WorldWideScience

Sample records for polar regions arctic

  1. New space technology advances knowledge of the remote polar regions. [Arctic and Antarctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery is rapidly increasing man's knowledge of polar regions. Products compiled from this imagery at scales of 1:250,000, 1:500,000 and 1:1,000,000 are already providing valuable information to earth scientists working in Antarctica. Significant finds detected by these bench mark products were glaciological changes, advancement in ice fronts, discovery of new geographic features, and the repositioning of nunataks, islands, and ice tongues. Tests conducted in Antarctica have proven the feasibility of tracking Navy navigation satellites to establish ground control for positioning ERTS-1 imagery in remote areas. ERTS imagery coupled with satellite geodesy shows great promise and may prove to be the most practical and cost effective way to meet the small-scale cartographic requirements of the polar science community.

  2. Influence of Arctic Sea Ice Extent on Polar Cloud Fraction and Vertical Structure and Implications for Regional Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Strey, Sara T.; Spinhirne, James; Markus, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Recent satellite lidar measurements of cloud properties spanning a period of 5 years are used to examine a possible connection between Arctic sea ice amount and polar cloud fraction and vertical distribution. We find an anticorrelation between sea ice extent and cloud fraction with maximum cloudiness occurring over areas with little or no sea ice. We also find that over ice!free regions, there is greater low cloud frequency and average optical depth. Most of the optical depth increase is due to the presence of geometrically thicker clouds over water. In addition, our analysis indicates that over the last 5 years, October and March average polar cloud fraction has increased by about 7% and 10%, respectively, as year average sea ice extent has decreased by 5% 7%. The observed cloud changes are likely due to a number of effects including, but not limited to, the observed decrease in sea ice extent and thickness. Increasing cloud amount and changes in vertical distribution and optical properties have the potential to affect the radiative balance of the Arctic region by decreasing both the upwelling terrestrial longwave radiation and the downward shortwave solar radiation. Because longwave radiation dominates in the long polar winter, the overall effect of increasing low cloud cover is likely a warming of the Arctic and thus a positive climate feedback, possibly accelerating the melting of Arctic sea ice.

  3. The Influence of Arctic Sea Ice Extent on Polar Cloud Fraction and Vertical Structure and Implications for Regional Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Strey, Sara T.; Spinhirne, James; Markus, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Recent satellite lidar measurements of cloud properties spanning a period of five years are used to examine a possible connection between Arctic sea ice amount and polar cloud fraction and vertical distribution. We find an anti-correlation between sea ice extent and cloud fraction with maximum cloudiness occurring over areas with little or no sea ice. We also find that over ice free regions, there is greater low cloud frequency and average optical depth. Most of the optical depth increase is due to the presence of geometrically thicker clouds over water. In addition, our analysis indicates that over the last 5 years, October and March average polar cloud fraction has increased by about 7 and 10 percent, respectively, as year average sea ice extent has decreased by 5 to 7 percent. The observed cloud changes are likely due to a number of effects including, but not limited to, the observed decrease in sea ice extent and thickness. Increasing cloud amount and changes in vertical distribution and optical properties have the potential to affect the radiative balance of the Arctic region by decreasing both the upwelling terrestrial longwave radiation and the downward shortwave solar radiation. Since longwave radiation dominates in the long polar winter, the overall effect of increasing low cloud cover is likely a warming of the Arctic and thus a positive climate feedback, possibly accelerating the melting of Arctic sea ice.

  4. Review of 100 facts: polar lands; 365 penguins; Amazing Arctic & Antarctic projects you can build yourself; Apun: the Arctic snow; Matthew Henson: the quest for the North Pole; Polar bears in danger; Polar regions; Race to the South Poleetc.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Helle

    2010-01-01

    The polar regions have captured the world’s attention, and children’s book authors and publishers are no exception. These dozen titles are just a sample of the bucketload of polar-themed children’s books that have been published during the last couple of years.

  5. Settlements in an Arctic Resource Frontier Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebord, L.; Avango, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we use a core-periphery model in order to understand the general trends in the history of natural resource exploitation in the polar regions. The study focuses on whaling, hunting, and coal mining activities on the European High Arctic archipelago of Spitsbergen, from the seventeenth

  6. Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

    1981-03-01

    A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

  7. Wind power in Arctic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundsager, P.; Ahm, P.; Madsen, B.; Krogsgaard, P.

    1993-07-01

    Arctic or semi-arctic regions are often endowed with wind resources adequate for a viable production of electricity from the wind. Only limited efforts have so far been spent to introduce and to demonstrate the obvious synergy of combining wind power technology with the problems and needs of electricity generation in Arctic regions. Several factors have created a gap preventing the wind power technology carrying its full role in this context, including a certain lack of familiarity with the technology on the part of the end-users, the local utilities and communities, and a lack of commonly agreed techniques to adapt the same technology for Arctic applications on the part of the manufacturers. This report is part of a project that intends to contribute to bridging this gap. The preliminary results of a survey conducted by the project are included in this report, which is a working document for an international seminar held on June 3-4, 1993, at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark. Following the seminar a final report will be published. It is intended that the final report will serve as a basis for a sustained, international effort to develop the wind power potential of the Arctic and semi-arctic regions. The project is carried out by a project group formed by Risoe, PA Energy and BTM Consult. The project is sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency of the Danish Ministry of Energy through grant no. ENS-51171/93-0008. (au)

  8. Arctic amplification: does it impact the polar jet stream?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin P. Meleshko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesised that the Arctic amplification of temperature changes causes a decrease in the northward temperature gradient in the troposphere, thereby enhancing the oscillation of planetary waves leading to extreme weather in mid-latitudes. To test this hypothesis, we study the response of the atmosphere to Arctic amplification for a projected summer sea-ice-free period using an atmospheric model with prescribed surface boundary conditions from a state-of-the-art Earth system model. Besides a standard global warming simulation, we also conducted a sensitivity experiment with sea ice and sea surface temperature anomalies in the Arctic. We show that when global climate warms, enhancement of the northward heat transport provides the major contribution to decrease the northward temperature gradient in the polar troposphere in cold seasons, causing more oscillation of the planetary waves. However, while Arctic amplification significantly enhances near-surface air temperature in the polar region, it is not large enough to invoke an increased oscillation of the planetary waves.

  9. [Microbial communities in regions of arctic settlements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtsideli, I Yu; Abakumov, E V; Teshebaev, Sh B; Zelenskaya, M S; Vlasov, D Yu; Krylenkov, V A; Ryabusheva, Yu V; Sokolov, V T; Barantsevich, E P

    The composition and the structure of microbial communities in areas of Arctic settlements were studied. The main attention has been given to microscopic fungi. As result of observation of 5 Arctic regions 117 species of microscopic fungi are revealed in soils and anthropogenic substrates. The identification was carried out with the use ofmycological and molecular genetic methods. Most ofspecies belong to the Ascomycotina. Genus Penicillium is characterized by the most species diversity (24 species). Most offungi are destructors of various materials and potential human pathogens. Dominant species are revealed. The distribution of microorganisms in the living and working areas of polar stations, as well as the adjacent areas are described. Black-colored fungi adapted to unfavorable environment are often the dominated group of microorganisms on soils and anthropogenic substrates. The shaping of soil microbiota was shown to be related to the anthropogenic impact. Considerable similarity of microbial communities composition in the soil and man-made substrates is fixed. As result of mycological analysis of contaminated soils 76 species of microscopic fungi were observed, but 41 species of them (53.9%) were identified in the areas of Arctic polar stations on the man-made materials. These species include the representatives of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Exophiala, Geomyces, Humicola, Penicillium, Mucor, Phoma, Rhodotorula, Trichoderma and Ulocladium. The obtained data show a significant similarity in species composition of contaminated soils and anthropogenic substrates. Human activity contributes to the distribution of cosmopolitan species, including opportunistic fungi, in the Arctic region. The high numbers of organotrophic bacteria were revealed in soil samples. Some species of microorganisms produce the organic acids in an external environment that promotes the erosion of materials.

  10. The Arctic - A New Region for China's Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Yagiya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to foreign policy of China in the Arctic. Main attention is paid to strategic view of the China concerning the Arctic, to bilateral and multilateral cooperation on the Arctic issues, also to opinion of Russian experts about discussing of Russian-China economic partnership. It was shown interests of the People's Republic of China in the Arctic: use Arctic transport system from the Pacific Rim to Europe; possibility of access to the Arctic resources; seeks of partners for the realized of Arctic projects and programs. It was pointed six directions of China cooperation in the Arctic: a scientific researches, b natural minerals, oil and gas issues, c tourism, d routes of the Arctic navigation, e use of high technologies in development of regional economy, e cooperation in the cultural and educational spheres. Authors are summarized that at the initial stage of the international cooperation in the Arctic polar scientific researches become as the tool of “he soft power”, and in the long term - the Northern Sea Route of the Russian Federation is included in the Strategy of China Economic belt and the Maritime Silk Route in the XXI century.

  11. Microbial communities in a High Arctic polar desert landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M McCann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Arctic is dominated by polar desert habitats whose microbial communities are poorly understood. In this study, we used next generation sequencing to describe the α- and β-diversity of polar desert soils from the Kongsfjorden region of Svalbard. Ten phyla consistently dominated the soils and accounted for 95 % of all sequences, with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi being the dominant lineages. In contrast to previous investigations of Arctic soils, Acidobacterial relative abundances were low as were the Archaea throughout the Kongsfjorden polar desert landscape. Lower Acidobacterial abundances were attributed to the circumneutral soil pH in this region which has resulted from the weathering of the underlying carbonate geology. In addition, we correlated previously measured geochemical variables to determine potential controls on the communities. Soil phosphorus, pH, nitrogen and calcium significantly correlated with β-diversity indicating a landscape scale lithological control of soil nutrients which in turn influenced community composition. In addition, soil phosphorus and pH significantly correlated with α- diversity, specifically the Shannon diversity and Chao 1 richness indices.

  12. The Arctic Regional Communications Small SATellite (ARCSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph; Kress, Martin; Sims, William; Spehn, Stephen; Jaeger, Talbot; Sanders, Devon

    2013-01-01

    Traditional satellite missions are extremely complex and expensive to design, build, test, launch and operate. Consequently many complementary operational, exploration and research satellite missions are being formulated as a growing part of the future space community capabilities using formations of small, distributed, simple to launch and inexpensive highly capable small scale satellites. The Arctic Regional Communications small SATellite (ARCSAT) initiative would launch a Mini-Satellite "Mothership" into Polar or Sun Sync low-earth-orbit (LEO). Once on orbit, the Mothership would perform orbital insertion of four internally stored independently maneuverable nanosatellites, each containing electronically steerable antennas and reconfigurable software-defined radios. Unlike the traditional geostationary larger complex satellite communication systems, this LEO communications system will be comprised of initially a five small satellite formation that can be later incrementally increased in the total number of satellites for additional data coverage. ARCSAT will provide significant enabling capabilities in the Arctic for autonomous voice and data communications relay, Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA), data-extraction from unattended sensors, and terrestrial Search & Rescue (SAR) beacon detection missions throughout the "data starved desert" of the Arctic Region.

  13. Polar lessons learned: long-term management based on shared threats in Arctic and Antarctic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, J.R.; Shaw, J.D.; Terauds, A.; Smol, J.P.; Aerts, R.; Bergstrom, D.M.; Blais, J.M.; Cheung, W.W.L.; Chown, S.L.; Lea, M.-A.; Nielsen, U.N.; Pauly, D.; Reimer, K.J.; Riddle, M.J.; Snape, I.; Stark, J.S.; Tulloch, V.J.; Possingham, H.P.

    2015-01-01

    The Arctic and Antarctic polar regions are subject to multiple environmental threats, arising from both local and ex-situ human activities. We review the major threats to polar ecosystems including the principal stressor, climate change, which interacts with and exacerbates other threats such as

  14. Polar bear and walrus response to the rapid decline in Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, K.; Whalen, M.; Douglas, D.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Atwood, Todd C.; Jay, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than other regions of the world due to positive climate feedbacks associated with loss of snow and ice. One highly visible consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades - a decline projected to continue and result in ice-free summers likely as soon as 2030. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) are dependent on sea ice over the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean's marginal seas. The continental shelves are shallow regions with high biological productivity, supporting abundant marine life within the water column and on the sea floor. Polar bears use sea ice as a platform for hunting ice seals; walruses use sea ice as a resting platform between dives to forage for clams and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates. How have sea ice changes affected polar bears and walruses? How will anticipated changes affect them in the future?

  15. Regional cooperation and sustainable development: The Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vartanov, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    The Arctic is one of the regions most alienated from sustainable development, due to consequences of nuclear testing, long-range pollution transport, large-scale industrial accidents, irrational use of natural resources, and environmentally ignorant socio-economic policies. Revelations of the state of the USSR Arctic shows that air quality in northern cities is below standard, fish harvests are declining, pollution is not being controlled, and native populations are being affected seriously. The presence of immense resources in the Arctic including exploitable offshore oil reserves of 100-200 billion bbl and the prospect of wider utilization of northern sea routes should stimulate establishment of a new international regime of use, research, and protection of Arctic resources in favor of sustainable development in the region. The Arctic marine areas are the key component of the Arctic ecosystem and so should receive special attention. A broad legal framework has already been provided for such cooperation. Included in such cooperation would be native peoples and non-Arctic countries. Specifics of the cooperation would involve exchanging of scientific and technical information, promotion of ecologically sound technologies, equipping Arctic regions with means to control environmental quality, harmonizing environmental protection legislation, and monitoring Arctic environmental quality

  16. The potential for ozone depletion in the Arctic polar stratosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, W.H. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)); Anderson, J.G.; Toohey, D.W. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Fahey, D.W.; Kawa, S.R. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)); Jones, R.L. (Univ. of Cambridge (England)); McKenna, D.S. (United Kingdom Meteorological Office, Berkshire (England)); Poole, L.R. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States))

    1991-05-31

    The nature of the Arctic polar stratosphere is observed to be similar in many respects to that of the Antarctic polar stratosphere, where an ozone hole has been identified. most of the available chlorine (HCl and ClONO{sub 2}) was converted by reactions on polar stratospheric clouds to reactive ClO and Cl{sub 2}O{sub 2} throughout the Arctic polar vortex before midwinter. Reactive nitrogen was converted to HNO{sub 3}, and some, with spatial inhomogeneity, fell out of the stratosphere. These chemical changes ensured characteristic ozone losses of 10 to 15% at altitudes inside the polar vortex where polar stratospheric clouds had occurred. These local losses can translate into 5 to 8% losses in the vertical column abundance of ozone. As the amount of stratospheric chlorine inevitably increases by 50% over the next two decades, ozone losses recognizable as an ozone hole may well appear.

  17. Environmental impact on the polar regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, D.A.; Leighton, E.; Tumeo, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The remote and frigid polar regions are no longer isolated from the activities, pollutants, and controversies that bedevil their more temperate neighbors, say three researchers at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks. For example, Daniel A. Jaffe, Elizabeth Leighton, and Mark A. Tumeo point to traces of DDT, PCBs, and heavy metals that routinely turn up in arctic marine mammals and to the ozone hole over the Antarctic. While similar in environmental makeup, the arctic and Antarctic are poles apart in their political structure and, thus, in their environmental exposure, the researchers note. The Antarctic is managed under a long-standing international treaty, while the arctic is sovereign territory to eight separate nations. The international treaty sets aside the Antarctic for peaceful scientific research within strict environmental boundaries. It bans both military activity and minerals extraction-the two activities that have caused the most damage in the arctic. The main threats to Antarctica's environment come from the intrusion of major scientific research operations and the growing tourism industry. On the other hand, the arctic suffered from the massive Cold War military buildup by both the United States and the former Soviet Union. The environmental residue from that buildup is only now being revealed, the authors say. Major oil and gas drilling and coal and metal-ore mining also have taken a huge environmental toll, they add

  18. Trichinella in arctic, subarctic and temperate regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O

    1997-01-01

    The transmission and occurrence of Trichinella spp according to the zoogeography of different climatic conditions, socioeconomy and human activity are discussed. Comparing arctic, subarctic and temperate regions, it appears that the species of Trichinella present, the composition of the fauna...

  19. Acquatorialities of the Arctic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2013-01-01

    In order to describe the Arctic system I propose using a concept functionally equivalent to territoriality, namely aquatoriality. Whether communicating about territoriality or aquatoriality, concepts and delimitations are both contingent to forms of communication systems. I will distinguish between...

  20. Collaborative Research: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, William J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-12-28

    This project developed and applied a regional Arctic System model for enhanced decadal predictions. It built on successful research by four of the current PIs with support from the DOE Climate Change Prediction Program, which has resulted in the development of a fully coupled Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM) consisting of atmosphere, land-hydrology, ocean and sea ice components. An expanded RACM, a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM), has been set up to include ice sheets, ice caps, mountain glaciers, and dynamic vegetation to allow investigation of coupled physical processes responsible for decadal-scale climate change and variability in the Arctic. RASM can have high spatial resolution (~4-20 times higher than currently practical in global models) to advance modeling of critical processes and determine the need for their explicit representation in Global Earth System Models (GESMs). The pan-Arctic region is a key indicator of the state of global climate through polar amplification. However, a system-level understanding of critical arctic processes and feedbacks needs further development. Rapid climate change has occurred in a number of Arctic System components during the past few decades, including retreat of the perennial sea ice cover, increased surface melting of the Greenland ice sheet, acceleration and thinning of outlet glaciers, reduced snow cover, thawing permafrost, and shifts in vegetation. Such changes could have significant ramifications for global sea level, the ocean thermohaline circulation and heat budget, ecosystems, native communities, natural resource exploration, and commercial transportation. The overarching goal of the RASM project has been to advance understanding of past and present states of arctic climate and to improve seasonal to decadal predictions. To do this the project has focused on variability and long-term change of energy and freshwater flows through the arctic climate system. The three foci of this research are: - Changes

  1. The Drabo corymbosae-Papaveretea dahliani − a new vegetation class of the High Arctic polar deserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëls Fred J. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new class and a new order (Drabo corymbosae-Papaveretea dahliani and Saxifrago oppositifoliae-Papaveretalia dahliani have been described, and the Papaverion dahliani validated. This is vegetation of zonal habitats in lowlands of the High Arctic subzone A (or Arctic herb, cushion forb or polar desert subzone and of ecologically equivalent sites at high altitudes on the mountain plateaus of the High Arctic. The new class spans three continents – North America (Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Greenland, Europe (parts of Svalbard and Franz Josef Land, and Asia, including northern regions of Chelyuskin Peninsula (Taymir Peninsula, Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago and De Longa Islands.

  2. Potential Arctic sea ice refuge for sustaining a remnant polar bear population (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, G. M.; Amstrup, S. C.; Douglas, D. C.; Gautier, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    Polar bears depend on sea ice as a platform from which they capture seals. Sea ice availability must be spatially and temporally adequate for birth and weaning of seal pups, and to maximize seal hunting opportunities for polar bears. Projected declines in the spatial and temporal extent of summer and autumn sea ice could potentially limit the ability of polar bears to build up body stores sufficient to maintain reproductive fitness. General circulation models, however, suggest that summer and autumn sea ice may persist in the shelf waters of the Canadian Archipelago and northern Greenland adjacent to the Arctic basin. While winter-formed ice is important, a primary mechanism for sea ice accumulation in this region is by mechanical thickening of the sea ice facilitated by convergent forces from the Beaufort Gyre and the Transpolar Drift Stream. Collectively these areas could provide a polar bear refugium when other regions have lost the sea ice necessary to support viable populations. The potential for a polar bear refugium, however, must include other resource considerations. Projected declines of sea ice in the Northwest Passage may expose polar bears to hazards related to increase shipping and other commerce. Increasing global demands and limited opportunities elsewhere make the Arctic an increasingly attractive area for petroleum exploration. The Canadian Archipelago coincides with the Sverdrup basin, where petroleum accumulations have already been discovered but as yet are undeveloped. The Lincoln Sea Basin offshore of northern Greenland has the geological possibility of significant petroleum accumulations, and northeastern Greenland is one of the most prospective areas in the Arctic for undiscovered oil. Activities associated with commerce and petroleum development could reduce the potential viability of the region as a polar bear refugium. Hence, if the goal is a sustainable (albeit reduced) polar bear population, important considerations include commerce

  3. Protecting polar wilderness : Just a western philosophical idea or a useful concept for regulating human activities in the polar regions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, Kees; Leary, D.; Koivurova, T.; Alfredsson, G.

    2009-01-01

    Governments involved in Arctic and Antarctic governance have been well aware of the increasing human pressure on the Polar Regions and particularly the last two decades many initiatives have been taken to protect the Arctic and Antarctic environment. But what values are to be protected? This paper

  4. Geographical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Norwegian and Russian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, E; Bernhoft, A; Riget, F; Belikov, S E; Boltunov, A N; Derocher, A E; Garner, G W; Wiig, Ø; Skaare, J U

    2003-05-01

    Geographical variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied in blood samples from 90 adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Kara Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea. In all regions, oxychlordane was the dominant OCP. Regional differences in mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE were found. The highest levels of oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and DDE were found in polar bears from Franz Josef Land and Kara Sea. HCB level was lowest in polar bears from Svalbard. Polar bears from Chukchi Sea had the highest level of alpha- and beta-HCH. The lowest alpha-HCH concentration was found in bears from Kara Sea. In all the bears, summation operator HCHs was dominated by beta-HCH. The geographical variation in OCP levels and pattern may suggest regional differences in pollution sources and different feeding habits in the different regions. Polar bears from the Western Russian Arctic were exposed to higher levels of chlordanes and p,p'-DDE than polar bears from locations westwards and eastwards from this region. This may imply the presence of a significant pollution source in the Russian Arctic area. The study suggests that the western Russian Arctic is the most contaminated region of the Arctic and warrants further research.

  5. Geographical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Norwegian and Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, E.; Bernhoft, A.; Riget, F.; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Derocher, A.E.; Garner, G.W.; Wiig, O.; Skaare, J.U.

    2003-01-01

    Geographical variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied in blood samples from 90 adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Kara Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea. In all regions, oxychlordane was the dominant OCP. Regional differences in mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, ??-HCH, ??-HCH and p,p???-DDE were found. The highest levels of oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and DDE were found in polar bears from Franz Josef Land and Kara Sea. HCB level was lowest in polar bears from Svalbard. Polar bears from Chukchi Sea had the highest level of ??- and ??-HCH. The lowest ??-HCH concentration was found in bears from Kara Sea. In all the bears, ???HCHs was dominated by ??-HCH. The geographical variation in OCP levels and pattern may suggest regional differences in pollution sources and different feeding habits in the different regions. Polar bears from the Western Russian Arctic were exposed to higher levels of chlordanes and p,p???-DDE than polar bears from locations westwards and eastwards from this region. This may imply the presence of a significant pollution source in the Russian Arctic area. The study suggests that the western Russian Arctic is the most contaminated region of the Arctic and warrants further research. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a pan-Arctic monitoring plan for polar bears: Background paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongraven, Dag; Peacock, Lily

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus), by their very nature, and the extreme, remote environment in which they live, are inherently difficult to study and monitor. Monitoring polar bear populations is both arduous and costly and, to be effective, must be a long-term commitment. There are few jurisdictional governments and management boards with a mandate for polar bear research and management, and many have limited resources. Although population monitoring of polar bears has been a focus to some degree within most jurisdictions around the Arctic, of the 19 subpopulations recognised by the IUCN/Species Survival Commission Polar Bear Specialist Group (PBSG), adequate scientific trend data exist for only three of the subpopulations, fair trend data for five and poor or no trend data for the remaining 11 subpopulations (PBSG 2010a). There are especially critical knowledge gaps for the subpopulations in East Greenland, in the Russian Kara and Laptev seas, and in the Chukchi Sea, which is shared between Russia and the United States. The range covered by these subpopulations represents a third of the total area (approx. 23 million km2) of polar bears’ current range, and more than half if the Arctic Basin is included. If we use popular terms, we know close to nothing about polar bears in this portion of their range.As summer sea-ice extent, and to a lesser degree, spring-time extent, continues to retreat, outpacing model forecasts (Stroeve et al. 2007, Pedersen et al. 2009), polar bears face the challenge of adapting to rapidly changing habitats. There is a need to use current and synthesised information across the Arctic, and to develop new methods that will facilitate monitoring to generate new knowledge at a pan-Arctic scale. The circumpolar dimension can be lost when efforts are channelled into regional monitoring. Developing and implementing a plan that harmonises local, regional and global efforts will increase our power to detect and understand important trends for polar

  7. Aerosol Remote Sensing in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Wehrli, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness tau(lambda) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ångström's exponent alpha were calculated. Analyzing these data, the monthly mean values of tau(0.50 micrometers) and alpha and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter-spring and summer-autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of alpha versus tau(0.50 micrometers) showed: (i) a considerable increase in tau(0.50 micrometers) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter-spring, without marked changes in alpha; and (ii) a marked increase in tau(0.50 micrometer) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas alpha decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of tau(lambda) and alpha at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterize vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ålesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of tau(lambda) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were

  8. Changing geo-political realities in the Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes and discusses how Denmark seeks to manage the changing geopolitical realities in the Arctic region specifically focusing on how Denmark seeks to manage its relations with China in the Arctic region.......This article analyzes and discusses how Denmark seeks to manage the changing geopolitical realities in the Arctic region specifically focusing on how Denmark seeks to manage its relations with China in the Arctic region....

  9. Projected polar bear sea ice habitat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen G; Castro de la Guardia, Laura; Derocher, Andrew E; Sahanatien, Vicki; Tremblay, Bruno; Huard, David

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice across the Arctic is declining and altering physical characteristics of marine ecosystems. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have been identified as vulnerable to changes in sea ice conditions. We use sea ice projections for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 2006 - 2100 to gain insight into the conservation challenges for polar bears with respect to habitat loss using metrics developed from polar bear energetics modeling. Shifts away from multiyear ice to annual ice cover throughout the region, as well as lengthening ice-free periods, may become critical for polar bears before the end of the 21st century with projected warming. Each polar bear population in the Archipelago may undergo 2-5 months of ice-free conditions, where no such conditions exist presently. We identify spatially and temporally explicit ice-free periods that extend beyond what polar bears require for nutritional and reproductive demands. Under business-as-usual climate projections, polar bears may face starvation and reproductive failure across the entire Archipelago by the year 2100.

  10. Projected polar bear sea ice habitat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G Hamilton

    Full Text Available Sea ice across the Arctic is declining and altering physical characteristics of marine ecosystems. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus have been identified as vulnerable to changes in sea ice conditions. We use sea ice projections for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 2006 - 2100 to gain insight into the conservation challenges for polar bears with respect to habitat loss using metrics developed from polar bear energetics modeling.Shifts away from multiyear ice to annual ice cover throughout the region, as well as lengthening ice-free periods, may become critical for polar bears before the end of the 21st century with projected warming. Each polar bear population in the Archipelago may undergo 2-5 months of ice-free conditions, where no such conditions exist presently. We identify spatially and temporally explicit ice-free periods that extend beyond what polar bears require for nutritional and reproductive demands.Under business-as-usual climate projections, polar bears may face starvation and reproductive failure across the entire Archipelago by the year 2100.

  11. Effects of Arctic geoengineering on precipitation in the tropical monsoon regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalam, Aditya; Bala, Govindasamy; Modak, Angshuman

    2017-07-01

    Arctic geoengineering wherein sunlight absorption is reduced only in the Arctic has been suggested as a remedial measure to counteract the on-going rapid climate change in the Arctic. Several modeling studies have shown that Arctic geoengineering can minimize Arctic warming but will shift the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) southward, unless offset by comparable geoengineering in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we investigate and quantify the implications of this ITCZ shift due to Arctic geoengineering for the global monsoon regions using the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 coupled to a slab ocean model. A doubling of CO2 from pre-industrial levels leads to a warming of 6 K in the Arctic region and precipitation in the monsoon regions increases by up to 15%. In our Arctic geoengineering simulation which illustrates a plausible latitudinal distribution of the reduction in sunlight, an addition of sulfate aerosols (11 Mt) in the Arctic stratosphere nearly offsets the Arctic warming due to CO2 doubling but this shifts the ITCZ southward by 1.5° relative to the pre-industrial climate. The combined effect from this shift and the residual CO2-induced climate change in the tropics is a decrease/increase in annual mean precipitation in the Northern Hemisphere/Southern Hemisphere monsoon regions by up to -12/+17%. Polar geoengineering where sulfate aerosols are prescribed in both the Arctic (10 Mt) and Antarctic (8 Mt) nearly offsets the ITCZ shift due to Arctic geoengineering, but there is still a residual precipitation increase (up to 7%) in most monsoon regions associated with the residual CO2 induced warming in the tropics. The ITCZ shift due to our Global geoengineering simulation, where aerosols (20 Mt) are prescribed uniformly around the globe, is much smaller and the precipitation changes in most monsoon regions are within ±2% as the residual CO2-induced warming in the tropics is also much less than in Arctic and Polar geoengineering. Further

  12. Airborne lidar observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, L. R.; Kent, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) have been detected repeatedly during Arctic and Antarctic winters since 1978/1979 by the SAM II (Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II) instrument aboard the NIMBUS-7 satellite. PSC's are believed to form when supercooled sulfuric acid droplets freeze, and subsequently grow by deposition of ambient water vapor as the local stratospheric temperature falls below the frost point. In order to study the characteristics of PSC's at higher spatial and temporal resolution than that possible from the satellite observations, aircraft missions were conducted within the Arctic polar night vortex in Jan. 1984 and Jan. 1986 using the NASA Langley Research Center airborne dual polarization ruby lidar system. A synopsis of the 1984 and 1986 PSC observations is presented illustrating short range spatial changes in cloud structure, the variation of backscatter ratio with temperature, and the depolarization characterics of cloud layers. Implications are noted with regard to PSC particle characteristics and the physical process by which the clouds are thougth to form.

  13. Satellite monitoring of impact Arctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondur, V. G.; Vorobev, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    The results of satellite monitoring of the environmental state of impact Arctic regions subjected to heavy anthropogenic influence are given. We analyze arrays of vegetation indices and complex spectral transformations derived from processed long-term (1973-2013) satellite data for areas around the cities of Arkhangelsk and Zapolyarny (Murmansk oblast). These data have been used to evaluate the changes in the state of the environment and reveal areas of peak anthropogenic impacts causing significant morphologic changes in all kinds of geosystems and strongly affecting the Arctic natural ecosystems. We have identified the impact regions that are subjected to peak anthropogenic impact and found that these areas are associated with specific industrial facilities.

  14. An International Polar Year Adventure in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartes, D.

    2008-12-01

    Native students in the UA system who participated in RAHI are nearly twice as likely to earn a bachelor's degree, than those who did not attend RAHI. The past two summers, in celebration of the International Polar Year, in collaboration with Ilisagvik College, at the completion of the traditional RAHI program, ten RAHI students flew to Barrow for an additional two weeks of study. Five students participated in an archaeological dig and five students performed research with the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium scientists studying climate change. And another student was the Alaskan delegate to the Students on Ice, a 2-week ship-based adventure in northern Canada. In addition, ten students from Greenland visited the program, with plans to more fully participate next summer. This added dimension to the program has proved successful, allowing the students to compare and contrast between their own countries and indigenous perspectives. Global warming was an issue that was hotly debated, as its effects are so evident in the Polar Regions. In the Arctic, one's life is directly tied to the ice and snow. As the ice disappears and/or changes, the Indigenous people have to adapt. RAHI would like to share with you some of the results of this past summer's IPY activities.

  15. Plastic ingestion by juvenile polar cod (Boreogadus saida) in the Arctic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühn, Susanne; Schaafsma, Fokje L.; Werven, van Bernike; Flores, Hauke; Bergmann, Melanie; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Tekman, Mine B.; Franeker, van Jan A.

    2018-01-01

    One of the recently recognised stressors in Arctic ecosystems concerns plastic litter. In this study, juvenile polar cod (Boreogadus saida) were investigated for the presence of plastics in their stomachs. Polar cod is considered a key species in the Arctic ecosystem. The fish were collected both

  16. Advancing Environmental Prediction Capabilities for the Polar Regions and Beyond during The Year of Polar Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kirstin; Goessling, Helge; Hoke, Winfried; Kirchhoff, Katharina; Jung, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Environmental changes in polar regions open up new opportunities for economic and societal operations such as vessel traffic related to scientific, fishery and tourism activities, and in the case of the Arctic also enhanced resource development. The availability of current and accurate weather and environmental information and forecasts will therefore play an increasingly important role in aiding risk reduction and safety management around the poles. The Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP) has been established by the World Meteorological Organization's World Weather Research Programme as the key activity of the ten-year Polar Prediction Project (PPP; see more on www.polarprediction.net). YOPP is an internationally coordinated initiative to significantly advance our environmental prediction capabilities for the polar regions and beyond, supporting improved weather and climate services. Scheduled to take place from mid-2017 to mid-2019, the YOPP core phase covers an extended period of intensive observing, modelling, prediction, verification, user-engagement and education activities in the Arctic and Antarctic, on a wide range of time scales from hours to seasons. The Year of Polar Prediction will entail periods of enhanced observational and modelling campaigns in both polar regions. With the purpose to close the gaps in the conventional polar observing systems in regions where the observation network is sparse, routine observations will be enhanced during Special Observing Periods for an extended period of time (several weeks) during YOPP. This will allow carrying out subsequent forecasting system experiments aimed at optimizing observing systems in the polar regions and providing insight into the impact of better polar observations on forecast skills in lower latitudes. With various activities and the involvement of a wide range of stakeholders, YOPP will contribute to the knowledge base needed to managing the opportunities and risks that come with polar climate change.

  17. Increased Arctic Sea Ice Drift Alters Polar Bear Movements and Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, D. C.; Durner, G. M.; Albeke, S. E.; Whiteman, J. P.; Amstrup, S. C.; Richardson, E.; Wilson, R. R.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent thinning of Arctic sea ice has increased its drift from currents and winds. Increased ice drift could affect movements and energy balance of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) which rely, almost exclusively, on this substrate for hunting seals. Foraging by polar bears is a relatively sedentary behavior, as they typically capture their main prey by waiting at breathing holes, where seals haul-out along leads, or by short-distance stalking. We examined the response of polar bears to ice drift in the Beaufort (BS) and Chukchi (CS) seas, and between two periods with different sea ice characteristics: 1987-1998 and 1999-2013. We used satellite-tracked adult female polar bear locations, standardized by a continuous-time correlated random walk, coupled with modeled ice drift, to estimate displacement and drift-corrected bear movements along east-west and north-south axes. Sea ice drift in both regions increased with greater westward and more extreme northward and southward rates from 1987-1998 to 1999-2013. Polar bears responded with greater eastward movements and, in the CS greater movements north and south. We show that efforts by polar bears to compensate for greater westward ice drift in recent years translated into a model-derived estimate of 5.7-7.2% increase in energy expenditure. We also estimated that polar bears increased their travel time 18-20% between the two time periods, suggesting time allocated to foraging was reduced. Increased energetic costs and travel time resulting from greater ice drift, in conjunction with ongoing habitat loss, suggest that recent changes to Arctic sea ice may affect movements and energy balance of polar bears.

  18. The Arctic Human Health Initiative: a legacy of the International Polar Year 2007–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007–2008 represented a unique opportunity to further stimulate cooperation and coordination on Arctic health research and increase the awareness and visibility of Arctic regions. The Arctic Human Health Initiative (AHHI) was a US-led Arctic Council IPY coordinating project that aimed to build and expand on existing International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH) and Arctic Council human health interests. The project aimed to link researchers with potential international collaborators and to serve as a focal point for human health research, education, outreach and communication activities during the IPY. The progress of projects conducted as part of this initiative up until the end of the Arctic Council Swedish chairmanship in May 2013 is summarized in this report. Design The overall goals of the AHHI was to increase awareness and visibility of human health concerns of Arctic peoples, foster human health research, and promote health strategies that will improve health and well-being of all Arctic residents. Proposed activities to be recognized through the initiative included: expanding research networks that will enhance surveillance and monitoring of health issues of concern to Arctic peoples, and increase collaboration and coordination of human health research; fostering research that will examine the health impact of anthropogenic pollution, rapid modernization and economic development, climate variability, infectious and chronic diseases, intentional and unintentional injuries, promoting education, outreach and communication that will focus public and political attention on Arctic health issues, using a variety of publications, printed and electronic reports from scientific conferences, symposia and workshops targeting researchers, students, communities and policy makers; promoting the translation of research into health policy and community action including implementation of prevention strategies and health

  19. Increased Arctic sea ice drift alters adult female polar bear movements and energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M; Douglas, David C; Albeke, Shannon E; Whiteman, John P; Amstrup, Steven C; Richardson, Evan; Wilson, Ryan R; Ben-David, Merav

    2017-09-01

    Recent reductions in thickness and extent have increased drift rates of Arctic sea ice. Increased ice drift could significantly affect the movements and the energy balance of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) which forage, nearly exclusively, on this substrate. We used radio-tracking and ice drift data to quantify the influence of increased drift on bear movements, and we modeled the consequences for energy demands of adult females in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas during two periods with different sea ice characteristics. Westward and northward drift of the sea ice used by polar bears in both regions increased between 1987-1998 and 1999-2013. To remain within their home ranges, polar bears responded to the higher westward ice drift with greater eastward movements, while their movements north in the spring and south in fall were frequently aided by ice motion. To compensate for more rapid westward ice drift in recent years, polar bears covered greater daily distances either by increasing their time spent active (7.6%-9.6%) or by increasing their travel speed (8.5%-8.9%). This increased their calculated annual energy expenditure by 1.8%-3.6% (depending on region and reproductive status), a cost that could be met by capturing an additional 1-3 seals/year. Polar bears selected similar habitats in both periods, indicating that faster drift did not alter habitat preferences. Compounding reduced foraging opportunities that result from habitat loss; changes in ice drift, and associated activity increases, likely exacerbate the physiological stress experienced by polar bears in a warming Arctic. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Thomas, Robert H.; Abdalati, Waleed (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA) is a NASA-sponsored initiative with the prime objective of understanding the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. In October 1998, PARCA investigators met to review activities of the previous year, assess the program's progress, and plan future investigations directed at accomplishing that objective. Some exciting results were presented and discussed, including evidence of dramatic thinning of the ice sheet near the southeastern coast. Details of the investigations and many of the accomplishments are given in this report, but major highlights are given in the Executive Summary of the report.

  1. Hematology of southern Beaufort Sea polar bears (2005-2007): Biomarker for an arctic ecosystem health sentinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Cassandra M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Swor, Rhonda; Holcomb, Darce; O'Hara, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Declines in sea-ice habitats have resulted in declining stature, productivity, and survival of polar bears in some regions. With continuing sea-ice declines, negative population effects are projected to expand throughout the polar bear's range. Precise causes of diminished polar bear life history performance are unknown, however, climate and sea-ice condition change are expected to adversely impact polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health and population dynamics. As apex predators in the Arctic, polar bears integrate the status of lower trophic levels and are therefore sentinels of ecosystem health. Arctic residents feed at the apex of the ecosystem, thus polar bears can serve as indicators of human health in the Arctic. Despite their value as indicators of ecosystem welfare, population-level health data for U.S. polar bears are lacking. We present hematological reference ranges for southern Beaufort Sea polar bears. Hematological parameters in southern Beaufort Sea polar bears varied by age, geographic location, and reproductive status. Total leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and serum immunoglobulin G were significantly greater in males than females. These measures were greater in nonlactating females ages ???5, than lactating adult females ages ???5, suggesting that females encumbered by young may be less resilient to new immune system challenges that may accompany ongoing climate change. Hematological values established here provide a necessary baseline for anticipated changes in health as arctic temperatures warm and sea-ice declines accelerate. Data suggest that females with dependent young may be most vulnerable to these changes and should therefore be a targeted cohort for monitoring in this sentinel. ?? 2010 International Association for Ecology and Health.

  2. Hematology of southern Beaufort Sea polar bears (2005-2007): biomarker for an Arctic ecosystem health sentinel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Cassandra M; Amstrup, Steven; Swor, Rhonda; Holcomb, Darce; O'Hara, Todd M

    2010-09-01

    Declines in sea-ice habitats have resulted in declining stature, productivity, and survival of polar bears in some regions. With continuing sea-ice declines, negative population effects are projected to expand throughout the polar bear's range. Precise causes of diminished polar bear life history performance are unknown, however, climate and sea-ice condition change are expected to adversely impact polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health and population dynamics. As apex predators in the Arctic, polar bears integrate the status of lower trophic levels and are therefore sentinels of ecosystem health. Arctic residents feed at the apex of the ecosystem, thus polar bears can serve as indicators of human health in the Arctic. Despite their value as indicators of ecosystem welfare, population-level health data for U.S. polar bears are lacking. We present hematological reference ranges for southern Beaufort Sea polar bears. Hematological parameters in southern Beaufort Sea polar bears varied by age, geographic location, and reproductive status. Total leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and serum immunoglobulin G were significantly greater in males than females. These measures were greater in nonlactating females ages ≥5, than lactating adult females ages ≥5, suggesting that females encumbered by young may be less resilient to new immune system challenges that may accompany ongoing climate change. Hematological values established here provide a necessary baseline for anticipated changes in health as arctic temperatures warm and sea-ice declines accelerate. Data suggest that females with dependent young may be most vulnerable to these changes and should therefore be a targeted cohort for monitoring in this sentinel.

  3. Arctic projects of the Arkhangelsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey V. Alsufev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the implementation of the state order for military defense products and the potential of Severodvinsk shipyards and shipbuilding innovative cluster. The area has a number of successfully implemented projects in the region and development industry for diamond deposits. The project aimed at development of lead-zinc deposit “Pavlovsk” on the Novaya Zemlya is done. Arkhangelsk region becomes a leader in the development of bioenergy on the principles of “green economy”, and it operates an innovative timber cluster “PomorInnovaLes”. The real breakthrough is the establishment of the RAS Federal Research Center for the complex study of the Arctic in Arkhangelsk. In general, our region is not just the area occupied with generating new ideas and projects, but also preserving cultural and historical traditions.

  4. A Modeling Study of the Initial Formation of Polar Lows in the Vicinity of the Arctic Front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Mingalev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A regional mathematical model of the wind system of the lower atmosphere, developed recently in the Polar Geophysical Institute, is applied to investigate the initial stage of the formation of polar lows at latitudes of the European Arctic. The mathematical model is based on numerical solving of nonsimplified gas dynamic equations and produces three-dimensional distributions of the atmospheric parameters in the height range from 0 to 15 km over a limited region of the Earth’s surface. Simulation results indicated that the origin of a convexity in the configuration of the arctic front can lead to the formation of a polar low during the period of about one day.

  5. Changing Arctic Ecosystems: Updated forecast: Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions required to improve polar bear outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Karen L.; Atwood, Todd C.; Mugel, Douglas N.; Rode, Karyn D.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than other regions of the world due to the loss of snow and ice, which increases the amount of solar energy absorbed by the region. The most visible consequence has been the rapid decline in sea ice over the last 3 decades-a decline projected to bring long ice-free summers if greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are not significantly reduced. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) depends on sea ice over the biologically productive continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean as a platform for hunting seals. In 2008, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the polar bear as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) due to the threat posed by sea ice loss. The polar bear was the first species to be listed due to forecasted population declines from climate change.

  6. Arctic (and Antarctic) Observing Experiment - an Assessment of Methods to Measure Temperature over Polar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigor, I. G.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Woods, J. E.; Henderson, G. R.; Zook, J.; Marshall, C.; Gallage, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic environment has been undergoing profound changes; the most visible is the dramatic decrease in Arctic sea ice extent (SIE). These changes pose a challenge to our ability to measure surface temperature across the Polar Regions. Traditionally, the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP) and International Programme for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB) have measured surface air temperature (SAT) at 2-m height, which minimizes the ambiguity of measurements near of the surface. Specifically, is the temperature sensor measuring open water, snow, sea ice, or air? But now, with the dramatic decrease in Arctic SIE, increase in open water during summer, and the frailty of the younger sea ice pack, the IABP has had to deploy and develop new instruments to measure temperature. These instruments include Surface Velocity Program (SVP) buoys, which are commonly deployed on the world's ice-free oceans and typically measure sea surface temperature (SST), and the new robust Airborne eXpendable Ice Beacons (AXIB), which measure both SST and SAT. "Best Practice" requires that these instruments are inter-compared, and early results showing differences in collocated temperature measurements of over 2°C prompted the establishment of the IABP Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) buoy test site at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Barrow, Alaska. Preliminary results showed that the color of the hull of SVP buoys introduces a bias due to solar heating of the buoy. Since then, we have recommended that buoys should be painted white to reduce biases in temperature measurements due to different colors of the buoys deployed in different regions of the Arctic or the Antarctic. Measurements of SAT are more robust, but some of the temperature shields are susceptible to frosting. During our presentation we will provide an intercomparison of the temperature measurements at the AOX test site (i.e. high quality DOE/ARM observations compared with

  7. Mercury speciation in brain tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Anke; Kwan, Michael; Chan, Hing Man

    2012-04-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxicant that has been found at elevated concentrations in the Arctic ecosystem. Little is known about its internal dose in wildlife such as polar bears. We measured concentrations of mercury (Hg) in three different brain regions (cerebellum, frontal lobe and brain stem) of 24 polar bears collected from the Nunavik, Canada between 2000 and 2003. Speciation of Hg was measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (HPLC-ICP-MS). Concentrations of mean total Hg in brain tissue were up to 625 times lower (0.28 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) in frontal lobe, 0.23 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) dw in cerebellum and 0.12 ± 0.0 3mg kg(-1) dw in brain stem) than the mean total Hg concentration previously reported in polar bear liver collected from Eastern Baffin Island. Methylmercury (MeHg) accounted for 100% of the Hg found in all three brain regions analyzed. These results suggest that polar bear might reduce the toxic effects of Hg by limiting the uptake into the brain and/or decrease the rate of demethylation so that Hg can be excreted from the brain more easily. The toxicokinetics and the blood-brain-barrier mechanisms of polar bears are still unknown and further research is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying polar bear resource selection patterns to inform offshore development in a dynamic and changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Horne, Jon S.; Rode, Karyn D.; Regehr, Eric V.; Durner, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although sea ice loss is the primary threat to polar bears (Ursus maritimus), little can be done to mitigate its effects without global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Other factors, however, could exacerbate the impacts of sea ice loss on polar bears, such as exposure to increased industrial activity. The Arctic Ocean has enormous oil and gas potential, and its development is expected to increase in the coming decades. Estimates of polar bear resource selection will inform managers how bears use areas slated for oil development and to help guide conservation planning. We estimated temporally-varying resource selection patterns for non-denning adult female polar bears in the Chukchi Sea population (2008–2012) at two scales (i.e., home range and weekly steps) to identify factors predictive of polar bear use throughout the year, before any offshore development. From the best models at each scale, we estimated scale-integrated resource selection functions to predict polar bear space use across the population's range and determined when bears were most likely to use the region where offshore oil and gas development in the United States is slated to occur. Polar bears exhibited significant intra-annual variation in selection patterns at both scales but the strength and annual patterns of selection differed between scales for most variables. Bears were most likely to use the offshore oil and gas planning area during ice retreat and growth with the highest predicted use occurring in the southern portion of the planning area. The average proportion of predicted high-value habitat in the planning area was >15% of the total high-value habitat for the population during sea ice retreat and growth and reached a high of 50% during November 2010. Our results provide a baseline on which to judge future changes to non-denning adult female polar bear resource selection in the Chukchi Sea and help guide offshore development in the region. Lastly, our study provides a

  9. Arctic Observing Experiment - An Assessment of Instruments Used to Monitor the Polar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigor, I. G.; Johnson, J.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Woods, J. E.; Valentic, T. A.; Henderson, G. R.; Marshall, C.; Gallage, C.; Zook, J.; Davis, Z.

    2014-12-01

    To understand and predict weather and climate require an accurate observing network that measures the fundamental meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, and wind. Measuring these parameters autonomously in the polar regions is especially challenging. To assess the accuracy of polar measurement networks, we established the Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) test site in March 2013 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation and Meteorology (ARM) site in Barrow, Alaska. We deployed a myriad of data loggers and autonomous buoys, which represent most of the instruments that are commonly deployed by the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP) to measure temperature, air pressure and wind. Estimates of temperature over this area have also been analyzed from satellites (e.g., using the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ice-surface temperature (IST)) product, and can complement data from in-situ sensors and provide consistent measurements under clear-sky conditions. Preliminary results reveal that some of the buoys are susceptible to solar heating, icing can block barometers for short periods, and frosting may insulate air temperature sensors and freeze-lock anemometers. Some of these issues may be addressed by simply painting the buoys white to reduce solar heating of the buoys, and using better temperature shields and barometer ports. Nevertheless, frosting of ultrasonic and mechanical anemometers remains a significant challenge. These results will be useful to initiate a protocol to obtain accurate and consistent measurements from the IABP, the Arctic Observing Network (AON), the International Program for Antarctic Buoys, and the Southern Ocean Observing System to monitor polar environments.

  10. 'Unstructured Data' Practices in Polar Institutions and Networks: a Case Study with the Arctic Options Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthur Berkman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arctic Options: Holistic Integration for Arctic Coastal-Marine Sustainability is a new three-year research project to assess future infrastructure associated with the Arctic Ocean regarding: (1 natural and living environment; (2 built environment; (3 natural resource development; and (4 governance. For the assessments, Arctic Options will generate objective relational schema from numeric data as well as textual data. This paper will focus on the ‘long tail of smaller, heterogeneous, and often unstructured datasets’ that ‘usually receive minimal data management consideration’,as observed in the 2013 Communiqué from the International Forum on Polar Data Activities in Global Data Systems.

  11. Collaborative Proposal: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

    2016-10-17

    This project aims to develop, apply and evaluate a regional Arctic System model (RASM) for enhanced decadal predictions. Its overarching goal is to advance understanding of the past and present states of arctic climate and to facilitate improvements in seasonal to decadal predictions. In particular, it will focus on variability and long-term change of energy and freshwater flows through the arctic climate system. The project will also address modes of natural climate variability as well as extreme and rapid climate change in a region of the Earth that is: (i) a key indicator of the state of global climate through polar amplification and (ii) which is undergoing environmental transitions not seen in instrumental records. RASM will readily allow the addition of other earth system components, such as ecosystem or biochemistry models, thus allowing it to facilitate studies of climate impacts (e.g., droughts and fires) and of ecosystem adaptations to these impacts. As such, RASM is expected to become a foundation for more complete Arctic System models and part of a model hierarchy important for improving climate modeling and predictions.

  12. Pliocene warmth, polar amplification, and stepped Pleistocene cooling recorded in NE Arctic Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham-Grette, Julie; Melles, Martin; Minyuk, Pavel; Andreev, Andrei; Tarasov, Pavel; DeConto, Robert; Koenig, Sebastian; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Wennrich, Volker; Rosén, Peter; Haltia, Eeva; Cook, Tim; Gebhardt, Catalina; Meyer-Jacob, Carsten; Snyder, Jeff; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2013-06-21

    Understanding the evolution of Arctic polar climate from the protracted warmth of the middle Pliocene into the earliest glacial cycles in the Northern Hemisphere has been hindered by the lack of continuous, highly resolved Arctic time series. Evidence from Lake El'gygytgyn, in northeast (NE) Arctic Russia, shows that 3.6 to 3.4 million years ago, summer temperatures were ~8°C warmer than today, when the partial pressure of CO2 was ~400 parts per million. Multiproxy evidence suggests extreme warmth and polar amplification during the middle Pliocene, sudden stepped cooling events during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition, and warmer than present Arctic summers until ~2.2 million years ago, after the onset of Northern Hemispheric glaciation. Our data are consistent with sea-level records and other proxies indicating that Arctic cooling was insufficient to support large-scale ice sheets until the early Pleistocene.

  13. PolarPortal.org Communicates Real-Time Developments in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, P. L.; Andersen, S. B.; Andersen, K. K.; Andersen, M. L.; Ahlstrom, A. P.; van As, D.; Barletta, V. R.; Box, J. E.; Citterio, M.; Colgan, W. T.; Dybkjær, G.; Forsberg, R.; Høyer, J. L.; Jensen, M. B.; Kliem, N.; Mottram, R.; Nielsen, K. P.; Olesen, M.; Quaglia, F. C.; Rasmussen, T. A.; Rodehacke, C. B.; Stendel, M.; Sandberg Sørensen, L.; Tonboe, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    PolarPortal.org was launched in June 2013 by a consortium of Danish institutions, including the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the National Space Institute at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU-Space). Polar Portal is a single web portal presenting a wide range of near real-time information on both the Greenland ice sheet and Arctic sea-ice in a format geared for non-specialists. Polar Portal aims to meet widespread public interest in a diverse range of climate-cryosphere processes in the Arctic: What is the present Greenland ice sheet contribution to sea level rise? How quickly are outlet glaciers retreating or advancing right now? How extensive is Arctic sea-ice or how warm is the Arctic Ocean at this moment? Although public interest in such topics is widely acknowledged, an important primary task for the scientists behind Polar Portal was collaborating with media specialists to establish the knowledge range of the general public on these topics, in order for Polar Portal to appropriately present useful climate-cryosphere information. Consequently, Polar Portal is designed in a highly visual exploratory format, where individual data products are accompanied by plain written summaries, with hyperlinks to relevant journal papers for more scrutinizing users. Numerous satellite and in situ observations, together with model output, are channeled daily into the Greenland ice sheet and Arctic sea-ice divisions of Polar Portal.

