolving a major climate reorganization called the Mid-Pleistocene transition occurred around 1 Myrs ago) and (ii) providing direct access to past temperatures and climate cycles thanks to the vertical distribution of two key climatic signatures.[3] The spectrometer provides detection

  3. Working Memory and Science Education: Exploring the Compatibility of Theoretical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair-Thompson, H. L.; Botton, C.

    2009-01-01

    Research in science education has referred to limitations in information processing resulting from both mental capacity and working memory capacity. Mental capacity is often conceptualised within the framework of the theory of constructive operators. However, the cognitive resources underlying working memory are not well specified within the…

  4. Design and implementation of an integrated computer working environment for doing mathematics and science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, A.; Kedzierska, E.; Ellermeijer, T.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the sustained research and development work at the AMSTEL Institute of the University of Amsterdam to improve mathematics and science education at primary and secondary school level, which has lead amongst other things to the development of the integrated computer working

  5. Science, Social Work, and Intervention Research: The Case of "Critical Time Intervention"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention research is an important, yet often neglected, focus of social work scholars and investigators. The purpose of this article is to review significant milestones and recent advances in intervention research. Methodological and analytical developments in intervention research are discussed in the context of science and social work.…

  6. 77 FR 31592 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Institute of Education Sciences; What Works...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Institute of Education Sciences; What Works Clearinghouse SUMMARY: The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) was established to develop...., LBJ, Washington, DC 20202-4537. Copies of the proposed information collection request may be accessed...

  7. An Exploration of Teachers' Efforts to Understand Identity Work and its Relevance to Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Cecil; Darfler, Anne

    2012-06-01

    US educators express concern that students are turning away from the study of science and have little interest in pursuing science careers. Nationally, science achievement scores for 8th graders are unchanged since 1996, but 12th graders' scores have significantly decreased. A shortcoming of education reform efforts is lack of attention to students' developmental needs. Science study should enable students to learn about themselves—to develop and refine their skills, define their values, explore personal interests, and understand the importance of science to themselves and others. Effective secondary science instruction requires attention to students' identity development—the key developmental task of adolescence. Secondary science teachers participated in an 8-week course focused on understanding adolescent identity development and methods for addressing identity. Transcripts of the teachers' online discussions of salient issues were analyzed to determine their perceptions regarding classroom identity work. Teachers identified several assets and obstacles to identity work that were organized into two broad categories: teacher knowledge, training opportunities, and administrative support, or lack of these; and, presence of inflexible curricula, standardized testing regimes, and increased teacher accountability. Implications for student growth and science teacher professional development are discussed.

  8. Goethe's Conception of "Experiment as Mediator" and Implications for Practical Work in School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wonyong; Song, Jinwoong

    2018-03-01

    There has been growing criticism over the aims, methods, and contents of practical work in school science, particularly concerning their tendency to oversimplify the scientific practice with focus on the hypothesis-testing function of experiments. In this article, we offer a reading of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's scientific writings—particularly his works on color as an exquisite articulation of his ideas about experimentation—through the lens of practical school science. While avoiding the hasty conclusions made from isolated experiments and observations, Goethe sought in his experiments the interconnection among diverse natural phenomena and rejected the dualistic epistemology about the relation of humans and nature. Based on a close examination of his color theory and its underlying epistemology, we suggest three potential contributions that Goethe's conception of scientific experimentation can make to practical work in school science.

  9. Comparison of extraction and work up techniques for analysis of core and intact polar tetraether lipids from sedimentary environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengger, S.K.; Hopmans, E.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether-based intact polar lipids (IPL GDGTs) are used as biomarkers for living Archaea and are analyzed utilizing a variety of extraction and quantification techniques. Most IPL GDGT studies have used a modified Bligh-Dyer extraction method, but it has been

  10. PolarHub: A Global Hub for Polar Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a NSF project in developing a large-scale web crawler PolarHub to discover automatically the distributed polar dataset in the format of OGC web services (OWS) in the cyberspace. PolarHub is a machine robot; its goal is to visit as many webpages as possible to find those containing information about polar OWS, extract this information and store it into the backend data repository. This is a very challenging task given huge data volume of webpages on the Web. Three unique features was introduced in PolarHub to make it distinctive from earlier crawler solutions: (1) a multi-task, multi-user, multi-thread support to the crawling tasks; (2) an extensive use of thread pool and Data Access Object (DAO) design patterns to separate persistent data storage and business logic to achieve high extendibility of the crawler tool; (3) a pattern-matching based customizable crawling algorithm to support discovery of multi-type geospatial web services; and (4) a universal and portable client-server communication mechanism combining a server-push and client pull strategies for enhanced asynchronous processing. A series of experiments were conducted to identify the impact of crawling parameters to the overall system performance. The geographical distribution pattern of all PolarHub identified services is also demonstrated. We expect this work to make a major contribution to the field of geospatial information retrieval and geospatial interoperability, to bridge the gap between data provider and data consumer, and to accelerate polar science by enhancing the accessibility and reusability of adequate polar data.

  11. Fighting for life: Religion and science in the work of fish and wildlife biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Joel Phillip

    Philosophers, historians, and sociologists of science have argued that it is impossible to separate fact from value. Even so, Americans generally demand that scientists be "objective." No bias is permitted in their work. Religious motivations in particular are widely considered anathema within the halls of science. My dissertation addresses both theoretical and practical aspects concerning objectivity in science through an examination of fish and wildlife biologists. I hypothesized that they use the language of objective science as a tool to convince others to protect habitats and species. Further, I claimed that this "rhetoric of science" is employed either consciously or unconsciously on behalf of personal values, and that religious and/or spiritual values figure significantly among these. Regarding the issue's practical applications, I argued in support of Susan Longino's assertion that while subjective influences exist in science, they do not necessarily indicate that objectivity has been sacrificed. My primary methodology is ethnographic. Thirty-five biologists working in the Pacific Northwest were interviewed during the course of summer 2001. Participant ages ranged from 23 to 78. Both genders were represented, as were various ethnic and cultural backgrounds, including Native American. I used a questionnaire to guide respondents through a consistent set of open-ended queries. I organized their answers under four categories: the true, the good, the beautiful, and the holy. The first three were borrowed from the theoretical writings of philosopher Immanuel Kant. The last came from Rudolf Otto's theological work. These categories provided an excellent analytical framework. I found that the great majority of fish and wildlife biologists strive for objectivity. However, they are also informed by powerful contextual values. These are derived from environmental ethics, aesthetic preferences pertaining to ecosystem appearance and function, and visceral experiences of

  12. Undergraduate honors students' images of science: Nature of scientific work and scientific knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael L.

    This exploratory study assessed the influence of an implicit, inquiry-oriented nature of science (NOS) instructional approach undertaken in an interdisciplinary college science course on undergraduate honor students' (UHS) understanding of the aspects of NOS for scientific work and scientific knowledge. In this study, the nature of scientific work concentrated upon the delineation of science from pseudoscience and the value scientists place on reproducibility. The nature of scientific knowledge concentrated upon how UHS view scientific theories and how they believe scientists utilize scientific theories in their research. The 39 UHS who participated in the study were non-science majors enrolled in a Honors College sponsored interdisciplinary science course where the instructors took an implicit NOS instructional approach. An open-ended assessment instrument, the UFO Scenario, was designed for the course and used to assess UHS' images of science at the beginning and end of the semester. The mixed-design study employed both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze the open-ended responses. The qualitative techniques of open and axial coding were utilized to find recurring themes within UHS' responses. McNemar's chi-square test for two dependent samples was used to identify whether any statistically significant changes occurred within responses from the beginning to the end of the semester. At the start of the study, the majority of UHS held mixed NOS views, but were able to accurately define what a scientific theory is and explicate how scientists utilize theories within scientific research. Postinstruction assessment indicated that UHS did not make significant gains in their understanding of the nature of scientific work or scientific knowledge and their overall images of science remained static. The results of the present study found implicit NOS instruction even with an extensive inquiry-oriented component was an ineffective approach for modifying UHS

  13. Social and natural sciences differ in their research strategies, adapted to work for different knowledge landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Do different fields of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed two diverging optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researchers explore few large areas of knowledge. In contrast, individuals or small groups of researchers are better in discovering small bits of information in dispersed knowledge landscapes. Bibliometric data of scientific publications showed a continuous bipolar distribution of these strategies, ranging from natural sciences, with highly cited publications in journals containing a large number of articles, to the social sciences, with rarely cited publications in many journals containing a small number of articles. The natural sciences seem to adapt their research strategies to landscapes with large concentrated knowledge clusters, whereas social sciences seem to have adapted to search in landscapes with many small isolated knowledge clusters. Similar bipolar distributions were obtained when comparing levels of insularity estimated by indicators of international collaboration and levels of country-self citations: researchers in academic areas with many journals such as social sciences, arts and humanities, were the most isolated, and that was true in different regions of the world. The work shows that quantitative measures estimating differences between academic disciplines improve our understanding of different research strategies, eventually helping interdisciplinary research and may be also help improve science policies worldwide.

  14. Navigating the science-policy spectrum: Opportunities to work on policies related to your research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licker, R.; Ekwurzel, B.; Goldman, G. T.; DeLonge, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Many scientists conduct research with direct policy relevance, whether it be producing sea-level projections that are taken-up by local decision-makers, or developing new agricultural technologies. All scientists are affected by policies made by their respective local, regional, and federal governments. For example, budgets affect the grant resources available to conduct research and policies on visas influence the accessibility of new positions for foreign scientists. As a result, many scientists would like to engage with the policy domain, and either bring their science to bear on new policies that are in the works (science-for-policy) or inform policies on the scientific research enterprise (policy-for-science). Some scientists prefer to engage and be neutral to the policy outcome, serving primarily as an information resource. Many may choose to also advocate for a particular outcome based on their expertise and experience. Research shows that policy decisions benefit greatly from the input of scientific experts. We explore the spectrum between informing policies in a "non-prescriptive" manner to working on policies in an advocacy space. We highlight tips for successful engagement along this spectrum. Finally, we review current science-for-policy and policy-for-science issues of relevance to the geophysical sciences.

  15. Polarization Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Fressengeas, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The physics of polarization optics *Polarized light propagation *Partially polarized light; DEA; After a brief introduction to polarization optics, this lecture reviews the basic formalisms for dealing with it: Jones Calculus for totally polarized light and Stokes parameters associated to Mueller Calculus for partially polarized light.

  16. Interdisciplinary technology assessment of service robots: the psychological/work science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Martin

    2012-12-01

    The article sheds light on psychological and work science aspects of the design and utilization of service robots. An initial presentation of the characteristics of man-robot interaction is followed by a discussion of the principles of the division of functions between human beings and robots in service area work systems. The following aspects are to be considered: (1) the organisation of societal work (such as the different employment and professional profiles of service employees), (2) the work tasks to be performed by humans and robots (such as handling, monitoring or decision-making tasks), (3) the possibilities and the limitations of realizing such tasks by means of information technology (depending, for example, on the motoric capabilities, perception and cognition of the robot). Consideration of these three design perspectives gives rise to criteria of usability. Current debate focuses on the (work science) principles of man-machine communication, though in future these should be supplemented with robot-specific criteria such as "motoric capabilities" or "relationship quality." The article concludes by advocating the convergence and combination of work science criteria with ideas drawn from participative design approaches in the development and utilization of service robots.

  17. Report on the work of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences 26 July - December 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-04-01

    The work of the New Zealand Institute of Nuclear Sciences during the period January-June 1975 is summarized under the following headings: A) Nuclear Physics; B) Radiation Research; C) Isotope Geochemistry - Stable Isotopes; D) Radiocarbon Dating and Fallout; E) Radioisotope Applications; F) Instrumentation. Appendices on current research projects, staff publications and library holdings are included. (D.C.R.)

  18. Report on the work of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences 27 January - December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The work of the New Zealand Institute of Nuclear Sciences during the period January-June 1975 is summarized under the following headings: A) Nuclear Physics; B) Radiation Research; C) Isotope Geochemistry - Stable Isotopes; D) Radiocarbon Dating and Fallout; E) Radioisotope Applications; F) Instrumentation. Appendices on current research projects, staff publications and library holdings are included. (D.C.R.)

  19. Embedding "Getting Practical" and ASE Improving Practical Work in Triple Science LSN Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kay; Chapman, Georgina

    2011-01-01

    With the two-year pilot of "Getting Practical" drawing to a close, new ways to embed the key messages into existing CPD programmes are being sought. In "Embedding Getting Practical," the first author describes how she has been able to do this with the courses she is involved with. In "ASE Improving Practical Work in Triple Science LSN Network,"…

  20. Rómulo De Carvalho's Work on the Popularization of Science during Salazarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an account of Rómulo de Carvalho's most prominent works on the popularization of science during the Salazarist regime in Portugal. Carvalho has been praised for his "unique" writing style, for his uncommon ability to communicate scientific knowledge with clarity to a wide audience: he wrote to teachers, to secondary…

  1. Post-doctoral research work developed at the National Institute for Fusion Science - Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, M.

    1992-05-01

    This is a research report report on the work developed at the National Institute for Fusion Science - Japan, involving study of Beam Emission Spectroscopy. It describes the use of a fast neutral lithium beam (8 KeV) to measure the density profile in a Compact Helical Device. (A.C.A.S.)

  2. Particle Physics as a way to bring different cultures to work together in Science

    CERN Document Server

    Mikenberg, G

    2016-01-01

    Science has traditionally played an important role in sharing knowledge among people. Particle Physics, with its large experiments, has shown that one not only can share the knowledge among different cultures, but that one can also work together to achieve this knowledge. The present article gives a few examples where this has been possible among people that are sometimes in conflict situations.

  3. "How Science Works" and Data Logging: Eleven Quick Experiments with a Kettle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Justin

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of using data logging to teach "how science works" are presented. Pedagogical approaches that take advantage of other school ICT are briefly described. A series of simple, quick experiments are given together with their resulting charts. Examples of the questions that arise from the charts show how the rich data lead to the refinement…

  4. 77 FR 48506 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; What Works Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; What... request to continue a currently approved collection under OMB Control Number 1850-0788 for the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) [ED-07-CO-0062]. The U.S. Department of Education (ED) established the WWC to develop...

  5. 77 FR 6796 - Notification of Three Public Teleconferences of a Work Group of the Chartered Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... AGENCY Notification of Three Public Teleconferences of a Work Group of the Chartered Science Advisory... Board (SAB) Staff Office announces three public teleconferences of a work group of the Chartered Science... EPA policy, notice is hereby given that a work group of the chartered SAB will hold three public...

  6. Innovations in Community-Based and Interdisciplinary Research: A Network Perspective on Innovation in Social Work Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Petering, Robin; Stringfellow, Erin; Craddock, Jaih B.

    2017-01-01

    We present a preliminary theory of innovation in social work science. The focus of the piece is two case studies from our work that illustrate the social nature of innovations in the science of social work. This inductive theory focuses on a concept we refer to as transformative innovation, wherein two sets of individuals who possess different…

  7. Science misconceptions and working memory capacity among Saudi adolescents: A neo-Piagetian investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jubaili, Ahmad Yahya

    This study was designed to investigate the relationships between science misconceptions and working memory capacity in Saudi adolescent students. The participants in this study were from eleventh and twelfth grades; both male and female students and natural and social science Saudi comprised the sample. Also investigated in this study were the conceptions and misconceptions of gravity in a non-European culture, that is Saudi culture, and the variables that differentiated those individuals who could overcome their misconceptions from those who could not and the gender differences in science misconceptions in the context of Saudi culture. Another important focus of this study was to investigate the participants' responses and explanations on the science misconceptions tasks (WLT and EGT). As would be expected, there was a strong correlation between WLT and EGT in the responses of students and their explanations. The most successful students on the WLT and EGT were natural science students rather than social science students, and there were no gender differences between male and female participants. Also investigated were the correlations between the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT; the measures of science misconceptions) and the independent variables, which were the visual working memory capacity tasks (i.e., FIT and VPS), the field independence/dependence (FASP), students' grade point average (GPA), age, academic major, gender, and grade level. It was found that both of the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT) correlated significantly with the same independent variables, the FIT, VPS, FASP, academic major, and students' grade point average (GPA).

  8. Cryosphere Communication from Knowledge to Action: Polar Educators International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, S.

    2012-12-01

    Evidence from the recent IPY meetings shows that education and outreach of the 2007-08 IPY touched 24 million people; we intend to grow that number. As a legacy of IPY and as a direct action of IPY Montreal, we announced the establishment of Polar Educators International - a global professional network for those that educate in, for, and about the Polar Regions. We intend to move polar science forward by connecting the cultures and enthusiasm of polar education across the globe. The founding members come from polar and non-polar nations around the world. The new group draws together museums, schools, universities, science centers, formal and informal education, expeditions, NGOs, companies, governmental organizations, and non-profits. Working across national, disciplinary, and age group boundaries, we want to improve polar science & education for the next generation of policy makers, entrepreneurs, explorers, citizen scientists, journalists and educators; as well as the the public. The new network of more than 200 leading educators, scientists, and community members will develop innovative resources to communicate polar science. We intend to engage those learning and teaching about the polar regions, and thereby change the terms of debate, and the framework of education to rekindle student and public engagement with global environmental changes. We are committed to engaging our membership and have clear directions from our recent survey and report from the community. This presentation will address the needs put forth from our membership and where the organization will go in the future to inform a professional network on science and outreach in the polar regions.

  9. Addressing the Complexities of Boundary Work in Sustainability Science through Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Silka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability science seeks to identify and implement workable solutions to complex problems. This transdisciplinary approach advances a commitment to work across boundaries that occur among individuals, disciplines, and institutions to build capacities for informed and innovative decision making in the face of uncertainty and change. The concept of boundary work and related discussions of boundary objects and organizations are important, expanding focal areas within sustainability science. While communication is described as central to boundary work, insights from the field of communication have largely yet to inform theorizing about boundaries within sustainability science. In this paper, we highlight three communication perspectives, namely media studies, collaboration and partnerships, and systems theories, which are particularly relevant for understanding how boundaries form, the social context in which boundary work occurs, and informed strategies for enhanced boundary spanning and management. We use three case studies to illustrate how communication theories and methods provide dynamic and strategic lenses within transdisciplinary processes to enable collaborators to build capacity for change, sustain critical and reflective inquiry, and approach difference as generative in collective efforts to produce sustainability.

  10. Material and device studies for the development of ultra-violet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDS) along polar, non-polar and semi-polar directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Ramya

    Over the past few years, significant effort was dedicated to the development of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for a variety of applications. Such applications include chemical and biological detection, water purification and solid-state lighting. III-Nitride LEDs based on multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown along the conventional [0001] (polar) direction suffer from the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE), due to the existence of strong electric fields that arise from spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization. Thus, there is strong motivation to develop MQW-based III-nitride LED structures grown along non-polar and semi-polar directions. The goal of this dissertation is to develop UV-LEDs along the [0001] polar and [11 2¯ 0] non-polar directions by the method of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). The polar and non-polar LEDs were grown on the C-plane and R-plane sapphire substrates respectively. This work is a combination of materials science studies related to the nucleation, growth and n- and p-type doping of III-nitride films on these two substrates, as well as device studies related to fabrication and characterization of UV-LEDs. It was observed that the crystallographic orientation of the III-nitride films grown on R-plane sapphire depends strongly on the kinetic conditions of growth of the Aluminum Nitride (AIN) buffer. Specifically, growth of the AIN buffer under group III-rich conditions leads to nitride films having the (11 2¯ 0) non polar planes parallel to the sapphire surface, while growth of the buffer under nitrogen rich conditions leads to nitride films with the (11 2¯ 6) semi-polar planes parallel to the sapphire surface. The electron concentration and mobility for the films grown along the polar, non-polar and semi-polar directions were investigated. P-type doping of Gallium Nitride (GaN) films grown on the nonpolar (11 2¯ 0) plane do not suffer from polarity inversion and thus the material was doped p-type with a hole concentration

  11. What do primary students know about science, scientists and how they do their work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Selina L.

    The teaching of scientific literacy is the primary goal of elementary science education. Scientific literacy is composed of the overall understanding of what science is and how scientific knowledge is developed. The purpose of this study was to see if elementary students' understandings of science, scientists and how scientists do their work changes from grade one to grade five of elementary school. Furthermore, the study attempts to determine whether there is a difference in scientific literacy between students taught using a textbook curriculum versus a kit-based curriculum. The study draws on a sample of 338 students from 18 different classrooms situated in six different schools in both urban and suburban areas of a large Midwestern city. Students' understandings of science, scientists and how they do their work was measured through a valid and reliable oral protocol entitled Young Children's Views of Science (YCVS) (Lederman, J., Bartels, Lederman, & Ganankkan, 2014). The YCVS assesses students' understandings of the aspects of scientific inquiry (SI) and the nature of science (NOS) that young elementary students are able to understand. These aspects are; science, scientists, multiple methods, observation/inference, begins with a question, empirical, subjectivity, tentativeness and creativity. The YCVS was administered orally for grade one students, and a paper-and-pencil version was given to grades three and five. Results indicated that there are very few gains in NOS and SI understandings between grades one and five in the schools included in this study. None of the schools in this study made significant gains for all of the nine aspects measured in this study. Examining curriculum's affect on NOS and SI understandings, understanding of only one aspect was significantly impacted by curriculum differences. Subjectivity understanding was impacted by kit-based instruction. Overall, students' understandings of science, scientists and how they do their work did

  12. Systemic Thinking and Partnership Working: A Cross Sectional Study in a Medical Sciences University in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khammarnia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic thinking can provide practice in multidisciplinary team working and improve the organizational efficacy. This study aimed to determine the association between systemic thinking and partnership working in the employees of a medical sciences university in the south of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (ZAUMS in 2015. The study population consisted of all employees in ZAUMS; 370 participants were selected through stratified random sampling. Two standard questionnaires were used for data gathering. The data were analyzed in SPSS (v21 using Pearson, One way ANOVA, and logistic regression. The level of significance was considered as 0.05. Results: In this study, 225 participants (60.8% were female and their mean age was 34.7±8.7. The score of partnership working for 362 participants was higher than the mean standard (40. Systemic thinking had a positive association with partnership working (p=0.001 and married status of the participants (p=0.04. Partnership working in male and older staff was more than others in ZAUMS (p<0.001 and p=0.01, respectively. Conclusion: Systematic thinking had a positive association with the employees’ working partnership. Moreover, the male staff had better systematic thinking. It is recommended that the managers should promote systematic thinking in staff, especially in females, for better partnership and efficacy in organizations.

  13. What Does It Take for Social Work to Evolve to Science Status? Discussing Definition, Structure, and Contextual Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G.

    2014-01-01

    The emerging discourse on science in social work (SW) has generated much-needed analysis of the profession's status as a scientific enterprise. Brekke raised critical issues that must be addressed for SW to become a science. This response examines the contextual factors that led to the call for SW science. It also relies on a comparative…

  14. A Response to Anastas and Coffey: The Science of Social Work and Its Relationship to Social Work Education and Professional Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Wong, Marleen; Samuels, Gina Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Relationships are central to the profession of social work; relationships with allied disciplines, among professional social work organizations, and between classroom and field education. However, embedded within these relationships are historical tensions, and contemporary opportunities that can advance both the science of social work and the…

  15. [The CSI effect and its impact on the perceptions of forensic science experts' work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojer, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The issue that has been analyzed in this work is the potential effect of crime films and TV series on people's perceptions of forensic medicine and science, and especially on the forming of expectations towards forensic science experts. This syndrome is being called the "CSI effect" after the popular franchise Crime Scene Investigation (CSI). Questionnaire surveys that have been conducted included "experts": 50 experts in various specialities, 77 prosecutors, 119 judges, 64 lay judges, 161 police staff and 80 members of general public. In-depth interviews have been conducted with 20 police staff, and also a focus group has been carried out with 15 law students. In the opinion of the respondents, people's perceptions and expectations of forensic science--as it can be observed during criminal trials--are largely inflated by the entertainment media. Among the surveyed persons, the category that declares watching crime series most rarely, is forensic science experts. Around half of the surveyed experts pointed out to excessive expectations towards they work instigated by TV crime series. The most common expectations towards forensic medicine experts are: immediate conclusiveness of post mortem examinations (going as far as indicating the cause of death at the crime scene), precision of death time estimation and a routine use of sophisticated methods known from TV.

  16. Rómulo de Carvalho's Work on the Popularization of Science During Salazarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, Arthur

    2013-10-01

    This article provides an account of Rómulo de Carvalho's most prominent works on the popularization of science during the Salazarist regime in Portugal. Carvalho has been praised for his `unique' writing style, for his uncommon ability to communicate scientific knowledge with clarity to a wide audience: he wrote to teachers, to secondary students, to the layman and even to the rural peasantry. Most of his books and articles on popularization explored the History and Philosophy of Science, and it has been claimed that he influenced many youngsters to pursue scientific careers. Given the repressive political context imposed by Salazarism, it is argued that Carvalho's work on the popularization of science had a humanist and libertarian connotation. However, intriguingly, different from some of his contemporaries who also promoted humanistic education for all, Carvalho was never targeted by the Dictatorship. The article seeks to shed light on this matter. It points out the educational reach of Carvalho's writings and suggests that popularization of science in repressive regimes is not necessarily a problematic issue as long as it does not threat the status quo.

  17. Education of natural science in the work of the Municipal Center for Extracurricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokin, I.

    2012-04-01

    In the description of my work I presented my own experience in the organizing and carrying out of extracurricular activities with the students, the used modes and methods of work, the obtained results and some good practices in the field of natural sciences. Organizing and carrying out of scientific festivals, participation in joint projects together with scientific organizations. Key words: European dimension, interactive methods, key competences, natural sciences, extracurricular activities. We are witnesses of a fundamental change in the pedagogical culture and practice in our schools to establish the parameters of the quality of training. The good scientific culture is an important part of the students' education. Unfortunately, at the present time the scientific and technological culture is on a low level. One of the contemporary problems and realities of the education in natural science school subjects, as a whole and in particular in the secondary education, is the decreased interest for the training in them and in particular in physics, as well as synchronization of the interrelations: school environment - society. In many countries there is a drop in the orientation of the students towards the science and technology - the problem of Science and Technology (S&T). The training of the young people often creates some problems. The teachers meet with the problem of insufficient motivation of the learners for study and difficulties that they encounter in the process of training. The students find it difficult to apply the mastered knowledge to an applied context. The knowledge is rather academic and rather remote from the context, in which the children live and communicate, which makes it nonfunctional. At present there are not enough extracurricular activities that should meet these necessities of the Bulgarian school. The reasons are various, but they mainly consist in the lack of a material base, an exchange of experience and good practices and motivation

  18. [Review] Polarization and Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, Sascha

    2014-02-01

    Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/γ wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astronomical masers, pulsars, galactic magnetic fields, gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and cosmic microwave background radiation.

  19. Organizational Climate and Work Addiction in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, 2014: a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Noora; Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Zare, Vahid; Mohammadi, Mahan

    2015-12-01

    The occupational nature of employees in headquarters units of the University requires them to deal with support issues. Thus, there is some pressure on these employees to complete their assignments on time so that employees in the line units can accurately and expeditiously perform their duties. As a result, work addiction behaviors are sometimes observed among the headquarters personnel. Considering the importance of work addiction and recognizing the factors that intensify it, this study investigated the relationship between organizational climate and the work addiction of headquarters personnel at the Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences. This descriptive-analytic study was conducted using stratified random sampling of 151 University employees in 2014. The data collection tool was an organizational climate questionnaire, which was supplemented by the Work Addiction Risk Test (WART). The data were analyzed using the Pearson test, Spearman test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the Kruskal-Wallis test using IBM-SPSS version 20. The findings of this study showed that the organizational climate was at a moderate level, and employees were in the danger level in terms of work addiction. In addition, among the dimensions of organizational climate, the risk dimension had a significant relationship with work addiction (porganizational climate score was low and the work addiction score was at the high-risk level, this issue demands more attention of senior managers and human resource officers of organizations to improve the organizational climate and increase employees' awareness of work addiction.

  20. On gestation periods of creative work: an interface of Doig's art and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erren, Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    This article is meant for, but not confined to, younger scientists who may have a series of ideas, hypotheses and projects--be they small or big--and might grapple with the objective to pursue and complete at least some, and preferably most, work in due course. And yet, the very generation, development and completion of numerous projects takes gestation periods which can be long and painful. Importantly, this simple but important truth is valid for any creative process, be it in the sciences or in the arts. With reference to luminaries like Max Perutz and George Wald, more general interfaces between science and the arts are identified. With reference to how some of Peter Doig's paintings evolve over long times and to how John Eccles and Isaac Newton worked, extended gestation periods as a key similarity of creative work by both artists and scientists are exemplified and vindicated. It is concluded that long gestation periods of creative work should be viewed as the expectation rather than the exception. Importantly, the evolutionary and somewhat intuitive commitment to several projects at the same, and often extended, periods of time can be a recipe for revolutionary results fostered by the required variation and diversity of thinking and cross-fertilization of--seemingly--unrelated themes and fields.

  1. Using science and psychology to improve the dissemination and evaluation of scientific work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttliere, Brett T

    2014-01-01

    Here I outline some of what science can tell us about the problems in psychological publishing and how to best address those problems. First, the motivation behind questionable research practices is examined (the desire to get ahead or, at least, not fall behind). Next, behavior modification strategies are discussed, pointing out that reward works better than punishment. Humans are utility seekers and the implementation of current change initiatives is hindered by high initial buy-in costs and insufficient expected utility. Open science tools interested in improving science should team up, to increase utility while lowering the cost and risk associated with engagement. The best way to realign individual and group motives will probably be to create one, centralized, easy to use, platform, with a profile, a feed of targeted science stories based upon previous system interaction, a sophisticated (public) discussion section, and impact metrics which use the associated data. These measures encourage high quality review and other prosocial activities while inhibiting self-serving behavior. Some advantages of centrally digitizing communications are outlined, including ways the data could be used to improve the peer review process. Most generally, it seems that decisions about change design and implementation should be theory and data driven.

  2. Some isomorphic properties ofm-polar fuzzy graphs with applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Ganesh; Pal, Madhumangal

    2016-01-01

    The theory of graphs are very useful tool in solving the combinatorial problems in different areas of computer science and computational intelligence systems. In this paper, we present a frame work to handle m -polar fuzzy information by combining the theory of m -polar fuzzy sets with graphs. We introduce the notion of weak self complement m -polar fuzzy graphs and establish a necessary condition for m -polar fuzzy graph to be weak self complement. Some properties of self complement and weak self complement m -polar fuzzy graphs are discussed. The order, size, busy vertices and free vertices of an m -polar fuzzy graphs are also defined and proved that isomorphic m -polar fuzzy graphs have same order, size and degree. Also, we have presented some results of busy vertices in isomorphic and weak isomorphic m -polar fuzzy graphs. Finally, a relative study of complement and operations on m -polar fuzzy graphs have been made. Applications of m -polar fuzzy graph are also given at the end.

  3. Improving Academic Performance and Working Memory in Health Science Graduate Students Using Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kurt K; Blyler, Diane

    Research involving working memory has indicated that stress and anxiety compete for attentional resources when a person engages in attention-dependent cognitive processing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of perceived stress and state anxiety on working memory and academic performance among health science students and to explore whether the reduction of stress and anxiety was achieved through progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training. A convenience sample of 128 graduate students participated in this study. Using an experimental pretest-posttest design, we randomly assigned participants to a PMR group or a control group. Results indicated that PMR reduced state anxiety, F(1, 126) = 15.58, p academic performance in the treatment group. The results of this study contribute to the literature on Attentional Control Theory by clarifying the process through which working memory and anxiety affect cognitive performance. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  4. Status report on the land processes aircraft science management operations working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, James G.; Mann, Lisa J.

    1991-01-01

    Since its inception three years ago, the Land Processes Aircraft Science Management Operations Working Group (MOWG) provided recommendations on the optimal use of the Agency's aircraft in support of the Land Processes Science Program. Recommendations covered topics such as aircraft and sensor usage, development of long-range plans, Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MAC), program balance, aircraft sensor databases, new technology and sensor development, and increased University scientist participation in the program. Impacts of these recommendations improved the efficiency of various procedures including the flight request process, tracking of flight hours, and aircraft usage. The group also created a bibliography focused on publications produced by Land Processes scientists from the use of the aircraft program, surveyed NASA funded PI's on their participation in the aircraft program, and developed a planning template for multi-sensor airborne campaigns. Benefits from these activities are summarized.

  5. General experiences + race + racism = Work lives of Black faculty in postsecondary science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Eileen R. C.; Bulls, Domonique L.; Freeman, Tonjua B.; Butler, Malcolm B.; Atwater, Mary M.

    2016-12-01

    Existent research indicates that postsecondary Black faculty members, who are sorely underrepresented in the academy especially in STEM fields, assume essential roles; chief among these roles is diversifying higher education. Their recruitment and retention become more challenging in light of research findings on work life for postsecondary faculty. Research has shown that postsecondary faculty members in general have become increasingly stressed and job satisfaction has declined with dissatisfaction with endeavors and work overload cited as major stressors. In addition to the stresses managed by higher education faculty at large, Black faculty must navigate diversity-related challenges. Illuminating and understanding their experiences can be instrumental in lessening stress and job dissatisfaction, outcomes that facilitate recruitment and retention. This study featured the experiences and perceptions of Black faculty in science education. This study, framed by critical race theory, examines two questions: What characterizes the work life of some Black faculty members who teach, research, and serve in science education? How are race and racism present in the experiences of these postsecondary Black faculty members? A phenomenological approach to the study situates the experiences of the Black participants as valid phenomena worthy of investigation, illuminates their experiences, and seeks to retain the authenticity of their voices.

  6. Canadian space agency discipline working group for space dosimetry and radiation science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waker, Anthony; Waller, Edward; Lewis, Brent; Bennett, Leslie; Conroy, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full text: One of the great technical challenges in the human and robotic exploration of space is the deleterious effect of radiation on humans and physical systems. The magnitude of this challenge is broadly understood in terms of the sources of radiation, however, a great deal remains to be done in the development of instrumentation, suitable for the space environment, which can provide real-time monitoring of the complex radiation fields encountered in space and a quantitative measure of potential biological risk. In order to meet these research requirements collaboration is needed between experimental nuclear instrumentation scientists, theoretical scientists working on numerical modeling techniques and radiation biologists. Under the auspices of the Canadian Space Agency such a collaborative body has been established as one of a number of Discipline Working Groups. Members of the Space Dosimetry and Radiation Science working group form a collaborative network across Canada including universities, government laboratories and the industrial sector. Three central activities form the core of the Space Dosimetry and Radiation Science DWG. An instrument sub-group is engaged in the development of instruments capable of gamma ray, energetic charged particle and neutron dosimetry including the ability to provide dosimetric information in real-time. A second sub-group is focused on computer modeling of space radiation fields in order to assess the performance of conceptual designs of detectors and dosimeters or the impact of radiation on cellular and sub-cellular biological targets and a third sub-group is engaged in the study of the biological effects of space radiation and the potential of biomarkers as a method of assessing radiation impact on humans. Many working group members are active in more than one sub-group facilitating communication throughout the whole network. A summary progress-report will be given of the activities of the Discipline Working Group and the

  7. The advent of canine performance science: offering a sustainable future for working dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Mia; Branson, Nick; McGreevy, Paul; Lill, Alan; Bennett, Pauleen

    2015-01-01

    Working and sporting dogs provide an essential contribution to many industries worldwide. The common development, maintenance and disposal of working and sporting dogs can be considered in the same way as other animal production systems. The process of 'production' involves genetic selection, puppy rearing, recruitment and assessment, training, housing and handling, handler education, health and working life end-point management. At present, inefficiencies throughout the production process result in a high failure rate of dogs attaining operational status. This level of wastage would be condemned in other animal production industries for economic reasons and has significant implications for dog welfare, as well as public perceptions of dog-based industries. Standards of acceptable animal use are changing and some historically common uses of animals are no longer publicly acceptable, especially where harm is caused for purposes deemed trivial, or where alternatives exist. Public scrutiny of animal use appears likely to increase and extend to all roles of animals, including working and sporting dogs. Production system processes therefore need to be transparent, traceable and ethically acceptable for animal use to be sustainable into the future. Evidence-based approaches already inform best practice in fields as diverse as agriculture and human athletic performance. This article introduces the nascent discipline of canine performance science, which aims to facilitate optimal product quality and production efficiency, while also assuring evidence-based increments in dog welfare through a process of research and development. Our thesis is that the model of canine performance science offers an objective, transparent and traceable opportunity for industry development in line with community expectations and underpins a sustainable future for working dogs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Working for a not-for-Profit Research and Development Organization in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKague, h L

    2001-12-01

    The Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is an independent not-for-profit applied engineering and physical sciences research and development organization. This means that SwRI owes no allegiance to organizations other than its clients. As a not-for-profit organization, SwRI reinvests its net income into the organization to improve, strengthen, and expand facilities and to support internal research and development projects. Located in San Antonio, Texas, on 1200 acres, SwRI employs nearly 2800 staff and occupies nearly 2,000,000 square feet of office space. Its business is about equally divided between commercial and government clients, most of whom have specific scientific and technical problems that need to be solved in a timely, cost-effective manner. Governmental clients include local, state, and federal agencies and foreign governments. Commercial clients include local, national, and international businesses. Earth science disciplines at SwRI include geology, geophysics, hydrology, geochemistry, rock mechanics, mining engineering, and natural hazard assessment. Our overall approach is to systematically examine client problems and develop solutions that may include field work, laboratory work, numerical modeling, or some combination of these approaches. This method of problem solving places a strong emphasis on interdisciplinary teamwork. The work environment at SwRI strikes a balance among the freedom to attack technically important problems, consistent support to professional development, and a strong commitment to meeting client's deadlines and goals. Real problems with real consequences are routinely solved on a tight schedule. The diversity of clients gives exposure to an extraordinarily wide range of problems. Successful employees have sound technical backgrounds, are flexible in accommodating varying clients needs, bring creativity and energy to problem solving and applications of technologies, can work on multiple tasks in parallel, and can communicate

  9. Exploring new ways of working using virtual research environments in library and information science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Lassi, Monica; Olson, Nasrine

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present current and ongoing research investigating new ways of working across geographic distances and time within library and information science (LIS). Design/methodology/approach: A total of four studies were conducted focusing on: the design of a virtual...... research environment (VRE) to facilitate the sharing of data collection instruments among students, researchers and professionals; new ways professionals and researchers can collaborate; collaborative decision making in the context of purchasing a library management system; and collaboration among LIS...

  10. Activities of working group on atomic, molecular and nuclear data for medical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This is a report on the activities of the Working Group on Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Data for Medical Science, Japanese Nuclear Data Committee in the fisical years of 1982 and 1983. This report consists of (1) brief reviews on stopping powers of charged particles and electrons and related topics, and on problems to use these data for practical radiotheraphy, (2) reports on the investigation of the present status of data activities in other countries, (3) references, and (4) future plans after 1984. (author)

  11. Conceptual Demand of Practical Work in Science Curricula. A Methodological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sílvia; Morais, Ana M.

    2014-02-01

    This article addresses the issue of the level of complexity of practical work in science curricula and is focused on the discipline of Biology and Geology at high school. The level of complexity is seen in terms of the emphasis on and types of practical work and, most importantly, in terms of its level of conceptual demand as given by the complexity of scientific knowledge, the degree of inter-relation between knowledges, and the complexity of cognitive skills. The study also analyzes recontextualizing processes that may occur within the official recontextualizing field. The study is psychologically and sociologically grounded, particularly on Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse. It uses a mixed methodology. The results show that practical work is poorly represented in the curriculum, particularly in the case of laboratory work. The level of conceptual demand of practical work varies according to the text under analysis, between the two subjects Biology and Geology, and, within each of them, between general and specific guidelines. Aspects studied are not clearly explicated to curriculum receivers (teachers and textbooks authors). The meaning of these findings is discussed in the article. In methodological terms, the study explores assumptions used in the analysis of the level of conceptual demand and presents innovative instruments constructed for developing this analysis.

  12. A culturally appropriate program that works: Native Americans in Marine and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergun, J. R.

    2001-05-01

    For more than ten years, the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University has carried out the Native Americans in Marine and Space Sciences (NAMSS) Program. Its long-term goal is to increase the number of American Indian and Native Alaskan undergraduates in science who complete degrees, continue to graduate school and enter the professional scientific work force. Ninety-eight percent of NAMSS students have earned BS degrees and almost forty percent have continued in graduate school. These are impressive results considering the high national drop-out rate for Native American studentsaround 70% according to the Chronicle of Higher Education (26 May 1993, page A29). Most often, Native students wishing to earn degrees in science find few programs that fit with their traditional sense of place and community. Most programs are narrowly focused and do not support or nurture Native views of interrelationship of all things. While Western science's recent ecological systems thinking approach more closely resembles the traditional Native view, Traditional Ecological Knowledge is often perceived as anecdotal or storytelling and not real science. This is a problem for Native students who are strongly underrepresented in the U.S. scientific community as a whole and nearly absent from the marine sciences. Undergraduates from this group are without scientific career models or mentors from their ethnic group and experience difficulty establishing contacts with majority scientists. They have limited access to opportunities to explore career possibilities in the sciences through research participation. Once on campus they have difficulty establishing a sense of belonging in the University community and do not have an organized way to enter into the scientific activities that initially attracted them. Representation of Native Americans in the ranks of U.S. scientists will not be increased without special efforts to retain them as undergraduates and to recruit

  13. FOREWORD: Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Volker

    2011-10-01

    Jürgen Hafner started in the early 1970s with pseudopotential calculations on the structures and properties of sp-bonded metals, improving on work done elsewhere [1]. This expanded in four directions: transition metals, molten metals, magnetism and alloys, and combinations of these. As well as electronic structure calculations, he helped to advance the statistical mechanical classical theory of liquids for the molten metals [2]. In magnetism he was one of the pioneers of calculations with non-collinear spins [3, 4]. As well as simple (solid and molten) alloys, he also treated materials with strong chemical interaction such as sulphides and liquids such as arsenic and tellurium [5, 6]. All this fed into two directions which dominated much of his work for many years, namely the theory of glassy metals [7] and that of quasicrystals [8]. One notable result in the latter was to show that it was possible to construct hypothetical materials for which the quasicrystalline state is indeed the lowest energy structure. This displaced the established wisdom of the time that quasicrystals were necessarily metastable forms. In more recent years he has turned to calculations in surface science [9, 10], including catalysis of chemical reactions on surfaces [11, 12]. What really brought Jürgen first to my attention was that he had managed to do a better job than we had of calculations with the new approach of pseudopotentials, particularly regarding the screening part of the calculation. This is very important in alloys where there is a large difference in the electron density in the two types of atom due to their different volumes or valences such as in the phase diagram and structure of LiK or KPb [5, 13]. We have been in contact over many years including one close collaboration and I always learned something new in talking with Jürgen. In the late 1970s in Cambridge we performed phonon calculations on models of amorphous silicon [14], to see if these could distinguish between

  14. Promoting Diversity Through Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (Polar ICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, J. D.; Hotaling, L. A.; Garza, C.; Van Dyk, P. B.; Hunter-thomson, K. I.; Middendorf, J.; Daniel, A.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Schofield, O.

    2017-12-01

    Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE) is an education and outreach program designed to provide public access to the Antarctic and Arctic regions through polar data and interactions with the scientists. The program provides multi-faceted science communication training for early career scientists that consist of a face-to face workshop and opportunities to apply these skills. The key components of the scientist training workshop include cultural competency training, deconstructing/decoding science for non-expert audiences, the art of telling science stories, and networking with members of the education and outreach community and reflecting on communication skills. Scientists partner with educators to provide professional development for K-12 educators and support for student research symposia. Polar ICE has initiated a Polar Literacy initiative that provides both a grounding in big ideas in polar science and science communication training designed to underscore the importance of the Polar Regions to the public while promoting interdisciplinary collaborations between scientists and educators. Our ultimate objective is to promote STEM identity through professional development of scientists and educators while developing career awareness of STEM pathways in Polar science.

  15. Religion and Science in the Works of the Founder of the First Wave of Positivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiy Korsakov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to deal with the last phase of the life and work of Auguste Conte, the founder of the philosophy of positivism. The appearance and development of this type of philosophy were conditioned by the new waves of thought which dominated European philosophy during the nineteenth century. It was believed that faith in a scientific method would guarantee the success of any kind of scientific endeavor. Conte developed his idea of a three level intellectual evolution from notions which had already been posited by Saint-Simon. According to this ideology, man begins to mature when he begins to abandon his childish and immature notions about the world, or in other words, his religious-mystical preoccupations. Eventually he becomes an adult and begins to discover a type of God in himself. But in this way, positivism itself begins to develop its own religious and mystical traits while at the same time conducting a fierce battle with a religious conception of the world. These ideas come especially to the fore in the later works of Conte. In these works, the philosopher stipulates that although sociology is at the absolute pinnacle of the sciences, there is yet another level, still higher than all these - and that is the domain of the so-called religion of mankind

  16. Let’s Talk about Citizen Science: What Doesn’t Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison B. Kaufman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available “Citizen Science,” or the idea of using interested laypeople to assist in data collection, has the potential to be a valuable resource to those who study animal cognition. This is largely due to the potential increase in sample size it can provide. However, this technique also has the potential to introduce a significant amount of error to an experiment. As a result, before citizen science can be used as a tool, it is important to determine how it best works; specifically, what methods best motivate people to participate and to provide the most accurate data. This includes sharing situations in which data collection was not successful. Presented here is a failed attempt at collecting data on mirror self-recognition (MSR in pet parrots, orchestrated via yahoo groups listservs. The goals in presenting this unsuccessful methodology are to encourage discussion, to prevent others from repeating the same ill-fated methodology, and to encourage others to attempt variations on said methods which might be more successful.

  17. Science Divulgation: The Social Representations of Brazilian Researchers Working in the Field of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Dalira Lúcia Cunha Maradei; Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2015-12-01

    This article addresses the role of scientific divulgation in the interaction between science and society, debating the importance of Astronomy as a prime starter of the scientific divulgation. In the light of Moscovici’s Social Representations Theory, the social representations on scientific divulgation of Brazilian researchers that work in the field of Astronomy are studied. Individuals from different educational trajectories ansewered semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed according to Spink. The results indicate two representations: one for the society at large, moved by passion, based on values and beliefs, and on the satisfaction of seeing the results of their actions on people’s life; and another for their peers. In the first representation, gaps that obstruct the science divulgation emerge, such as the lack of training and the difficulty to use a plain language, the bureaucracy required for the projects’ execution and its negative representation in the media. Other inferences are that Astronomy is neither part of a systematic teaching nor a part of the media at large, and it often presents conceptual mistakes. Those representations find an echo in the theoretical framework, showing that, despite their advances, scientific divulgation and Astronomy Education are in a context of social fragility.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICS STUDENT WORK SHEET (SWS TO BUILD SCIENCE PROCESS SKILL VALUED CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yulianti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Student Work Sheet (SWS which contains only a summary of the material and exercises does not train students to investigate and develop conservation values. The research objective is to also prepared worksheets guided inquiry that can enhance science process skills, understanding of the concept and develop conservation value. Elements of inquiry and conservation value generated through work instructions and investigation. The study was performed by using one group pretest-posttest design. Research procedures include observation and identification of weaknesses worksheets, planning, early product development and initial field trials. Feasibility and legibility using questionnaires and tests hiatus. The value of understanding the concept derived from the pretest-posttest. Data science process skills gained from the observation during the lesson. Conservation values obtained from the students' self-assessment questionnaire and assessment questionnaire between friends. The analysis showed guided inquiry SWS easy to understand and very fit for use as teaching materials. Test gain showed guided inquiry SWS can enhance science process skills and conceptual understanding, and can be used as a medium to develop conservation value.LKS yang hanya berisi ringkasan materi dan latihan soal tidak melatih siswa melakukan penyelidikan dan mengembangkan nilai konservasi. Tujuan penelitian R&D ini adalah menyususn LKS yang mampu meningkatkan keterampilan proses sains, pemahaman konsep dan nilai konservasi. Nilai konservasi dimunculkan melalui petunjuk kerja dan kegiatan penyelidikan.Ujicoba menggunakanOne Group Pretest-Posttest Design. Prosedur penelitian meliputi observasi dan identifikasi kelemahan LKS, perencanaan, pengembangan produk awal dan uji coba lapangan awal. Uji kelayakan dan keterbacaan menggunakan angket dan tes rumpang. Nilai pemahaman konsep  diperoleh dari pretest-posttest. Data keterampilan proses sains diperoleh dari hasil observasi

  19. Finding Citations to Social Work Literature: The Relative Benefits of Using "Web of Science," "Scopus," or "Google Scholar"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Elaine M. Lasda

    2012-01-01

    Past studies of citation coverage of "Web of Science," "Scopus," and "Google Scholar" do not demonstrate a consistent pattern that can be applied to the interdisciplinary mix of resources used in social work research. To determine the utility of these tools to social work researchers, an analysis of citing references to well-known social work…

  20. No More Polarization, Please!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mia Reinholt

    The organizational science literature on motivation has for long been polarized into two main positions; the organizational economic position focusing on extrinsic motivation and the organizational behavior position emphasizing intrinsic motivation. With the rise of the knowledge economy...... and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on motivation, acknowledging the co-existence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, the possible interaction...... between the two as well as different types of motivations filling in the gap between the two polar types, is urgently needed in the organizational science literature. By drawing on the research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation conducted in social psychology and combining this with contributions from...

  1. UV Coatings, Polarization, and Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Quijada, Manuel; West, Garrett; Balasubramanian, Bala; Krist, John; Martin, Stefan; Sabatke, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Presenation for the Large UltraViolet Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) and Habitable Exoplanet Imager (HabEx) Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDT) on technical considerations regarding ultraviolet coatings, polarization, and coronagraphy. The presentations review the state-of-the-art in ultraviolet coatings, how those coatings generate polarization aberrations, and recent study results from both the LUVOIR and HabEx teams.

  2. PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating: Bringing Polar Research to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Breen, K.; Wiggins, H. V.; Larson, A.; Behr, S.

    2006-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program that pairs K-12 teachers with researchers to improve science education through authentic polar research experience. PolarTREC builds on the strengths of the existing TREC program in the Arctic, an NSF supported program managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the US (ARCUS), to embrace a wider range of research activities in the Arctic and Antarctic. PolarTREC uses a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) model to foster the integration of research and education to produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations, improved teacher content knowledge through experiences in scientific inquiry, and broad public interest and engagement in polar science. PolarTREC will enable thirty-six teachers to spend two to six weeks in the Arctic or Antarctic, working closely with researchers investigating a wide range of topics such as sea-ice dynamics, terrestrial ecology, marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and long-term climate change. With the help of their host researcher and the research team, teachers will develop the experience and tools necessary to teach science through scientific inquiry and investigation based on real-world experiences. While in the field, teachers and researchers will communicate extensively with their colleagues, communities, and hundreds of students of all ages across the globe, using a variety of tools including satellite phones, online journals, podcasts and interactive "Live from IPY" calls and web-based seminars. The online outreach elements of the project convey these experiences to a broad audience far beyond the classrooms of the PolarTREC teachers. In addition to field research experiences, PolarTREC will support teacher professional development and a sustained community of teachers, scientists, and the public through workshops, Internet seminars, an e-mail listserve, and ongoing teacher

  3. New laser polarization line at the ISOLDE facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, M.; Aschenbrenner, P.; Baranowski, M.; Bissell, M. L.; Gins, W.; Harding, R. D.; Heylen, H.; Neyens, G.; Pallada, S.; Severijns, N.; Velten, Ph; Walczak, M.; Wienholtz, F.; Xu, Z. Y.; Yang, X. F.; Zakoucky, D.

    2017-08-01

    Following a growing interest in spin-polarized beams of radioactive ions, a new laser spin-polarization setup has been installed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The setup is located at the VITO beamline which aims to bring together several experimental techniques using polarized ions allowing for studies in nuclear physics, fundamental interactions, material and life sciences. Intensive design work, which took place in 2016, allowed the installation of the first stage of the polarization line. With this experimental setup, the ion beam can be neutralized, polarized and implanted into a solid sample inside an electromagnet which also hosts β-detectors, where the degree of nuclear spin polarization can be measured. In autumn 2016 the setup was commissioned using short-lived 26Na and 28Na beams which were polarized in the D2 line from their atomic ground state. The previously observed degrees of β asymmetry were reproduced and thus the beamline is now ready for the first physics experiments with spin-polarized radioactive beams.

  4. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  5. The Emergence of the Field of Sustainability Science: Influences on Faculty Behavior Related to Sustainability Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Carla

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates sustainability science as an emerging scientific field and the role of faculty members at higher education institutions as drivers of change in sustainability-science-based research, teaching, and community engagement. Seven factors related to the transdisciplinary field of sustainability science are analyzed for their…

  6. Crowdsourcing Scientific Work: A Comparative Study of Technologies, Processes, and Outcomes in Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Citizen science projects involve the public with scientists in collaborative research. Information and communication technologies for citizen science can enable massive virtual collaborations based on voluntary contributions by diverse participants. As the popularity of citizen science increases, scientists need a more thorough understanding of…

  7. Assessment of Predictable Productivity of Nurses Working in Kerman University of Medical Sciences' Teaching Hospitals via the Dimensions of Quality of Work Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Fariba; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Kianian, Toktam; Saber, Saman

    2016-10-01

    Despite the existence of a large community of nurses, specific mechanisms have not been developed yet to consider their needs and the quality of their work life. Moreover, few studies have been conducted to analyze the nature of nursing, nursing places or nurses' quality of work life. In this regard, the present study aimed to assess predictable productivity of nurses working in Kerman University of Medical Sciences' teaching hospitals via the dimensions of Quality of Work Life. The present descriptive-correlational study was conducted to assess predictable productivity of nurses via the dimensions of Quality of Work Life. The study's population consisted of all nurses working in different wards of teaching hospitals associated with Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Out of the whole population, 266 nurses were selected based on the simple random sampling method. To collect data, the questionnaires of 'Quality of Nursing Work Life' and 'Productivity' were used after confirming their reliability (test-retest) and content validity. Finally, the collected data were analyzed through the SPSS software (version 16). Although the quality of work life for nurses was average and their productivity was low but the results showed that quality of life is directly related to nurses' productivity. Quality of life and its dimensions are predictive factors in the in the nurses' productivity. It can conclude that by recognizing the nurses' quality of work life situation, it can realize this group productivity and their values to the efficiency of the health system. For the quality of working life improvement and increasing nurses' productivity more efforts are needed by authorities. The findings can be applied by managers of hospitals and nursing services along with head nurses to enhance the quality of health services and nursing profession in general.

  8. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2015-01-01

    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass

  9. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP 4 . A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  10. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D' Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R,; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; J.; Severino, F.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP{sup 4}. A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  11. Science and Society: The Life and Work of a Great Russian Physicist

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In 1934, the eminent Russian physicist and optics specialist Sergei Ivanovitch Vavilov (1891-1951) was the first, together with Pavel Cherenkov, to observe the famous radiation we now call Cherenkov radiation, a discovery commonly used in the Laboratory's detectors. His most well-known discoveries also include that of the non-linear optical effect in 1926. Vavilov founded the Lebedev Physics Institute in Moscow, which prospered under his directorship, and contributed to the rise of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation in the USSR. The highpoint of his career came in 1945, when he was appointed President of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. However, Sergei Vavilov worked under the Stalinist dictatorship, which was responsible for the death of his elder brother, the biologist Nikolai Vavilov. His own health compromised, he died two months before his 60th birthday. His remarkable life, which is interesting not only for his scientific discoveries but also in terms of its historical context, will be the subject of...

  12. Where is the science? What will it take to show that nutrient profiling systems work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Marilyn S

    2010-04-01

    Nutrient profiling is defined as the science of ranking or categorizing foods on the basis of their nutritional composition. Validity is a general term meaning accuracy. Nutrient profiling systems in the United States have not undergone any systematic validation effort to assess their accuracy against a comparison measure or group of measures. Different types of validation studies should be conducted: content, face, convergent, criterion, and predictive. This article provides a conceptual framework for establishing the validity of nutrient profiling systems with the desired objective of assisting US consumers with food selection to improve diet quality. For a profiling system to work successfully in the American marketplace, it must function well with consumers from most or all cultural groups, from all racial groups, and with low-literate as well as highly literate people. Emphasis should be placed on conducting different types of validation studies and multiple studies with different subpopulation groups. The use of consistent standards to assess the accuracy and usefulness of multiple profiling systems is imperative to successfully identify a nutrient profiling intervention that will have the potential to lead to improved diet quality and eventually to an improved health status in US consumers.

  13. Working research codes into fluid dynamics education: a science gateway approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lachlan; Hetherington, James; O'Reilly, Martin; Yong, May; Jersakova, Radka; Grieve, Stuart; Perez-Suarez, David; Klapaukh, Roman; Craster, Richard V.; Matar, Omar K.

    2017-11-01

    Research codes are effective for illustrating complex concepts in educational fluid dynamics courses, compared to textbook examples, an interactive three-dimensional visualisation can bring a problem to life! Various barriers, however, prevent the adoption of research codes in teaching: codes are typically created for highly-specific `once-off' calculations and, as such, have no user interface and a steep learning curve. Moreover, a code may require access to high-performance computing resources that are not readily available in the classroom. This project allows academics to rapidly work research codes into their teaching via a minimalist `science gateway' framework. The gateway is a simple, yet flexible, web interface allowing students to construct and run simulations, as well as view and share their output. Behind the scenes, the common operations of job configuration, submission, monitoring and post-processing are customisable at the level of shell scripting. In this talk, we demonstrate the creation of an example teaching gateway connected to the Code BLUE fluid dynamics software. Student simulations can be run via a third-party cloud computing provider or a local high-performance cluster. EPSRC, UK, MEMPHIS program Grant (EP/K003976/1), RAEng Research Chair (OKM).

  14. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  15. PolarTREC-Celebrating the Legacy of the IPY Through Researcher-Educator Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K.; Warburton, J.; Larson, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Polar TREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a three-year (2007-2009) NSF-funded program, has matched over 40 teachers with polar researchers working in multiple scientific disciplines for 2-8 week Teacher Research Experiences (TRE) in the Arctic and Antarctica during the IPY. PolarTREC contributes to the legacy of the IPY through the creation and dissemination of polar education resources, prolonged teacher-researcher relationships, and contributions to scholarly knowledge on the impacts of TRE's. Products developed during PolarTREC are helping to sustain the widespread interest and enthusiasm in the polar regions generated during the IPY. During their expeditions, participating teachers brought science and information about profound changes at the poles to school, community, and professional audiences through web-based communications, journals, discussion forums, multimedia, and live events. PolarTREC teachers constructed nearly 100 classroom lesson plans and activities as products of their experiences. Live events from the field attracted over 11,000 participants, primarily K-12 students. Although the field experience is central to the PolarTREC TRE Model, many participants cite the relationship they built with their teacher/researcher as one of the best outcomes. Through personal communications, presentations at professional conferences, and continued support of each other’s work through classroom visits or joint proposal development, teachers and researchers have maintained the mutually beneficial relationships established during the IPY. Participating scientists gained access to professional educators with expertise in translating research approaches and results into programs. The need for researchers to explain their research and “boil it down to the raw essence” helped many see how their work fits into a bigger picture, often helping them communicate outside their scientific discipline and to diverse public audiences. Teachers, on

  16. Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  17. Viewing past science from the point of view of present science, thereby illuminating both: Philosophy versus experiment in the work of Robert Boyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Alan

    2016-02-01

    The seventeenth century witnessed the replacement of an Aristotelian worldview by a mechanical one. It also witnessed the beginnings of significant experimental enquiry. Alerted by the fact that the methods involved in the latter, but not in the former, resemble those employed in later science, I argue the historical case that the emergence of the mechanical worldview and the emergence of science were not closely related and that it was the latter that was to develop into science as we have come to know it. The details are explored in the context of the philosophical and experimental work of Robert Boyle and the relationship between them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Undergraduate Research Mentorship Affects on Student Desire, Confidence and Motivation to Continue Work in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative Undergraduate Research Questionnaire (URQ) is used to assess the impact of undergraduate research mentorship affects, such as informal conversations, supportive faculty and/or peer interactions, on student confidence and motivation to continue working, learning or researching in the sciences (Taraban & Logue, 2012). Research…

  19. The Impact of Work-Integrated Learning Experiences on Attaining Graduate Attributes for Exercise and Sports Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Melinda; Pascoe, Deborah; Charity, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Exercise and Sports Science (E&SS) programs at Federation University Australia provide work-integrated learning (WIL) opportunities for students to develop, apply and consolidate theoretical knowledge in the workplace. This study aimed to determine the influence of WIL experiences on achieving common graduate attributes for E&SS students.…

  20. Take a scientist to the sauna: A great way to keep science and stewardship working together for another 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell

    2014-01-01

    At a workshop in Oulanka National Park in Finland, shortly after the Finnish Wilderness Act had passed in 1991, managers and scientists wrestled with how to incorporate science into protection of wildlands of northern Finland. One working group was assigned to develop a list of "why managers don't apply the information scientists provide" and another...

  1. Improving Agricultural Science Teachers' Work Attitude in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria: The Financial Initiative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Camilus Bassey

    2014-01-01

    This research study carried out to investigate the influence of financial incentive initiatives on agricultural teachers' work attitude in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. One hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. A total sample of 150 agricultural science teachers and 150 students drawn…

  2. Municipal Consultants' Participation in Building Networks to Support Science Teachers' Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses particularly on the role of municipal science consultants in developing and maintaining network activities and connections among primary school science teachers. The hypothesis is that consultants play a crucial role in supporting strategic planning, and sustaining contacts and activities within professional learning networks.…

  3. A Sociolinguistic Study of Christian Science Oral Testimonies. Working Papers in Sociolinguistics Number 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarest, Janice Lyski

    A sociolinguistic, ethnographic analysis of Christian Science oral testimonies is reported in this study. The study is based on the analysis of transcripts of four testimonial meetings of a branch church, interpreted through knowledge of Christian Science official literature, informal interaction with Christian Scientists, and knowledge of other…

  4. Why Do Women Leave Science and Engineering? NBER Working Paper No. 15853

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    I use the 1993 and 2003 National Surveys of College Graduates to examine the higher exit rate of women compared to men from science and engineering relative to other fields. I find that the higher relative exit rate is driven by engineering rather than science, and show that 60% of the gap can be explained by the relatively greater exit rate from…

  5. The sociology of scientific work the fundamental relationship between science and society

    CERN Document Server

    Vinck, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    More than ever before, science and technology play a significant role in modern society as evidenced by the development of nanotechnologies and the controversies surrounding GMOs and climate change. This book comprehensively explores the flourishing field of science and technology studies and examines its creation, development and interaction with contemporary society. Dominique Vinck examines the various relationships between science and society including the emergence of sciences, the dynamics of innovation and technical democracy. He also investigates the principal social mechanisms of science and technology such as institutions, organizations, exchanges between researchers and the construction of scientific knowledge, expertise and innovation. The book provides a thorough overview of the field and reviews the major theoretical and methodological approaches as well as the current state of research on a range of topics. This original book will strongly appeal to students and researchers in the social scie...

  6. Crude Life: The Art-Science Engagement Work of Brandon Ballengee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballengee, B.; Kirn, M.

    2017-12-01

    Crude Life is an interdisciplinary art, science and outreach project focused on raising public awareness of Gulf of Mexico species, ecosystems, and regional environmental challenges through community "citizen science" surveys and a portable art-science museum of Gulf coastal biodiversity. A primary research focus is gathering data on endemic fishes affected by the 2010 Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill and attempting to locate 14 species that have been `missing' following the spill. Programming emphasis has been given to rural coastal communities that due to changing climate and alteration of geophysical systems (mostly from the oil and gas industry) are populations particularly at risk to tidal inundation. In addition these communities generally lack access to science literacy (as Louisiana ranks as among the worst in the nation for science education) and have little access to contemporary art.

  7. NASA IceBridge and PolarTREC - Education and Outreach Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.; Beck, J.; Woods, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a teacher professional development program, began with the International Polar Year in 2004 and continues today in the United States. PolarTREC has worked specifically with OIB for 3 years and looking forward to ongoing collaboration. PolarTREC brings U.S. K­12 educators and polar researchers together through an innovative teacher research experience model. Participating teachers spend 3-6 weeks in the field with research teams conducting surveys and collecting data on various aspects of polar science. During their experience, teachers become research team members filling a variety of roles on the team. They also fulfill a unique role of public outreach officer, conducting live presentations about their field site and research as well as journaling, answering questions, and posting photos. Working with OIB has opened up the nature of science for the participating teachers. In developing the long-term relationship with OIB teams, teachers can now share (1) the diversity of training, backgrounds, and interests of OIB scientists, (2) identify the linkages between Greenlandic culture and community and cryospheric science and evidence of climate change, (3) network with Danish and Greenlandic educators on the mission (4) gain access to the full spectrum of a science project - development, implementation, analysis, networking, and dissemination of information. All aspects help these teachers become champions of NASA science and educational leaders in their communities. Evaluation data shows that PolarTREC has clearly achieved it goals with the OIB partnership and suggests that linking teachers and researchers can have the potential to transform the nature of science education. By giving teachers the content knowledge, pedagogical tools, confidence, understanding of science in the broader society, and experiences with scientific inquiry, participating teachers are using authentic scientific research in their

  8. The relationship between quality of work life and job satisfaction of faculty members in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermansaravi, Fatihe; Navidian, Ali; Navabi Rigi, Shahindokht; Yaghoubinia, Fariba

    2014-10-29

    Quality of work life is one of the most important factors for human motivating and improving of job satisfaction. The current study was carried out aimed to determine the relationship between quality of work life and job satisfaction in faculty members of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. In this descriptive-analytic study, 202 faculty members of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in 2012 were entered the study through census. The job satisfaction questionnaire of Smith and Kendall and Walton Quality of Work Life questionnaire were used for data collection. Validity and reliability of questionnaires were confirmed in previous studies. Data analysis was done using SPSS 18. The Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression tests were used for data analysis. The mean score of quality of work life was 121/30±37/08 and job satisfaction was 135/98 ±33/78. There was a significant and positive correlation between job satisfaction of faculty members and their quality of work life (P=0.003). In addition, two components of quality of work life "adequate and fair compensation" (β=0.3) and "Social Integration" (β=0.4) can predict job satisfaction of faculty members. According to correlation between job satisfaction and quality of work life in faculty members, job satisfaction can be improved through the changing and manipulating the components of quality of work life and in this way; the suitable environment for organization development should be provided.