  14. Arctic microbial ecosystems and impacts of extreme warming during the International Polar Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Warwick F.; Whyte, Lyle G.; Lovejoy, Connie; Greer, Charles W.; Laurion, Isabelle; Suttle, Curtis A.; Corbeil, Jacques; Mueller, Derek R.

    2009-11-01

    As a contribution to the International Polar Year program MERGE (Microbiological and Ecological Responses to Global Environmental change in polar regions), studies were conducted on the terrestrial and aquatic microbial ecosystems of northern Canada (details at: http://www.cen.ulaval.ca/merge/). The habitats included permafrost soils, saline coldwater springs, supraglacial lakes on ice shelves, epishelf lakes in fjords, deep meromictic lakes, and shallow lakes, ponds and streams. Microbiological samples from each habitat were analysed by HPLC pigment assays, light and fluorescence microscopy, and DNA sequencing. The results show a remarkably diverse microflora of viruses, Archaea (including ammonium oxidisers and methanotrophs), Bacteria (including filamentous sulfur-oxidisers in a saline spring and benthic mats of Cyanobacteria in many waterbodies), and protists (including microbial eukaryotes in snowbanks and ciliates in ice-dammed lakes). In summer 2008, we recorded extreme warming at Ward Hunt Island and vicinity, the northern limit of the Canadian high Arctic, with air temperatures up to 20.5 °C. This was accompanied by pronounced changes in microbial habitats: deepening of the permafrost active layer; loss of perennial lake ice and sea ice; loss of ice-dammed freshwater lakes; and 23% loss of total ice shelf area, including complete break-up and loss of the Markham Ice Shelf cryo-ecosystem. These observations underscore the vulnerability of Arctic microbial ecosystems to ongoing climate change.

  15. Correlations of mesospheric winds with subtle motion of the Arctic polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bhattacharya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between high latitude upper mesospheric winds and the state of the stratospheric polar vortex in the absence of major sudden stratospheric warmings. A ground based Michelson Interferometer stationed at Resolute Bay (74°43' N, 94°58' W in the Canadian High Arctic is used to measure mesopause region neutral winds using the hydroxyl (OH Meinel-band airglow emission (central altitude of ~85 km. These observed winds are compared to analysis winds in the upper stratosphere during November and December of 1995 and 1996; years characterized as cold, stable polar vortex periods. Correlation of mesopause wind speeds with those from the upper stratosphere is found to be significant for the 1996 season when the polar vortex is subtly displaced off its initial location by a strong Aleutian High. These mesopause winds are observed to lead stratospheric winds by approximately two days with increasing (decreasing mesospheric winds predictive of decreasing (increasing stratospheric winds. No statistically significant correlations are found for the 1995 season when there is no such displacement of the polar vortex.

  16. Satellite Data Sets in the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have generated about two decades of consistently derived geophysical parameters in the polar regions. The key parameters are sea ice concentration, surface temperature, albedo, and cloud cover statistics. Sea ice concentrations were derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) data and the Special Scanning Cl Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data from several platforms using the enhanced Bootstrap Algorithm for the period 1978 through 1999. The new algorithm reduces the errors associated with spatial and temporal variations in the emissivity and surface temperatures of sea ice. Also, bad data at ocean/land interfaces are identified and deleted in an unsupervised manner. Surface ice temperature, albedo and cloud cover statistics are derived simultaneously from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data from 1981 through 1999 and mapped at a higher resolution but the same format as the ice concentration data. The technique makes use these co-registered ice concentration maps to enable cloud masking to be done separately for open ocean, sea ice and land areas. The effect of inversion is minimized by taking into consideration the expected changes in the effect of inversion with altitude, especially in the Antarctic. A technique for ice type regional classification has also been developed using multichannel cluster analysis and a neural network. This provide a means to identify large areas of thin ice, first year ice, and older ice types. The data sets have been shown to be coherent with each other and provide a powerful tool for in depth studies of the currently changing Arctic and Antarctic environment.

  17. Rapid disturbances in Arctic permafrost regions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    ponds have been forming indicate a broad range of possible biogeochemical feedbacks that require further study. Finally, thermokarst lake drainage observed in regions of continuous permafrost shows that local permafrost degradation, such as thermo-erosional gully formation, may increase permafrost extent in a region, in particular by new permafrost aggradation in freshly exposed, refreezing lake basin sediments. Thermokarst lake drainage across all types of permafrost extent increases habitat diversity, is important for regional biogeochemical cycling, and results in carbon sequestration. While all three disturbance types differ in spatial scale and current abundance, they also point at specific vulnerabilities of permafrost landscapes that are tied to local factors such as ground ice, highlight critical knowledge gaps for predictive ecosystem and biogeochemical models, and indicate the potential for rapid, substantial, and surprising changes in a future warmer Arctic.

  18. Arctic Ocean Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0115771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Arctic Ocean, NCEI developed a new set of high-resolution...

  19. The Arctic: One Region, One Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    law and through diplomatic means .12 The US is in alignment with the other Arctic nations in resolving disputes peacefully, but the US also...fishing, ecotourism , new maritime trade routes and energy exploration, but also introducing diplomatic, security, economic, and environmental challenges...instrument is a means to support foreign policy, not the other way around. The US ARP and the suggested NORTHCOM GCC structure in the Arctic are

  20. Verification of global numerical weather forecasting systems in polar regions using TIGGE data

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Thomas; Matsueda, Mio

    2016-01-01

    High-latitude climate change is expected to increase the demand for reliable weather and environmental forecasts in polar regions. In this study, a quantitative assessment of the skill of state-of-the-art global weather prediction systems in polar regions is given using data from the THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) for the period 2006/2007 – 2012/2013. Forecast skill in the Arctic is comparable to that found in the North- ern Hemisphere ...

  1. Modern Perspectives for Tactical Level Operations in the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    the Arctic region. The benefits of an analysis of current Russian capabilities will be important for future military leaders of the U.S. in confronting ...capabilities will be important for future military leaders in confronting problems in conducting combat operations in the Arctic environment. By...during Soviet times. These principles are: “high importance of the ideological component and pedagogical training of petty officers, the personnel

  2. Arctide2017, a high-resolution regional tidal model in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancet, M.; Andersen, O. B.; Lyard, F.

    2018-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is a challenging region for tidal modelling. The accuracy of the global tidal models decreases by several centimeters in the Polar Regions, which has a large impact on the quality of the satellite altimeter sea surface heights and the altimetry-derived products. NOVELTIS, DTU Space...... and LEGOS have developed Arctide2017, a regional, high-resolution tidal atlas in the Arctic Ocean, in the framework of an extension of the CryoSat Plus for Ocean (CP4O) ESA STSE (Support to Science Element) project. In particular, this atlas benefits from the assimilation of the most complete satellite...... altimetry dataset ever used in this region, including Envisat data up to 82°N and CryoSat-2 data between 82°N and 88°N. The combination of these satellite altimetry missions gives the best possible coverage of altimetry-derived tidal constituents. The available tide gauge data were also used for data...

  3. Polar bear maternal den habitat in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ambrosius, Ken J.

    2006-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth during mid-winter in dens of ice and snow. Denning polar bears subjected to human disturbances may abandon dens before their altricial young can survive the rigors of the Arctic winter. Because the Arctic coastal plain of Alaska is an area of high petroleum potential and contains existing and planned oil field developments, the distribution of polar bear dens on the plain is of interest to land managers. Therefore, as part of a study of denning habitats along the entire Arctic coast of Alaska, we examined high-resolution aerial photographs (n = 1655) of the 7994 km2 coastal plain included in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) and mapped 3621 km of bank habitat suitable for denning by polar bears. Such habitats were distributed uniformly and comprised 0.29% (23.2 km2) of the coastal plain between the Canning River and the Canadian border. Ground-truth sampling suggested that we had correctly identified 91.5% of bank denning habitats on the ANWR coastal plain. Knowledge of the distribution of these habitats will help facilitate informed management of human activities and minimize disruption of polar bears in maternal dens.

  4. Possible effects of climate warming on selected populations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirling, I. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Parkinson, C.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Cryospheric Sciences Branch

    2006-09-15

    Climate warming in the Arctic has caused declines in the total cover and thickness of sea ice. Intuit hunters in the areas of some polar bear populations in the eastern Canadian Arctic have noted that more bears have approached human settlements during open-water periods in recent years. The observations have been interpreted as evidence of increasing polar bear population size, and have resulted in increases in hunting quotas. However, research on 2 polar bear populations in Western Hudson Bay and Baffin Bay suggest that their numbers are declining. This paper evaluated patterns of sea-ice breakup and freeze-up in 5 regions to test the hypothesis that sightings of more polar bears are due in part to changes in sea ice. The regions were based on the accepted boundaries of the polar bear management zones used by government agencies in Canada and Greenland. Areas included Foxe Basin; Baffin Bay; Davis Strait; Hudson Strait; and Eastern Hudson Bay. Analysis of passive-microwave satellite imagery beginning in the 1970s has indicated that sea ice is breaking up at progressively earlier dates, so that bears must fast for longer periods during the open-water periods. This paper suggested that polar bears are being observed close to human settlements as they are searching for alternative food sources in years when their stored body fat is depleted before freeze-up, when they can return to the sea ice to hunt for seals. It was suggested that if the climate continues to warm as projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, polar bears in all 5 populations discussed in the paper will become increasingly food-stressed, and that their numbers are likely to decline. It was suggested that problem interactions between bears and humans will also increase as the bears seek alternative food sources. It was concluded that a precautionary approach should be taken to the harvesting of polar bears. The potential effects of climate warming should be incorporated into

  5. Human-polar bear interactions in a changing Arctic: Existing and emerging concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Todd C.; Simac, Kristin; Breck, Stewart; York, Geoff; Wilder, James

    2017-01-01

    The behavior and sociality of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have been shaped by evolved preferences for sea ice habitat and preying on marine mammals. However, human behavior is causing changes to the Arctic marine ecosystem through the influence of greenhouse gas emissions that drive long-term change in ecosystem processes and via the presence of in situ stressors associated with increasing human activities. These changes are making it more difficult for polar bears to reliably use their traditional habitats and maintain fitness. Here, we provide an overview of how human activities in the Arctic are likely to change a polar bear’s behavior and to influence their resilience to environmental change. Developing a more thorough understanding of polar bear behavior and their capacity for flexibility in response to anthropogenic disturbances and subsequent mitigations may lead to successful near-term management interventions.

  6. Integrating Access to Arctic Environmental Change and Human Health Research for the International Polar Year and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, C. L.

    2006-12-01

    Each day, people in the communities of the Arctic face challenges to their health and well-being from changing climatic and environmental conditions and increasing levels of pollution to emerging infectious diseases. For this reason, it is critical that Arctic researchers and residents have access to timely, accurate, and relevant information addressing their unique concerns. To meet this need, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA) have developed the Arctic Health website, www.arctichealth.org. The website provides an easy-to-use one-stop shop for information on the diverse health-related aspects of the Arctic region. It is organized around relevant topics, including climate change and environmental health, traditional healing and telehealth/telemedicine. The Arctic Health website provides links to the most reliable resources available from local, state, and international agencies, universities, and professional organizations. Two major goals of the site are to create a comprehensive, accessible repository for various media and a listing of research projects, past and present that relate to climate change and human health in the Arctic. To increase the site's relevance, the project has established and continues to create collaborations with researchers, communities, and other organizations to supply publications not available elsewhere, including gray literature, streaming video of traditional healers, and oral histories. These collaborations will also help ensure a database with a comprehensive list of research projects being done in the Arctic, from the international to the local level. Finding ways to negotiate the legal, cultural and national concerns of data sharing are a continuing job for the management team. All of this helps to create a system that will eventually track and ensure that data and reports from the research database translate to the publications database. As part of these efforts, the site is

  7. Arctic Region Space Weather Customers and SSA Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Per; Kauristi, Kirsti; Wintoft, Peter

    and communication can be established without errors resulting from Space Weather effects. An ESA project have identified and clarified, how the products of the four ESA Space Weather Expert Service Centres (SWE) in the ESA Space Situational Awareness Programme (SSA), can contribute to the requirements of SSA...... services in Arctic, and how new products and services need to be developed and implemented in the roadmap of SWE for Arctic region network services. An important element in the project is the end-user requirements and needs in the public and commercial sector. A detailed user-survey and interviews with key......-companies in the region have been performed. The outcome has been analysed in view of the present SWE system, and products and suggestions to a roadmap for the development of coming Arctic region SSA services, have been established....

  8. Seismicity, structure and tectonics in the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kanao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The “Arctic” region, where the North Pole occupies the center of the Arctic Ocean, has been affecting the environmental variation of the Earth from geological time to the present. However, the seismic activities in the area are not adequately monitored. Therefore, by conducting long term monitoring of seismic phenomenon as sustainable parameters, our understanding of both the tectonic evolution of the Earth and the dynamic interaction between the cryosphere and geosphere in surface layers of the Earth will increase. In this paper, the association of the seismicity and structure of the Arctic region, particularly focused on Eurasian continent and surrounding oceans, and its relationship with regional evolution during the Earth's history is studied. The target areas cover representative tectonic provinces in the Eurasian Arctic, such as the wide area of Siberia, Baikal Rift Zone, Far East Russia, Arctic Ocean together with Greenland and Northern Canada. Based on discussion including characteristics of seismicity, heterogeneous structure of the crust and upper mantle, tectonic history and recent dynamic features of the Earth's surface in the Arctic are summarized.

  9. Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: Responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozema, Jelte; Boelen, Peter; Blokker, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to experimentally varied UV-B through supplementation or exclusion. In supplementation studies comparing ambient and above ambient UV-B, no effect on growth occurred. UV-B-induced DNA damage, as measured in polar bryophytes, is repaired overnight by photoreactivation. With UV exclusion, growth at near ambient may be less than at below ambient UV-B levels, which relates to the UV response curve of polar plants. UV-B screening foils also alter PAR, humidity, and temperature and interactions of UV with environmental factors may occur. Plant phenolics induced by solar UV-B, as in pollen, spores and lignin, may serve as a climate proxy for past UV. Since the Antarctic and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems differ essentially (e.g. higher species diversity and more trophic interactions in the Arctic), generalization of polar plant responses to UV-B needs caution. - Polar plant responses to UV-B may be different in the Arctic than Antarctic regions

  10. Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: Responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozema, Jelte [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jelte.rozema@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Boelen, Peter [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Blokker, Peter [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to experimentally varied UV-B through supplementation or exclusion. In supplementation studies comparing ambient and above ambient UV-B, no effect on growth occurred. UV-B-induced DNA damage, as measured in polar bryophytes, is repaired overnight by photoreactivation. With UV exclusion, growth at near ambient may be less than at below ambient UV-B levels, which relates to the UV response curve of polar plants. UV-B screening foils also alter PAR, humidity, and temperature and interactions of UV with environmental factors may occur. Plant phenolics induced by solar UV-B, as in pollen, spores and lignin, may serve as a climate proxy for past UV. Since the Antarctic and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems differ essentially (e.g. higher species diversity and more trophic interactions in the Arctic), generalization of polar plant responses to UV-B needs caution. - Polar plant responses to UV-B may be different in the Arctic than Antarctic regions.

  11. An assessment of ten ocean reanalyses in the polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uotila, Petteri

    2017-04-01

    Ocean reanalysis (ORA) combines observations either statistically or with a hydrodynamical model, to reconstruct historical changes in the ocean. Global and regional ORA products are increasingly used in polar research, but their quality remains to be systematically assessed. To address this, the Polar ORA Intercomparison Project (PORA-IP) has been established following on from the ORA-IP project (Balmaseda et al. 2015, with other papers in a special issue of Climate Dynamics). The PORA-IP is constituted under the COST EOS initiative with plans to review reanalyses products in both the Arctic and Antarctic, and is endorsed by YOPP - the Year of Polar Prediction project. Currently, the PORA-IP team consists of 21 researchers from 15 institutes and universities. The ORA-IP products with polar physics, such as sea ice, have been updated where necessary and collected in a public database. In addition to model output, available observational polar climatologies are collected and used in the assessments. Due to the extensive variety of products, this database should become a valuable resource outside the PORA-IP community. For a comprehensive evaluation of the ten ORA products (CGLORSv5, ECDA3.1, GECCO2, Glorys2v4, GloSea5_GO5, MOVEG2i, ORAP5, SODA3.3.1, TOPAZ4 and UR025.4) in the Arctic and Southern Oceans several specific diagnostics are assessed. The PORA-IP diagnostics target the following topics: hydrography; heat, salinity and freshwater content; ocean transports and surface currents; mixed layer depth; sea-ice concentration and thickness; and snow thickness over sea ice. Based on these diagnostics, ORA product biases against observed data and their mutual spread are quantified, and possible reasons for discrepancies discussed. So far, we have identified product outliers and evaluated the multi-model mean. We have identified the importance of the atmospheric forcing, air-ocean coupling protocol and sea-ice data assimilation for the product performance. Moreover, we

  12. Biological Rhythms During Residence in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    At Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, personnel are deprived of natural sunlight in winter and have continuous daylight in summer: light of sufficient intensity and suitable spectral composition is the main factor that maintains the 24-h period of human circadian rhythms. Thus, the status of the circadian system is of interest. Moreover, the relatively controlled artificial light conditions in winter are conducive to experimentation with different types of light treatment. The hormone melatonin and/or its metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) provide probably the best index of circadian (and seasonal) timing. A frequent observation has been a delay of the circadian system in winter. A skeleton photoperiod (2 × 1-h, bright white light, morning and evening) can restore summer timing. A single 1-h pulse of light in the morning may be sufficient. A few people desynchronize from the 24-h day (free-run) and show their intrinsic circadian period, usually >24 h. With regard to general health in polar regions, intermittent reports describe abnormalities in various physiological processes from the point of view of daily and seasonal rhythms, but positive health outcomes are also published. True winter depression (SAD) appears to be rare, although subsyndromal SAD is reported. Probably of most concern are the numerous reports of sleep problems. These have prompted investigations of the underlying mechanisms and treatment interventions. A delay of the circadian system with “normal” working hours implies sleep is attempted at a suboptimal phase. Decrements in sleep efficiency, latency, duration, and quality are also seen in winter. Increasing the intensity of ambient light exposure throughout the day advanced circadian phase and was associated with benefits for sleep: blue-enriched light was slightly more effective than standard white light. Effects on performance remain to be fully investigated. At 75°S, base personnel adapt the circadian system to night work within

  13. Arctic climate change in an ensemble of regional CORDEX simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Koenigk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifth phase Climate Model Intercomparison Project historical and scenario simulations from four global climate models (GCMs using the Representative Concentration Pathways greenhouse gas concentration trajectories RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 are downscaled over the Arctic with the regional Rossby Centre Atmosphere model (RCA. The regional model simulations largely reflect the circulation bias patterns of the driving global models in the historical period, indicating the importance of lateral and lower boundary conditions. However, local differences occur as a reduced winter 2-m air temperature bias over the Arctic Ocean and increased cold biases over land areas in RCA. The projected changes are dominated by a strong warming in the Arctic, exceeding 15°K in autumn and winter over the Arctic Ocean in RCP8.5, strongly increased precipitation and reduced sea-level pressure. Near-surface temperature and precipitation are linearly related in the Arctic. The wintertime inversion strength is reduced, leading to a less stable stratification of the Arctic atmosphere. The diurnal temperature range is reduced in all seasons. The large-scale change patterns are dominated by the surface and lateral boundary conditions so future response is similar in RCA and the driving global models. However, the warming over the Arctic Ocean is smaller in RCA; the warming over land is larger in winter and spring but smaller in summer. The future response of winter cloud cover is opposite in RCA and the GCMs. Precipitation changes in RCA are much larger during summer than in the global models and more small-scale change patterns occur.

  14. Differences in mercury bioaccumulation between polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Canadian high- and sub-Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Vincent L; Derocher, Andrew E; Stirling, Ian; Graydon, Jennifer A; Lee, Caroline; Jocksch, Erin; Richardson, Evan; Ghorpade, Sarah; Kwan, Alvin K; Kirk, Jane L; Lehnherr, Igor; Swanson, Heidi K

    2011-07-15

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are being impacted by climate change and increased exposure to pollutants throughout their northern circumpolar range. In this study, we quantified concentrations of total mercury (THg) in the hair of polar bears from Canadian high- (southern Beaufort Sea, SBS) and sub- (western Hudson Bay, WHB) Arctic populations. Concentrations of THg in polar bears from the SBS population (14.8 ± 6.6 μg g(-1)) were significantly higher than in polar bears from WHB (4.1 ± 1.0 μg g(-1)). On the basis of δ(15)N signatures in hair, in conjunction with published δ(15)N signatures in particulate organic matter and sediments, we estimated that the pelagic and benthic food webs in the SBS are ∼ 4.7 and ∼ 4.0 trophic levels long, whereas in WHB they are only ∼ 3.6 and ∼ 3.3 trophic levels long. Furthermore, the more depleted δ(13)C ratios in hair from SBS polar bears relative to those from WHB suggests that SBS polar bears feed on food webs that are relatively more pelagic (and longer), whereas polar bears from WHB feed on those that are relatively more benthic (and shorter). Food web length and structure accounted for ∼ 67% of the variation we found in THg concentrations among all polar bears across both populations. The regional difference in polar bear hair THg concentrations was also likely due to regional differences in water-column concentrations of methyl Hg (the toxic form of Hg that biomagnifies through food webs) available for bioaccumulation at the base of the food webs. For example, concentrations of methylated Hg at mid-depths in the marine water column of the northern Canadian Arctic Archipelago were 79.8 ± 37.3 pg L(-1), whereas, in HB, they averaged only 38.3 ± 16.6 pg L(-1). We conclude that a longer food web and higher pelagic concentrations of methylated Hg available to initiate bioaccumulation in the BS resulted in higher concentrations of THg in polar bears from the SBS region compared to those inhabiting the western

  15. Cyclone Activity in the Arctic From an Ensemble of Regional Climate Models (Arctic CORDEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akperov, Mirseid; Rinke, Annette; Mokhov, Igor I.; Matthes, Heidrun; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Adakudlu, Muralidhar; Cassano, John; Christensen, Jens H.; Dembitskaya, Mariya A.; Dethloff, Klaus; Fettweis, Xavier; Glisan, Justin; Gutjahr, Oliver; Heinemann, Günther; Koenigk, Torben; Koldunov, Nikolay V.; Laprise, René; Mottram, Ruth; Nikiéma, Oumarou; Scinocca, John F.; Sein, Dmitry; Sobolowski, Stefan; Winger, Katja; Zhang, Wenxin

    2018-03-01

    The ability of state-of-the-art regional climate models to simulate cyclone activity in the Arctic is assessed based on an ensemble of 13 simulations from 11 models from the Arctic-CORDEX initiative. Some models employ large-scale spectral nudging techniques. Cyclone characteristics simulated by the ensemble are compared with the results forced by four reanalyses (ERA-Interim, National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Version 2, and Japan Meteorological Agency-Japanese 55-year reanalysis) in winter and summer for 1981-2010 period. In addition, we compare cyclone statistics between ERA-Interim and the Arctic System Reanalysis reanalyses for 2000-2010. Biases in cyclone frequency, intensity, and size over the Arctic are also quantified. Variations in cyclone frequency across the models are partly attributed to the differences in cyclone frequency over land. The variations across the models are largest for small and shallow cyclones for both seasons. A connection between biases in the zonal wind at 200 hPa and cyclone characteristics is found for both seasons. Most models underestimate zonal wind speed in both seasons, which likely leads to underestimation of cyclone mean depth and deep cyclone frequency in the Arctic. In general, the regional climate models are able to represent the spatial distribution of cyclone characteristics in the Arctic but models that employ large-scale spectral nudging show a better agreement with ERA-Interim reanalysis than the rest of the models. Trends also exhibit the benefits of nudging. Models with spectral nudging are able to reproduce the cyclone trends, whereas most of the nonnudged models fail to do so. However, the cyclone characteristics and trends are sensitive to the choice of nudged variables.

  16. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Padolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Mahoney, Michael J.; Richard, Erik

    2002-01-01

    This work describes transport and thermodynamic processes that control water vapor near the tropopause during the SAGE III-Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), held during the Arctic 1999/2000 winter season. Aircraft-based water vapor, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements were analyzed so as to establish how deeply tropospheric air mixes into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere and what the implications are for cloud formation and water vapor removal in this region of the atmosphere. There are three major findings. First, troposphere-to-stratosphere exchange extends into the Arctic stratosphere to about 13 km. Penetration is to similar levels throughout the winter, however, because ozone increases with altitude most rapidly in the early spring, tropospheric air mixes with the highest values of ozone in that season. The effect of this upward mixing is to elevate water vapor mixing ratios significantly above their prevailing stratospheric values of above 5ppmv. Second, the potential for cloud formation in the stratosphere is highest during early spring, with about 20% of the parcels which have ozone values of 300-350 ppbv experiencing ice saturation in a given 10 day period. Third, during early spring, temperatures at the troposphere are cold enough so that 5-10% of parcels experience relative humidities above 100%, even if the water content is as low as 5 ppmv. The implication is that during this period, dynamical processes near the Arctic tropopause can dehydrate air and keep the Arctic tropopause region very dry during early spring.

  17. The Polar Crust Project- BSC Diversity and Variability in the Arctic and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura; Borchhardt, Nadine; Komisc-Buchmann, Karin; Becker, Burkhard; Karsten, Ulf; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    The Polar Crust Project is a newly funded DFG initiative that aims to provide a precise evaluation of the biodiversity of eukaryotic green microalgae and cyanobacteria in Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) isolated from the Antarctic Peninsula and Arctic Svalbard. This project will include a thorough investigation into the composition of BSC in the Polar regions, this especially is important for Svalbard due to the severe lack of any previous research on such communities in this area. During our expedition to Spitsbergen, Svalbard in August 2014 we were particularly surprised to find that the coverage of BSC is extremely high and is certainly the dominant vegetation type around Ny Ålesund. Due to this discovery the project has now been extended to include long term measurements of CO2 gas exchange in order to gain exact seasonal carbon fixation rates and therefore discovering how the BSC contributes to the ecosystems carbon balance. The research areas of Spitsbergen were centred around 2 localities: Ny-Ålesund is a research town, home to the AWIPEV station, on the Brøgger peninsula. Longyearbyen, which is the largest settlement on the island, is found in the valley Longyeardalen on the shore of Adventfjorden. Areas where BSC is the prevalent vegetation type were identified, 6 around Ny-Ålesund and 4 for Longyearbyen, and vegetation surveys were conducted. This entailed 625 single point measurements at each site and identifying the crust/or other cover type. For example, green algal lichen, cyanobacterial crust, higher plant, open soil. Samples were also taken at every location in order to study the green algal and cyanobacterial diversity. The vegetation survey will allow us to get a good overview of the BSC composition at the different sites. In January 2015 an expedition to the Antarctic Peninsular took place, here the sampling method was repeated and therefore both Polar Regions BSC composition can be described and compared. Here, we wish to introduce the Polar

  18. Molecular epidemiological study of Arctic rabies virus isolates from Greenland and comparison with isolates from throughout the Arctic and Baltic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansfield, K.L.; Racloz, V.; McElhinney, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report a Molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Arctic Countries by comparing a panel of novel Greenland isolates to a larger cohort of viral sequences from both Arctic and Baltic regions. Rabies Virus isolates originating from wildlife (Arctic/red foxes, raccoon-dogs and reindeer), from...... sequences from the Arctic and Arctic-like viruses, which were distinct from rabies isolates originating ill the Baltic region of Europe, the Steppes in Russia and from North America. The Arctic-like group consist of isolates from India, Pakistan, southeast Siberia and Japan. The Arctic group...... in northeast Siberia and Alaska. Arctic 2b isolates represent a biotype, which is dispersed throughout the Arctic region. The broad distribution of rabies in the Arctic regions including Greenland, Canada and Alaska provides evidence for the movement of rabies across borders....

  19. Anthropogenic antibiotic resistance genes mobilization to the polar regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Jorge; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic influences in the southern polar region have been rare, but lately microorganisms associated with humans have reached Antarctica, possibly from military bases, fishing boats, scientific expeditions, and/or ship-borne tourism. Studies of seawater in areas of human intervention and proximal to fresh penguin feces revealed the presence of Escherichia coli strains least resistant to antibiotics in penguins, whereas E. coli from seawater elsewhere showed resistance to one or more of the following antibiotics: ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, and trim-sulfa. In seawater samples, bacteria were found carrying extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-type CTX-M genes in which multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) showed different sequence types (STs), previously reported in humans. In the Arctic, on the contrary, people have been present for a long time, and the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) appears to be much more wide-spread than was previously reported. Studies of E coli from Arctic birds (Bering Strait) revealed reduced susceptibility to antibiotics, but one globally spreading clone of E. coli genotype O25b-ST131, carrying genes of ESBL-type CTX-M, was identified. In the few years between sample collections in the same area, differences in resistance pattern were observed, with E. coli from birds showing resistance to a maximum of five different antibiotics. Presence of resistance-type ESBLs (TEM, SHV, and CTX-M) in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was also confirmed by specified PCR methods. MLST revealed that those bacteria carried STs that connect them to previously described strains in humans. In conclusion, bacteria previously related to humans could be found in relatively pristine environments, and presently human-associated, antibiotic-resistant bacteria have reached a high global level of distribution that they are now found even in the polar regions.

  20. Anthropogenic antibiotic resistance genes mobilization to the polar regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic influences in the southern polar region have been rare, but lately microorganisms associated with humans have reached Antarctica, possibly from military bases, fishing boats, scientific expeditions, and/or ship-borne tourism. Studies of seawater in areas of human intervention and proximal to fresh penguin feces revealed the presence of Escherichia coli strains least resistant to antibiotics in penguins, whereas E. coli from seawater elsewhere showed resistance to one or more of the following antibiotics: ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, and trim-sulfa. In seawater samples, bacteria were found carrying extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-type CTX-M genes in which multilocus sequencing typing (MLST showed different sequence types (STs, previously reported in humans. In the Arctic, on the contrary, people have been present for a long time, and the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs appears to be much more wide-spread than was previously reported. Studies of E coli from Arctic birds (Bering Strait revealed reduced susceptibility to antibiotics, but one globally spreading clone of E. coli genotype O25b-ST131, carrying genes of ESBL-type CTX-M, was identified. In the few years between sample collections in the same area, differences in resistance pattern were observed, with E. coli from birds showing resistance to a maximum of five different antibiotics. Presence of resistance-type ESBLs (TEM, SHV, and CTX-M in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was also confirmed by specified PCR methods. MLST revealed that those bacteria carried STs that connect them to previously described strains in humans. In conclusion, bacteria previously related to humans could be found in relatively pristine environments, and presently human-associated, antibiotic-resistant bacteria have reached a high global level of distribution that they are now found even in the polar regions.

  1. A case study of high Arctic anthropogenic disturbance to polar desert permafrost and ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M. S.; Pollard, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    One of the indirect impacts of climate change on Arctic ecosystems is the expected increase of industrial development in high latitudes. The scale of terrestrial impacts cannot be known ahead of time, particularly due to a lack of long-term impact studies in this region. With one of the slowest community recovery rates of any ecosystem, the high Artic biome will be under a considerable threat that is exacerbated by a high susceptibility to change in the permafrost thermal balance. One such area that provides a suitable location for study is an old airstrip near Eureka, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut (80.0175°N, 85.7340°W). While primarily used as an ice-runway for winter transport, the airstrip endured a yearly summer removal of vegetation that continued from 1947 until its abandonment in 1951. Since then, significant vegetative and geomorphic differences between disturbed and undisturbed areas have been noted in the literature throughout the decades (Bruggemann, 1953; Beschel, 1963; Couture and Pollard, 2007), but no system wide assessment of both the ecosystem and near-surface permafrost has been conducted. Key to our study is that the greatest apparent geomorphic and vegetative changes have occurred and persisted in areas where underlying ice-wedges have been disturbed. This suggests that the colonizing communities rapidly filled new available thermokarst niches and have produced an alternative ice-wedge stable state than the surrounding polar desert. We hypothesize that disturbed areas will currently have greater depths of thaw (deeper active layers) and degraded ice-wedges, with decreased vegetation diversity but higher abundance due to a changed hydrological balance. To test this a comprehensive set of near-surface active layer and ecosystem measurements were conducted. Permafrost dynamics were characterized using probing and high-frequency Ground Penetrating Radar (500 MHz) to map the near-surface details of ice-wedges and active layer. Vegetation was measured

  2. Numerical simulation study of polar lows in Russian Arctic: dynamical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verezemskaya, Polina; Baranyuk, Anastasia; Stepanenko, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Polar Lows (hereafter PL) are intensive mesoscale cyclones, appearing above the sea surface, usually behind the arctic front and characterized by severe weather conditions [1]. All in consequence of the global warming PLs started to emerge in the arctic water area as well - in summer and autumn. The research goal is to examine PLs by considering multisensory data and the resulting numerical mesoscale model. The main purpose was to realize which conditions induce PL development in such thermodynamically unusual season and region as Kara sea. In order to conduct the analysis we used visible and infrared images from MODIS (Aqua). Atmospheric water vapor V, cloud liquid water Q content and surface wind fields W were resampled by examining AMSR-E microwave radiometer data (Aqua)[2], the last one was additionally extracted from QuickSCAT scatterometer. We have selected some PL cases in Kara sea, appeared in autumn of 2007-2008. Life span of the PL was between 24 to 36 hours. Vortexes' characteristics were: W from 15m/s, Q and V values: 0.08-0.11 kg/m2 and 8-15 kg/m2 relatively. Numerical experiments were carried out with Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), which was installed on supercomputer "Lomonosov" of Research Computing Center of Moscow State University [3]. As initial conditions was used reanalysis data ERA-Interim from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Numerical experiments were made with 5 km spatial resolution, with Goddard center microphysical parameterization and explicit convection simulation. Modeling fields were compared with satellite observations and shown good accordance. Than dynamic characteristics were analyzed: evolution of potential and absolute vorticity [4], surface heat and momentum fluxes, and CAPE and WISHE mechanisms realization. 1. Polar lows, J. Turner, E.A. Rasmussen, 612, Cambridge University press, Cambridge, 2003. 2. Zabolotskikh, E. V., Mitnik, L. M., & Chapron, B. (2013). New approach for severe marine

  3. Polarization of 'water-skies' above arctic open waters: how polynyas in the ice-cover can be visually detected from a distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedüs, Ramón; Akesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

    2007-01-01

    The foggy sky above a white ice-cover and a dark water surface (permanent polynya or temporary lead) is white and dark gray, phenomena called the 'ice-sky' and the 'water-sky,' respectively. Captains of icebreaker ships used to search for not-directly-visible open waters remotely on the basis of the water sky. Animals depending on open waters in the Arctic region may also detect not-directly-visible waters from a distance by means of the water sky. Since the polarization of ice-skies and water-skies has not, to our knowledge, been studied before, we measured the polarization patterns of water-skies above polynyas in the arctic ice-cover during the Beringia 2005 Swedish polar research expedition to the North Pole region. We show that there are statistically significant differences in the angle of polarization between the water-sky and the ice-sky. This polarization phenomenon could help biological and man-made sensors to detect open waters not directly visible from a distance. However, the threshold of polarization-based detection would be rather low, because the degree of linear polarization of light radiated by water-skies and ice-skies is not higher than 10%.

  4. Polar solar panels: Arctic and Antarctic microbiomes display similar taxonomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kristie; Martí, Jose Manuel; Belliure, Josabel; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Molina-Menor, Esther; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Solar panels located on high (Arctic and Antarctic) latitudes combine the harshness of the climate with that of the solar exposure. We report here that these polar solar panels are inhabited by similar microbial communities in taxonomic terms, dominated by Hymenobacter spp., Sphingomonas spp. and Ascomycota. Our results suggest that solar panels, even on high latitudes, can shape a microbial ecosystem adapted to irradiation and desiccation. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Polar Bears from Space: Assessing Satellite Imagery as a Tool to Track Arctic Wildlife

    OpenAIRE

    Stapleton, Seth; LaRue, Michelle; Lecomte, Nicolas; Atkinson, Stephen; Garshelis, David; Porter, Claire; Atwood, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Development of efficient techniques for monitoring wildlife is a priority in the Arctic, where the impacts of climate change are acute and remoteness and logistical constraints hinder access. We evaluated high resolution satellite imagery as a tool to track the distribution and abundance of polar bears. We examined satellite images of a small island in Foxe Basin, Canada, occupied by a high density of bears during the summer ice-free season. Bears were distinguished from other light-colored s...

  6. How Rapid Change Affects Deltas in the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Bendixen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas form where the river drains into the ocean. Consequently, delta depositional processes are impacted by either changes in the respective river drainage basin or by changes in the regional marine environment. In a warming Arctic region rapid change has occurred over the last few decades in both the terrestrial domain as well as in the marine domain. Important terrestrial controls include 1) change in permafrost possibly destabilizing river banks, 2) strong seasonality of river discharge due to a short melting season, 3) high sediment supply if basins are extensively glaciated, 4) lake outbursts and ice jams favoring river flooding. Whereas in the Arctic marine domain sea ice loss promotes wave and storm surge impact, and increased longshore transport. We here ask which of these factors dominate any morphological change in Arctic deltas. First, we analyze hydrological data to assess change in Arctic-wide river discharge characteristics and timing, and sea ice concentration data to map changes in sea ice regime. Based on this observational analysis we set up a number of scenarios of change. We then model hypothetical small-scale delta formation considering change in these primary controls by setting up a numerical delta model, and combining it dynamically with a permafrost model. We find that for typical Greenlandic deltas changes in river forcing due to ice sheet melt dominate the morphological change, which is corroborated by mapping of delta progradation from aerial photos and satellite imagery. Whereas in other areas, along the North Slope and the Canadian Arctic small deltas are more stable or experienced retreat. Our preliminary coupled model allows us to further disentangle the impact of major forcing factors on delta evolution in high-latitude systems.

  7. Arctic Forecasts Available from Polar Bear Exhibit as an Example of Formal/Informal Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, C. E.; Cervenec, J.

    2012-12-01

    A subset of the general population enjoys and frequents informal education venues, offering an opportunity for lifelong learning that also enhances and supports formal education efforts. The Byrd Polar Research Center (BPRC) at The Ohio State University collaborated with the Columbus Zoo & Aquarium (CZA) in the development of their Polar Frontier exhibit, from its initial planning to the Grand Opening of the exhibit, through the present. Of course, the addition to the Zoo of polar bears and Arctic fox in the Polar Frontier has been very popular, with almost a 7% increase in visitors in 2010 when the exhibit opened. The CZA and BPRC are now investigating ways to increase the climate literacy impact of the exhibit, and to increase engagement with the topics through follow-on activities. For example, individuals or classes anywhere in the world can check forecasts from the Polar Weather and Research Forecasting model and compare them to observed conditions-- allowing deep investigation into changes in the Arctic. In addition, opportunities exist to adapt the Zoo School experience (affecting several Central Ohio school districts) and/or to enable regular participation through social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and other forms of digital communication. BPRC's sustained engagement with the CZA is an example of a trusted and meaningful partnership where open dialogue exists about providing the best learning experience for visitors. This presentation will share some of the lessons learned from this unique partnership, and strategies that are adopted to move it forward.

  8. Multinational Experiment 7. Maritime Security Region: The Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    30–40 percent in years past. With ice becomes thinner, melting quickens, and newly exposed surface waters add to the overall absorption of solar heat...ranging from the production of public goods, to avoidance of public “ bads ”. In the Arctic a multilayered complex web of different frameworks for...are extremely valuable as a source of protein for the worlds increasing population. The region consists of highly developed industrial states that

  9. The Experience of Barometric Drifter Application for Investigating the World Ocean Arctic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Motyzhev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the problem solution to create a regionally-oriented data computing system for marine dynamics and ecosystem evolution modeling and forecasting (that should be capable for providing reliable information for managerial decision making, justifying future economic projects and adjusting the existing ones depends on development level of observational systems, environmental evolution, mathematical models and techniques for observational data assimilation. The analysis of the system as an observational segment of modern geo-informational technology allows us to draw a conclusion that the system of drifter observations is one of the most effective ones nowadays. Surface drifter network, continuously operating in the World Ocean, provides systematic operational data on the surface water circulation, thermal processes in the upper ocean and air pressure. Drifter data, acquired over the past 15 years, allowed one to improve and even change the existing concepts of patterns and mechanisms of regional climatic trend and hydrometeorological anomaly formation under effect of global processes in the Ocean – Atmosphere model (in the high latitudes as well. In the present paper the principle results of the analysis of expediency and feasibility of drifting systematic operative pressure field monitoring establishment in the near-surface atmosphere layer over the Arctic Ocean and the seas of the Russian Federation Arctic Zone have been considered. More than 30 drifters of BTC60/GPS/ice type, whose summarized lifetime as for June 2015 exceeded 6500 days, were deployed in the Arctic in 2012–2015. According to data acquired from the drifters, more than 155 000 air pressure readings were received. The most intensive drifter observations were carried out in two regions: in the Beaufort Sea – Canada Basin and in the Central Arctic. The results of experiments revealed that hardware-software solutions implemented in polar modifications of barometric

  10. Changes in winter warming events in the Nordic Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun; Isaksen, Ketil; Haugen, Jan Erik; Bjerke, Jarle Werner; Tømmervik, Hans

    2015-04-01

    In recent years winter warming events are frequently reported from Arctic areas. Extraordinarily warm weather episodes, occasionally combined with intense rainfall, cause severe ecological disturbance and great challenges for Arctic infrastructure. For example, the formation of ground ice due to winter rain or melting prevents reindeer from grazing, leads to vegetation browning, and impacts soil temperatures. The infrastructure may be affected by avalanches and floods resulting from intense snowmelt. The aim of our analysis is to study changes in warm spells during winter in the Nordic Arctic Region, here defined as the regions in Norway, Sweden and Finland north of the Arctic circle (66.5°N), including the Arctic islands Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Within this study area we have selected the longest available high quality observation series with daily temperature and precipitation. For studying future climate we use available regionally downscaled scenarios. We analyse three time periods: 1) the past 50-100 years, 2) the present (last 15 years, 2000-2014) and 3) the future (next 50-100 years). We define an extended winter season (October-April) and further divide it into three subseasons: 1) Early winter (October and November), 2) Mid-winter (December, January and February) and 3) Late-winter (March and April). We identify warm spells using two different classification criteria: a) days with temperature above 0°C (the melting temperature); and b) days with temperature in excess of the 90th percentile of the 1985-2014 temperature for each subseason. Both wet and dry warm spells are analysed. We compare the results for the mainland stations (maritime and inland stations) with the Arctic islands. All stations have very high frequency of warm weather events in the period 1930-1940s and for the last 15 years (2000-2014). For the most recent period the largest increase in number of warm spells are observed at the northernmost stations. We also find a continuation of this

  11. Evaluation of an ensemble of Arctic regional climate models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinke, A.; Dethloff, K.; Cassano, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Simulations of eight different regional climate models (RCMs) have been performed for the period September 1997-September 1998, which coincides with the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project period. Each of the models employed approximately the same domain covering the western......, temperature, cloud cover, and long-/shortwave downward radiation between the individual model simulations are investigated. With this work, we quantify the scatter among the models and therefore the magnitude of disagreement and unreliability of current Arctic RCM simulations. Even with the relatively...... constrained experimental design we notice a considerable scatter among the different RCMs. We found the largest across-model scatter in the 2 m temperature over land, in the surface radiation fluxes, and in the cloud cover which implies a reduced confidence level for these variables....

  12. Radiative Forcing from Emissivity Response in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C.; Feldman, D.; Huang, X.; Flanner, M.; Chen, X.; Yang, P.; Kuo, C.

    2016-12-01

    A detailed assessment of the radiative balance and its controlling factors in polar regions is a critical prerequisite for understanding and predicting the polar amplification of climate change. Accordingly, we investigate the role of infrared surface emissivity in polar regions as a potential feedback mechanism following Feldman et al, 2014. In this work, we investigate the climatic response of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with spectral emissivity values that are implemented in a physically consistent manner for non-vegetated surfaces. In a control model run where 1850 CO2 volume mixing ratio (vmr) is fixed, the updated spectral emissivity values are imposed for modified surface boundary conditions in the atmospheric model component. Climatic stability in the emergent globally averaged surface temperature is observed on decadal scales for an unforced (control) run. Analytic kernels representing the change in top of the atmosphere OLR given changes in emissivity are calculated on-line during the model runs, incorporating spatially and temporally varied humidity profiles impactful to transmission. Globally averaged kernels of the sensitivity of OLR to surface emissivity calculated for control and ramped CO2 runs exhibit temporal evolution with statistically significant differences in shape. Additionally, kernel and spectrally-averaged emissivity differences between monthly-averaged maps of control and ramped runs demonstrate a seasonal cycle. Similar to the treatment of cryosphere radiative forcing in Flanner et al, 2011, we define emissivity response as the product of the emissivity kernel and the change in month-to-month emissivity. At the end of 20th century, the 10-year emissivity forcing averaged at latitudes > 60°, is found to be negative (positive) in January (July), due to increasing (decreasing) sea-ice. These findings indicate that differences in surface emissivity between frozen and unfrozen surfaces decrease wintertime and increase summertime

  13. Getting past the penguins and polar bears - comparing marine research in the Arctic and Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenoski, S.; Lawver, L.; van Avendonk, H.

    2006-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics is actively involved in marine geophysics research in the Arctic and Antarctic. Over the past 11 years teachers have participated in a number of research cruises as part of their effort to do outreach and involve K-12 teachers directly in the science. This presentation will focus on comparing the differences in weather, ice, seafloor, and biology, observed by one teacher/researcher who participated in seismic cruises in western Arctic and the Bransfield Straight and the Ross Sea in Antarctica. The presentation will focus on how these differences and similarities affect the process of conducting science in these extreme environments. Attention will be placed on describing how aspects of this polar research can be incorporated into a K-12 science curriculum. A discussion of the continuing outreach by the scientists and university will also be included.

  14. High bacterial diversity of biological soil crusts in water tracks over permafrost in the high arctic polar desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Blaire; Lionard, Marie; Kuske, Cheryl R; Vincent, Warwick F

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report the bacterial diversity of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) inhabiting polar desert soils at the northern land limit of the Arctic polar region (83° 05 N). Employing pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes this study demonstrated that these biocrusts harbor diverse bacterial communities, often as diverse as temperate latitude communities. The effect of wetting pulses on the composition of communities was also determined by collecting samples from soils outside and inside of permafrost water tracks, hill slope flow paths that drain permafrost-affected soils. The intermittent flow regime in the water tracks was correlated with altered relative abundance of phylum level taxonomic bins in the bacterial communities, but the alterations varied between individual sampling sites. Bacteria related to the Cyanobacteria and Acidobacteria demonstrated shifts in relative abundance based on their location either inside or outside of the water tracks. Among cyanobacterial sequences, the proportion of sequences belonging to the family Oscillatoriales consistently increased in relative abundance in the samples from inside the water tracks compared to those outside. Acidobacteria showed responses to wetting pulses in the water tracks, increasing in abundance at one site and decreasing at the other two sites. Subdivision 4 acidobacterial sequences tended to follow the trends in the total Acidobacteria relative abundance, suggesting these organisms were largely responsible for the changes observed in the Acidobacteria. Taken together, these data suggest that the bacterial communities of these high latitude polar biocrusts are diverse but do not show a consensus response to intermittent flow in water tracks over high Arctic permafrost.

  15. High bacterial diversity of biological soil crusts in water tracks over permafrost in the high arctic polar desert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaire Steven

    Full Text Available In this study we report the bacterial diversity of biological soil crusts (biocrusts inhabiting polar desert soils at the northern land limit of the Arctic polar region (83° 05 N. Employing pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes this study demonstrated that these biocrusts harbor diverse bacterial communities, often as diverse as temperate latitude communities. The effect of wetting pulses on the composition of communities was also determined by collecting samples from soils outside and inside of permafrost water tracks, hill slope flow paths that drain permafrost-affected soils. The intermittent flow regime in the water tracks was correlated with altered relative abundance of phylum level taxonomic bins in the bacterial communities, but the alterations varied between individual sampling sites. Bacteria related to the Cyanobacteria and Acidobacteria demonstrated shifts in relative abundance based on their location either inside or outside of the water tracks. Among cyanobacterial sequences, the proportion of sequences belonging to the family Oscillatoriales consistently increased in relative abundance in the samples from inside the water tracks compared to those outside. Acidobacteria showed responses to wetting pulses in the water tracks, increasing in abundance at one site and decreasing at the other two sites. Subdivision 4 acidobacterial sequences tended to follow the trends in the total Acidobacteria relative abundance, suggesting these organisms were largely responsible for the changes observed in the Acidobacteria. Taken together, these data suggest that the bacterial communities of these high latitude polar biocrusts are diverse but do not show a consensus response to intermittent flow in water tracks over high Arctic permafrost.

  16. Arctic Tundra Greening and Browning at Circumpolar and Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, H. E.; Bhatt, U. S.; Walker, D. A.; Raynolds, M. K.; Yang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing data have historically been used to assess the dynamics of arctic tundra vegetation. Until recently the scientific literature has largely described the "greening" of the Arctic; from a remote sensing perspective, an increase in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), or a similar satellite-based vegetation index. Vegetation increases have been heterogeneous throughout the Arctic, and were reported to be up to 25% in certain areas over a 30-year timespan. However, more recently, arctic tundra vegetation dynamics have gotten more complex, with observations of more widespread tundra "browning" being reported. We used a combination of remote sensing data, including the Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling System (GIMMS), as well as higher spatial resolution Landsat data, to evaluate the spatio-temporal patterns of arctic tundra vegetation dynamics (greening and browning) at circumpolar and regional scales over the past 3-4 decades. At the circumpolar scale, we focus on the spatial heterogeneity (by tundra subzone and continent) of tundra browning over the past 5-15 years, followed by a more recent recovery (greening since 2015). Landsat time series allow us to evaluate the landscape-scale heterogeneity of tundra greening and browning for northern Alaska and the Yamal Peninsula in northwestern Siberia, Russia. Multi-dataset analyses reveal that tundra greening and browning (i.e. increases or decreases in the NDVI respectively) are generated by different sets of processes. Tundra greening is largely a result of either climate warming, lengthening of the growing season, or responses to disturbances, such as fires, landslides, and freeze-thaw processes. Browning on the other hand tends to be more event-driven, such as the shorter-term decline in vegetation due to fire, insect defoliation, consumption by larger herbivores, or extreme weather events (e.g. winter warming or early summer frost damage). Browning can also be caused by local or

  17. Stratospheric water vapour in the vicinity of the Arctic polar vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturilli, M. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam (Germany); Fierli, F. [CNR (Italy). Inst. for Atmospheric Sciences and Climate; Yushkov, V.; Lukyanov, A.; Khaykin, S. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Hauchecorne, A. [CNRS, Verrieres-le-Buisson (France). Service d' Aeronomie

    2006-07-01

    The stratospheric water vapour mixing ratio inside, outside, and at the edge of the polar vortex has been accurately measured by the FLASH-B Lyman-Alpha hygrometer during the LAUTLOS campaign in Sodankylae, Finland, in January and February 2004. The retrieved H{sub 2}O profiles reveal a detailed view on the Arctic lower stratospheric water vapour distribution, and provide a valuable dataset for the validation of model and satellite data. Analysing the measurements with the semi-lagrangian advection model MIMOSA, water vapour profiles typical for the polar vortex' interior and exterior have been identified, and laminae in the observed profiles have been correlated to filamentary structures in the potential vorticity field. Applying the validated MIMOSA transport scheme to specific humidity fields from operational ECMWF analyses, large discrepancies from the observed profiles arise. Although MIMOSA is able to reproduce weak water vapour filaments and improves the shape of the profiles compared to operational ECMWF analyses, both models reveal a dry bias of about 1 ppmv in the lower stratosphere above 400 K, accounting for a relative difference from the measurements in the order of 20%. The large dry bias in the analysis representation of stratospheric water vapour in the Arctic implies the need for future regular measurements of water vapour in the polar stratosphere to allow the validation and improvement of climate models. (orig.)

  18. Integrated regional changes in arctic climate feedbacks: Implications for the global climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A.D.; Chapin, F. S.; Walsh, J.E.; Wirth, C.; ,

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic is a key part of the global climate system because the net positive energy input to the tropics must ultimately be resolved through substantial energy losses in high-latitude regions. The Arctic influences the global climate system through both positive and negative feedbacks that involve physical, ecological, and human systems of the Arctic. The balance of evidence suggests that positive feedbacks to global warming will likely dominate in the Arctic during the next 50 to 100 years. However, the negative feedbacks associated with changing the freshwater balance of the Arctic Ocean might abruptly launch the planet into another glacial period on longer timescales. In light of uncertainties and the vulnerabilities of the climate system to responses in the Arctic, it is important that we improve our understanding of how integrated regional changes in the Arctic will likely influence the evolution of the global climate system. Copyright ?? 2006 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  19. Operational Arctic: The Potential for Crisis or Conflict in the Arctic Region and Application of Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    truly know who is your friend and who is your enemy.1 Inuit proverb The littoral nations of the Arctic region face potential challenges and...the interests of a globalizing world. This growing world interest, and the lack of political and legal regulation, may lead to an increase in...Arctic Operating Concept,” Canadian Military 26 legal scholar, and expert on international law, Michael Byers, seeks approaches for Canada to

  20. Tropospheric ozone variations in polar regions; Troposphaerische Ozonvariationen in Polarregionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, S.

    1997-08-01

    An extensive analysis for the description of chemical and dynamical processes during tropospheric ozone minima in the Arctic and Antarctic was carried out in this work. One main task was the analysis of the source regions of tropospheric ozone destruction and the following transport of ozone depleted air masses to the measuring site. Furtheron the ozone destruction mechanism itself should be examined as well as the efficiency of heterogeneous reactions for the regeneration of non-reative bromine compounds, which seems to be necessary because bromine may be the key component in the destruction of tropospheric ozone in polar regions. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde eine umfangreiche Analyse zur Beschreibung der chemischen und dynamischen Prozesse waehrend troposphaerischer Ozonminima in der Arktis und Antarktis durchgefuehrt. Ziel war es, die Quellregion des Ozonabbaus sowie den ausloesenden ozonabbauenden Mechanismus zu benennen, die Effizienz heterogener Reaktionen zur Regenerierung nichtreaktiver Bromverbindungen waehrend des Ozonabbaus zu ermitteln und den Transport der ozonarmen Luftmassen zum Messort zu untersuchen. (orig./KW)

  1. Polar politics : sovereignty tussles over Arctic territory threaten to impede oil and gas exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    Competition to secure oil and gas leases is concerning scientists who believe that the exploitation of mineral resources in the Arctic will damage the region faster than climate change. Scientists in the region have noted that hydrogen sulphide induced by sulphur-oxidizing bacteria are now thriving within glaciers in the Arctic. Imperial Oil and ExxonMobil Canada recently purchased 205,000 hectares in the Beaufort Sea, and the purchase is seen as a harbinger of further development in the region. Disputes between Canada and the United States are now beginning to cause controversy in the region. Climatic change may mean that the region will be ice-free in 50 years. Climatic change will also result in the destabilization of permafrost and in rises in sea levels. Melting of permafrost could cause subsidence and further difficulties for exploration engineers. If Canada is not able to convince the United Nations that the Northwest Passage constitutes internal waters, the environmental impacts of Russian resource development could be profound. In addition, offshore boundaries between the Yukon and Alaska are interpreted differently by Canadians and Americans. It was suggested that discussions are needed to ensure Canada's role in the Arctic. 2 figs

  2. Polar Gateways Arctic Circle Sunrise 2008 Conference at the Top of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.; Kauristie, K.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Sheehan, G. W.; Smith, R. W.; Cline, T. D.; Lewis, E. M.; Haines-Stiles, G.

    2008-12-01

    The Polar Gateways conference was hosted during January 23-29, 2008, the first week of polar sunrise at Barrow, Alaska, at the new Barrow Arctic Research Center of the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium (BASC). The dawn week of polar day, the highly variable low temperatures, and the ice-covered shore tundra and adjacent sea ice conditions provided an appropriate locale for a conference dedicated in the spirit of the International Polar and Heliophysical Years 2007-2009 to the educational exploration of polar and icy world science of Earth and the solar system. The many scientific, educational, and cultural interactions with the local community of four thousand residents, sixty percent native Inupiat Eskimo, further provided an unforgettable experience of what life might be someday be like on other remote polar and icy worlds to be explored and eventually inhabited. Over one hundred active participants, more than half participating remotely, contributed science presentations and educational activities during this unique circumpolar and very "green" conference. Most remote contributions came via videoconference from the Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) at Kiruna, Sweden, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar Facility at Spitzbergen, Norway, the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley, and the University of Arizona. A few contributors participated via teleconference, including one from the Polar Geophysical Institute at Apatity in Russia. These active contributions spanned up to thirteen time zones (Alaska to Russia) at various times during the conference. Primary videoconferencing support between Barrow and other sites was ably provided by the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, and local operators at each remote site collectively made this conference possible. Science presentations spanned the solar system from the polar Sun and heliospheric environment to Earth, Moon

  3. Monitoring the welfare of polar bear populations in a rapidly changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Todd C.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Patyk, Kelly A.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    Most programs for monitoring the welfare of wildlife populations support efforts aimed at reaching discrete management objectives, like mitigating conflict with humans. While such programs can be effective, their limited scope may preclude systemic evaluations needed for large-scale conservation initiatives, like the recovery of at-risk species. We discuss select categories of metrics that can be used to monitor how polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are responding to the primary threat to their long-term persistence—loss of sea ice habitat due to the unabated rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG; e.g., CO2) concentrations—that can also provide information on ecosystem function and health. Monitoring key aspects of polar bear population dynamics, spatial behavior, health and resiliency can provide valuable insight into ecosystem state and function, and could be a powerful tool for achieving Arctic conservation objectives, particularly those that have transnational policy implications.

  4. Under-ice distribution of polar cod Boreogadus saida in the central Arctic Ocean and their association with sea-ice habitat properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, Carmen; Lange, Benjamin; Krumpen, Thomas; Schaafsma, F.L.; Franeker, van J.A.; Flores, H.

    2016-01-01

    In the Arctic Ocean, sea-ice habitats are undergoing rapid environmental change. Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is the most abundant fish known to reside under the pack-ice. The under-ice distribution, association with sea-ice habitat properties and origins of polar cod in the central Arctic Ocean,

  5. Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: identification, geographical distribution, and temporal trends in polar bears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.; Muir, D.C.G.; Schweinsburg, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Contamination of Canadian arctic and subarctic marine ecosystems by organochlorine (OC) compounds was measured by analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues collected from 12 zones between 1982 and 1984. PCB congeners (S-PCB), chlordanes, DDT and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (S-CBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (S-HC-H), and dieldrin were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonachlor-III, a nonachlor isomer in technical chlordane, was positively identified for the first time as an environmental contaminant. S-PCB and S-CHLOR accounted for >80% of the total organochlorines in adipose tissue. Six PCB congeners constituted approximately 93% of S-PCB in polar bears. Levels of most OCs were lowest in the high Arctic, intermediate in Baffin Bay, and highest in Hudson Bay. Levels of ..cap alpha..-HCH were evaluated in zones influenced by surface runoff. Levels of S-CHLOR were four times higher and levels of the other OCs were two times higher in adipose tissue of bears from Hudson Bay and Baffin Bay in 1984 than in adipose tissue archived since 1969 from these areas; levels of S-DDT did not change.

  6. In the dark: A review of ecosystem processes during the Arctic polar night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jørgen; Renaud, Paul E.; Darnis, Gerald; Cottier, Finlo; Last, Kim; Gabrielsen, Tove M.; Johnsen, Geir; Seuthe, Lena; Weslawski, Jan Marcin; Leu, Eva; Moline, Mark; Nahrgang, Jasmine; Søreide, Janne E.; Varpe, Øystein; Lønne, Ole Jørgen; Daase, Malin; Falk-Petersen, Stig

    2015-12-01

    Several recent lines of evidence indicate that the polar night is key to understanding Arctic marine ecosystems. First, the polar night is not a period void of biological activity even though primary production is close to zero, but is rather characterized by a number of processes and interactions yet to be fully understood, including unanticipated high levels of feeding and reproduction in a wide range of taxa and habitats. Second, as more knowledge emerges, it is evident that a coupled physical and biological perspective of the ecosystem will redefine seasonality beyond the "calendar perspective". Third, it appears that many organisms may exhibit endogenous rhythms that trigger fitness-maximizing activities in the absence of light-based cues. Indeed a common adaptation appears to be the ability to utilize the dark season for reproduction. This and other processes are most likely adaptations to current environmental conditions and community and trophic structures of the ecosystem, and may have implications for how Arctic ecosystems can change under continued climatic warming.

  7. Polar bears from space: assessing satellite imagery as a tool to track Arctic wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Stapleton

    Full Text Available Development of efficient techniques for monitoring wildlife is a priority in the Arctic, where the impacts of climate change are acute and remoteness and logistical constraints hinder access. We evaluated high resolution satellite imagery as a tool to track the distribution and abundance of polar bears. We examined satellite images of a small island in Foxe Basin, Canada, occupied by a high density of bears during the summer ice-free season. Bears were distinguished from other light-colored spots by comparing images collected on different dates. A sample of ground-truthed points demonstrated that we accurately classified bears. Independent observers reviewed images and a population estimate was obtained using mark-recapture models. This estimate (N: 94; 95% Confidence Interval: 92-105 was remarkably similar to an abundance estimate derived from a line transect aerial survey conducted a few days earlier (N: 102; 95% CI: 69-152. Our findings suggest that satellite imagery is a promising tool for monitoring polar bears on land, with implications for use with other Arctic wildlife. Large scale applications may require development of automated detection processes to expedite review and analysis. Future research should assess the utility of multi-spectral imagery and examine sites with different environmental characteristics.

  8. Polar bears from space: assessing satellite imagery as a tool to track Arctic wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Seth; LaRue, Michelle; Lecomte, Nicolas; Atkinson, Stephen; Garshelis, David; Porter, Claire; Atwood, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Development of efficient techniques for monitoring wildlife is a priority in the Arctic, where the impacts of climate change are acute and remoteness and logistical constraints hinder access. We evaluated high resolution satellite imagery as a tool to track the distribution and abundance of polar bears. We examined satellite images of a small island in Foxe Basin, Canada, occupied by a high density of bears during the summer ice-free season. Bears were distinguished from other light-colored spots by comparing images collected on different dates. A sample of ground-truthed points demonstrated that we accurately classified bears. Independent observers reviewed images and a population estimate was obtained using mark-recapture models. This estimate (N: 94; 95% Confidence Interval: 92-105) was remarkably similar to an abundance estimate derived from a line transect aerial survey conducted a few days earlier (N: 102; 95% CI: 69-152). Our findings suggest that satellite imagery is a promising tool for monitoring polar bears on land, with implications for use with other Arctic wildlife. Large scale applications may require development of automated detection processes to expedite review and analysis. Future research should assess the utility of multi-spectral imagery and examine sites with different environmental characteristics.

  9. ICEPOD: A Multidisciplinary Imaging System for Application in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, C. J.; Frearson, N.

    2012-12-01

    The ICEPOD program is in it's third year of a five-year effort to develop a modular airborne ice imaging system mounted on New York Air National Guard (NYANG) LC-130 aircraft to map the surface and sub-surface topography of ice sheets, ice streams, outlet glaciers, ice-shelves and sea-ice for the NSF Major Research Instrumentation program. The project is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fundamental goal of the ICEPOD program is to develop an instrumentation package that can capture the dynamics of the changing polar regions, focusing on ice, ice margins and ocean systems. To achieve this the instruments include a Scanning Lidar for precise measurements of the ice surface, Stereo photogrammetry from both a high sensitivity Infra-Red camera and a high resolution Visible Imaging camera to document the ice surface and temperature, sea-ice thickness imaging radar and a deep ice radar used to study interior and basal processes of glaciers, ice streams and ice-sheets. All instrument data sets will be time-tagged and geo-referenced by recording precision GPS satellite data. Aircraft orientation will be corrected using inertial measurement technology integrated into the pod. The vision is that this instrumentation will be operated both on routine flights of the NYANG in the polar regions, such as on missions between McMurdo and South Pole Station and on missions throughout Greenland, and on targeted science missions, from mapping sea ice in marginal ice zones and outlet glaciers such as those surrounding Ross Island or Greenland to quantifying large sub-glacial drainage systems in East Antarctica. Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Particularly striking are changes within the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean, and especially in the seas north of the Alaskan coast. These areas have experienced record warming, reduced sea ice extent, and loss of ice in areas that had been ice-covered throughout human memory. Even the oldest and

  10. Crustal structure and tectonic model of the Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Oleg; Morozov, Andrey; Shokalsky, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    with propagation into the Central Arctic Ocean along the Gakkel Ridge, (iv) deep-water ocean basins and shallow-water shelves of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, and (v) associated large igneous provinces (LIPs).We present a series of maps for the Circumpolar Arctic which include maps of the depth to Moho...

  11. The Need for System Scale Studies in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzman, L. D.; Newman, D.

    2010-12-01

    The understanding of polar regions has advanced tremendously in the past two decades and much of the improved insight into our knowledge of environmental dynamics is due to multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary studies conducted by coordinated and collaborative research programs supported by national funding agencies. Although much remains to be learned with respect to component processes, many of the most urgent scientific, engineering and social questions can only be addressed through the broader perspective of studies on system scales in which these components are coupled to each other. Questions such as quantifying feedbacks, understanding the implications of sea ice loss to adjacent land areas or society, resolving future predictions of ecosystem evolution or population dynamics all require consideration of complex interactions and interdependent linkages among system components. Research that has identified physical controls on biological processes, or quantified impact/response relationships in physical and biological systems is critically important, and must be continued; however we are approaching a limitation in our ability to accurately project how the Arctic and the Antarctic will respond to a continued warming climate. Complex issues, such as developing accurate model algorithms of feedback processes require higher level synthesis of multiple component interactions. Several examples of important questions that may only be addressed through coupled complex systems analyses will be addressed.

  12. 76 FR 69736 - Primus Solutions, Inc., and Arctic Slope Regional Corp.; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... AGENCY Primus Solutions, Inc., and Arctic Slope Regional Corp.; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental... Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), including information that may... Primus Solutions, Inc., and its subcontractor, Arctic Slope Regional Corporation (ASRC) in ] accordance...

  13. Spherical Slepian as a new method for ionospheric modeling in arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadfard, Hossein; Hossainali, Masoud Mashhadi

    2016-03-01

    From the perspective of the physical, chemical and biological balance in the world, the Arctic has gradually turned into an important region opening ways for new researchers and scientific expeditions. In other words, various researches have been funded in order to study this frozen frontier in details. The current study can be seen in the same milieu where researchers intend to propose a set of new base functions for modeling ionospheric in the Arctic. As such, to optimize the Spherical Harmonic (SH) functions, the spatio-spectral concentration is applied here using the Slepian theory that was developed by Simons. For modeling the ionosphere, six International GNSS Service (IGS) stations located in the northern polar region were taken into account. Two other stations were left out for assessing the accuracy of the proposed model. The adopted GPS data starts at DOY 69 (Day of Year) and ends at DOY 83 (totally 15 successive days) in 2013. Three Spherical Slepian models respectively with the maximal degrees of K=15, 20 & 25 were used. Based on the results, K=15 is the optimum degree for the proposed model. The accuracy and precision of the Slepian model are about 0.1 and 0.05 TECU, respectively (TEC Unit=1016 electron/m2). To understand the advantage of this model, it is compared with polynomial and trigonometric series which are developed using the same set of measurements. The accuracy and precision of trigonometric and polynomial models are at least 4 times worse than the Slepian one.

  14. A consistent definition of the Arctic polar vortex breakup in both the lower and upper stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W.; Seo, J.

    2014-12-01

    Breakup of the polar vortex is a dominant feature of the seasonal transition from winter to summer in the stratosphere, which significantly affects stratospheric O3 concentration and tropospheric weather. Previously several criteria for the vortex breakup have been suggested based on the potential vorticity (PV) and wind speed, however, those mainly have focused on the lower stratospheric vortex of which spatiotemporal evolution and decay are more continuous than those of the upper stratospheric vortex. To find a consistent criterion for the vortex breakup in both the lower and upper stratosphere, the present study defined a polar vortex breakup day as when PV gradient at the polar vortex edge becomes lower than that at the subtropical edge on the area equivalent latitude based on PV. With applying the new definition to the UK Met Office reanalysis data, the breakup days of the Arctic polar vortices on 18 isentropic levels from 450 K to 1300 K were calculated for the period of 1993-2005. In comparison with CH4, N2O and O3 measured by the ILAS and POAM II/III satellite instruments, the breakup days are well consistent with changes in the distribution of such tracers as well as their zonal standard deviations associated with the vortex structure breaking and irreversible mixing. The vortex breakup in the upper stratosphere occurs more or less a month prior to that in the middle and lower stratosphere while the stratospheric final warming events occurs simultaneously in the upper and lower stratosphere.

  15. A closer look at Arctic ozone loss and polar stratospheric clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. P. Harris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The empirical relationship found between column-integrated Arctic ozone loss and the potential volume of polar stratospheric clouds inferred from meteorological analyses is recalculated in a self-consistent manner using the ERA Interim reanalyses. The relationship is found to hold at different altitudes as well as in the column. The use of a PSC formation threshold based on temperature dependent cold aerosol formation makes little difference to the original, empirical relationship. Analysis of the photochemistry leading to the ozone loss shows that activation is limited by the photolysis of nitric acid. This step produces nitrogen dioxide which is converted to chlorine nitrate which in turn reacts with hydrogen chloride on any polar stratospheric clouds to form active chlorine. The rate-limiting step is the photolysis of nitric acid: this occurs at the same rate every year and so the interannual variation in the ozone loss is caused by the extent and persistence of the polar stratospheric clouds. In early spring the ozone loss rate increases as the solar insolation increases the photolysis of the chlorine monoxide dimer in the near ultraviolet. However the length of the ozone loss period is determined by the photolysis of nitric acid which also occurs in the near ultraviolet. As a result of these compensating effects, the amount of the ozone loss is principally limited by the extent of original activation rather than its timing. In addition a number of factors, including the vertical changes in pressure and total inorganic chlorine as well as denitrification and renitrification, offset each other. As a result the extent of original activation is the most important factor influencing ozone loss. These results indicate that relatively simple parameterisations of Arctic ozone loss could be developed for use in coupled chemistry climate models.

  16. A 21-Year Record of Arctic Sea Ice Extents and Their Regional, Seasonal, and Monthly Variability and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite passive-microwave data have been used to calculate sea ice extents over the period 1979-1999 for the north polar sea ice cover as a whole and for each of nine regions. Over this 21-year time period, the trend in yearly average ice extents for the ice cover as a whole is -32,900 +/- 6,100 sq km/yr (-2.7 +/- 0.5 %/decade), indicating a reduction in sea ice coverage that has decelerated from the earlier reported value of -34,000 +/- 8,300 sq km/yr (-2.8 +/- 0.7 %/decade) for the period 1979-1996. Regionally, the reductions are greatest in the Arctic Ocean, the Kara and Barents Seas, and the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan, whereas seasonally, the reductions are greatest in summer, for which season the 1979-1999 trend in ice extents is -41,600 +/- 12,900 sq km/ yr (-4.9 +/- 1.5 %/decade). On a monthly basis, the reductions are greatest in July and September for the north polar ice cover as a whole, in September for the Arctic Ocean, in June and July for the Kara and Barents Seas, and in April for the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan. Only two of the nine regions show overall ice extent increases, those being the Bering Sea and the Gulf of St. Lawrence.For neither of these two regions is the increase statistically significant, whereas the 1079 - 1999 ice extent decreases are statistically significant at the 99% confidence level for the north polar region as a whole, the Arctic Ocean, the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan, and Hudson Bay.

  17. Regional Arctic observations of TEC gradients and scintillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durgonics, Tibor; Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2015-01-01

    near-real time observations of the stateand variations of the high-latitude ionosphere. This data can be employed to obtain relevant geophysical variablesand statistics. In our study GPS-derived total electron content (TEC) measurements have been complemented with amplitudescintillation indices (S4......), and phase scintillation indices (σϕ) The investigation of relations of these geophysical variables can lead to possible new ways to study the underlying processes and to build tools for monitoring and predicting Arctic TEC and scintillation large-scale patterns. A number of specific ionosphere events...... will be presented and the underlying geophysical process will be identified and described. Especially results where large-scale gradients in the regional TEC are compared with the growth of scintillations.The statistics of the scintillations will be investigated, with emphasis on how well the scintillations follow...

  18. POLAR-PALOOZA Polar Researchers and Arctic Residents Engage, Inform and Inspire Diverse Public Audiences by sharing Polar Science and Global Connections during the International Polar Year, using a New Model of Informal Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.

    2006-12-01

    (Please note that the POLAR-PALOOZA initiative described in this Abstract is-as of 9/7/2006-"pending" for possible support from NSF and NASA as part of this year's IPY solicitation. Subject to decisions expected by 9/30, this presentation would either be withdrawn, or amplified with specific participants, locations and dates.) Despite the success of well-regarded movies like "March of the Penguins", the polar regions remain a great unknown for most people. Public knowledge about the Arctic and Antarctic, and the critical role of the Poles in the entire Earth system, is nonexistent, incomplete or burdened with misperceptions. The International Polar Years of 2007-2009-and associated "I*Y" science years such as IHY, IYPE and eGY-present a unique opportunity to change this. The people who can best effect this change are those who know the Poles best, through living or working there. Based on innovative but proven models, POLAR-PALOOZA will use three complementary strategies to engage, inform and inspire large public audiences. (1) A national tour, under the working title "Stories from a Changing Planet", will include in-person presentations at science centers, museums, libraries and schools across North America, including Canada and Mexico. The presentations will be augmented by High Definition Video taped on location at the Poles, audio and video podcasts, and special education and outreach activities for targeted audiences. "Stories from a Changing Planet" will provide diverse audiences with an exciting opportunity to meet and interact directly with polar experts, and to appreciate why the Poles and the research done there are directly relevant to their lives. (2) The "HiDef Video Science Story Capture Corps" is a team of professional videographers, using the latest generation of low-cost, high-quality cameras, deployed to both Poles. They will document the work of multiple researchers and projects, rather than focusing on one topic for a single broadcast program

  19. Longer ice-free seasons increase the risk of nest depredation by polar bears for colonial breeding birds in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, H Grant; Smith, Paul A; Gaston, Anthony J; Forbes, Mark R

    2014-03-22

    Northern polar regions have warmed more than other parts of the globe potentially amplifying the effects of climate change on biological communities. Ice-free seasons are becoming longer in many areas, which has reduced the time available to polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to hunt for seals and hampered bears' ability to meet their energetic demands. In this study, we examined polar bears' use of an ancillary prey resource, eggs of colonial nesting birds, in relation to diminishing sea ice coverage in a low latitude region of the Canadian Arctic. Long-term monitoring reveals that bear incursions onto common eider (Somateria mollissima) and thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) nesting colonies have increased greater than sevenfold since the 1980s and that there is an inverse correlation between ice season length and bear presence. In surveys encompassing more than 1000 km of coastline during years of record low ice coverage (2010-2012), we encountered bears or bear sign on 34% of eider colonies and estimated greater egg loss as a consequence of depredation by bears than by more customary nest predators, such as foxes and gulls. Our findings demonstrate how changes in abiotic conditions caused by climate change have altered predator-prey dynamics and are leading to cascading ecological impacts in Arctic ecosystems.

  20. Leveraging scientific credibility about Arctic sea ice trends in a polarized political environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Kathleen Hall; Hardy, Bruce W

    2014-09-16

    This work argues that, in a polarized environment, scientists can minimize the likelihood that the audience's biased processing will lead to rejection of their message if they not only eschew advocacy but also, convey that they are sharers of knowledge faithful to science's way of knowing and respectful of the audience's intelligence; the sources on which they rely are well-regarded by both conservatives and liberals; and the message explains how the scientist arrived at the offered conclusion, is conveyed in a visual form that involves the audience in drawing its own conclusions, and capsulizes key inferences in an illustrative analogy. A pilot experiment raises the possibility that such a leveraging-involving-visualizing-analogizing message structure can increase acceptance of the scientific claims about the downward cross-decade trend in Arctic sea ice extent and elicit inferences consistent with the scientific consensus on climate change among conservatives exposed to misleadingly selective data in a partisan news source.

  1. Soil Carbon in North American, Arctic, and Boreal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajtha, K.; Bailey, V. L.; Schuur, E.; McGuire, D.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2017-12-01

    Globally, soils contain more than 3 times as much as C as the atmosphere and >4 times more C than the world's biota, therefore even small changes in soil C stocks could lead to large changes in the atmospheric concentration of CO2. Since SOCCR-1, improvements have been made in quantifying stocks and uncertainties in stocks of soil C to a depth of 1 m across North America. Estimates for soil carbon stocks in the US (CONUS + Alaska) range from 151 - 162 Pg C, based on extensive sampling and analysis. Estimates for Canada average about 262 Pg C, but sampling is not as extensive. Soil C for Mexico is calculated as 18 Pg C, but there is a great deal of uncertainty surrounding this value. These soil carbon stocks are sensitive to agricultural management, land use and land cover change, and development and loss of C-rich soils such as wetlands. Climate change is a significant threat although may be partially mitigated by increased plant production. Carbon stored in permafrost zone circumpolar soils is equal to 1330-1580 Pg C, almost twice that contained in the atmosphere and about order of magnitude greater than carbon contained in plant biomass, woody debris, and litter in the boreal and tundra biomes combined. Surface air temperature change is amplified in high latitude regions such that Arctic temperature rise is about 2.5 times faster than for the globe as a whole, and thus 5 - 15% of this carbon is considered vulnerable to release to the atmosphere by the year 2100 following the current trajectory of global and Arctic warming. This amount is likely to be up to an order of magnitude larger loss than the increase in carbon stored in plant biomass under the same changing conditions. Models of soil organic matter dynamics have been greatly improved in the last decade by including greater process-level understanding of factors that affect soil C stabilization and destabilization, yet structural features of many models are still limited in representing Arctic and boreal

  2. Collaborative Proposal: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). Dept. of Oceanography; Cassano, John J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Gutowski, Jr., William J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Lipscomb, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nijssen, Bart [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Roberts, Andrew [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). Dept. of Oceanography; Robertson, William [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Tulaczyk, Slawek [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Zeng, Xubin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The primary outcome of the project was the development of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) and evaluation of its individual model components, coupling among them and fully coupled model results. Overall, we have demonstrated that RASM produces realistic mean and seasonal surface climate as well as its interannual and decadal variability and trends.

  3. Arctic Risk Management (ARMNet) Network: Linking Risk Management Practitioners and Researchers Across the Arctic Regions of Canada and Alaska To Improve Risk, Emergency and Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation Through Comparative Analysis and Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic Risk Management Network (ARMNet) was conceived as a trans-disciplinary hub to encourage and facilitate greater cooperation, communication and exchange among American and Canadian academics and practitioners actively engaged in the research, management and mitigation of risks, emergencies and disasters in the Arctic regions. Its aim is to assist regional decision-makers through the sharing of applied research and best practices and to support greater inter-operability and bilateral collaboration through improved networking, joint exercises, workshops, teleconferences, radio programs, and virtual communications (eg. webinars). Most importantly, ARMNet is a clearinghouse for all information related to the management of the frequent hazards of Arctic climate and geography in North America, including new and emerging challenges arising from climate change, increased maritime polar traffic and expanding economic development in the region. ARMNet is an outcome of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) for Long Term Observations, Governance, and Management Discussions, www.arcus.org/search-program. The AON goals continue with CRIOS (www.ariesnonprofit.com/ARIESprojects.php) and coastal erosion research (www.ariesnonprofit.com/webinarCoastalErosion.php) led by the North Slope Borough Risk Management Office with assistance from ARIES (Applied Research in Environmental Sciences Nonprofit, Inc.). The constituency for ARMNet will include all northern academics and researchers, Arctic-based corporations, First Responders (FRs), Emergency Management Offices (EMOs) and Risk Management Offices (RMOs), military, Coast Guard, northern police forces, Search and Rescue (SAR) associations, boroughs, territories and communities throughout the Arctic. This presentation will be of interest to all those engaged in Arctic affairs, describe the genesis of ARMNet and present the results of stakeholder meetings and webinars designed to guide the next stages of the Project.

  4. Bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in Arctic Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad, Trine; Bernhardsen, Pål; Nielsen, Kaare M; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Andersen, Magnus; Aars, Jon; Sundset, Monica A

    2010-01-14

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are major predators in the Arctic marine ecosystem, feeding mainly on seals, and living closely associated with sea ice. Little is known of their gut microbial ecology and the main purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity in faeces of polar bears in Svalbard, Norway (74-81 degrees N, 10-33 degrees E). In addition the level of blaTEM alleles, encoding ampicillin resistance (ampr) were determined. In total, ten samples were collected from ten individual bears, rectum swabs from five individuals in 2004 and faeces samples from five individuals in 2006. A 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed, and all sequences obtained from 161 clones showed affiliation with the phylum Firmicutes, with 160 sequences identified as Clostridiales and one sequence identified as unclassified Firmicutes. The majority of the sequences (70%) were affiliated with the genus Clostridium. Aerobic heterotrophic cell counts on chocolate agar ranged between 5.0 x 10(4) to 1.6 x 10(6) colony forming units (cfu)/ml for the rectum swabs and 4.0 x 10(3) to 1.0 x 10(5) cfu/g for the faeces samples. The proportion of ampr bacteria ranged from 0% to 44%. All of 144 randomly selected ampr isolates tested positive for enzymatic beta-lactamase activity. Three % of the ampr isolates from the rectal samples yielded positive results when screened for the presence of blaTEM genes by PCR. BlaTEM alleles were also detected by PCR in two out of three total faecal DNA samples from polar bears. The bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bears in their natural environment in Svalbard is low compared to other animal species, with all obtained clones affiliating to Firmicutes. Furthermore, only low levels of blaTEM alleles were detected in contrast to their increasing prevalence in some clinical and commensal bacterial populations.

  5. Bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in Arctic Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are major predators in the Arctic marine ecosystem, feeding mainly on seals, and living closely associated with sea ice. Little is known of their gut microbial ecology and the main purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity in faeces of polar bears in Svalbard, Norway (74-81°N, 10-33°E). In addition the level of blaTEM alleles, encoding ampicillin resistance (ampr) were determined. In total, ten samples were collected from ten individual bears, rectum swabs from five individuals in 2004 and faeces samples from five individuals in 2006. Results A 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed, and all sequences obtained from 161 clones showed affiliation with the phylum Firmicutes, with 160 sequences identified as Clostridiales and one sequence identified as unclassified Firmicutes. The majority of the sequences (70%) were affiliated with the genus Clostridium. Aerobic heterotrophic cell counts on chocolate agar ranged between 5.0 × 104 to 1.6 × 106 colony forming units (cfu)/ml for the rectum swabs and 4.0 × 103 to 1.0 × 105 cfu/g for the faeces samples. The proportion of ampr bacteria ranged from 0% to 44%. All of 144 randomly selected ampr isolates tested positive for enzymatic β-lactamase activity. Three % of the ampr isolates from the rectal samples yielded positive results when screened for the presence of blaTEM genes by PCR. BlaTEM alleles were also detected by PCR in two out of three total faecal DNA samples from polar bears. Conclusion The bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bears in their natural environment in Svalbard is low compared to other animal species, with all obtained clones affiliating to Firmicutes. Furthermore, only low levels of blaTEM alleles were detected in contrast to their increasing prevalence in some clinical and commensal bacterial populations. PMID:20074323

  6. Bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bear (Ursus maritimus in Arctic Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brusetti Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polar bears (Ursus maritimus are major predators in the Arctic marine ecosystem, feeding mainly on seals, and living closely associated with sea ice. Little is known of their gut microbial ecology and the main purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity in faeces of polar bears in Svalbard, Norway (74-81°N, 10-33°E. In addition the level of blaTEM alleles, encoding ampicillin resistance (ampr were determined. In total, ten samples were collected from ten individual bears, rectum swabs from five individuals in 2004 and faeces samples from five individuals in 2006. Results A 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed, and all sequences obtained from 161 clones showed affiliation with the phylum Firmicutes, with 160 sequences identified as Clostridiales and one sequence identified as unclassified Firmicutes. The majority of the sequences (70% were affiliated with the genus Clostridium. Aerobic heterotrophic cell counts on chocolate agar ranged between 5.0 × 104 to 1.6 × 106 colony forming units (cfu/ml for the rectum swabs and 4.0 × 103 to 1.0 × 105 cfu/g for the faeces samples. The proportion of ampr bacteria ranged from 0% to 44%. All of 144 randomly selected ampr isolates tested positive for enzymatic β-lactamase activity. Three % of the ampr isolates from the rectal samples yielded positive results when screened for the presence of blaTEM genes by PCR. BlaTEM alleles were also detected by PCR in two out of three total faecal DNA samples from polar bears. Conclusion The bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bears in their natural environment in Svalbard is low compared to other animal species, with all obtained clones affiliating to Firmicutes. Furthermore, only low levels of blaTEM alleles were detected in contrast to their increasing prevalence in some clinical and commensal bacterial populations.

  7. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in polar bears from eastern Russia, North America, Greenland, and Svalbard: biomonitoring of Arctic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Belikov, S E; Born, E W; Garner, G W; Malone, B; Olpinski, S; Ramsay, M A; Schliebe, S; Stirling, I; Stishov, M S; Taylor, M K; Wiig, O

    1998-08-01

    Adipose tissue samples from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were obtained by necropsy or biopsy between the spring of 1989 to the spring of 1993 from Wrangel Island in Russia, most of the range of the bear in North America, eastern Greenland, and Svalbard. Samples were divided into 16 regions corresponding as much as possible to known stocks or management zones. Concentrations of dieldrin (DIEL), 4,4'-DDE (DDE), sum of 16 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (sigma PCB), and sum of 11 chlordane-related compounds and metabolites (sigma CHL) were determined. In order to minimize the effect of age, only data for adults (320 bears age 5 years and older) was used to compare concentrations among regions. Concentrations of sigma PCB were 46% higher in adult males than females, and there was no significant trend with age. Concentrations of sigma CHL were 30% lower in adult males than females. Concentrations of sigma PCB, sigma CHL, and DDE in individual adult female bears were standardized to adult males using factors derived from the least-square means of each sex category, and geometric means of the standardized concentrations on a lipid weight basis were compared among regions. Median geometric mean standardized concentrations (lipid weight basis) and ranges among regions were as follows: sigma PCB, 5,942 (2,763-24,316) micrograms/kg; sigma CHL, 1,952 (727-4,632) micrograms/kg; DDE, 219 (52-560) micrograms/kg; DIEL, 157 (31-335) micrograms/kg. Geometric mean sigma PCB concentrations in bears from Svalbard, East Greenland, and the Arctic Ocean near Prince Patrick Island in Canada were similar (20,256-24,316 micrograms/kg) and significantly higher than most other areas. Atmospheric, oceanic, and ice transport, as well as ecological factors may contribute to these high concentrations of sigma PCB. sigma CHL was more uniformly distributed among regions than the other CHCs. Highest sigma CHL concentrations were found in southeastern Hudson Bay, which also had the highest DDE and

  8. MIGRATION PROCESSES IN BARENTS EURO-ARCTIC REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Aleksandrovna Afonkina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the analysis of migration processes in the Barents Euro-Arctic region (BEAR. The main focus is the balance of interests between ethnic immigrants and citizens of the accepting country as well as formation and dynamics of ethno-social structure.The research of the migration problems is done through socio-cultural focus. It implies that a research of nation’s constant norms, values and traditions creates a scientific basis for creation of poly-cultural society and it’s stable structure.The novelty of the work is the regional aspect. The transformational trends of modern society and specifics of the BEAR are taken into account and studied on the example of the Murmansk region which is characterized as a region of heavy migration.The study describes migration processes intertwined with the realities of the multi-cultural society in BEAR (with the example of Murmansk region. The factors of upkeep of ba-lanced inter-ethnic relationship and formation of poly-cultural society are highlighted. The role of each ethnic group and national diasporas within ethno-social processes is highlighted. Authors suggest that the success of socio-cultural adaptation of immigrants is not only due to knowledge of language and culture of the accepting society, but also is due to traditions and trends of poly-culture of the accepting nation.The results of the study may be used for managing solutions in stabilizing of ethno-cultural processes within BEAR but also within the framework of the study courses, such as «Ethno-sociology» or «Sociology of migration».

  9. The polar bear in the room: diseases of poverty in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Nelson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the face of global warming, budgetary austerity and impoverished Arctic residents, the nations of the circumpolar region are presented with a number of difficult choices regarding the provision of health care to the far-flung and isolated regions of their northernmost provinces. Complicating that picture is the reality of neglected tropical diseases in areas far from their perceived normal equatorial range as well as endemic food-borne diseases, including protozoan and helminth parasites, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases and vaccine-preventable illnesses. This paper discusses the problems of caring for the health and well-being of indigenous populations suffering from extreme poverty, isolation and discrimination in the circumpolar region. After presenting difficulties as supported by the extant literature, the paper continues by suggesting solutions that include novel telenursing applications, targeted distance-educational programs and local community-based health care assistant (HCA vocational training. These programs will provide cost-effective care that increases life-spans, improves quality of life and provides opportunities to distressed populations in isolated rural communities of the Far North. The toolkit presented in the paper is intended to spur discussion on community health programs that could be adopted to provide proper and humane care for marginalized Arctic populations in an extreme and rapidly changing environment.

  10. The polar bear in the room: diseases of poverty in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In the face of global warming, budgetary austerity and impoverished Arctic residents, the nations of the circumpolar region are presented with a number of difficult choices regarding the provision of health care to the far-flung and isolated regions of their northernmost provinces. Complicating that picture is the reality of neglected tropical diseases in areas far from their perceived normal equatorial range as well as endemic food-borne diseases, including protozoan and helminth parasites, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases and vaccine-preventable illnesses. This paper discusses the problems of caring for the health and well-being of indigenous populations suffering from extreme poverty, isolation and discrimination in the circumpolar region. After presenting difficulties as supported by the extant literature, the paper continues by suggesting solutions that include novel telenursing applications, targeted distance-educational programs and local community-based health care assistant (HCA) vocational training. These programs will provide cost-effective care that increases life-spans, improves quality of life and provides opportunities to distressed populations in isolated rural communities of the Far North. The toolkit presented in the paper is intended to spur discussion on community health programs that could be adopted to provide proper and humane care for marginalized Arctic populations in an extreme and rapidly changing environment.

  11. Effect of Arctic Geoengineering on Tropical Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalam, Aditya; Govindasamy, Bala; Modak, Angshuman

    2017-04-01

    Arctic geoengineering wherein sunlight absorption is reduced only in the Arctic has been suggested as a remedial measure to counteract the on-going rapid climate change in the Arctic. Several modeling studies show that Arctic geoengineering can minify Arctic warming but it would shift the ITCZ southward. In this study, we investigate and quantify the implications of this ITCZ shift for the global monsoon regions using the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4). In our Arctic geoengineering simulation, a prescription of 11 Mt of sulfate aerosols in the Arctic stratosphere, nearly cancels the Arctic warming (6 K) due to a CO2 doubling but it shifts ITCZ southward by 1.5⁰, resulting in a decrease/increase in annual mean precipitation in the Northern Hemisphere (NH)/Southern Hemisphere (SH) monsoon regions by up to -12/+17%. Polar geoengineering, where sulfate aerosols are prescribed in both Arctic and Antarctic, reduces the southward ITCZ shift to 0.15⁰ and correspondingly reduces the precipitation changes in the monsoon regions keeping the annual mean changes within ±7 %. ITCZ shift due to Global geoengineering, where aerosols are prescribed uniformly around the globe, is much smaller and keeps precipitation changes in most monsoon regions within ±2 %. Global geoengineering also cancels the Arctic warming appreciably and restores the Arctic sea-ice extent. Further, the zonal wind anomaly and stratospheric water vapour increase due to Global geoengineering are much smaller than Arctic and Polar geoengineering. Therefore, we conclude that Global geoengineering is a better choice than regional geoengineering proposals such as the Arctic and Polar geoengineering if the goal is to alleviate climate change in the Arctic.

  12. DISTRIBUTION AND MIGRATION OF POLAR BEARS, PACIFIC WALRUSES AND GRAY WHALES DEPENDING ON ICE CONDITIONS IN THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC (17th Symposium on Polar Biology)

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav, BELIKOV; Andrei, BOLTUNOV; Yuri, GORBUNOV

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a review of available data concerning the influence of ice cover on distribution, density and migration of three species of marine mammals inhabiting the Russian Arctic. Association of marine mammals with ice cover is as follows: (1) the polar bear is distributed in ice zone in the whole year, (2) the walrus is associated with the ice zone only in summer, and (3) the gray whale inhabits the southern area of the ice zone.

  13. A sustainable future for the polar regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalal-Clayton, Barry; Wilson, Emma

    2008-04-15

    The spectre of change is galvanising debate about the future of the poles. Climatic shifts look set to affect both profoundly. As the ice melts, new marine transport routes will open up. The exploitation of natural resources could expand significantly. Further risks include marine acidification, the migration of commercial fish species and coastal erosion. In the Arctic, traditional livelihoods could suffer. Meanwhile, national claims of sovereignty over areas of ocean floor are fuelling fears of a new 'cold war' over access to mineral resources in sensitive environments. Clearly, science alone cannot address the challenges facing the poles: a coherent strategy for sustainable development is urgently needed.

  14. Adapting the HSV polarization-color mapping for regions with low irradiance and high polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Tyo, J; Ratliff, Bradley M; Alenin, Andrey S

    2016-10-15

    Many mappings from polarization into color have been developed so that polarization information can be displayed. One of the most common of these maps the angle of linear polarization into color hue and degree of linear polarization into color saturation, while preserving the irradiance information from the polarization data. While this strategy enjoys wide popularity, there is a large class of polarization images for which it is not ideal. It is common to have images where the strongest polarization signatures (in terms of degree of polarization) occur in regions of relatively low irradiance: either in shadow in reflective bands or in cold regions in emissive bands. Since the irradiance is low, the chromatic properties of the resulting images are generally not apparent. Here we present an alternate mapping that uses the statistics of the angle of polarization as a measure of confidence in the polarization signature, then amplifies the irradiance in regions of high confidence, and leaves it unchanged in regions of low confidence. Results are shown from an LWIR and a visible spectrum imager.

  15. The effect of preceding wintertime Arctic polar vortex on springtime NDVI patterns in boreal Eurasia, 1982-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Fan, Ke; Xu, Jianjun; Powell, Alfred M.; Kogan, Felix

    2017-07-01

    The polar vortex is implicated in certain cold events in boreal Eurasia and has a further influence on land surface properties (e.g., vegetation and snow) during spring. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can be used as a proxy of land surface responses to climate changes to a certain degree. In this study, we demonstrate the significant correlation between preceding wintertime Arctic polar vortex intensity (WAPVI) and springtime NDVI (SNDVI) over a 34-year period (1982-2015) in boreal Eurasia (50°-75°N, 0°-150°E). Results show that a positive phase of WAPVI tends to increase the SNDVI in Europe and Lake Baikal, but causes a significant decrease in Siberia; the physical mechanisms involved in this relationship are then investigated. A positive phase of WAPVI leads to anomalies in surface air temperature and rainfall over Eurasia, which then induces a significant decrease in snow cover and snow depth in Europe and Lake Baikal and an increase of snow depth in Siberia. The colder ground temperature in Siberia during spring is considered responsible for the stronger snow depth and weaker vegetation growth in this region. The weaker and thinner snow cover in Europe and Baikal produces a decrease in albedo and an increase in heat. Thin snow melts fast in the following spring and land releases more heat to the atmosphere; consequently, warm and moist land surface facilitates vegetation growth in Europe and the Baikal regions during positive WAPVI years. In addition, WAPVI can induce sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the North Atlantic, which displays a tripole pattern similar to that of the empirical mode pattern in winter. Furthermore, the SST anomalous pattern persisting from winter to spring can trigger a stationary wave-train propagating from west to east in boreal Eurasia, with "negative-positive-negative-positive" geopotential height anomalies, which further exerts an impact on vegetation growth through modulation of the heat balance.

  16. Canadian Ice Service Arctic Regional Sea Ice Charts in SIGRID-3 Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Canadian Ice Service (CIS) produces digital Arctic regional sea ice charts for marine navigation, climate research, and input to the Global Digital Sea Ice Data...

  17. Canadian Ice Service Arctic Regional Sea Ice Charts in SIGRID-3 Format, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Canadian Ice Service (CIS) produces digital Arctic regional sea ice charts for marine navigation, climate research, and input to the Global Digital Sea Ice Data...

  18. Absolute Geostrophic Velocity Inverted from the Polar Science Center Hydrographic Climatology (PHC3.0) of the Arctic Ocean with the P-Vector Method (NCEI Accession 0156425)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset (called PHC-V) comprises 3D gridded climatological fields of absolute geostrophic velocity of the Arctic Ocean inverted from the Polar science center...

  19. Using satellite telemetry to define spatial population structure in polar bears in the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritzen, Mette; Derocher, Andrew E.; Wiig, Øystein; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Garner, Gerald W.

    2002-01-01

    1. Animal populations, defined by geographical areas within a species’ distribution where population dynamics are largely regulated by births and deaths rather than by migration from surrounding areas, may be the correct unit for wildlife management. However, in heterogeneous landscapes varying habitat quality may yield subpopulations with distinct patterns in resource use and demography significant to the dynamics of populations.2. To define the spatial population structure of polar bears Ursus maritimus in the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic, and to assess the existence of a shared population between the two countries, we analysed satellite telemetry data obtained from 105 female polar bears over 12 years.3. Using both cluster analyses and home-range estimation methods, we identified five population units inhabiting areas with different sea-ice characteristics and prey availability.4. The continuous distribution of polar bear positions indicated that the different subpopulations formed one continuous polar bear population in the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic. Hence, Norway and Russia have a shared management responsibility.5. The spatial population structure identified will provide a guide for evaluating geographical patterns in polar bear ecology, the dynamics of polar bear–seal relationships and the effects of habitat alteration due to climate change. The work illustrates the importance of defining population borders and subpopulation structure in understanding the dynamics and management of larger animals.

  20. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    on high-arctic vegetation. They supplement previous investigations from the Arctic focussing on other variables like growth etc., which have reported no or minor plant responses to UV-B, and clearly indicates that UV-B radiation is an important factor affecting plant life at high-arctic Zackenberg......Depletion of the ozone layer and the consequent increase in solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) may impact living conditions for arctic plants significantly. In order to evaluate how the prevailing UV-B fluxes affect the heath ecosystem at Zackenberg (74°30'N, 20°30'W) and other high......-arctic regions, manipulation experiments with various set-ups have been performed. Activation of plant defence mechanisms by production of UV-B absorbing compounds was significant in ambient UV-B in comparison to a filter treatment reducing the UV-B radiation. Despite the UV-B screening response, ambient UV...

  1. Heterogeneous chlorine activation on stratospheric aerosols and clouds in the Arctic polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wegner

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlorine activation in the Arctic is investigated by examining different parameterizations for uptake coefficients on stratospheric aerosols, high-resolution in-situ measurements and vortex-wide satellite observations. The parameterizations for heterogeneous chemistry on liquid aerosols are most sensitive to temperature with the reaction rates doubling for every 1 K increase in temperature. However, differences between the currently available parameterizations are negligible. For Nitric Acid Trihydrate particles (NAT the major factors of uncertainty are the number density of nucleated particles and different parameterizations for heterogeneous chemistry. These two factors induce an uncertainty that covers several orders of magnitude on the reaction rate. Nonetheless, since predicted reaction rates on liquid aerosols always exceed those on NAT, the overall uncertainty for chlorine activation is small. In-situ observations of ClOx from Arctic winters in 2005 and 2010 are used to evaluate the heterogeneous chemistry parameterizations. The conditions for these measurements proved to be very different between those two winters with HCl being the limiting reacting partner for the 2005 measurements and ClONO2 for the 2010 measurements. Modeled levels of chlorine activation are in very good agreement with the in-situ observations and the surface area provided by Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs has only a limited impact on modeled chlorine activation. This indicates that the parameterizations give a good representation of the processes in the atmosphere. Back-trajectories started on the location of the observations in 2005 indicate temperatures on the threshold for PSC formation, hence the surface area is mainly provided by the background aerosol. Still, the model shows additional chlorine activation during this time-frame, providing cautionary evidence for chlorine activation even in the absence of PSCs. Vortex-averaged satellite

  2. Comparative analysis of military security policy of Norway and Denmark in the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Doroshenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest of Western countries in the Arctic region is growing with each new statement about the sharp climate change and the melting of the Arctic Ocean’s glaciers. In addition to the threats related to the environmental situation in the Arctic zone, the desire to participate in shelf research and development, the potential of using the sea routes of the region by both the Arctic and non-Arctic states creates threats to the security of the Nordic countries.The coastal states, which in case of the escalation of tensions will be in the midst of a regional conflict in the Arctic, are Norway and Denmark. Therefore, the analysis of a level of Norwegian and Danish military security against a backdrop of increasing confrontation between Russia and West and changing climate situation in the region is urgent ., Nevertheless, to ensure a necessary level of defence capability as well as security of borders and zones of exceptional economic interests in the conditions of low temperatures is not so easy. This article examines the Norwegian and Danish approaches to the new military security challenges in the Arctic region. The paper contains examination of the doctrinal basis of military security along with the main documents that form the security concepts of the two countries in the Arctic region, and the reports of the defense ministries and scientific institutions surveys of military activities in the Arctic.Three directions of coastal countries’ policy making in the issues of military security were chosen for comparison. Firstly, the relationships with the USA, the leader of the North Atlantic alliance, which allow us to determine the significance of Norway and Denmark in building NATO security in the north. Secondly, the relationships with the EU and separately with the Nordic countries are considered. This case shows the level of involvement of the European community in the issue of ensuring the Arctic security . Thirdly, the relationships with

  3. Aerosol optical properties over the Svalbard region of Arctic: ground-based measurements and satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Mukunda M.; Babu, S. Suresh

    2016-05-01

    In view of the increasing anthropogenic presence and influence of aerosols in the northern polar regions, long-term continuous measurements of aerosol optical parameters have been investigated over the Svalbard region of Norwegian Arctic (Ny-Ålesund, 79°N, 12°E, 8 m ASL). This study has shown a consistent enhancement in the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients during spring. The relative dominance of absorbing aerosols is more near the surface (lower single scattering albedo), compared to that at the higher altitude. This is indicative of the presence of local anthropogenic activities. In addition, long-range transported biomass burning aerosols (inferred from the spectral variation of absorption coefficient) also contribute significantly to the higher aerosol absorption in the Arctic spring. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) estimates from ground based Microtop sun-photometer measurements reveals that the columnar abundance of aerosols reaches the peak during spring season. Comparison of AODs between ground based and satellite remote sensing indicates that deep blue algorithm of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals over Arctic snow surfaces overestimate the columnar AOD.

  4. Climate Change and International Competition: the US Army in the Arctic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    maritime travel in the Arctic is limited, but climate change is gradually uncovering the polar region and projections suggest that, by 2030, retreating...Defined by US Congress Source: US Arctic Research Commission, Arctic Boundary Map: Alaska with Polar Inset, May 27, 2009, accessed November 26, 2014...Alaska.90 USCG elements are also present in the Northern Waters of the Arctic and the Bearing Straits. In recognition of the changing environment

  5. Performance and microbial community structure of a polar Arctic Circle aerobic granular sludge system operating at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Muñoz-Palazon, Barbara; Maza-Márquez, Paula; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Vahala, Riku

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the performance and microbial community structure of a polar Arctic Circle aerobic granular sludge (AGS) system operating at low temperature. Thus, an AGS bioreactor was operated at 7, 5 and 3 °C of temperature using a cold-adapted sludge from Lapland. At 5 °C, it yielded acceptable conversion rates, in terms of nitrogen, phosphorous, and organic matter. However, under 3 °C a negligible nitrogen and phosphorous removal performance was observed. Below 5 °C, scanning electron microscopy studies showed a wispy, non-dense and irregular granular structure with a strong outgrowth of filamentous. Moreover, Illumina next-generation sequencing showed a heterogeneous microbial population where SM1K20 (Archaea), Trichosporon domesticum (Fungus), and Zooglea, Arcobacter and Acinetobacter (Bacteria) were the dominant phylotypes. Our study suggests that AGS technologies inoculated with North Pole sludge could be operated, in cold regions for a period longer than 3 months (winter season) under 5 °C of water temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrogen Distribution in the Lunar Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Bakhtin, B. N.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Harshmann, K.; Fedosov, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a method of conversion of the lunar neutron counting rate measured by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument collimated neutron detectors, to water equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in the top approximately 1 m layer of lunar regolith. Polar maps of the Moon’s inferred hydrogen abundance are presented and discussed.