  9. The potential improvement of team-working skills in Biomedical and Natural Science students using a problem-based learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    Forough L. Nowrouzian; Anne Farewell

    2013-01-01

    Teamwork has become an integral part of most organisations today, and it is clearly important in Science and other disciplines. In Science, research teams increase in size while the number of single-authored papers and patents decline. Team-work in laboratory sciences permits projects that are too big or complex for one individual to be tackled. This development requires that students gain experience of team-work before they start their professional career. Students working in teams this may ...

  10. NMR dispersion measurement of dynamic nuclear polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.; Cox, S.F.J.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of monitoring dynamic nuclear polarization from the NMR dispersive susceptibility is examined. Two prototype instruments are tested in a polarized proton target using organic target material. The more promising employs a tunnel diode oscillator, inside the target cavity, and should provide a precise polarization measurement working at a frequency far enough from the main resonance for the disturbance of the measured polarization to be negligible. Other existing methods for measuring target polarization are briefly reviewed. (author)

  11. Here, there and everywhere: The art and science of optics at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Dario; Ferraro, Pietro

    2018-05-01

    Optics, the ancient science of vision and light [1-5] can look forward to a "bright" future [6,7], as its applications are now ubiquitous in fields as diverse as science, engineering, technology, medicine and everyday life. Optical methods play a crucial and often revolutionary role in non-destructive testing, biomedical applications, microscopy, cultural heritage protection, advanced imaging in medicine, development of self-driving cars, astronomy, remote sensing, and manufacturing to cite a few examples.

  12. Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Evidence-based creativity: Working between art and science in the field of fine dining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkenhagen, Chad

    2017-10-01

    This article examines how scientific knowledge drives creativity in the small but influential culinary movement of 'modernist cuisine'. Originating in the mid-1990s, modernist cuisine began with a small group of avant-garde chefs using science to produce wildly innovative culinary creations. Since then, many of the movement's innovations, as well as its more general 'science-based' approach to cooking, have gained adoption among a diverse range of culinary professionals. But while science has enabled modernist chefs to produce a wide array of innovations and refinements, the group's embrace of scientific values poses a potential threat to the subjective, intuition-driven logic of culinary creativity. Using data gathered through interviews and participant observation, I describe how modernist chefs navigate the potential challenges of using science in a creative field. I find that advocates of modernist cuisine address these challenges by adopting two separate rhetorical repertoires - one emphasizing science-based cooking's advantages over traditional methods, and another that minimizes the differences between these approaches. Observing the strategic deployment of these repertoires illustrates the challenges to incorporating science into creative fields and reveals a complex and nuanced relationship between objectivity, evidence, and aesthetic judgement.

  14. Educating elementary-aged English learners in science: Scientists and teachers working together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banuelos, Gloria Rodriguez

    California's K-12 schools contain 40% of the nation's English learners, the majority of them enrolled at the elementary level. Traditionally, English learners in California have difficulty performing at the same level as their native English speaking counterparts on national achievement tests, such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress. In 1998, California voters passed Proposition 227 mandating that English learners be taught "overwhelmingly" in English, thus making teachers, many without expertise, responsible for teaching multilevel English proficient students subject matter. I studied the use of scientist-teacher partnerships as a resource for teachers of English learners. University scientists (graduate students) partnered with local elementary school teachers designed and implemented integrated science and English lessons for classrooms with at least 30% English learners. The study explored two major foci. First, integrated science and language lessons implemented by six scientist-teacher partnerships were investigated. Second, the responsibilities taken on by the team members during the implementation of integrated science and language lessons were examined. Three data sources were analyzed: (1) six lesson sequences comprised of 28 lessons; (2) 18 lesson worksheet; and (3) 24 participant Retrospective interview transcripts (12 scientists and 12 teachers). Lessons across were examined according to four analytical categories which included the following: (1) nature of the science activities (e.g. hands-on); nature of language activities (e.g. speaking); (2) nature of instructional practices (e.g. student grouping); and (3) responsibilities of teachers and scientists (e.g. classroom). A micro level analysis illustrates how one scientist-teacher team innovatively used a children's story, Goldilocks and the Three Bears, to teach the measurement of length and temperature. A macro level analysis identified three characteristics of science activities

  15. Using a polarizing film in the manufacture of panoramic Stokes polarimeters at the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyavskiy, I. I.; Ivanov, Yu. S.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Sergeev, A. V.

    2013-09-01

    MAO of NASU proposed and implemented the concept [1] of imaging Stokes polarimeter, which allows to measure four components of the Stokes vector at the same time, in a wide field, and without restrictions on the relative aperture of the system. And polarimeter can be converted into low-resolution spectropolarimeter by rotation of the wheel with replaceable elements. To full utilization of the CCD area in the device installed four film's polarizer with positional angles 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°. In each channel of this device installed the system of special deflecting prisms, which achromatize for the spectral range 420-850 nm [2]. Distortion is less than 0.65%. Also have the opportunity the use of the diffraction grating with a frequency up to 100 lines / mm, working on the transmission. References. 1. Sinyavskii I.I., Ivanov Yu.S., Vidmachenko A.P., Karpov N.V. Panoramic Stokes polarimeter // Ecological Bulletin of Research Centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, ISSN: 1729-5459. - 2013 - V. 3, No 4. - P. 123-127. 2. Sinyavskii, I. I.; Ivanov, Yu. S.; Vil'machenko, A. P. Concept of the construction, of the optical setup of a panoramic Stokes polarimeter for small telescopes // Journal of Optical Technology. - 2013. - V. 80, Issue 9. - P. 545-548.

  16. Explaining how the mind works: on the relation between cognitive science and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, Jonathan; Kalish, Michael

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we argue that under certain prevalent interpretations of the nature and aims of cognitive science, theories of cognition generate a forced choice between a conception of cognition which depends on the possibility of a private language, and a conception of cognition which depends on mereological confusions. We argue, further, that this should not pose a fundamental problem for cognitive scientists since a plausible interpretation of the nature and aims of cognitive science is available that does not generate this forced choice. The crucial difference between these interpretations is that on the one hand the aim of theories of cognition is to tell us what thinking (etc.) is, and on the other it is to tell us what is causally necessary if an intelligent creature is to be able to think. Our argument draws heavily on a Wittgensteinian conception of philosophy in which no philosophical theory can explain what thinking, perceiving, remembering, etc. are, either. The positive, strictly therapeutic, purpose of a philosophy of cognitive science should be to show that, since the traditional problems which constitute the philosophy of mind are chimerical, there is nothing for philosophical theorizing in cognitive science to achieve. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. EOS Aqua: Mission Status at the Earth Science Constellation (ESC) Mission Operations Working Group (MOWG) Meeting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, Bill

    2017-01-01

    This presentation at the Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meeting at KSC in December 2017 to discuss EOS (Earth Observing System) Aqua Earth Science Constellation status. Reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO (Earth Science Mission Operations) Deputy Project Manager.

  18. The Potential Improvement of Team-Working Skills in Biomedical and Natural Science Students Using a Problem-Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzian, Forough L.; Farewell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Teamwork has become an integral part of most organisations today, and it is clearly important in Science and other disciplines. In Science, research teams increase in size while the number of single-authored papers and patents decline. Team-work in laboratory sciences permits projects that are too big or complex for one individual to be tackled.…

  19. Professional Work of Computer Science Students and their Academic Achievements – Imagination vs. Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Milosz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of Information Technology in the EU and throughout the world, there is a lack of Computer Science specialists. This lack deepens due to the inability to educate an adequate number of graduates by universities. This phenomenon causes students of computer science to be sought and employed by companies. This may have a negative impact on the academic achievements of these students. The paper presents the results of questionnaire surveys of Computer Science students at all levels and years of study. The study was conducted over two consecutive years. The article presents the research methodology and comparative analysis of their results. On this basis, a deeper analysis of the data contained in the questionnaires was made to verify the reality of students' perceptions about the impact of their employment on their academic achievements. The self-assessment of the impact of employment on the study process by freshmen and other students was also compared.

  20. Municipal consultants’ participation in building networks to support science teachers’ work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    in the municipality, availability of municipal resources to support network activities, participation in strategic planning of municipal network support, and facilitation of the development of new teaching activities within schools or in collaboration between schools. These four distinctive features of municipal......This paper focuses particularly on the role of municipal science consultants in developing and maintaining network activities and connections among primary school science teachers. The hypothesis is that consultants play a crucial role in supporting strategic planning, and sustaining contacts...... of professional learning networks to assess the consultants’ opportunities and constraints in terms of participating in network development. The results indicate that the consultants’ roles in successful network formation is characterized by personal stable contacts within the science teacher community...

  1. How Science and Hollywood Can Work Together Is Focus of Fall Meeting Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Jon Amiel, director of the 2003 science fiction blockbuster movie The Core, told a room packed with geophysicists at the recent AGU Fall Meeting that he had a confession to make. The confession had nothing to do with what he called the “preposterous premises” of the movie, including that humans could start or stop the spinning of Earth's core. Rather, he told the crowd at the Tuesday evening presentation “Science and the Cinema: AGU Sciences Meet Hollywood” about his recurring dream of being on stage wearing nothing but a skimpy T-shirt. “This dream now has come true. Here I am, I'm talking to a whole room of geophysicists about The Core. I've never felt like the T-shirt was this short,” he said.

  2. Bridging Social Innovation and Social Work: Balancing Science, Values, and Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Cal J.

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights how the social work academy can support innovative research, dissemination, and implementation and is a response to and extension of arguments made by Dr. Marilyn L. Flynn on innovation in social work. It argues that social work researchers need to strike a balance between the often slow and methodical scientific research…

  3. System for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The system for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target representing the high-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described Q-meter with series connection and a circuit for measuring system resonance characteristic is used for NMR-absorption signal recording. Measuring coil is produced of a strip conductor in order to obtain uniform system sensitivity to polarization state in all target volume and improve signal-to-noise ratio. Polarization measuring system operates ion-line with the M-6000 computer. The total measuring error for the value of free proton polarization in target taking into account the error caused by local depolarization of working substance under irradiation by high-intense photon beam is <= 6%. Long-term application of the described system for measuring the proton polarization in the LUEh-20000 accelerator target used in the pion photoproduction experiments has demonstrated its high reliability

  4. Relationship between work - family conflict and marital satisfaction among nurses and midwives in hospitals of Zabol university of medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mansouri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work-family conflicts described as incompatibility between work and family roles. There is mutual relationship between marital satisfaction and job so that the tension in one of two areas of career and family are affected. Objective: To examine the relationship between marital satisfaction and work-family conflict among nurses and midwives. Methods: All of 289 employees of married nursing and midwifery of Zabol University of Medical Sciences hospitals participated in the study in 2014. The data were collected with questionnaires of Enrich marital satisfaction and Carlson work-family conflict and were analyzed with statistical tests including Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test and linear regression analysis. Findings: Marital satisfaction score of the staff was 168.52 which indicates the relative satisfaction of spouses from each other. The mean score of work-family conflict among employees was 3.26; it can be said that employees in terms of work-family conflict, the conflict a moderate experience. There is a significant negative correlation among marital satisfaction and work-family conflict of employees. In fact, marital satisfaction decreases when the conflict between work and family is decreased. Nursing staffs have a higher marital satisfaction and in terms of work-family conflict they experience less conflict. Conclusion: According to the findings, the managers should create conditions that minimize the role conflicts and consequently increase the level of marital satisfaction.

  5. Polarization-preserving holey fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2001-01-01

    In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization...

  6. Science-Based Prevention Through Communities That Care: A Model of Social Work Practice for Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Haggerty, Kevin P.; Shapiro, Valerie B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a public health orientation to drug and alcohol abuse prevention; reviews the state of the science underlying a risk and protective factor approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention; describes Communities That Care, a community practice model that makes use of this evidence; and considers how this model reflects four important principles of social work practice. The intent of this article is to provide guidance to social workers who support the National Association of ...

  7. Science-based prevention through communities that care: a model of social work practice for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Kevin P; Shapiro, Valerie B

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a public health orientation to drug and alcohol abuse prevention; reviews the state of the science underlying a risk and protective factor approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention; describes Communities That Care, a community practice model that makes use of this evidence; and considers how this model reflects four important principles of social work practice. The intent of this article is to provide guidance to social workers who support the National Association of Social Work's intention to make prevention practice central to the provision of alcohol and drug abuse services by social workers.

  8. Pupils' Ideas about Flowering Plants. Learning in Science Project (Primary). Working Paper No. 125.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddulph, Fred

    The Learning in Science Project (Primary)--LISP(P)--investigated the ideas and interests children have about flowering plants (in particular whether these plants have a life cycle). Data were obtained from: individual interviews with children, ages 7- to 14-year-old (10 students for each age level), using the "interview-about-instances"…

  9. Encouraging Girls into Science and Technology with Feminine Role Model: Does This Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Yael M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of a program that aimed to encourage girls to choose a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career in Israel. The program involved school visits to a high-tech company and meeting with role model female scientists. Sixty ninth-grade female students from a Jewish modern-orthodox single-sex…

  10. Proceedings of the Second Annual NASA Science Internet User Working Group Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lenore A. (Editor); Gary, J. Patrick (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Copies of the agenda, list of attendees, meeting summaries, and all presentations and exhibit material are contained. Included are plenary sessions, exhibits of advanced networking applications, and user subgroup meetings on NASA Science Internet policy, networking, security, and user services and applications topics.

  11. Animal behaviour and animal nutrition science working together to support livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, S.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Within livestock production and welfare science, many of the interesting and important questions lie at the interface of traditional fields of study and benefit from an interdisciplinary approach. The effects of nutrition on the behaviour of animals have been widely studied. They range from the

  12. Culturally Efficacious Mathematics and Science Teacher Preparation for Working with English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos Flores, Belinda; Claeys, Lorena; Gist, Conra D.; Riojas Clark, Ellen; Villarreal, Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    To address the challenge of ensuring the quality of preparation of secondary mathematics and science teachers, this article describes the efforts of the "Academy for Teacher Excellence" (ATE; Flores et al., 2007), which received Transition to Teaching grants to establish the Accelerated Teacher Education Program (ATEP). ATEP's purpose…

  13. Investigation of the Relationship Between Mental Health and Organizational Employees’ work Fatigue and Deputyships of Yasouj Medical Science University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mahmoodi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Peoples’ mental health in improvement of society’s national and ideal aims have the main and most importance such as thriftiness in material and spiritual costs. Work fatigue is the result of severe decrease of person’s capabilities sources that counter with long –time stress, especially work stress. This study was designed with the aim of investigating the relationship between mental health and work fatigue at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences. Method of investigation: The present co-operation – descriptive study was conducted on 274 participants from 961 organization employees and deputyships of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2013-2014 who were chosen randomly. In order to collect data, Maslach questionnaire of mental health condition and work fatigue was used. Data were analysed with statistical tests of the interconnection index Pearson and Friedman’s test. Findings: There was no significant relationship between mental health and work fatigue dimensions (p<0/05. A meaningful relationship was observed between studied models after usage. High attention and metamorphosis of personality had the least importance. Conclusion: When employees have full mental health and job satisfaction, the ability to achieve maximum efficiency in the organization is reachable.

  14. Relationship between partnership working and employees’ productivity in a University of Medical Sciences in the South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khammarnia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Partnership working plays an important role in the health system, results in delivery of coordinated packages of services to patients, and reduces the impact of organizational fragmentation. Method: The study aimed to determine the relationship between partnership working and productivity in the employees of a university of medical sciences in the south of Iran. Results: According to the result, partnership and productivity scores were 51.1 + 6.7 and 51.9 + 13.4, respectively. Partnership working had a positive relationship with productivity (r = 0.333, P = 0.001 and age of the employees (r = 0.142, P = 0.007. There was a negative relationship between the employees’ productivity with age and job position in ZAUMS (P= 0.009 and P= 0.001, respectively. The nurses had the highest score of productivity (mean=60.7±13.3. Moreover, employees with an Ph.D. degree (9 persons had the highest scores of partnership and productivity in ZAUMS (53.6±3.1 and 56.8±6.3, respectively. Conclusion: Enhancement of partnership working could increase the employees’ productivity in the health system. It is recommended that younger persons should be used in universities of medical science. Moreover, supportive staff should increase their partnership working to enhance the individual and organizational productivity.

  15. Political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.

    2007-01-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  16. Political polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2007-05-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  17. VIIRS/J1 polarization narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluschka, Eugene; McCorkel, Joel; McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; McAndrew, Brendan; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Young, James B.; Fest, Eric; Butler, James; Wang, Tung R.; Monroy, Eslim O.; Turpie, Kevin; Meister, Gerhard; Thome, Kurtis J.

    2015-09-01

    The polarization sensitivity of the Visible/NearIR (VISNIR) bands in the Joint Polar Satellite Sensor 1 (J1) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was measured using a broadband source. While polarization sensitivity for bands M5-M7, I1, and I2 was less than 2.5 %, the maximum polarization sensitivity for bands M1, M2, M3, and M4 was measured to be 6.4 %, 4.4 %, 3.1 %, and 4.3 %, respectively with a polarization characterization uncertainty of less than 0.38%. A detailed polarization model indicated that the large polarization sensitivity observed in the M1 to M4 bands is mainly due to the large polarization sensitivity introduced at the leading and trailing edges of the newly manufactured VISNIR bandpass focal plane filters installed in front of the VISNIR detectors. This was confirmed by polarization measurements of bands M1 and M4 bands using monochromatic light. Discussed are the activities leading up to and including the two polarization tests, some discussion of the polarization model and the model results, the role of the focal plane filters, the polarization testing of the Aft-Optics-Assembly, the testing of the polarizers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard center and at the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) facility and the use of NIST's Traveling Spectral Irradiance and Radiance responsivity Calibrations using Uniform Sources (T-SIRCUS) for polarization testing and associated analyses and results.

  18. Training the New Generation of Polar Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobot, S.; Weiler, C. S.

    2008-12-01

    The polar regions are changing rapidly, and many of the pressing problems faced in the future will require a new generation of polar researchers to be disciplinary experts and work across traditional disciplinary boundaries to conduct socially relevant, transformative research, and translate it to more effective action. To learn about the past and better address these new challenges, a select international group of 35 students and early career researchers who are conducting research during the 2007-2009 International Polar Year were brought together May 4-11, 2008, at the La Foret Conference Center for the New Generation Polar Research (NGPR) Symposium. The participants were drawn from professional backgrounds spanning the spectrum of social, natural, and physical sciences and represented the research programs of 7 countries. In addition to the participants, 12 mentors, some of whom participated in the IGY, shared insights, stories, and expertise. This diverse and ambitious group spent an intensive week learning about many important aspects of IPY history and research, along with communication, outreach, interdisciplinary research and career development. Each of the participants presented a 7-minute overview of his or her IPY research and provided details and discussion in evening poster sessions. Polar history provided an informative and unifying context for discussions of the past, present, and future that lasted throughout the week. Mentors and guest speakers shared insights and advice on media interactions, and many participants were subsequently interviewed for an upcoming radio story to be aired on National Public Radio. Several presentations on outreach were followed by a hands-on session for a group 1st grade students who were visiting the La Foret Conference Center. The Symposium also featured several break-out sessions, where small groups of participants and mentors discussed challenges related to interdisciplinary research, science advocacy, and

  19. Views of Sport Science Graduates Regarding Work Skills Developed at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleap, Mike; Reed, Helen

    2006-01-01

    There has been recent interest in how higher education might improve the employability of students, although there is little feedback from graduates about the value of university experiences to their working life. The aim of the study therefore was to investigate the views of graduates regarding the extent to which work skills had been developed…

  20. Defining the public, defining sociology: hybrid science-public relations and boundary-work in early American sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I examine how scientific disciplines define their boundaries by defining the publics with whom they engage. The case study is an episode in the development of early American sociology. In response to the dual challenge of credibility set up by the conflict between religious Baconian science and secular positivist science, key actors engaged in specific strategies of boundary-work to create their desired "sociological public"--a hybrid form of science-public relations that appealed to hostile university scientists while excluding a supportive religious audience from participation in the production of scientific knowledge. Using this case, I offer two specific insights. First I illustrate how, in the pursuit of scientific credibility, actors engage in boundary-work to differentiate audiences, not just practitioners. Such defining of publics is constitutive of scientific disciplines in their formative stage. Second, I demonstrate how audience boundaries can be redefined through the capture of existing boundary objects. Specifically, the removal of informational content in key boundary objects creates durable boundaries that are difficult to overcome.

  1. The art and science of teamwork: enacting a transdisciplinary approach in work rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, L; Walker, R; Hogue, A

    2008-01-01

    Teamwork, collaboration and interprofessional care are becoming the new standard in health care, and service delivery in work practice is no exception. Most rehabilitation professionals believe that they intuitively know how to work collaboratively with others such as workers, employers, insurers and other professionals. However, little information is available that can assist rehabilitation professionals in enacting authentic transdisciplinary approaches in work practice contexts. A qualitative study was designed using a grounded theory approach, comprised of observations and interviews, to understand the social processes among team members in enacting a transdisciplinary approach in a work rehabilitation clinic. Findings suggest that team members consciously attended to a team approach through nurturing consensus, nurturing professional synergy, and nurturing a learning culture. These processes enabled this team to work in concert with clients who had chronic disabilities in achieving solution focused goals for returning to work and improving functioning. Implications for achieving greater collaborative synergies among stakeholders in return to work settings and in the training of new rehabilitation professionals are explored.

  2. Science in and out of the classroom: A look at Water Resource at Gammams Water Care Works, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iileka-Shinavene, Leena

    2016-04-01

    Primary school pupils in Van Rhyn School in Namibia are taught Natural Sciences from grade 4 at the age of 9. The curriculum is mainly theory/classroom based and natural science is taught through theory and various practical activities. However occasionally teachers have opportunities to supplement the pupils' learning experience through outdoor activities such as excursions to museums, municipal works and science fairs. Apart from enhancing the learning experience and improving understanding, such activities make the Natural science subject more interesting subject to learners. Water, a scarce/limited resource in Namibia, is one of the topics we cover in Natural sciences. Sustainable management of water is one of the top priorities of the government, which through various initiatives including the National Development Plan supports innovative ideas and technologies to reclaim water from sewage, recycling of industry and mining water and use semi-purified water for public recreational places. Most of the water used in Windhoek is reclaimed by City of Windhoek. To better illustrate this to the pupils, a school trip with 40 pupils of seventh grade was taken to the City of Windhoek's Gammams Water Care works. The aim of the trip was to show how the sewage purification process works and how the water is reclaimed from sewage. A guided tour of the water works was given by the resident scientists and the pupils were provided with the worksheet to complete after the tour around the Centre. They were encouraged to ask questions in all stages of water purification process and write down short notes. Most learners completed their worksheet during the tour session as they are getting information from the tour guide. The rest had to retrieve information and do further research as they got back to class so they could complete their worksheets. After the tour to Gammams, learners were asked to share what they had learned with the lower grades, 5 and 6, in a classroom

  3. The potential improvement of team-working skills in Biomedical and Natural Science students using a problem-based learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough L. Nowrouzian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Teamwork has become an integral part of most organisations today, and it is clearly important in Science and other disciplines. In Science, research teams increase in size while the number of single-authored papers and patents decline. Team-work in laboratory sciences permits projects that are too big or complex for one individual to be tackled. This development requires that students gain experience of team-work before they start their professional career. Students working in teams this may increase productivity, confidence, innovative capacity and improvement of interpersonal skills. Problem-based learning (PBL is an instructional approach focusing on real analytical problems as a means of training an analytical scientist. PBL may have a positive impact on team-work skills that are important for undergraduates and postgraduates to enable effective collaborative work. This survey of the current literature explores the development of the team-work skills in Biomedical Science students using PBL.

  4. Virtually Shaping the Future of Polar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeseman, J. L.; Koldunov, N. V.; Jochum, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere that started as a result of the International Polar Year (IPY). APECS is leading the way for virtual communication of polar research through several activities: an online Polar Literature Discussion Forum, a Virtual Poster Session, and Communication beyond the conference setting. APECS has created an extensive online discussion forum where researchers share both classic and cutting-edge literature articles and critique techniques that were used by authors, helping to improve methods as well as discover new ways to approach polar research questions. Many researchers present their results as posters at conferences. APECS has taken this process to a new level by creating a format to display previously presented posters online instead of these files simply sitting on a researcher’s hard-drive. Not only are the posters online, a monthly conference call open to hundreds of participants allows researchers to share their work with a new audience - fellow researchers, community members, potential colleagues, policy makers and educators. These calls are recorded and archived online so the next time someone visits the poster, they can hear the researcher describe their work and communicate with the researcher questions they may have, potential ways to collaborate or share different methodologies to improve future endeavors. Peer-reviewed literature articles are the currency of science and APECS has capitalized on this by creating a way for researchers to increase the exposure of their publications beyond the table of contents published by journals. The Polar Literature Discussion Forum is a new way for researchers to share their papers, as well as discuss classic articles. This has become a popular

  5. Improving Geoscience Education through the PolarTREC Teacher Research Experience Model (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Timm, K.; Larson, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Teacher Research Experiences (TRE’s) are not new. For more than a decade, the National Science Foundation (NSF) as well as other federal agencies have been funding programs that place teachers with researchers in efforts to invigorate science education by bringing educators and researchers together through hands-on experiences. Many of the TRE’s are successful in providing a hands-on field experience for the teachers and researchers however many of the programs lack the resources to continue the collaborations and support the growing network of teachers that have had these field experiences. In 2007, NSF provided funding for PolarTREC—Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS). PolarTREC is a TRE where K-12 teachers participate in polar field research, working closely with scientists as a pathway to improving science education. In just three years, it has become a successful TRE. What makes PolarTREC different than other the teacher research experience programs and how can others benefit from what we have learned? During this presentation, we will share data collected through the program evaluation and on how PolarTREC contributes to the discipline of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and pedagogy through a model program conceived and organized according to current best practices, such as pre-research training, mentoring, support for classroom transfer, and long-term access to resources and support. Data shows that PolarTREC’s comprehensive program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes in key areas including amount of time spent in school exploring research activities, importance of understanding science for future work, importance of understanding the polar regions as a person

  6. Hygiene at Work: An Engineering Perspective on the Development of Hygiene Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Pityn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article examines the work of contemporary hygiene practitioners. Discussion converges from a broad examination of hygiene at work in our society serving the common good to occupational hygiene in the workplace. The article considers the expanding role of hygiene today, juxtaposed against the lack of awareness and perceptions of hygiene. It considers some of the current social challenges facing hygiene, perceptions of risk and problems specifically encountered by occupational hygienists.

  7. Where civics meets science: building science for the public good through Civic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlick, J A; Levine, P

    2017-09-01

    Public understanding of science and civic engagement on science issues that impact contemporary life matter more today than ever. From the Planned Parenthood controversy, to the Flint water crisis and the fluoridation debate, societal polarization about science issues has reached dramatic levels that present significant obstacles to public discussion and problem solving. This is happening, in part, because systems built to support science do not often reward open-minded thinking, inclusive dialogue, and moral responsibility regarding science issues. As a result, public faith in science continues to erode. This review explores how the field of Civic Science can impact public work on science issues by building new understanding of the practices, influences, and cultures of science. Civic Science is defined as a discipline that considers science practice and knowledge as resources for civic engagement, democratic action, and political change. This review considers how Civic Science informs the roles that key participants-scientists, public citizens and institutions of higher education-play in our national science dialogue. Civic Science aspires to teach civic capacities, to inform the responsibilities of scientists engaged in public science issues and to inspire an open-minded, inclusive dialogue where all voices are heard and shared commitments are acknowledged. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Graphics of polar figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  9. Carbon nanotube fiber terahertz polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, Ahmed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Young, Colin C. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Heimbeck, Martin S. [Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Everitt, Henry O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Pasquali, Matteo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kono, Junichiro, E-mail: kono@rice.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2016-04-04

    Conventional, commercially available terahertz (THz) polarizers are made of uniformly and precisely spaced metallic wires. They are fragile and expensive, with performance characteristics highly reliant on wire diameters and spacings. Here, we report a simple and highly error-tolerant method for fabricating a freestanding THz polarizer with nearly ideal performance, reliant on the intrinsically one-dimensional character of conduction electrons in well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The polarizer was constructed on a mechanical frame over which we manually wound acid-doped CNT fibers with ultrahigh electrical conductivity. We demonstrated that the polarizer has an extinction ratio of ∼−30 dB with a low insertion loss (<0.5 dB) throughout a frequency range of 0.2–1.1 THz. In addition, we used a THz ellipsometer to measure the Müller matrix of the CNT-fiber polarizer and found comparable attenuation to a commercial metallic wire-grid polarizer. Furthermore, based on the classical theory of light transmission through an array of metallic wires, we demonstrated the most striking difference between the CNT-fiber and metallic wire-grid polarizers: the latter fails to work in the zero-spacing limit, where it acts as a simple mirror, while the former continues to work as an excellent polarizer even in that limit due to the one-dimensional conductivity of individual CNTs.

  10. [The work of Hernandez and its repercussions in the natural sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Peláez, R

    1995-01-01

    The most important source of knowledge and diffusion of the great American work from Hernández, was carried out starting from the selection and summary produced by the Napolitan physician Nardo Antonio Recchi. Starting from his manuscript they published the Rerum Medicarum Novai Hispaniae Thesaurus (Rome 1651), piece prepared by the Accademia dei Lincei, and the four Books of Nature (Mexico, 1615), carried out by Brother Francisco Ximénez with the intention--intention that also had Recchi--of having a practical handbook of medicine utilizing the American products. This paper treats, essentially, of those works.

  11. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    green revolution". — seemed to confirm the value of science and technology to international development. Yet studies showed that, at that time, only about two percent of ... gap in science and technology between the Third World and the industrial- ..... Finance; Treasury Board; Industry, Trade and Commerce; Agriculture;.

  12. Climate Comics: polar research in a cartoon form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courville, Z.; Carbaugh, S.; Defrancis, G.; Donegan, R.; Brown, C.; Perovich, D. K.; Richter-Menge, J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate Comics is a collaborative outreach effort between the Montshire Museum of Science, in Norwich, VT, the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) research staff, and freelance artist and recent graduate of the Center for Cartoon Studies in White River Junction, VT, Sam Carbaugh. The project involves the cartoonist, the education staff from the museum, and researchers from CRREL creating a series of comic books with polar science and research themes, including sea ice monitoring, sea ice albedo, ice cores, extreme microbial activity, and stories and the process of fieldwork. The aim of the comic series is to provide meaningful science information in a comic-format that is both informative and fun, while highlighting current polar research work done at the lab. The education staff at the Montshire Museum develops and provides a series of hands-on, inquiry-based activity descriptions to complement each comic book, and CRREL researchers provide science background information and reiterative feedback about the comic books as they are being developed. Here, we present the motivation for using the comic-book medium to present polar research topics, the process involved in creating the comics, some unique features of the series, and the finished comic books themselves. Cartoon illustrating ways snow pack can be used to determine past climate information.

  13. Science-Based Prevention Through Communities That Care: A Model of Social Work Practice for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Kevin P.; Shapiro, Valerie B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a public health orientation to drug and alcohol abuse prevention; reviews the state of the science underlying a risk and protective factor approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention; describes Communities That Care, a community practice model that makes use of this evidence; and considers how this model reflects four important principles of social work practice. The intent of this article is to provide guidance to social workers who support the National Association of Social Work’s intention to make prevention practice central to the provision of alcohol and drug abuse services by social workers. PMID:23731424

  14. The Rudolf Mössbauer story his scientific work and its impact on science and history

    CERN Document Server

    Kienle, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The “Rudolf Mössbauer Story” recounts the history of the discovery of the “Mössbauer Effect” in 1958 by Rudolf Mössbauer as a graduate student of Heinz Maier-Leibnitz for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1961 when he was 32 years old. The development of numerous applications of the Mössbauer Effect in many fields of sciences , such as physics, chemistry, biology and medicine is reviewed by experts who contributed to this wide spread research. In 1978 Mössbauer focused his research interest on a new field “Neutrino Oscillations” and later on the study of the properties of the neutrinos emitted by the sun.