  7. Collaborative Research: Towards Advanced Understanding and Predictive Capability of Climate Change in the Arctic using a High-Resolution Regional Arctic Climate System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettenmaier, Dennis P

    2013-04-08

    Primary activities are reported in these areas: climate system component studies via one-way coupling experiments; development of the Regional Arctic Climate System Model (RACM); and physical feedback studies focusing on changes in Arctic sea ice using the fully coupled model.

  8. Sensitivity of simulated regional Arctic climate to the choice of coupled model domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Sein

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The climate over the Arctic has undergone changes in recent decades. In order to evaluate the coupled response of the Arctic system to external and internal forcing, our study focuses on the estimation of regional climate variability and its dependence on large-scale atmospheric and regional ocean circulations. A global ocean–sea ice model with regionally high horizontal resolution is coupled to an atmospheric regional model and global terrestrial hydrology model. This way of coupling divides the global ocean model setup into two different domains: one coupled, where the ocean and the atmosphere are interacting, and one uncoupled, where the ocean model is driven by prescribed atmospheric forcing and runs in a so-called stand-alone mode. Therefore, selecting a specific area for the regional atmosphere implies that the ocean–atmosphere system can develop ‘freely’ in that area, whereas for the rest of the global ocean, the circulation is driven by prescribed atmospheric forcing without any feedbacks. Five different coupled setups are chosen for ensemble simulations. The choice of the coupled domains was done to estimate the influences of the Subtropical Atlantic, Eurasian and North Pacific regions on northern North Atlantic and Arctic climate. Our simulations show that the regional coupled ocean–atmosphere model is sensitive to the choice of the modelled area. The different model configurations reproduce differently both the mean climate and its variability. Only two out of five model setups were able to reproduce the Arctic climate as observed under recent climate conditions (ERA-40 Reanalysis. Evidence is found that the main source of uncertainty for Arctic climate variability and its predictability is the North Pacific. The prescription of North Pacific conditions in the regional model leads to significant correlation with observations, even if the whole North Atlantic is within the coupled model domain. However, the inclusion of the

  9. Leveraging scientific credibility about Arctic sea ice trends in a polarized political environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall Jamieson, Kathleen; Hardy, Bruce W.

    2014-01-01

    This work argues that, in a polarized environment, scientists can minimize the likelihood that the audience’s biased processing will lead to rejection of their message if they not only eschew advocacy but also, convey that they are sharers of knowledge faithful to science’s way of knowing and respectful of the audience’s intelligence; the sources on which they rely are well-regarded by both conservatives and liberals; and the message explains how the scientist arrived at the offered conclusion, is conveyed in a visual form that involves the audience in drawing its own conclusions, and capsulizes key inferences in an illustrative analogy. A pilot experiment raises the possibility that such a leveraging–involving–visualizing–analogizing message structure can increase acceptance of the scientific claims about the downward cross-decade trend in Arctic sea ice extent and elicit inferences consistent with the scientific consensus on climate change among conservatives exposed to misleadingly selective data in a partisan news source. PMID:25225380

  10. Analysis of the physical state of one Arctic polar stratospheric cloud based on observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drdla, K.; Tabazadeh, A.; Turco, R. P.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dye, J. E.; Twohy, C.; Baumgardner, D.

    1994-01-01

    During the Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) simultaneous measurements of aerosol size distribution and NO(y)(HN03 + NO + NO2 + 2(N205)) were made along ER-2 flight paths. The flow characteristics of the NO(y) instrument allow us to derive the condensed NO(y) amount (assumed to be HN03) present during polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events. Analysis of the January 24th flight indicates that this condensed HN03 amount does not agree well with the aerosol volume if the observed PSCs are composed of solid nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), as is generally assumed. However, the composition agrees well with that predicted for liquid H2S04/HN03/H20 solution droplets using a new Aerosol Physical Chemistry Model (APCM). The agreement corresponds in detail to variations in temperature and humidity. The weight percentages of H2SO4, HN03, and H2O derived from the measurements all correspond to those predicted for ternary, liquid solutions.

  11. Polar front associated variation in prokaryotic community structure in Arctic shelf seafloor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tan T; Landfald, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Spatial variations in composition of marine microbial communities and its causes have largely been disclosed in studies comprising rather large environmental and spatial differences. In the present study, we explored if a moderate but temporally permanent climatic division within a contiguous arctic shelf seafloor was traceable in the diversity patterns of its bacterial and archaeal communities. Soft bottom sediment samples were collected at 10 geographical locations, spanning spatial distances of up to 640 km, transecting the oceanic polar front in the Barents Sea. The northern sampling sites were generally colder, less saline, shallower, and showed higher concentrations of freshly sedimented phytopigments compared to the southern study locations. Sampling sites depicted low variation in relative abundances of taxa at class level, with persistent numerical dominance by lineages of Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria (57-66% of bacterial sequence reads). The Archaea, which constituted 0.7-1.8% of 16S rRNA gene copy numbers in the sediment, were overwhelmingly (85.8%) affiliated with the Thaumarchaeota. Beta-diversity analyses showed the environmental variations throughout the sampling range to have a stronger impact on the structuring of both the bacterial and archaeal communities than spatial effects. While bacterial communities were significantly influenced by the combined effect of several weakly selective environmental differences, including temperature, archaeal communities appeared to be more uniquely structured by the level of freshly sedimented phytopigments.

  12. Opportunities and prospects of the Murmansk region in the development of transport in the Arctic region

    OpenAIRE

    Bol'shakov Ya. A.; Fridkin V. N.

    2016-01-01

    The current state of transport capacity of the Murmansk region and its role in development of the Arctic region has been considered. The analysis of transport system state and opportunities of its further development has been carried out. The prospects of the Murmansk transport hub in development of transport infrastructure of the Arctic region have been analyzed as well. Рассмотрено современное состояние транспортного потенциала Мурманской области и его роль в развитии Арктического региона. ...

  13. Changes in aerobic performance, body composition, and physical activity in polar explorers during a year-long stay at the polar station in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejczyk, Marcin; Araźny, Andrzej; Opyrchał, Marta

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in physical activity, aerobic performance, and body composition in polar explorers during a 1-year stay at the polar station. The study group consisted of 10 people, including 8 men and 2 women. Aerobic performance (maximal oxygen uptake), physical activity, body mass, and composition were evaluated for the polar explores of the Polish Polar Station prior to departure, and then during their stay at the station for a period of 1 year. The measurements were performed every 3 months. Compared to the measurements taken before going to the polar station, aerobic performance significantly ( p = 0.02) increased in the first 3 months of residing at the polar station and then remained relatively stable for the following duration of the stay. In the first 3 months of the stay, we also observed the highest level of physical activity in participants. In the polar explorers, no significant ( p > 0.05) body fatness changes were noted. Nonetheless, lean body mass, body mass, and BMI significantly increased compared to the measurements taken before departure to the polar station. The greatest changes in aerobic performance, physical activity, and body composition were observed during the first 3 months after arrival to the Arctic and then, despite changing biometeorological conditions, they remained stable for the next months of the stay. We recommend the introduction of a physical preparation program before departing to the polar station to improve explorers' physical fitness, so that they can meet the physical challenges they are faced with immediately after arrival to the polar station.

  14. On the importance for climate science communication - the climate office for polar regions and sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffeisen, Renate; Lemke, Peter; Dethloff, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge for national and international action and cooperation. A wide variation in the vulnerability is to be expected across different regions, due to regional differences in local environmental conditions, preexisting stresses to ecosystems, current resource-use patterns, and the framework of factors affecting decision-making including government policies, prices, preferences, and values. Thus, considerable regional impact differences will be faced as a result of climate change. Being aware will help to prepare for these inevitable consequences in time. Climate change is nowhere more strongly expressed than in the polar regions which respond to even small changes in climate. Given the major role played by these regions within the Earth's climate system the climate office for polar regions and sea level rise is hosted by the Foundation Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) which conducts research in the Arctic, the Antarctic and at temperate latitudes since 1980. The major goal of the climate office is to encourage the communication and dialogue between science and public. Primarily, this is done by the unique close contact and cooperation to the research center scientists. A continuous exchange is supported beyond the research center towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. The climate office represents polar aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting research institute e.g. the understanding of the ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions, the animal and plant kingdoms of the Arctic and Antarctic, and the evolution of the polar continents and seas. The climate office translates the scientific work into English, making complex issues accessible to policymakers and the public. It compiles, evaluates, comprehensively process and transparently communicate the latest findings from polar related climate research. The paper will present different

  15. Surface Temperature Trends in the Arctic Atlantic Region Over the Last 2,000 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhola, A.; Hanhijarvi, S.; Tingley, M.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce a new reconstruction method that uses the ordering of all pairs of proxy observations within each record to arrive at a consensus time series that best agrees with all proxy records. By considering only pairwise comparisons, this method, which we call PaiCo, facilitates the inclusion of records with differing temporal resolutions, and relaxes the assumption of linearity to the more general assumption of a monotonically increasing relationship between each proxy series and the target climate variable. We apply PaiCo to a newly assembled collection of high-quality proxy data to reconstruct the mean temperature of the Northernmost Atlantic region, which we call Arctic Atlantic, over the last 2,000 years. The Arctic Atlantic is a dynamically important region known to feature substantial temperature variability over recent millennia, and PaiCo allows for a more thorough investigation of the Arctic Atlantic regional climate as we include a diverse array of terrestrial and marine proxies with annual to multidecadal temporal resolutions. Comparisons of the PaiCo reconstruction to recent reconstructions covering larger areas indicate greater climatic variability in the Arctic Atlantic than for the Arctic as a whole. The Arctic Atlantic reconstruction features temperatures during the Roman Warm Period and Medieval Climate Anomaly that are comparable or even warmer than those of the twentieth century, and coldest temperatures in the middle of the nineteenth century, just prior to the onset of the recent warming trend.

  16. Flame retardants and methoxylated and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in two Norwegian Arctic top predators: glaucous gulls and polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreault, Jonathan; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Chu, Shaogang; Muir, Derek C G; Andersen, Magnus; Hamaed, Ahmad; Letcher, Robert J

    2005-08-15

    The brominated flame retardants have been subject of a particular environmental focus in the Arctic. The present study investigated the congener patterns and levels of total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polybrominated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as methoxylated (MeO) and hydroxylated (OH) PBDEs in plasma samples of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Norwegian Arctic. The analyses revealed the presence of total HBCD (0.07-1.24 ng/g wet wt) and brominated biphenyl 101 (polar bears. Sum (sigma) concentrations of the 12 PBDEs monitored in glaucous gulls (range: 8.23-67.5 ng/g wet wt) surpassed largely those of polar bears (range: 2.65-9.72 ng/g wet wt). Two higher brominated PBDEs, BDE183 and BDE209, were detected, and thus bioaccumulated to a limited degree, in glaucous gulls with concentrations ranging from polar bear plasma, BDE183 was polar bears (sigmaMeO-PBDE up to 0.17 ng/g wet wt), followed by 4'-MeO-BDE49 and 6-MeO-BDE47. The 3-OH-BDE47, 4'-OH-BDE49, and 6-OH-BDE47 congeners were also detected in glaucous gulls (sigmaOH-PBDE up to 1.05 ng/g wet wt), although in polar bears 4'-OH-BDE49 was the only congener quantifiable in 13% of the samples. The presence of MeO- and OH-PBDEs in plasma of both species suggests possible dietary uptake from naturally occurring sources (e.g., marine sponges and green algae), but also metabolically derived biotransformation of PBDEs such as BDE47 could be a contributing factor. Our findings suggest that there are dissimilar biochemical mechanisms involved in PCB and PBDE metabolism and accumulation/elimination and/or OH-PBDE accumulation and retention in glaucous gulls and polar bears.

  17. DEVELOPMENT AREAS IN THE ARCTIC REGION FORMATION OF A NEW INSTITUTIONAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we presented and disclosed some abstracts related to the problems of development of the Arctic and subarctic areas, which according to various expert estimates contain from 15 to 25% of the world reserves of primary energy resources, as well as the study examines the current situation and prospects of the Russian Federation the process of development of the Arctic territories.The purpose of this article is to study Russia's priorities at the national and regional levels related to the extraction of minerals that can be used to enhance the competitiveness of Russia on the world level and to ensure national energy security. Also, a study of this article is aimed at addressing issues related to the development of recommendations for the development of the global system of economic and energy security in the context of exploitation of prospective deposits in the Arctic region.Methodology. The methodological basis of this article are comparative and economic-statistical methods of analysis.Results: In this article were subsequently solved the problem, to achieve this goal, in particular: examined the general trends of energy development of civilization, considered the legal issues concerning the status of the Arctic and the Arctic regions, the basic global trends of world energy development and justifi ed system for ensuring global energy security.Conclusions. There were obtained the following basic conclusions: First, the Arctic and the Arctic area are world heritage, so the development of deposits on them should be in the interest of the world community on a non-discriminatory basis; secondly, energy future civilization will be based on the harmonious combination of traditional and renewable energy sources, which determines the need to rationalize the consumption of energy resources in the present; Third, environmental issues prospects of development of the Arctic and subarctic areas suffi ciently sharp and

  18. Role of polar anticyclones and mid-latitude cyclones for Arctic summertime sea-ice melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernli, Heini; Papritz, Lukas

    2018-02-01

    Annual minima in Arctic sea-ice extent and volume have been decreasing rapidly since the late 1970s, with substantial interannual variability. Summers with a particularly strong reduction of Arctic sea-ice extent are characterized by anticyclonic circulation anomalies from the surface to the upper troposphere. Here, we investigate the origin of these seasonal circulation anomalies by identifying individual Arctic anticyclones (with a lifetime of typically ten days) and analysing the air mass transport into these systems. We reveal that these episodic upper-level induced Arctic anticyclones are relevant for generating seasonal circulation anomalies. Sea-ice reduction is systematically enhanced during the transient episodes with Arctic anticyclones and the seasonal reduction of sea-ice volume correlates with the area-averaged frequency of Arctic anticyclones poleward of 70° N (correlation coefficient of 0.57). A trajectory analysis shows that these anticyclones result from extratropical cyclones injecting extratropical air masses with low potential vorticity into the Arctic upper troposphere. Our results emphasize the fundamental role of extratropical cyclones and associated diabatic processes in establishing Arctic anticyclones and, in turn, seasonal circulation anomalies, which are of key importance for understanding the variability of summertime Arctic sea-ice melting.

  19. Regional coherency of boreal forest growth defines Arctic driftwood provenancing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellmann, L.; Agafonov, L.; Churakova (Sidorova), O.; Düthorn, E.; Eggertsson, O.; Esper, J.; Kirdyanov, A. V.; Knorre, A. A.; Moiseev, P.; Myglan, V. S.; Nikolaev, A. N.; Reinig, F.; Schweingruber, F.; Solomina, O.; Tegel, W.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, sep (2016), s. 3-9 ISSN 1125-7865 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : mackenzie river driftwood * tree-ring data * central siberia * origin * archipelago * holocene * ocean * sea * ice * circulation * Driftwood * Arctic * Dendro-provenancing * Boreal Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.259, year: 2016

  20. Polar Gateways Arctic Circle Sunrise Conference 2008, Barrow, Alaska: IHY-IPY Outreach on Exploration of Polar and Icy Worlds in The Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Kauristie, K.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Sheehan, G. W.; Smith, R. W.; Sandahl, I.; Østgaard, N.; Chernouss, S.; Moore, M. H.; Peticolas, L. M.; Senske, D. A.; Thompson, B. J.; Tamppari, L. K.; Lewis, E. M.

    2008-09-01

    Polar, heliophysical, and planetary science topics related to the International Heliophysical and Polar Years 2007-2009 were addressed during this circumpolar video conference hosted January 23-29, 2008 at the new Barrow Arctic Research Center of the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium in Barrow, Alaska. This conference was planned as an IHY-IPY event science outreach event bringing together scientists and educational specialists for the first week of sunrise at subzero Arctic temperatures in Barrow. Science presentations spanned the solar system from the polar Sun to Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the Kuiper Belt. On-site participants experienced look and feel of icy worlds like Europa and Titan by being in the Barrow tundra and sea ice environment and by going "on the ice" during snowmobile expeditions to the near-shore sea ice environment and to Point Barrow, closest geographic point in the U.S. to the North Pole. Many science presentations were made remotely via video conference or teleconference from Sweden, Norway, Russia, Canada, Antarctica, and the United States, spanning up to thirteen time zones (Alaska to Russia) at various times. Extensive educational outreach activities were conducted with the local Barrow and Alaska North Slope communities and through the NASA Digital Learning Network live from the "top of the world" at Barrow. The Sun-Earth Day team from Goddard, and a videographer from the Passport to Knowledge project, carried out extensive educational interviews with many participants and native Inupiaq Eskimo residents of Barrow. Video and podcast recordings of selected interviews are available at http://sunearthday.nasa.gov/2008/multimedia/podcasts.php. Excerpts from these and other interviews will be included in a new high definition video documentary called "From the Sun to the Stars: The New Science of Heliophysics" from Passport to Knowledge that will later broadcast on NASA TV and other educational networks. Full conference

  1. Educational potential in the concept of the Arctic region sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarkov S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem-oriented analysis of the status and prospects of vocational education development of the Murmansk region in the concept of the Arctic sustainable development has been worked out. It has been shown that establishing the pivotal university on the basis of the Murmansk State Technical University is the most effective model for formation of the regional vocational training system and meets the priorities of the state Arctic and the national marine policy of the Russian Federation, the goals and objectives of sustainable socio-economic development of the Murmansk region. The necessity to provide the intellectual leadership of the region where just the higher engineering education creates human potential (capital has been substantiated; it has been pointed out that engineering education is the basis of innovative development of the Arctic economy

  2. Relationships between estimates of ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirling, I. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Oritsland, N.A. [Norsk Polarinstitutt, Oslo (Norway)

    1995-12-01

    Biological studies were conducted in arctic marine areas to assess the possible impacts of industrial development and to identify areas of critical habitat that might warrant some degree of protection. Ringed seals were studied since polar bears depend on them for food and both species are of cultural and economic importance to the Inuit. The number of seals needed to support a population of polar bears was estimated independently using both behavioral and energetic data. Predation and energy matrices indicated that high levels of predation on seals were sustainable only if most animals killed were young-of-the-year. Densities of seals and the productivity of bears appeared to vary in direct proportion to each other, indicating a high level of sensitivity of relationship between ringed seals and polar bears, at the population level. 86 refs., 6 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Arctic security in an age of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraska, James (ed.)

    2013-03-01

    Publisher review: This book examines Arctic defense policy and military security from the perspective of all eight Arctic states. In light of climate change and melting ice in the Arctic Ocean, Canada, Russia, Denmark (Greenland), Norway and the United States, as well as Iceland, Sweden and Finland, are grappling with an emerging Arctic security paradigm. This volume brings together the world's most seasoned Arctic political-military experts from Europe and North America to analyze how Arctic nations are adapting their security postures to accommodate increased shipping, expanding naval presence, and energy and mineral development in the polar region. The book analyzes the ascent of Russia as the first 'Arctic superpower', the growing importance of polar security for NATO and the Nordic states, and the increasing role of Canada and the United States in the region.(Author)

  4. Invited review: climate change impacts in polar regions: lessons from Antarctic moss bank archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royles, Jessica; Griffiths, Howard

    2015-03-01

    Mosses are the dominant plants in polar and boreal regions, areas which are experiencing rapid impacts of regional warming. Long-term monitoring programmes provide some records of the rate of recent climate change, but moss peat banks contain an unrivalled temporal record of past climate change on terrestrial plant Antarctic systems. We summarise the current understanding of climatic proxies and determinants of moss growth for contrasting continental and maritime Antarctic regions, as informed by 13C and 18O signals in organic material. Rates of moss accumulation are more than three times higher in the maritime Antarctic than continental Antarctica with growing season length being a critical determinant of growth rate, and high carbon isotope discrimination values reflecting optimal hydration conditions. Correlation plots of 13C and 18O values show that species (Chorisodontium aciphyllum / Polytrichum strictum) and growth form (hummock / bank) are the major determinants of measured isotope ratios. The interplay between moss growth form, photosynthetic physiology, water status and isotope composition are compared with developments of secondary proxies, such as chlorophyll fluorescence. These approaches provide a framework to consider the potential impact of climate change on terrestrial Antarctic habitats as well as having implications for future studies of temperate, boreal and Arctic peatlands. There are many urgent ecological and environmental problems in the Arctic related to mosses in a changing climate, but the geographical ranges of species and life-forms are difficult to track individually. Our goal was to translate what we have learned from the more simple systems in Antarctica, for application to Arctic habitats. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. High-energy, high-fat lifestyle challenges an Arctic apex predator, the polar bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, A M; Durner, G M; Rode, K D; Atwood, T C; Atkinson, S N; Peacock, E; Costa, D P; Owen, M A; Williams, T M

    2018-02-02

    Regional declines in polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ) populations have been attributed to changing sea ice conditions, but with limited information on the causative mechanisms. By simultaneously measuring field metabolic rates, daily activity patterns, body condition, and foraging success of polar bears moving on the spring sea ice, we found that high metabolic rates (1.6 times greater than previously assumed) coupled with low intake of fat-rich marine mammal prey resulted in an energy deficit for more than half of the bears examined. Activity and movement on the sea ice strongly influenced metabolic demands. Consequently, increases in mobility resulting from ongoing and forecasted declines in and fragmentation of sea ice are likely to increase energy demands and may be an important factor explaining observed declines in body condition and survival. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  6. Collaborative Proposal: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, William [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2016-11-18

    RASM is a multi-disciplinary project, which brings together researchers from six state universities, one military postgraduate school, and one DoE laboratory to address the core modeling objectives of the arctic research community articulated in the Arctic System Modeling report by Roberts et al. (2010b). This report advocates the construction of a regional downscaling tool to generate probabilistic decadal projections of Greenland ice sheet retreat, evolution of arctic sea ice cover, changes in land surface vegetation, and regional processes leading to arctic amplification. Unified coupled models such as RASM are ideal for this purpose because they simulate fine-scale physics, essential for the realistic representation of intra-annual variability, in addition to processes fundamental to long term climatic shifts (Hurrell et al. 2009). By using RASM with boundary conditions from a global model, we can generate many-member ensembles essential for understanding uncertainty in regional climate projections (Hawkins and Sutton 2009). This probabilistic approach is computationally prohibitive for high-resolution global models in the foreseeable future, and also for regional models interactively nested within global simulations. Yet it is fundamental for quantifying uncertainty in decadal forecasts to make them useful for decision makers (Doherty et al. 2009). For this reason, we have targeted development of ensemble generation techniques as a core project task (Task 4.5). Environmental impact assessment specialists need high-fidelity regional ensemble projections to improve the accuracy of their work (Challinor et al. 2009; Moss et al. 2010). This is especially true of the Arctic, where economic, social and national interests are rapidly reshaping the high north in step with regional climate change. During the next decade, considerable oil and gas discoveries are expected across many parts of the marine and terrestrial Arctic (Gautier et al. 2009), the economics of the

  7. Extensive sampling of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Northwest Passage (Canadian Arctic Archipelago) reveals population differentiation across multiple spatial and temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Leonardo; Van Coeverden de Groot, Peter J; Saunders, Brenda L; Atkinson, Stephen N; Weber, Diana S; Dyck, Markus G; Boag, Peter T; Lougheed, Stephen C

    2013-09-01

    As global warming accelerates the melting of Arctic sea ice, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) must adapt to a rapidly changing landscape. This process will necessarily alter the species distribution together with population dynamics and structure. Detailed knowledge of these changes is crucial to delineating conservation priorities. Here, we sampled 361 polar bears from across the center of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago spanning the Gulf of Boothia (GB) and M'Clintock Channel (MC). We use DNA microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences to quantify genetic differentiation, estimate gene flow, and infer population history. Two populations, roughly coincident with GB and MC, are significantly differentiated at both nuclear (F ST = 0.01) and mitochondrial (ΦST = 0.47; F ST = 0.29) loci, allowing Bayesian clustering analyses to assign individuals to either group. Our data imply that the causes of the mitochondrial and nuclear genetic patterns differ. Analysis of mtDNA reveals the matrilineal structure dates at least to the Holocene, and is common to individuals throughout the species' range. These mtDNA differences probably reflect both genetic drift and historical colonization dynamics. In contrast, the differentiation inferred from microsatellites is only on the scale of hundreds of years, possibly reflecting contemporary impediments to gene flow. Taken together, our data suggest that gene flow is insufficient to homogenize the GB and MC populations and support the designation of GB and MC as separate polar bear conservation units. Our study also provide a striking example of how nuclear DNA and mtDNA capture different aspects of a species demographic history.

  8. Environmental impacts of shipping in 2030 with a particular focus on the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Dalsøren

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the concentrations changes and Radiative Forcing (RF of short-lived atmospheric pollutants due to shipping emissions of NOx, SOx, CO, NMVOCs, BC and OC. We use high resolution ship emission inventories for the Arctic that are more suitable for regional scale evaluation than those used in former studies. A chemical transport model and a RF model are used to evaluate the time period 2004–2030, when we expect increasing traffic in the Arctic region. Two datasets for ship emissions are used that characterize the potential impact from shipping and the degree to which shipping controls may mitigate impacts: a high (HIGH scenario and a low scenario with Maximum Feasible Reduction (MFR of black carbon in the Arctic. In MFR, BC emissions in the Arctic are reduced with 70% representing a combination technology performance and/or reasonable advances in single-technology performance. Both scenarios result in moderate to substantial increases in concentrations of pollutants both globally and in the Arctic. Exceptions are black carbon in the MFR scenario, and sulfur species and organic carbon in both scenarios due to the future phase-in of current regulation that reduces fuel sulfur content. In the season with potential transit traffic through the Arctic in 2030 we find increased concentrations of all pollutants in large parts of the Arctic. Net global RFs from 2004–2030 of 53 mW m−2 (HIGH and 73 mW m−2 (MFR are similar to those found for preindustrial to present net global aircraft RF. The found warming contrasts with the cooling from historical ship emissions. The reason for this difference and the higher global forcing for the MFR scenario is mainly the reduced future fuel sulfur content resulting in less cooling from sulfate aerosols. The Arctic RF is largest in the HIGH scenario. In the HIGH scenario ozone dominates the RF during the transit season (August–October. RF due to BC in air, and

  9. Regional variability of acidification in the Arctic: a sea of contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Popova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean is a region that is particularly vulnerable to the impact of ocean acidification driven by rising atmospheric CO2, with potentially negative consequences for calcifying organisms such as coccolithophorids and foraminiferans. In this study, we use an ocean-only general circulation model, with embedded biogeochemistry and a comprehensive description of the ocean carbon cycle, to study the response of pH and saturation states of calcite and aragonite to rising atmospheric pCO2 and changing climate in the Arctic Ocean. Particular attention is paid to the strong regional variability within the Arctic, and, for comparison, simulation results are contrasted with those for the global ocean. Simulations were run to year 2099 using the RCP8.5 (an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5 scenario with the highest concentrations of atmospheric CO2. The separate impacts of the direct increase in atmospheric CO2 and indirect effects via impact of climate change (changing temperature, stratification, primary production and freshwater fluxes were examined by undertaking two simulations, one with the full system and the other in which atmospheric CO2 was prevented from increasing beyond its preindustrial level (year 1860. Results indicate that the impact of climate change, and spatial heterogeneity thereof, plays a strong role in the declines in pH and carbonate saturation (Ω seen in the Arctic. The central Arctic, Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay show greatest rates of acidification and Ω decline as a result of melting sea ice. In contrast, areas affected by Atlantic inflow including the Greenland Sea and outer shelves of the Barents, Kara and Laptev seas, had minimal decreases in pH and Ω because diminishing ice cover led to greater vertical mixing and primary production. As a consequence, the projected onset of undersaturation in respect to aragonite is highly variable regionally within the

  10. Architectural Design in Arctic Regions - Issue of wind-driven snow in a built environment for sustainable urban planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiebig, Jennifer; Koss, Holger

    2014-01-01

    The extreme climate is a growing problem caused by climate change in many parts of the world. Research in Arctic regions offer a great potential for adaptation for other extreme climates. The issue of snow drift and accumulation in north European and arctic regions exists since the first human se...

  11. Security in the Arctic region. Coming in from the Cold War: Arctic security in the emerging global climate: A view from Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, A.

    1992-01-01

    The article briefly discusses the strategic importance of the Arctic during the cold war years, before moving on to a consideration of the Canadian approach to the region and an outline of various Canadian governmental and private initiatives. The question of whether confidence and security building measures established in other areas are suitable for transfer to the Arctic is answered and a tentative list of some measures that might most appropriately and effectively serve to make the Arctic more secure is put forward for later and fuller discussions

  12. Chemical ozone losses in Arctic and Antarctic polar winter/spring season derived from SCIAMACHY limb measurements 2002–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sonkaew

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric ozone profiles are retrieved for the period 2002–2009 from SCIAMACHY measurements of limb-scattered solar radiation in the Hartley and Chappuis absorption bands of ozone. This data set is used to determine the chemical ozone losses in both the Arctic and Antarctic polar vortices by averaging the ozone in the vortex at a given potential temperature. The chemical ozone losses at isentropic levels between 450 K and 600 K are derived from the difference between observed ozone abundances and the ozone modelled taking diabatic cooling into account, but no chemical ozone loss. Chemical ozone losses of up to 30–40% between mid-January and the end of March inside the Arctic polar vortex are reported. Strong inter-annual variability of the Arctic ozone loss is observed, with the cold winters 2004/2005 and 2006/2007 showing chemical ozone losses inside the polar vortex at 475 K, where 1.7 ppmv and 1.4 ppmv of ozone were removed, respectively, over the period from 22 January to beginning of April and 0.9 ppmv and 1.2 ppmv, respectively, during February. For the winters of 2007/2008 and 2002/2003, ozone losses of about 0.8 ppmv and 0.4 ppmv, respectively are estimated at the 475 K isentropic level for the period from 22 January to beginning of April. Essentially no ozone losses were diagnosed for the relatively warm winters of 2003/2004 and 2005/2006. The maximum ozone loss in the SCIAMACHY data set was found in 2007 at the 600 K level and amounted to about 2.1 ppmv for the period between 22 January and the end of April. Enhanced losses close to this altitude were found in all investigated Arctic springs, in contrast to Antarctic spring. The inter-annual variability of ozone losses and PSC occurrence rates observed during Arctic spring is consistent with the known QBO effects on the Arctic polar vortex, with exception of the unusual Arctic winter 2008/2009.

    The maximum total ozone mass loss of about 25 million tons was found in the

  13. Relation between extinction and assisted colonization of plants in the arctic-alpine and boreal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pykälä, Juha

    2017-06-01

    Assisted colonization of vascular plants is considered by many ecologists an important tool to preserve biodiversity threatened by climate change. I argue that assisted colonization may have negative consequences in arctic-alpine and boreal regions. The observed slow movement of plants toward the north has been an argument for assisted colonization. However, these range shifts may be slow because for many plants microclimatic warming (ignored by advocates of assisted colonization) has been smaller than macroclimatic warming. Arctic-alpine and boreal plants may have limited possibilities to disperse farther north or to higher elevations. I suggest that arctic-alpine species are more likely to be driven to extinction because of competitive exclusion by southern species than by increasing temperatures. If so, the future existence of arctic-alpine and boreal flora may depend on delaying or preventing the migration of plants toward the north to allow northern species to evolve to survive in a warmer climate. In the arctic-alpine region, preventing the dispersal of trees and shrubs may be the most important method to mitigate the negative effects of climate change. The purported conservation benefits of assisted colonization should not be used to promote the migration of invasive species by forestry. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing...... of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tidal model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide...

  15. Arctic Newcomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the Arctic region and its economic potential in Japan, South Korea and Singapore was slow to develop but is now rapidly growing. All three countries have in recent years accelerated their engagement with Arctic states, laying the institutional frameworks needed to better understand...... and influence policies relating to the Arctic. But each country’s approach is quite different, writes Aki Tonami....

  16. Mediating Data and Building Community for Informed, Intelligent Decision Making for the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsifer, P. L.; Stieglitz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Much has been written about the state of data and related systems for the polar regions, however work remains to be done to achieve an envisioned integrated and well-defined pan-Arctic observing and data network that enables access to high quality data, expertise and information in support of scientific understanding, stakeholder needs, and agency operations. In this paper we argue that priorities for establishing such a network are in the area of machine-enhanced data mediation and the human aspects of community building. The authors have engaged in a U.S.-based, multi-agency process with the goal of applying modern cyberinfrastructure to improve capabilities for integrating data. A particular case-study focuses on establishing a carbon budget for the Arctic region. This effort contributes to broader global efforts aimed at establishing an international observing and data network. Results are based on a series meetings, workshops, systems design activities, and publications. Analysis reveals that there are a large number of polar data resources interacting in a network that functions as a data ecosystem. Given the size and complexity of the network, achieving broad data discovery and access and meaningful data integration (i.e. developing a carbon budget) will require advanced techniques including machine learning, semantic mediation, and the use of highly connected virtual research environments. To achieve the aforementioned goal will require a community of engaged researchers, technologists, and stakeholders to establish requirements and the social and organizational context needed for effective machine-based approaches. The results imply that: i) the polar research and application community must be more aware of advances in technology; ii) funders must adopt a long-term, sustainable infrastructure approach to systems development; iii) the community must work together to enable interoperability; iv) we must recognize that the challenge is socio-technical and

  17. Atmosphere and permafrost in the Arctic: results from a new regional coupled atmosphere-land model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Heidrun; Rinke, Annette; Zhou, Xu; Dethloff, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Frozen ground is one of the key components of the land part of the Arctic climate system. A reliable representation of the exchanges of energy, water and gases (CO2 and CH4) between frozen ground and the atmosphere is essential for simulating the present day Arctic coupled climate system realistically and its future changes with some confidence. Regional atmosphere-snow-permafrost interactions can be best studied with Regional Climate Models (RCMs) due to their high horizontal resolution compared to Global Climate Models. For this purpose, the sophisticated land model CLM4 was integrated into the Arctic regional climate model HIRHAM5 (HIRHAM5-CLM4). To validate this model, it was run over the ERAInterim period (1979-2014) and the model results were compared to a similar simulation of HIRHAM5, using the inbuilt land model, as well as to station observations. The comparison focuses on the models ability to represent observations on permafrost like permafrost extent, active layer thickness (ALT) and soil temperature profiles, as well as on the representation of the Arctic atmosphere. The representation of ALT and soil temperature profiles is significantly improved in HIRHAM5-CLM4 compared to HIRHAM5. Averaged over the period 2000-2011, the bias to station observations of ALT is reduced from -1.3 m to -0.3 m, the Arctic wide winter soil temperature root mean square is reduced from up to 14.4K to a maximum of 5K. Arctic climatology of 2m air temperature and mean sea level pressure are well represented in both HIRHAM5-CLM4 and HIRHAM5, HIRHAM5-CLM4 reduces the air temperature bias averaged over 1979-2014 over Eastern and Central Siberia in winter by 0.5K. Using CLM4 in HIRHAM5 impacts the simulation of local circulation patterns and influences the occurrence of baroclinic cyclones.

  18. The Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO): A Change Detection Array in the Pacific Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Moore, S. E.; Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Pickart, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific region of the Arctic Ocean is experiencing major reductions in seasonal sea ice extent and increases in sea surface temperatures. One of the key uncertainties in this region is how the marine ecosystem will respond to seasonal shifts in the timing of spring sea ice retreat and/or delays in fall sea ice formation. Climate changes are likely to result in shifts in species composition and abundance, northward range expansions, and changes in lower trophic level productivity that can directly cascade and affect the life cycles of higher trophic level organisms. The developing Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) is composed of focused biological and oceanographic sampling at biological "hot spot" sites for lower and higher trophic organisms on a latitudinal S-to-N array. The DBO is being developed by an international consortium of scientists in the Pacific Arctic as a change detection array to systematically track the broad biological response to sea ice retreat and associated environmental change. Coordinated ship-based observations over various seasons, together with satellite and mooring data collections at the designated sites, can provide an early detection system for biological and ecosystem response to climate warming. The data documenting the importance of these ecosystem "hotspots" provide a growing marine time-series from the northern Bering Sea to Barrow Canyon at the boundary of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Results from these studies show spatial changes in carbon production and export to the sediments as indicated by infaunal community composition and biomass, shifts in sediment grain size on a S-to-N latitudinal gradient, and range extensions for lower trophic levels and further northward migration of higher trophic organisms, such as gray whales. There is also direct evidence of negative impacts on ice dependent species, such as walrus and polar bears. As a ramp up to a fully operational observatory, hydrographic transects and select

  19. Engaging Local Communities in Arctic Observing Networks: A Collaborative Shoreline Change Risk WebGIS for Alaska's Arctic Slope Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, M.

    2017-12-01

    This study engaged local community stakeholders in Alaska's Arctic Slope Region to develop a web-based shoreline change risk geographic information system (WebGIS) in collaboration with the North Slope Borough and its residents. The value of the effort includes rich spatial documentation of local risks across the vast, remote, and rapidly changing shoreline, and identification of local manager information needs to direct WebGIS development. The study advances our understanding of shoreline change problems from the perspective of local Arctic communities beyond municipal impacts while building decision support. Over fifty local residents in three communities with collective coastal knowledge that extends across the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska and Arctic National Wildlife Refuge shared their perspectives on hard copy maps. Sixteen managers provided usability perceptions of a beta WebGIS with shoreline change susceptibility information summarized at relevant asset locations such as subsistence camps. The hard copy maps with 300 "problem places" were digitized for analysis, which revealed problems across the coastline, especially challenges to boating for subsistence hunting such as shoaling cutting off access and creating hazards. The usability workshop revealed specific information needs including the need to monitor impacts at decommissioned national defense radar sites repurposed by locals to centralize oil and gas activity. These results were analyzed using an Instructional Systems Design (ISD) framework consisting of front-end and formative WebGIS evaluation phases. The front-end evaluation is the local input on hard copy maps, which provided local verification of coastal risks. The formative evaluation is the usability workshop with managers, which informed WebGIS development while promoting user buy-in. In terms of product and process, the local knowledge and information needs collected are significant because they establish local engagement with the

  20. The clash of interests of the leading world states in the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Yashna

    2014-12-01

    In the article there is emphasized that the relevance of this issue is caused by global warming, which provides opportunities for energy production and the development of new transport routes and also the uncertainty of the legal status of the Arctic leads to strengthening of the conflicts in this region. These factors lead to encroachment of other countries and organizations on mastering of this area. Except the Arctic countries, including Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Canada, the USA, Norway, Denmark and Russia ambitions also demonstrate China and the EU.

  1. Limnological characteristics of 56 lakes in the Central Canadian Arctic Treeline Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. SMOL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Measured environmental variables from 56 lakes across the Central Canadian Treeline Region exhibited clear limnological differences among subpolar ecozones, reflecting strong latitudinal changes in biome characteristics (e.g. vegetation, permafrost, climate. Principal Components Analysis (PCA clearly separated forested sites from tundra sites based on distinct differences in limnological characteristics. Increases in major ions and related variables (e.g. dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC were higher in boreal forest sites in comparison to arctic tundra sites. The higher values recorded in the boreal forest lakes may be indirectly related to differences in climatic factors in these zones, such as the degree of permafrost development, higher precipitation and runoff, duration of ice-cover on the lakes, and thicker and better soil development. Similar to trends observed in DIC, substantially higher values for dissolved organic carbon (DOC were measured in boreal forest lakes than in arctic tundra lakes. This was likely due to higher amounts of catchment-derived DOC entering the lakes from coniferous leaf litter sources. Relative to arctic tundra lakes, boreal forest lakes had higher nutrient concentrations, particularly total nitrogen (TN, likely due to warmer conditions, a longer growing season, and higher precipitation, which would enhance nutrient cycling and primary productivity. Results suggest that modern aquatic environments at opposite sides of the central Canadian arctic treeline (i.e. boreal forest and arctic tundra exhibit distinct differences in water chemistry and physical conditions. These limnological trends may provide important information on possible future changes with additional warming.

  2. Improved sea level determination in the Arctic regions through development of tolerant altimetry retracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Maulik

    segments. The first segment deals with the development of an improved and customized empirical retracker for the sea icecovered regions in the Arctic. The improved retrackers which are termed as primary peak empiricalretrackers work on just the primary peak of the waveform rather than the complete waveform......This PhD project involves the development of a suitable retracking strategy for processing ofCryosat-2 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) altimetry waveforms in the Arctic Ocean. The Cryosat-2SAR altimetry waveforms are processed for precise and accurate SSH determination. Precise and accurate...... knowledge of SSH has various applications like gravity field determination, climate prediction, weather forecasting and studies of ocean currents and circulations.Cryosat-2 SAR altimetry waveforms in the Arctic can have a variety of shapes because of the superposition of the echoes from the water...

  3. Chemical cycling and deposition of atmospheric mercury in polar regions: review of recent measurements and comparison with models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Angot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a worldwide contaminant that can cause adverse health effects to wildlife and humans. While atmospheric modeling traces the link from emissions to deposition of Hg onto environmental surfaces, large uncertainties arise from our incomplete understanding of atmospheric processes (oxidation pathways, deposition, and re-emission. Atmospheric Hg reactivity is exacerbated in high latitudes and there is still much to be learned from polar regions in terms of atmospheric processes. This paper provides a synthesis of the atmospheric Hg monitoring data available in recent years (2011–2015 in the Arctic and in Antarctica along with a comparison of these observations with numerical simulations using four cutting-edge global models. The cycle of atmospheric Hg in the Arctic and in Antarctica presents both similarities and differences. Coastal sites in the two regions are both influenced by springtime atmospheric Hg depletion events and by summertime snowpack re-emission and oceanic evasion of Hg. The cycle of atmospheric Hg differs between the two regions primarily because of their different geography. While Arctic sites are significantly influenced by northern hemispheric Hg emissions especially in winter, coastal Antarctic sites are significantly influenced by the reactivity observed on the East Antarctic ice sheet due to katabatic winds. Based on the comparison of multi-model simulations with observations, this paper discusses whether the processes that affect atmospheric Hg seasonality and interannual variability are appropriately represented in the models and identifies research gaps in our understanding of the atmospheric Hg cycling in high latitudes.

  4. A Regional, Integrated Monitoring System for the Hydrology of the Pan-Arctic Land Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serreze, Mark; Barry, Roger; Nolin, Anne; Armstrong, Richard; Zhang, Ting-Jung; Vorosmarty, Charles; Lammers, Richard; Frolking, Steven; Bromwich, David; McDonald, Kyle

    2005-01-01

    Work under this NASA contract developed a system for monitoring and historical analysis of the major components of the pan-Arctic terrestrial water cycle. It is known as Arctic-RIMS (Regional Integrated Hydrological Monitoring System for the Pan-Arctic Landmass). The system uses products from EOS-era satellites, numerical weather prediction models, station records and other data sets in conjunction with an atmosphere-land surface water budgeting scheme. The intent was to compile operational (at 1-2 month time lags) gridded fields of precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (ET), P-ET, soil moisture, soil freeze/thaw state, active layer thickness, snow extent and its water equivalent, soil water storage, runoff and simulated discharge along with estimates of non-closure in the water budget. Using "baseline" water budgeting schemes in conjunction with atmospheric reanalyses and pre-EOS satellite data, water budget fields were conjunction with atmospheric reanalyses and pre-EOS satellite data, water budget fields were compiled to provide historical time series. The goals as outlined in the original proposal can be summarized as follows: 1) Use EOS data to compile hydrologic products for the pan-Arctic terrestrial regions including snowcover/snow water equivalent (SSM/A MODIS, AMSR) and near-surface freeze/thaw dynamics (Sea Winds on QuikSCAT and ADEOS I4 SSMI and AMSR). 2) Implement Arctic-RIMS to use EOS data streams, allied fields and hydrologic models to produce allied outputs that fully characterize pan-Arctic terrestrial and aerological water budgets. 3) Compile hydrologically-based historical products providing a long-term baseline of spatial and temporal variability in the water cycle.

  5. The role of DOM in nitrogen processing in streams across arctic regions affected by fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Schade, J. D.; Holmes, R. M.; Natali, S.; Mann, P. J.; Wymore, A.; Coble, A. A.; Prokishkin, A. S.; Zito, P.; Podgorski, D. C.; Spencer, R. G.; McDowell, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    In stream ecosystems, inputs of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have a strong influence on nitrogen (N) processing. Previous studies have demonstrated that increases in DOC concentrations can promote greater N removal in many stream ecosystems. Most of what we know about C and N coupling comes from studies of temperate streams; less is known about this relationship in the Arctic. Streams in Arctic ecosystems are facing rapid changes in climate and disturbance regimes, in particular increasing fire frequencies that are likely to alter biogeochemical cycles. Although fires can lead to increases in NO3 concentrations in streams, the effects of fire on DOC (concentration and composition) have been difficult to generalize. We studied the relationships between DOC and N in two locations; the Central Siberian Plateau, Russia and the Yukon-Kuskokwim (YK) River Delta, Alaska. Streams in both regions show increases in NO3 concentrations after fire, while DOC concentrations decrease in Siberia but increase in streams within the YK-Delta. These patterns in DOC and NO3 create a gradient in DOC and nutrient concentrations, allowing us to study this coupling in a wider Pan-Arctic scope. In order to assess the role of DOC in Arctic N processing, we conducted NO3 and NH4 additions to stream microcosms at the Alaskan site as well as whole-stream additions in Siberia. We hypothesized that nutrient uptake would be high in older burn sites of Siberia and recently burned sites in the YK-Delta, due to greater DOC concentrations and availability. Our results suggest that nitrogen dynamics in the Alaskan sites is strongly responsive to C availability, but is less so in Siberian sites. The potential impacts of permafrost thawing and fires on DOM and nutrient dynamics thus appear to not be consistent across the Arctic suggesting that different regions of the Arctic have unique biogeochemical controls.

  6. Chemical analysis of refractory stratospheric aerosol particles collected within the arctic vortex and inside polar stratospheric clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ebert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric aerosol particles with diameters larger than about 10 nm were collected within the arctic vortex during two polar flight campaigns: RECONCILE in winter 2010 and ESSenCe in winter 2011. Impactors were installed on board the aircraft M-55 Geophysica, which was operated from Kiruna, Sweden. Flights were performed at a height of up to 21 km and some of the particle samples were taken within distinct polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs. The chemical composition, size and morphology of refractory particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. During ESSenCe no refractory particles with diameters above 500 nm were sampled. In total 116 small silicate, Fe-rich, Pb-rich and aluminum oxide spheres were found. In contrast to ESSenCe in early winter, during the late-winter RECONCILE mission the air masses were subsiding inside the Arctic winter vortex from the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, thus initializing a transport of refractory aerosol particles into the lower stratosphere. During RECONCILE, 759 refractory particles with diameters above 500 nm were found consisting of silicates, silicate ∕ carbon mixtures, Fe-rich particles, Ca-rich particles and complex metal mixtures. In the size range below 500 nm the presence of soot was also proven. While the data base is still sparse, the general tendency of a lower abundance of refractory particles during PSC events compared to non-PSC situations was observed. The detection of large refractory particles in the stratosphere, as well as the experimental finding that these particles were not observed in the particle samples (upper size limit ∼  5 µm taken during PSC events, strengthens the hypothesis that such particles are present in the lower polar stratosphere in late winter and have provided a surface for heterogeneous nucleation during PSC formation.

  7. Arctic Riverine CDOM and its effects on the Polar Marine Light Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orandle, Zoe Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weijer, Wilbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Elliott, Scott M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Shanlin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    It is well-known that CDOM (Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter) can have a significant effect on biological activity in the photic zones of aquatic ecosystems. However, the extent of CDOM’s interference with biological activity is not well-known. We examined this issue in great detail in the mixed surface layer of the Arctic Ocean. We studied the impacts of CDOM’s light attenuation on Arctic phytoplankton populations to discover if riverine CDOM’s presence in the Arctic ocean could inhibit and possibly prevent local phytoplankton populations from performing photosynthesis. We incorporated biogeochemistry concepts and data with oceanographic models and calculations to approach the problem. The results showed that riverine CDOM can indeed significantly impact the productivity of phytoplankton populations during the spring and summer months near the major Arctic river mouths we chose to examine. Although our study was detailed and inclusive of many variables, the issue of CDOM’s light attenuation and its effects on phytoplankton populations must be explored on a global scale to help understand if riverine CDOM could prove disastrous for phytoplankton populations.

  8. Is it 'boom times' for baleen whales in the Pacific Arctic region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sue E

    2016-09-01

    The marine ecosystem in the Pacific Arctic region has experienced dramatic transformation, most obvious by the loss of sea ice volume (75%), late-summer areal extent (50%) and change in phenology (four to six weeks longer open-water period). This alteration has resulted in an opening of habitat for subarctic species of baleen whales, many of which are recovering in number from severe depletions from commercial whaling in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Specifically, humpback, fin and minke whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, Balaenoptera physalus and Balaenoptera acutorostrata) are now regularly reported during summer and autumn in the southern Chukchi Sea. These predators of zooplankton and forage fishes join the seasonally resident grey whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and the arctic-endemic bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) in the expanding open-ocean habitat of the Pacific Arctic. Questions arising include: (i) what changes in whale-prey production and delivery mechanisms have accompanied the loss of sea ice, and (ii) how are these five baleen whale species partitioning the expanding ice-free habitat? While there has been no programme of research specifically focused on these questions, an examination of seasonal occurrence, foraging plasticity and (for bowhead whales) body condition suggests that the current state of Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem may be 'boom times' for baleen whales. These favourable conditions may be moderated, however, by future shifts in ecosystem structure and/or negative impacts to cetaceans related to increased commercial activities in the region. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Is it ‘boom times’ for baleen whales in the Pacific Arctic region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The marine ecosystem in the Pacific Arctic region has experienced dramatic transformation, most obvious by the loss of sea ice volume (75%), late-summer areal extent (50%) and change in phenology (four to six weeks longer open-water period). This alteration has resulted in an opening of habitat for subarctic species of baleen whales, many of which are recovering in number from severe depletions from commercial whaling in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Specifically, humpback, fin and minke whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, Balaenoptera physalus and Balaenoptera acutorostrata) are now regularly reported during summer and autumn in the southern Chukchi Sea. These predators of zooplankton and forage fishes join the seasonally resident grey whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and the arctic-endemic bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) in the expanding open-ocean habitat of the Pacific Arctic. Questions arising include: (i) what changes in whale-prey production and delivery mechanisms have accompanied the loss of sea ice, and (ii) how are these five baleen whale species partitioning the expanding ice-free habitat? While there has been no programme of research specifically focused on these questions, an examination of seasonal occurrence, foraging plasticity and (for bowhead whales) body condition suggests that the current state of Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem may be ‘boom times’ for baleen whales. These favourable conditions may be moderated, however, by future shifts in ecosystem structure and/or negative impacts to cetaceans related to increased commercial activities in the region. PMID:27601724

  10. Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic : Responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, Jelte; Boelen, Peter; Blokker, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to

  11. Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: Responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, J.; Boelen, P.; Blokker, P.

    2005-01-01

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to

  12. Cloud morphology and dynamics in Saturn's northern polar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuñano, Arrate; del Río-Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the cloud morphology and motions in the north polar region of Saturn, from latitude ∼ 70°N to the pole based on Cassini ISS images obtained between January 2009 and November 2014. This region shows a variety of dynamical structures: the permanent hexagon wave and its intense eastward jet, a large field of permanent ;puffy; clouds with scales from 10 - 500 km, probably of convective origin, local cyclone and anticyclones vortices with sizes of ∼1,000 km embedded in this field, and finally the intense cyclonic polar vortex. We report changes in the albedo of the clouds that delineate rings of circulation around the polar vortex and the presence of ;plume-like; activity in the hexagon jet, in both cases not accompanied with significant variations in the corresponding jets. No meridional migration is observed in the clouds forming and merging in the field of puffy clouds, suggesting that their mergers do not contribute to the maintenance of the polar vortex. Finally, we analyze the dominant growing modes for barotropic and baroclinic instabilities in the hexagon jet, showing that a mode 6 barotropic instability is dominant at the latitude of the hexagon.

  13. Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the impact of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circu-lation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the North to South Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar strato-spheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abun-dance of the greenhouse gases on the long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weak-ness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification be-gins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard

  14. Concentrations and interactions of selected essential and non-essential elements in ringed seals and polar bears of arctic Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woshner, V M; O'Hara, T M; Bratton, G R; Beasley, V R

    2001-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated concentrations of twelve essential and non-essential elements (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, Mo, Se, Ag, and Zn) in tissues of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of arctic Alaska (USA). All samples were collected between 1995-97 in conjunction with subsistence harvests. The essential elements are reported to help develop reference ranges for health status determination and to help assess known or suspected interactions affecting toxicoses of cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg). In some tissues, Cd, Hg, and selenium (Se) were present at concentrations that have been associated with toxicoses in some domestic animals. Nevertheless, tissue levels of all elements were within ranges that have been reported previously in other pinnipeds and polar bears. Significant associations included: Cd with Zn or Cu; Cu with Zn or Ag; and Hg with Se, Zn, or Cu. This study found hepatic Hg:Se molar ratios to be lower than unity and different between the two species. Based upon significant differences in mean tissue elemental concentrations for polar bear versus ringed seal, we concluded that biomagnification factors (bear/seal) were significant for: Cu in liver and muscle; Pb in kidney; Se in kidney and muscle; Zn in liver and muscle; and Hg in liver. Possible explanations for observed elemental correlations (i.e., interactions) and ancillary mechanisms of Cd and Hg detoxification are discussed.

  15. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of obtaining adequate pure drinking water and disposing of liquid and solid waste in the U.S Arctic, a region where virtually all water is frozen solid for much of the year, has led to unsanitary solutions. Sanitation and a safe water supply are particularly problems in rural villages. These villages are without running water and use plastic buckets for toilets. The outbreak of diseases is believed to be partially attributable to exposure to human waste and lack of sanitation. Villages with the most frequent outbreaks of disease are those in which running water is difficult to obtain. Waste is emptied into open lagoons, rivers, or onto the sea coast. It does not degrade rapidly and in addition to affecting human health, can be harmful to the fragile ecology of the Arctic and the indigenous wildlife and fish populations. Current practices for waste management and sanitation pose serious human hazards as well as threaten the environment. NASA's unique knowledge of water/wastewater treatment systems for extreme environments, identified in the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment report entitled An Alaskan Challenge: Native Villagt Sanitation, may offer practical solutions addressing the issues of safe drinking water and effective sanitation practices in rural villages. NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving the NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, Ilisagvik College in Barrow and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the State of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North; the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the

  16. Illumination Conditions of the Lunar Polar Regions Using LOLA Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Torrence, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    We use high-resolution altimetry data obtained by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to characterize present illumination conditions in the polar regions of the Moon. Compared to previous studies, both the spatial and temporal extent of the simulations are increased significantly, as well as the coverage (fill ratio) of the topographic maps used, thanks to the 28 Hz firing rate of the five-beam instrument. We determine the horizon elevation in a number of directions based on 240 m-resolution polar digital elevation models reaching down to 75 latitude. The illumination of both polar regions extending to 80 can be calculated for any geometry from those horizon longitudinal profiles. We validated our modeling with recent Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide-Angle Camera images. We assessed the extent of permanently shadowed regions (PSRs, defined as areas that never receive direct solar illumination), and obtained total areas generally larger than previous studies (12,866 and 16,055 km2, in the north and south respectively). We extended our direct illumination model to account for singly-scattered light, and found that every PSR does receive some amount of scattered light during the year. We conducted simulations over long periods (several 18.6-years lunar precession cycles) with a high temporal resolution (6 h), and identified the most illuminated locations in the vicinity of both poles. Because of the importance of those sites for exploration and engineering considerations, we characterized their illumination more precisely over the near future. Every year, a location near the Shackleton crater rim in the south polar region is sunlit continuously for 240 days, and its longest continuous period in total darkness is about 1.5 days. For some locations small height gains ( 10 m) can dramatically improve their average illumination and reduce the night duration, rendering some of those particularly attractive energy-wise as

  17. Polar Bears Exhibit Genome-Wide Signatures of Bioenergetic Adaptation to Life in the Arctic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Andreanna J.; Bedoya-Reina, Oscar C.; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Miller, Webb; Rode, Karyn D.; Lindqvist, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) face extremely cold temperatures and periods of fasting, which might result in more severe energetic challenges than those experienced by their sister species, the brown bear (U. arctos). We have examined the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of polar and brown bears to investigate whether polar bears demonstrate lineage-specific signals of molecular adaptation in genes associated with cellular respiration/energy production. We observed increased evolutionary rat...

  18. Microplastics in Arctic polar waters: the first reported values of particles in surface and sub-surface samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusher, Amy L.; Tirelli, Valentina; O'Connor, Ian; Officer, Rick

    2015-10-01

    Plastic, as a form of marine litter, is found in varying quantities and sizes around the globe from surface waters to deep-sea sediments. Identifying patterns of microplastic distribution will benefit an understanding of the scale of their potential effect on the environment and organisms. As sea ice extent is reducing in the Arctic, heightened shipping and fishing activity may increase marine pollution in the area. Microplastics may enter the region following ocean transport and local input, although baseline contamination measurements are still required. Here we present the first study of microplastics in Arctic waters, south and southwest of Svalbard, Norway. Microplastics were found in surface (top 16 cm) and sub-surface (6 m depth) samples using two independent techniques. Origins and pathways bringing microplastic to the Arctic remain unclear. Particle composition (95% fibres) suggests they may either result from the breakdown of larger items (transported over large distances by prevailing currents, or derived from local vessel activity), or input in sewage and wastewater from coastal areas. Concurrent observations of high zooplankton abundance suggest a high probability for marine biota to encounter microplastics and a potential for trophic interactions. Further research is required to understand the effects of microplastic-biota interaction within this productive environment.

  19. Microplastics in Arctic polar waters: the first reported values of particles in surface and sub-surface samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusher, Amy L.; Tirelli, Valentina; O’Connor, Ian; Officer, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Plastic, as a form of marine litter, is found in varying quantities and sizes around the globe from surface waters to deep-sea sediments. Identifying patterns of microplastic distribution will benefit an understanding of the scale of their potential effect on the environment and organisms. As sea ice extent is reducing in the Arctic, heightened shipping and fishing activity may increase marine pollution in the area. Microplastics may enter the region following ocean transport and local input, although baseline contamination measurements are still required. Here we present the first study of microplastics in Arctic waters, south and southwest of Svalbard, Norway. Microplastics were found in surface (top 16 cm) and sub-surface (6 m depth) samples using two independent techniques. Origins and pathways bringing microplastic to the Arctic remain unclear. Particle composition (95% fibres) suggests they may either result from the breakdown of larger items (transported over large distances by prevailing currents, or derived from local vessel activity), or input in sewage and wastewater from coastal areas. Concurrent observations of high zooplankton abundance suggest a high probability for marine biota to encounter microplastics and a potential for trophic interactions. Further research is required to understand the effects of microplastic-biota interaction within this productive environment. PMID:26446348

  20. Impacts of urban and industrial development on Arctic land surface temperature in Lower Yenisei River Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Shiklomanov, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization and industrial development have significant impacts on arctic climate that in turn controls settlement patterns and socio-economic processes. In this study we have analyzed the anthropogenic influences on regional land surface temperature of Lower Yenisei River Region of the Russia Arctic. The study area covers two consecutive Landsat scenes and includes three major cities: Norilsk, Igarka and Dudingka. Norilsk industrial region is the largest producer of nickel and palladium in the world, and Igarka and Dudingka are important ports for shipping. We constructed a spatio-temporal interpolated temperature model by including 1km MODIS LST, field-measured climate, Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), DEM, Landsat NDVI and Landsat Land Cover. Those fore-mentioned spatial data have various resolution and coverage in both time and space. We analyzed their relationships and created a monthly spatio-temporal interpolated surface temperature model at 1km resolution from 1980 to 2010. The temperature model then was used to examine the characteristic seasonal LST signatures, related to several representative assemblages of Arctic urban and industrial infrastructure in order to quantify anthropogenic influence on regional surface temperature.

  1. Development of generative structures of polar Caryophyllaceae plants: the Arctic Cerastium alpinum and Silene involucrata, and the Antarctic Colobanthus quitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellmann-Sopyła Wioleta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The embryology of three polar flowering plants of the family Caryophyllaceae was studied using the methods and techniques of the light, normal and fluorescence microscopes, and the electron microscopes, scanning and transmission. The analyzed species were Colobanthus quitensis of West Antarctic (King George Island, South Shetlands Islands as well as Cerastium alpinum and Silene involucrata of the Arctic (Spitsbergen, Svalbard. In all evaluated species, flowering responses were adapted to the short Arctic and Australian summer, and adaptations to autogamy and anemogamy were also observed. The microsporangia of the analyzed plants produced small numbers of microspore mother cells that were differentiated into a dozen or dozens of trinucleate pollen grains. The majority of mature pollen grains remained inside microsporangia and germinated in the thecae. The monosporous Polygonum type (the most common type in angiosperms of embryo sac development was observed in the studied species. The egg apparatus had an egg cell and two synergids with typical polarization. A well-developed filiform apparatus was differentiated in the micropylar end of the synergids. In mature diaspores of the analyzed plants of the family Caryophyllaceae, a large and peripherally located embryo was, in most part, adjacent to perisperm cells filled with reserve substances, whereas the radicle was surrounded by micropylar endosperm composed of a single layer of cells with thick, intensely stained cytoplasm, organelles and reserve substances. The testae of the analyzed plants were characterized by species-specific primary and secondary sculpture, and they contained large amounts of osmophilic material with varied density. Seeds of C. quitensis, C. alpinum and S. involucrata are very small, light and compact shaped.

  2. Regional interests of Russia in the concept of development of the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogachev V. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the current state and prospects of development of the Arctic in the context of its growing value in connection with expansion of demand for strategic types of raw materials, increased interest in the region of the concerned states and transnational consortia, as well as with the development of the international transport corridors and new technologies facilitating access to sources of raw materials

  3. Against the stream: relevance of gluconeogenesis from fatty acids for natives of the arctic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schuster

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The question whether even-chain fatty acids can be converted into glucose has a long-standing tradition in biochemistry. Since the glyoxylate shunt is absent from mammals, the question has been considered to be solved. It is of particular relevance for understanding the metabolic state of natives of the arctic regions due to the very high fat content of their traditional diet only containing negligible amounts of carbohydrates. Methods & Results. Using an in silico approach, we discovered several hitherto unknown routes in human metabolism that allow the conversion of even-chain fatty acids into carbohydrates in humans. These pathways proceed via ketogenesis over the intermediate of acetone and produce the gluconeogenic precursor pyruvate. While these pathways can make a contribution to glucose production during times of limited carbohydrate supply, we found that their capacity might be limited due to a high demand in reducing equivalents in acetone degradation. Considering the traditional diet of natives of the arctic regions, the detected pathways are not only important in order to improve carbohydrate supply, but moreover reduce the amount of protein that needs to be used for gluconeogenesis. Conclusion. In summary, our study sheds new light on our understanding of the metabolic state of natives from the arctic regions on their traditional diet. Moreover, they provide an avenue for new analyses that can reveal how humans have adapted metabolically to a practically carbohydrate-free diet.

  4. Ice Surface Temperature Variability in the Polar Regions and the Relationships to 2 Meter Air Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, J.; Madsen, K. S.; Englyst, P. N.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the surface and near surface air temperature from models or observations in the Polar Regions is challenging due to the extreme conditions and the lack of in situ observations. The errors in near surface temperature products are typically larger than for other regions of the world, and the potential for using Earth Observations is large. As part of the EU project, EUSTACE, we have developed empirical models for the relationship between the satellite observed skin ice temperatures and 2m air temperatures. We use the Arctic and Antarctic Sea and sea ice Surface Temperatures from thermal Infrared satellite sensors (AASTI) reanalysis to estimate daily surface air temperature over land ice and sea ice for the Arctic and the Antarctic. Large efforts have been put into collecting and quality controlling in situ observations from various data portals and research projects. The reconstruction is independent of numerical weather prediction models and thus provides an important alternative to modelled air temperature estimates. The new surface air temperature data record has been validated against more than 58.000 independent in situ measurements for the four surface types: Arctic sea ice, Greenland ice sheet, Antarctic sea ice and Antarctic ice sheet. The average correlations are 92-97% and average root mean square errors are 3.1-3.6°C for the four surface types. The root mean square error includes the uncertainty of the in-situ measurement, which ranges from 0.5 to 2°C. A comparison with ERA-Interim shows a consistently better performance of the satellite based air temperatures than the ERA-Interim for the Greenland ice sheet, when compared against observations not used in any of the two estimates. This is encouraging and demonstrates the values of these products. In addition, the procedure presented here works on satellite observations that are available in near real time and this opens up for a near real time estimation of the surface air temperature over

  5. Live from the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    residents speak in eloquent terms of the changes they see around them, manifested in new patterns of vegetation, the melting of permafrost and the absence of game species that used to be abundant. Meanwhile, new satellites and more sophisticated sensors on the ground and in the ice, add scientific testimony that seems to support and even extend native perceptions. Live from the Arctic will unify both perspectives, and use todays most powerful and effective communications media to connect young people and general audiences all across America to researchers and communities living and working in the Arctic. During IPY there will be a level of interest in the Polar regions unprecedented in a generation. Live from the Arctic offers unique resources to satisfy that curiosity, and encourage active participation and engagement in understanding some of Earths most significant peoples, places and rapidly changing conditions.

  6. Polar bears exhibit genome-wide signatures of bioenergetic adaptation to life in the arctic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Andreanna J; Bedoya-Reina, Oscar C; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Miller, Webb; Rode, Karyn D; Lindqvist, Charlotte

    2014-02-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) face extremely cold temperatures and periods of fasting, which might result in more severe energetic challenges than those experienced by their sister species, the brown bear (U. arctos). We have examined the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of polar and brown bears to investigate whether polar bears demonstrate lineage-specific signals of molecular adaptation in genes associated with cellular respiration/energy production. We observed increased evolutionary rates in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene in polar but not brown bears. An amino acid substitution occurred near the interaction site with a nuclear-encoded subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase complex and was predicted to lead to a functional change, although the significance of this remains unclear. The nuclear genomes of brown and polar bears demonstrate different adaptations related to cellular respiration. Analyses of the genomes of brown bears exhibited substitutions that may alter the function of proteins that regulate glucose uptake, which could be beneficial when feeding on carbohydrate-dominated diets during hyperphagia, followed by fasting during hibernation. In polar bears, genes demonstrating signatures of functional divergence and those potentially under positive selection were enriched in functions related to production of nitric oxide (NO), which can regulate energy production in several different ways. This suggests that polar bears may be able to fine-tune intracellular levels of NO as an adaptive response to control trade-offs between energy production in the form of adenosine triphosphate versus generation of heat (thermogenesis).

  7. Polar bears exhibit genome-wide signatures of bioenergetic adaptation to life in the Arctic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Andreanna J.; Bedoya-Reina, Oscar C.; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Miller, Webb; Rode, Karyn D.; Lindqvist, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) face extremely cold temperatures and periods of fasting, which might result in more severe energetic challenges than those experienced by their sister species, the brown bear (U. arctos). We have examined the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of polar and brown bears to investigate if polar bears demonstrate lineage-specific signals of molecular adaptation in genes associated with cellular respiration/energy production. We observed increased evolutionary rates in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene in polar but not brown bears. An amino acid substitution occurred near the interaction site with a nuclear-encoded subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase complex, and was predicted to lead to a functional change, although the significance of this remains unclear. The nuclear genomes of brown and polar bears demonstrate different adaptations related to cellular respiration. Analyses of the genomes of brown bears exhibited substitutions that may alter the function of proteins that regulate glucose uptake, which could be beneficial when feeding on carbohydrate-dominated diets during hyperphagia, followed by fasting during hibernation. In polar bears, genes demonstrating signatures of functional divergence and those potentially under positive selection were enriched in functions related to production of nitric oxide, which can regulate energy production in several different ways. This suggests that polar bears may be able to fine-tune intracellular levels of nitric oxide as an adaptive response to control trade-offs between energy production in the form of ATP versus generation of heat (thermogenesis).

  8. Changes in the Arctic Ocean CO2 sink (1996-2007): A regional model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manizza, M.; Follows, M. J.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Menemenlis, D.; Hill, C. N.; Key, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The rapid recent decline of Arctic Ocean sea ice area increases the flux of solar radiation available for primary production and the area of open water for air-sea gas exchange. We use a regional physical-biogeochemical model of the Arctic Ocean, forced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research atmospheric reanalysis, to evaluate the mean present-day CO2 sink and its temporal evolution. During the 1996-2007 period, the model suggests that the Arctic average sea surface temperature warmed by 0.04°C a-1, that sea ice area decreased by ˜0.1 × 106 km2 a-1, and that the biological drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon increased. The simulated 1996-2007 time-mean Arctic Ocean CO2 sink is 58 ± 6 Tg C a-1. The increase in ice-free ocean area and consequent carbon drawdown during this period enhances the CO2 sink by ˜1.4 Tg C a-1, consistent with estimates based on extrapolations of sparse data. A regional analysis suggests that during the 1996-2007 period, the shelf regions of the Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas experienced an increase in the efficiency of their biological pump due to decreased sea ice area, especially during the 2004-2007 period, consistent with independently published estimates of primary production. In contrast, the CO2 sink in the Barents Sea is reduced during the 2004-2007 period due to a dominant control by warming and decreasing solubility. Thus, the effect of decreasing sea ice area and increasing sea surface temperature partially cancel, though the former is dominant.

  9. Surviving extreme polar winters by desiccation: clues from Arctic springtail (Onychiurus arcticus EST libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kube Michael

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ice, snow and temperatures of -14°C are conditions which most animals would find difficult, if not impossible, to survive in. However this exactly describes the Arctic winter, and the Arctic springtail Onychiurus arcticus regularly survives these extreme conditions and re-emerges in the spring. It is able to do this by reducing the amount of water in its body to almost zero: a process that is called "protective dehydration". The aim of this project was to generate clones and sequence data in the form of ESTs to provide a platform for the future molecular characterisation of the processes involved in protective dehydration. Results Five normalised libraries were produced from both desiccating and rehydrating populations of O. arcticus from stages that had previously been defined as potentially informative for molecular analyses. A total of 16,379 EST clones were generated and analysed using Blast and GO annotation. 40% of the clones produced significant matches against the Swissprot and trembl databases and these were further analysed using GO annotation. Extraction and analysis of GO annotations proved an extremely effective method for identifying generic processes associated with biochemical pathways, proving more efficient than solely analysing Blast data output. A number of genes were identified, which have previously been shown to be involved in water transport and desiccation such as members of the aquaporin family. Identification of these clones in specific libraries associated with desiccation validates the computational analysis by library rather than producing a global overview of all libraries combined. Conclusion This paper describes for the first time EST data from the arctic springtail (O. arcticus. This significantly enhances the number of Collembolan ESTs in the public databases, providing useful comparative data within this phylum. The use of GO annotation for analysis has facilitated the identification of a

  10. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    (mycorrhiza) or in the biomass of microbes in the soil of the root zone. However, the composition of the soil microbial community was different in the soils under ambient and reduced UV radiation after three treatment years. These results provide new insight into the negative impact of current UV-B fluxes......Depletion of the ozone layer and the consequent increase in solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) may impact living conditions for arctic plants significantly. In order to evaluate how the prevailing UV-B fluxes affect the heath ecosystem at Zackenberg (74°30'N, 20°30'W) and other high......-arctic regions, manipulation experiments with various set-ups have been performed. Activation of plant defence mechanisms by production of UV-B absorbing compounds was significant in ambient UV-B in comparison to a filter treatment reducing the UV-B radiation. Despite the UV-B screening response, ambient UV...

  11. Sources of reactive bromine in polar regions and its implications for ozone in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Paul; Archibald, Alex; Yang, Xin; Pyle, John

    2014-05-01

    In the last two decades, significant depletion of boundary layer ozone (ozone depletion events, ODEs) has been observed in both Arctic and Antarctic spring. ODEs are attributed to catalytic destruction by bromine radicals (Br plus BrO), especially during bromine explosion events, when high concentrations of BrO periodically occur. The source of bromine and the mechanism that sustains the high BrO levels are still the subject of study, and there remains scope for improving our understanding of reactive bromine budgets in polar regions. Yang et al. (2008) suggested snow could provide a source of (depleted) sea-salt aerosol if blown from the surface of ice, while recent work by Pratt et al. (2013) posits Br2 production within saline snow and sea ice. In this poster, we consider the production of sea-salt aerosol from a mixture of snow and sea ice during periods of strong wind. We use a combination of box models and the United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosols scheme, run as a component of the UK Met Office Unified Model, to quantify the effect of bromine release in the boundary layer and its effect on ozone at the regional scale. The importance of heterogeneous reactions is quantified and new data from the recent Polarstern cruise by members of the British Antarctic Survey as part of the NERC-funded BLOWSEA project will be considered.

  12. The origin of sea salt in snow on Arctic sea ice and in coastal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Domine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow, through its trace constituents, can have a major impact on lower tropospheric chemistry, as evidenced by ozone depletion events (ODEs in oceanic polar areas. These ODEs are caused by the chemistry of bromine compounds that originate from sea salt bromide. Bromide may be supplied to the snow surface by upward migration from sea ice, by frost flowers being wind-blown to the snow surface, or by wind-transported aerosol generated by sea spray. We investigate here the relative importance of these processes by analyzing ions in snow near Alert and Ny-Ålesund (Canadian and European high Arctic in winter and spring. Vertical ionic profiles in the snowpack on sea ice are measured to test upward migration of sea salt ions and to seek evidence for ion fractionation processes. Time series of the ionic composition of surface snow layers are investigated to quantify wind-transported ions. Upward migration of unfractionated sea salt to heights of at least 17cm was observed in winter snow, leading to Cl- concentration of several hundred µM. Upward migration thus has the potential to supply ions to surface snow layers. Time series show that wind can deposit aerosols to the top few cm of the snow, leading also to Cl- concentrations of several hundred µM, so that both diffusion from sea ice and wind transport can significantly contribute ions to snow. At Ny-Ålesund, sea salt transported by wind was unfractionated, implying that it comes from sea spray rather than frost flowers. Estimations based on our results suggest that the marine snowpack contains about 10 times more Na+ than the frost flowers, so that both the marine snowpack and frost flowers need to be considered as sea salt sources. Our data suggest that ozone depletion chemistry can significantly enhance the Br- content of snow. We speculate that this can also take place in coastal regions and contribute to propagate ODEs inland. Finally, we stress the need to measure snow physical parameters

  13. DVCS in the fragmentation region of polarized electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akushevich, I.; Kuraev, E.A.; Nikolaev, N.N.

    2000-01-01

    For the kinematical region when a hard photon is emitted predominantly close to the direction of motion of a longitudinally polarized initial electron and relatively small momentum transfer to a proton we calculate the azimuthal asymmetry of a photon emission. It arises from the interference of the Bethe-Heitler amplitude and those which are described by a heavy photon impact factor. The azimuthal asymmetry does not decrease in the limit of infinite cms energy. The lowest order expression for the impact factor of a heavy photon is presented

  14. Vegetation-cloud feedbacks to future vegetation changes in the Arctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mee-Hyun; Yang, Ah-Ryeon; Baek, Eun-Hyuk; Kang, Sarah M.; Jeong, Su-Jong; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Baek-Min

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates future changes in the Arctic region and vegetation-cloud feedbacks simulated using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model Version 3 coupled with a mixed layer ocean model. Impacts of future greening of the Arctic region are tested using altered surface boundary conditions for hypothetical vegetation distributions: (1) grasslands poleward of 60°N replaced by boreal forests and (2) both grasslands and shrubs replaced by boreal forests. Surface energy budget analysis reveals that future greening induces a considerable surface warming effect locally and warming is largely driven by an increase in short wave radiation. Both upward and downward shortwave radiation contribute to positive surface warming: upward shortwave radiation decreases mainly due to the decreased surface albedo (a darker surface) and downward shortwave radiation increases due to reduced cloud cover. The contribution of downward shortwave radiation at surface due to cloud cover reduction is larger than the contribution from surface albedo alone. The increased roughness length also transported surface fluxes to upper layer more efficiently and induce more heating and dry lower atmosphere. A relatively smaller increase in water vapor compared to the large increase in low-level air temperature in the simulation reduces relative humidity and results in reduced cloud cover. Therefore, vegetation-cloud feedbacks induced from land cover change significantly amplify Arctic warming. In addition to previously suggested feedback mechanisms, we propose that the vegetation-cloud feedback should be considered as one of major components that will give rise to an additional positive feedback to Arctic amplification.

  15. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from USCGC POLAR STAR in the Arctic Ocean from 2002-08-19 to 2002-09-23 (NODC Accession 0115588)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115588 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from USCGC POLAR STAR in the Arctic Ocean from 2002-08-19 to 2002-09-23. These data...

  16. Regional shoreline change and coastal erosion hazards in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Erikson, Li H.; Harden, E. Lynne; Wallendorf, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Historical shoreline positions along the mainland Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska were digitized and analyzed to determine the long-term rate of change. Average shoreline change rates and ranges from 1947 to the mid-2000s were determined every 50 meters between Barrow and Demarcation Point, at the U.S.-Canadian border. Results show that shoreline change rates are highly variable along the coast, with an average regional shoreline change rate of-2.0 m/yr and localized rates of up to -19 m/yr. The highest erosion rates were observed at headlands, points, and associated with breached thermokarst lakes. Areas of accretion were limited, and generally associated with spit extension and minor beach accretion. In general, erosion rates increase from east to west, with overall higher rates east of Harrison Bay.

  17. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    OpenAIRE

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    2012-01-01

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic....

  18. Preserving Geological Samples and Metadata from Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, A.; Sjunneskog, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Office of Polar Programs at the National Science Foundation (NSF-OPP) has long recognized the value of preserving earth science collections due to the inherent logistical challenges and financial costs of collecting geological samples from Polar Regions. NSF-OPP established two national facilities to make Antarctic geological samples and drill cores openly and freely available for research. The Antarctic Marine Geology Research Facility (AMGRF) at Florida State University was established in 1963 and archives Antarctic marine sediment cores, dredge samples and smear slides along with ship logs. The United States Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) at Ohio State University was established in 2003 and archives polar rock samples, marine dredges, unconsolidated materials and terrestrial cores, along with associated materials such as field notes, maps, raw analytical data, paleomagnetic cores, thin sections, microfossil mounts, microslides and residues. The existence of the AMGRF and USPRR helps to minimize redundant sample collecting, lessen the environmental impact of doing polar field work, facilitates field logistics planning and complies with the data sharing requirement of the Antarctic Treaty. USPRR acquires collections through donations from institutions and scientists and then makes these samples available as no-cost loans for research, education and museum exhibits. The AMGRF acquires sediment cores from US based and international collaboration drilling projects in Antarctica. Destructive research techniques are allowed on the loaned samples and loan requests are accepted from any accredited scientific institution in the world. Currently, the USPRR has more than 22,000 cataloged rock samples available to scientists from around the world. All cataloged samples are relabeled with a USPRR number, weighed, photographed and measured for magnetic susceptibility. Many aspects of the sample metadata are included in the database, e.g. geographical location, sample

  19. Deep and shallow structures in the Arctic region imaged by satellite magnetic and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Carmen; Panet, Isabelle; Shephard, Grace

    2016-07-01

    The last decade has seen an increase in geoscientific data collection, which, together with available and older classified data made publicly available, is contributing to increasing our knowledge about Earth's structure and evolution. Despite this development, there are many gaps in data coverage in remote, hard-to-access regions. Satellite data have the advantage of acquiring measurements steadily and covering the entire globe. From a tectonics point of view, the specific heights of various satellites allow for the identification of moderate to large tectonic features, and can shed light on Earth's lower crust and lithosphere structure. In this contribution I discuss the use of magnetic and gravity models based on satellite data in deciphering the tectonic structure of remote areas. The present day Circum-Arctic region comprises a variety of tectonic settings: from active seafloor spreading in the North Atlantic and Eurasian Basin, and subduction in the North Pacific, to long-lived stable continental platforms in North America and Asia. A series of rifted margins, abandoned rifted areas and presumably extinct oceanic basins fringe these regions. Moreover, rifting- and seafloor spreading-related processes formed many continental splinters and terranes that were transported and docked at higher latitudes. Volcanic provinces of different ages have also been identified, from the Permian-Triassic Siberian traps at ca. 251 Ma to the (presumably) Cretaceous HALIP and smaller Cenozoic provinces in northern Greenland and the Barents Sea. We inspect global lithospheric magnetic data in order to identify the signature of the main volcanic provinces in the High Arctic. One of the most striking features in the Arctic domain is the strong magnetic anomaly close to the North Pole that correlates with a large, igneous oceanic plateau called the Alpha Mendeleev Ridge. The intensity and extent of the magnetic anomalies recorded by aircraft or satellites point towards a very thick

  20. Extreme nitrogen deposition can change methane oxidation rate in moist acidic tundra soil in Arctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Kang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, extreme nitrogen(N) deposition events are observed in Arctic regions where over 90% of the annual N deposition occurred in just a few days. Since Arctic ecosystems are typically N-limited, input of extremely high amount of N could substantially affect ecosystem processes. CH4 is a potent greenhouse gas that has 25 times greater global warming potential than CO2 over a 100-year time frame. Ammonium is known as an inhibitor of methane oxidation and nitrate also shows inhibitory effect on it in temperate ecosystems. However, effects of N addition on Arctic ecosystems are still elusive. We conducted a lab-scale incubation experiment with moist acidic tundra (MAT) soil from Council, Alaska to investigate the effect of extreme N deposition events on methane oxidation. Zero point five % methane was added to the head space to determine the potential methane oxidation rate of MAT soil. Three treatments (NH4NO3-AN, (NH4)2SO4-AS, KNO3-PN) were used to compare effects of ammonium, nitrate and salts. All treatments were added in 3 levels: 10μg N gd.w-1(10), 50μg N gd.w-1(50) and 100μg N gd.w-1(100). AN10 and AN50 increased methane oxidation rate 1.7, 6% respectively. However, AN100 shows -8.5% of inhibitory effect. In AS added samples, all 3 concentrations (AN10, AN50, AN100) stimulated methane oxidation rate with 4.7, 8.9, 4%, respectively. On the contrary, PN50 (-9%) and PN100 (-59.5%) exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. We also analyzed the microbial gene abundance and community structures of methane oxidizing bacteria using a DNA-based fingerprinting method (T-RFLP) Our study results suggest that NH4+ can stimulate methane oxidation in Arctic MAT soil, while NO3- can inhibit methane oxidation significantly.

  1. GeoMapApp as a platform for visualizing marine data from Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V.; Goodwillie, A. M.; O'hara, S. H.; Weissel, R.; McLain, K.; Chinhong, C.; Arko, R. A.; Chan, S.; Morton, J. J.; Pomeroy, D.

    2012-12-01

    To maximize the investment in expensive fieldwork the resulting data should be re-used as much as possible. In addition, unnecessary duplication of data collection effort should be avoided. This becomes even more important if access to field areas is as difficult and expensive as it is in Polar Regions. Making existing data discoverable in an easy to use platform is key to improve re-use and avoid duplication. A common obstacle is that use of existing data is often limited to specialists who know of the data existence and also have the right tools to view and analyze these data. GeoMapApp is a free, interactive, map based tool that allows users to discover, visualize, and analyze a large number of data sets. In addition to a global view, it provides polar map projections for displaying data in Arctic and Antarctic areas. Data that have currently been added to the system include Arctic swath bathymetry data collected from the USCG icebreaker Healy. These data are collected almost continuously including from cruises where bathymetry is not the main objective and for which existence of the acquired data may not be well known. In contrast, existence of seismic data from the Antarctic continental margin is well known in the seismic community. They are archived at and can be accessed through the Antarctic Seismic Data Library System (SDLS). Incorporating these data into GeoMapApp makes an even broader community aware of these data and the custom interface, which includes capabilities to visualize and explore these data, allows users without specific software or knowledge of the underlying data format to access the data. In addition to investigating these datasets, GeoMapApp provides links to the actual data sources to allow specialists the opportunity to re-use the original data. Important identification of data sources and data references are achieved on different levels. For access to the actual Antarctic seismic data GeoMapApp links to the SDLS site, where users have

  2. Arctic Newcomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the Arctic region and its economic potential in Japan, South Korea and Singapore was slow to develop but is now rapidly growing. All three countries have in recent years accelerated their engagement with Arctic states, laying the institutional frameworks needed to better understand...

  3. Cross-Border Assessment of Environmental Radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, Anna; Gwynn, Justin P.; Moeller, Bredo [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Section High North, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Leppaenen, Ari-Pekka; Rasilainen, Tiina [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Regional Laboratory in Northern Finland, 96400 Rovaniemi (Finland); Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI), 183010 Murmansk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Euro-Arctic region is currently experiencing rapid changes in environmental, social and economic conditions. The issue of environmental radioactivity is of special concern to the Arctic region due to numerous existing and potential sources of radioactive pollution in the immediate and adjacent areas. Due to cross-border nature of any potential radioactive contamination and common challenges in border countries, one should consider risks related to radioactivity, monitoring and protection at a regional and international level. This research presents results of cross-border cooperation between Norway, Finland and Russia and joint assessment of the status of terrestrial radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic region and in particular across Troms and Finnmark (Norway), Lapland (Finland) and Murmansk Oblast (Russia). To assess current environmental radioactivity levels in the terrestrial environment, environmental samples were collected in each country in 2010-2012. The main focus was comparison of radioactivity levels in the natural food products such as berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish. The results showed that large variations in activity concentrations exist between species and sampling areas. However, activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in all berries and mushrooms in Northern Norway, Finland and Russia were below the national limits set for commercial retail and well below the national limits for freshwater fish from Northern Norway and Finland. The sampled species from three countries were analysed in order to find out reference species available for further monitoring and data comparison. The doses to man arising from consumption of berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish were calculated. To compare overall terrestrial radioactivity levels in the Euro-Arctic region, partners exchanged long-term monitoring data available in the three countries such as data for soil, vegetation, berries, mushrooms, lichens, reindeer meat, freshwater fish, whole body counting

  4. Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  5. Sea Ice Charts of the Russian Arctic in Gridded Format, 1933-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) in St. Petersburg, Russia, produces sea ice charts for safety of navigation in the polar regions and for other...

  6. Vortex chain formation in regions of ion concentration polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Srinivas; Diez, Francisco J

    2015-09-07

    The local vortical flow generated inside an ion concentration polarization (ICP) region is evaluated experimentally. The ICP is induced by a patterned nanoporous self-assembling membrane integrated inside a single microchannel. A bottom-view image of the depletion region near the membrane revealed a primary vortex which results from the electric field amplification. A unique perspective of the flow is obtained by imaging the microchannel from its side. This visualization shows for the first time the formation of a chain of three vortices all rotating in the same direction in the depletion region. While observation of multiple vortices has been previously reported, it was in reference to counter rotating vortex pairs and not to the same direction of rotating vortex chain formation. A physical model is proposed which considers a two dimensionally varying concentration profile in the depletion region to account for the formation of multiple vortices rotating in the same direction. The fast rotating primary vortex changes the local concentration in regions adjacent to it, as the advection time scale is much higher than the diffusion time scale. Near the membrane, it moves the low concentration electrolyte from the bottom wall upwards into a higher concentration region. Away from the membrane, it moves the high concentration electrolyte from the middle of the channel downwards into a low concentration region. These local changes in the wall concentration result in a varying slip velocity capable of inducing a secondary vortex. Similarly, this secondary vortex can induce a tertiary one. A numerical simulation is performed using the proposed varying slip velocity model which showed excellent agreement with the experimental observations.

  7. Arctic Energy Resources: Security and Environmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johnston

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available n recent years, there has been considerable interest in the Arctic as a source for resources, as a potential zone for commercial shipping, and as a region that might experience conflict due to its strategic importance. With regards to energy resources, some studies suggest that the region contains upwards of 13 percent of global undiscovered oil, 30 percent of undiscovered gas, and multiples more of gas hydrates. The decreasing amount and duration of Arctic ice cover suggests that extraction of these resources will be increasingly commercially viable. Arctic and non-arctic states wish to benefit from the region's resources and the potential circum-polar navigation possibilities. This has led to concerns about the environmental risks of these operations as well as the fear that competition between states for resources might result in conflict. Unresolved offshore boundaries between the Arctic states exacerbate these fears. Yet, the risk of conflict seems overstated considering the bilateral and multilateral steps undertaken by the Arctic states to resolve contentious issues. This article will examine the potential impact of Arctic energy resources on global security as well as the regional environment and examine the actions of concerned states to promote their interests in the region.

  8. Local Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility for Arctic Petroleum in the Barents Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Kelman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is promoted and critiqued by many players involved in or opposed to petroleum exploration and extraction, although a common understanding of CSR's theoretical and practical meanings rarely exists. This paper uses Arctic petroleum in the Barents region (Norway and Russia to investigate local perceptions of CSR. We conducted open-ended, semi-structured interviews in four locations: Hammerfest, Murmansk, Komi Republic, and Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO. Interviewees included the local population, regional and local authorities, non-governmental organisations (NGOs, and petroleum company representatives. The field research suggests that those who gain directly from the petroleum industry and do not directly experience negative impacts were more inclined to be positive about the industry, although overall, general support for petroleum activity was high. In some cases, positive economic benefits resulted in greater tolerance of environmental risk. Sometimes, the industry and government were criticised by locals for failing to support a more equitable distribution of broader economic benefits. Rather than splitting along for-profit/NGO or indigenous/non-indigenous lines, our analysis suggests that those who are closer to the petroleum industry or its benefits, termed ‘insiders’, tend to be more positive than ‘outsiders’. This study is perhaps the first of its kind in its focus on local perceptions of CSR for Arctic petroleum across the Barents region. The findings of this study not only match with that of the previous literature on Arctic petroleum but also provide further practical and theoretical insights by indicating subtleties and nuances within the localities examined.

  9. Are the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic wetlands a significant regional source of formic acid?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Benjamin; Muller, J.B.A; O'Shea, Sebastian; Bacak, Asan; Allen, G.; Gallagher, Martin; Bower, Keith; Le Breton, Michael; Bannan, Thomas; Baguitte, Stephane; Pyle, John; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E; France, J L; Nisbet, Euan

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the first gaseous formic acid (HC(O)OH) concentration measurements collected over the Fenno-Scandinavian wetlands (67.9-68.0° N, 22.1-27.8° E) as part of the MAMM (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic-Measurements, process studies and Modelling) aircraft campaigns conducted in August and September 2013. A boundary layer box model approach has been used to calculate a regionally representative (240 km2) surface flux for HC(O)OH of 0.0098 (±0.0057) mg[HCOOH].m-2....

  10. GEOTECHNICAL SAFETY ISSUES IN THE CITIES OF POLAR REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Grebenets

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arctic settlements built on permafrostface rather unique set of geotechnical challenges. On urbanized areas, technogenic transformation of natural landscapes due toconstruction of various types of infrastructure leads to changes in heat exchange in permafrost-atmosphere system. The spatial distribution and intensity of dangerous cryogenic processes in urbanized areas is substantially different from natural background settings found prior to construction. Climate change, especially pronounced in the Arctic, exacerbated these changes. Combination of technogenic pressure and climate change resulted in potentially hazardous situation in respect to operational safety of the buildings and structures built on permafrost. This paper is focused on geotechnical safety issues faced by the Arctic urban centers built on permafrost. Common types of technogenic impacts characteristic for urban settlements wereevaluated based on field observations and modeling techniques. The basic principles of development of deformations are discussed in respect to changing permafrost conditions and operational mode of the structures built on permafrost.

  11. Are the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic Wetlands a Significant Regional Source of Formic Acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T. Jones

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first gaseous formic acid (HC(OOH concentration measurements collected over the Fenno-Scandinavian wetlands (67.9–68.0° N, 22.1–27.8° E as part of the MAMM (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic-Measurements, process studies and Modelling aircraft campaigns conducted in August and September 2013. A boundary layer box model approach has been used to calculate a regionally representative (~240 km2 surface flux for HC(OOH of 0.0098 (±0.0057 mg[HCOOH]·m−2·h−1. A surface-type classification map was used to estimate proportional source contributions to the observed HC(OOH flux over the measurement region. The removal of expected source contributions (using available literature parameterisations from the calculated surface flux identified that 75% remained unaccounted for. This may suggest that HC(OOH emission from wetland within the Fenno-Scandinavian region could contribute up to 29 times higher per unit area than previous theoretical HC(OOH globally-averaged wetland estimates, highlighting a need for further constrained wetland studies of HC(OOH emission to better understand its potentially significant impact on the Arctic HC(OOH budget and consequent impacts on oxidative capacity.

  12. Mars at Ls 53o: North Polar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    30 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the north polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  13. Polar bears and sea ice habitat change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.; Butterworth, Andy

    2017-01-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is an obligate apex predator of Arctic sea ice and as such can be affected by climate warming-induced changes in the extent and composition of pack ice and its impacts on their seal prey. Sea ice declines have negatively impacted some polar bear subpopulations through reduced energy input because of loss of hunting habitats, higher energy costs due to greater ice drift, ice fracturing and open water, and ultimately greater challenges to recruit young. Projections made from the output of global climate models suggest that polar bears in peripheral Arctic and sub-Arctic seas will be reduced in numbers or become extirpated by the end of the twenty-first century if the rate of climate warming continues on its present trajectory. The same projections also suggest that polar bears may persist in the high-latitude Arctic where heavy multiyear sea ice that has been typical in that region is being replaced by thinner annual ice. Underlying physical and biological oceanography provides clues as to why polar bear in some regions are negatively impacted, while bears in other regions have shown no apparent changes. However, continued declines in sea ice will eventually challenge the survival of polar bears and efforts to conserve them in all regions of the Arctic.

  14. The Impact of Oil and Gas Resources In the Arctic on the Development of the Transport System in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy I. Salygin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of the Russian economy today is the development of the Arctic region. Given the key role of the energy sector in the economic balance of the country, as well as the problem of exhaustion of hydrocarbon resources, the Arctic is of particular interest from an economic and geopolitical point of view, ensuring the energy security of Russia. Active development of the region leads to the development of transport infrastructure, which is one of the priorities of Russia's energy policy. The issue of transportation plays a leading role in the context of the development of Arctic resources and involves a number of tasks. The first step is to ensure the safety of navigation in the Arctic ice. Also existing infrastructure needs substantial upgrading, as well as construction of new facilities (including ports, railways, roads, etc.. Of particular note is a unique transcontinental route - the Northern Sea Route. There is a need to modernize the Arctic Fleet, including the construction of modern icebreakers of the Arctic class. The current state of the port system, which does not fully meet the latest international standards, is of crucial importance as well. In addition, along the route the development of railway infrastructure is required. In addition, there is the problem of underdevelopment of the road network, which leads to a re-run and lack of access of some are as to the road network of Russia. Thus, the development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic region contributes to the development of infrastructure of the transport system in the region and, consequently, its economic development that contributes to the economic well-being of the country as a whole.

  15. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    OpenAIRE

    He Ji-Huan; Wang Qing-Li; Sun Jie

    2011-01-01

    A polar bear (Ursus maritimus) has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  16. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  17. Investigation of the structure and dynamics of the ozone layer in the Eastern Arctic region during EASOE Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattatov, V.; Yushkov, V.; Rudakov, V.; Zaitsev, I.; Rosen, J.; Kjome, N.

    1994-01-01

    Balloon measurements of the vertical distribution of ozone and aerosol were made at Dickson Island (73 deg N, 81 deg E), Kiruna (68 deg N, 20 deg E) and Heiss Island (81 deg N, 58 deg E) from December 1991 to March 1992. To acquire data on the seasonal variability of the vertical ozone distribution, electrochemical ozonesondes ECC-4A were flown three times a week. With ozonesondes on the same balloons, backscattersondes were flown on the average of two or three times per month. Using these instruments, altitude profiles of backscatter ratio were measured at two wavelengths centered at 490 nm and 940 nm. Additionally, at Heiss Island, Dickson, and Yakutsk (63 deg N, 130 deg E) regular total ozone measurements were obtained using Brewer spectrophotometers. Based on measurements of backscatter ratio it was found that after the Pinatubo eruption in June 1991 significant amount of stratospheric aerosols were formed and transported to the Arctic before the polar vortex was well developed. Analysis of ozone data has shown a deep decrease of ozone concentration in the lower stratosphere in times of intensive transportation of air masses from low latitudes to the polar region in the second half of January and also for some periods in February and March of 1992. When the values of backscatter ratio beta were more than 8-10 at a wavelength of 940 nm strong anticorrelation occurred between aerosol loading and ozone concentration in the lower stratosphere. At 50-70 deg N, the mean monthly values of total ozone in winter-spring 1992 proved to be much lower than the climatic mean values.

  18. The Arctic Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Siobhan

    2016-04-01

    My name is Siobhan McDonald. I am a visual artist living and working in Dublin. My studio is based in The School of Science at University College Dublin where I was Artist in Residence 2013-2015. A fascination with time and the changeable nature of landmass has led to ongoing conversations with scientists and research institutions across the interweaving disciplines of botany, biology and geology. I am developing a body of work following a recent research trip to the North Pole where I studied the disappearing landscape of the Arctic. Prompted by my experience of the Arctic shelf receding, this new work addresses issues of the instability of the earth's materiality. The work is grounded in an investigation of material processes, exploring the dynamic forces that transform matter and energy. This project combines art and science in a fascinating exploration of one of the Earth's last relatively untouched wilderness areas - the High Arctic to bring audiences on journeys to both real and artistically re-imagined Arctic spaces. CRYSTALLINE'S pivotal process is collaboration: with The European Space Agency; curator Helen Carey; palaeontologist Prof. Jenny McElwain, UCD; and with composer Irene Buckley. CRYSTALLINE explores our desire to make corporeal contact with geological phenomena in Polar Regions. From January 2016, in my collaboration with Jenny McElwain, I will focus on the study of plants and atmospheres from the Arctic regions as far back as 400 million years ago, to explore the essential 'nature' that, invisible to the eye, acts as imaginary portholes into other times. This work will be informed by my arctic tracings of sounds and images recorded in the glaciers of this disappearing frozen landscape. In doing so, the urgencies around the tipping of natural balances in this fragile region will be revealed. The final work will emerge from my forthcoming residency at the ESA in spring 2016. Here I will conduct a series of workshops in ESA Madrid to work with

  19. Environmental marine geology of the Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudie, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover are major regulators of Northern Hemisphere climate, ocean circulation and marine productivity. The Arctic is also very sensitive to changes in the global environment because sea ice magnifies small changes in temperature, and because polar regions are sinks for air pollutants. Marine geology studies are being carried out to determine the nature and rate of these environmental changes by study of modem ice and sea-bed environments, and by interpretation of geological records imprinted in the sea-floor sediments. Sea ice camps, an ice island, and polar icebreakers have been used to study both western and eastern Arctic Ocean basins. Possible early warning signals of environmental changes in the Canadian Arctic are die-back in Arctic sponge reefs, outbreaks of toxic dinoflagellates, and pesticides in the marine food chain. Eastern Arctic ice and surface waters are contaminated by freon and radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. At present, different sedimentary processes operate in the pack ice-covered Canadian polar margin than in summer open waters off Alaska and Eurasia. The geological records, however, suggest that a temperature increase of 1-4 degree C would result in summer open water throughout the Arctic, with major changes in ocean circulation and productivity of waters off Eastern North America, and more widespread transport of pollutants from eastern to western Arctic basins. More studies of longer sediment cores are needed to confirm these interpretations, but is is now clear that the Arctic Ocean has been the pacemaker of climate change during the past 1 million years

  20. Reconstruction of Arctic surface temperature in past 100 years using DINEOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiyi; Huang, Jianbin; Luo, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Global annual mean surface temperature has not risen apparently since 1998, which is described as global warming hiatus in recent years. However, measuring of temperature variability in Arctic is difficult because of large gaps in coverage of Arctic region in most observed gridded datasets. Since Arctic has experienced a rapid temperature change in recent years that called polar amplification, and temperature risen in Arctic is faster than global mean, the unobserved temperature in central Arctic will result in cold bias in both global and Arctic temperature measurement compared with model simulations and reanalysis datasets. Moreover, some datasets that have complete coverage in Arctic but short temporal scale cannot show Arctic temperature variability for long time. Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Function (DINEOF) were applied to fill the coverage gap of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP 250km smooth) product in Arctic with IABP dataset which covers entire Arctic region between 1979 and 1998, and to reconstruct Arctic temperature in 1900-2012. This method provided temperature reconstruction in central Arctic and precise estimation of both global and Arctic temperature variability with a long temporal scale. Results have been verified by extra independent station records in Arctic by statistical analysis, such as variance and standard deviation. The result of reconstruction shows significant warming trend in Arctic in recent 30 years, as the temperature trend in Arctic since 1997 is 0.76°C per decade, compared with 0.48°C and 0.67°C per decade from 250km smooth and 1200km smooth of GISTEMP. And global temperature trend is two times greater after using DINEOF. The discrepancies above stress the importance of fully consideration of temperature variance in Arctic because gaps of coverage in Arctic cause apparent cold bias in temperature estimation. The result of global surface temperature also proves that

  1. Potential for an Arctic-breeding migratory bird to adjust spring migration phenology to Arctic amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameris, Thomas K; Scholten, Ilse; Bauer, Silke; Cobben, Marleen M P; Ens, Bruno J; Nolet, Bart A

    2017-10-01

    Arctic amplification, the accelerated climate warming in the polar regions, is causing a more rapid advancement of the onset of spring in the Arctic than in temperate regions. Consequently, the arrival of many migratory birds in the Arctic is thought to become increasingly mismatched with the onset of local spring, consequently reducing individual fitness and potentially even population levels. We used a dynamic state variable model to study whether Arctic long-distance migrants can advance their migratory schedules under climate warming scenarios which include Arctic amplification, and whether such an advancement is constrained by fuel accumulation or the ability to anticipate climatic changes. Our model predicts that barnacle geese Branta leucopsis suffer from considerably reduced reproductive success with increasing Arctic amplification through mistimed arrival, when they cannot anticipate a more rapid progress of Arctic spring from their wintering grounds. When geese are able to anticipate a more rapid progress of Arctic spring, they are predicted to advance their spring arrival under Arctic amplification up to 44 days without any reproductive costs in terms of optimal condition or timing of breeding. Negative effects of mistimed arrival on reproduction are predicted to be somewhat mitigated by increasing summer length under warming in the Arctic, as late arriving geese can still breed successfully. We conclude that adaptation to Arctic amplification may rather be constrained by the (un)predictability of changes in the Arctic spring than by the time available for fuel accumulation. Social migrants like geese tend to have a high behavioural plasticity regarding stopover site choice and migration schedule, giving them the potential to adapt to future climate changes on their flyway. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Thermospheric density structures over the polar regions observed with CHAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schlegel

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the unexpected detection of considerable structure in high latitude thermospheric densities, as derived from an accelerometer onboard the CHAMP satellite. The width of the structures, which can either be maxima or minima, varies between a few hundred km and 2000 km. The amplitudes of these density extrema can reach 50% of ambient. Maxima cluster around 75° (N and S, while minima are found closer to the poles. In a magnetic latitude-magnetic local time frame the maxima are found mainly around the cusp region. Overall, the observed structures somewhat resemble so-called density cells previously found in model calculations. However the models generate their cells around 140–300 km altitude and show little, if any remnant at 400 km or above. This has to be contrasted with the fact that the CHAMP observations were obtained near 430 km altitude. We have explored Joule heating as a possible mechanism for the generation of the structures, at least in density enhancement regions, using Hall currents measured on CHAMP and simultaneous incoherent scatter measurements with EISCAT. However, the electric fields were usually quite small during the period of observation, making the quest for an explanation for the structures all the more challenging. Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Thermospheric dynamics – Magnetospheric physics (Polar cap phenomena – Atmospheric composition and structure (Pressure, density, and temperature

  3. Socio-Economic Priorities for the Sustainable Development of Russian Arctic Macro-Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikolaevich Leksin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To properly justify the priorities for the Russian Arctic Zone sustainable development is methodologically challenging for two reasons. Firstly, this challenge is due to fast changes of external and internal conditions for the development of the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF. Secondly, the interpretation of the concept of “sustainability” is too wide inconsistent. As the concepts of “sustainability” as well as the concept of “sustainable growth” in this wide sense are frequently used to characterize economic, social and other processes and systems, these key categories are difficult to apply as development’ targets and evaluation criteria practice of public administration in Russia. Using the case of Arctic macro-region, the paper substantiates the concept of spatial systems’ sustainability as their ability to maintain functionality under destabilizing impact of exogenous and endogenous factors. Such an ability is particularly important because of variations in structure and intensity of these negative impacts, including from climate change. Within this methodological framework, we have specified the indicators of sustainability relating to the practice of public management in the AZRF development. The paper has discussed the existing and emerging exogenous and endogenous impacts on the AZRF development sustainability. We set two priorities among the goals and objectives for ensuring the AZRF sustainable functioning under the conditions of climate. In social (socio-economic sphere, it is necessary to maintain and improve the public health. In economic sphere, the most needed are strengthening of coherency and reliability of the transportation system, energy supplies to distant consumers, and stimulating of investment and industrial activities of the large industrial corporations.