  15. Genomics, "Discovery Science," Systems Biology, and Causal Explanation: What Really Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric H

    2015-01-01

    Diverse and non-coherent sets of epistemological principles currently inform research in the general area of functional genomics. Here, from the personal point of view of a scientist with over half a century of immersion in hypothesis driven scientific discovery, I compare and deconstruct the ideological bases of prominent recent alternatives, such as "discovery science," some productions of the ENCODE project, and aspects of large data set systems biology. The outputs of these types of scientific enterprise qualitatively reflect their radical definitions of scientific knowledge, and of its logical requirements. Their properties emerge in high relief when contrasted (as an example) to a recent, system-wide, predictive analysis of a developmental regulatory apparatus that was instead based directly on hypothesis-driven experimental tests of mechanism.

  16. Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

  17. Individual to Collaborative: Guided Group Work and the Role of Teachers in Junior Secondary Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis; Lui, Wai-mei

    2016-01-01

    This paper, through discussion of a teaching intervention at two secondary schools in Hong Kong, demonstrates the learning advancement brought about by group work and dissects the facilitating role of teachers in collaborative discussions. One-hundred and fifty-two Secondary Two (Grade 8) students were divided into three pedagogical groups, namely…

  18. Integrated Contextual Learning and Food Science Students' Perception of Work Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorey, Ranil; Firth, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The expectation that universities will produce graduates with high levels of work readiness is now a commonplace in government policies and statements from industry representatives. Meeting the demand requires that students gain industry related experience before graduation. Traditionally students have done so by undertaking extended work…

  19. Basic Skills Applications in Career Investigation: Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, Communications, Productive Work Habits. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Mary W.

    These materials allow instructors to provide learning experiences that stress the equal importance of academic and vocational education and the personal and social matters related to the work ethic. Instructional materials are provided in 15 clusters: agribusiness and natural resources; business and office; communications and media; construction;…

  20. Providing Research-Focused Work-Integrated Learning for High Achieving Science Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Theo; Charlton-Robb, Kate; Reina, Richard D.; Rayner, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Work-integrated learning has become an integral part of many undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, both in Australia and internationally. Such programs vary in structure, timeframe and discipline type, with concomitant amounts of support, assessment and evaluation. Their value to students, industry partners and higher education institutions,…

  1. Working on the robot society. : Visions and insights from science about the relation technology and employment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Est, R.; Kool, L.

    2015-01-01

    The report Working on the robot society sets out current scientific findings for the relationship between technology and employment. It looks at the future and describes the policy options. In so doing, the report provides a joint fund of knowledge for societal and political debate on how the

  2. Statistics of polarization speckle: theory versus experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on the statistical properties of polarization speckle, described by stochastic Stokes parameters fluctuating in space. Based on the Gaussian assumption for the random electric field components and polar-interferometer, we investigated theoretically...... and experimentally the statistics of Stokes parameters of polarization speckle, including probability density function of Stokes parameters with the spatial degree of polarization, autocorrelation of Stokes vector and statistics of spatial derivatives for Stokes parameters....

  3. Academic Work—Faster, Higher, Further? On the (Missing Proportion of Work to Spare Time in the (Cultural Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Dressel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We make the practices of the academic production of knowledge a subject of critical discussion by focusing on the world of academic work and the academics themselves. Based on interviews with academics in the field of cultural sciences we conclude that with regard to their daily routines, their annual schedules, and their life-courses the so-called private life (family life, leisure time etc. becomes dominated by the social and cultural logics of the working sphere. Although it might appear exaggerated, we will refer to the humanities as a "total institution" which entails social, physical, and mental costs for its "inmates" as well as for those who never managed to become "inmates" (in spite of their efforts and those who don’t belong to the institution any more. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801385

  4. Cross-disciplinary working in the sciences and humanities: historical data rescue activities in Southeast Asia and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Williamson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper argues that more work is needed to facilitate cross-disciplinary collaborations by scholars across the physical sciences and humanities to improve Data Rescue Activities (DARE. Debate over the scale and potential impact of anthropogenic global warming is one of the dominant narratives of the twenty-first century. Predicting future climates and determining how environment and society might be affected by climate change are global issues of social, economic and political importance. They require responses from different research communities and necessitate closer inter-disciplinary working relationships for an integrated approach. Improving the datasets required for long-term climate models is an important part of this process. Establishing a multi-disciplinary dialogue and approach to DARE activities is increasingly being recognised as the best way to achieve this. This paper focuses on the recovery of the long-term instrumental weather observations used for models and reconstructions of the climate over the past two-hundred years. Written from the perspective of an historian working in the field, it does not seek to explore the reconstructions themselves but the process of data gathering, advocating a closer working relationship between the arts, social sciences, and sciences to extend the geographic and temporal coverage of extant datasets. This is especially important for regions where data gaps exist currently. First, it will offer a justification for extending data recovery activities for Southeast Asia and the China Seas region. Second, it will offer a brief overview of the data recovery projects currently operating in that area and the typesof historic source material that are used. Third, it will explore the work currently being undertaken for Southeast Asia and China under the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth initiative as an example of a successful cross-disciplinary program. Finally, it will

  5. Cross-disciplinary working in the sciences and humanities: historical data rescue activities in Southeast Asia and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Fiona

    2016-12-01

    This paper argues that more work is needed to facilitate cross-disciplinary collaborations by scholars across the physical sciences and humanities to improve Data Rescue Activities (DARE). Debate over the scale and potential impact of anthropogenic global warming is one of the dominant narratives of the twenty-first century. Predicting future climates and determining how environment and society might be affected by climate change are global issues of social, economic and political importance. They require responses from different research communities and necessitate closer inter-disciplinary working relationships for an integrated approach. Improving the datasets required for long-term climate models is an important part of this process. Establishing a multi-disciplinary dialogue and approach to DARE activities is increasingly being recognised as the best way to achieve this. This paper focuses on the recovery of the long-term instrumental weather observations used for models and reconstructions of the climate over the past two-hundred years. Written from the perspective of an historian working in the field, it does not seek to explore the reconstructions themselves but the process of data gathering, advocating a closer working relationship between the arts, social sciences, and sciences to extend the geographic and temporal coverage of extant datasets. This is especially important for regions where data gaps exist currently. First, it will offer a justification for extending data recovery activities for Southeast Asia and the China Seas region. Second, it will offer a brief overview of the data recovery projects currently operating in that area and the typesof historic source material that are used. Third, it will explore the work currently being undertaken for Southeast Asia and China under the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth initiative as an example of a successful cross-disciplinary program. Finally, it will argue the importance of

  6. Summary Report of Finding of the Decision Science Working Group (DSWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Progress & Challenges” • Dr. Jean MacMillan (Aptima), “Theory and Models: Command and Control Teams” • Dr. Laurel Allender (ARL), “Computing Cognition...MacMillan Aptima Dr. Laurel Allender Army Research Laboratory – HRED Dr. Richard Deckro AFIT/ENS Prof. Eduardo Salas Univ of Central Florida Dr...Sundstrom, G. A. and Salvador , A. C. (1995) Integrating field work in system design: a methodology and two case studies. IEEE Transactions on Systems

  7. Thieving Trendy Tech for EPO: Making the Mainstream work for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, P. L.

    2005-12-01

    At least once a week the words podcast, blog, and wiki creep into the news, high-lighting where some pundit is preaching politics in podcasts and where some group of restless foreign rebels is sharing stories of strife via blogs. Wikis are where techy words are written out for the tech unsavvy and where the common man finds his encyclopedia listing for the MGM Lion. Taken together, these three new technological trends are taking over how we get our news and how our world is defined. In this talk, public outreach and educational examples of podcasting, blogging, and wikis will be presented and available free software will be reviewed. Learn how you to can get your words read by the populous at no cost to you, and how to get your voice heard by tens of thousands for with US\\$100 of equipment and the cost of one high speed internet connection. Also learn how to find up-to-date documentation on these subjects and much much more using wikis. As a specific example, we will be demonstrating how the MIT Educational Studies Program uses a wiki to document how their programs are run, how they allow their students to journal and share their program experiences through Podcasting, and how they plan to promote their programs and science outreach through blogging.

  8. Climate Science in Social Media: What's Worked, and What Hasn't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, P.

    2015-12-01

    A common conception of social media is that the definition of success is a huge number of viewers and followers. While these outcomes not undesirable, they are not the only signs of success. More important than the size of the audience, is how well that audience follows and in turn, propagates the desired message. Dark Snow project has been successful in driving a global conversation about the Greenland ice sheet, not by creating huge numbers of viewers and followers, but due to a significant, and highly motivated, following among media gatekeepers, academic messengers, and social media activists. It's very important that, from the start, the Dark Snow story - that changes in ice sheet albedo may be driving increased melt, was effectively encoded, or "branded", in the project's name - "Dark Snow" - a vivid and easily illustrated visual image. A simple concept that is easy to describe and understand, but profound in implication, has allowed for wide discussion among professionals in science and media, as well as the general public.

  9. Encouraging Girls into Science and Technology with Feminine Role Model: Does This Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Yael M.

    2014-08-01

    This study examines the effect of a program that aimed to encourage girls to choose a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career in Israel. The program involved school visits to a high-tech company and meeting with role model female scientists. Sixty ninth-grade female students from a Jewish modern-orthodox single-sex secondary school in the same city as the company participated in the study. The control group contained 30 girls from the same classes who did not participate in the program. Data were collected through pre-post questionnaires, observations, and focus group interviews. It was analyzed for three main themes: perceptions of scientists and engineers, capability of dealing with STEM, and future career choice. Findings indicated respect toward the women scientists as being smart and creative, but significant negative change on the perceptions of women scientists/engineers, the capability of dealing with STEM, and the STEM career choices. Possible causes for these results are discussed, as well as implications for education.

  10. When citizens and scientists work together : a french collaborative science network on earthworms communities distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernion, Muriel; Hoeffner, Kevin; Guillocheau, Sarah; Hotte, Hoël; Cylly, Daniel; Piron, Denis; Cluzeau, Daniel; Hervé, Morgane; Nicolai, Annegret; Pérès, Guénola

    2017-04-01

    Scientists have become more and more interested in earthworms because of their impact on soil functioning and their importance in provision of many ecosystem services. To improve the knowledge on soil biodiversity and integrate earthworms in soil quality diagnostics, it appeared necessary to gain a large amount of data on their distribution. The University of Rennes 1 developed since 2011 a collaborative science project called Observatoire Participatif des Vers de Terre (OPVT, participative earthworm observatory). It has several purposes : i) to offer a simple tool for soil biodiversity evaluation in natural and anthropic soils through earthworm assessment, ii) to offer trainings to farmers, territory managers, gardeners, pupils on soil ecology, iii) to build a database of reference values on earthworms in different habitats, iv) to propose a website (https://ecobiosoil.univ-rennes1.fr/OPVT_accueil.php) providing for example general scientific background (earthworm ecology and impacts of soil management), sampling protocols and online visualization of results (data processing and earthworms mapping). Up to now, more than 5000 plots have been prospected since the opening of the project in 2011., Initially available to anyone on a voluntary basis, this project is also used by the French Ministry of Agriculture to carry out a scientific survey throughout the French territory.

  11. On polarization in biomembranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchi, Karis Amata

    close to physiological conditions, making these effects biologically relevant. In this work, we consider the case of asymmetric membranes which can display spontaneous polarization in the absence of a field. Close to the phase transition, we find that the membrane displays piezoelectric, flexoelectric...... on different geometries point in the direction of a flexoelectric mechanism behind current rectification in lipid bilayers. Finally, we suggest that our updated equivalent circuit should be included in the interpretation of elctrophysiological data....

  12. White Paper on the Status and Future of Ground-based Gamma-Ray Astronomy - Extragalactic Science Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczynski, H.; Coppi, P.; Dermer, C.; Dwek, E.; Georganopoulos, M.; Horan, D.; Jones, T.; Krennrich, F.; Mukherjee, R.; Perlman, E.; Vassiliev, V.

    2007-04-01

    In fall 2006, the Division of Astrophysics of the American Physical Society requested a white paper about the status and future of ground based gamma-ray astronomy. The white paper will largely be written in the year 2007. Interested scientists are invited to join the science working groups. In this contribution, we will report on some preliminary results of the extragalactic science working group. We will discuss the potential of future ground based gamma-ray experiments to elucidate how supermassive black holes accrete matter, form jets, and accelerate particles, and to study in detail the acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays in extragalactic systems like infrared galaxies and galaxy clusters. Furthermore, we discuss avenues to constrain the spectrum of the extragalactic infrared to optical background radiation, and to measure the extragalactic magnetic fields based on gamma-ray observations. Eventually, we discuss the potential of ground based experiments for conducting gamma-ray source surveys. More information about the white paper can be found at: http://cherenkov.physics.iastate.edu/wp/

  13. The role and working conditions of Movement Science students employed in sport and recreational facilities: An Italian multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallè, Francesca; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Arpesella, Marisa; Bacci, Silvia; Bianco, Antonino; Brandi, Giorgio; Bruno, Stefania; Anastasi, Daniela; Carraro, Elisabetta; Flacco, Maria Elena; Giampaoli, Saverio; Izzotti, Alberto; Leoni, Erica; Bertoncello, Chiara; Minelli, Liliana; Napoli, Christian; Nobile, Carmelo; Pasquarella, Cesira; Liguori, Giorgio; Romano Spica, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, students from Movement Science (MS) Degree Courses often work in sport and recreational facilities before graduation. The employment conditions of Movement Science students working in sport/recreational facilities were investigated, and the management and structural features of the facilities were evaluated, including safety policies. Regional differences were also considered. Questionnaires were administered to undergraduate and graduate students (N = 4,217) in 17 Universities. Students' perceptions of the quality of the facilities where they had been employed was evaluated using multivariate analysis. A latent class model with covariates was used to evaluate how variables relating to participants, employment facilities or regions influence their opinions. A high proportion of MS students were employed in sporting facilities (undergraduate level: 33% ; graduate level: 55%), in most cases without any formal employment contracts. Both the structural and hygienic features, as well as the professional knowledge of the staff, were considered good to excellent by the majority of participants (about 70%). Communication of the basic behavioral rules was considered adequate by 61-63% of undergraduate students and 71-75% of graduate students, while nearly half of the participants were dissatisfied with the staff safety training. Correlations between the perceived good structural/hygienic conditions, the presence of regulations and training programs for the staff were investigated. Differences regarding occupational level and safety training among different regions of Italy were also observed. Italian students in Movement Science were easily employed in sport/recreational facilities, but frequently without a formal contract. This is a consequence of the lack of specific regulations in the field of recreational/leisure employment and could have negative implications, especially in terms of safety.

  14. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. [Science and nation: romanticism and natural history in the works of E. J. da Silva Maia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, L

    1998-01-01

    The works of physician and naturalist Emílio Joaquim da Silva Maia (1808-59) can be viewed as a scientific project that discovers Brazil and its inhabitants. Maia's nationalism and his romantic view of nature formed the underpinnings of his scientific theories, especially his studies on zoological geography. He subordinated the issue of the biological specificity of different regions of the world to his era's debates on the construction of Brazil as an independent nation. In his interpretations of European natural history, Maia endeavored to understand Brazilian nature as a specific achievement of the Cosmos, in keeping with Alexander von Humboldt's approach.

  16. Zur Rolle von Plansprachen im terminologiewissenschaftlichen Werk von Eugen Wuster (The Role of Planned Languages in Eugen Wuster's Work on Terminology Science).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Detlev

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between planned languages and specialized technical languages, with particular reference to Esperanto, and analyzes its significance for several aspects of Eugen Wuster's (the founder of terminology science) work. (Author/VWL)

  17. Guided Science Inquiry Instruction with Students with Special Education Needs. R2Ed Working Paper 2015-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew S.; Kunz, Gina M.; Whitham, Rebekah; Houston, Jim; Nugent, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    National and state educational mandates require students achieve proficiency in not only science content, but also "science inquiry", or those process skills associated with science (National Research Council, 2011; Next Generation Science Standards, 2013). Science inquiry instruction has been shown to improve student achievement and…

  18. First policy then science: why a management unit based solely on genetic criteria cannot work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, B L; Dizon, A E

    1999-12-01

    In contrast to the goals of the symposium from which this series of papers originated, we argue that attempts to apply unambiguously defined and general management unit criteria based solely on genetic parameters can easily lead to incorrect management decisions. We maintain that conservation genetics is best served by altering the perspective of data analysis so that decision making is optimally facilitated. To do so requires accounting for policy objectives early in the design and execution of the science. This contrasts with typical hypothesis testing approaches to analysing genetic data for determining population structure, which often aspire to objectivity by considering management objectives only after the analysis is complete. The null hypothesis is generally taken as panmixia with a strong predilection towards avoiding false acceptance of the alternative hypothesis (the existence of population structure). We show by example how defining management units using genetic data and standard scientific analyses that do not consider either the specific management objectives or the anthropogenic risks facing the populations being studied can easily result in a management failure by losing local populations. We then use the same example to show how an 'applied' approach driven by specific objectives and knowledge of abundance and mortality results in appropriate analyses and better decisions. Because management objectives stem from public policy, which differs among countries and among species groups, criteria for defining management units must be specific, not general. Therefore, we conclude that the most productive way to define management units is on a case-by-case basis. We also suggest that creating analytical tools designed specifically to address decision making in a management context, rather than re-tooling academic tools designed for other purposes, will increase and improve the use of genetics in conservation.

  19. Plans in fiscal 1979 for works of National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    In the past 22 years since its establishment, NIRS has engaged successfully in the studies of bodily radiation injuries and medical utilizations of radiation, and personnel training/education. Recently, with the advance of peaceful uses of atomic energy, attention is being called increasingly to the safety research of environmental radiation. Based on the long-term program of NIRS being now revised and on the long-range program of AEC, the plans for fiscal 1979 of the works in NIRS are presented. At the end of fiscal 1979 (of March, 1980,) the total number of personnel will be 419, while the total budgets for fiscal 1979 are yen 3,834.96 million. Contents are divided in the following chapters: basic policy; research works covering special projects and the sections of such as physics, chemistry, biology, genetics, physiology/pathology, injuries, pharmacy, radiation ecology, clinics, and radioactivity investigation; supporting technical services; education/training; and diagnosis and treatment. (J.P.N.)

  20. Thinking about information work of nuclear science and technology in the age of big data: speaking of the information analysis and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tieyong

    2014-01-01

    Human society is entering a 'PB' (1024TB) the new era as the unit of structured and unstructured data, In the network era, with the development of mobile communications, electronic commerce, the emergence and development of social network. Now, a large-scale production, sharing and application data era is opening. How to explore the value of data, to conquer big data, to get useful information, is an important task of our science and technology information workers. This paper tries to analyze the development of the nuclear science and technology information work from big data obtain, analysis, application. Our analysis and research work for information will be increasingly based on all data and analysis, Instead of random sampling. The data 'sound' is possible. A lot of results of information analysis and research can be expressed quantitatively. We should attach great importance to data collection, careful analysis of the big data. We involves the professional division of labor, but also to cooperation In nuclear science and technology information analysis and research process. In addition, we should strengthen the nuclear science and technology information resource construction, improve Information supply; strengthen the analysis and research of nuclear science and technology information, improve the information service; strengthen information management of nuclear science and technology, pay attention to the security problems and intellectual property rights in information sharing; strengthen personnel training, continuously improve the nuclear science and technology information work efficiency and performance. In the age of big data, our nuclear science and technology information workers shall be based on the information analysis and study as the core, one hand grasping information collection, another hand grasping information service, forge ahead and innovation, continuous improvement working ability of nuclear science and technology

  1. Combinatorial Algorithms to Enable Computational Science and Engineering: Work from the CSCAPES Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Erik G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Scalable Algorithms Dept.; Catalyurek, Umit V. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Biomedical Informatics. Electrical and Computer Engineering; Chevalier, Cedric [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache (France); Devine, Karen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Scalable Algorithms Dept.; Gebremedhin, Assefaw H. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Computer Science; Hovland, Paul D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Division; Pothen, Alex [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Computer Science; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Scalable Algorithms Dept.; Safro, Ilya [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Division; Wolf, Michael M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Lexington, MA (United States). Lincoln Lab.; Zhou, Min [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Scientific Computation Research Center

    2015-01-16

    This final progress report summarizes the work accomplished at the Combinatorial Scientific Computing and Petascale Simulations Institute. We developed Zoltan, a parallel mesh partitioning library that made use of accurate hypergraph models to provide load balancing in mesh-based computations. We developed several graph coloring algorithms for computing Jacobian and Hessian matrices and organized them into a software package called ColPack. We developed parallel algorithms for graph coloring and graph matching problems, and also designed multi-scale graph algorithms. Three PhD students graduated, six more are continuing their PhD studies, and four postdoctoral scholars were advised. Six of these students and Fellows have joined DOE Labs (Sandia, Berkeley), as staff scientists or as postdoctoral scientists. We also organized the SIAM Workshop on Combinatorial Scientific Computing (CSC) in 2007, 2009, and 2011 to continue to foster the CSC community.

  2. Polarimetry with azimuthally polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sande, Juan Carlos González; Piquero, Gemma; Santarsiero, Massimo

    2018-03-01

    Nonuniformly polarized light can be used for Mueller polarimetry of homogeneous linear samples. In this work, a set up based on using azimuthally polarized input light and a modified commercial light polarimeter is proposed and developed. With this set up, a Mueller submatrix of a sample can be obtained by measuring the Stokes parameters at only three different positions across the output beam section. Symmetry constraints for linear deterministic samples allow the complete Mueller matrix to be deduced for this kind of specimens. The experimental results obtained for phase plates and for a linear polarizer confirm the validity of the proposed method.

  3. Science and regulation 50 years hand in hand in radiation safety work in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, Jukka; Mustonen, Raimo; Ikaheimonen, Tarja

    2008-01-01

    The first predecessor of the present Nuclear and Radiation Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) was founded in 1958 to regulate the use of radiation and to study artificial radiation in the environment. In those days radiation was used only in medical and industrial applications and there were also first indications that atmospheric nuclear tests might cause significant exposure to radiation, especially in the Northern Finland. Focusing activities of the new Institute of Radiation Physics, as STUK was called in those days, to these two activities laid foundation for the operations culture where regulators and scientists work together to achieve the optimum level of safety. Since those early days STUK has continued this operations model and developed it to include also other activities. Today STUK is the national regulatory body for both radiation protection and nuclear safety, but at the same time it is a research organisation and an expert body, supporting for instance the national emergency preparedness for nuclear and radiation accidents. This has brought great synergy benefits and given STUK an opportunity to use the limited national resources in the most effective way. This paper describes the main functions of STUK in its fifty years' operation and highlights the arguments favouring to keep regulatory and research activities as close to each other as possible. In today's world nuclear safety, radiation protection, and radiological preparedness and security issues are so closely connected with each other that organisations dealing with them should have comprehensive knowledge about all of them. (author)

  4. About role of 'Nuclear sciences' and other trends of scientific and technological works in innovation development of phenomena and globalization processes in XX and XXI centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifov, P.V.; Azimova, D.S.; Trostyanskij, D.V.; Umarov, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    It is concluded, that just successful development of scientific and technological works in the field 'Nuclear Sciences' results economy advantages for USA and some West countries compared with USSR and the rest countries of East Europe. In the following decades this advantage allows to a leader-countries develop with success principally new trends of scientific, technological workings in the a wide-scale sphere of natural, technical, biomedical, and other related sciences. Here soon the USA gap from other world countries was achieved. In the field of fundamental sciences there are such fields: Computer Sciences (1940 and then), Space Sciences (1950 and then), Life Sciences (1960 and then), Computer tomography Sciences (1970 and then). Material Researches Sciences (1980 and then), Internet Sciences (1994 and then), Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies (1999 and then). In the end of XX century these advantages allow to USA to realize two known global innovation initiatives having National character: Ballistic Missile Defense - from 1983, Internet - from 1994, and to declare the third one - targeting to the XXI century - Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies - from 1999. It is noted, that due to unexampled high temps of development of phenomena and globalization in the XXI century the specialists and professionals of Uzbekistan in the shortest time have to learn the newest world experience in order to ensure worthy status for the young independent state in the world developed countries commonwealth in new age

  5. Safety of working patterns among UK neuroradiologists: what can we learn from the aviation industry and cognitive science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicher, John; Currie, Stuart; Birchall, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    As the volume and complexity of imaging in the UK continues to rise, there is pressure on radiologists to spend increasing lengths of time reporting to cope with the growing workload. However, there is limited guidance for radiologists about structuring the working day to strike the necessary balance between achieving satisfactory reporting volume and maintaining quality and safety. We surveyed 86 neuroradiologists (receiving 59 responses), regarding time spent reporting, frequency and duration of work breaks, and break activities. Our results demonstrate that some neuroradiologists report for up to 12 h a day and for 4 h before taking a break. Mean duration of breaks is less than 15 min and these often consist of computer screen-based or cognitively demanding tasks. Many areas of medicine have looked to the aviation industry to develop improvements in safety through regulated, standardised practices. There are parallels between the work of air traffic controllers (ATCs) and radiologists. We review the legislation that controls the working hours of UK ATCs to minimise fatigue-related errors, and its scientific basis. We also consider the vigilance decrement, a concept in cognitive science which describes the reduction in performance with increasing time-on-task. We conclude that, in comparison with ATCs, work patterns among radiologists are poorly standardised and potentially dangerous. Evidence suggests that placing limits on reporting time and minimum break duration, as well as ensuring appropriate break activities, can benefit reporting quality. It is imperative that radiologists and managers heed these lessons, to improve standards and protect patients from error.

  6. Effect of Shift Work on the Frequency of Depression in Nursing Staff of Yazd University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Halvani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression as a disorder is relatively common in all societies; several factors are involved in depression development, that shift work is one of these factors. This study compared the frequency of depression in different shifts of nurses in hospitals of Yazd University of medical sciences. Materials & Methods: This study is a descriptive analytical study. Based on statistical methods, 150 nurses participated in this study. The research tool was a questionnaire that included 15 personal questions and 21 questions related to Beck test. The results were analysed by SPSS software. Results: 13.3% of all subjects were males and 86.7% were females. Results showed that, there is no significant relationship between gender, education, type of job, employment status and satisfaction levels of income with depression. Marital status (P-Value = 0.009 and F = 6.93, shift work (day working and shift work (P-Value = 0.032 and F = 1.11, job satisfaction (P-Value = 0.000 and F = 7.641 and the satisfaction of the employer (P-Value = 0.001 and F = 5.414 were significantly associated with depression. 3.49% of the nurses were in normal status, 7.26% had mild depression, 3.9% required consultation with the psychiatrist,% 7.8% suffered from moderate depression, 75.4% from severe depression and 3.1% from very severe depression. Conclusion: It seems that shift work can not cause depression alone, but depression is the result of the interaction of several factors.

  7. Learning to Work with Databases in Astronomy: Quantitative Analysis of Science Educators' and Students' Pre-/Post-Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwortz, Andria C.; Burrows, Andrea C.; Myers, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy is increasingly moving towards working with large databases, from the state-of-the-art Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10, to the historical Digital Access to a Sky Century at Harvard. Non-astronomy fields as well tend to work with large datasets, be it in the form of warehouse inventory, health trends, or the stock market. However very few fields explicitly teach students the necessary skills to analyze such data. The authors studied a matched set of 37 participants working with 200-entry databases in astronomy using Google Spreadsheets, with limited information about a random set of quasars drawn from SDSS DR5. Here the authors present the quantitative results from an eight question pre-/post-test, with questions designed to span Bloom's taxonomy, on both the topics of the skills of using spreadsheets, and the content of quasars. Participants included both Astro 101 summer students and professionals including in-service K-12 teachers and science communicators. All groups showed statistically significant gains (as per Hake, 1998), with the greatest difference between women's gains of 0.196 and men's of 0.480.

  8. How science teachers' concerns about school-based assessment of practical work vary with time: the Hong Kong experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Derek; Yip, Din-Yan

    2004-02-01

    School-based assessment of science students' practical skills has two important roles--as a complement to written papers in public examinations and as a catalyst for enriching the science curriculum in schools. This article describes a quantitative study of the concerns chemistry and biology teachers experience as they engage in the process of implementation of a school-based assessment scheme for practical work. A 23-item questionnaire was developed to measure five categories of teacher concern: evaluation, information, management, consequence and refocusing. The nature of each category of teacher concern is discussed in relation to innovation adoption and implementation. Data were collected from 400 chemistry and 412 biology teachers in Hong Kong. Teachers' information and management concerns lessened in intensity when they became experienced users of a school-based assessment scheme. However, teaching experience alone could not motivate teachers to think more about the impact of school-based assessment on student learning, their professional development in student assessment and the possible refinements in their school-based assessment scheme. Concerns-based interventions are suggested to help teachers grow professionally.

  9. Science and Mathematics Teachers Working Toward Equity Through Teacher Research: Tracing Changes Across Their Research Process and Equity Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Mary E.; Bianchini, Julie A.; Dwyer, Hilary A.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated secondary science and mathematics teachers engaged in a two-and-a-half-year professional development effort focused on equity. We examined how teachers conducting research on their own instructional practices—a central learning strategy of the professional development project—informed and/or constrained their views related to three strands of equity: teachers and teaching, students and learning, and students' families and communities. Data collected included recordings of professional development seminars and school-site meetings, three sets of individual interviews with teacher researchers, and drafts and final products of the classroom research teachers conducted. From our qualitative analyses of data, we found that most teachers addressed at least two of the three equity strands in researching their own practice. We also found that most transformed their understandings of teachers and students as a result of their teacher research process. However, teachers' views of families and communities changed in less substantive ways. We close with recommendations for other researchers and professional developers intent on supporting science and mathematics teachers in using teacher research to work toward equity.

  10. McGraw Hill encyclopedia of science and technology. An international reference work in fifteen volumes including an index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This extensively revised and updated 5th Edition features contributions by 3000 distinguished experts - including 16 Nobel Prize winners - working with an international advisory board and 60 consulting editors. Thorough coverage is devoted to 75 separate disciplines in science and technology, from acoustics and biochemistry through fluid mechanics and geophysics to thermodynamics and vertebrate zoology. Detailed entries examine not only the physical and natural sciences, but also all engineering disciplines, discussing both the basic and the most recent theories, concepts, terminology, discoveries, materials, methods, and techniques. All of the new developments and technical advances that have occurred during the last five years - in each of the 75 disciplines - have been added to the encyclopedia and are explored in depth. Completely new material deals with such timely and newsworthy subjects as genetic engineering, artificial intelligence, nuclear medicine, desertification, psycholinguistics, industrial robots, and immunoassay. Also covered in extensive entries are such current topics as video disk recording, metallic glasses, acoustic levitation, magnetic bubble memory, gluons, and computerized tomography. The encyclopedia includes more than 15,000 photographs, drawings, maps, charts, and diagrams, shown in full-color, two-color, or black-and-white reproductions.

  11. Data sharing in stem cell translational science: policy statement by the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredenoord, Annelien L; Mostert, Menno; Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2015-01-01

    Data and sample sharing constitute a scientific and ethical imperative but need to be conducted in a responsible manner in order to protect individual interests as well as maintain public trust. In 2014, the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) adopted a common Framework for Responsible Sharing of Genomic and Health-Related Data. The GA4GH Framework is applicable to data sharing in the stem cell field, however, interpretation is required so as to provide guidance for this specific context. In this paper, the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party discusses those principles that are specific to translational stem cell science, including engagement, data quality and safety, privacy, security and confidentiality, risk-benefit analysis and sustainability.

  12. Polarized electrogowdy spacetimes censored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nungesser, Ernesto, E-mail: ernesto.nungesser@aei.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-05-01

    A sketch of the proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this it is seen that the results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.

  13. Science fair: Is it worth the work? A qualitative study on deaf students' perceptions and experiences regarding science fair in primary and secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Vivian Lee

    Science fairs have a long history in American education. They play an important role for establishing inquiry-based experiences in a science classroom. Students may be more motivated to learn science content when they are allowed to choose their own science fair topics. The purpose of this study was to examine Deaf college students' perceptions and experiences regarding science fair participation during primary and/or secondary school and determine the influence of science fair involvement on the development of language skills, writing skills, and higher order thinking skills as well as its impact on choice of a STEM major. This study examined responses from Deaf students attending Gallaudet University and National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) majoring in a Science, Technology, Engineering, or Math (STEM) field. An electronic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview were used to collect data. The electronic questionnaire was divided into two strands: demographics and science fair experience. Twenty-one respondents participated in the questionnaire and ten participants were interviewed. A cross-case analysis revealed communication was the key to a successful science fair experience. Findings showed the educational background of participants influenced their perspective regarding the experience of a science fair. When communicating through American Sign Language, the science fair experience was more positive. When communicating through an interpreter or having no interpreter at all, the science fair experience was viewed in a negative light. The use of science fairs to enhance language development, writing skills, and higher order thinking skills was supported. Teachers and parents were strong influences for Deaf students participating in a science fair. Participation in a science fair did influence students to choose a STEM major but there were other considerations as well.

  14. Precessing deuteron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.; Volkov, V.I.; Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M.; Plis, Yu.A.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the acceleration in the Nuclotron of deuterons polarized in the horizontal plane is considered. This horizontal polarization is named precessing polarization. The effects of the main magnetic field and synchrotron oscillations are included. The precessing polarization is supposed to be used in studying the polarization parameters of the elastic dp back-scattering and other experiments

  15. Developing Dual Polarization Applications For 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) New Weather Radar: A Cooperative Project With The National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, W.P.; Peterson, W.A.; Carey, L.D.; Deierling, W.; McNamara, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar includes dual polarization capability, which has not been available to 45 WS previously. The 45 WS has teamed with NSSTC with funding from NASA Marshall Spaceflight Flight Center to improve their use of this new dual polarization capability when it is implemented operationally. The project goals include developing a temperature profile adaptive scan strategy, developing training materials, and developing forecast techniques and tools using dual polarization products. The temperature profile adaptive scan strategy will provide the scan angles that provide the optimal compromise between volume scan rate, vertical resolution, phenomena detection, data quality, and reduced cone-of-silence for the 45 WS mission. The mission requirements include outstanding detection of low level boundaries for thunderstorm prediction, excellent vertical resolution in the atmosphere electrification layer between 0 C and -20 C for lightning forecasting and Lightning Launch Commit Criteria evaluation, good detection of anvil clouds for Lightning Launch Commit Criteria evaluation, reduced cone-of-silence, fast volume scans, and many samples per pulse for good data quality. The training materials will emphasize the appropriate applications most important to the 45 WS mission. These include forecasting the onset and cessation of lightning, forecasting convective winds, and hopefully the inference of electrical fields in clouds. The training materials will focus on annotated radar imagery based on products available to the 45 WS. Other examples will include time sequenced radar products without annotation to simulate radar operations. This will reinforce the forecast concepts and also allow testing of the forecasters. The new dual polarization techniques and tools will focus on

  16. Polare maskuliniteter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Anne Hauan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper my aim is to read and understand the journal of Gerrit de Veer from the last journey of William Barents to the Arctic Regions in 1596 and the journal of captain Junge on his hunting trip from Tromsø to Svalbard in 1834.It is nearly 240 years between this to voyages. The first journal is known as the earliest report from the arctic era. Gerrit de Veer adds instructive copper engravings to his text and give us insight in the crews meeting with this new land. Captain Junges journal is found together with his dead crew in a house in a fjord nearby Ny-Ålesund and has no drawings, but word. Both of these journals may be read as sources of the knowledge and understanding of the polar region. They might also unveil the ideas of how to deal with and survive under the challenges that is given. In addition one can ask if the sources can tell us more about how men describe their challenges. Can the way they expressed themselves in the journals give us an understanding of masculinity? And not least help us to create good questions of the change in the ideas of masculinities which is said to follow the change in understanding of the wilderness.

  17. Enhancement of molecular NMR signal induced by polarization transfer from laser-polarized 129Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xianping

    2001-01-01

    There is a large non-equilibrium nuclear polarization and a longer relaxation time in the laser-polarized 129 Xe produced by means of optical pumping and spin exchange. The characteristics of the laser-polarized 129 Xe permit the transfer of the polarization to enhance the atomic nuclear spin in liquid, solid and surface of solid molecules. Therefore, the sensitivity in nuclear magnetic resonance measurements for the molecules is enhanced and applications in the investigations of materials and surface sciences are expanded. The progress in the investigations of materials and surface sciences are expanded. The progress in the investigations of the polarization transfer between laser-polarized 129 Xe and the atomic nuclei in the molecules, the relative physics and the measurement of some parameters are introduced

  18. New York City International Polar Weekend at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S.; Turrin, M.; Macphee, R.

    2008-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History, in partnership with Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the Earth Institute of Columbia University and Barnard College, is featuring the International Polar Year through a New York City International Polar Weekend (NYC-IPW) in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The event showcases current polar research, polar environmental changes, history and culture during two days of family programs and activities, performances, and lectures. The goal of the NYC-IPW is to engage diverse audiences and enhance the public understanding of polar science, in particular IPY research, through close interactions with polar experts. Activities for the public include many disciplines, ranging from the physical sciences and cultural anthropology to music and art, and are presented in many forms, from lectures, panels and films to posters and play. Highlights of the NYC-IPW include: 1) A polar fair for youth and adults, showcasing scientists, artists, and educators who have worked at one or both poles and including many interactive exhibits featuring such topics as life in New York at the end of the last Ice Age, how Arctic sea ice is changing, and life on and under the ice. 2) Performances and presentations oriented towards children and families, including Inuit Throat Singers, Central Park Zoo Theater Group, and a northern lights show. 3) Lectures showcasing current IPY research and addressing such issues as the possible effects of climate change on the poles and the rest of the world, as well as polar poetry, art and film. 4) A partnership with New York City Urban Advantage program for Middle School students in the city to meet with scientists, teachers and students who had participated in polar research and travel. 5) Norwegian Consulate sponsorship of science presenters and Sami performers. The March 2007 event involved 85 presenters and volunteers from 22 institutions, and attracted ca. 3,500 visitors. Approximately 5,000 visitors attended the February 2008

  19. The Large Scale Structure: Polarization Aspects R. F. Pizzo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. The Large Scale Structure: Polarization Aspects. R. F. Pizzo. ASTRON, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo, The Netherlands e-mail: pizzo@astron.nl. Abstract. Polarized radio emission is detected at various scales in the. Universe. In this document, I will briefly review our knowledge on polar-.

  20. A Proposal submitted to Biological Systems Science Division of DOE requesting Participant Support Costs for the Fifth International Conference on Polar and Alpine Microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priscu, John [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2012-11-20

    The 5th International Conference on Polar and Alpine Microbiology (PAM5) was held in Big Sky, Montana (USA) from 8-12 September 2013. This meeting is a continuation of the highly successful meetings previously held in Rovaniemi, Finland (2004), Innsbruck, Austria (2006), Banff, Canada (2008) and Ljubljana, Slovenia (2011), which brought together leading international researchers and students in this field. The objectives of the Big Sky meeting were to bring together scientists, students and professionals to discuss all aspects of cold-adapted microorganisms and the roles they play in polar and alpine environments, to understand the role of these organisms in our search for life on other icy worlds, to address recent developments, and to exchange ideas and experiences on an international scale. The conference provided a multi-disciplinary forum to explore emerging areas in the field and as always, will have a wealth of opportunities for the exchange of ideas and building of collaborations. Funds were requested to help defray registration fees and travel costs of 13 early career scientists. Distribution of the funds were based on the quality of the abstracts submitted.

  1. The busy shall inherit the earth: the evolution from 'hard work' to 'busyness' in modern science and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2006-01-01

    Although 'hard work' and 'busyness' are somewhat similar terms, there seem to be significant differences in the way that they are used. While hard work has always been a feature of complex societies, modern society can be seen as evolving toward being dominated by jobs characterized by busyness. Busyness refers to multi-tasking - having many sequential jobs to perform and switching frequently between them on an externally-imposed schedule. Traditionally, the individual gifts of a successful scientist were mainly in terms of knowledge, theoretical or technical aptitude. But nowadays the successful scientist is often one who has been promoted from hard-work to busyness: an expert in synthesizing a sufficient degree of scientific ability with a broad range of managerial and political skills. It is psychologically tough to be busy, because busyness is a consequence of human beings being constrained by the functioning of abstract social systems. In a complex modern organization, individual psychology is subordinated to inflexible programs of being in specific places at specific times doing specific things - this is both tricky to do well and demanding to do at all. Since people are paid (mainly) to do difficult but necessary things they would prefer not to do, busyness has become a major reason why people are paid a premium salary. In the long-term, many straightforward jobs will be analyzed and routinized out of existence, with the narrowly-skilled worker being replaced by teams, machines or computers. But busy jobs are hard to eliminate because they are those in which it is optimal for a variety of disparate and unpredictable tasks to be done by a single person. Consequently, those individuals who can cope with, even thrive-upon, busyness are becoming indispensable. In future 'the busy shall inherit the earth' (or, at least, the most powerful and highest paid jobs), not just in science but in all major social domains.

  2. Experience in organization of soil science–biogeographical part of educational natural science practical work of students-geographers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Прасул

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the experience of practical field training of students- geographers, defines its role in training geographers, looks at the ways of rational organization of soil science, biogeographic section of natural science educational practices in terms of training at high school stationary practice grounds. The educational natural science practice of the 1st year-students-geographers of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University takes place on the educational and scientific geographical grounds «Gaidary» in Zmiiv district, Kharkiv region. The location of the base allows to explore a typical structure of the Siversky Donets river valley, select a variety of elements and components to form an understanding in students of both the knowledge of the individual components of nature, and the processes of natural complexes functioning as a whole, to introduce the elements of environmental knowledge and factors of anthropogenic impact on the environment. The soil-biogeographical section of practical work focuses on acquiring skills of field research methods of soil and ecological communities by the students; planning of the routes, taking into account the conditions and landscape features of the territory; cameral treatment of the data and samples collected in the field; identification of cause-and-effect relationships of soil and vegetation development. Landscape diversity of the territory in the area of practice allows to study the soil and vegetation within the natural systems of the watershed, its slopes, gullies and gully areas of the floodplain, the first floodplain terrace during 5-6 days of soil-biogeographic section of the practical work through the daily radial routes. During the practice traditional classical techniques of field studies of soils and ecological communities (primarily tab and a description of soil profiles and geo-botanical areas are combined with new, present-day approaches (use of GPS-navigators, GIS

  3. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, M; Baum, G; Doshita, N; Finger, M Jr; Gautheron, F; Goertz, St; Hasegawa, T; Heckmann, J; Hess, Ch; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Y; Koivuniemi, J; Kondo, K; Le Goff, J-M; Magnon, A; Marchand, C; Matsuda, T; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Srnka, A

    2006-01-01

    The spin structure of the nucleons is investigated in deep inelastic scattering of a polarized muon beam and a polarized nucleon target in the COMPASS experiment at CERN since 2001. To achieve high luminosities a large solid polarized target is used. The COMPASS polarized target consists of a high cooling power $^{3}$He/$^{4}$He dilution refrigerator capable to maintain working temperature of the target material at about 50mK, a superconducting solenoid and dipole magnet system for longitudinal and transversal magnetic field on the target material, respectively, target cells containing polarizable material, microwave cavities and high power microwave radiation systems for dynamic nuclear polarization and the nuclear magnetic resonance system for nuclear spin polarization measurements. During 2001–2004 experiments superconducting magnet system with opening angle $\\pm$69 mrad, polarized target holder with two target cells and corresponding microwave and NMR systems have been used. For the data taking from 200...

  4. Change is the only Constant: Community-Driven Questions, Indigenous Knowledge (IK) and Western Science Working Together - A Northern Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmelmayr, R.; Adams, B.; Harcharek, Q.; Pederson, M.; Brower, H., Jr.; Hepa, T.

    2017-12-01

    Hunter observations and many studies indicate that the Arctic is undergoing major changes in duration of seasonal sea ice extent and thickness, extreme weather patterns, more maritime traffic etc. Coupled to these environmental changes are noted changes in animal distribution, in migration routes and timing, in breeding season start, and arrival of new species to name just a few. The continuation of all these changes could negatively impact the rich marine mammal resources that are essential to Yupik and Iñupiat subsistence communities. The North Slope Borough Department of wildlife management community based marine mammal health research program aims to support the families and communities, as they, as in the past, continue to adapt to changing environmental conditions, changes in wildlife abundance and accessibility. Our program monitors the health of animals so we can detect diseases and contaminants early on that are of concern to people, provide veterinary medicine science based information to hunters regarding "healthy" and "hunter concern" catches, and address individual and "big picture" concerns about native food health and food security. Our collaborative work depends on IK and the sharing of knowledge. IK is an existing source of an integrated object and event-based data knowledge system with culturally rooted quantitative and qualitative aspects. It is characterized by built-in routine and periodic updating and comparison within a given spatial-temporal coverage (traditional use areas). It is the oldest on the ground wildlife health monitoring system of the Arctic. Hunters and communities provide in a meaningful spatial-temporal scale rich wildlife information and data on traditional subsistence resources. The IK based interpretation of ecological, physiological, behavioral, and pathological phenomena advances and expands western science based biological concepts.

  5. Teaching Galileo? Get to Know Riccioli! What a Forgotten Italian Astronomer Can Teach Students about How Science Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graney, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    What can physics students learn about science from those scientists who got the answers wrong? Your students probably have encountered little science history. What they have encountered probably has portrayed scientists as "The People with the Right Answers." But those who got the wrong answers can teach students that in science, answers are often…

  6. Engaging Students with the Nature of Science and the Nature of Technology by Modeling the Work of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Jerrid W.; Wilcox, Jesse L.

    2013-01-01

    Just as science education is too often limited to the acquisition of facts, technology education is too often limited to proficient use of technology. Neither of these goals fully realize a robust definition of science and technology literacy. To achieve greater science and technology literacy, students must understand the natures of both science…

  7. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Iwamae, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    Plasma Polarization Spectroscopy (PPS) is now becoming a standard diagnostic technique for working with laboratory plasmas. This new area needs a comprehensive framework, both experimental and theoretical. This book reviews the historical development of PPS, develops a general theoretical formulation to deal with this phenomenon, along with an overview of relevant cross sections, and reports on laboratory experiments so far performed. It also includes various facets that are interesting from this standpoint, e.g. X-ray lasers and effects of microwave irradiation. It also offers a timely discussion of instrumentation that is quite important in a practical PPS experiment.

  8. Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA): Universities, Oceanographic Institutions, Science Centers and Aquariums Working Together to Improve Ocean Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, S.; McDonnell, J.; Halversen, C.; Zimmerman, T.; Ingram, L.

    2007-12-01

    Ocean observatories have already demonstrated their ability to maintain long-term time series, capture episodic events, provide context for improved shipboard sampling, and improve accessibility to a broader range of participants. Communicating Ocean Sciences, an already existing college course from COSEE-California has demonstrated its ability to teach future scientists essential communication skills. The NSF-funded Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA) project has leveraged these experiences and others to demonstrate a long-term model for promoting effective science communication skills and techniques applicable to diverse audiences. The COSIA effort is one of the pathfinders for ensuring that the new scientific results from the increasing U.S. investments in ocean observatories is effectively communicated to the nation, and will serve as a model for other fields. Our presentation will describe a long-term model for promoting effective science communication skills and techniques applicable to diverse audiences. COSIA established partnerships between informal science education institutions and universities nationwide to facilitate quality outreach by scientists and the delivery of rigorous, cutting edge science by informal educators while teaching future scientists (college students) essential communication skills. The COSIA model includes scientist-educator partnerships that develop and deliver a college course that teaches communication skills through the understanding of learning theory specifically related to informal learning environments and the practice of these skills at aquariums and science centers. The goals of COSIA are to: provide a model for establishing substantive, long-term partnerships between scientists and informal science education institutions to meet their respective outreach needs; provide future scientists with experiences delivering outreach and promoting the broader impact of research; and provide diverse role models

  9. System of measurement of proton polarization in a polarized target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnaukov, I.M.; Chechetenko, V.F.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.

    1985-05-01

    This paper describes a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer with high sensitivity. The signal of NMR absorption is recorded by a Q-meter with a series circuit and a circuit for compensation of the resonance characteristic of the measuring circuit. In order to ensure uniform sensitivity of the system to the state of polarization throughout the volume of the target and to enhance the S/N ration the measuring coil is made of a flat conductor. The polarization-measuring system works on-line with an M-6000 computer. The total error of measurement of the polarization of free protons in a target with allowance for the error due to local depolarization of free protons in a target with allowance for the error due to local depolarization of the working substance under irradiation with an intense photon beam is less than or equal to 6%.

  10. NASA Applied Sciences Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Sue M.; Haynes, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's strategic Goals: a) Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of human spaceflight program to focus on exploration. b) Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs. NASA's partnership efforts in global modeling and data assimilation over the next decade will shorten the distance from observations to answers for important, leading-edge science questions. NASA's Applied Sciences program will continue the Agency's efforts in benchmarking the assimilation of NASA research results into policy and management decision-support tools that are vital for the Nation's environment, economy, safety, and security. NASA also is working with NOAH and inter-agency forums to transition mature research capabilities to operational systems, primarily the polar and geostationary operational environmental satellites, and to utilize fully those assets for research purposes.

  11. PIPER: Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazear, Justin; Benford, D.; Chuss, D.; Fixsen, D.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G.; Jhabvala, C.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A.; Mirel, P.; Mosely, H.; Staguhn, J.; Wollack, E.; Weston, A.; Vlahacos, K.; Bennett, C.; Eimer, J.; Halpern, M.; Irwin, K.; Dotson, J.; Ade, P.; Tucker, C.

    2011-05-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in search of the expected signature of primordial gravity waves excited during an inflationary epoch shortly after the Big Bang. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, one sensitive to the Q Stokes parameter and the other to U. Sky signals will be detected with 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers distributed in four rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 100 mK. To maximize the sensitivity of the instrument, both telescopes are mounted within a single open bucket dewar and are maintained at 1.5 K throughout flight, with no ambient-temperature windows between the sky and the detectors. To mitigate the effects of systematic errors, the polarized sky signals will be modulated using a variable-delay polarization modulator. PIPER will observe at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to separate the CMB from polarized dust emission within the Galaxy. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce nearly full-sky maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. I will discuss the current status and potential science returns from the PIPER project.

  12. Bringing Society to a Changing Polar Ocean: Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, O.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental changes in the Arctic and Antarctic appear to be accelerating and scientists are trying to understand both the patterns and the impacts of change. These changes will have profound impact on humanity and create a need for public education about these critical habitats. We have focused on a two-pronged strategy to increase public awareness as well as enable educators to discuss comfortably the implications of climate change. Our first focus is on entraining public support through the development of science documentaries about the science and people who conduct it. Antarctic Edge is a feature length award-winning documentary about climate change that has been released in May 2015 and has garnered interest in movie theatres and on social media stores (NetFlix, ITunes). This broad outreach is coupled with our group's interest assisting educators formally. The majority of current polar education is focused on direct educator engagement through personal research experiences that have impact on the participating educators' classrooms. Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE) proposes to improve educator and student engagement in polar sciences through exposure to scientists and polar data. Through professional development and the creation of data tools, Polar ICE will reduce the logistical costs of bringing polar science to students in grades 6-16. We will provide opportunities to: 1) build capacity of polar scientists in communicating and engaging with diverse audiences; 2) create scalable, in-person and virtual opportunities for educators and students to engage with polar scientists and their research through data visualizations, data activities, educator workshops, webinars, and student research symposia; and 3) evaluate the outcomes of Polar ICE and contribute to our understanding of science education practices. We will use a blended learning approach to promote partnerships and cross-disciplinary sharing. This combined multi-pronged approach

  13. Universals of Word Order in Esperanto. Lektos: Interdisciplinary Working Papers in Language Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair, Robert N.

    The contention that Esperanto is a natural linguistic system is discussed. Research is cited concerning universals of word order, dominant word order, polar type languages, Esperanto as a verb-subject-object language, and gapping in Esperanto. It is concluded that contrary to grammatical tradition, word order is not and cannot be completely free.…

  14. Research results reported by OEO summer (1981) student employees of LLNL working with Earth Sciences (K) Division personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, M. C.; Griffith, P. J.; Kreevoy, E. P.; Turner, III, H. J.; Tatman, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Significant experimental results were achieved in a number of research programs that were carried out during the summer of 1981 by students sponsored by the Office of Equal Opportunity at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These students were working with Earth Sciences (K) Division personnel. Accomplishments include the following: (1) preparation of post-burn stratigraphic sections for the Hoe Creek III experiment, Underground Coal Gasification project; (2) preparation of miscellaneous stratigraphic sections in the Climax granite near the Spent Fuel Test, Nevada Test Site, for the Waste Isolation Project; (3) confirmation of the applicability of a new theory relating to subsidence (solid matrix movement); (4) experimental confirmation that organic groundwater contaminants produced during an underground coal gasification experiment can be removed by appropriate bacterial treatment; (5) development of data supporting the extension of the Greenville Fault Zone into the Northern Diablo Range (Alameda and Santa Clara Counties, California); (6) completion of a literature review on hazardous waste (current disposal technology, regulations, research needs); (7) preparation of a map showing levels of background seismic noise in the USSR; (8) demonstration of a correlation of explosion size with the P-wave magnitude of the seismic signal produced by the explosion; and (9) reduction of data showing the extent of ground motion resulting from subsidence in the vicinity of the Hoe Creek III experiment, Underground Coal Gasification Project.

  15. Research results reported by OEO summer (1981) student employees of LLNL working with Earth Sciences (K) Division personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, M.C.; Griffith, P.J.; Kreevoy, E.P.; Turner, H.J. III; Tatman, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Significant experimental results were achieved in a number of research programs that were carried out during the summer of 1981 by students sponsored by the Office of Equal Opportunity at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These students were working with Earth Sciences (K) Division personnel. Accomplishments include the following: (1) preparation of post-burn stratigraphic sections for the Hoe Creek III experiment, Underground Coal Gasification project; (2) preparation of miscellaneous stratigraphic sections in the Climax granite near the Spent Fuel Test, Nevada Test Site, for the Waste Isolation Project; (3) confirmation of the applicability of a new theory relating to subsidence (solid matrix movement); (4) experimental confirmation that organic groundwater contaminants produced during an underground coal gasification experiment can be removed by appropriate bacterial treatment; (5) development of data supporting the extension of the Greenville Fault Zone into the Northern Diablo Range (Alameda and Santa Clara Counties, California); (6) completion of a literature review on hazardous waste (current disposal technology, regulations, research needs); (7) preparation of a map showing levels of background seismic noise in the USSR; (8) demonstration of a correlation of explosion size with the P-wave magnitude of the seismic signal produced by the explosion; and (9) reduction of data showing the extent of ground motion resulting from subsidence in the vicinity of the Hoe Creek III experiment, Underground Coal Gasification Project

  16. Superconducting polarizing magnet for a movable polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchenko, N.G.; Bartenev, V.D.; Blinov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    The superconducting polarizing magnet was constructed for the JINR (Dubna) movable polarized target (MPT) with working volume 200 mm long and 30 mm in diameter. The magnet provides a polarizing magnetic field up to 6 T in the centre with the uniformity of 4.5 x 10 -4 in the working volume of the target. The magnet contains a main solenoidal winding 558 mm long and 206/144 mm in diameters, and compensating and correcting winding placed at its ends. The windings are made of a NbTi wire, impregnated with the epoxy resin and placed in the horizontal cryostat. The diameter of the 'warm' aperture of the magnet cryostat is 96 mm. The design and technology of the magnet winding are described. Results of the magnetic field map measurements, using a NMR-magnetometer are given. A similar magnet constructed at DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay (France), represented a model for the present development. The MPT array is installed in the beam line of polarized neutrons produced by break-up of polarized deuterons extracted from the synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies (LHE), JINR (Dubna)

  17. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  18. Identifying with Science: A case study of two 13-year-old `high achieving working class' British Asian girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Billy

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth, 'case study' style analysis of the experiences of two 13-year-old British Asian girls from a larger qualitative study investigating minority ethnic students' aspirations in science. Through the lens of identity as performativity and Bourdieu's notions of habitus and capital, the ways in which two girls engage with the field of science is examined. Samantha is British Indian and Fay is British Bangladeshi and they are both 'top set' students in science, but only one aspired to study triple science, while the other desired to be 'famous'. The experiences of the two girls are explicated in this paper, teasing out their experiences and constructions of science. It is argued that cultural discourses of family, peers and teacher expectations can shape students' perceptions of science and education.

  19. States, Earth Science, and Decision-Making: Five Years of Lessons Learned by the NASA DEVELOP National Program Working with a State Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favors, J.; Ruiz, M. L.; Rogers, L.; Ross, K. W.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Allsbrook, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Over a five-year period that spanned two administrations, NASA's DEVELOP National Program engaged in a partnership with the Government of the Commonwealth of Virginia to explore the use of Earth observations in state-level decision making. The partnership conducted multiple applied remote sensing projects with DEVELOP and utilized a shared-space approach, where the Virginia Governor's Office hosted NASA DEVELOP participants to mature the partnership and explore additional science opportunities in the Commonwealth. This presentation will provide an overview of various lessons learned from working in an administrative and policy environment, fostering the use of science in such an environment, and building substantive relationships with non-technical partners. An overview of the projects conducted in this partnership will provide an opportunity to explore specific best practices that enhanced the work and provide tips to enhance the potential for success for other science and technology organizations considering similar partnerships.

  20. Views about scientists and scientific work in the novel Deception Point by Dan Brown: possibilities to insert History and Philosophy of Science elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmo Ernesto Francisco Junior

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the influence of literature on people lives, this study investigates elements concerning views about scientists and scientific work presented in Deception Point, a novel by Dan Brown. Multiple aspects to represent the scientist figure, life and work, emerge from the novel and problematize characteristics that can be considered as a common sense view, or others perspectives based on more contemporaneous philosophical thoughts on science. Reading and analyzing this novel could be an interesting opportunity to insert elements of history and philosophy of science under different focus. This study discusses some elements, from excerpts of the novel, which may become possibilities for debates in Science classes at schools, and in teacher education.

  1. Microwave dispersion of some polar liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poley, J.P.

    1955-01-01

    The chief purpose of the present investigation is the measurement and analysis of the microwave dispersion of some polar liquids. An outline of the problem and a historical survey of experimental work on the dielectric behaviour of polar liquids are given in Chapter I. A number of theoretical

  2. Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA): Universities, Oceanographic Institutions, Science Centers and Aquariums Working Together to Improve Ocean Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, S.; McDonnell, J.; Halversen, C.; Zimmerman, T.

    2006-12-01

    Ocean observatories have already demonstrated their ability to maintain long-term time series, capture episodic events, provide context for improved shipboard sampling, and improve accessibility to a broader range of participants. Communicating Ocean Sciences, an already existing college course (http://www.cacosee.net/collegecourse) from COSEE California has demonstrated its ability to teach future scientists essential communication skills. The NSF-funded Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA) project will leverage these experiences and others to demonstrate a long-term model for promoting effective science communication skills and techniques applicable to diverse audiences. The COSIA effort will be one of the pathfinders for ensuring that the new scientific results from the increasing U.S. investments in ocean observatories is effectively communicated to the nation, and will serve as a model for other fields. Our presentation will describe a long-term model for promoting effective science communication skills and techniques applicable to diverse audiences. COSIA established partnerships between informal science education institutions and universities nationwide to facilitate quality outreach by scientists and the delivery of rigorous, cutting edge science by informal educators while teaching future scientists (college students) essential communication skills. The COSIA model includes scientist-educator partnerships that develop and deliver a college course derived from COS that teaches communication skills through the understanding of learning theory specifically related to informal learning environments and the practice of these skills at aquariums and science centers. The goals of COSIA are to: provide a model for establishing substantive, long-term partnerships between scientists and informal science education institutions to meet their respective outreach needs; provide future scientists with experiences delivering outreach to informal

  3. Unsustainable Growth, Hyper-Competition, and Worth in Life Science Research: Narrowing Evaluative Repertoires in Doctoral and Postdoctoral Scientists' Work and Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochler, Maximilian; Felt, Ulrike; Müller, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    There is a crisis of valuation practices in the current academic life sciences, triggered by unsustainable growth and "hyper-competition." Quantitative metrics in evaluating researchers are seen as replacing deeper considerations of the quality and novelty of work, as well as substantive care for the societal implications of research.…

  4. Impact of "Grassroots on Work" (GROW) Extension Program to the Bachelor of Arts in Political Science Students' Sense of Civic Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paga, Mark Leo Huit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the medium term effect of service-learning program or "Grassroots on Work" extension program to civic responsibility of AB Political Science students. Methodology: This study employed an impact evaluation research design and both qualitative and quantitative. The data on goals and…

  5. System analysis study of space platform and station accommodations for life sciences research facilities. Volume 2: Study results. Appendix E: Work breakdown structure and dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Lowell F.

    1985-01-01

    A work breakdown structure for the Space Station Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) is presented up to level 5. The purpose is to provide the framework for task planning and control and to serve as a basis for budgeting, task assignment, cost collection and report, and contractual performance measurement and tracking of the Full Scale Development Phase tasks.

  6. Development of Environmental Knowledge, Team Working Skills and Desirable Behaviors on Environmental Conservation of Matthayomsuksa 6 Students Using Good Science Thinking Moves Method with Metacognition Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladawan, Charinrat; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate environmental knowledge, team working skills, and desirable behaviors of students learning through the good science thinking moves method with metacognition techniques. The sample group included Matthayomsuksa 6 students from Nadoon Prachasan School, Nadoon District, Maha Sarakham Province. The research tools were…

  7. Polarization and Conflict: Theoretical and Empirical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban, Joan; Schneider, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Recent formal and statistical research in political science and economics strongly indicates that various forms of political and social polarization increase the risk of violent conflict within and between nation states. The articles collected for this issue explore this crucial relationship and provide answers to a variety of topics: First, contributors address how institutions and other contingent factors mediate the conflict potential in polarized societies. Second, this special issue comp...

  8. Emotional and Motivational Outcomes of Lab Work in the Secondary Intermediate Track: The Contribution of a Science Center Outreach Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzek-Greulich, Heike; Vollmer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Students' interest in science declines in secondary school. Therefore, motivating students to become competent and engaged in science topics that are relevant for their everyday lives is an important goal, so they can be better citizens and decision makers with socioscientific issues (e.g., climate change and waste disposal). The present study…

  9. Boundary-Work in the Health Research Field: Biomedical and Clinician Scientists' Perceptions of Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Laberge, Suzanne; Hodges, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Funding agencies in Canada are attempting to break down the organizational boundaries between disciplines to promote interdisciplinary research and foster the integration of the social sciences into the health research field. This paper explores the extent to which biomedical and clinician scientists' perceptions of social science research operate…

  10. Libre: Freeing Polar Data in an Information Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R. E.; Parsons, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    As noted in the session description “The polar regions are at the forefront of modern environmental change, currently experiencing the largest and fastest changes in climate and environment”. Wise use of resources, astute management of our environment, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on natural resource and geopolitical issues require a deeper understanding of, and an ability to predict change and its impact. Understanding and knowledge are built on data and information, yet polar information is scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Rapid change demands rapid data access. We envision a system where investigators quickly expose their data to the world and share them, without restriction, through open protocols on the Internet. A single giant, central archive is not practical for all polar data held around the world. Instead, we seek a collaborative, virtual space, where scientific data and information could be shared ethically and with minimal constraints. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to generate greater scientific understanding, the International Council of Science leads the Polar Information Commons (PIC). The PIC, engendered by the International Polar Year (IPY) and work on the IPY data policy, serves as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information. An international network of scientific and data management organizations concerned with the scientific quality, integrity, and stewardship of data is developing the PIC. The PIC utilizes the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, including establishment of community norms to encourage appropriate contributions to and use of PIC content. Data descriptions (metadata) are not necessarily registered in formal repositories or catalogues. They may simply be exposed to search engines or broadcast through syndication services such as RSS or Atom. The data are labeled or branded as part

  11. Accelerating and storing polarized hadron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1990-10-01

    Polarization hadron experiments at high energies continue to generate surprises. Many questions remain unanswered or unanswerable within the frame work of QCD. These include such basic questions as to why at high energies the polarization analyzing power in pp elastic scattering remains high, why hyperons are produced with high polarizations etc. It is, therefore, interesting to investigate the possibilities of accelerating and storing polarized beams in high energy colliders. On the technical side the recent understanding and confirmation of the actions of partial and multiple Siberian snakes made it possible to contemplate accelerating and storing polarized hadron beams to multi-TeV energies. In this paper, we will examine the equipment, the operation and the procedure required to obtain colliding beams of polarized protons at TeV energies

  12. Characterization of Partially Polarized Light Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Herrero, Rosario; Piquero, Gemma

    2009-01-01

    Polarization involves the vectorial nature of light fields. In current applications of optical science, the electromagnetic description of light with its vector features has been shown to be essential: In practice, optical radiation also exhibits randomness and spatial non-uniformity of the polarization state. Moreover, propagation through photonic devices can alter the correlation properties of the light field, resulting in changes in polarization. All these vectorial properties have been gaining importance in recent years, and they are attracting increasing attention in the literature. This is the framework and the scope of the present book, which includes the authors’ own contributions to these issues.