  4. Collaborative Research: Towards Advanced Understanding and Predictive Capability of Climate Change in the Arctic Using a High-Resolution Regional Arctic Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassano, John [Principal Investigator

    2013-06-30

    The primary research task completed for this project was the development of the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM). This involved coupling existing atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land models using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM) coupler (CPL7). RACM is based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model, the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) ocean model, the CICE sea ice model, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land model. A secondary research task for this project was testing and evaluation of WRF for climate-scale simulations on the large pan-Arctic model domain used in RACM. This involved identification of a preferred set of model physical parameterizations for use in our coupled RACM simulations and documenting any atmospheric biases present in RACM.

  5. Comparative hepatic in vitro depletion and metabolite formation of major perfluorooctane sulfonate precursors in Arctic polar bear, beluga whale, and ringed seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Robert J; Chu, Shaogang; McKinney, Melissa A; Tomy, Gregg T; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2014-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been reported to be among the most concentrated persistent organic pollutants in Arctic marine wildlife. The present study examined the in vitro depletion of major PFOS precursors, N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), as well as metabolite formation using an assay based on enzymatically viable liver microsomes for three top Arctic marine mammalian predators, polar bear (Ursus maritimus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), and ringed seal (Pusa hispida), and in laboratory rat (Rattus rattus) serving as a general mammalian model and positive control. Rat assays showed that N-EtFOSA (38 nM or 150 ng mL(-1)) to FOSA metabolism was >90% complete after 10 min, and at a rate of 23 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein. Examining all species in a full 90 min incubation assay, there was >95% N-EtFOSA depletion for the rat active control and polar bear microsomes, ∼65% for ringed seals, and negligible depletion of N-EtFOSA for beluga whale. Concomitantly, the corresponding in vitro formation of FOSA from N-EtFOSA was also quantitatively rat≈polar bear>ringed seal>beluga whale. A lack of enzymatic ability and/or a rate too slow to be detected likely explains the lack of N-EtFOSA to FOSA transformation for beluga whale. In the same assays, the depletion of the FOSA metabolite was insignificant (p>0.01) and with no concomitant formation of PFOS metabolite. This suggests that, in part, a source of FOSA is the biotransformation of accumulated N-EtFOSA in free-ranging Arctic ringed seal and polar bear. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tolerance of polar phytoplankton communities to metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeveste, P.; Tovar-Sánchez, A.; Agustí, S.

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of pollutants reach polar regions, particularly the Arctic, impacting their communities. In this study we analyzed the toxic levels of Hg, Cd and Pb to natural phytoplankton communities of the Arctic and Southern Oceans, and compared their sensitivities with those observed on phytoplankton natural communities from temperate areas. Mercury was the most toxic metal for both Arctic and Antarctic communities, while both Cd and Pb were toxic only for the Antarctic phytoplankton. Total cell abundance of the populations forming the Arctic community increased under high Cd and Pb concentrations, probably due to a decrease of the grazing pressure or the increase of the most resistant species, although analysis of individual cells indicated that cell death was already induced at the highest levels. These results suggest that phytoplankton may have acquired adapting mechanisms to face high levels of Pb and Cd in the Arctic Ocean. Highlights: • First study analyzing the toxicity of Hg, Cd or Pb to natural polar phytoplankton. • Arctic Ocean communities highly resistant to Cd and Pb, but not to Hg. • Southern Ocean communities sensitive to Cd, Pb and Hg. • Both communities incorporated Pb at a similar level. • Arctic phytoplankton may have acquired adapting mechanisms against Cd and Pb. -- Polar phytoplankton communities are tolerant to Cd and Pb, specially the Arctic ones, suggesting the acquisition of adapting mechanisms to face metals' toxicity

  7. Spatial distribution of total electron content in the Arctic region of Russia from GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevalova, Natalya; Romanova, Elena; Katashevtseva, Darya; Timofeeva, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Preliminary results of studying the spatial distribution of the total electron content (TEC) in the Arctic region of Russia are presented. The study is based on double frequency phase data obtained at four high-latitude GPS stations (LOVJ, Murmansk; NRIL, Norilsk; TIXI, Tiksi; BILB, Bilibino) on May 4-6, 2013 at 04:00-10:00 UT. On some receiver - GPS satellite rays northward of the stations, we have detected sharp TEC decreases or increases which argue for existence of a low electron density region (ionization trough) in the ionosphere. As found from the analysis of displacement of receiver' satellite rays, the ionization trough was located at latitudes of 72-84° N and longitudes of 0-200° E. The obtained results are consistent with numerical simulation data.

  8. South Polar Region of Mars: Topography and Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, P. M.; Moore, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The polar layered deposits of Mars represent potentially important volatile reservoirs and tracers for the planet's geologically recent climate history. Unlike the north polar cap, the uppermost surface of the bright residual south polar deposit is probably composed of carbon dioxide ice. It is unknown whether this ice extends through the entire thickness of the deposit. The Mars Polar Lander (MPL), launched in January 1999, is due to arrive in December 1999 to search for water and carbon dioxide on layered deposits near the south pole (SP) of Mars. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Economic Evaluation of the Information Security Levels Achieved by Electric Energy Providers in North Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, O. P.; Kaznin, A. A.; Babkin, A. V.; Bogdanov, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    The study we are conducting involves the analysis of information security levels achieved by energy providers operating in the North Arctic Region. We look into whether the energy providers’ current information security levels meet reliability standards and determine what further actions may be needed for upgrading information security in the context of the digital transformation that the world community is undergoing. When developing the information security systems for electric energy providers or selecting the protection means for them, we are governed by the fact that the assets to be protected are process technologies. While information security risk can be assessed using different methods, the evaluation of the economic damage from these risks appears to be a difficult task. The most probable and harmful risks we have identified when evaluating the electric energy providers’ information security will be used by us as variables. To provide the evaluation, it is necessary to calculate the costs relating to elimination of the risks identified. The final stage of the study will involve the development of an operation algorithm for the North Arctic Region’s energy provider’s business information protection security system - a set of information security services, and security software and hardware.

  10. Potential sea salt aerosol sources from frost flowers in the pan-Arctic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Li [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Now at Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California USA; Russell, Lynn M. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Burrows, Susannah M. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-09-23

    In order to better represent observed wintertime aerosol concentrations at Barrow, Alaska, we implemented an observationally-based parameterization for estimating sea salt production from frost flowers in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In this work, we evaluate the potential influence of this sea salt source on the pan-Arctic (60ºN-90ºN) climate. Results show that frost flower salt emissions substantially increase the modeled surface sea salt aerosol concentration in the winter months when new sea ice and frost flowers are present. The parameterization reproduces both the magnitude and seasonal variation of the observed submicron sea salt aerosol concentration at surface in Barrow during winter much better than the standard CESM simulation without a frost-flower salt particle source. Adding these frost flower salt particle emissions increases aerosol optical depth by 10% and results in a small cooling at surface. The increase in salt particle mass concentrations of a factor of 8 provides nearly two times the cloud condensation nuclei concentration, as well as 10% increases in cloud droplet number and 40% increases in liquid water content near coastal regions adjacent to continents. These cloud changes reduce longwave cloud forcing by 3% and cause a small surface warming, increasing the downward longwave flux at the surface by 2 W m-2 in the pan-Arctic under the present-day climate.

  11. A comparison of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echo observations from locations in the Arctic and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latteck, Ralph; Sato, Kaoru; Nishimura, Koji; Renkwitz, Toralf

    2017-04-01

    Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) are observed with 50-MHz VHF radars at various locations in the Northern Hemisphere for more than 20 years. Continuous and homogeneous observations of PMSE have been done on the North-Norwegian island Andøya (69.3°N, 16.0°E) from 1999 until 2009 using the ALWIN radar and since 2011 using the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) at the same location. In 2011 the PANSY radar - a Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere/Incoherent Scattering (MST/IS) radar - was installed at Syowa Station, Antartica (69.0°S, 39.4°E) and continues observation of PMSE were started in the austral summer period 2013/2014. Since both MAARSY and PANSY are high-power-large aperture radars mesospheric echoes are observed almost continuously during the summer seasons in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere now. We present a first comparison of PMSE observations obtained at both radar sites during a period of 6 boreal summers (Andøya, NH) and 3 austral summers (Syowa, SH) and discuss similarities and differences of seasonal and diurnal variations of PMSE occurrence frequencies and echo intensity.

  12. Improved construction materials for polar regions using microcellular thermoplastic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    Microcellular polymer foams (MCF) are thermoplastic foams with very small cell diameters, less than 10 microns, and very large cell densities, 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 15) cells per cubic centimeter of unfoamed material. The concept of foaming polymers with microcellular voids was conceived to reduce the amount of material used for mass-produced items without compromising the mechanical properties. The reasoning behind this concept was that if voids smaller than the critical flaw size pre-existing in polymers were introduced into the matrix, they would not affect the overall strength of the product. MCF polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were examined to determine the effects of the microstructure towards the mechanical properties of the materials at room and arctic temperatures. Batch process parameters were discovered for these materials and foamed samples of three densities were produced for each material. To quantify the toughness and strength of these polymers, the tensile yield strength, tensile toughness, and impact resistance were measured at room and arctic temperatures. The feasibility of MCF polymers has been demonstrated by the consistent and repeatable MCF microstructures formed, but the improvements in the mechanical properties were not conclusive. Therefore the usefulness of the MCF polymers to replace other materials in arctic environments is questionable.

  13. Phytoremediation of disturbed lands in Polar Regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsutdinova, Evgeniya

    2017-04-01

    its effectiveness in quarries and construction materials in the vicinity of Syktyvkar. In the course of practical activities carried out in the area of Monchegorsk, on the copper-Nickel plant, the possibility of using willow for remediation of metal contaminated land is also being discussed, as this plant is efficient for phytoextraction. For land reclamation along the pipeline messoyakha-Noril'sk in the region of the drilling rigs on the Taimyr Peninsula and industrial tailings of the Norilsk industrial district, it is recommended to use the red and sheep fescue, Alpine and meadow bluegrass, arctophila reddish, meadow foxtail. In biological recultivation of disturbed territories on the Yamal Peninsula to accelerate the growth and development of plants peat textiles with sowing of red and meadow fescue, awnless brome, timothy grass, couch grass, kentucky bluegrass, beckman's grass were used. The technology of phytoremediation is widely used in Alaska. For recultivation of zinc mines in Northwest Alaska glaucous spear grass, blue joint grass, slough grass were used. The positive effect of Alaska red fescue and ryegrass multiflorous on degradation of hydrocarbons in contaminated soils was also studied. To clean the territory of Alaska from the polychlorinated biphenyls arctic willow and spruce were used.

  14. PoLAR Voices: Informing Adult Learners about the Science and Story of Climate Change in the Polar Regions Through Audio Podcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinney, A.; Murray, M. S.; Gobroski, K. A.; Topp, R. M.; Pfirman, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The resurgence of audio programming with the advent of podcasting in the early 2000s spawned a new medium for communicating advances in science, research, and technology. To capitalize on this informal educational outlet, the Arctic Institute of North America partnered with the International Arctic Research Center, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the UA Museum of the North to develop a podcast series called PoLAR Voices for the Polar Learning and Responding (PoLAR) Climate Change Education Partnership. PoLAR Voices is a public education initiative that uses creative storytelling and novel narrative structures to immerse the listener in an auditory depiction of climate change. The programs will feature the science and story of climate change, approaching topics from both the points of view of researchers and Arctic indigenous peoples. This approach will engage the listener in the holistic story of climate change, addressing both scientific and personal perspectives, resulting in a program that is at once educational, entertaining and accessible. Feedback is being collected at each stage of development to ensure the content and format of the program satisfies listener interests and preferences. Once complete, the series will be released on thepolarhub.org and on iTunes. Additionally, blanket distribution of the programs will be accomplished via radio broadcast in urban, rural and remote areas, and in multiple languages to increase distribution and enhance accessibility.

  15. Similarities and differences in polar mesosphere summer echoes observed in the Arctic and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Latteck

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE have been observed in the high latitudes of the Northern and Southern Hemisphere for several years using VHF radars located at Andenes/Norway (69° N, 16° E, Resolute Bay/Canada (75° N, 95° W, and Davis/Antarctica (69° S, 78° E. The VHF radars at the three sites were calibrated using the same methods (noise source and delayed transmitting signal and identical equipment. Volume reflectivity was derived from the calibrated echo power and the characteristics of the seasonal variation of PMSE were estimated at the sites for the years 2004 to 2007. The largest peak volume reflectivity of about 2×10−9 m−1 was observed at Andenes compared with their counterparts at Davis (~4×10−11 m−1 and Resolute Bay (~6×10−12 m−1. The peak of the PMSE height distribution is 85.6 km at Davis which is about 1 km higher than at Andenes. At Resolute Bay the height distribution peaks at about 85 km but only a few layers were found below 84 km. The mean PMSE occurrence rate is 83% at Andenes, 38% at Davis with larger variability and only 18% at Resolute Bay (in late summer. The duration of the PMSE season varies at Andenes from 104 to 113 days and at Davis from 88 to 93 days. In general the PMSE seasons starts about 5 days later at Davis and ends about 10 days earlier compared to Andenes. In all three seasons the PMSE occurrence suddenly drops to a much lower level at Davis about 32 days after solstice whereas the PMSE season decays smoothly at Andenes. The duration of the PMSE season at Andenes and Davis is highly correlated with the presence of equatorward directed winds, the observed differences in PMSE occurrence are related to the mesospheric temperatures at both sites.

  16. A changing world: Using nuclear techniques to investigate the impact of climate change on polar and mountainous regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are being used in polar and mountainous regions to study climate change and its impact on the quality of land, water and ecosystems in order to better conserve and manage these resources. Researchers from around the world will be using data from 13 benchmark sites to draw conclusions about the effects of the rapidly changing climate on the Arctic, mountains and the western part of Antarctica, which have alarmed communities, environmentalists, scientists and policy makers. Between July 2015 and July 2016 they will be using isotopic and nuclear techniques, as well as geochemical and biological analytical methods from other scientific disciplines. This will enable them to track soil and water, to monitor the movement of soil and sediment and to assess the effects of melting permafrost on the atmosphere, as well as on the land, water and fragile ecosystems of mountainous and polar regions. The measurements follow numerous on-site tests carried out since November 2014 to perfect the sampling technique.

  17. SIOS: A regional cooperation of international research infrastructures as a building block for an Arctic observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmen, K. J.; Lønne, O. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Svalbard Integrated Earth Observing System (SIOS) is a regional response to the Earth System Science (ESS) challenges posed by the Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change. SIOS is intended to develop and implement methods for how observational networks in the Arctic are to be designed in order to address such issues in a regional scale. SIOS builds on the extensive observation capacity and research installations already in place by many international institutions and will provide upgraded and relevant Observing Systems and Research Facilities of world class in and around Svalbard. It is a distributed research infrastructure set up to provide a regional observational system for long term measurements under a joint framework. As one of the large scale research infrastructure initiatives on the ESFRI roadmap (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures), SIOS is now being implemented. The new research infrastructure organization, the SIOS Knowledge Center (SIOS-KC), is instrumental in developing methods and solutions for setting up its regional contribution to a systematically constructed Arctic observational network useful for global change studies. We will discuss cross-disciplinary research experiences some case studies and lessons learned so far. SIOS aims to provide an effective, easily accessible data management system which makes use of existing data handling systems in the thematic fields covered by SIOS. SIOS will, implement a data policy which matches the ambitions that are set for the new European research infrastructures, but at the same time be flexible enough to consider `historical' legacies. Given the substantial international presence in the Svalbard archipelago and the pan-Arctic nature of the issue, there is an opportunity to build SIOS further into a wider regional network and pan-Arctic context, ideally under the umbrella of the Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks (SAON) initiative. It is necessary to anchor SIOS strongly in a European

  18. Pairwise comparisons to reconstruct mean temperature in the Arctic Atlantic Region over the last 2,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhijärvi, Sami; Tingley, Martin P.; Korhola, Atte

    2013-10-01

    Existing multi-proxy climate reconstruction methods assume the suitably transformed proxy time series are linearly related to the target climate variable, which is likely a simplifying assumption for many proxy records. Furthermore, with a single exception, these methods face problems with varying temporal resolutions of the proxy data. Here we introduce a new reconstruction method that uses the ordering of all pairs of proxy observations within each record to arrive at a consensus time series that best agrees with all proxy records. The resulting unitless composite time series is subsequently calibrated to the instrumental record to provide an estimate of past climate. By considering only pairwise comparisons, this method, which we call PaiCo, facilitates the inclusion of records with differing temporal resolutions, and relaxes the assumption of linearity to the more general assumption of a monotonically increasing relationship between each proxy series and the target climate variable. We apply PaiCo to a newly assembled collection of high-quality proxy data to reconstruct the mean temperature of the Northernmost Atlantic region, which we call Arctic Atlantic, over the last 2,000 years. The Arctic Atlantic is a dynamically important region known to feature substantial temperature variability over recent millennia, and PaiCo allows for a more thorough investigation of the Arctic Atlantic regional climate as we include a diverse array of terrestrial and marine proxies with annual to multidecadal temporal resolutions. Comparisons of the PaiCo reconstruction to recent reconstructions covering larger areas indicate greater climatic variability in the Arctic Atlantic than for the Arctic as a whole. The Arctic Atlantic reconstruction features temperatures during the Roman Warm Period and Medieval Climate Anomaly that are comparable or even warmer than those of the twentieth century, and coldest temperatures in the middle of the nineteenth century, just prior to the onset

  19. Similarities and differences in polar mesosphere summer echoes observed in the Arctic and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Latteck

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE have been observed in the high latitudes of the Northern and Southern Hemisphere for several years using VHF radars located at Andenes/Norway (69° N, 16° E, Resolute Bay/Canada (75° N, 95° W, and Davis/Antarctica (69° S, 78° E. The VHF radars at the three sites were calibrated using the same methods (noise source and delayed transmitting signal and identical equipment. Volume reflectivity was derived from the calibrated echo power and the characteristics of the seasonal variation of PMSE were estimated at the sites for the years 2004 to 2007. The largest peak volume reflectivity of about 2×10−9 m−1 was observed at Andenes compared with their counterparts at Davis (~4×10−11 m−1 and Resolute Bay (~6×10−12 m−1. The peak of the PMSE height distribution is 85.6 km at Davis which is about 1 km higher than at Andenes. At Resolute Bay the height distribution peaks at about 85 km but only a few layers were found below 84 km. The mean PMSE occurrence rate is 83% at Andenes, 38% at Davis with larger variability and only 18% at Resolute Bay (in late summer. The duration of the PMSE season varies at Andenes from 104 to 113 days and at Davis from 88 to 93 days. In general the PMSE seasons starts about 5 days later at Davis and ends about 10 days earlier compared to Andenes. In all three seasons the PMSE occurrence suddenly drops to a much lower level at Davis about 32 days after solstice whereas the PMSE season decays smoothly at Andenes. The duration of the PMSE season at Andenes and Davis is highly correlated with the presence of equatorward directed winds, the observed differences in PMSE occurrence are related to the mesospheric temperatures at both sites.

  20. International collaboration in Arctic terrestrial research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    The Arctic terrestrial region spans international borders in both North America and Eurasia, making internal collaboration essential to the monitoring and understanding of system-scale changes. Permafrost and hydrologic research in the Arctic are both benefiting from international coordination during the period of the International Polar Year. The Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) is an IPY program that has mobilized researchers from more than 20 countries to make standardized temperature measurements in existing and new boreholes throughout the permafrost regions of both hemispheres. TSP builds on the Global Terrestrial Network on Permafrost (GTP-N), which includes the Circumarctic Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) project. This synoptic snapshot will provide a baseline for diagnoses of ongoing changes and assessments of future change on a pan-Arctic scale. Because permafrost changes affect hydrology, a relevant program is Arctic- HYDRA, for which the objectives include a characterization of the variability in the Arctic Hydrological Cycle (AHC), an examination of the linkages between atmospheric forcing and continental discharge to the ocean; and incorporation of hydrologic information into the attribution of recent variability of the Arctic system. Results presented here will focus on an assessment of the permafrost-hydrologic linkages as presently understood, with an emphasis on the key research needs to which programs such as TSP and Arctic-HYDRA can be brought to bear.

  1. Wire-grid polarizer sheet in the terahertz region fabricated by nanoimprint technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Keisuke; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Ichii, Akira; Morimoto, Isao; Hangyo, Masanori

    2011-07-15

    Wire-grid polarizer sheets in the terahertz region have been fabricated on flexible substrates by nanoimprint technology. They show an ideal polarization property in the terahertz frequency region, whereas the cost is very low. Since the wire pitch is far smaller than the wavelength, the effective medium theory agrees well with experimental results. The effective medium theory shows the possibility of further improvement of polarization properties by selecting appropriate materials for wire grids. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  2. The regional species richness and genetic diversity of Arctic vegetation reflect both past glaciations and current climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, L.; Alsos, Inger G.; Bay, Christian

    2016-01-01

    correlated with each other, and both showed a positive relationship with landscape age. Plot species richness showed differing responses for vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. At this finer scale, the richness of vascular plants was not significantly related to landscape age, which had a small effect...... size compared to the models of bryophyte and lichen richness. Main conclusion Our study suggests that imprints of past glaciations in Arctic vegetation diversity patterns at the regional scale are still detectable today. Since Arctic vegetation is still limited by post-glacial migration lag...

  3. Evaluating climate variables, indexes and thresholds governing Arctic urban sustainability: case study of Russian permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, O. A.; Kokorev, V.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing Arctic urban sustainability today forces planners to deal with the complex interplay of multiple factors, including governance and economic development, demography and migration, environmental changes and land use, changes in the ecosystems and their services, and climate change. While the latter can be seen as a factor that exacerbates the existing vulnerabilities to other stressors, changes in temperature, precipitation, snow, river and lake ice, and the hydrological regime also have direct implications for the cities in the North. Climate change leads to reduced demand for heating energy, on one hand, and heightened concerns about the fate of the infrastructure built upon thawing permafrost, on the other. Changes in snowfall are particularly important and have direct implications for the urban economy, as together with heating costs, expenses for snow removal from streets, airport runways, roofs and ventilation corridors underneath buildings erected on pile foundations on permafrost constitute the bulk of the city's maintenance budget. Many cities are located in river valleys and are prone to flooding that leads to enormous economic losses and casualties, including human deaths. The severity of the northern climate has direct implications for demographic changes governed by regional migration and labor flows. Climate could thus be viewed as an inexhaustible public resource that creates opportunities for sustainable urban development. Long-term trends show that climate as a resource is becoming more readily available in the Russian North, notwithstanding the general perception that globally climate change is one of the challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In this study we explore the sustainability of the Arctic urban environment under changing climatic conditions. We identify key governing variables and indexes and study the thresholds beyond which changes in the governing climatic parameters have significant impact on the economy

  4. Deterrence Without Escalation:A Case for the Arctic in 2040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-08

    as predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change ( IPCC ) and the US Navy.23,24 By the year 2040, the IPCC forecasts that the Russian...Figure 1 – Arctic Map (Polar Projection) Showing Key Locations (Adapted from J.N. Larsen, et al. Polar Regions. Climate Change 2014. New York, NY...patrols over the Arctic; however, there has been no marked change in action by any nation.10,11 Inactions have not proven effective at changing the

  5. Application of a Regional Thermohaline Inverse Method to observational reanalyses in an Arctic domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Neill; Wilson, Chris; Zika, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP) aims to quantify the subpolar AMOC and its variability, including associated fluxes of heat and freshwater, using a combination of observations and models. In contribution OSNAP, we have developed a novel inverse method that diagnoses the interior mixing and advective flux at the boundary of an enclosed volume in the ocean. This Regional Thermohaline Inverse Method (RTHIM) operates in salinity-temperature (S-T) coordinates, a framework which allows us to gain insights into water mass transformation within the control volume and boundary fluxes of heat and freshwater. RTHIM will use multiple long-term observational datasets and reanalyses, including Argo, to provide a set of inverse estimates to be used to understand the sub-annual transport timescales sampled by the OSNAP array. Having validated the method using the NEMO model, we apply RTHIM to an Arctic domain using temperature and salinity and surface flux data from reanalyses. We also use AVISO surface absolute geostrophic velocities which, combined with thermal wind balance, provide an initial estimate for the inflow and outflow through the boundary. We diagnose the interior mixing in S-T coordinates and the boundary flow, calculating the transformation rates of well-known water masses and the individual contributions to these rates from surface flux processes, boundary flow and interior mixing. Outputs from RTHIM are compared with similar metrics from previous literature on the region. The inverse solution reproduces an observed pattern of warm, saline Atlantic waters entering the Arctic volume and cooler, fresher waters leaving. Meanwhile, surface fluxes act to create waters at the extremes of the S-T distribution and interior mixing acts in opposition, creating water masses at intermediate S-T and destroying them at the extremes. RTHIM has the potential to be compared directly with the OSNAP array observations by defining a domain boundary which

  6. A one stop website for sharing sea ice, ocean and ice sheet data over the polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Cheng, X.; Liu, J.; Hui, F.; Ding, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The polar regions, including the Arctic and Antarctic, are changing rapidly. Our capabilities to remotely monitor the state of the polar regions are increasing greatly. Satellite and airborne technologies have been deployed and further improvements are underway. Meanwhile, various algorithms have been developed to retrieve important parameters to maximize the effectiveness of available remote sensing data. These technologies and algorithms promise to greatly increase our understanding of variations in sea ice, ocean and ice sheet. However, so much information is scattered out there. It is challenging to find exactly what you are looking for by just searching it through the network. Therefore, we try to establish a common platform to sharing some key parameters for the polar regions. A group of scientists from Beijing Normal University and University at Albany developed a website as a "one-stop shop" for the current state of the polar regions. The website provides real-time (or near real-time) key parameters derived from a variety of operational satellites in an understandable, accessible and credible way. Three types of parameter, which are sea ice, ocean and ice sheet respectively, are shown and available to be downloaded in the website. Several individual parameters are contained in a specific type of parameter. The parameters of sea ice include sea ice concentration, sea ice thickness, melt pond, sea ice leads and sea ice drift. The ocean parameters contain sea surface temperature and sea surface wind. Ice sheet balance, ice velocity and some other parameters are classified into the type of ice sheet parameter. Some parameters are well-calibrated and available to be obtained from other websites, such as sea ice concentration, sea ice thickness sea surface temperature. Since these parameters are retrieved from different sensors, such as SSMI, AMSR2 etc., data format, spatial resolution of the parameters are not unified. We collected and reprocessed these

  7. Collaborative Project. Understanding the effects of tides and eddies on the ocean dynamics, sea ice cover and decadal/centennial climate prediction using the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, Jennifer [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Joseph, Renu [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2013-09-14

    The goal of this project is to develop an eddy resolving ocean model (POP) with tides coupled to a sea ice model (CICE) within the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) to investigate the importance of ocean tides and mesoscale eddies in arctic climate simulations and quantify biases associated with these processes and how their relative contribution may improve decadal to centennial arctic climate predictions. Ocean, sea ice and coupled arctic climate response to these small scale processes will be evaluated with regard to their influence on mass, momentum and property exchange between oceans, shelf-basin, ice-ocean, and ocean-atmosphere. The project will facilitate the future routine inclusion of polar tides and eddies in Earth System Models when computing power allows. As such, the proposed research addresses the science in support of the BER’s Climate and Environmental Sciences Division Long Term Measure as it will improve the ocean and sea ice model components as well as the fully coupled RASM and Community Earth System Model (CESM) and it will make them more accurate and computationally efficient.

  8. Some like it cold: microbial transformations of mercury in polar regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkay, Tamar; Kroer, Niels A.; Poulain, Alexandre J.

    2011-01-01

    The contamination of polar regions with mercury that is transported from lower latitudes as inorganic mercury has resulted in the accumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in food chains, risking the health of humans and wildlife. While production of MeHg has been documented in polar marine and terres......The contamination of polar regions with mercury that is transported from lower latitudes as inorganic mercury has resulted in the accumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in food chains, risking the health of humans and wildlife. While production of MeHg has been documented in polar marine...

  9. Reactor units for power supply to the Russian Arctic regions: Priority assessment of nuclear energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel'nikov N. N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of competitiveness of small nuclear power plants (SNPP and feasibility of their use to supply power to remote and inaccessible regions the competition occurs between nuclear energy sources, which is caused by a wide range of proposals for solving the problem of power supply to different consumers in the decentralized area of the Russian Arctic power complex. The paper suggests a methodological approach for expert assessment of the priority of small power reactor units based on the application of the point system. The priority types of the reactor units have been determined based on evaluation of the unit's conformity to the following criteria: the level of referentiality and readiness degree of reactor units to implementation; duration of the fuel cycle, which largely determines an autonomy level of the nuclear energy source; the possibility of creating a modular block structure of SNPP; the maximum weight of a transported single equipment for the reactor unit; service life of the main equipment. Within the proposed methodological approach the authors have performed a preliminary ranking of the reactor units according to various criteria, which allows quantitatively determining relative difference and priority of the small nuclear power plants projects aimed at energy supply to the Russian Arctic. To assess the sensitivity of the ranking results to the parameters of the point system the authors have observed the five-point and ten-point scales under variations of importance (weights of different criteria. The paper presents the results of preliminary ranking, which have allowed distinguishing the following types of the reactor units in order of their priority: ABV-6E (ABV-6M, "Uniterm" and SVBR-10 in the energy range up to 20 MW; RITM-200 (RITM-200M, KLT-40S and SVBR-100 in the energy range above 20 MW.

  10. Pattern recognition of clouds and ice in polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, R. M.; Sengupta, S. K.; Sundar, C. A.; Kuo, K. S.; Carsey, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    The study is based on AVHRR imagery and results from Landsat high-spatial-resolution scenes. Among the textual features investigated are the gray level difference vector (GLDV), and sum and difference histogram (SADH) approaches as well as gray level run length, spatial-coherence, and spectral-histogram measures. The traditional stepwise discriminant analysis and neural-network analysis are used for the identification of 20 Arctic surface and cloud classes. A principal-component analysis and hybrid architecture employing a modularized competitive learning layer are utilized. It is pointed out that the cloud-classification accuracy comparable to that of back-propagation could be achieved with a training time two orders of magnitude faster.

  11. Modeling optical and UV polarization of AGNs. III. From uniform-density to clumpy regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, F.; Goosmann, R. W.; Gaskell, C. M.

    2015-05-01

    Context. A growing body of evidence suggests that some, if not all, scattering regions of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are clumpy. The inner AGN components cannot be spatially resolved with current instruments and must be studied by numerical simulations of observed spectroscopy and polarization data. Aims: We run radiative transfer models in the optical/UV for a variety of AGN reprocessing regions with different distributions of clumpy scattering media. We obtain geometry-sensitive polarization spectra and images to improve our previous AGN models and their comparison with the observations. Methods: We use the latest public version 1.2 of the Monte Carlo code stokes presented in the first two papers of this series to model AGN reprocessing regions of increasing morphological complexity. We replace previously uniform-density media with up to thousands of constant-density clumps. We couple a continuum source to fragmented equatorial scattering regions, polar outflows, and toroidal obscuring dust regions and investigate a wide range of geometries. We also consider different levels of fragmentation in each scattering region to evaluate the importance of fragmentation for the net polarization of the AGN. Results: In comparison with uniform-density models, equatorial distributions of gas and dust clouds result in grayer spectra and show a decrease in the net polarization percentage at all lines of sight. The resulting polarization position angle depends on the morphology of the clumpy structure, with extended tori favoring parallel polarization while compact tori produce orthogonal polarization position angles. In the case of polar scattering regions, fragmentation increases the net polarization unless the cloud filling factor is small. A complete AGN model constructed from the individual, fragmented regions can produce low polarization percentages (<2%), with a parallel polarization angle for observer inclinations up to 70° for a torus half opening angle of 60°. For

  12. Aerosol optical depth retrieval in the Arctic region using MODIS data over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, L.; Xue, Y.; Leeuw, G. de; Hoyningen-Huene, W. von; Kokhanovsky, A.A.; Istomina, L.; Guang, J.; Burrows, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic is vulnerable to the long-term transport of aerosols because they affect the surface albedo when particles are deposited on snow and ice. However, aerosol observations for this area are sparse and hence there is considerable uncertainty in the knowledge on the properties of the Arctic

  13. Evidence and implications of recent climate change in northern Alaska and other arctic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry D. Hinzman; Neil D. Bettez; W. Robert Bolton; F. Stuart Chapin; Mark B. Dyurgerov; Chris L. Fastie; Brad Griffith; Robert D. Hollister; Allen Hope; Henry P. Huntington; Anne M. Jensen; Gensuou J. Jia; Torre Jorgenson; Douglas L. Kane; David R. Klein; Gary Kofinas; Amanda H. Lynch; Andrea H. Lloyd; A. David McGuire; Frederick E. Nelson; Walter C. Oechel; Thomas E. Osterkamp; Charles H. Racine; Vladimir E. Romanovsky; Robert S. Stone; Douglas A. Stow; Matthew Sturm; Craig E. Tweedie; George L. Vourlitis; Marilyn D. Walker; Donald A. Walker; Patrick J. Webber; Jeffrey M. Welker; Kevin S. Winker; Kenji. Yoshikawa

    2005-01-01

    The Arctic climate is changing. Permafrost is warming, hydrological processes are changing and biological and social systems are also evolving in response to these changing conditions. Knowing how the structure and function of arctic terrestrial ecosystems are responding to recent and persistent climate change is paramount to understanding the future state of the Earth...

  14. With Climate Change Expanding Trade Routes in the Arctic and the Resultant Pursuit of Resources, it is Crucial that the Eight Arctic Nations Find Paths Towards Sustainability and Peace in the Region. Traditional Arctic Games are an Essential Scenario that Provide an Important Scale for Analysis Aimed at Medium-long term Sustainability in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    With climate change expanding trade routes in the Arctic and the resultant pursuit of oil, gas, mineral deposits, and fish, it is imperative that the eight Arctic countries find paths towards sustainability and peace in the region. Revisiting and understanding the traditional games of the indigenous people of these regions can go a long way towards helping those determining the region's future to work cooperatively towards these goals. Traditional games are an essential scenario that provide an important scale for analysis aimed at medium-long term sustainability in the Arctic. Throughout history the games we have played have been a testament about who we were, and are. From early Inuit bone and hunting games, to the gladiator contests of Ancient Rome, to the modern American game of baseball, the games we play have served as a statement of and a rehearsal for the life-world of that period and place. By reconnecting with and understanding the games of our past, we can build meaningful bridges between our past and present, and hopefully gain a better understanding of our modern world. The aforesaid are timely and important, especially as they relate to indigenous people throughout the world who are trying to preserve their traditions in a fast changing modern world. This presentation/paper will offer, based on my research and experiences in the Arctic, lessons learned from traditional Sámi and Inuit games that may help promote sustainability and peace in the Arctic world. Hopefully by acknowledging these lessons we can pursue a path forward, together reconnecting with the traditional games of the Arctic with the hope of building meaningful bridges between the past and present and moreover, helping to enhance our understanding of the important role traditional games can play in shaping an Arctic where sustainability and peace flourish.

  15. One-dimensional heat conduction equation of the polar bear hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wei-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairs of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus possess special membrane-pore structure. The structure enables the polar bear to survive in the harsh Arctic regions. In this paper, the membrane-pore structure be approximately considered as fractal space, 1-D heat conduction equation of the polar bear hair is established and the solution of the equation is obtained.

  16. Tsunami in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Evgueni; Medvedev, Igor; Ivaschenko, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    The severity of the climate and sparsely populated coastal regions are the reason why the Russian part of the Arctic Ocean belongs to the least studied areas of the World Ocean. In the same time intensive economic development of the Arctic region, specifically oil and gas industry, require studies of potential thread natural disasters that can cause environmental and technical damage of the coastal and maritime infrastructure of energy industry complex (FEC). Despite the fact that the seismic activity in the Arctic can be attributed to a moderate level, we cannot exclude the occurrence of destructive tsunami waves, directly threatening the FEC. According to the IAEA requirements, in the construction of nuclear power plants it is necessary to take into account the impact of all natural disasters with frequency more than 10-5 per year. Planned accommodation in the polar regions of the Russian floating nuclear power plants certainly requires an adequate risk assessment of the tsunami hazard in the areas of their location. Develop the concept of tsunami hazard assessment would be based on the numerical simulation of different scenarios in which reproduced the hypothetical seismic sources and generated tsunamis. The analysis of available geological, geophysical and seismological data for the period of instrumental observations (1918-2015) shows that the highest earthquake potential within the Arctic region is associated with the underwater Mid-Arctic zone of ocean bottom spreading (interplate boundary between Eurasia and North American plates) as well as with some areas of continental slope within the marginal seas. For the Arctic coast of Russia and the adjacent shelf area, the greatest tsunami danger of seismotectonic origin comes from the earthquakes occurring in the underwater Gakkel Ridge zone, the north-eastern part of the Mid-Arctic zone. In this area, one may expect earthquakes of magnitude Mw ˜ 6.5-7.0 at a rate of 10-2 per year and of magnitude Mw ˜ 7.5 at a

  17. Workshop on the Polar Regions of Mars: Geology, Glaciology, and Climate History, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, S. M. (Editor); Howard, A. D. (Editor); Paterson, W. S. B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Papers and abstract of papers presented at the workshop are presented. Some representative titles are as follows: Glaciation in Elysium; Orbital, rotational, and climatic interactions; Water on Mars; Rheology of water-silicate mixtures at low temperatures; Evolution of the Martian atmosphere (the role of polar caps); Is CO2 ice permanent; Dust transport into Martian polar latitudes; Mars observer radio science (MORS) observations in polar regions; and Wind transport near the poles of Mars (timescales of changes in deposition and erosion).

  18. Arctic Research of the United States, Fall 1991, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jerry; Bowen, Stephen

    This is a journal for national and international audiences of government officials, scientists, engineers, educators, Arctic residents, and other people interested in Arctic-related topics. Reports cover a broad spectrum of life in the Arctic including such topics as fish, game, health, social services, science, engineering, environment, oceanography, international activities, international cooperation, global change, conferences, polar libraries, data, policies, research, and history. The emphasis in this issue is on international activities, including the environment, research ships, and the Bering Sea region's history and resources.

  19. Demographic potential of the Russia’s northern regions as a factor and condition of economic development of the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Vilgelmovich Fauzer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the research relevance of all aspects of development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation consists the fact that in spite of limited stocks in the old rendered habitable regions of the country, Arctic is considered as a source of resources for socio-economic development of Russia. Based on the recognition that the territory is like a separate object of state observation, it is noted that the best resources for labor of the economy of Arctic may become demographic potential of adjacent northern regions. The different points of view and approaches to the definition of the demographic potential and a set of indicators by its assessment are given. On the basis of the statistical analysis of population dynamics and a level of birth rate and mortality, it is shown that quantitative demographic potential of the northern regions since 1990s significantly decreased. It was affected by the migratory outflow. It is revealed that in northern regions, there are still positive differences in age and sexual structure. Regional governments can use the results while drawing up Strategic plans of socio-economic development of territories. The article concludes with recommendations

  20. The polar year starts in March. Arctics promises. When the North path will be opened to maritime traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.; Remoue, A.

    2007-01-01

    From Greenland to Alaska and from the Barents sea to the Okhotsk sea, oil companies are performing exploratory drillings looking for the North pole black gold. Far away from being an utopia, this new conquest of the great north is organizing yet. The Arctic hydrocarbon reserves may represent 10% of the world reserves. Moreover, with the increasing melting of ice sheets, the Arctic path will be opened to navigation and exploration in less than 25 years. The great north territories are shared between eight countries (USA, Canada, Denmark, Island, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia) and leads to disputes about the limits of territorial waters. (J.S.)

  1. Arctic hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The devastating winter storms that swoop across the Arctic, endangering offshore oil rigs, shipping, and fishing operations in their paths, are the subject of current study by a team of weather researchers from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As part of the study, U.S. scientists and those from several other countries also will attempt to estimate how much carbon dioxide is transferred from the atmosphere into the North Atlantic's deep waters during winter storms.A typical polar low, like a hurricane, has a spiral cloud pattern and winds exceeding 120 km per hour, said Melvyn Shapiro, senior meteorologist on the polar-low study. The storms are smaller than most hurricanes, however, and rarely have a diameter greater than 320 km. Some, but not all, develop an “eye,” like a hurricane. Polar lows, only recently documented from polar orbiting satellite imagery, appear to form primarily from October to April, but peak in February.

  2. The ionospheric impact on GPS performance in southern polar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C.-K.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D. A.; Arslan, N.; Willis, M.; Hothem, L.

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to present the results of the study of the effects of varying ionospheric conditions on the GPS signal tracking in the southern polar region. In the first stage of this study, the data collected by the OSU/USGS team in October-November 2003 within the TAMDEF (Transantarctic Mountains Deformation) network were used together with some IGS Antarctic stations to study the effect of severe ionospheric storms on GPS hardware. Note that TAMDEF is a joint USGS/OSU project with the primary objective of measuring crustal motion in the Transantarctic Mountains of Southern Victoria Land using GPS techniques. This study included ten Antarctic stations equipped with different dual-frequency GPS hardware, and the data were evaluated for two 24-hour periods of severe ionospheric storm (2003/10/29) and moderate ionospheric conditions (minor storm of 2003/11/11). The results of this study were presented at the LAG Assembly in Cairns, Australia (Grejner-Brzezinska et al., 2005). Additional tests, in a more controlled environment, were carried out at the US Antarctic station, McMurdo, between January 10 and February 6, 2006, under varying ionospheric conditions, where several different types of receivers were connected to the same antenna located on the rooftop of the Crary Laboratory (the primary test site). In this scenario, each antenna was subject to identical ionospheric effects during each day of the test, and no spatial decorrelation effects were present, as seen in the previous study, due to the spatial separation of the receivers tested. It should be noted, however, that no moderate or severe ionospheric storms occurred during the experiment, so, unfortunately, this type of conditions was not tested here. The test was repeated with different receivers connected to different antenna types; a total of four 5-day sessions were carried out. The following receiver types were used at the primary site: Trimble 5700, Ashtech Z-Surveyor, JNS Euro

  3. Evaluation of the functional activity of activated sludge from local waste water treatment plant in the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il'inskiy V. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers characteristics of the activated sludge in the local wastewater treatment plant (LWTP and its ability to purify fully domestic sewage water in the Far North. Biochemical process of destruction of organic pollutants is influenced by a microbial complex functioning in aeration tanks. Taking into account climatic conditions of the region where the organic matter degradation processes are slowed, and lack of control over the operation, efficiency and occupational safety of LWTPs, it seems to be important to study the physiological characteristics of the bacteria used in bioremediation, and their ability to maximize the purifying domestic sewage in the Arctic region. Undue intervention in the biosphere systems leads to disruption of the balance of internal and external ecosystems communications. The goal of research is studying structural determination and functioning of activated sludge bacteriocenosis of LWTP TOPAS-5 (GK "Topol-ECO" in certain physical and chemical conditions of the habitat, and establishing completeness of cleaning process in this treatment plant. The paper considers the structure (quantitative and qualitative composition and function of LWTP activated sludge bacteriocenosis functioning in the Arctic region. The estimation of the activated sludge of full waste water treatment process of the LWTP has been given. The research's results have allowed to identify and determine the bacterial count of physiological groups of microorganisms purified domestic sewage; to isolate from activated sludge the bioflocculant-producing microorganisms' on the experimental medium; to evaluate efficiency of LWTP work in the Arctic region

  4. Power spectra of mesospheric velocities in polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowsky, P.; Ruster, R.

    1985-01-01

    The mobile SOUSY radar was operated on Andoya in Northern Norway during the MAP/WINE campaign from November 1983 to February 1984 and for about two weeks in June 1984 to study the seasonal dependence of mesospheric structures and dynamics at polar latitudes. During the winter period, measurements were carried out on 57 days, primarily in coordination with the schedule of the rocket experiments. Echoes were detected in the troposphere and stratosphere up to 30 km and at mesospheric heights from about 50 to 90 km with a distinct maximum around noon. In summer, the radar system was operated continuously from 19th to the 28th of June 1984. Echoes occurred almost for 24 hours in the height range from 70 to 95 km showing no recognizable diurnal variation. Similar observations in polar latitudes were carried out for several years with the Poker Flat Radar in Alaska.

  5. Assessment of neurotoxic effects of mercury in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Pusa hispida), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Anke; Ostertag, Sonja K; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-03-15

    Marine mammals are indicator species of the Arctic ecosystem and an integral component of the traditional Inuit diet. The potential neurotoxic effects of increased mercury (Hg) in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Pusa hispida), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are not clear. We assessed the risk of Hg-associated neurotoxicity to these species by comparing their brain Hg concentrations with threshold concentrations for toxic endpoints detected in laboratory animals and field observations: clinical symptoms (>6.75 mg/kg wet weight (ww)), neuropathological signs (>4 mg/kg ww), neurochemical changes (>0.4 mg/kg ww), and neurobehavioral changes (>0.1mg/kg ww). The total Hg (THg) concentrations in the cerebellum and frontal lobe of ringed seals and polar bears were 3mg/kg ww. Our results suggest that brain THg levels in polar bears are below levels that induce neurobehavioral effects as reported in the literature, while THg concentrations in ringed seals are within the range that elicit neurobehavioral effects and individual ringed seals exceed the threshold for neurochemical changes. The relatively high THg concentration in beluga whales exceeds all of the neurotoxicity thresholds assessed. High brain selenium (Se):Hg molar ratios were observed in all three species, suggesting that Se could protect the animals from Hg-associated neurotoxicity. This assessment was limited by several factors that influence neurotoxic effects in animals, including: animal species; form of Hg in the brain; and interactions with modifiers of Hg-associated toxicity, such as Se. Comparing brain Hg concentrations in wildlife with concentrations of appropriate laboratory studies can be used as a tool for risk characterization of the neurotoxic effects of Hg in Arctic marine mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Arctic Coastal Erosion Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Matthew Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Craig A. [Integral Consulting Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost-dominated coastlines in the Arctic are rapidly disappearing. Arctic coastal erosion rates in the United States have doubled since the middle of the twentieth century and appear to be accelerating. Positive erosion trends have been observed for highly-variable geomorphic conditions across the entire Arctic, suggesting a major (human-timescale) shift in coastal landscape evolution. Unfortunately, irreversible coastal land loss in this region poses a threat to native, industrial, scientific, and military communities. The Arctic coastline is vast, spanning more than 100,000 km across eight nations, ten percent of which is overseen by the United States. Much of area is inaccessible by all-season roads. People and infrastructure, therefore, are commonly located near the coast. The impact of the Arctic coastal erosion problem is widespread. Homes are being lost. Residents are being dispersed and their villages relocated. Shoreline fuel storage and delivery systems are at greater risk. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operate research facilities along some of the most rapidly eroding sections of coast in the world. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is struggling to fortify coastal radar sites, operated to ensure national sovereignty in the air, against the erosion problem. Rapid alterations to the Arctic coastline are facilitated by oceanographic and geomorphic perturbations associated with climate change. Sea ice extent is declining, sea level is rising, sea water temperature is increasing, and permafrost state is changing. The polar orientation of the Arctic exacerbates the magnitude and rate of the environmental forcings that facilitate coastal land area loss. The fundamental mechanics of these processes are understood; their non-linear combination poses an extreme hazard. Tools to accurately predict Arctic coastal erosion do not exist. To obtain an accurate predictive model, a coupling of the influences of

  7. Possible recent and ancient glacial ice flow in the south polar region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.

    Martian polar science began almost as soon as small telescopes were trained on the planet. The seasonal expansion and contraction of the polar caps and their high albedoes led most astronomers to think that water ice is the dominant constituent. In 1911 Lowell perceived a bluish band around the retreating edge of the polar caps, and interpreted it as water from melting polar ice and seasonal snow. An alternative idea in his time was that the polar caps consist of frozen carbonic acid. Lowell rejected the carbonic acid hypothesis on account of his blue band. He also pointed out that carbonic acid would sublimate rather than melt at confining pressures near and below one bar, hence, carbonic acid could not account for the blue band. In comparing Lowell's theories with today's knowledge, it is recognized that (1) sublimation is mainly responsible for the growth and contraction of Mars' polar caps, (2) carbon dioxide is a major component of the southern polar cap, and (3) Lowell's blue band was probably seasonal dust and/or clouds. Geomorphic evidence that glacial ice and glacial melt waters once flowed over broad areas of the southern polar region. Two aspects of the south polar region suggest possible glacial processes during two distinct eras in Mars' history.

  8. Arctic Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nils

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of China, India, Japan, Singapore and Italy as permanent observers in the Arctic Council has increased the international status of this forum significantly. This chapter aims to explain the background for the increased international interest in the Arctic region through an analysis...... of the general security situation and to identify both the explicit and the implicit agendas of the primary state actors. The region contains all the ingredients for confrontation and conflict but the economical potential for all the parties concerned creates a general interest in dialogue and cooperation...

  9. Simulating Arctic clouds during Arctic Radiation- IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment (ARISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromwich, D. H.; Hines, K. M.; Wang, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The representation within global and regional models of the extensive low-level cloud cover over polar oceans remains a critical challenge for quantitative studies and forecasts of polar climate. In response, the polar-optimized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (Polar WRF) is used to simulate the meteorology, boundary layer, and Arctic clouds during the September-October 2014 Arctic Radiation- IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment (ARISE) project. Polar WRF was developed with several adjustments to the sea ice thermodynamics in WRF. ARISE was based out of Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska and included multiple instrumented C-130 aircraft flights over open water and sea ice of the Beaufort Sea. Arctic boundary layer clouds were frequently observed within cold northeasterly flow over the open ocean and ice. Preliminary results indicate these clouds were primarily liquid water, with characteristics differing between open water and sea ice surfaces. Simulated clouds are compared to ARISE observations. Furthermore, Polar WRF simulations are run for the August-September 2008 Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) for comparison to the ARISE. Preliminary analysis shows that simulated low-level water clouds over the sea ice are too extensive during the the second half of the ASCOS field program. Alternatives and improvements to the Polar WRF cloud schemes are considered. The goal is to use the ARISE and ASCOS observations to achieve an improved polar supplement to the WRF code for open water and sea ice that can be provided to the Polar WRF community.

  10. Overview of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service Products Available for the Arctic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Kholod

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service is one of six services (ocean, atmosphere, land, emergency situations, security and climate changes launched by the European Union within the EU Earth observation program. The data in the monitoring system covers both the entire World Ocean and individual European basins. The paper reviews the products of the Copernicus Marine Service operational system available in the Arctic. At the present time this region is of the increased interest both in Russia and in the world community. The system products include information on the thermodynamic, biogeochemical and bio-optical state of the marine environment. The system products are accessed through the electronic catalog of products. Selection criteria and possibilities for searching interesting information through the interactive web-portal are given in the paper. The system products containing the data of model calculations, satellite and in situ measurement results are considered. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the products are given, information on by whom, how the product was obtained and what is its accuracy is represented. The results of the system products visualization by the integrated tools (they allow one to construct and analyze time series, profiles, horizontal and vertical sections are shown. All the system data is publicly available to the registered users. Regular changes and updates of the system products as well as the mechanisms for accessing them take place. This information is sent to users by e-mail and is available on the news flash of the web-portal.

  11. The polar mesosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Ray; Murphy, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The mesosphere region, which lies at the edge of space, contains the coldest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, with summer temperatures as low as minus 130 °C. In this extreme environment ice aerosol layers have appeared since the dawn of industrialization—whose existence may arguably be linked to human influence—on yet another layer of the Earth's fragile atmosphere. Ground-based and space-based experiments conducted in the Arctic and Antarctic during the International Polar Year (IPY) aim to address limitations in our knowledge and to advance our understanding of thermal and dynamical processes at play in the polar mesosphere

  12. Developing a 1:3,000,000 Arctic and Antarctic Regions Shoreline Using the WVS Plus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doody, Martin

    1998-01-01

    .... The Naval Research Laboratory Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Lab has been tasked to assist in the EWG project by creating a shoreline for the Arctic and Antarctic Areas of Interest (AOI) defined by NIC...

  13. Toward Improved Regional Prediction of Arctic Climate Change at seasonal to interannual scales

    OpenAIRE

    Maslowski, Wieslaw

    2010-01-01

    NOAA Workshop on Sea Ice Forecasting, ESRL, Boulder, CO, 11 May, 2010 Primary science objective: to synthesize understanding of past and present states and thus improve decadal to centennial prediction of future Arctic climate and its influence on global climate.

  14. Assessment of the vulnerability to erosion for the Arctic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulisz, Wojciech; Suszka, Lechoslaw; Veic, Duje; Wolff, Claudia; Paprota, Maciej; Majewski, Dawid

    2017-09-01

    A novel approach to assess vulnerability to erosion for the Arctic coastline is proposed and a concept of a Polar Coastline Risk Index (PCRI) is introduced. This original concept is applied in the present study to the Arctic coastline. The PCRI is calculated by applying data from the DIVA and ACD databases. The investigations are supported by the open water season data obtained from satellite images of the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites. The derived concept seems to be a better method of determining vulnerability to erosion for polar coastal regions than previous approaches.