  13. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live......In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  14. APECS: A Model Organization for Bridging Past to Present and Developing a New Generation of Polar Scientists (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K.; Baeseman, J. L.; Membership, Association Of Polar Early Career Scientists

    2010-12-01

    One of the greatest legacies of the International Polar Year (IPY) is the creation of APECS, the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists. As a grassroots effort, APECS was proposed, formed, and developed by and for early career polar researchers. While the young investigators who founded APECS had talent, ambition, and the desire to make things happen, partnerships with key organizations and experienced leaders in polar science were essential to provide the funding, leadership, and mentorship that has taken the organization well beyond the IPY and to over 2000 members. In four years, APECS has strived to foster the skills of and develop a group of early career interdisciplinary polar scientists through networking and mentoring among themselves and with senior scientists. Through diverse activities including, panel discussions, career development workshops, online seminars, a comprehensive job listing, formal mentoring, meeting travel support, and the APECS Virtual Poster Session, APECS goal is to support the early career researcher being trained to do the science, to become a well-rounded scientist prepared for 21st century careers in science. As part of that training, APECS members are encouraged to participate in activities and training related to science communication, education, and outreach; working with the media; participating in the science / public policy interface; and working with arctic communities and indigenous peoples. During the IPY, APECS members were guest speakers and presenters on International Polar Day activities; they contributed to resources for education and outreach such as the book: Polar Science and Global Climate: An International Resource for Education and Outreach; and they made connections with educators, community groups, the media through in-person presentations, blogs from the field, videos, and much more. Workshops, panels, and online discussions focusing on these activities helped develop the capacity to conduct such

  15. PolarTrack: Optical Outside-In Device Tracking that Exploits Display Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rädle, Roman; Jetter, Hans-Christian; Fischer, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    PolarTrack is a novel camera-based approach to detecting and tracking mobile devices inside the capture volume. In PolarTrack, a polarization filter continuously rotates in front of an off-the-shelf color camera, which causes the displays of observed devices to periodically blink in the camera feed....... The periodic blinking results from the physical characteristics of current displays, which shine polarized light either through an LC overlay to produce images or through a polarizer to reduce light reflections on OLED displays. PolarTrack runs a simple detection algorithm on the camera feed to segment...... tracking accuracy and precision with similar tracking reliability. PolarTrack works as standalone multi-device tracking but is also compatible with existing camera-based tracking systems and can complement them to compensate for their limitations....

  16. Polarization phenomena in few-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzett, H.E.

    1975-12-01

    Recent polarization studies in N--N scattering at and below 50 MeV have provided specific and significant improvements in the phase-shift parameters. High energy investigations with both polarized proton beams and targets have shown unexpectedly large spin effects, and this provides a challenge for theoretical effort to explain these results. Experimental and theoretical work on the three-nucleon problem continues to yield new and interesting results, with the emphasis now shifting to polarization studies in the breakup reaction. On-going work on several-nucleon systems continues to provide polarization data for general analyses, nuclear structure information, or specific resonance effects. Finally, the basic interaction symmetries continue to have unique and important consequences for polarization observables. 17 figures

  17. Polarization Observations of the Total Solar Eclipse of August 21, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkepile, J.; Boll, A.; Casini, R.; de Toma, G.; Elmore, D. F.; Gibson, K. L.; Judge, P. G.; Mitchell, A. M.; Penn, M.; Sewell, S. D.; Tomczyk, S.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    A total solar eclipse offers ideal sky conditions for viewing the solar corona. Light from the corona is composed of three components: the E-corona, made up of spectral emission lines produced by ionized elements in the corona; the K-corona, produced by photospheric light that is Thomson scattered by coronal electrons; and the F-corona, produced by sunlight scattered from dust particles in the near Sun environment and in interplanetary space. Polarized white light observations of the corona provide a way of isolating the K-corona to determine its structure, brightness, and density. This work focuses on broadband white light polarization observations of the corona during the upcoming solar eclipse from three different instruments. We compare coronal polarization brightness observations of the August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse from the NCAR/High Altitude Observatory (HAO) Rosetta Stone experiment using the 4-D Technology PolarCam camera with the two Citizen PACA_CATE17Pol telescopes that will acquire linear polarization observations of the eclipse and the NCAR/HAO K-Cor white light coronagraph observations from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory in Hawaii. This comparison includes a discussion of the cross-calibration of the different instruments and reports the results of the coronal polarization brightness and electron density of the corona. These observations will be compared with results from previous coronal measurements taken at different phases of the solar cycle. In addition, we report on the performance of the three different polarimeters. The 4-D PolarCam uses a linear polarizer array, PACA_CATE17Pol uses a nematic liquid crystal retarder in a single beam configuration and K-Cor uses a pair of ferroelectric liquid crystal retarders in a dual-beam configuration. The use of the 4-D PolarCam camera in the Rosetta Stone experiment is to demonstrate the technology for acquiring high cadence polarization measurements. The Rosetta Stone experiment is funded through

  18. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  19. Science Communication versus Science Education: The Graduate Student Scientist as a K-12 Classroom Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Jeff; Shope, Richard E., III; Terebey, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Science literacy is a major goal of science educational reform (NRC, 1996; AAAS, 1998; NCLB Act, 2001). Some believe that teaching science only requires pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Others believe doing science requires knowledge of the methodologies of scientific inquiry (NRC, 1996). With these two mindsets, the challenge for science educators is to create models that bring the two together. The common ground between those who teach science and those who do science is science communication, an interactive process that galvanizes dialogue among scientists, teachers, and learners in a rich ambience of mutual respect and a common, inclusive language of discourse . The dialogue between science and non-science is reflected in the polarization that separates those who do science and those who teach science, especially as it plays out everyday in the science classroom. You may be thinking, why is this important? It is vital because, although not all science learners become scientists, all K-12 students are expected to acquire science literacy, especially with the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Students are expected to acquire the ability to follow the discourse of science as well as connect the world of science to the context of their everyday life if they plan on moving to the next grade level, and in some states, to graduate from high school. This paper posits that science communication is highly effective in providing the missing link for K-12 students cognition in science and their attainment of science literacy. This paper will focus on the "Science For Our Schools" (SFOS) model implemented at California State Univetsity, Los Angeles (CSULA) as a project of the National Science Foundation s GK-12 program, (NSF 2001) which has been a huge success in bridging the gap between those who "know" science and those who "teach" science. The SFOS model makes clear the distinctions that identify science, science communication, science

  20. Relationships among selected physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers and four variables: Formal reasoning ability, working memory capacity, verbal intelligence, and field dependence/independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Leslie Little

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of selected cognitive abilities and physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers. The cognitive abilities under investigation were: formal reasoning ability as measured by the Lawson Classroom Test of Formal Reasoning (Lawson, 1978); working memory capacity as measured by the Figural Intersection Test (Burtis & Pascual-Leone, 1974); verbal intelligence as measured by the Acorn National Academic Aptitude Test: Verbal Intelligence (Kobal, Wrightstone, & Kunze, 1944); and field dependence/independence as measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test (Witkin, Oltman, & Raskin, 1971). The number of physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers was measured by the Misconceptions in Science Questionnaire (Franklin, 1992). The data utilized in this investigation were obtained from 36 preservice elementary teachers enrolled in two sections of a science methods course at a small regional university in the southeastern United States. Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The following conclusions were reached following an analysis of the data. The variables of formal reasoning ability and verbal intelligence were identified as having significant relationships, both individually and in combination, to the dependent variable of selected physical science misconceptions. Though the correlations were not high enough to yield strong predictors of physical science misconceptions or strong relationships, they were of sufficient magnitude to warrant further investigation. It is recommended that further investigation be conducted replicating this study with a larger sample size. In addition, experimental research should be implemented to explore the relationships suggested in this study between the cognitive variables of formal reasoning ability and verbal intelligence and the dependent variable of selected physical science misconceptions

  1. Graphics of polar figure; Graficado de figura polar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R

    1991-11-15

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  2. Polarized Moessbauer transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the emission, absorption and scattering of polarized gamma rays are reviewed for a general case of combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions; various possibilities of obtaining polarized gamma sources are described and examples are given of the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with polarized gamma rays in solving problems of solid state physics. (A.K.)

  3. Polarized proton target with horizontal spin orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyatova, Eh.I.; Kiselev, Yu.F.; Kozlenko, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Proton target, the polarization vector of which may be arbitrary oriented in horizontal plane relatively to the beam, is developed and tested. 70% value of polarization is obtained. 0.6 K temperature is acquired through 3 He pumping out continuous cycle. 1.2-propylene glycol - Cr(V) was used as working medium. Magnetic system is made in the form of Helmholtz sperconducting coils with working curren close to critical one. Target polarization is measured by NMR technique using original system of proton signal processing

  4. Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines around the Renaissance: How Science and Technique Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pisano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is divided into two parts, this being the first one. The second is entitled ‘Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines around Renaissance: Machines, Machineries and Perpetual Motion’ and will be published in Acta Baltica Historiae et Philosophiae Scientiarum in 2015. Based on our recent studies, we provide here a historical and epistemological feature on the role played by machines and machineries. Ours is an epistemological thesis based on a series of historical examples to show that the relations between theoretical science and the construction of machines cannot be taken for granted, a priori. Our analysis is mainly based on the culture of machines around 15th and 17th centuries, namely the epoch of Late Renaissance and Early Modern Age. For this is the period of scientific revolution and this age offers abundant interesting material for researches into the relations of theoretical science/construction of machines as well. However, to prove our epistemological thesis, we will also exploit examples of machines built in other historical periods. Particularly, a discussion concerning the relationship between science theory and the development of science art crafts produced by non-recognized scientists in a certain historical time is presented. The main questions are: when and why did the tension between science (physics, mathematics and geometry give rise to a new scientific approach to applied discipline such as studies on machines and machineries? What kind of science was used (if at all for projecting machines and machineries? Was science at the time a necessary precondition to build a machine? In the first part we will focus on the difference between Aristotelian-Euclidean and Archimedean approaches and we will outline the heritage of these two different approaches in late medieval and Renaissance science. In the second part, we will apply our reconstructions to some historical and epistemological

  5. Poetry, Nature and Science: Romantic Nature Philosophy in the Works of Novalis and E. T. a. Hoffmann

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisend, Ausma Skerbele

    The nature philosophy of the early Romantic period in Germany attempted to find a synthesis of science and philosophy in a new philosophy of nature. This philosophy was first formulated by F. W. J. Schelling and influenced by the galvanic experiments of J. W. Ritter. Novalis is a unique figure in romanticism since he combines scientific expertise with philosophical insight and poetic imagination. In Lehrlinge zu Sais he explores the significance of nature's language and presents different relationships between man and nature. Novalis thinks that a synthesis of all divergent elements in nature and society is necessary to transform the world. In Klingsohrs Marchen this transformation is accomplished by poetic activation of the physical sciences and by the power of love. After 1800 the romantic movement becomes interested in the problems of subconscious and abnormal psychological states, which are seen as contacts with a more spiritual level of existence. These ideas, expressed in a popular form by G. H. Schubert, provide a rich source of materials for E. T. A. Hoffmann, who elevates the realms of poetry and music in his fairy tales, but sees only negative qualities in science. Hoffmann's protagonists find that love, music, and poetry are the greatest forces in life. The figure of the scientist becomes an evil magician with no regard for human values. The romantic movement failed to unite the values of humanities with the insights of physical sciences. The problem of autonomy isolates both modern science and modern literature from the ethical values of society.

  6. Negotiating the relevance of laboratory work: Safety, procedures and accuracy brought to the fore in science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Lundin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This text addresses the problem of the discrepancy between teachers’ and students’ positions in negotiations about the authenticity and legitimacy of school science activities. The study focuses on the apparent conflicts concerning legitimacy and authenticity when teachers and students bring attention to safety, authenticity and accuracy during issues laboratory activities. The analysed data are excerpts made from video observations in two science classes. Analysis was made using epistemological moves describing how teachers and students make their activities relevant. The result indicates that in the classroom conversation about laboratory practice, teachers sometimes draw the attention to safety, procedures and accuracy to legitimize the activity and how they try to control it. Negotiations concerning the legitimacy and authenticity of activities seem inevitable. Unless understandable agreements are reached, the negotiations jeopardize a successful understanding of the Nature of Science (NOS. Misunderstanding of the authenticity of activities contributes to a reduction of their legitimacy, and undermining teaching of context independent knowledge.

  7. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  8. The "invention" of the working class as a discursive practice and the genesis of the empiric method of social sciences in France (1830-48

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Tomasello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay explores some of the processes through which the ‘working class’ emerged both as a collective subjectivity and as a field of social science inquiry and public policies in 19th century France. Starting from the 1831 Canuts revolt, widely recognized as the stepping stone of the European workers’ movement, the first part retraces the process of the ‘making’ of a social and political subjectivity by stressing the relevance of its linguistic and discursive dimension. The second part examines the emergence of the empiric method of the modern social sciences through new strategies of inquiry on urban misery, which progressively focuses on the ‘working class’ and on labour conditions as a field of knowledge, rights, and governmental practices.

  9. Rocket Science: An Exploration of What Information Is of Meaning to Educational Psychologists when Evaluating Their Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, Cath

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation is a central feature of educational psychologists' (EPs) work. Different evaluation tools have been used in the published literature but a consistent approach is yet to emerge. Informed by Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, this research asks what information EPs find meaningful when they evaluate their work. Six EPs working in a…

  10. Magnetic materials. Tilt engineering of spontaneous polarization and magnetization above 300 K in a bulk layered perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Michael J; Mandal, Pranab; Dyer, Matthew S; Alaria, Jonathan; Borisov, Pavel; Niu, Hongjun; Claridge, John B; Rosseinsky, Matthew J

    2015-01-23

    Crystalline materials that combine electrical polarization and magnetization could be advantageous in applications such as information storage, but these properties are usually considered to have incompatible chemical bonding and electronic requirements. Recent theoretical work on perovskite materials suggested a route for combining both properties. We used crystal chemistry to engineer specific atomic displacements in a layered perovskite, (Ca(y)Sr(1- y))(1.15)Tb(1.85)Fe2O7, that change its symmetry and simultaneously generate electrical polarization and magnetization above room temperature. The two resulting properties are magnetoelectrically coupled as they arise from the same displacements. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Twenty Careers and Classroom Experiences for Teaching Science. Includes: Job Descriptions, Teaching Suggestions and Answers, Work Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrake, Greg

    Part 1 of this teacher's guide contains job descriptions, teaching suggestions/answers, and worksheets for twenty careers and classroom experiences which are designed to be used in teaching science. The following twenty careers are covered: meteorologist, geologist, musical instrument maker/repairman, opthalmologist, astronomer, paint chemist,…

  12. An Easy & Fun Way to Teach about How Science "Works": Popularizing Haack's Crossword-Puzzle Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Iglika V.; Lewis, Kayla C.

    2013-01-01

    Science is a complex process, and we must not teach our students overly simplified versions of "the" scientific method. We propose that students can uncover the complex realities of scientific thinking by exploring the similarities and differences between solving the familiar crossword puzzles and scientific "puzzles."…

  13. From 'knowledge use' to 'boundary work': sketch of an emerging new research programme for science/policy interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Robertus; in 't Veld, Roeland J.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter is about a new agenda for inquiry into the relationships between science and public policy. So far, most research has conceptualised this relationship in terms of knowledge utilisation and downstream impact on the policy process. However, this leads to over-instrumentalisation and

  14. Analogies as Tools for Meaning Making in Elementary Science Education: How Do They Work in Classroom Settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Ramos, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper there is a critical overview of the role of analogies as tools for meaning making in science education, their advantages and disadvantages. Two empirical studies on the use of analogies in primary classrooms are discussed and analysed. In the first study, the "string circuit" analogy was used in the teaching of electric circuits with…

  15. 75 FR 10845 - Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council ACTION: General Notice. Nominations for Interagency Working Group participants. SUMMARY: The Subcommittee on Forensic Science of the National Science and Technology Council's...

  16. Wetlands Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Linda; Blanchard, Pamela Borne

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a biology teacher's search for a cross-curricular project in science, math, history, and environmental science, that would help her students connect what they were learning in the classroom to their everyday life, resulted in an ongoing stewardship project. Working together with the Louisiana Sea Grant College Program…

  17. Coherence and Polarization of Polarization Speckle Generated by Depolarizers and Their Changes through Complex ABCD Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Lee, Tim K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research work on speckle patterns indicates a variation of the polarization state during propagation and its nonuniformly spatial distribution. The preliminary step for the investigation of this polarization speckle is the generation of the corresponding field. In this paper, a kind of spe...... of coherence (DoC). and degree of polarization (DoP) P. The changes of the coherence and polarization when the speckle field propagates through any optical system are analysed within the framework of the complex ABCD-matrix theory....

  18. Science or Science Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefsrud, Lianne M.; Meyer, Renate

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the framings and identity work associated with professionals’ discursive construction of climate change science, their legitimation of themselves as experts on ‘the truth’, and their attitudes towards regulatory measures. Drawing from survey responses of 1077 professional......, legitimation strategies, and use of emotionality and metaphor. By linking notions of the science or science fiction of climate change to the assessment of the adequacy of global and local policies and of potential organizational responses, we contribute to the understanding of ‘defensive institutional work...

  19. Potentiometric titration with polarized electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikryzova, E.G.

    1977-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the works carried out during 1911-75 consideration is given to the present state of the method of potentiometric titration with polarized electrodes. The material is generalized in the tabular form indicating the elments of interest, titration conditions and the objects to be analyzed. The list and classification of the potentiometric titration methods intended for determining organic and inorganic substances are presented

  20. Educational experiences in Chemistry with Adult and Youth: incursions at science, work and ideology and its curriculums implications

    OpenAIRE

    Alceu Júnior Paz da Silva; Luiz Carlos Nascimento da Rosa; Gustavo da Silva Flores; Narendranath Martins Costa

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary setting of huge unemployment and precarization of work has brought to Adult and Youth Education courses an imaginary that secondary education is fundamental for professional qualification and achievement of (better) jobs. The objective of this work is to problematize the Chemistry curriculum according to young and adults interests in order to qualify them to the world of work. For that purpose, we adopted some contributions of Gramsci’s Marxist social theory as methodological...

  1. Asurvey on depression and its related factors in Nurses who work in Namazi Hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jabbarnejad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsThe extensive domains of Nurses' activities and Nursing nature as interdisciplinary science can cause Work pressure and mood disturbance especially depression in Nurses. According to this fact that patient safety was correlated with work place situation and well being of health care providers, this study was aimed to determine Nurses' depression and its associated factors in Namazi Hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.MethodsParticipants in this descriptive cross sectional study were 311 Nurses who work in Namazi Hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. In this research, the data collecting tools were Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and demographic information form. These data were analyzed by SPSS.win 11 software with using descriptive and inferential statistic such as Chi-square and one way ANOVA.ResultsFindings indicate that 41.2% of Nurses are normal and the others suffer from mild (42.4%, moderate (13.8% and severe depression(2.6%.Analyses using Chi-square showed that depression intensity of Nurses who work in emergency ward and critical care units were morethan depression level of the rest(P=0.001. Also, there was significant statistical relationship between depression severity and Nurses' satisfaction of their sleep (P=0.015.ConclusionCurrent Nursing work place situation can cause emotional strain and depression. Thus researchers suggest that Hospital Nurse Offices should be use the psychiatric mental health nurse for consult services and education to nurses about coping strategies and management ofdepressed mood.

  2. Polarity of wurtzite crystals by photoelectron diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Igor; Romanyuk, Olexandr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 315, OCT (2014), s. 506-509 ISSN 0169-4332 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101201 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : wurtzite semiconductors * surface polarity * X-ray photoelectron diffraction * XPD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016943321400066X

  3. Towards an International Polar Data Coordination Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulsifer, P.L.; Yarmey, L.; Godøy, O.; Friddell, J.; Parsons, M.; Vincent, W.F.; de Bruin, T.F.; Manley, W.; Gaylord, A.; Hayes, A.; Nickels, S.; Tweedy, C.; Larsen, J.R.; Huck, J.

    2014-01-01

    Data management is integral to sound polar science. Through analysis of documents reporting on meetings of the Arctic data management community, a set of priorities and strategies are identified. These include the need to improve data sharing, make use of existing resources, and better engage

  4. GDA and EPICS: working in unison for science driven data acquisition and control at Diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, E.P.; Heron, M.T.; Rees, N.P.

    2012-01-01

    Diamond Light Source has recently received funding for an additional 10 photon beamlines, bringing the total to 32 beamlines and around 40 end-stations. These all use EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) for the control of the underlying instrumentation associated with photon delivery, the experiment and most of the data acquisition hardware. For the scientific users Diamond has developed the Generic Data Acquisition (GDA) application framework to provide a consistent science interface across all beamlines. While each application is customized to the science of its beamline, all applications are built from the framework and predominantly interface to the underlying instrumentation through the EPICS abstraction. We will describe the complete system, illustrate how it can be configured for a specific beamline application, and how other synchrotrons are, and can, adapt these tools for their needs. (authors)

  5. Impact of the Diamond Light Source on research in Earth and environmental sciences: current work and future perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, IT; Mosselmans, FW; Shaw, S; Peacock, CL; Benning, LG; Coker, VS

    2015-01-01

    Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years. This paper describes the current facilities available at Diamond and future developments that enhance its capacities with respect to the Earth and environmental sciences. A review of relevant research conducted at Diamond thus far is provided. This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of th...

  6. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-09-28

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  7. Polarization in Sagittarius A*

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Geoffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    We summarize the current state of polarization observations of Sagittarius A*, the compact radio source and supermassive black hole candidate in the Galactic Center. These observations are providing new tools for understanding accretion disks, jets and their environments. Linear polarization observations have shown that Sgr A* is unpolarized at frequencies as high as 86 GHz. However, recent single-dish observations indicate that Sgr A* may have strong linear polarization at frequencies higher...

  8. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  9. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  10. The Learning of Science Basic Concept by Using Scientifiq Inquiry to Improve Student’s Thinking, Working, and Scientific Attitude Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachidatul Linda Yuhanna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was a classroom action research which was conducted intwo cycles, each cycle consists of planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The data used was quantitative data on student observation sheet instruments. The Results of the study which were obtained from the first cycle showed about the students’ thinking skills and scientific works. They were categorized as excellent 18.18%, good 22.73%, enough 52.27%, and sufficiently less 6.82%. As for the scientific attitude with a very active category of 11.36%, 43.18% and less active 45.45%. It has not reached indicators of success, so it was necessary to cycle II. Cycle II demonstrated the excellent category 38.63%, 36.36% good, good enough18.18% and less 6.81%. While the scientific attitude in the cycle II was an active attitude 29.54%, active 54.54%, inactive 15.91%. These results show an increase from the cycle I to cycle II. The conclusion of this study were: 1 learning the basic concepts of science with scientific inquiry in students can be conducible applied.2 Learning the basic concepts of science with scientific inquiry can improve thinking ability and scientific work and students’ scientific attitude. 3 Learning the basic concepts of science with scientific inquiry be able to explore and develop student creativity in designing simple experiments which can be applied in primary schools.

  11. RESEARCH ON THE PROBLEMS OF interaction BETWEEN SCIENCE AND RELIGION IN UNIVERSITY COURSE OF PHILOSOPHY (BASED ON WORKS BY RUSSIAN RELIGIOUS THINKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey I. Belkin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article explores the interrelations between science and religion in the context of shaping integrated world outlook of future specialists in the framework of the competence-based approach. Axiological and ethical aspects of the interaction between the two major branches of human culture are considered using the example of works by Russian religious thinkers: Archbishop Luke (V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky, V. S. Soloviev, N. A. Berdyaev. Materials and Methods: materials and methods: the study employed the method of original sources, i. e. works by N. A. Berdyaev, V. F. Voino-Yasenetsky, V. S. Solovyov, considering the problems of interaction between science and religion. The method of original sources was combined with methods of analysis, synthesis and generalisation. Results: attention is paid to different approaches to addressing this problem over the historical development of human thought. When analysing the works by V. S. Solovyov emphasis is made on the concept of integral knowledge, considering the true knowledge as a result of the interaction of rational, empirical and mystical aspects. Much attention is paid to the interpretation of Archbishop Luke’s thoughts (V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky who advocated theoretically and practically the idea of the synthesis of the knowledge and belief in their inextricable link to the genuine scientific and philosophical works. When discussing N. A. Berdyaev’s ideas the focus is on the critical analysis of the three types of relationships between science and religion, established in human culture: 1 supremacy of knowledge and denial of faith, 2 supremacy of faith and denial of knowledge, and 3 the dualism of knowledge and faith. The article also gives a thorough account of the philosopher’s idea about the synthesis of knowledge, faith and intuition that contradicts traditional approach. The article presents the arguments of modern science about the importance of interaction between religious

  12. Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization and Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) offer a means to explore the universe at a very early epoch. Specifically, if the universe went through a brief period of exponential expansion called inflation as current data suggest, gravitational waves from this period would polarize the CMB in a specific pattern. At GSFC, we are currently working towards two experiments that work in concert to measure this polarization pattern in search of evidence for inflation. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization at frequencies between 40 and 150 GHz from the Atacama Desert in Chile. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne experiment that will make similar measurements at frequencies between 200 and 600 GHz.

  13. Hybrid fluorescent layer emitting polarized light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadimasoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanorods have anisotropic absorption and emission properties. In this work a hybrid luminescent layer is produced based on a mixture of CdSe/CdS nanorods dispersed in a liquid crystal that is aligned by an electric field and polymerized by UV illumination. The film emits light with polarization ratio 0.6 (polarization contrast 4:1. Clusters of nanorods in liquid crystal can be avoided by applying an AC electric field with sufficient amplitude. This method can be made compatible with large-scale processing on flexible transparent substrates. Thin polarized light emitters can be used in LCD backlights or solar concentrators to increase the efficiency.

  14. Harnessing the Power of Digital Data for Science and Society: Report of the Interagency Working Group on Digital Data to the Committee on Science of the National Science and Technology Council

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This report provides a strategy to ensure that digital scientific data can be reliably preserved for maximum use in catalyzing progress in science and...

  15. Health-science students' self-efficacy, social support, and intention to work in rural areas of the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theppanya, Khampasong; Suwannapong, Nawarat; Howteerakul, Nopporn

    2014-01-01

    The Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), like almost all countries, is faced with a shortage of qualified health workers in rural and remote areas. The situation has worsened due to the unbalanced distribution of the health workforce, resulting from a tendency to gravitate to more central areas. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the proportion and associated factors affecting intention to work in a rural area among health science students in Vientiane, Lao PDR. All 403 final-year undergraduate and postgraduate students at the University of Health Sciences (UHS) in Vientiane - the only tertiary education facility that produces medical, family medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, medical technology, and nursing students - were asked to fill out self-administered questionnaires. In total, 356 respondents returned the completed questionnaires, yielding a response rate of 88.3%. Of the respondents, 40.7% (145/356) reported an intention to work in a rural area; 90.0% (131/145) preferred to work at district level; 21.3% reported high self-efficacy, whereas 79.8% reported low perceived social support for working in a rural area. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed four variables were associated with intention to work in a rural area: hometown in a rural area; moderate/high self-efficacy; father having a secondary/high school education; and being a medical, family medicine/dentistry/pharmacy student. To increase the proportion of UHS graduates intending to work in a rural area, improved recruitment of students from rural areas, and enhanced self-efficacy and social support, are required.

  16. Smartphone physics – a smart approach to practical work in science education? : Experiences from a Swedish upper secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Tomas

    2018-01-01

    In the form of teacher didactical design research, this work addresses a didactical issue encountered during physics teaching in a Swedish upper secondary school. A need for renewed practical laboratory work related to Newtonian mechanics is met by proposing and designing an activity based on high- speed photography using the nowadays omnipresent smartphone, thus bringing new technology into the classroom. The activity – video analysis of the collision physics of football kicks – is designed ...

  17. Reaching Across the Hemispheres with Science, Language, Arts and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Zicus, S.; Miller, A.; Baird, A.; Page, G.

    2009-12-01

    Twelve Alaskan elementary and middle school classes (grades 3-8) partnered with twelve Australian middle school classes, with each pair using web-based strategies to develop a collaborative ice-mystery fictional book incorporating authentic polar science. Three professional development workshops were held, bringing together educators and polar scientists in two IPY education outreach projects. The Alaska workshop provided an opportunity to bring together the North American teachers for lessons on arctic and antarctic science and an earth system science program Seasons and Biomes measurement protocols, as well as methods in collaborative e-writing and art in Ice e-Mysteries: Global Student Polar e-books project. Teachers worked with University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) and Australian scientists to become familiar with Arctic science research, science artifacts and resources available at UAF and the University of Alaska Museum of the North. In Australia, teachers received a similar project training through the Tasmania Museum and Art Gallery (TMAG) Center for Learning and Discovery on Antarctic science and the University of Tasmania. The long-distance collaboration was accomplished through Skype, emails and a TMAG supported website. A year later, Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere teacher partners met in a joint workshop in Tasmania, to share their experiences, do project assessments and propose activities for future collaborations. The Australian teachers received training on Seasons and Biomes scientific measurements and the Alaskan teachers, on Tasmanian vegetation, fauna and indigenous culture, Antarctic and Southern ocean studies. This innovative project produced twelve e-polar books written and illustrated by students; heightened scientific literacy about the polar regions and the earth system; increased awareness of the environment and indigenous cultures; stronger connections to the scientific community; and lasting friendships. It also resulted in

  18. The Influence of Compensation and Training toward Work Discipline and Its Impact on the Employees’ Performance in the Research Center of Science and Technology (PUSPIPTEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andhi Bharata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background issues that occured in PUSPIPTEK (Research Center of Science and Technology was the declining of employee performance, low discipline in work such as not obeying the rules, and decreased absenteeism as coming late to the office. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of compensation on, the effect of training on work discipline, the effect of compensation on employee performance, the effect of training on employee performance, the effect of work discipline on employee performance, and the effect of compensation and training to the work discipline and its impact on employee performance PUSPIPTEK. This research was associative and the measurement scale applied likert scale. The method of analysis used was path analysis and the number of samples in this study was 116 respondents. Based on the result, this study concludes that the compensation and training toward the work discipline has a significant influence on the employees’ performance. The empirical findings indicate that in order to improve the employees’ performance in PUSPIPTEK need to pay attention on compensation, training, and work discipline.

  19. Environmental health research recommendations from the Inter-Environmental Health Sciences Core Center Working Group on unconventional natural gas drilling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Trevor M; Breysse, Patrick N; Gray, Kathleen; Howarth, Marilyn; Yan, Beizhan

    2014-11-01

    Unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) (which include hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) supply an energy source that is potentially cleaner than liquid or solid fossil fuels and may provide a route to energy independence. However, significant concerns have arisen due to the lack of research on the public health impact of UNGDO. Environmental Health Sciences Core Centers (EHSCCs), funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), formed a working group to review the literature on the potential public health impact of UNGDO and to make recommendations for needed research. The Inter-EHSCC Working Group concluded that a potential for water and air pollution exists that might endanger public health, and that the social fabric of communities could be impacted by the rapid emergence of drilling operations. The working group recommends research to inform how potential risks could be mitigated. Research on exposure and health outcomes related to UNGDO is urgently needed, and community engagement is essential in the design of such studies.

  20. Terahertz polarization imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Van der Marel, W.A.M.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method to measure the polarization state of a terahertz pulse by using a modified electrooptic sampling setup. To illustrate the power of this method, we show two examples in which the knowledge of the polarization of the terahertz pulse is essential for interpreting the results:

  1. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  2. Discovery of araneiforms outside of the South Polar Layered Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Aye, K.-Michael; Portyankina, Ganna; Hansen, Candice; Lintott, Chris J.; Allen, Campbell; Allen, Sarah; Calef, Fred J.; Duca, Simone; McMaster, Adam; R. M Miller, Grant

    2017-10-01

    Mars' south polar region is sculpted by the seasonal cycle of freezing and thawing of exposed carbon dioxide (CO2) ice. In the Southern Spring, CO2 jets loft dust and dirt through cracks in the sublimating CO2 ice sheet to the surface where winds blow the material into the hundreds of thousands of dark fans observed from orbit. During this seasonal process, it is thought that the CO2 gas also exploits weaknesses in the surface below the ice sheet to carve dendritic channels known as araneiforms. Planet Four: Terrains (http://terrains.planetfour.org) is a citizen science project enlisting the general public to review ~6 m/pixel resolution Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) subimages to identify: (1) araneiforms (including features with a central pit and radiating channels known as ‘spiders’) (2) erosional depressions, troughs, mesas, ridges, and quasi-circular pits characteristic of the South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC) which we collectively refer to as ‘Swiss cheese terrain’, and (3) craters.We provide an overview of Planet Four: Terrains and discuss the distributions of our high confidence classic spider araneiforms and Swiss cheese terrain identifications in CTX images covering 11% of the South polar regions at latitudes ≤ -75 degrees N. Previously spiders were reported as being confined to the South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLD). We present the first identification of araneiforms at locations outside of the SPLD and discuss the implications for the CO2 jet hypothesis.Acknowledgements: This work uses data generated via the Zooniverse.org platform, development of which was supported by a Global Impact Award from Google, and by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. We also thank the HIRSE and MRO Teams for their help in scheduling and acquiring our requested observations.

  3. Educational experiences in Chemistry with Adult and Youth: incursions at science, work and ideology and its curriculums implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Júnior Paz da Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary setting of huge unemployment and precarization of work has brought to Adult and Youth Education courses an imaginary that secondary education is fundamental for professional qualification and achievement of (better jobs. The objective of this work is to problematize the Chemistry curriculum according to young and adults interests in order to qualify them to the world of work. For that purpose, we adopted some contributions of Gramsci’s Marxist social theory as methodological and theoretical tools to investigate hegemonic aspects in which the curriculum is immersed. By analyzing the curriculum as a space of struggle for social hegemony, we conclude that is promising to explore the historical approach of the chemical knowledge as a mediator element of counter-hegemonic educational practices.

  4. Polar Wavelet Transform and the Associated Uncertainty Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Firdous A.; Tantary, Azhar Y.

    2018-02-01

    The polar wavelet transform- a generalized form of the classical wavelet transform has been extensively used in science and engineering for finding directional representations of signals in higher dimensions. The aim of this paper is to establish new uncertainty principles associated with the polar wavelet transforms in L2(R2). Firstly, we study some basic properties of the polar wavelet transform and then derive the associated generalized version of Heisenberg-Pauli-Weyl inequality. Finally, following the idea of Beckner (Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 123, 1897-1905 1995), we drive the logarithmic version of uncertainty principle for the polar wavelet transforms in L2(R2).

  5. Precision Polarization of Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elise; Barron-Palos, Libertad; Couture, Aaron; Crawford, Christopher; Chupp, Tim; Danagoulian, Areg; Estes, Mary; Hona, Binita; Jones, Gordon; Klein, Andi; Penttila, Seppo; Sharma, Monisha; Wilburn, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Determining polarization of a cold neutron beam to high precision is required for the next generation neutron decay correlation experiments at the SNS, such as the proposed abBA and PANDA experiments. Precision polarimetry measurements were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the goal of determining the beam polarization to the level of 10-3 or better. The cold neutrons from FP12 were polarized using optically polarized ^3He gas as a spin filter, which has a highly spin-dependent absorption cross section. A second ^ 3He spin filter was used to analyze the neutron polarization after passing through a resonant RF spin rotator. A discussion of the experiment and results will be given.

  6. Optically polarized 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements. PMID:29503479

  7. Optically polarized 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements.

  8. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  9. Preserving Geological Samples and Metadata from Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, A.; Sjunneskog, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Office of Polar Programs at the National Science Foundation (NSF-OPP) has long recognized the value of preserving earth science collections due to the inherent logistical challenges and financial costs of collecting geological samples from Polar Regions. NSF-OPP established two national facilities to make Antarctic geological samples and drill cores openly and freely available for research. The Antarctic Marine Geology Research Facility (AMGRF) at Florida State University was established in 1963 and archives Antarctic marine sediment cores, dredge samples and smear slides along with ship logs. The United States Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) at Ohio State University was established in 2003 and archives polar rock samples, marine dredges, unconsolidated materials and terrestrial cores, along with associated materials such as field notes, maps, raw analytical data, paleomagnetic cores, thin sections, microfossil mounts, microslides and residues. The existence of the AMGRF and USPRR helps to minimize redundant sample collecting, lessen the environmental impact of doing polar field work, facilitates field logistics planning and complies with the data sharing requirement of the Antarctic Treaty. USPRR acquires collections through donations from institutions and scientists and then makes these samples available as no-cost loans for research, education and museum exhibits. The AMGRF acquires sediment cores from US based and international collaboration drilling projects in Antarctica. Destructive research techniques are allowed on the loaned samples and loan requests are accepted from any accredited scientific institution in the world. Currently, the USPRR has more than 22,000 cataloged rock samples available to scientists from around the world. All cataloged samples are relabeled with a USPRR number, weighed, photographed and measured for magnetic susceptibility. Many aspects of the sample metadata are included in the database, e.g. geographical location, sample

  10. On A Project Work for International Students Paired with Japanese Partners in a Summer Intensive Japanese Program for Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudano, Hiroko

    A project work in which learners of a foreign language engage in a task with the native speakers is one of the effective ways to bring in ample real communication opportunities to a classroom. This scheme also gives both parties meaningful experiences for intercultural understanding. This paper reports a “Pythagoras” machine production project in which international students were paired up with Japanese students as a part of a Japanese for science and technology course in a summer intensive program. Based on the participants‧ course evaluation data, the paper also discusses the effectiveness of the project for Japanese language learning and for promoting intercultural understanding.

  11. Impact of the Diamond Light Source on research in Earth and environmental sciences: current work and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ian T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Shaw, Samuel; Peacock, Caroline L; Benning, Liane G; Coker, Victoria S

    2015-03-06

    Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years. This paper describes the current facilities available at Diamond and future developments that enhance its capacities with respect to the Earth and environmental sciences. A review of relevant research conducted at Diamond thus far is provided. This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral-fluid-microbe interface reactions in the natural environment. This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use.

  12. What works in planetary science outreach and what doesn't: an attempt to create a functional framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Z.

    2014-04-01

    A thorough synthesis of experience from several decades (including 14 years on a full-time basis) of writing in the media and lecturing about the exploration of the Solar System and search for planets of other stars for the general public in Slovakia and in the Czech Republic is presented. The emphasis is given on detailed evaluation of specific feedbacks from readership and audience of various backgrounds and age groups communicated to the author. A list of 10 + 1 main pro arguments is compiled, consisting of reasonings (in addition to scientific or general knowledge/cultural value) like embodiment of our exploratory spirit, colonization, "emergency backup" world or worlds for mankind, comparative planetology as a tool for the explanation and full understanding of Earth's properties, transfer of environmentally unfriendly but irreplaceable (in mid term, at least) technologies to lifeless environments of other planetary bodies, etc. Similarly, a list of 5 main con arguments (like it is wasting of money badly needed to solve a number of urgent social problems, or it is in conflict with valued traditional beliefs) related to planetary exploration or manned and robotic space exploration in general is compiled. A short review of best practices how to counter them is presented alongside. It is demonstrated that one can construct a coherent, balanced framing of planetary science. It assertively supports the relevant efforts in both the general public and special groups involved (for example, enterpreneurs, politicians, members of the media, various activists) while treats the differing opinions and worldviews of critics with respect they deserve. The open conflict, if only in discussion, does not represent any way out. It is counterproductive in both the short-term and the long-term context. In fact, even sharply dissenting opinions often contain some points which can be used, with the help of empathy, psychology and - to be candid - a little, still tolerable dose of

  13. Shift Work and Related Health Problems among Medical and Diagnostic Staff of the General Teaching Hospitals Affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sajjadnia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Today, shift work is considered as a necessity in many jobs and for some 24-hour services the use of shift-work is growing. However, shift work can lead to physiological and psycho-social problems for shift workers. This study aimed to determine the effects of shift work on the associated health problems, together with the demographic and job characteristics underlying the problems, among the medical and diagnostic staff of the general teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Method:This study was an applied, cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical one. The study employed a sample of 205 employees from the medical and diagnostic staff using stratified sampling proportional to the size and simple random sampling methods. Data were collected using the Survey of Shift workers (SOS questionnaire, validity and reliability of which have already been confirmed. Finally, the collected data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 software through ANOVA, Chi-square, Independent-Samples T-Test, as well as Pearson Correlation Coefficient. A P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that among the demographic and job characteristics studied, the individual, family and social problems had significant associations with work schedules, shift work and job satisfaction. In addition, there were significant associations between musculoskeletal disorders and the satisfaction of shift work; cardiovascular disorders and marital status and occupation; digestive disorders and the work schedules; sleep disorders and the satisfaction of shift work; musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular disorders and sleep disorders and age, job experience and shift work experience. And finally, there were significant associations among sleep disorders and age, job experience and the shift work experience. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, demographic characteristics such as age, marital

  14. The Science of Neglect: The Persistent Absence of Responsive Care Disrupts the Developing Brain. Working Paper 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Young children who experience severe deprivation or neglect can experience a range of negative consequences. Neglect can delay brain development, impair executive function skills, and disrupt the body's stress response. This working paper from the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child explains why neglect is so harmful in the…

  15. Student Perceptions of the Value of Career Development Learning to a Work-Integrated Learning Course in Exercise Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddan, Gregory; Rauchle, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Work-integrated learning has become a significant feature of Australian universities over the past decade. Earlier research indicates that some form of career development is essential to prepare undergraduate students for a competitive employment market. The 2008 National Association of Graduate Careers Advisory Services (NAGCAS) Symposium sought…

  16. Understanding the work of general practitioners: a social science perspective on the context of medical decision making in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneau, Robert; Lehoux, Pascale; Pineault, Raynald; Lamarche, Paul

    2008-02-19

    The work of general practitioners (GPs) is increasingly being looked at from the perspective of the strategies and factors shaping it. This reflects the importance given to primary care services in health care system reform. However, the literature provides little insight into the medical decision-making processes in general practice. Our main objective was to better understand how organizational and environmental factors influence the work of GPs. We interviewed 28 GPs working in contrasting organizational settings and environments. The data analysis involved using structuration theory to enrich the interpretation of empirical material. We identified four main factors that influence the practice of GPs: mode of remuneration, peer-to-peer interactions, patients' demands and the availability of other medical resources in the environment. These four conditions of action - what we call primary effects - can directly influence the performance of medical acts and time management, as well as the degree of specialization of GPs. Decisions related to each of those aspects can have a variety of both intentional and non-intentional consequences - what we call secondary effects - that are then likely to become conditions for subsequent action. This qualitative study helps shed light on the complex causal loops of interrelated factors that shape the work of GPs.

  17. Science of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Santo; Bergstrom, Carl T; Börner, Katy; Evans, James A; Helbing, Dirk; Milojević, Staša; Petersen, Alexander M; Radicchi, Filippo; Sinatra, Roberta; Uzzi, Brian; Vespignani, Alessandro; Waltman, Ludo; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2018-03-02

    Identifying fundamental drivers of science and developing predictive models to capture its evolution are instrumental for the design of policies that can improve the scientific enterprise-for example, through enhanced career paths for scientists, better performance evaluation for organizations hosting research, discovery of novel effective funding vehicles, and even identification of promising regions along the scientific frontier. The science of science uses large-scale data on the production of science to search for universal and domain-specific patterns. Here, we review recent developments in this transdisciplinary field. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. Towards an International Polar Data Coordination Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P L Pulsifer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Data management is integral to sound polar science. Through analysis of documents reporting on meetings of the Arctic data management community, a set of priorities and strategies are identified. These include the need to improve data sharing, make use of existing resources, and better engage stakeholders. Network theory is applied to a preliminary inventory of polar and global data management actors to improve understanding of the emerging community of practice. Under the name the Arctic Data Coordination Network, we propose a model network that can support the community in achieving their goals through improving connectivity between existing actors.

  19. Polarization Measurements on SUMI's TVLS Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.; West, E. A.; Davis, J. M.; Gary, G. A.

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of toroidal variable-line-space (TVLS) gratings for the Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI), currently being developed at the National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC). SUMI is a spectro-polarimeter designed to measure magnetic fields in the solar chromosphere by observing two UV emission lines sensitive to magnetic fields, the CIY line at 155nm and the MgII line at 280nm. The instrument uses a pair of TVLS gratings, to observe both linear polarizations simultaneously. Efficiency measurements were done on bare aluminum gratings and aluminum/MgF2 coated gratings, at both linear polarizations.

  20. Polarization Measurements on SUMI's TVLS Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.; West, E. A.; Davis, J. M.; Gary, G. A.

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of toroidal variable-line-space (TVLS) gratings for the Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI), currently being developed an the National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC). SUMI zs a spectro-polarimeter designed no measure magnetic fields in the solar chromosphere by observing two UV emission lines sensitive to magnetic fields, the C-IV line at 155nm and the Mg-II line at 280nm. The instrument uses a pair of TVLS gratings, to observe both linear polarizations simultaneously. Efficiency measurements were done on bare aluminum gratings and MgF2 coated gratings, at both linear polarizations.

  1. Physics with polarized electrons and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    With the advent of electron stretcher or storage rings electron scattering from polarized targets becomes a general new tool for nuclear structure studies. Without such facilities it is necessary to have very dense polarized targets for use with the typical (less or approximately equal 50 μA) electron beams available and very few measurements of this type have been attempted. On the other hand, with electron rings the effective circulating current can be greatly increased. In this case much thinner internal targets may be used while still maintaining the same luminosity as in external beam experiments. In ancticipation of such new experimental capabilities we have re-developed the theoretical basis for discussions of electron scattering from polarized targets using either unpolarized or polarized electron beams. This work takes the formalism of unpolarized (e,e') and extends it in a straightforward way to include general polarizations of electrons, target nuclei, recoil nuclei or any combinations of these polarizations. In the present context it is only possible to provide a brief summary of the general form of the cross section and to present a few illustrative examples of the nuclear structure information that may be extracted from such polarization measurements

  2. Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics at AGU - Strategies and Actions to Impact Sexual Harassment in Science and other Work Climate Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael; Davidson, Eric; McEntee, Christine; Williams, Billy

    2017-04-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), a scientific society of 62,000 members worldwide, has established a set of scientific integrity and professional ethics guidelines for the actions of its members, for the governance of the union in its internal activities, and for the operations and participation in its publications and scientific meetings. More recently AGU has undertaken strategies and actions to help address the issue of harassment in the sciences and other work climate issues. This presentation will provide an overview of the role of scientific societies in helping to address these important issues, as well as specific strategies and actions underway at AGU and other societies. Progress to date and remaining challenges of this effort will be discussed, including AGU's work to provide additional program strength in this area.

  3. Polarization at the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Stanford Linear collider was designed to accommodate polarized electron beams. Longitudinally polarized electrons colliding with unpolarized positrons at a center of mass energy near the Z/sup 0/ mass can be used as novel and sensitive probes of the electroweak process. A gallium arsenide based photon emission source will provide a beam of longitudinally polarized electrons of about 45 percent polarization. A system of bend magnets and a superconducting solenoid will be used to rotate the spins so that the polarization is preserved while the 1.21 GeV electrons are stored in the damping ring. Another set of bend magnets and two superconducting solenoids orient the spin vectors so that longitudinal polarization of the electrons is achieved at the collision point with the unpolarized positrons. A system to monitor the polarization based on Moller and Compton scattering will be used. Nearly all major components have been fabricated and tested. Subsystems of the source and polarimeters have been installed, and studies are in progress. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  4. In-line production of a bi-circular field for generation of helically polarized high-order harmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kfir, Ofer, E-mail: ofertx@technion.ac.il, E-mail: oren@si.technion.ac.il; Bordo, Eliyahu; Ilan Haham, Gil; Lahav, Oren; Cohen, Oren, E-mail: ofertx@technion.ac.il, E-mail: oren@si.technion.ac.il [Solid State Institute and Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Fleischer, Avner [Solid State Institute and Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Ort Braude College, Karmiel 21982 (Israel)

    2016-05-23

    The recent demonstration of bright circularly polarized high-order harmonics of a bi-circular pump field gave rise to new opportunities in ultrafast chiral science. In previous works, the required nontrivial bi-circular pump field was produced using a relatively complicated and sensitive Mach-Zehnder-like interferometer. We propose a compact and stable in-line apparatus for converting a quasi-monochromatic linearly polarized ultrashort driving laser field into a bi-circular field and employ it for generation of helically polarized high-harmonics. Furthermore, utilizing the apparatus for a spectroscopic spin-mixing measurement, we identify the photon spins of the bi-circular weak component field that are annihilated during the high harmonics process.

  5. Breaking the Ice: Strategies for Future European Research in the Polar Oceans - The AURORA BOREALIS Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Thiede, J.; European Research Icebreaker Consortium

    2011-12-01

    Research vessels dedicated to work in polar ice-covered waters have only rarely been built. Their history began with Fritjof Nansen's FRAM, which he used for his famous first crossing of the Arctic Ocean 1893-1896. She served as example for the first generation of polar research vessels, at their time being modern instruments planned with foresight. Ice breaker technology has developed substantially since then. However, it took almost 80 years until this technical advance also reached polar research, when the Russian AKADEMIK FEDEROV, the German POLARSTERN, the Swedish ODEN and the USCG Cutter HEALY were built. All of these house modern laboratories, are ice-breakers capable to move into the deep-Arctic during the summer time and represent the second generation of dedicated polar research vessels. Still, the increasing demand in polar marine research capacities by societies that call for action to better understand climate change, especially in the high latitudes is not matched by adequate facilities and resources. Today, no icebreaker platform exists that is permanently available to the international science community for year-round expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean or heavily ice-infested waters of the polar Southern Ocean around Antarctica. The AURORA BOREALIS concept plans for a heavy research icebreaker, which will enable polar scientists around the world to launch international research expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf seas autonomously during all seasons of the year. The European Research Icebreaker Consortium - AURORA BOREALIS (ERICON-AB) was established in 2008 to plan the scientific, governance, financial, and legal frameworks needed for the construction and operation of this first multi-nationally owned and operated research icebreaker and polar scientific drilling platform. By collaborating together and sharing common infrastructures it is envisioned that European nations make a major contribution to

  6. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  7. Polarized scintillator targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.

    2000-05-01

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as "live" polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  8. Polarized scintillator targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, B. van den E-mail: vandenbrandt@psi.ch; Bunyatova, E.I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S

    2000-05-21

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as 'live' polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  9. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  10. Invited Article: Polarization ``Down Under'': The polarized time-of-flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saerbeck, T.; Klose, F.; Le Brun, A. P.; Füzi, J.; Brule, A.; Nelson, A.; Holt, S. A.; James, M.

    2012-08-01

    This review presents the implementation and full characterization of the polarization equipment of the time-of-flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The functionality and efficiency of individual components are evaluated and found to maintain a high neutron beam polarization with a maximum of 99.3% through polarizing Fe/Si supermirrors. Neutron spin-flippers with efficiencies of 99.7% give full control over the incident and scattered neutron spin direction over the whole wavelength spectrum available in the instrument. The first scientific experiments illustrate data correction mechanisms for finite polarizations and reveal an extraordinarily high reproducibility for measuring magnetic thin film samples. The setup is now fully commissioned and available for users through the neutron beam proposal system of the Bragg Institute at ANSTO.

  11. Wien filter for a polarized ions source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez A, P.I.

    1977-01-01

    In order to carry out investigation works about nuclear structure, the Nuclear Center of Mexico has an accelerator Tandem Van de Graff of 12 Mv. Now in this center there is a polarized ions source, in a setting phase, totally constructed in the workshop of the accelerator. This source, supplies an ion beam with a polarization whose propagation direction is not the adequate one for the dispersion and reaction processes wanted to be realized. A filter Wien was used to obtain the correct direction of the polarization vector. The purpose of this work is the study of the filter necessary conditions in order to reach the desirable objective. In the first part some generalities are given about: polarization phenomena, polarized ions source and description of the performance of the Wien filter. In the second part, the problem of the passage of a polarized beam through the filter is tried and solved. Finally, the design and construction of the filter is presented together with the results of the experimentation with the object to justify the suppositions which were taken into consideration in the solution of the filter problem. (author)

  12. Teacher Education that Works: Preparing Secondary-Level Math and Science Teachers for Success with English Language Learners Through Content-Based Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo Elisabeth DelliCarpini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Little research exists on effective ways to prepare secondary mathematics and science teachers to work with English language learners (ELLs in mainstream mathematics and science (subsequently referred to as STEM classrooms. Given the achievement gap that exists between ELLs and their native-speaking counterparts in STEM subjects, as well as the growing numbers of ELLs in US schools, this becomes a critical issue, as academic success for these students depends on the effectiveness of instruction they receive not only in English as a second language classes (ESL, but in mainstream classrooms as well. This article reports on the effects of a program restructuring that implemented coursework specifically designed to prepare pre-service and in-service mathematics, science, and ESL teachers to work with ELLs in their content and ESL classrooms through collaboration between mainstream STEM and ESL teachers, as well as effective content and language integration. We present findings on teachers’ attitudes and current practices related to the inclusion of ELLs in the secondary-level content classroom and their current level of knowledge and skills in collaborative practice. We further describe the rationale behind the development of the course, provide a description of the course and its requirements as they changed throughout its implementation during two semesters, and present findings from the participants enrolled. Additionally, we discuss the lessons learned; researchers’ innovative approaches to implementation of content-based instruction (CBI and teacher collaboration, which we term two-way CBI (DelliCarpini & Alonso, 2013; and implications for teacher education programs.

  13. Polarization measurement in the COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, K; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Görtz, S; Hasegawa, T; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Le Goff, J M; Magnon, A; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Matsuda, T

    2004-01-01

    Continuous wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to determine the target polarization in the COMPASS experiment. The system is made of the so-called Liverpool Q-meters, Yale-cards, and VME modules for data taking and system controlling. In 2001 the NMR coils were embedded in the target material, while in 2002 and 2003 the coils were mounted on the outer surface of the target cells to increase the packing factor of the material. Though the error of the measurement became larger with the outer coils than with the inner coils, we have performed stable measurements throughout the COMPASS run time for 3 years. The maximum polarization was +57% and -53% as the average in the target cells.

  14. Climate Change 2013. The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - Abstract for decision-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, Thomas F.; Qin, Dahe; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Tignor, Melinda M.B.; Allen, Simon K.; Boschung, Judith; Nauels, Alexander; Xia, Yu; Bex, Vincent; Midgley, Pauline M.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Allen, Simon K.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Breon, Francois-Marie; Church, John A.; Cubasch, Ulrich; Emori, Seita; Forster, Piers; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gillett, Nathan; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Hartmann, Dennis L.; Jansen, Eystein; Kirtman, Ben; Knutti, Reto; Kumar Kanikicharla, Krishna; Lemke, Peter; Marotzke, Jochem; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Meehl, Gerald A.; Mokhov, Igor I.; Piao, Shilong; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Dahe, Qin; Ramaswamy, Venkatachalam; Randall, David; Rhein, Monika; Rojas, Maisa; Sabine, Christopher; Shindell, Drew; Stocker, Thomas F.; Talley, Lynne D.; Vaughan, David G.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Allen, Myles R.; Boucher, Olivier; Chambers, Don; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Ciais, Philippe; Clark, Peter U.; Collins, Matthew; Comiso, Josefino C.; Vasconcellos de Menezes, Viviane; Feely, Richard A.; Fichefet, Thierry; Fiore, Arlene M.; Flato, Gregory; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Hegerl, Gabriele; Hezel, Paul J.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Kaser, Georg; Kattsov, Vladimir; Kennedy, John; Klein Tank, Albert M.G.; Le Quere, Corinne; Myhre, Gunnar; Osborn, Timothy; Payne, Antony J.; Perlwitz, Judith; Power, Scott; Prather, Michael; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Rogelj, Joeri; Rusticucci, Matilde; Schulz, Michael; Sedlacek, Jan; Stott, Peter A.; Sutton, Rowan; Thorne, Peter W.; Wuebbles, Donald

    2013-10-01

    The Working Group I contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive assessment of the physical science basis of climate change. It builds upon the Working Group I contribution to the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report in 2007 and incorporates subsequent new findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, as well as from research published in the extensive scientific and technical literature. The assessment considers new evidence of past, present and projected future climate change based on many independent scientific analyses from observations of the climate system, paleo-climate archives, theoretical studies of climate processes and simulations using climate models. During the process of scoping and approving the outline of its Fifth Assessment Report, the IPCC focussed on those aspects of the current understanding of the science of climate change that were judged to be most relevant to policy-makers. In this report, Working Group I has extended coverage of future climate change compared to earlier reports by assessing near-term projections and predictability as well as long-term projections and irreversibility in two separate chapters. Following the decisions made by the Panel during the scoping and outline approval, a set of new scenarios, the Representative Concentration Pathways, are used across all three Working Groups for projections of climate change over the 21. century. The coverage of regional information in the Working Group I report is expanded by specifically assessing climate phenomena such as monsoon systems and their relevance to future climate change in the regions. The Working Group I Report is an assessment, not a review or a text book of climate science, and is based on the published scientific and technical literature available up to 15 March 2013. Underlying all aspects of the report is a

  15. Polarized gas targets for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    It is widely recognized that polarized gas targets in electron storage rings represent a new opportunity for precision nuclear physics studies. New developments in polarized target technology specific to internal applications will be discussed. In particular, polarized gas targets have been used in the VEPP-3 electron ring in Novosibirsk. A simple storage cell was used to increase the total target thickness by a factor of 15 over the simple gas jet target from an atomic beam source. Results from the initial phase of this project will be reported. In addition, the plans for increasing the luminosity by an additional order or magnitude will be presented. The application of this work to polarized hydrogen and deuterium targets for the HERA ring will be noted. The influence of beam-induced depolarization, a phenomena encountered in short-pulse electron storage rings, will be discussed. Finally, the performance tests of laser-driven sources will be presented. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  16. Item response theory analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students (UWES-S) using a sample of Japanese university and college students majoring medical science, nursing, and natural science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubakita, Takashi; Shimazaki, Kazuyo; Ito, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Nobuo

    2017-10-30

    The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students has been used internationally to assess students' academic engagement, but it has not been analyzed via item response theory. The purpose of this study was to conduct an item response theory analysis of the Japanese version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students translated by authors. Using a two-parameter model and Samejima's graded response model, difficulty and discrimination parameters were estimated after confirming the factor structure of the scale. The 14 items on the scale were analyzed with a sample of 3214 university and college students majoring medical science, nursing, or natural science in Japan. The preliminary parameter estimation was conducted with the two parameter model, and indicated that three items should be removed because there were outlier parameters. Final parameter estimation was conducted using the survived 11 items, and indicated that all difficulty and discrimination parameters were acceptable. The test information curve suggested that the scale better assesses higher engagement than average engagement. The estimated parameters provide a basis for future comparative studies. The results also suggested that a 7-point Likert scale is too broad; thus, the scaling should be modified to fewer graded scaling structure.

  17. Proceedings of the workshop on polarized targets in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-08-01

    Polarization phenomena have played an increasingly important part in the study of nuclei and nucleons in recent years. Polarization studies have been hampered by the relatively few and rather fragile polarized targets which are presently available. The concept of polarized gas targets in storage rings opens a much wider range of possibilities than is available in the external target geometry. This novel method will represent a considerable advance in nuclear physics and will continue to receive much attention in plans for future facilities. An internal, polarized-target station is being planned for the cooler ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Internal targets are compatible with recent designs of electron accelerators proposed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Southeastern Universities Research Association. The key to nuclear-science programs based on internal targets pivots on recent developments in polarized atomic beam methods, which include the more recent laser-driven polarized targets. The workshop drew together a unique group of physicists in the fields of high-energy, nuclear and atomic physics. The meeting was organized in a manner that stimulated discussion among the 58 participants and focused on developments in polarized target technology and the underlying atomic physics. An impressive array of future possibilities for polarized targets as well as current developments in polarized target technology were discussed at the workshop. Abstracts of individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base

  18. Proceedings of the workshop on polarized targets in storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, R.J. (ed.)

    1984-08-01

    Polarization phenomena have played an increasingly important part in the study of nuclei and nucleons in recent years. Polarization studies have been hampered by the relatively few and rather fragile polarized targets which are presently available. The concept of polarized gas targets in storage rings opens a much wider range of possibilities than is available in the external target geometry. This novel method will represent a considerable advance in nuclear physics and will continue to receive much attention in plans for future facilities. An internal, polarized-target station is being planned for the cooler ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Internal targets are compatible with recent designs of electron accelerators proposed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Southeastern Universities Research Association. The key to nuclear-science programs based on internal targets pivots on recent developments in polarized atomic beam methods, which include the more recent laser-driven polarized targets. The workshop drew together a unique group of physicists in the fields of high-energy, nuclear and atomic physics. The meeting was organized in a manner that stimulated discussion among the 58 participants and focused on developments in polarized target technology and the underlying atomic physics. An impressive array of future possibilities for polarized targets as well as current developments in polarized target technology were discussed at the workshop. Abstracts of individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base.

  19. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  20. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...

  1. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  2. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  3. Ultracold Polar Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0005 Ultracold Polar Molecules Jeremy Hutson UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM Final Report 04/01/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-Jan-2010 to 14-Jul-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Report on Grant FA8655-10-1-3033 on Ultracold Polar Molecules 5a...formation of ultracold 87RbCs molecules in their rovibrational ground state by magnetoassociation followed by STIRAP, resulting in 14 papers acknowledging

  4. Quantum chromodynamics: Working group report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is the report of the QCD working group at WHEPP-6. Discussions and work on heavy ion collisions, polarized scattering, and collider phenomenology are reported. Keywords. QCD; polarized scattering; light front field theory; heavy ion physics; non-equilibrium field theory; parton distributions at LHC; fragmentation ...

  5. Hsp Polarization Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bless, Robert

    1991-07-01

    This proposal defines the procedure for determining the instrumental polarization of the polarimetric IDT (IDT#1, POL) on the HSP. 1 of 2 unpolarized standard stars wil be observed using various filter-polarizer combinations. These observations will permit the instrumental polarization to be calibrated. The instrumental polarization must be determined to a high precision in order to vectoriallly remove it from HSP polarization observations to determine the actual astronomical polarization. Final run of proposal will look at one of 2 possible stars previously observed to get another look at the throughput. Revision History: Mark H. Slovak 8/30/88 Translated to V2 proposal instructions (RPSS V6.2) S. Laurent 1/20/89 Updated: Sally Laurent 2/24/89, 3/20/89, 4/13/89, 5/12/89 Modified: P. Stanley 1/15/90 - change to use CTA selected targets only; Fixes for aberration problem - SALM 7/30/90; Based on SV/HSP 1386. New submission changed targets and revised scheduling strategy. Revised: 26 Aug 92 J. Dolan, L. Walter, P. Reppert want to re-run the proposal (3985) one last time to bring down errors.

  6. Association of Polar Early Career Scientists: a model for experiential learning in professional development for students and early career researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. C.; Hindshaw, R. S.; Fugmann, G.; Mariash, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists was established by early career researchers during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year as an organization for early career researchers in the polar and cryospheric sciences. APECS works to promote early career researchers through soft-skills training in both research and outreach activities, through advocating for including early career researchers in all levels of the scientific process and scientific management, and through supporting a world-wide network of researchers in varied fields. APECS is lead by early career researchers; this self-driven model has proved to be an effective means for developing the leadership, management, and communication skills that are essential in the sciences, and has shown to be sustainable even in a community where frequent turn-over is inherent to the members. Since its inception, APECS has reached over 5,500 members in more than 80 countries, and we have placed more than 50 early career researchers on working groups and steering committees with organizations around the world in the last two years alone. The close partnerships that APECS has with national and international organizations exposes members to both academic and alternative career paths, including those at the science-policy interface. This paper describes APECS's approach to experiential learning in professional development and the best practices identified over our nearly ten years as an organization.

  7. 16th International Workshop on Polarized Sources, Targets, and Polarimetry (PSTP 2015)

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The Workshop on Polarized Sources, Targets and Polarimetry has been a tradition for more than 20 years, moving between Europe, USA and Japan. The XVIth International Workshop on Polarized Sources, Targets and Polarimetry (PSTP 2015) will take place at the Ruhr-University of Bochum, Germany. The workshop addresses the physics and technological challenges related to polarized gas/solid targets, polarized electron/positron/ion/neutron sources, polarimetry and their applications. will be published in Proceedings of Science

  8. THz Dynamic Nuclear Polarization NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Emilio A; Barnes, Alexander B; Griffin, Robert G; Temkin, Richard J

    2011-08-29

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) increases the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy by using high frequency microwaves to transfer the polarization of the electrons to the nuclear spins. The enhancement in NMR sensitivity can amount to a factor of well above 100, enabling faster data acquisition and greatly improved NMR measurements. With the increasing magnetic fields (up to 23 T) used in NMR research, the required frequency for DNP falls into the THz band (140-600 GHz). Gyrotrons have been developed to meet the demanding specifications for DNP NMR, including power levels of tens of watts; frequency stability of a few megahertz; and power stability of 1% over runs that last for several days to weeks. Continuous gyrotron frequency tuning of over 1 GHz has also been demonstrated. The complete DNP NMR system must include a low loss transmission line; an optimized antenna; and a holder for efficient coupling of the THz radiation to the sample. This paper describes the DNP NMR process and illustrates the THz systems needed for this demanding spectroscopic application. THz DNP NMR is a rapidly developing, exciting area of THz science and technology.