  15. Temperature profile data collected aboard the USCGC Polar Star in support of investigations of the influence of the Mendeleev Ridge and Chukchi Borderland on the large-scale circulation of the Arctic Ocean, August - September 2002 (NODC Accession 0002697)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an archive of data of 47 distinct XBT casts taken at 41 locations in the Mendeleev Ridge and Chukchi Borderland region of the Arctic between 22nd August and...

  16. Cryptosporidium hominis Is a Newly Recognized Pathogen in the Arctic Region of Nunavik, Canada: Molecular Characterization of an Outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Thivierge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings, and has been repeatedly associated with impaired physical and cognitive development. In May 2013, an outbreak of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium hominis was identified in the Arctic region of Nunavik, Quebec. Human cryptosporidiosis transmission was previously unknown in this region, and very few previous studies have reported it elsewhere in the Arctic. We report clinical, molecular, and epidemiologic details of a multi-village Cryptosporidium outbreak in the Canadian Arctic.We investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis using a descriptive study of cases with onset between April 2013 and April 2014. Cases were defined as Nunavik inhabitants of any age presenting with diarrhea of any duration, in whom Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by stool microscopy in a specialised reference laboratory. Cryptosporidium was identified in stool from 51 of 283 individuals. The overall annual incidence rate (IR was 420 / 100,000 inhabitants. The IR was highest among children aged less than 5 years (1290 /100,000 persons. Genetic subtyping for stool specimens from 14/51 cases was determined by DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene. Sequences aligned with C. hominis subtype Id in all cases. No common food or water source of infection was identified.In this first observed outbreak of human cryptosporidiosis in this Arctic region, the high IR seen is cause for concern about the possible long-term effects on growth and development of children in Inuit communities, who face myriad other challenges such as overcrowding and food-insecurity. The temporal and geographic distribution of cases, as well as the identification of C. hominis subtype Id, suggest anthroponotic rather than zoonotic transmission. Barriers to timely diagnosis delayed the recognition of human cryptosporidiosis in this remote setting.

  17. Cryptosporidium hominis Is a Newly Recognized Pathogen in the Arctic Region of Nunavik, Canada: Molecular Characterization of an Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivierge, Karine; Iqbal, Asma; Dixon, Brent; Dion, Réjean; Levesque, Benoît; Cantin, Philippe; Cédilotte, Lyne; Ndao, Momar; Proulx, Jean-François; Yansouni, Cedric P

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings, and has been repeatedly associated with impaired physical and cognitive development. In May 2013, an outbreak of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium hominis was identified in the Arctic region of Nunavik, Quebec. Human cryptosporidiosis transmission was previously unknown in this region, and very few previous studies have reported it elsewhere in the Arctic. We report clinical, molecular, and epidemiologic details of a multi-village Cryptosporidium outbreak in the Canadian Arctic. We investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis using a descriptive study of cases with onset between April 2013 and April 2014. Cases were defined as Nunavik inhabitants of any age presenting with diarrhea of any duration, in whom Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by stool microscopy in a specialised reference laboratory. Cryptosporidium was identified in stool from 51 of 283 individuals. The overall annual incidence rate (IR) was 420 / 100,000 inhabitants. The IR was highest among children aged less than 5 years (1290 /100,000 persons). Genetic subtyping for stool specimens from 14/51 cases was determined by DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Sequences aligned with C. hominis subtype Id in all cases. No common food or water source of infection was identified. In this first observed outbreak of human cryptosporidiosis in this Arctic region, the high IR seen is cause for concern about the possible long-term effects on growth and development of children in Inuit communities, who face myriad other challenges such as overcrowding and food-insecurity. The temporal and geographic distribution of cases, as well as the identification of C. hominis subtype Id, suggest anthroponotic rather than zoonotic transmission. Barriers to timely diagnosis delayed the recognition of human cryptosporidiosis in this remote setting.

  18. Landscape and hydrologic changes in the permafrost regions of the Western Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Western Canadian Arctic, in the vicinity of the Mackenzie River Delta, is characterized by long cold winters, short summers, low precipitation, thin organic soils, and ice-rich continuous permafrost. Over the last few decades, this region has undergone dramatic changes in climate, with warming air temperature and decreasing winter and summer precipitation. This has resulted in various landscape changes, including the warming of the upper layers of the permafrost, deepening of the active layer, drainage of permafrost affected lakes, an ongoing change from tundra to shrub tundra, and earlier spring breakup of streams, rivers and lakes. However, interactions between climate, hydrology, snow, and vegetation greatly affect both the spatial and temporal changes to the permafrost and hydrology of this region. Knowledge of these changes is important to the understanding of methane dynamics in this permafrost landscape, and for predicting future changes. Two examples of observed landscape change will be discussed. First, ground based observations and analysis of air photo images has demonstrated that shrub expansion is not uniform across the landscape, but instead is characterized by shrub patches of varying size. This patchiness is likely related to existing variations in soil temperature and moisture, active layer depth, snowcover, and tundra fires. As shrub patches further develop, they impact soil temperature and active layer depth. For example, small patches of shrubs typically have snow depths that are deeper than surrounding tundra areas due to the accumulation of blowing snow, and as a result have much warmer soil temperatures and deeper active layers. In contrast to these small shrub patches, large shrub patches have snow depths only slightly larger than found in the surrounding tundra and therefore only slightly warmer winter soil temperatures. However, shading of the surface during the summer may result in cooler summer soil temperatures. The overall effect

  19. Relationships between Indian summer monsoon rainfall and ice cover over selected oceanic regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    The variations in oceanic ice cover at selected polar regions during 1973 to 1987 have been analysed in relation to the seasonal Indian summer monsoon rainfall. The ice cover over the Arctic regions in June has negative relationship (correlation...

  20. Tectonics of the junction region between the East European craton and West Arctic platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluev, A. S.; Morozov, Y. A.; Terekhov, E. N.; Bayanova, T. B.; Tyupanov, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    The region of the junction and interaction between the East European Craton (EEC) and the West Arctic Craton (WAC) is regarded as a complexly built zone or assembly of both the volumetric and dividing linear tectonic elements: the Trollfjord-Rybachi-Kanin (TRK) Lineament, the pericratonic subsidence zone of the EEC, the Karpinskii Lineament, the Murmansk Block of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) Shield, and the Kolmozero-Voronya Zone, which are briefly characterized in this paper. Evidences of thrusting have been established not only in the TRK Suture Zone and on the Rybachi Peninsula, which represent a fragment of the Timanides fold-thrust belt, but also to the southwest, in the Upper Riphean and Vendian terrigenous sequences making up the Sredni Peninsula and related to the pericratonic trough of the VEC. Two phases of fold-thrust deformations with elements of left-lateral strike-slip offset pertaining to the activity and evolution of the lineament suture dividing the Sredni and Rybachi peninsulas have been recorded. The variously oriented fault-fold systems within this fault zone are evidence for multistage deformation and can be explained by an at least twostage change in the kinematics that control displacement along the fault. The disintegrated granitic massifs of the Archean crystalline basement tectonically squeezed out in the upper crust as protrusions are localized within TRK Fault Zone. Plagiogranitic bodies, which underwent superposed fault-fold deformations of both kinematic stages, are an evidence of the vigorous tectonic event that predated folding and two-stage strike-slip displacement along the TRK Fault—by thrusting of Riphean sequences from north to south toward the Archean craton. The nappe-thrust regional structure was formed at this stage; elements of it have been recognized in the Sredni, Rybachi, and Kanin peninsulas. The main stages of tectonic evolution in the junction zone between the EEC and the WAP have been revealed and substantiated.

  1. Biogeography of Deep-Sea Benthic Bacteria at Regional Scale (LTER HAUSGARTEN, Fram Strait, Arctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Marianne; Soltwedel, Thomas; Boetius, Antje; Ramette, Alban

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on spatial scales of the distribution of deep-sea life is still sparse, but highly relevant to the understanding of dispersal, habitat ranges and ecological processes. We examined regional spatial distribution patterns of the benthic bacterial community and covarying environmental parameters such as water depth, biomass and energy availability at the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site HAUSGARTEN (Eastern Fram Strait). Samples from 13 stations were retrieved from a bathymetric (1,284–3,535 m water depth, 54 km in length) and a latitudinal transect (∼ 2,500 m water depth; 123 km in length). 454 massively parallel tag sequencing (MPTS) and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) were combined to describe both abundant and rare types shaping the bacterial community. This spatial sampling scheme allowed detection of up to 99% of the estimated richness on phylum and class levels. At the resolution of operational taxonomic units (97% sequence identity; OTU3%) only 36% of the Chao1 estimated richness was recovered, indicating a high diversity, mostly due to rare types (62% of all OTU3%). Accordingly, a high turnover of the bacterial community was also observed between any two sampling stations (average replacement of 79% of OTU3%), yet no direct correlation with spatial distance was observed within the region. Bacterial community composition and structure differed significantly with increasing water depth along the bathymetric transect. The relative sequence abundance of Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes decreased significantly with water depth, and that of Deferribacteres increased. Energy availability, estimated from phytodetrital pigment concentrations in the sediments, partly explained the variation in community structure. Overall, this study indicates a high proportion of unique bacterial types on relatively small spatial scales (tens of kilometers), and supports the sampling design of the LTER site HAUSGARTEN to study

  2. Biogeography of Deep-sea benthic bacteria at regional scale (LTER HAUSGARTEN, Fram Strait, Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Jacob

    Full Text Available Knowledge on spatial scales of the distribution of deep-sea life is still sparse, but highly relevant to the understanding of dispersal, habitat ranges and ecological processes. We examined regional spatial distribution patterns of the benthic bacterial community and covarying environmental parameters such as water depth, biomass and energy availability at the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER site HAUSGARTEN (Eastern Fram Strait. Samples from 13 stations were retrieved from a bathymetric (1,284-3,535 m water depth, 54 km in length and a latitudinal transect (∼ 2,500 m water depth; 123 km in length. 454 massively parallel tag sequencing (MPTS and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA were combined to describe both abundant and rare types shaping the bacterial community. This spatial sampling scheme allowed detection of up to 99% of the estimated richness on phylum and class levels. At the resolution of operational taxonomic units (97% sequence identity; OTU3% only 36% of the Chao1 estimated richness was recovered, indicating a high diversity, mostly due to rare types (62% of all OTU3%. Accordingly, a high turnover of the bacterial community was also observed between any two sampling stations (average replacement of 79% of OTU3%, yet no direct correlation with spatial distance was observed within the region. Bacterial community composition and structure differed significantly with increasing water depth along the bathymetric transect. The relative sequence abundance of Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes decreased significantly with water depth, and that of Deferribacteres increased. Energy availability, estimated from phytodetrital pigment concentrations in the sediments, partly explained the variation in community structure. Overall, this study indicates a high proportion of unique bacterial types on relatively small spatial scales (tens of kilometers, and supports the sampling design of the LTER site HAUSGARTEN to

  3. Nuclear Wastes in the Arctic: An Analysis of Arctic and Other Regional Impacts from Soviet Nuclear Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    ..., and from radioactive releases from both past and future nuclear activities in the region. The report presents what is known and unknown about this waste and contamination and how it may affect public health...

  4. The ocean's role in polar climate change: asymmetric Arctic and Antarctic responses to greenhouse gas and ozone forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John; Armour, Kyle C; Scott, Jeffery R; Kostov, Yavor; Hausmann, Ute; Ferreira, David; Shepherd, Theodore G; Bitz, Cecilia M

    2014-07-13

    In recent decades, the Arctic has been warming and sea ice disappearing. By contrast, the Southern Ocean around Antarctica has been (mainly) cooling and sea-ice extent growing. We argue here that interhemispheric asymmetries in the mean ocean circulation, with sinking in the northern North Atlantic and upwelling around Antarctica, strongly influence the sea-surface temperature (SST) response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing, accelerating warming in the Arctic while delaying it in the Antarctic. Furthermore, while the amplitude of GHG forcing has been similar at the poles, significant ozone depletion only occurs over Antarctica. We suggest that the initial response of SST around Antarctica to ozone depletion is one of cooling and only later adds to the GHG-induced warming trend as upwelling of sub-surface warm water associated with stronger surface westerlies impacts surface properties. We organize our discussion around 'climate response functions' (CRFs), i.e. the response of the climate to 'step' changes in anthropogenic forcing in which GHG and/or ozone-hole forcing is abruptly turned on and the transient response of the climate revealed and studied. Convolutions of known or postulated GHG and ozone-hole forcing functions with their respective CRFs then yield the transient forced SST response (implied by linear response theory), providing a context for discussion of the differing warming/cooling trends in the Arctic and Antarctic. We speculate that the period through which we are now passing may be one in which the delayed warming of SST associated with GHG forcing around Antarctica is largely cancelled by the cooling effects associated with the ozone hole. By mid-century, however, ozone-hole effects may instead be adding to GHG warming around Antarctica but with diminished amplitude as the ozone hole heals. The Arctic, meanwhile, responding to GHG forcing but in a manner amplified by ocean heat transport, may continue to warm at an accelerating rate.

  5. Such Low Temperatures in the Arctic Region: How Can the Polar Bears Call It Home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Rose M.

    2005-01-01

    Science requires active learning--it is something that children do, rather than something that is done to them. The learning process involves students' thinking and doing to develop higher-order thinking skills, strengthen their reading and mathematical skills, and attain scientific knowledge. In the elementary grades, children learn biological…

  6. The Power of the Capability Constraint: On Russia’s Strength in the Arctic Territorial Dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valko Irina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on a geographical-administrative definition of the region, the theoretical assumptions of contemporary French structuralist geopolitics, cross-sectional data for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 from the Updated Arctic Regional Attributes Dataset, and the technical capabilities of MS Office Excel 2010, this research (a reveals and contrasts the Arctic states’ capability constraints deriving from their longitudinal material and virtual power potential (physical potential, socio-economic potential, military potential, and symbolic potential; and (b analyses the role of this constraint in the process of preference formation in case of one specific Arctic actor, Russia, in the Arctic territorial dispute. This study confirms that Russia’s capability constraint is the lowest in the region and that the latter does not form a stable trend throughout the period studied. It also suggests the preference formation framework for Russia in the Arctic dispute based on the evolution of its polar capability constraint.

  7. Abnormal Winter Melting of the Arctic Sea Ice Cap Observed by the Spaceborne Passive Microwave Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seongsuk; Yi, Yu

    2016-12-01

    The spatial size and variation of Arctic sea ice play an important role in Earth’s climate system. These are affected by conditions in the polar atmosphere and Arctic sea temperatures. The Arctic sea ice concentration is calculated from brightness temperature data derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite program (DMSP) F13 Special Sensor Microwave/Imagers (SSMI) and the DMSP F17 Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) sensors. Many previous studies point to significant reductions in sea ice and their causes. We investigated the variability of Arctic sea ice using the daily sea ice concentration data from passive microwave observations to identify the sea ice melting regions near the Arctic polar ice cap. We discovered the abnormal melting of the Arctic sea ice near the North Pole during the summer and the winter. This phenomenon is hard to explain only surface air temperature or solar heating as suggested by recent studies. We propose a hypothesis explaining this phenomenon. The heat from the deep sea in Arctic Ocean ridges and/ or the hydrothermal vents might be contributing to the melting of Arctic sea ice. This hypothesis could be verified by the observation of warm water column structure below the melting or thinning arctic sea ice through the project such as Coriolis dataset for reanalysis (CORA).

  8. Abnormal Winter Melting of the Arctic Sea Ice Cap Observed by the Spaceborne Passive Microwave Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongsuk Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial size and variation of Arctic sea ice play an important role in Earth’s climate system. These are affected by conditions in the polar atmosphere and Arctic sea temperatures. The Arctic sea ice concentration is calculated from brightness temperature data derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite program (DMSP F13 Special Sensor Microwave/Imagers (SSMI and the DMSP F17 Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS sensors. Many previous studies point to significant reductions in sea ice and their causes. We investigated the variability of Arctic sea ice using the daily and monthly sea ice concentration data from passive microwave observations to identify the sea ice melting regions near the Arctic polar ice cap. We discovered the abnormal melting of the Arctic sea ice near the North Pole even during the summer and the winter. This phenomenon is hard to explain only surface air temperature or solar heating as suggested by recent studies. We propose a hypothesis explaining this phenomenon. The heat from the deep sea in Arctic Ocean ridges and/or the hydrothermal vents might be contributing to the melting of Arctic sea ice. This hypothesis could be verified by the observation of warm water column structure below the melting or thinning arctic sea ice through the project such as Coriolis dataset for reanalysis (CORA.

  9. Reconstruction of early Holocene paleoclimate and environment in the SW Kola region, Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekov, Ivan; Kolka, Vasiliy; Syrykh, Liudmila; Nazarova, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    In the current period of the global climate change it becomes necessary to have a clear understanding of not only the changes taking place in the components of the natural environment, but also to understand development of all interactions between those components. Quaternary terrigenic sediments and lakes of the Kola Peninsula store information about the development of the region in the Late Glacial and Holocene: movements of the glacier, neotectonic activity, post-glacial rebound, formation and development of natural environments after deglaciation. Multi-proxy study of landscapes evolution of the Kola Peninsula in the Late Quaternary will help to establish a detailed reconstruction of climatic and environmental changes of this poor studied sector of the Arctic. Quaternary history on the Kola Peninsula is represented mainly by Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments covering the Baltic Shield (Lavrova, 1960; Evzerov, 2015). Several palaeolimnological investigations in the Baltic Shield area have been performed earlier (Donner et al., 1977; Anundsen, 1985; Berglund, 2004). Studies of the southern coast of the Kola Peninsula have shown that marine transgression took place in the Late Pleistocene that was then replaced by a regression with variable speed. The slowdown of the uplift of the area took place between 8800 - 6800 BP (cal. years) and corresponded to the time of the Tapes transgression of the Arctic Ocean (Evzerov et al. 2010; Kolka, et al., 2013). Palaeoclimatic studies based on micro-paleontological analyzes indicate uneven development of the Kola Peninsula landscapes in the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. The northern coast of the Peninsula became free of ice first. In this area tundra-steppe vegetation was established for a short time and was later replaced by tundra (Snyder et al, 2000). Southern part of the Kola Peninsula was dependent on the conditions of deglaciation of the White Sea basin and cleared of ice much later (Evzerov et al., 2010; Kolka

  10. Polare maskuliniteter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Anne Hauan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper my aim is to read and understand the journal of Gerrit de Veer from the last journey of William Barents to the Arctic Regions in 1596 and the journal of captain Junge on his hunting trip from Tromsø to Svalbard in 1834.It is nearly 240 years between this to voyages. The first journal is known as the earliest report from the arctic era. Gerrit de Veer adds instructive copper engravings to his text and give us insight in the crews meeting with this new land. Captain Junges journal is found together with his dead crew in a house in a fjord nearby Ny-Ålesund and has no drawings, but word. Both of these journals may be read as sources of the knowledge and understanding of the polar region. They might also unveil the ideas of how to deal with and survive under the challenges that is given. In addition one can ask if the sources can tell us more about how men describe their challenges. Can the way they expressed themselves in the journals give us an understanding of masculinity? And not least help us to create good questions of the change in the ideas of masculinities which is said to follow the change in understanding of the wilderness.

  11. An Arctic predator-prey system in flux: climate change impacts on coastal space use by polar bears and ringed seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Charmain D; Kovacs, Kit M; Ims, Rolf A; Aars, Jon; Lydersen, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Climate change is impacting different species at different rates, leading to alterations in biological interactions with ramifications for wider ecosystem functioning. Understanding these alterations can help improve predictive capacity and inform management efforts designed to mitigate against negative impacts. We investigated how the movement and space use patterns of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in coastal areas in Svalbard, Norway, have been altered by a sudden decline in sea ice that occurred in 2006. We also investigated whether the spatial overlap between polar bears and their traditionally most important prey, ringed seals (Pusa hispida), has been affected by the sea-ice decline, as polar bears are dependent on a sea-ice platform for hunting seals. We attached biotelemetry devices to ringed seals (n = 60, both sexes) and polar bears (n = 67, all females) before (2002-2004) and after (2010-2013) a sudden decline in sea ice in Svalbard. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate the association of these species to environmental features and an approach based on Time Spent in Area to investigate changes in spatial overlap between the two species. Following the sea-ice reduction, polar bears spent the same amount of time close to tidal glacier fronts in the spring but less time in these areas during the summer and autumn. However, ringed seals did not alter their association with glacier fronts during summer, leading to a major decrease in spatial overlap values between these species in Svalbard's coastal areas. Polar bears now move greater distances daily and spend more time close to ground-nesting bird colonies, where bear predation can have substantial local effects. Our results indicate that sea-ice declines have impacted the degree of spatial overlap and hence the strength of the predator-prey relationship between polar bears and ringed seals, with consequences for the wider Arctic marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Shifts in ecological

  12. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling of immune, reproductive and carcinogenic effects from contaminant exposure in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) across the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Rune; Gustavson, Kim; Sonne, Christian; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Rigét, Frank F; Pavlova, Viola; McKinney, Melissa A; Letcher, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) consume large quantities of seal blubber and other high trophic marine mammals and consequently have some of the highest tissue concentrations of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) among Arctic biota. In the present paper we carried out a risk quotient (RQ) evaluation on OHC-exposed polar bears harvested from 1999 to 2008 and from 11 circumpolar subpopulations spanning from Alaska to Svalbard in order to evaluate the risk of OHC-mediated reproductive effects (embryotoxicity, teratogenicity), immunotoxicity and carcinogenicity (genotoxicity). This RQ evaluation was based on the Critical Body Residue (CBR) concept and a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling (PBPK) approach using OHC concentrations measured in polar bear adipose or liver tissue. The range of OHC concentrations within polar bear populations were as follows for adipose, sum polychlorinated biphenyls ∑PCBs (1797-10,537 ng/g lw), sum methylsulphone-PCB ∑MeSO2-PCBs (110-672 ng/g lw), sum chlordanes ∑CHLs (765-3477 ng/g lw), α-hexachlorocyclohexane α-HCH (8.5-91.3 ng/g lw), β-hexachlorocyclohexane β-HCH (65.5-542 ng/g lw), sum chlorbenzenes ∑ClBzs (145-304 ng/g lw), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane ∑DDTs (31.5-206 ng/g lw), dieldrin (69-249 ng/g lw), polybrominated diphenyl ethers ∑PBDEs (4.6-78.4 ng/g lw). For liver, the perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) concentrations ranged from 231-2792 ng/g ww. The total additive RQ from all OHCs ranged from 4.3 in Alaska to 28.6 in East Greenland bears for effects on reproduction, immune health and carcinogenicity, highlighting the important result that the toxic effect threshold (i.e. RQ>1) was exceeded for all polar bear populations assessed. PCBs were the main contributors for all three effect categories, contributing from 70.6% to 94.3% of the total risk and a RQ between 3.8-22.5. ∑MeSO2-PCBs were the second highest effect contributor for reproductive and immunological effects (0.17polar bears. We therefore

  13. Characterization of the Morphometry of Impact Craters Hosting Polar Deposits in Mercury's North Polar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpe Matthieu; Zuber, Maria T.; Yang, Di; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Mazarico, Erwan; Vilas, Faith

    2012-01-01

    Earth-based radar images of Mercury show radar-bright material inside impact craters near the planet s poles. A previous study indicated that the polar-deposit-hosting craters (PDCs) at Mercury s north pole are shallower than craters that lack such deposits. We use data acquired by the Mercury Laser Altimeter on the MESSENGER spacecraft during 11 months of orbital observations to revisit the depths of craters at high northern latitudes on Mercury. We measured the depth and diameter of 537 craters located poleward of 45 N, evaluated the slopes of the northern and southern walls of 30 PDCs, and assessed the floor roughness of 94 craters, including nine PDCs. We find that the PDCs appear to have a fresher crater morphology than the non-PDCs and that the radar-bright material has no detectable influence on crater depths, wall slopes, or floor roughness. The statistical similarity of crater depth-diameter relations for the PDC and non-PDC populations places an upper limit on the thickness of the radar-bright material (< 170 m for a crater 11 km in diameter) that can be refined by future detailed analysis. Results of the current study are consistent with the view that the radar-bright material constitutes a relatively thin layer emplaced preferentially in comparatively young craters.

  14. Approaching a Postcolonial Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This article explores different postcolonially configured approaches to the Arctic. It begins by considering the Arctic as a region, an entity, and how the customary political science informed approaches are delimited by their focus on understanding the Arctic as a region at the service of the co......This article explores different postcolonially configured approaches to the Arctic. It begins by considering the Arctic as a region, an entity, and how the customary political science informed approaches are delimited by their focus on understanding the Arctic as a region at the service...... of the contemporary neoliberal order. It moves on to explore how different parts of the Arctic are inscribed in a number of sub-Arctic nation-state binds, focusing mainly on Canada and Denmark. The article argues that the postcolonial can be understood as a prism or a methodology that asks pivotal questions to all...... approaches to the Arctic. Yet the postcolonial itself is characterised by limitations, not least in this context its lack of interest in the Arctic, and its bias towards conventional forms of representation in art. The article points to the need to develop a more integrated critique of colonial and neo...

  15. Health effects from long-range transported contaminants in Arctic top predators: An integrated review based on studies of polar bears and relevant model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a thorough overview of the health effects from the complexed biomagnified mixture of long-range transported industrial organochlorines (OCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and mercury (Hg) on polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health. Multiple scientific studies of polar bears indicate negative relationships between exposure to these contaminants and health parameters; however, these are all of a correlative nature and do not represent true cause-and-effects. Therefore, information from controlled studies of farmed Norwegian Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and housed East and West Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) were included as supportive weight of evidence in the clarification of contaminant exposure and health effects in polar bears. The review showed that hormone and vitamin concentrations, liver, kidney and thyroid gland morphology as well as reproductive and immune systems of polar bears are likely to be influenced by contaminant exposure. Furthermore, exclusively based on polar bear contaminant studies, bone density reduction and neurochemical disruption and DNA hypomethylation of the brain stem seemed to occur. The range of tissue concentration, at which these alterations were observed in polar bears, were ca. 1-70,000 ng/g lw for OCs (blood plasma concentrations of some PCB metabolites even higher), ca. 1-1000 ng/g lw for PBDEs and for PFCs and Hg 114-3052 ng/g ww and 0.1-50 microg/g ww, respectively. Similar concentrations were found in farmed foxes and housed sledge dogs while the lack of dose response designs did not allow an estimation of threshold levels for oral exposure and accumulated tissue concentrations. Nor was it possible to pinpoint a specific group of contaminants being more important than others nor analyze their interactions. For East Greenland polar bears the corresponding daily SigmaOC and SigmaPBDE oral exposure was estimated to be 35 and 0.34 microg/kg body

  16. Analysis of aerosol optical depth evaluation in polar regions and associated uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ortiz de Galisteo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Some available processing algorithms used to calculate the aerosol optical depth from radiometric measurements were tested. The aim was to evaluate the associated uncertainties in polar regions due to the data processing, in order to adjust the methodology of the calculation and illustrate the importance of these error sources. The measurements were obtained during a sun photometer campaign in Ny-Ålesund within the framework of the POLAR-AOD project.

  17. Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem

  18. Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne de la Barre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

  19. Implications of the circumpolar genetic structure of polar bears for their conservation in a rapidly warming Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Sonsthagen, Sarah A; Obbard, Martyn E; Boltunov, Andrei; Regehr, Eric V; Ovsyanikov, Nikita; Aars, Jon; Atkinson, Stephen N; Sage, George K; Hope, Andrew G; Zeyl, Eve; Bachmann, Lutz; Ehrich, Dorothee; Scribner, Kim T; Amstrup, Steven C; Belikov, Stanislav; Born, Erik W; Derocher, Andrew E; Stirling, Ian; Taylor, Mitchell K; Wiig, Øystein; Paetkau, David; Talbot, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    We provide an expansive analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) circumpolar genetic variation during the last two decades of decline in their sea-ice habitat. We sought to evaluate whether their genetic diversity and structure have changed over this period of habitat decline, how their current genetic patterns compare with past patterns, and how genetic demography changed with ancient fluctuations in climate. Characterizing their circumpolar genetic structure using microsatellite data, we defined four clusters that largely correspond to current ecological and oceanographic factors: Eastern Polar Basin, Western Polar Basin, Canadian Archipelago and Southern Canada. We document evidence for recent (ca. last 1-3 generations) directional gene flow from Southern Canada and the Eastern Polar Basin towards the Canadian Archipelago, an area hypothesized to be a future refugium for polar bears as climate-induced habitat decline continues. Our data provide empirical evidence in support of this hypothesis. The direction of current gene flow differs from earlier patterns of gene flow in the Holocene. From analyses of mitochondrial DNA, the Canadian Archipelago cluster and the Barents Sea subpopulation within the Eastern Polar Basin cluster did not show signals of population expansion, suggesting these areas may have served also as past interglacial refugia. Mismatch analyses of mitochondrial DNA data from polar and the paraphyletic brown bear (U. arctos) uncovered offset signals in timing of population expansion between the two species, that are attributed to differential demographic responses to past climate cycling. Mitogenomic structure of polar bears was shallow and developed recently, in contrast to the multiple clades of brown bears. We found no genetic signatures of recent hybridization between the species in our large, circumpolar sample, suggesting that recently observed hybrids represent localized events. Documenting changes in subpopulation connectivity will allow

  20. Implications of the circumpolar genetic structure of polar bears for their conservation in a rapidly warming Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Regehr, Eric V.; Ovsyanikov, Nikita; Aars, Jon; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Sage, George K.; Hope, Andrew G.; Zeyl, Eve; Bachmann, Lutz; Ehrich, Dorothee; Scribner, Kim T.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Belikov, Stanislav; Born, Erik W.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Stirling, Ian; Taylor, Mitchell K.; Wiig, Øystein; Paetkau, David; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    We provide an expansive analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) circumpolar genetic variation during the last two decades of decline in their sea-ice habitat. We sought to evaluate whether their genetic diversity and structure have changed over this period of habitat decline, how their current genetic patterns compare with past patterns, and how genetic demography changed with ancient fluctuations in climate. Characterizing their circumpolar genetic structure using microsatellite data, we defined four clusters that largely correspond to current ecological and oceanographic factors: Eastern Polar Basin, Western Polar Basin, Canadian Archipelago and Southern Canada. We document evidence for recent (ca. last 1–3 generations) directional gene flow from Southern Canada and the Eastern Polar Basin towards the Canadian Archipelago, an area hypothesized to be a future refugium for polar bears as climate-induced habitat decline continues. Our data provide empirical evidence in support of this hypothesis. The direction of current gene flow differs from earlier patterns of gene flow in the Holocene. From analyses of mitochondrial DNA, the Canadian Archipelago cluster and the Barents Sea subpopulation within the Eastern Polar Basin cluster did not show signals of population expansion, suggesting these areas may have served also as past interglacial refugia. Mismatch analyses of mitochondrial DNA data from polar and the paraphyletic brown bear (U. arctos) uncovered offset signals in timing of population expansion between the two species, that are attributed to differential demographic responses to past climate cycling. Mitogenomic structure of polar bears was shallow and developed recently, in contrast to the multiple clades of brown bears. We found no genetic signatures of recent hybridization between the species in our large, circumpolar sample, suggesting that recently observed hybrids represent localized events. Documenting changes in subpopulation connectivity will

  1. Implications of the circumpolar genetic structure of polar bears for their conservation in a rapidly warming Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Peacock

    Full Text Available We provide an expansive analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus circumpolar genetic variation during the last two decades of decline in their sea-ice habitat. We sought to evaluate whether their genetic diversity and structure have changed over this period of habitat decline, how their current genetic patterns compare with past patterns, and how genetic demography changed with ancient fluctuations in climate. Characterizing their circumpolar genetic structure using microsatellite data, we defined four clusters that largely correspond to current ecological and oceanographic factors: Eastern Polar Basin, Western Polar Basin, Canadian Archipelago and Southern Canada. We document evidence for recent (ca. last 1-3 generations directional gene flow from Southern Canada and the Eastern Polar Basin towards the Canadian Archipelago, an area hypothesized to be a future refugium for polar bears as climate-induced habitat decline continues. Our data provide empirical evidence in support of this hypothesis. The direction of current gene flow differs from earlier patterns of gene flow in the Holocene. From analyses of mitochondrial DNA, the Canadian Archipelago cluster and the Barents Sea subpopulation within the Eastern Polar Basin cluster did not show signals of population expansion, suggesting these areas may have served also as past interglacial refugia. Mismatch analyses of mitochondrial DNA data from polar and the paraphyletic brown bear (U. arctos uncovered offset signals in timing of population expansion between the two species, that are attributed to differential demographic responses to past climate cycling. Mitogenomic structure of polar bears was shallow and developed recently, in contrast to the multiple clades of brown bears. We found no genetic signatures of recent hybridization between the species in our large, circumpolar sample, suggesting that recently observed hybrids represent localized events. Documenting changes in subpopulation

  2. Ocean Acidification in the Surface Waters of the Pacific-Arctic Boundary Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, J. T.; Cross, J. N.; Evans, W.; Doney, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    The continental shelves of the Pacific-Arctic Region (PAR) are especially vulnerable to the effects of ocean acidification (OA) because the intrusion of anthropogenic CO2 is not the only process that can reduce pH and carbonate mineral saturation states for aragonite (ΩArag). Enhanced sea-ice melt, respiration of organic matter, upwelling and riverine inputs have been shown to exacerbate CO2-driven ocean acidification in high-latitude regions. Additionally, the indirect effect of changing sea-ice coverage is providing a positive feedback to OA as more open water will allow for greater uptake of atmospheric CO2. Here, we compare model-based outputs from the Community Earth System Model with a subset of recent ship-based observations, and take an initial look at future model projections of surface water ΩArag in the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. We then use the model outputs to define benchmark years when biological impacts are likely to result from reduced ΩArag. Each of the three continental shelf seas in the PAR will become undersaturated with respect to aragonite at approximately 30-year intervals, indicating that aragonite undersaturations gradually progress upstream along the flow path of the waters as they move north from the Pacific Ocean. However, naturally high variability in ΩArag may indicate higher resilience of the Bering Sea ecosystem to these low-ΩArag conditions than the Chukchi and the Beaufort Seas. Based on our initial results, we have determined that the annual mean for ΩArag will pass below the current range of natural variability in 2025 for the Beaufort Sea and 2027 for the Chukchi Sea. Because of the higher range of natural variability, the annual mean for ΩArag for the Bering Sea does not pass out of the natural variability range until 2044. As ΩArag in these shelf seas slips below the present-day range of large seasonal variability by midcentury, it could put tremendous pressure on the diverse ecosystems that support some of

  3. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  4. Polarization and infrared imaging of regions of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moneti, A.

    1985-01-01

    Observational studies of two regions of star formation, the Taurus cloud and the BN-KL region of Orion, are presented. The magnetic field structure in the Taurus cloud was studied in order to investigate its possible role in the evolution of the cloud. It was found that the magnetic field is generally perpendicular to the elongated structures that make up the cloud, and it is deduced that the observed structure could be due to the effects of the magnetic field during the early stages of collapse. In addition, it was found that the magnetic field may have prevented the formation of massive stars by inhibiting the collapse of large cores, while not affecting the collapse of the small ones. Using a new near-infrared array camera, high resolution (1'') images of several young stars embedded in the cloud were obtained. Most of these sources have extended, spatially resolved circumstellar shells. High resolution images of the BN-KL region of Orion at four wavelengths between 1.65 and 4.7 μm were also obtained. At 1.65 μm a large trough is seen in the overall nebulosity; it is suggested that the observed trough is due to the doughnut of material around IRc2 as it obscures the background nebulosity

  5. Variability of the mixed phase in the Arctic with a focus on the Svalbard region: a study based on spaceborne active remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioche, G.; Jourdan, O.; Ceccaldi, M.; Delanoë, J.

    2014-09-01

    The Arctic region is known to be very sensitive to climate change. Clouds and in particular mixed phase clouds (MPC) remain one of the greatest sources of uncertainties in the modeling of the Arctic response to climate change due to an inaccurate representation of their variability and their quantification. In this study, we present a characterization of the vertical, spatial and seasonal variability of Arctic clouds and MPC over the whole Arctic region based on satellite active remote sensing observations. MPC properties in the region of Svalbard archipelago (78° N, 15° E) are also investigated. The occurrence frequency of clouds and MPC are determined from CALIPSO/CLOUDSAT measurements processed with the DARDAR retrieval algorithm which allows for a reliable cloud thermodynamic phase classification (warm liquid, supercooled liquid, ice, mixing of ice and supercooled liquid). Significant differences are observed between MPC variability over the whole Arctic region and over the Svalbard region. Results show that MPC are ubiquitous all along the year, with a minimum occurrence of 30% in winter and 50% during the rest of the year, in average over the whole Arctic. Over the Svalbard region, MPC occurrence is more constant with time with larger values (55%) compared to the average observed in the Arctic. MPC are especially located at low altitudes, below 3000 m, where their frequency of occurrence reaches 90%, in particular during winter, spring and autumn. Moreover, results highlight that MPC statistically prevail over sea. The temporal and spatial distribution of MPC over the Svalbard region seems to be linked to the contribution of moister air and warmer water from the North Atlantic Ocean which contribute to the initiation of the liquid water phase. Over the whole Arctic, and particularly in western regions, the increase of MPC occurrence from spring to autumn could be connected to the sea ice melting. During this period, the open water transports a part of the

  6. SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT QUALITIES AND HUMAN CAPITAL EXPANDED REPRODUCTION IN THE REPUBLIC OF KARELIA AND THE RUSSIA EUROPEAN NORTH ARCTIC REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kekkonen A. L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies of the spatial development qualities and the human capital expanded reproduction of the Republic of Karelia and the Arctic regions of Russia’s European North. The aim of the article is the identification of characteristics, opportunities and threats of human capital reproduction in terms of region spatial development. The application of the research results is to provide recommendations for improving reproduction of the human capital and development of the education and vocational guidance systems, human capital management in the region. The study of spatial development and reproduction of the human capital used methods of logical, statistical and comparative analysis and SWOT- analysis principles. The results of the study allowed revealing the peculiarities of spatial development and human capital expanded reproduction of the Republic of Karelia in comparison with the Russian Arctic regions of the European North (Arkhangelsk Oblast, Murmansk Oblast, Komi Republic and Nenets Autonomous District. The Republic of Karelia has a special geographical position, and based on many socio-economic indicators is considered to be a «depressive» region. The expanded reproduction of human capital will bring the Republic of Karelia to the next level of development, taking into consideration external and internal factors as well as opportunities and threats. The results obtained in the study will expand the existing system of knowledge about reproduction of the human capital in the framework of spatial development, and the review of the expanded reproduction of human capital on the regional level will allow the government authorities to develop objective measures of quality formation of the region's human resources. It is proved that the introduction of the vocational guidance system in the region could lead to minimization of the threats associated with depopulation and the gap between education system and the

  7. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B. [eds.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks; (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosols and trace gases.

  8. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with the polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; and (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks, (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosol and trace gases

  9. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks; (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosols and trace gases

  10. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B. [eds.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with the polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; and (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks, (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosol and trace gases.

  11. Quantifying Arctic Cloud Biases in Global Models Using Active Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Sledd, A.; Mateling, M.; Schlegel, N.; Christensen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Observations from active sensors aboard polar orbiting satellites have yielded valuable new insights into the character and impacts of clouds and precipitation in polar regions. For example, recent analyses of CloudSat and CALIPSO datasets have quantified the influence of clouds on ice sheet energy balance and confirmed the importance of super-cooled liquid clouds in modulating surface melt processes. Perhaps more importantly, new observation-based reconstructions of the Arctic energy budget and its annual cycle have revealed that reanalyses and climate models exhibit significant biases in several key energy flows in the region. These biases, in turn, lead to discrepancies in the seasonal cycle of implied surface heat storage and energy transport into the Arctic from lower latitudes. To begin to diagnose possible sources of these biases, a new multi-satellite, multi-model combined Arctic dataset will be used to explore variability in the Arctic cloud radiative effects associated with changes in sea ice and snow cover.

  12. Variability of mixed-phase clouds in the Arctic with a focus on the Svalbard region: a study based on spaceborne active remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioche, G.; Jourdan, O.; Ceccaldi, M.; Delanoë, J.

    2015-03-01

    The Arctic region is known to be very sensitive to climate change. Clouds and in particular mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) remain one of the greatest sources of uncertainties in the modelling of the Arctic response to climate change due to an inaccurate representation of their variability and their quantification. In this study, we present a characterisation of the vertical, spatial and seasonal variability of Arctic clouds and MPCs over the entire Arctic region based on satellite active remote sensing observations. MPC properties in the region of the Svalbard archipelago (78° N, 15° E) are also investigated. The occurrence frequency of clouds and MPCs are determined from CALIPSO/CLOUDSAT measurements processed with the DARDAR retrieval algorithm, which allow for a reliable cloud thermodynamic phase classification (warm liquid, supercooled liquid, ice, mixing of ice and supercooled liquid). Significant differences are observed between MPC properties over the entire Arctic region and over the Svalbard region. Results show that MPCs are encountered all year long, with a minimum occurrence of 30% in winter and 50% during the rest of the year on average over the entire Arctic. Over the Svalbard region, MPC occurrence is more constant with time with larger values (55%) compared to the average observed in the Arctic. MPCs are especially located at low altitudes, below 3000 m, where their frequency of occurrence reaches 90%, particularly during winter, spring and autumn. Moreover, results highlight that MPCs are statistically more frequent above open sea than land or sea ice. The temporal and spatial distribution of MPCs over the Svalbard region seems to be linked to the supply of moister air and warmer water from the North Atlantic Ocean, which contribute to the initiation of the liquid water phase. Over the whole Arctic, and particularly in western regions, the increase of MPC occurrence from spring to autumn could be connected to the sea ice melting. During this period

  13. Mapping the Surficial Geology of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, D. C.; Jakobsson, M.; Gebhardt, C.; Mayer, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Surficial geologic mapping of the Arctic Ocean was undertaken to provide a basis for understanding different geologic environments in this polar setting. Mapping was based on data acquired from numerous icebreaker and submarine missions to the polar region. The intent was to create a geologic layer overlying the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean. Analysis of subbottom profiler and multibeam bathymetric data in conjunction with sediment cores and the regional morphology rendered from the IBCAO data were used to map different surficial geologic units. For a relatively small ocean basin, the Arctic Ocean reveals a plethora of margin and basin types reflecting both the complex tectonic origins of the basin and its diverse sedimentation history. Broad and narrow shelves were subjected to a complex ice-margin history in the Quaternary, and bear the sediment types and morphological features as a result. Some shelfal areas are heavily influenced by rivers. Extensive deep water ridges and plateaus are isolated from coastal input and have a long history of hemipelagic deposition. An active spreading ridge and regions of recent volcanism have volcani-clastic and heavily altered sediments. Some regions of the Arctic Ocean are proposed to have been influenced by bolide impact. The flanks of the basins demonstrate complex sedimentation patterns resulting from mass failures and ice-margin outflow. The deep basins of the Arctic Ocean are filled with turbidites resulting from these mass-flows and are interbedded with hemiplegic deposits.

  14. Arctic Tides from GPS on sea-ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    2013-01-01

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea-ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models perform less accurately in the polar regions. This paper presents, a kinematic processing of global positioning system (GPS......) placed on sea-ice, at six different sites north of Greenland for the preliminary study of sea surface height (SSH), and tidal analysis to improve tide models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tide model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide-gauges and altimetry data....... The results show coherence between the GPS buoy measurements, and the tide model. Furthermore, we have proved that the reference ellipsoid of WGS84, can be interpolated to the tidal defined zero level by applying geophysical corrections to the GPS data....

  15. The Geopolitical Significance of the Bering Strait Region in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Raková, Alena

    2015-01-01

    As Arctic warms twice as fast as the rest of the world and the polar ice-cap melts, the strategic importance and geopolitical significance of the Bering Strait as the only maritime gateway between the world's fastest-developing and dynamic regions, the Asia Pacific and the Arctic region, will steadily grow. The climate change triggered the reduction of the Arctic ice-cap, which results in increased maritime traffic activity as new shipping routes are becoming more viable and mineral resources...

  16. Initial Alignment for SINS Based on Pseudo-Earth Frame in Polar Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanbin; Liu, Meng; Li, Guangchun; Guang, Xingxing

    2017-06-16

    An accurate initial alignment must be required for inertial navigation system (INS). The performance of initial alignment directly affects the following navigation accuracy. However, the rapid convergence of meridians and the small horizontalcomponent of rotation of Earth make the traditional alignment methods ineffective in polar regions. In this paper, from the perspective of global inertial navigation, a novel alignment algorithm based on pseudo-Earth frame and backward process is proposed to implement the initial alignment in polar regions. Considering that an accurate coarse alignment of azimuth is difficult to obtain in polar regions, the dynamic error modeling with large azimuth misalignment angle is designed. At the end of alignment phase, the strapdown attitude matrix relative to local geographic frame is obtained without influence of position errors and cumbersome computation. As a result, it would be more convenient to access the following polar navigation system. Then, it is also expected to unify the polar alignment algorithm as much as possible, thereby further unifying the form of external reference information. Finally, semi-physical static simulation and in-motion tests with large azimuth misalignment angle assisted by unscented Kalman filter (UKF) validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Videographic Education: Owning the Polar Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, R. W.; Buhr, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    Television and internet-served video is an increasingly important media tool for reaching into society. This talk will present clips from a film designed to educate the public about warming in the polar regions, the socioeconomic and environmental implications of this warming; and the actions we can take to slow down human contributions to climate change. This talk will present a short film Owning the Polar Crisis, which is drawn from footage for Polar Visions, a four segment film available for educational audiences and the public.. The films are unique in that they draw from the perspectives of well-known climate scientists, citizens from all over the planet and natives of the Arctic. The compelling images were taken from numerous locations around the Arctic, including Alaska and Greenland. Owning the Polar Crisis was filmed, directed and produced by Dr. Ryan Vachon, a climate scientist and videographer with an intimate knowledge of the subject matter.

  18. Building AN International Polar Data Coordination Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsifer, P. L.; Yarmey, L.; Manley, W. F.; Gaylord, A. G.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    In the spirit of the World Data Center system developed to manage data resulting from the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58, the International Polar Year 2007-2009 (IPY) resulted in significant progress towards establishing an international polar data management network. However, a sustained international network is still evolving. In this paper we argue that the fundamental building blocks for such a network exist and that the time is right to move forward. We focus on the Arctic component of such a network with linkages to Antarctic network building activities. A review of an important set of Network building blocks is presented: i) the legacy of the IPY data and information service; ii) global data management services with a polar component (e.g. World Data System); iii) regional systems (e.g. Arctic Observing Viewer; iv) nationally focused programs (e.g. Arctic Observing Viewer, Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service, Polar Data Catalogue, Inuit Knowledge Centre); v) programs focused on the local (e.g. Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic, Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre). We discuss current activities and results with respect to three priority areas needed to establish a strong and effective Network. First, a summary of network building activities reports on a series of productive meetings, including the Arctic Observing Summit and the Polar Data Forum, that have resulted in a core set of Network nodes and participants and a refined vision for the Network. Second, we recognize that interoperability for information sharing fundamentally relies on the creation and adoption of community-based data description standards and data delivery mechanisms. There is a broad range of interoperability frameworks and specifications available; however, these need to be adapted for polar community needs. Progress towards Network interoperability is reviewed, and a prototype distributed data systems is demonstrated. We

  19. The economic substantiation for creating defense "support zone" of the Arctic region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryzgalova A. E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the theoretical foundations of the transition from "continuous" development of the Russian territories of the Far North that proved to be ineffective to the "focal" development based on the concentration of resources within the anchor sectors of the regional economy. The defensive specialisation of the Kola "bearing point" which is a part of the system of eight "bearing zones" located respectively in each of the Arctic regions of Russia is being proved. The value of communication networks in ensuring the effective functioning of naval Arctic closed cities as a core of the defense "bearing point" is discussed from the standpoint of the new economic geography. Рассмотрены теоретические основы перехода от доказавшего свою неэффективность "непрерывного" развития территорий Крайнего Севера России к "очаговому" развитию, основанному на концентрации ресурсов в пределах якорных секторов регионального хозяйства. Доказан оборонный профиль Кольской "опорной точки", входящей в систему восьми "опорных зон", локализованных соответственно в каждом арктическом субъекте Российской Федерации. С позиций новой экономической географии обосновано значение коммуникационной сети для обеспечения эффективного функционирования военно-морских арктических закрытых административно-территориальных образований, выступающих ядром "опорной точки" оборонного значения

  20. Technology for Subsea 3D Printing Structures for Oil and Gas Production in Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musipov, H. N.; Nikitin, V. S.; Bakanovskaya, L. N.

    2017-11-01

    The article considers an unconventional technology of offshore oil production and the prospects for its further development. The complexity of Arctic shelf development and the use of subsea production units have been analyzed. An issue of the subsea drilling unit construction technology with the help of 3D printers has been considered. An approximate economic efficiency calculation of the 3D printer technology introduction has been given.

  1. Large plasma density enhancements occurring in the northern polar region during the 6 April 2000 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2014-06-01

    We focus on the ionospheric response of northern high-latitude region to the 6 April 2000 superstorm and aim to investigate how the storm-enhanced density (SED) plume plasma became distributed in the regions of auroral zone and polar cap plus to study the resultant ionospheric features and their development. Multi-instrument observational results combined with model-generated, two-cell convection maps permitted identifying the high-density plasma's origin and the underlying plasma transportation processes. Results show the plasma density feature of polar cap enhancement (PCE; 600 × 103 i+/cm3) appearing for 7 h during the main phase and characterized by increases reaching up to 6 times of the quiet time values. Meanwhile, strong westward convections ( 17,500 m/s) created low plasma densities in a wider region of the dusk cell. Oppositely, small ( 750 m/s) but rigorous westward drifts drove the SED plume plasma through the auroral zone, wherein plasma densities doubled. As the SED plume plasma traveled along the convection streamlines and entered the polar cap, a continuous enhancement of the tongue of ionization (TOI) developed under steady convection conditions. However, convection changes caused slow convections and flow stagnations and thus segmented the TOI feature by locally depleting the plasma in the affected regions of the auroral zone and polar cap. From the strong correspondence of polar cap potential drop and subauroral polarization stream (SAPS), we conclude that the SAPS E-field strength remained strong, and under its prolonged influence, the SED plume provided a continuous supply of downward flowing high-density plasma for the development and maintenance of PCEs.

  2. Regional distribution and variability of model-simulated Arctic snow on sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Morales, Karel; Ricker, Robert; Gerdes, Rüdiger

    2017-09-01

    Numerical models face the challenge of representing the present-day spatiotemporal distribution of snow on sea ice realistically. We present modeled Arctic-wide snow depths on sea ice (hs_mod) obtained with the MITgcm configured with a single snow layer that accumulates proportionally to the thickness of sea ice. When compared to snow depths derived from radar measurements (NASA Operation IceBridge, 2009-2013), the model snow depths are overestimated on first-year ice (2.5 ± 8.1 cm) and multiyear ice (0.8 ± 8.3 cm). The large variance between model and observations lies mainly in the limitations of the model snow scheme and the large uncertainties in the radar measurements. In a temporal analysis, during the peak of snowfall accumulation (April), hs_mod show a decline between 2000 and 2013 associated to long-term reduction of summer sea ice extent, surface melting and sublimation. With the aim of gaining knowledge on how to improve hs_mod, we investigate the contribution of the explicitly modeled snow processes to the resulting hs_mod. Our analysis reveals that this simple snow scheme offers a practical solution to general circulation models due to its ability to replicate robustly the distribution of the large-scale Arctic snow depths. However, benefit can be gained from the integration of explicit wind redistribution processes to potentially improve the model performance and to better understand the interaction between sources and sinks of contemporary Arctic snow.

  3. Gender specific reproductive strategies of an arctic key species (Boreogadus saida and implications of climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Nahrgang

    Full Text Available The Arctic climate is changing at an unprecedented rate. What consequences this may have on the Arctic marine ecosystem depends to a large degree on how its species will respond both directly to elevated temperatures and more indirectly through ecological interactions. But despite an alarming recent warming of the Arctic with accompanying sea ice loss, reports evaluating ecological impacts of climate change in the Arctic remain sparse. Here, based upon a large-scale field study, we present basic new knowledge regarding the life history traits for one of the most important species in the entire Arctic, the polar cod (Boreogadus saida. Furthermore, by comparing regions of contrasting climatic influence (domains, we present evidence as to how its growth and reproductive success is impaired in the warmer of the two domains. As the future Arctic is predicted to resemble today's Atlantic domains, we forecast changes in growth and life history characteristics of polar cod that will lead to alteration of its role as an Arctic keystone species. This will in turn affect community dynamics and energy transfer in the entire Arctic food chain.