  9. Broad-aperture polarized proton target with arbitrary orientation of polarization vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, A.A.; Get'man, V.A.; Derkach, A.Ya.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Razumnyj, A.A.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    Polarized proton target with the Helmholtz broad-aperture superconducting magnetic system is described. Axial aperture α=95 deg, inter-coil access angle β=23 deg. The structure of the target allows various versions of the installation what make sure an arbitrary orientation of polarization vector. The 0.1 W cold output 3 He evaporation cryostat was used to obtain the work temperature 0.5 K allowing quick transformation to a 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator. Results of the study are given on the dynamical proton polarization in 1,2-propylenglycol with various stable Cr 5 complexes

  10. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  11. The Polar Rock Repository: Rescuing Polar Collections for New Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, A.

    2016-12-01

    Geological field expeditions in polar regions are logistically difficult, financially expensive and can have a significant environmental impact on pristine regions. The scarcity of outcrop in Antarctica (98% ice-covered) makes previously collected rock samples very valuable to the science community. NSF recognized the need for preserving rock, dredge, and terrestrial core samples from polar areas and created the Polar Rock Repository (PRR). The PRR collection allows for full and open access to both samples and metadata via the PRR website. In addition to the physical samples and their basic metadata, the PRR archives supporting materials from the collector, field notebooks, images of the samples, field maps, air photos, thin sections and any associated bibliography/DOI's. Many of these supporting materials are unique. More than 40,000 samples are available from the PRR for scientific analysis to researchers around the globe. Most of the samples cataloged at the PRR were collected more than 30 years ago, some more than 100 years ago. The rock samples and metadata are made available online through an advanced search engine for the PRR website. This allows scientists to "drill down" into search results using categories and look-up object fields similar to websites like Amazon. Results can be viewed in a table, downloaded as a spreadsheet, or plotted on an interactive map that supports display of satellite imagery and bathymetry layers. Samples can be requested by placing them in the `shopping cart'. These old sample collections have been repeatedly used by scientists from around the world. One data request involved locating coal deposits in Antarctica for a global compilation and another for looking at the redox state of batholithic rocks from the Antarctic Peninsula using magnetic susceptibilities of PRR rocks. Sample usage has also included non-traditional geologic studies, such as a search for monopoles in Cenozoic volcanic samples, and remote sensing

  12. Primary and Secondary School Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Documentation and Information, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This 344-item annotated bibliography presents overview of science teaching in following categories: science education; primary school science; integrated science teaching; teaching of biology, chemistry, physics, earth/space science; laboratory work; computer technology; out-of-school science; science and society; science education at…

  13. The evolution of tensor polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Lee, S.Y.; Ratner, L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the equation of motion for the vector polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization is derived. The evolution equation for the tensor polarization is studied in the presence of an isolate spin resonance and in the presence of a spin rotor, or snake

  14. New space technology advances knowledge of the remote polar regions. [Arctic and Antarctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery is rapidly increasing man's knowledge of polar regions. Products compiled from this imagery at scales of 1:250,000, 1:500,000 and 1:1,000,000 are already providing valuable information to earth scientists working in Antarctica. Significant finds detected by these bench mark products were glaciological changes, advancement in ice fronts, discovery of new geographic features, and the repositioning of nunataks, islands, and ice tongues. Tests conducted in Antarctica have proven the feasibility of tracking Navy navigation satellites to establish ground control for positioning ERTS-1 imagery in remote areas. ERTS imagery coupled with satellite geodesy shows great promise and may prove to be the most practical and cost effective way to meet the small-scale cartographic requirements of the polar science community.

  15. High-energy, high-fat lifestyle challenges an Arctic apex predator, the polar bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, A M; Durner, G M; Rode, K D; Atwood, T C; Atkinson, S N; Peacock, E; Costa, D P; Owen, M A; Williams, T M

    2018-02-02

    Regional declines in polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ) populations have been attributed to changing sea ice conditions, but with limited information on the causative mechanisms. By simultaneously measuring field metabolic rates, daily activity patterns, body condition, and foraging success of polar bears moving on the spring sea ice, we found that high metabolic rates (1.6 times greater than previously assumed) coupled with low intake of fat-rich marine mammal prey resulted in an energy deficit for more than half of the bears examined. Activity and movement on the sea ice strongly influenced metabolic demands. Consequently, increases in mobility resulting from ongoing and forecasted declines in and fragmentation of sea ice are likely to increase energy demands and may be an important factor explaining observed declines in body condition and survival. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  16. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    A novel vertically polarized omnidirectional printed slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation...... pattern. The antenna is designed for the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. Applications of the antenna are many. One is for on-body applications since it is ideal for launching a creeping waves due to the polarization.......A novel vertically polarized omnidirectional printed slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation...

  17. Polar energy resources potential. Report prepared for the Committee on Science and Technology, U. S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Fourth Congress, Second Session by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The study covers both Antarctic and Arctic energy resources including oil, coal, natural gas, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, oil shale, uranium, solar energy, and wind power. The environment, geology, topography, climate, and weather are also treated. Consideration is given to the international relations involved in energy resource exploitation in both polar regions, and the technologies necessary to develop polar resources are discussed. The potential resources in each area are described. Resource potentials south of 60 degrees in Antartica and north of 60 degrees in the Arctic are summarized. (MCW)

  18. Polarized Electrons at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously.initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented.

  19. Polarized electrons at Jefferson laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously. Initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented

  20. Polar low monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, Leonid; Zabolotskikh, Elizaveta; Mitnik, Leonid

    2010-05-01

    Polar lows are intense mesoscale atmospheric low pressure weather systems, developing poleward of the main baroclinic zone and associated with high surface wind speeds. Small size and short lifetime, sparse in-situ observations in the regions of their development complicate polar low study. Our knowledge of polar lows and mesocyclones has come almost entirely during the period of satellite remote sensing since, by virtue of their small horizontal scale, it was rarely possible to analyse these lows on conventional weather charts using only the data from the synoptic observing network. However, the effects of intense polar lows have been felt by coastal communities and seafarers since the earliest times. These weather systems are thought to be responsible for the loss of many small vessels over the centuries, although the nature of the storms was not understood and their arrival could not be predicted. The actuality of the polar low research is stipulated by their high destructive power: they are a threat to such businesses as oil and gas exploration, fisheries and shipping. They could worsen because of global warming: a shrinking of sea ice around the North Pole, which thawed to its record minimum in the summer of 2007, is likely to give rise to more powerful storms that form only over open water and can cause hurricane-strength winds. Therefore, study of polar lows, their timely detection, tracking and forecasting represents a challenge for today meteorology. Satellite passive microwave data, starting from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) onboard Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite, remain invaluable source of regularly available remotely sensed data to study polar lows. The sounding in this spectral range has several advantages in comparison with observations in visible and infrared ranges and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data: independence on day time and clouds, regularity and high temporal resolution in Polar Regions. Satellite

  1. The Power of Cooperation in International Paleoclimate Science: Examples from the PAGES 2k Network and the Ocean2k Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Past Global Changes (PAGES) project of IGBP and Future Earth supports research to understand the Earth's past environment to improve future climate predictions and inform strategies for sustainability. Within this framework, the PAGES 2k Network was established to provide a focus on the past 2000 years, a period that encompasses Medieval Climate Anomaly warming, Little Ice Age cooling, and recent anthropogenically-forced climate change. The results of these studies are used for testing earth system models, and for understanding decadal- to centennial-scale variability, which is needed for long-term planning. International coordination and cooperation among the nine regional Working Groups that make up the 2k Network has been critical to the success of PAGES 2k. The collaborative approach is moving toward scientific achievements across the regional groups, including: (i) the development of a community-driven open-access proxy climate database; (ii) integration of multi-resolution proxy records; (iii) development of multivariate climate reconstructions; and (iv) a leap forward in the spatial resolution of paleoclimate reconstructions. The last addition to the 2k Network, the Ocean2k Working Group has further innovated the collaborative approach by: (1) creating an open, receptive environment to discuss ideas exclusively in the virtual space; (2) employing an array of real-time collaborative software tools to enable communication, group document writing, and data analysis; (3) consolidating executive leadership teams to oversee project development and manage grassroots-style volunteer pools; and (4) embracing the value-added role that international and interdisciplinary science can play in advancing paleoclimate hypotheses critical to understanding future change. Ongoing efforts for the PAGES 2k Network are focused on developing new standards for data quality control and archiving. These tasks will provide the foundation for new and continuing "trans-regional" 2k

  2. The polarization response in InAs quantum dots: theoretical correlation between composition and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, Muhammad; O’Reilly, Eoin P; Tasco, Vittorianna; Todaro, Maria Teresa; De Giorgi, Milena; Passaseo, Adriana; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    III–V growth and surface conditions strongly influence the physical structure and resulting optical properties of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs). Beyond the design of a desired active optical wavelength, the polarization response of QDs is of particular interest for optical communications and quantum information science. Previous theoretical studies based on a pure InAs QD model failed to reproduce experimentally observed polarization properties. In this work, multi-million atom simulations are performed in an effort to understand the correlation between chemical composition and polarization properties of QDs. A systematic analysis of QD structural parameters leads us to propose a two-layer composition model, mimicking In segregation and In–Ga intermixing effects. This model, consistent with mostly accepted compositional findings, allows us to accurately fit the experimental PL spectra. The detailed study of QD morphology parameters presented here serves as a tool for using growth dynamics to engineer the strain field inside and around the QD structures, allowing tuning of the polarization response. (paper)

  3. High precision neutron polarization for PERC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauser, C.

    2013-01-01

    The decay of the free neutron into a proton, an electron and an anti-electron neutrino offers a simple system to study the semi-leptonic weak decay. High precision measurements of angular correlation coefficients of this decay provide the opportunity to test the standard model on the low energy frontier. The Proton Electron Radiation Channel PERC is part of a new generation of expriments pushing the accuracy of such an angular correlation coefficient measurement towards 10 -4 . Past experiments have been limited to an accuracy of 10 -3 with uncertainties on the neutron polarization as one of the leading systematic errors. This thesis focuses on the development of a stable, highly precise neutron polarization for a large, divergent cold neutron beam. A diagnostic tool that provides polarization higher than 99.99 % and analyzes with an accuracy of 10 -4 , the Opaque Test Bench, is presented and validated. It consists of two highly opaque polarized helium cells. The Opaque Test Bench reveals depolarizing effects in polarizing supermirrors commonly used for polarization in neutron decay experiments. These effects are investigated in detail. They are due to imperfect lateral magnetization in supermirror layers and can be minimized by significantly increased magnetizing fields and low incidence angle and supermirror factor m. A subsequent test in the crossed (X-SM) geometry demonstrated polarizations up to 99.97% from supermirrors only, improving neutron polarization with supermirrors by an order of magnitude. The thesis also discusses other neutron optical components of the PERC beamline: Monte-Carlo simulations of the beamline under consideration of the primary guide are carried out. In addition, calculation shows that PERC would statistically profit from an installation at the European Spallation source. Furthermore, beamline components were tested. A radio-frequency spin flipper was confirmed to work with an efficiency higher than 0.9999. (author) [de

  4. Polarized protons at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    The Physics case is presented for the use of polarized protons at RHIC for one or two months each year. This would provide a facility with polarizations of approx-gt 50% high luminosity ∼2.0 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , the possibility of both longitudinal and transverse polarization at the interaction regions, and frequent polarization reversal for control of systematic errors. The annual integrated luminosity for such running (∼10 6 sec per year) would be ∫ Ldt = 2 x 10 38 cm -2 -- roughly 20 times the total luminosity integrated in ∼ 10 years of operation of the CERN Collider (∼10 inverse picobarns, 10 37 cm -2 ). This facility would be unique in the ability to perform parity-violating measurements and polarization test of QCD. Also, the existence of p-p collisions in a new energy range would permit the study of ''classical'' reactions like the total cross section and elastic scattering, etc., and serve as a complement to measurements from p-bar p colliders. 11 refs

  5. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  6. Hybrid Streamers for Polar Seismic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, C. M.; Agah, A.; Tsoflias, G. P.

    2006-12-01

    We propose a new hybrid streamer seismic approach for polar regions that incorporates insertion of spiked geophones, the land streamer method of transportation, and mobile robotics. Current land streamers do not plant the geophone spike at each node location on the streamer(s) nor use robotic control. This approach combines the two methods, and is therefore termed "Hybrid Streamers". Land seismic 3D surveying is costly and time consuming due to manual handling of geophones and cables. Multiple streamers make this process simpler by allowing efficient deployment of large numbers of geophones. Hybrid streamers go further to robotically insert the geophone spike at each node location to achieve higher frequency and better resolution seismic images. For deployment and retrieval, the geophone spikes are drilled into the ground, or inserted using heat. This can be accomplished by modifying the geophone spike to be similar to a threaded screw or similar to a soldering iron for polar environments. Heat could help melt the ice during deployment, which would refreeze around the geophone for firm coupling. Heat could also be used to make polar geophone retrieval easier. By ensuring that the towing robots are robust and effective, the problem of single point of failure can be less of an issue. Polar rovers have proven useful in harsh environments, and could be utilized in polar seismic applications. Towing geophone nodes in a tethered fashion not only provides all nodes with power to operate the onboard equipment, but also gives them a medium to transfer data to the towing rover. Hybrid streamers could be used in several ways. One or more hybrid streamers could be tethered and towed by a single robot. Several robots could be used to form a single grid, working in conjunction to image larger areas in three dimensions. Such an approach could speed up entire missions and make efficient use of seismic source ignitions. The reduction of human involvement by use of mobile robots

  7. In-line Fiber Polarizer

    OpenAIRE

    Perumalsamy, Priya

    1998-01-01

    Polarizers and polarization devices are important components in fiber optic communication and sensor systems. There is a growing need for efficient low loss components that are compatible with optical fibers. An all fiber in-line polarizer is a more desirable alternative that could be placed at appropriate intervals along communication links. An in-line fiber polarizer was fabricated and tested. The in-line fiber polarizer operates by coupling optical energy propagatin...

  8. Social Sciences and Humanities in the IPY 2007/08: An Integrating Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnik, I.

    2004-12-01

    networks would provide polar researchers with an opportunity to learn of both present and past conditions from the vast store of indigenous knowledge and to augment instrument and satellite data with local observations. Another critical task for social scientists is to initiate studies of human and societal adaptations to past and present change in the polar regions. Research should target strategies and adaptive mechanisms that worked in the past and that are working today, particularly as seen from the community perspective. Analysis of past and present human responses to both physical/natural and social change would inform our broader understanding of integrated social and ecological systems in the polar regions and at the global level. Partnering with polar communities will help the IPY scientists develop new strategies and holistic approaches to explore unique contributions from polar regions to global systems, cultures, and science. These new approaches will promote scholarly cooperation between polar researchers and local residents; advance the scientific use of traditional knowledge; advance studies in community sustainability, subsistence and co-management strategies, ecosystem health, spiritual and environmental healing, heritage and language preservation. Previous IPY/IGY ventures have sparked human imagination and helped build public interest in polar research. The legacy of IPY 2007-2008, when preserved in diaries, instruments, photographs, and museum collections, will excite new generations of researchers and public in 25, 50 or even 100 years from now, as much as the memories, records, and collections of the earlier Polar Years helped generate enthusiasm for the IPY 2007/2008.

  9. Chip-based microtrap arrays for cold polar molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shunyong; Wei, Bin; Deng, Lianzhong; Yin, Jianping

    2017-12-01

    Compared to the atomic chip, which has been a powerful platform to perform an astonishing range of applications from rapid Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) production to the atomic clock, the molecular chip is only in its infant stages. Recently a one-dimensional electric lattice was demonstrated to trap polar molecules on a chip. This excellent work opens up the way to building a molecular chip laboratory. Here we propose a two-dimensional (2D) electric lattice on a chip with concise and robust structure, which is formed by arrays of squared gold wires. Arrays of microtraps that originate in the microsize electrodes offer a steep gradient and thus allow for confining both light and heavy polar molecules. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculations are performed using two types of sample molecules, N D3 and SrF, to justify the possibility of our proposal. The height of the minima of the potential wells is about 10 μm above the surface of the chip and can be easily adjusted in a wide range by changing the voltages applied on the electrodes. These microtraps offer intriguing perspectives for investigating cold molecules in periodic potentials, such as quantum computing science, low-dimensional physics, and some other possible applications amenable to magnetic or optical lattice. The 2D adjustable electric lattice is expected to act as a building block for a future gas-phase molecular chip laboratory.

  10. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signa...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice.......This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...

  11. Physics of polarized targets

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    For developing, building and operating solid polarized targets we need to understand several fields of physics that have seen sub stantial advances during the last 50 years. W e shall briefly review a selection of those that are important today. These are: 1) quantum statistical methods to describe saturation and relaxation in magnetic resonance; 2) equal spin temperature model for dy namic nuclear polarization; 3 ) weak saturation during NMR polarization measurement; 4 ) refrigeration using the quantum fluid properties of helium isotopes. These, combined with superconducting magnet technologies, permit today to reach nearly complete pola rization of almost any nuclear spins. Targets can be operated in frozen spin mode in rather low and inhomogeneous field of any orientation, and in DNP mode in beams of high intensity. Beyond such experiments of nuclear and particle physics, applications a re also emerging in macromolecular chemistry and in magnetic resonance imaging. This talk is a tribute to Michel Borghini...

  12. Polarized source upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, T.B.; Rummel, R.L.; Carter, E.P.; Westerfeldt, C.R.; Lovette, A.W.; Edwards, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The decision was made this past year to move the Lamb-shift polarized ion source which was first installed in the laboratory in 1970. The motivation was the need to improve the flexibility of spin-axis orientation by installing the ion source with a new Wien-filter spin precessor which is capable of rotating physically about the beam axis. The move of the polarized source was accomplished in approximately two months, with the accelerator being turned off for experiments during approximately four weeks of this time. The occasion of the move provided the opportunity to rewire completely the entire polarized ion source frame and to rebuild approximately half of the electronic chassis on the source. The result is an ion source which is now logically wired and carefully documented. Beams obtained from the source are much more stable than those previously available

  13. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  14. POLARIZED NEUTRONS IN RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COURANT,E.D.

    1998-04-27

    There does not appear to be any obvious way to accelerate neutrons, polarized or otherwise, to high energies by themselves. To investigate the behavior of polarized neutrons the authors therefore have to obtain them by accelerating them as components of heavier nuclei, and then sorting out the contribution of the neutrons in the analysis of the reactions produced by the heavy ion beams. The best neutron carriers for this purpose are probably {sup 3}He nuclei and deuterons. A polarized deuteron is primarily a combination of a proton and a neutron with their spins pointing in the same direction; in the {sup 3}He nucleus the spins of the two protons are opposite and the net spin (and magnetic moment) is almost the same as that of a free neutron. Polarized ions other than protons may be accelerated, stored and collided in a ring such as RHIC provided the techniques proposed for polarized proton operation can be adapted (or replaced by other strategies) for these ions. To accelerate polarized particles in a ring, one must make provisions for overcoming the depolarizing resonances that occur at certain energies. These resonances arise when the spin tune (ratio of spin precession frequency to orbit frequency) resonates with a component present in the horizontal field. The horizontal field oscillates with the vertical motion of the particles (due to vertical focusing); its frequency spectrum is dominated by the vertical oscillation frequency and its modulation by the periodic structure of the accelerator ring. In addition, the magnet imperfections that distort the closed orbit vertically contain all integral Fourier harmonics of the orbit frequency.

  15. Dark Polar Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    20 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired during northern summer in December 2004, shows dark, windblown sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars. A vast sea of sand dunes nearly surrounds the north polar cap. These landforms are located near 80.3oN, 144.1oW. Light-toned features in the image are exposures of the substrate that underlies the dune field. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  16. Imaging with Polarized Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kardjilov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their zero charge, neutrons are able to pass through thick layers of matter (typically several centimeters while being sensitive to magnetic fields due to their intrinsic magnetic moment. Therefore, in addition to the conventional attenuation contrast image, the magnetic field inside and around a sample can be visualized by detecting changes of polarization in a transmitted beam. The method is based on the spatially resolved measurement of the cumulative precession angles of a collimated, polarized, monochromatic neutron beam that traverses a magnetic field or sample.

  17. The polar mesosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Ray; Murphy, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The mesosphere region, which lies at the edge of space, contains the coldest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, with summer temperatures as low as minus 130 °C. In this extreme environment ice aerosol layers have appeared since the dawn of industrialization—whose existence may arguably be linked to human influence—on yet another layer of the Earth's fragile atmosphere. Ground-based and space-based experiments conducted in the Arctic and Antarctic during the International Polar Year (IPY) aim to address limitations in our knowledge and to advance our understanding of thermal and dynamical processes at play in the polar mesosphere

  18. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  19. AGS polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Sluyters, T.

    1985-01-01

    The AGS polarized H - source is now operational. During a month-long experimental physics run in July 1984, pulses equivalent to 15 μA x 300 μs (approx. 3 x 10 10 protons) were injected into the RFQ preaccelerator. Beam polarization, measured at 200 MeV, was approx. 75%. After the run, a program to increase the H - yield of the source was begun and significant progress has been made. The H - current is now frequently 20 to 30 μA. A description of the source and some details of our operating experience are given. We also briefly describe the improvement program

  20. Polarization maintaining large-mode area photonic crystal fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Nielsen, Martin Dybendal; Mortensen, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber. Unlike, previous work on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibers, birefringence is introduced using stress applying parts. This has allowed us to realize fibers, which are both single mode at any wavelength a...

  1. Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriman, Kimberley; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P

    2009-09-01

    Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers' priorities changed. In Study 2, gender differences in the graduate students' life values and personal views at age 35 were compared with those of profoundly gifted participants (top 1 in 10,000, identified by age 13 and tracked for 20 years: 265 men, 84 women). Again, gender differences were larger among parents. Across both cohorts, men appeared to assume a more agentic, career-focused perspective than women did, placing more importance on creating high-impact products, receiving compensation, taking risks, and gaining recognition as the best in their fields. Women appeared to favor a more communal, holistic perspective, emphasizing community, family, friendships, and less time devoted to career. Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The physics of polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    This course is intended to give a description of the basic physical concepts which underlie the study and the interpretation of polarization phenomena. Apart from a brief historical introduction (Sect. 1), the course is organized in three parts. A first part (Sects. 2 - 6) covers the most relevant facts about the polarization phenomena that are typically encountered in laboratory applications and in everyday life. In Sect. 2, the modern description of polarization in terms of the Stokes parameters is recalled, whereas Sect. 3 is devoted to introduce the basic tools of laboratory polarimetry, such as the Jones calculus and the Mueller matrices. The polarization phenomena which are met in the reflection and refraction of a beam of radiation at the separation surface between two dielectrics, or between a dielectric and a metal, are recalled in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 gives an introduction to the phenomena of dichroism and of anomalous dispersion and Sect. 6 summarizes the polarization phenomena that are commonly encountered in everyday life. The second part of this course (Sects. 7-14) deals with the description, within the formalism of classical physics, of the spectro-polarimetric properties of the radiation emitted by accelerated charges. Such properties are derived by taking as starting point the Liénard and Wiechert equations that are recalled and discussed in Sect. 7 both in the general case and in the non-relativistic approximation. The results are developed to find the percentage polarization, the radiation diagram, the cross-section and the spectral characteristics of the radiation emitted in different phenomena particularly relevant from the astrophysical point of view. The emission of a linear antenna is derived in Sect. 8. The other Sections are devoted to Thomson scattering (Sect. 9), Rayleigh scattering (Sect. 10), Mie scattering (Sect. 11), bremsstrahlung radiation (Sect. 12), cyclotron radiation (Sect. 13), and synchrotron radiation (Sect. 14

  3. The BNL polarized H- ion source development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.; Hershcovitch, A.; DeVito, B.

    1992-01-01

    Polarized protons have been available for acceleration in the AGS for the high energy physics program since 1984. The polarized H - source, PONI-1, has routinely supplied a 0.4 Hz, 400 μsec pulse having a nominal intensity of 40 μA. Polarization is ∼80% out of the ion source. After PONI- 1 became operational, a program was initiated to develop a more intense source based on a cold ground state atomic beam source, followed by ionization of the polarized H degrees beam by D - charge exchange. Various phases of this work have been fully reported elsewhere, and only a summary is given here

  4. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  5. Tilted Foils Nuclear Spin Polarization at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, Hans Toshihide

    2013-08-08

    This thesis will explain and summarize my work and involvement in experiments aimed at producing nuclear spin polarization of post-accelerated beams of ions with the tilted-foils technique at the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator at CERN. Polarizing the nuclear spin of radioactive beams in particular may provide access to observables which may be difficult to obtain otherwise. Currently, the techniques commonly employed for nuclear spin polarization are restricted to specific nuclides and experimental measurement techniques. Tilted foils polarization may provide a new tool to extend the range of nuclides that can be polarized and the types of experiments that can be performed. The experiments rely not only on the production but also on the method to measure the degree of attained polarization. Two methods will be treated, based on particle scattering in Coulomb excitation that may be utilized for stable beams, and the $\\beta$-NMR that requires $\\beta$-decaying nuclei. The experimental setups and measurements will...

  6. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    A novel vertically polarized omnidirectional printed slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation...... pattern. The antenna is designed for the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. Applications of the antenna are many. One is for on-body applications since it is ideal for launching a creeping waves due to the polarization....

  7. Lobbying and political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Ursprung, Heinrich W.

    2002-01-01

    Standard spatial models of political competition give rise to equilibria in which the competing political parties or candidates converge to a common position. In this paper I show how political polarization can be generated in models that focus on the nexus between pre-election interest group lobbying and electoral competition.

  8. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of the modern understanding of orientational order in liquid crystals (LCs) is based on polarizing microscopy (PM). A PM image bears only two-dimensional (2D) information, integrating the 3D pattern of optical birefringence over the path of light. Recently, we proposed a technique to image 3D director patterns by ...

  9. Polarization of Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.

    1957-01-01

    The numerical results for the polarization of Bremsstrahlung are presented. The multiple scattering of electrons in the target is taken into account. The angular-and photon energy dependences are seen on the curves for an incident 25 MeV electron energy. (Author) [fr

  10. DESY: HERA polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The new HERA electron-proton collider at DESY in Hamburg achieved the first luminosity for electron-proton collisions on 19 October last year. Only one month later, on 20 November, HERA passed another important milestone with the observation of transverse electron polarization

  11. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  12. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Page 1. 1084. RESONANCE | December 2015. Science Smiles. Ayan Guha. Charles H Townes, James P Gordon and H J. Zeiger had the first Maser working about three months later.. Email for Correspondence: ionguha@gmail.com.

  13. Characteristics of volume polarization holography with linear polarization light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jinliang; Wu, An'an; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jue; Lin, Xiao; Tan, Xiaodi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    Volume polarization holographic recording in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ-PMMA) photopolymer with linear polarized light is obtained. The characteristics of the volume polarization hologram are experimentally investigated. It is found that beyond the paraxial approximation the polarization states of the holographic reconstruction light are generally different from the signal light. Based on vector wave theoretical analyses and material properties, the special exposure condition for correctly holographic reconstruction is obtained and experimentally demonstrated.

  14. Measuring polarization dependent dispersion of non-polarizing beam splitter cubes with spectrally resolved white light interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csonti, K.; Hanyecz, V.; Mészáros, G.; Kovács, A. P.

    2017-06-01

    In this work we have measured the group-delay dispersion of an empty Michelson interferometer for s- and p-polarized light beams applying two different non-polarizing beam splitter cubes. The interference pattern appearing at the output of the interferometer was resolved with two different spectrometers. It was found that the group-delay dispersion of the empty interferometer depended on the polarization directions in case of both beam splitter cubes. The results were checked by inserting a glass plate in the sample arm of the interferometer and similar difference was obtained for the two polarization directions. These results show that to reach high precision, linearly polarized white light beam should be used and the residual dispersion of the empty interferometer should be measured at both polarization directions.

  15. Polarizing matter and antimatter: A new method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onel, Y.

    1992-02-01

    Several years ago a self-polarization effect for stored (anti)- protons and ions was investigated theoretically. The effect is based on the well-known Stern-Gerlach effect in gradient fields. The aim of the ongoing measurements at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) is to verify experimentally the various assumptions on which this effect is based. The final goal is to demonstrate this new polarization effect. The proposed effect could be a powerful tool to produce polarized stored hadron beams both in the low-energy range and at SSC and LHC energies. In this progress report we will describe our progress in three parts: (A) Experimental work at IUCF Cooler Ring; (B) Our extensive computer simulations of the spin stability for the IUCF Cooler Ring; and (C) Theoretical studies

  16. Upgrading the AGS polarized beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    Although present techniques for crossing depolarizing resonances in circular accelerators work, they are very time-consuming to implement and were only able to provide about a 40% polarized beam at 22 GeV in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). We propose to install a partial ''Siberian Snake'' solenoid in the AGS to eliminate the need to correct imperfection resonances and to make other modifications in our intrinsic resonance correctors. This will allow us to reach an energy of 25 GeV with 70% polarization and will enable the AGS to be an efficient injector of polarized protons into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), as well as being able to carry on a fixed-target program with minimum set-up time. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Experiments with Fermilab polarized proton and polarized antiproton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize activities concerning the Fermilab polarized beams. They include a brief description of the polarized-beam facility, measurements of beam polarization by polarimeters, asymmetry measurements in the π degree production at high p perpendicular and in the Λ (Σ degree), π ± , π degree production at large x F , and Δσ L (pp, bar pp) measurements. 18 refs

  18. NUCLEON POLARIZATION IN 3-BODY MODELS OF POLARIZED LI-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHELLINGERHOUT, NW; KOK, LP; COON, SA; ADAM, RM

    1993-01-01

    Just as He-3 --> can be approximately characterized as a polarized neutron target, polarized Li-6D has been advocated as a good isoscalar nuclear target for the extraction of the polarized gluon content of the nucleon. The original argument rests upon a presumed ''alpha + deuteron'' picture of Li-6,

  19. Geomagnetic polarity transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ronald T.; McFadden, Phillip L.

    1999-05-01

    The top of Earth's liquid outer core is nearly 2900 km beneath Earth's surface, so we will never be able to observe it directly. This hot, dense, molten iron-rich body is continuously in motion and is the source of Earth's magnetic field. One of the most dynamic manifestations at Earth's surface of this fluid body is, perhaps, a reversal of the geomagnetic field. Unfortunately, the most recent polarity transition occurred at about 780 ka, so we have never observed a transition directly. It seems that a polarity transition spans many human lifetimes, so no human will ever witness the phenomenon in its entirety. Thus we are left with the tantalizing prospect that paleomagnetic records of polarity transitions may betray some of the secrets of the deep Earth. Certainly, if there are systematics in the reversal process and they can be documented, then this will reveal substantial information about the nature of the lowermost mantle and of the outer core. Despite their slowness on a human timescale, polarity transitions occur almost instantaneously on a geological timescale. This rapidity, together with limitations in the paleomagnetic recording process, prohibits a comprehensive description of any reversal transition both now and into the foreseeable future, which limits the questions that may at this stage be sensibly asked. The natural model for the geomagnetic field is a set of spherical harmonic components, and we are not able to obtain a reliable model for even the first few harmonic terms during a transition. Nevertheless, it is possible, in principle, to make statements about the harmonic character of a geomagnetic polarity transition without having a rigorous spherical harmonic description of one. For example, harmonic descriptions of recent geomagnetic polarity transitions that are purely zonal can be ruled out (a zonal harmonic does not change along a line of latitude). Gleaning information about transitions has proven to be difficult, but it does seem

  20. Polarized electron beams at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1992-11-01

    SLAC has successfully accelerated high energy polarized electrons for the Stanford Linear Collider and fixed polarized nuclear target experiments. The polarized electron beams at SLAC use a gallium arsenide (GaAlAs for E-142) photon emission source to provide the beam of polarized electrons with polarization of approximately 28% (41% for E-142). While the beam emittance is reduced in the damping ring for SLC operation a system of bend magnets and superconducting solenoids preserve and orient the spin direction for maximum longitudinal polarization at the collision point. The electron polarization is monitored with a Compton scattering polarimeter, and was typically 22% at the e+e- collision point for the 1992 run. Improvements are discussed to increase the source polarization and to reduce the depolarization effects between the source and the collision point