  4. Remediation of metal-contaminated land for plant cultivation in the Arctic/subarctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke; Gorbacheva, Tamara T.; Ferreira, Carla S.

    2017-04-01

    Hazardous activities and/or industries involve the use, storage or disposal of hazardous substances. These substances can sometimes contaminate the soil, which can remain contaminated for many years. The metals can have severe effects of on ecosystems. In the Arctic/subarctic regions, the Kola Peninsula (66-70°N and 28°30'-41°30'E) in Russia is one of the seriously polluted regions: close to the nickel-copper smelters, the deposition of metal pollutants has severely damaged the soil and ground vegetation, resulting in a desert area. An area of 10-15 km around the smelters on the Kola Peninsula is today dry sandy and stony ground. A great amount of financial aid is usually required to recover theland. Considering cost performance, a pilot-scale (4ha) field test was carried out to investigate how to apply municipal sewage sludge for rehabilitation of degraded land near the Ni-Cu smelter complex on the Kola Peninsula. The above-mentioned field test for soil rehabilitation was performed while smelting activities were going on; thus, the survey fields were suffering from pollution emitted by the metallurgical industry, and may continue to suffer in the future. After the composting of sewage sludge, the artificial substratum made from the compost was introduced to the test field for the polluted-land remediation, and then willows, birches and grasses were planted on the substratum. The following remarkable points in pollution load were observed between the background field and the rehabilitation test field (e.g. polluted land): (i) the annual precipitation amount of SO42- (5668 g/ha) in the rehabilitation test field was over 5 times greater than that in the background field; (ii) the Pb amount (1.5 g/ha) in the rehabilitation test field was 29 times greater than that in the background field; (iii) the Co amount (10.9 g/ha) in the rehabilitation test field was 54 times greater than that in the background field; (iv) the Cu amount (752 g/ha) in the rehabilitation field

  5. Nature-based solutions for hydro-meteorological risk reduction and nutrient removal in the Nordic and Arctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bring, Arvid; Kalantari, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    Natural ecological functions provide essential and fundamental benefits to mankind, but can also be actively employed in nature-based solutions to specific challenges in society. For example, water-related ecosystem services have a role in such societal benefits as flood protection, erosion control, and excess nutrient removal. Ecosystem services may be produced and consumed in different locations, and research has recently attempted to formalize this discrepancy in identifying service providing areas (SPAs), service benefitting areas (SBAs), and service connecting areas (SCAs). However, in terms of water-related services, there is a lack of formal evaluation of how SPAs, SBAs, and SCAs are related to hydrological measures such as discharge, flood recurrence, excess nutrient removal, etc. We seek to map SPAs, SBAs and SCAs for a number of key ecosystem services in the Nordic and Arctic region though established ecological definitions (typically, based on land use) and evaluate the findings alongside metrics of hydrological connectivity (river networks), provisioning areas (runoff generating areas), and benefitting areas (river stretches where water flow is moderated). We make use of extensive GIS analysis using both high-resolution land cover data and river network maps. In the end, the results are expected to contribute to identifying how water-related ecosystem services can be employed as nature-based solutions for hydro-meteorological risk reduction and nutrient removal in a changing climate in the Nordic and Arctic regions.

  6. Malaysia's EOC Strategy in Strengthening the Science Knowledge, Awareness and National Interest towards the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabudin, Ahmad Firdaus Ahmad; Said, Noor Azzah; Rahim, Rashidah Abdul; Ng, Theam Foo

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine Malaysia's involvement in the Polar Regions, in the context of education, outreach, and communication (EOC), and consequently, to determine the effectiveness of these initiatives. Using qualitative and quantitative research analyses, this study found that Malaysia's experiences in EOC can be used to increase public…

  7. Diversity and dispersal capacities of a terrestrial algal genus Klebsormidium (Streptophyta) in polar regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryšánek, D.; Elster, Josef; Kováčik, L.; Škaloud, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 4 (2016), s. 1-9, č. článku fiw039. ISSN 0168-6496 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : gene tic diversity * Klebsormidium * phylogeography * polar regions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016

  8. A new fractional derivative and its application to explanation of polar bear hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A new fractional derivative is defined through the variational iteration method, and its application in explaining the excellent thermal protection of polar bear hairs is elucidated. The fractal porosity of its inner structure makes a polar bear mathematically adapted for living in a harsh Arctic region.

  9. Arctic Warming as News - Perils and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revkin, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    A science journalist in his 30th year covering human-driven climate change, including on three Arctic reporting trips, reflects on successes and setbacks as news media, environmentalists and Arctic communities have tried to convey the significance of polar change to a public for which the ends of the Earth will always largely be a place of the imagination.Novel challenges are arising in the 24/7 online media environment, as when a paper by a veteran climate scientist proposing a mechanism for abrupt sea-level rise became a big news story before it was accepted by the open-review journal to which it had been submitted. New science is digging in on possible connections between changing Arctic sea ice and snow conditions and disruptive winter weather in more temperate northern latitudes, offering a potential link between this distant region and the lives of ordinary citizens. As cutting-edge research, such work gets substantial media attention. But, as with all new areas of inquiry, uncertainty dominates - creating the potential for distracting the public and policymakers from the many aspects of anthropogenic climate change that are firmly established - but, in a way, boring because of that.With the challenges, there are unprecedented opportunities for conveying Arctic science. In some cases, researchers on expeditions are partnering with media, offering both scientists and news outlets fresh ways to convey the story of Arctic change in an era of resource constraints.Innovative uses of crittercams, webcams, and satellite observations offer educators and interested citizens a way to track and appreciate Arctic change. But more can be done to engage the public directly without the news media as an intermediary, particularly if polar scientists or their institutions test some of the established practices honed by more experienced communicators at NASA.

  10. Pan-Arctic distributions of continental runoff in the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichot, Cédric G; Kaiser, Karl; Hooker, Stanford B; Amon, Rainer M W; Babin, Marcel; Bélanger, Simon; Walker, Sally A; Benner, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Continental runoff is a major source of freshwater, nutrients and terrigenous material to the Arctic Ocean. As such, it influences water column stratification, light attenuation, surface heating, gas exchange, biological productivity and carbon sequestration. Increasing river discharge and thawing permafrost suggest that the impacts of continental runoff on these processes are changing. Here, a new optical proxy was developed and implemented with remote sensing to determine the first pan-Arctic distribution of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) and continental runoff in the surface Arctic Ocean. Retrospective analyses revealed connections between the routing of North American runoff and the recent freshening of the Canada Basin, and indicated a correspondence between climate-driven changes in river discharge and tDOM inventories in the Kara Sea. By facilitating the real-time, synoptic monitoring of tDOM and freshwater runoff in surface polar waters, this novel approach will help understand the manifestations of climate change in this remote region.

  11. Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigor, Ignatius [Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington; Johnson, Jim [Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington; Motz, Emily [National Ice Center; Bisic, Aaron [National Ice Center

    2017-06-30

    Our ability to understand and predict weather and climate requires an accurate observing network. One of the pillars of this network is the observation of the fundamental meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, and wind. We plan to assess our ability to measure these parameters for the polar regions during the Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX, Figure 1) to support the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP), Arctic Observing Network (AON), International Program for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB), and Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS). Accurate temperature measurements are also necessary to validate and improve satellite measurements of surface temperature across the Arctic. Support for research associated with the campaign is provided by the National Science Foundation, and by other US agencies contributing to the US Interagency Arctic Buoy Program. In addition to the support provided by the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site at Barrow and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. IABP is supported by the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Ice Center (NIC), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  12. Comparative evaluation of NeQuick and IRI models over Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrella, Marco; Nava, Bruno; Pezzopane, Michael; Migoya-Orue, Yenca; Scotto, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the AUSPICIO (AUtomatic Scaling of Polar Ionograms and Cooperative Ionospheric Observations) project, the ionograms recorded at Hobart (middle latitude), Macquarie Island, Livingstone Island and Comandante Ferraz (middle-high latitude) and those recorded at the ionospheric observatories of Casey, Mawson, Davis, and Scott Base (Antarctic Polar Circle), have been taken into account to study the capability of NeQuick-2 and IRI-2012 models in predicting the behavior of the ionosphere, mainly in the polar region. In particular, the applicability of NeQuick-2 and IRI-2012 models was evaluated under two different modes: a) as assimilative models ingesting the foF2 and hmF2 measurements obtained from the electron density profiles provided by the Adaptive Ionospheric Profiler (AIP); b) as climatological models taking as input F10.7 solar activity index. The results obtained from the large number of comparisons made for each ionospheric observatory when NeQuick-2 and IRI-2012 models work according to the two modes above mentioned, reveal that the best description of the ionosphere electron density at the polar regions is provided when peak parameter data are ingested in near-real-time into NeQuick-2 and IRI-2012 models which, indeed, are not always able to represent efficiently the behavior of the ionosphere over the polar regions when operating in long term prediction mode. The statistical analysis results expressed in terms of root mean square errors (r.m.s.e.) for each ionospheric observatory show that, outside the Antarctic Polar Circle (APC), NeQuick-2 performance is better than the IRI-2012 performance; on the contrary, inside the APC IRI-2012 model performs better than NeQuick-2.

  13. Arctic Ocean outflow shelves in the changing Arctic: A review and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Christine; Hamilton, Jim; Hansen, Edmond; Barber, David; Reigstad, Marit; Iacozza, John; Seuthe, Lena; Niemi, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade or so, international research efforts, many of which were part of the International Polar Year, have accrued our understanding of the Arctic outflow shelves. The Arctic outflow shelves, namely the East Greenland Shelf (EGS) and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), serve as conduits through which Arctic sea ice and waters and their properties are exported to the North Atlantic. These shelves play an important role in thermohaline circulation and global circulation patterns, while being influenced by basin-scale and regional changes taking place in the Arctic. Here, we synthesize the current knowledge on key forcings of primary production and ecosystem processes on the outflow shelves, as they influence their structure and functionalities and, consequently their role in Arctic Ocean productivity and global biogeochemical cycles. For the CAA, a fresh outlook on interannual and decadal physical and biological time-series reveals recent changes in productivity patterns, while an extensive analysis of sea ice conditions over the past 33 years (1980-2012) demonstrates significant declines in multi-year ice and a redistribution of ice types. For the EGS, our analysis shows that sea ice export strongly contributes to structuring spatially diverse productivity regimes. Despite the large heterogeneity in physical and biological processes within and between the outflow shelves, a conceptual model of productivity regimes is proposed, helping identify general productivity patterns and key forcings. The different productivity regimes are expected to respond differently to current and future Arctic change, providing a useful basis upon which to develop predictive scenarios of future productivity states. Current primary production estimates for both outflow shelves very likely underestimate their contribution to total Arctic production.

  14. 50 CFR 18.112 - In what specified geographic region does this subpart apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Walruses and Polar Bears Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration Activities in the Chukchi Sea and Adjacent... applies to the specified geographic region defined as the continental shelf of the Arctic Ocean adjacent...

  15. Study of the Effect of Active Regions on the Scattering Polarization in the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouich, M.; Badruddin

    2018-03-01

    The solar photospheric/chromospheric light exciting atoms/ions is not homogeneous because of the presence of active regions (ARs). The effect of ARs on the scattering polarization at the coronal level is an important ingredient for a realistic determination of the magnetic field. This effect is usually disregarded or mixed with other effects in the sense that the degree of its importance is not well known. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of atmospheric inhomogeneities on the coronal scattering polarization. We determined quantitatively the importance of the atmospheric inhomogeneities by using given geometries of solar ARs (plages and sunspots).

  16. Magnetic Field Perturbations from Currents in the Dark Polar Regions During Quiet Geomagnetic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Finlay, Chris; Hesse, M.

    2017-01-01

    In the day-side sunlit polar ionosphere the varying and IMF dependent convection creates strong ionospheric currents even during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Observations during such times are often excluded when using satellite data to model the internal geomagneticmain field. Observations from...... the night-side or local winter during quiet conditions are, however, also influenced by variations in the IMF. In this paper we briefly review the large scale features of the ionospheric currents in the polar regions with emphasis on the current distribution during undisturbed conditions. We examine...

  17. Physics in the GeV region with polarized targets in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    There is evidence from the D(γ,p)n reaction that the meson-exchange model is failing in the GeV region. Surprisingly, it appears that the new (Dγ,p)n data favor the energy dependence of the nuclear chromodynamics model rather that of the meson-exchange model. Application of the polarization method to electron scattering studies is in its infancy, and it is potentially a very powerful technique. The internal target method coupled with laser-driven polarized targets should represent an important tool for nuclear physics

  18. Phenotypic plasticity and climate change: can polar bears respond to longer Arctic summers with an adaptive fast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, John P; Harlow, Henry J; Durner, George M; Regehr, Eric V; Amstrup, Steven C; Ben-David, Merav

    2018-02-01

    Plasticity in the physiological and behavioural responses of animals to prolonged food shortages may determine the persistence of species under climate warming. This is particularly applicable for species that can "adaptively fast" by conserving protein to protect organ function while catabolizing endogenous tissues. Some Ursids, including polar bears (Ursus maritimus), adaptively fast during winter hibernation-and it has been suggested that polar bears also employ this strategy during summer. We captured 57 adult female polar bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea (SBS) during summer 2008 and 2009 and measured blood variables that indicate feeding, regular fasting, and adaptive fasting. We also assessed tissue δ 13 C and δ 15 N to infer diet, and body condition via mass and length. We found that bears on shore maintained lipid and protein stores by scavenging on bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) carcasses from human harvest, while those that followed the retreating sea ice beyond the continental shelf were food deprived. They had low ratios of blood urea to creatinine (U:C), normally associated with adaptive fasting. However, they also exhibited low albumin and glucose (indicative of protein loss) and elevated alanine aminotransferase and ghrelin (which fall during adaptive fasting). Thus, the ~ 70% of the SBS subpopulation that spends summer on the ice experiences more of a regular, rather than adaptive, fast. This fast will lengthen as summer ice declines. The resulting protein loss prior to winter could be a mechanism driving the reported correlation between summer ice and polar bear reproduction and survival in the SBS.

  19. Arctic Rabies – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestrud Pål

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology.

  20. Mechanisms controlling rock coast evolution in paraglacial landscapes - examples from Arctic, Antarctic and Scandinavian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, M. C.; Lim, M.; Kasprzek, M.; Swirad, Z. M.; Rachlewicz, G.; Migoń, P.; Pawlowski, L.; Jaskolski, M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the processes controlling development of paraglacial rock coast systems in Hornsund, Svalbard, Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Islands and Gotland Island, Scandinavia. A suite of nested geomorphological and geophysical methods have been applied to characterize the functioning of rock cliffs, shore platforms and stacks influenced by lithological control and geomorphic processes driven by paraglacial coast environments - both in glaciated and deglaciated study sites. Rock hardness, quantified by Schmidt hammer rebound tests, demonstrate strong spatial control on the degree of rock weathering (rock strength) along studied rock coasts. Elevation controlled geomorphic zones are identified and linked to distinct processes and mechanisms, transitioning from peak hardness values at the icefoot/sea-ice through the wave and storm dominated scour zones to the lowest values on the cliff tops, where the effects of periglacial weathering dominate. Observations of rock surface change using a traversing micro-erosion meter (TMEM) indicate that significant changes in erosion rates occur at the junction between shore platform and the cliff toe, where rock erosion is facilitated by frequent wetting and drying and operation of nivation and sea ice processes (formation and melting of snow patches and icefoot complexes). Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys have been used to investigate frozen ground control on rock coast dynamics and reveal the strong interaction with marine processes in polar coastal settings. In Gotland, Scandinavia the morphology of rocky coastal landforms (rauks) bear traces of numerous environmental changes that occurred in Baltic region over the Holocene including salinity, temperature, ice-cover/storminess and relative sea-level. The results are synthesised to propose a new conceptual model of paraglacial rock coast systems, with the aim of contributing towards a unifying concept of cold region

  1. CryoSat Mission over Polar Region: Data quality status and product evolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, J.; Parrinello, T.; Féménias, P.; Fornari, M.; Scagliola, M.; Baker, S.; Brockley, D.; Mannan, R.; Hall, A.; Webb, E.; Garcia-Mondéjar, A.; Roca, M.; Mantovani, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, satellite radar altimetry has shown its ability to revolutionize our understanding of the ocean and climate. These advances were mainly limited to ice-free regions, leaving aside large portions of Polar Regions. Launched in 2010, the polar-orbiting CryoSat Satellite was designed to measure the changes in the thickness of polar sea ice and the elevation of the ice sheets and mountain glaciers. To reach this goal, the CryoSat products have to meet the highest performance, through constant improvements of the associated Instrument Processing Facility. Since April 2015, the CryoSat ice products are generated with the Baseline C; which represents a major processor upgrade. Several improvements have been implemented belong this new Baseline, such as SAR retracker optimized for Freeboard retrieval and a coarse slant correction, which is applied directly on the stack data in conjunction with the window delay alignment. The resulting waveforms show more power and the trailing edge is modified, leading to improved L2 geophysical parameters. This paper provides an overview of the CryoSat data characteristics, assessment and exploitation over Polar Regions. In this respect, new science-oriented diagnostics have been implemented to thoroughly understand the signatures within the altimeter signals over sea-ice and land ice areas, to validate the data and therefore propose potential way of improvements for next CryoSat processing Baselines.

  2. Regional variations in provenance and abundance of ice-rafted clasts in Arctic Ocean sediments: Implications for the configuration of late Quaternary oceanic and atmospheric circulation in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.L.; Grantz, A.

    2001-01-01

    The composition and distribution of ice-rafted glacial erratics in late Quaternary sediments define the major current systems of the Arctic Ocean and identify two distinct continental sources for the erratics. In the southern Amerasia basin up to 70% of the erratics are dolostones and limestones (the Amerasia suite) that originated in the carbonate-rich Paleozoic terranes of the Canadian Arctic Islands. These clasts reached the Arctic Ocean in glaciers and were ice-rafted to the core sites in the clockwise Beaufort Gyre. The concentration of erratics decreases northward by 98% along the trend of the gyre from southeastern Canada basin to Makarov basin. The concentration of erratics then triples across the Makarov basin flank of Lomonosov Ridge and siltstone, sandstone and siliceous clasts become dominant in cores from the ridge and the Eurasia basin (the Eurasia suite). The bedrock source for the siltstone and sandstone clasts is uncertain, but bedrock distribution and the distribution of glaciation in northern Eurasia suggest the Taymyr Peninsula-Kara Sea regions. The pattern of clast distribution in the Arctic Ocean sediments and the sharp northward decrease in concentration of clasts of Canadian Arctic Island provenance in the Amerasia basin support the conclusion that the modem circulation pattern of the Arctic Ocean, with the Beaufort Gyre dominant in the Amerasia basin and the Transpolar drift dominant in the Eurasia basin, has controlled both sea-ice and glacial iceberg drift in the Arctic Ocean during interglacial intervals since at least the late Pleistocene. The abruptness of the change in both clast composition and concentration on the Makarov basin flank of Lomonosov Ridge also suggests that the boundary between the Beaufort Gyre and the Transpolar Drift has been relatively stable during interglacials since that time. Because the Beaufort Gyre is wind-driven our data, in conjunction with the westerly directed orientation of sand dunes that formed during

  3. Arctic dimension of global warming

    OpenAIRE

    G. V. Alekseev

    2014-01-01

    A brief assessment of the global warming in the Arctic climate system with the emphasis on sea ice is presented. The Arctic region is coupled to the global climate system by the atmosphere and ocean circulation that providesa major contribution to the Arctic energy budget. On this basis using of special indices it is shown that amplification of warming in the Arctic is associated with the increasing of meridional heat transport from the low latitudes.

  4. High Resolution Topography of Polar Regions from Commercial Satellite Imagery, Petascale Computing and Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Paul; Porter, Claire; Cloutier, Michael; Howat, Ian; Noh, Myoung-Jong; Willis, Michael; Kramer, WIlliam; Bauer, Greg; Bates, Brian; Williamson, Cathleen

    2017-04-01

    Surface topography is among the most fundamental data sets for geosciences, essential for disciplines ranging from glaciology to geodynamics. Two new projects are using sub-meter, commercial imagery licensed by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and open source photogrammetry software to produce a time-tagged 2m posting elevation model of the Arctic and an 8m posting reference elevation model for the Antarctic. When complete, this publically available data will be at higher resolution than any elevation models that cover the entirety of the Western United States. These two polar projects are made possible due to three equally important factors: 1) open-source photogrammetry software, 2) petascale computing, and 3) sub-meter imagery licensed to the United States Government. Our talk will detail the technical challenges of using automated photogrammetry software; the rapid workflow evolution to allow DEM production; the task of deploying the workflow on one of the world's largest supercomputers; the trials of moving massive amounts of data, and the management strategies the team needed to solve in order to meet deadlines. Finally, we will discuss the implications of this type of collaboration for future multi-team use of leadership-class systems such as Blue Waters, and for further elevation mapping.

  5. Arctic air pollution: New insights from POLARCAT-IPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Katharine S.; Ancellet, Gerard; Pelon, Jacques; Thomas, Jennie L.; Stohl, Andreas; Quinn, Patricia K.; Brock, Charles A.; Burkhart, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Given the rapid nature of climate change occurring in the Arctic and the difficulty climate models have in quantitatively reproducing observed changes such as sea ice loss, it is important to improve understanding of the processes leading to climate change in this region, including the role of short-lived climate pollutants such as aerosols and ozone. It has long been known that pollution produced from emissions at mid latitudes can be transported to the Arctic, resulting in a winter/spring aerosol maximum known as Arctic haze. However, many uncertainties remain about the composition and origin of Arctic pollution throughout the troposphere; for example, many climate-chemistry models fail to reproduce the strong seasonality of aerosol abundance observed at Arctic surface sites, the origin and deposition mechanisms of black carbon (soot) particles that darken the snow and ice surface in the Arctic is poorly understood, and chemical processes controlling the abundance of tropospheric ozone are not well quantified. The International Polar Year (IPY) Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols and Transport (POLARCAT) core project had the goal to improve understanding about the origins of pollutants transported to the Arctic; to detail the chemical composition, optical properties, and climate forcing potential of Arctic aerosols; to evaluate the processes governing tropospheric ozone; and to quantify the role of boreal forest fires. This article provides a review of the many results now available based on analysis of data collected during the POLARCAT aircraft-, ship-, and ground-based field campaigns in spring and summer 2008. Major findings are highlighted and areas requiring further investigation are discussed. (authors)

  6. The Arctic Grand Challenge: Abrupt Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkniss, P. E.

    2003-12-01

    products as greenhouse gases to their regions of origin. Thus multinational company operations are affected by their own activities. There is a strong, convincing case, that these industrial giants must be involved in Arctic partnerships of the grand challenge. A most instructive, very successful example is the collaboration by the chemical companies after the discovery of the polar ozone holes, followed by the replacement of the culprit chlorofluorocarbon compounds. Public relations and involvement/education: The IPY offers a unique opportunity to showcase and drive home, into homes, the seriousness of the issue, Hollywood/Madison Avenue/ NASA style, nothing else will do. Ultimately we need to be mindful that "civilizations are ephemeral compared to species. -What we need is a primer on science, clearly written and unambiguous in its meaning-a primer for anyone interested in the state of the Earth and how to survive and live well on it." (James Lovelock, Science, 08/05/98). - Let's start in the Arctic-NOW.

  7. Analysis of Thermal Structure of Arctic Lakes at Local and Regional Scales Using in Situ and Multidate Landsat-8 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Liu, Hongxing; Hinkel, Kenneth; Yu, Bailang; Beck, Richard; Wu, Jianping

    2017-11-01

    The Arctic coastal plain is covered with numerous thermokarst lakes. These lakes are closely linked to climate and environmental change through their heat and water budgets. We examined the intralake thermal structure at the local scale and investigated the water temperature pattern of lakes at the regional scale by utilizing extensive in situ measurements and multidate Landsat-8 remote sensing data. Our analysis indicates that the lake skin temperatures derived from satellite thermal sensors during most of the ice-free summer period effectively represent the lake bulk temperature because the lakes are typically well-mixed and without significant vertical stratification. With the relatively high-resolution Landsat-8 thermal data, we were able to quantitatively examine intralake lateral temperature differences and gradients in relation to geographical location, topography, meteorological factors, and lake morphometry for the first time. Our results suggest that wind speed and direction not only control the vertical stratification but also influences lateral differences and gradients of lake surface temperature. Wind can considerably reduce the intralake temperature gradient. Interestingly, we found that geographical location (latitude, longitude, distance to the ocean) and lake morphometry (surface size, depth, volume) not only control lake temperature regionally but also affect the lateral temperature gradient and homogeneity level within each individual lake. For the Arctic coastal plain, at regional scales, inland and southern lakes tend to have larger horizontal temperature differences and gradients compared to coastal and northern lakes. At local scales, large and shallow lakes tend to have large lateral temperature differences relative to small and deep lakes.

  8. Arctic regional methane fluxes by ecotope as derived using eddy covariance from a low-flying aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Sayres

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic terrestrial and sub-sea permafrost region contains approximately 30 % of the global carbon stock, and therefore understanding Arctic methane emissions and how they might change with a changing climate is important for quantifying the global methane budget and understanding its growth in the atmosphere. Here we present measurements from a new in situ flux observation system designed for use on a small, low-flying aircraft that was deployed over the North Slope of Alaska during August 2013. The system combines a small methane instrument based on integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS with an air turbulence probe to calculate methane fluxes based on eddy covariance. We group surface fluxes by land class using a map based on LandSat Thematic Mapper (TM data with 30 m resolution. We find that wet sedge areas dominate the methane fluxes with a mean flux of 2.1 µg m−2 s−1 during the first part of August. Methane emissions from the Sagavanirktok River have the second highest at almost 1 µg m−2 s−1. During the second half of August, after soil temperatures had cooled by 7 °C, methane emissions fell to between 0 and 0.5 µg m−2 s−1 for all areas measured. We compare the aircraft measurements with an eddy covariance flux tower located in a wet sedge area and show that the two measurements agree quantitatively when the footprints of both overlap. However, fluxes from sedge vary at times by a factor of 2 or more even within a few kilometers of the tower demonstrating the importance of making regional measurements to map out methane emissions spatial heterogeneity. Aircraft measurements of surface flux can play an important role in bridging the gap between ground-based measurements and regional measurements from remote sensing instruments and models.

  9. Economic Polarization Across European Union Regions in the years 2007–2012 at NUTS 2 Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piętak Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the economic polarization in countries of the EU at NUTS 2 level in the years 2007–2012. The studies have to decide on positive or negative verification of the hypothesis, which states that the economic crisis of 2008–2013 had an influence on rising economic polarization in EU countries. The method used in this article is an application of some measures of economic polarization and inequality of income distribution. The carried out research did not allow for the positive verification of the hypothesis. Only in a few countries did the economic crisis have an influence on a reduction of the middle class. In most cases the economic collapse did not play any role in the raising of the economic polarization index. The statistical data used in this paper was taken from the following databases: Statistical Yearbook of the Regions – Poland from 2009 to 2013 and Eurostat – Regional statistics by NUTS classification*.

  10. Cloud Masking and Surface Temperature Distribution in the Polar Regions Using AVHRR and other Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Joey C.

    1995-01-01

    Surface temperature is one of the key variables associated with weather and climate. Accurate measurements of surface air temperatures are routinely made in meteorological stations around the world. Also, satellite data have been used to produce synoptic global temperature distributions. However, not much attention has been paid on temperature distributions in the polar regions. In the polar regions, the number of stations is very sparse. Because of adverse weather conditions and general inaccessibility, surface field measurements are also limited. Furthermore, accurate retrievals from satellite data in the region have been difficult to make because of persistent cloudiness and ambiguities in the discrimination of clouds from snow or ice. Surface temperature observations are required in the polar regions for air-sea-ice interaction studies, especially in the calculation of heat, salinity, and humidity fluxes. They are also useful in identifying areas of melt or meltponding within the sea ice pack and the ice sheets and in the calculation of emissivities of these surfaces. Moreover, the polar regions are unique in that they are the sites of temperature extremes, the location of which is difficult to identify without a global monitoring system. Furthermore, the regions may provide an early signal to a potential climate change because such signal is expected to be amplified in the region due to feedback effects. In cloud free areas, the thermal channels from infrared systems provide surface temperatures at relatively good accuracies. Previous capabilities include the use of the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite which was launched in 1978. Current capabilities include the use of the Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aboard NOAA satellites. Together, these two systems cover a span of 16 years of thermal infrared data. Techniques for retrieving surface temperatures with these sensors in the polar regions have

  11. Pan-Arctic observations in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project and its successor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    We started a Japanese initiative - "Arctic Climate Change Research Project" - within the framework of the Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) Program, funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT), in 2011. This Project targeted understanding and forecasting "Rapid Change of the Arctic Climate System and its Global Influences." Four strategic research targets are set by the Ministry: 1. Understanding the mechanism of warming amplification in the Arctic; 2. Understanding the Arctic climate system for global climate and future change; 3. Evaluation of the impacts of Arctic change on the weather and climate in Japan, marine ecosystems and fisheries; 4. Projection of sea ice distribution and Arctic sea routes. Through a network of universities and institutions in Japan, this 5-year Project involves more than 300 scientists from 39 institutions and universities. The National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) works as the core institute and The Japan Agency for Marine- Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) joins as the supporting institute. There are 7 bottom up research themes approved: the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, cryosphere, greenhouse gases, marine ecology and fisheries, sea ice and Arctic sea routes and climate modeling, among 22 applications. The Project will realize multi-disciplinal study of the Arctic region and connect to the projection of future Arctic and global climatic change by modeling. The project has been running since the beginning of 2011 and in those 5 years pan-Arctic observations have been carried out in many locations, such as Svalbard, Russian Siberia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. In particular, 95 GHz cloud profiling radar in high precision was established at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, and intensive atmospheric observations were carried out in 2014 and 2015. In addition, the Arctic Ocean cruises by R/V "Mirai" (belonging to JAMSTEC) and other icebreakers belonging to other

  12. Seasonal variability in physicochemical characteristics of small water bodies across a High Arctic wetland, Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.; Shakil, S.; Young, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Small water bodies (lakes, ponds) in permafrost environments make up roughly half of the total area of surface water, but their relevance to nutrient and carbon fluxes on a landscape scale still remains largely unknown. Small variations in pond water balance as a result of seasonal changes in precipitation, evaporation, or drainage processes have the potential to produce considerable changes in the carbon and nutrient budgets as small changes in the water level can have a major effect on volumes and surface areas of ponds. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrology both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured physicochemical variables; and (3) to detect seasonal trends in the hydrological and chemical characteristics of ponds located in an extensive low-gradient High Arctic wetland. We conducted detailed limnological surveys of 50 wetland ponds located at Polar Bear Pass (PBP), Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2007-2010. The results indicate large seasonal variability in physicochemical parameters that is associated with pond water budget changes, especially for ponds with steady water levels vs. dynamic ponds (fluctuating water levels). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the datasets indicated that major ion content, specifically calcium (Ca2+), was responsible for much of the variability among the ponds in both 2008 and 2009. Additionally in 2009 most of the variability was also due to specific conductivity in the summer and magnesium (Mg2+) in the fall. These trends are typically identified as a result of dilution or evapo-concentration processes in small water bodies. In 2007, a warm and dry year, pH and potassium (K+) were responsible for much of variation between ponds. This is attributed to high vegetation growth in ponds and a longer growing season. While no trend was identified in 2010 (PCA analysis), calculations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 50

  13. Diversity and distribution of lichen-associated fungi in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic) as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Xin-Li; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of fungal communities associated with seven lichen species in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic) using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Lichen-associated fungal communities showed high diversity, with a total of 42,259 reads belonging to 370 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being found. Of these OTUs, 294 belonged to Ascomycota, 54 to Basidiomycota, 2 to Zygomycota, and 20 to unknown fungi. Leotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes were the major classes, whereas the dominant orders were Helotiales, Capnodiales, and Chaetothyriales. Interestingly, most fungal OTUs were closely related to fungi from various habitats (e.g., soil, rock, plant tissues) in the Arctic, Antarctic and alpine regions, which suggests that living in association with lichen thalli may be a transient stage of life cycle for these fungi and that long-distance dispersal may be important to the fungi in the Arctic. In addition, host-related factors shaped the lichen-associated fungal communities in this region. Taken together, these results suggest that lichens thalli act as reservoirs of diverse fungi from various niches, which may improve our understanding of fungal evolution and ecology in the Arctic. PMID:26463847

  14. Diversity and distribution of lichen-associated fungi in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic) as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Xin-Li; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2015-10-14

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of fungal communities associated with seven lichen species in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic) using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Lichen-associated fungal communities showed high diversity, with a total of 42,259 reads belonging to 370 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being found. Of these OTUs, 294 belonged to Ascomycota, 54 to Basidiomycota, 2 to Zygomycota, and 20 to unknown fungi. Leotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes were the major classes, whereas the dominant orders were Helotiales, Capnodiales, and Chaetothyriales. Interestingly, most fungal OTUs were closely related to fungi from various habitats (e.g., soil, rock, plant tissues) in the Arctic, Antarctic and alpine regions, which suggests that living in association with lichen thalli may be a transient stage of life cycle for these fungi and that long-distance dispersal may be important to the fungi in the Arctic. In addition, host-related factors shaped the lichen-associated fungal communities in this region. Taken together, these results suggest that lichens thalli act as reservoirs of diverse fungi from various niches, which may improve our understanding of fungal evolution and ecology in the Arctic.

  15. Rim versus Non-Rim States in the Arctic Region: Prospects for a Zero-Sum Game or a Win-Win One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Ghimiş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to develop a critical approach on one of the most urgent energy security challenges: the Arctic region. Until recently, it was considered to be a frozen desert, upon which no one raised any legal demands or interests. The global warming, the technological development and the increased need for energy resources had transformed the frozen High North into a very hot spot, where states like US, Canada, Norway, Denmark or Russia started an energy race that threatens to escalate. The Arctic became a strategic area given its opportunities: besides the energy resources, new commercial routes could become available for a longer period of time. But, due to legal uncertainties, the lack of coherent and direct legal procedures of international law, the Arctic game is an open one, in which any state can intervene and ask for a solution that is suitable for its interests. This aspect complicates even further the already unstable region. Some of the actors see the region as an international area, as a common good, where everyone has the right to explore or exploit, while the rim states see the Arctic in sovereign rights terms. Therefore, the game tends to complicate as non-rim players (the EU, China, Japan, NATO and South Korea want to intervene in the region and try to influence its development.

  16. The Venus Emissivity Mapper - Investigating the Atmospheric Structure and Dynamics of Venus' Polar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widemann, T.; Marcq, E.; Tsang, C.; Mueller, N. T.; Kappel, D.; Helbert, J.; Dyar, M. D.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Venus' climate evolution is driven by the energy balance of its global cloud layers. Venus displays the best-known case of polar vortices evolving in a fast-rotating atmosphere. Polar vortices are pervasive in the Solar System and may also be present in atmosphere-bearing exoplanets. While much progress has been made since the early suggestion that the Venus clouds are H2O-H2SO4 liquid droplets (Young 1973), several cloud parameters are still poorly constrained, particularly in the lower cloud layer and optically thicker polar regions. The average particle size is constant over most of the planet but increases toward the poles. This indicates that cloud formation processes are different at latitudes greater than 60°, possibly as a result of the different dynamical regimes that exist in the polar vortices (Carlson et al. 1993, Wilson et al. 2008, Barstow et al. 2012). Few wind measurements exist in the polar region due to unfavorable viewing geometry of currently available observations. Cloud-tracking data indicate circumpolar circulation close to solid-body rotation. E-W winds decrease to zero velocity close to the pole. N-S circulation is marginal, with extremely variable morphology and complex vorticity patterns (Sanchez-Lavega et al. 2008, Luz et al. 2011, Garate-Lopez et al. 2013). The Venus Emissivity Mapper (VEM; Helbert et al., 2016) proposed for NASA's Venus Origins Explorer (VOX) and the ESA M5/EnVision orbiters has the capability to better constrain the microphysics (vertical, horizontal, time dependence of particle size distribution, or/and composition) of the lower cloud particles in three spectral bands at 1.195, 1.310 and 1.510 μm at a spatial resolution of 10 km. Circular polar orbit geometry would provide an unprecedented study of both polar regions within the same mission. In addition, VEM's pushbroom method will allow short timescale cloud dynamics to be assessed, as well as local wind speeds, using repeated imagery at 90 minute intervals

  17. The Venus Emissivity Mapper - Investigating the Atmospheric Structure and Dynamics of Venus’ Polar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widemann, Thomas; Marcq, Emmanuel; Tsang, Constantine; Mueller, Nils; Kappel, David; Helbert, Joern; Dyar, Melinda; Smrekar, Suzanne

    2017-10-01

    Venus displays the best-known case of polar vortices evolving in a fast-rotating atmosphere. Polar vortices are pervasive in the Solar System and may also be present in atmosphere-bearing exoplanets. While much progress has been made since the early suggestion that the Venus clouds are H2O-H2SO4 liquid droplets (Young 1973), several cloud parameters are still poorly constrained, particularly in the lower cloud layer and optically thicker polar regions. The average particle size is constant over most of the planet but increases toward the poles. This indicates that cloud formation processes are different at latitudes greater than 60°, possibly as a result of the different dynamical regimes that exist in the polar vortices (Carlson et al. 1993, Wilson et al. 2008, Barstow et al. 2012).Few wind measurements exist in the polar region due to unfavorable viewing geometry of currently available observations. Cloud-tracking data indicate circumpolar circulation close to solid-body rotation. E-W winds decrease to zero velocity close to the pole. N-S circulation is marginal, with extremely variable morphology and complex vorticity patterns (Sanchez-Lavega et al. 2008, Luz et al. 2011, Garate-Lopez et al. 2013).The Venus Emissivity Mapper (VEM; Helbert et al., 2016) proposed for NASA’s Venus Origins Explorer (VOX) and the ESA M5/EnVision orbiters has the capability to better constrain the microphysics (vertical, horizontal, time dependence of particle size distribution, or/and composition) of the lower cloud particles in three spectral bands at 1.195, 1.310 and 1.510 μm at a spatial resolution of ~10 km. Circular polar orbit geometry would provide an unprecedented simultaneous study of both polar regions within the same mission. In addition, VEM’s pushbroom method will allow short timescale cloud dynamics to be assessed, as well as local wind speeds, using repeated imagery at 90 minute intervals. Tracking lower cloud motions as proxies for wind measurements at high

  18. Polarization Reversal Over Flooded Regions and Applications to Large-Scale Flood Mapping with Spaceborne Scatterometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Liu, W. Timothy; Xie, Xiao-Su

    1999-01-01

    We present the polarization reversal in backscatter over flooded land regions, and demonstrate for the first time the utility of spaceborne Ku-band scatterometer for large-scale flood mapping. Scatterometer data were collected over the globe by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) operated at 14 GHz on the Japanese ADEOS spacecraft from September 1996 to June 1997. During this time span, several severe floods occurred. Over most land surface, vertical polarization backscatter (Sigma(sub upsilon(upsilon)) is larger than horizontal polarization backscatter (sigma(sub hh)). Such polarization characteristics is reversed and sigma(sub upsilon(upsilon)) is smaller than sigma(sub hh) over flooded regions, except under a dense forest canopy. The total backscatter from the flooded landscape consists of direct backscatter and boundary-interaction backscatter. The direct term is contributed by direct backscattering from objects protruding above the water surface, and by backscattering from waves on the water surface. The boundary-interaction term is contributed by the forward scattering from the protruding objects and then reflected from the water surface, and also by the forward scattering from these objects after the water-surface reflection. Over flooded regions, the boundary-interaction term is dominant at large incidence angles and the strong water-surface reflection is much larger for horizontal polarization than the vertical one due to the Brewster effect in transverse-magnetic waves. These scattering mechanisms cause the polarization reversal over flooded regions. An example obtained with the Analytic Wave Theory is used to illustrate the scattering mechanisms leading to the polarization reversal. We then demonstrate the utility of spaceborne Ku-band scatterometer for large-scale flood mapping. We process NSCAT data to obtain the polarization ratio sigma(sub hh)/sigma(sub upsilon(upsilon)) with colocated data at incidence angles larger than 40 deg. The results over Asian

  19. Air-water exchange of anthropogenic and natural organohalogens on International Polar Year (IPY) expeditions in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M; Pućko, Monika; Papakyriakou, Tim; Staebler, Ralf M; Stern, Gary A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2011-02-01

    Shipboard measurements of organohalogen compounds in air and surface seawater were conducted in the Canadian Arctic in 2007-2008. Study areas included the Labrador Sea, Hudson Bay, and the southern Beaufort Sea. High volume air samples were collected at deck level (6 m), while low volume samples were taken at 1 and 15 m above the water or ice surface. Water samples were taken within 7 m. Water concentration ranges (pg L(-1)) were as follows: α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) 465-1013, γ-HCH 150-254, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) 4.0-6.4, 2,4-dibromoanisole (DBA) 8.5-38, and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) 4.7-163. Air concentration ranges (pg m(-3)) were as follows: α-HCH 7.5-48, γ-HCH 2.1-7.7, HCB 48-71, DBA 4.8-25, and TBA 6.4 - 39. Fugacity gradients predicted net deposition of HCB in all areas, while exchange directions varied for the other chemicals by season and locations. Net evasion of α-HCH from Hudson Bay and the Beaufort Sea during open water conditions was shown by air concentrations that averaged 14% higher at 1 m than 15 m. No significant difference between the two heights was found over ice cover. The α-HCH in air over the Beaufort Sea was racemic in winter (mean enantiomer fraction, EF = 0.504 ± 0.008) and nonracemic in late spring-early summer (mean EF = 0.476 ± 0.010). This decrease in EF was accompanied by a rise in air concentrations due to volatilization of nonracemic α-HCH from surface water (EF = 0.457 ± 0.019). Fluxes of chemicals during the southern Beaufort Sea open water season (i.e., Leg 9) were estimated using the Whitman two-film model, where volatilization fluxes are positive and deposition fluxes are negative. The means ± SD (and ranges) of net fluxes (ng m(-2) d(-1)) were as follows: α-HCH 6.8 ± 3.2 (2.7-13), γ-HCH 0.76 ± 0.40 (0.26-1.4), HCB -9.6 ± 2.7 (-6.1 to -15), DBA 1.2 ± 0.69 (0.04-2.0), and TBA 0.46 ± 1.1 ng m(-2) d(-1) (-1.6 to 2.0).

  20. CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF THE ARCTIC REGION AS THE BASE FOR GEODYNAMIC INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Sokolov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cluster analysis is applied for computing stable combinations of geological and geophysical parameters, and areas with such combinations are interpreted as regions that differ in structural and geodynamic features. The shelf areas are distinguished by specific sets and patterns of parameters, including sedimentary cover thickness, tectonic heterogeneity of the basement, heat flow, anomalous magnetic field, and gravity anomalies that reflect the topography of the crust–upper mantle boundary. In the deep oceanic areas, S-wave velocity variations show abnormally ‘cold’ blocks, while the average heat flow values are high. This combination of parameters is typical of transform zones at the junction of the Atlantic and Arctic segments. Superimposed thermal domes are located symmetrically with respect to the axis of the mid-oceanic ridges (MOR. Such domes may occur on the continents located close to MOR. Similar indicators can be revealed along the transition zone to the north of the East Siberian Sea. 

  1. Cultural Identities in Sustaining Religious Communities in the Arctic Region: An Ethnographic Analysis on Religiosity from the Northern Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafisa Yeasmin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Northern countries are facing the challenges of declining human capital, and admitting immigrants, many of whom belong to religious minorities, to satisfy the demand for labour. If northern societies accept multiculturalism and immigrants, they should not disregard the cultures and religious practices (for example, ritual slaughter of immigrants, as they need to survive and integrate as a minority community in a secular society. However, there is clash between secularism and religions permitting animal slaughter, which is prohibited by some and allowed by other European countries. Community viability and sustainability depend partly on the exercise of community beliefs and ideology that support identity behaviour. This study will present an ethnographic analysis of the religiosity related to ritual slaughter and Muslim cultural identity in the European Arctic region and explore how religious relativism and practice sustain the community and support the overall integration of the Muslim minority in the North.

  2. Record-low primary productivity and high plant damage in the Nordic Arctic Region in 2012 caused by multiple weather events and pest outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Jarle W.; Rune Karlsen, Stein; Arild Høgda, Kjell; Malnes, Eirik; Jepsen, Jane U.; Lovibond, Sarah; Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun; Tømmervik, Hans

    2014-08-01

    The release of cold temperature constraints on photosynthesis has led to increased productivity (greening) in significant parts (32-39%) of the Arctic, but much of the Arctic shows stable (57-64%) or reduced productivity (browning, pests also contributed to low greenness. Vegetation greenness in 2012 was 6.8% lower than the 2000-11 average and 58% lower in the worst affected areas that were under multiple stressors. These results indicate the importance of events (some being mostly neglected in climate change effect studies and monitoring) for primary productivity in a high-latitude maritime region, and highlight the importance of monitoring plant damage in the field and including frequencies of stress events in models of carbon economy and ecosystem change in the Arctic. Fourteen weather events and anomalies and 32 hypothesized impacts on plant productivity are summarized as an aid for directing future research.

  3. Semantic-enabled Spatiotemporal Web Portal for Polar Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.

    2014-12-01

    It is essential for Intergovernmental and scientists to study, monitor and analyze the geographic data in polar regions. Polarregions are likely to respond rapidly and more severely to the climate changesthan any other area on the Earth.They also have significant importance for Global warming research. The ocean water around the Antarctic and Arctic is a crucial part of the ocean's thermohaline circulation. The Polar Cyberinfrastructure Program was built to acquire, share, access, analyze the polar data for Arctic and Antarctic communities. The polar data are becoming big and bring challenges for Polar Cyberinfrastructure Program including: 1) it is difficultfor polar data users to discover most relevant data based on the understanding the behavior; 2) the quality of polar data service is essential to use the polar data, however, it varies for users in different locations and different time. The semantic enabled discovery and volunteer computing are used in the Polar Cyberinfrastructurefor tackling these challenges: 1) semantic search and knowledge reasoning to improve the discovery recall and precision of polar data; 2) volunteer computing is used to gather volunteers computing resources around the world to improve the quality evaluationaccuracy of polar data service. Keywords: Polar Science, Cyberinfrastructure, Semantic, Volunteer Computing

  4. Chemical composition of arctic snow: concentration levels and regional distribution of major elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Caritat, Patrice; Hall, Gwendy; Gìslason, Sigurdur; Belsey, William; Braun, Marlene; Goloubeva, Natalia I; Olsen, Hans Kristian; Scheie, Jon Ove; Vaive, Judy E

    2005-01-05

    At the end of the northern winter 1996/1997, 21 snow samples were collected from 17 arctic localities in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Svalbard, Russia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland and Iceland. Major element concentrations of the filtered (0.45 mum) melted snow indicate that most samples are consistent with a diluted seawater composition. Deviations from this behaviour indicate additional SO(4)(2-) and Cl(-) relative to seawater, suggesting a minor contribution from (probably local) coal combustion emissions (Alaska, Finland, Sweden, Svalbard). The samples with the highest Na and Cl(-) content (Canada, Russia) also have higher Na/SO(4)(2-) and Cl(-)/SO(4)(2-) ratios than seawater, suggesting a slight contamination from (probably local) deicing activities. Local soil or rock dust inputs in the snow are indicated by 'excess' Ca contents (Alaska, Svalbard, Greenland, Sweden). No overall relationship was found between pH (range: 4.6-6.1) and total or non-seasalt SO(4)(2-) (NSS), suggesting that acidification due to long-range transport of SO(2) pollution is not operating on an arctic-wide scale. In a few samples (Alaska, Finland, Sweden, Svalbard), a significant proportion (>50%) of SO(4)(2-) is non-marine in origin. Sources for this non-marine SO(4)(2-) need not all be found in long-range atmospheric transport and more likely sources are local industry (Finland, Sweden), road traffic (Alaska) or minor snow-scooting traffic (one Svalbard locality). A few samples from northern Europe show a relatively weak trend of decreasing pH with increasing NO(3)(-).

  5. What is happening in the International Polar Year? Latest news about the climate changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orheim, Olav

    2008-01-01

    The International Polar (IPY) Year 2007-2008 is a large scientific programme focused on the Arctic and the Antarctic. Scientists from over 60 nations participates. The IPY have two primary objectives: to improve weather forecasts especially regarding extreme weather and to improve climatic models for better understanding of possible instabilities, especially regarding ocean currents. The presentation includes data on natural climate change, temperature anomaly, the ice in the Arctic Ocean and Northern and Southern Hemisphere sea ice area, current in Southern and Northern hemisphere sea ice area and variations of the surface temperature ice arctic regions antarctic regions. The presentation was held at the MNT-Forum, 29. January 2008

  6. Comparison of the CMAM30 data set with ACE-FTS and OSIRIS: polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendlebury, D.; Plummer, D.; Scinocca, J.; Sheese, P.; Strong, K.; Walker, K.; Degenstein, D.

    2015-11-01

    CMAM30 is a 30-year data set extending from 1979 to 2010 that is generated using a version of the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) in which the winds and temperatures are relaxed to the Interim Reanalysis product from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-Interim). The data set has dynamical fields that are very close to the reanalysis below 1 hPa and chemical tracers that are self-consistent with respect to the model winds and temperature. The chemical tracers are expected to be close to actual observations. The data set is here compared to two satellite records - the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer and the Odin Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System - for the purpose of validating the temperature, ozone, water vapour and methane fields. Data from the Aura microwave limb sounder are also used for validation of the chemical processing in the polar vortex. It is found that the CMAM30 temperature is warmer by up to 5 K in the stratosphere, with a low bias in the mesosphere of ~ 5-15 K. Ozone is reasonable (±15 %), except near the tropopause globally and in the Southern Hemisphere winter polar vortex. Water vapour is consistently low by 10-20 %, with corresponding high methane of 10-20 %, except in the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex. Discrepancies in this region are shown to stem from the treatment of polar stratospheric cloud formation in the model.

  7. Ship emissions measurement in the Arctic by plume intercepts of the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Amundsen from the Polar 6 aircraft platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Aliabadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing sea ice and increasing marine navigability in northern latitudes have changed Arctic ship traffic patterns in recent years and are predicted to increase annual ship traffic in the Arctic in the future. Development of effective regulations to manage environmental impacts of shipping requires an understanding of ship emissions and atmospheric processing in the Arctic environment. As part of the summer 2014 NETCARE (Network on Climate and Aerosols campaign, the plume dispersion and gas and particle emission factors of effluents originating from the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Amundsen operating near Resolute Bay, NU, Canada, were investigated. The Amundsen burned distillate fuel with 1.5 wt % sulfur. Emissions were studied via plume intercepts using the Polar 6 aircraft measurements, an analytical plume dispersion model, and using the FLEXPART-WRF Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The first plume intercept by the research aircraft was carried out on 19 July 2014 during the operation of the Amundsen in the open water. The second and third plume intercepts were carried out on 20 and 21 July 2014 when the Amundsen had reached the ice edge and operated under ice-breaking conditions. Typical of Arctic marine navigation, the engine load was low compared to cruising conditions for all of the plume intercepts. The measured species included mixing ratios of CO2, NOx, CO, SO2, particle number concentration (CN, refractory black carbon (rBC, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. The results were compared to similar experimental studies in mid-latitudes. Plume expansion rates (γ were calculated using the analytical model and found to be γ  =  0.75 ± 0.81, 0.93 ± 0.37, and 1.19 ± 0.39 for plumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. These rates were smaller than prior studies conducted at mid-latitudes, likely due to polar boundary layer dynamics, including reduced turbulent mixing compared to mid-latitudes. All emission

  8. Arctic climate response to geoengineering with stratospheric sulfate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, K. E.; Battisti, D. S.; Bitz, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Recent warming and record summer sea-ice area minimums have spurred expressions of concern for arctic ecosystems, permafrost, and polar bear populations, among other things. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injections to deliberately cancel the anthropogenic temperature rise has been put forth as a possible solution to restoring Arctic (and global) climate to modern conditions. However, climate is particularly sensitive in the northern high latitudes, responding easily to radiative forcing changes. To that end, we explore the extent to which tropical injections of stratospheric sulfate aerosol can accomplish regional cancellation in the Arctic. We use the Community Climate System Model version 3 global climate model to execute simulations with combinations of doubled CO2 and imposed stratospheric sulfate burdens to investigate the effects on high latitude climate. We further explore the sensitivity of the polar climate to ocean dynamics by running a suite of simulations with and without ocean dynamics, transiently and to equilibrium respectively. We find that, although annual, global mean temperature cancellation is accomplished, there is over-cooling on land in Arctic summer, but residual warming in Arctic winter, which is largely due to atmospheric circulation changes. Furthermore, the spatial extent of these features and their concurrent impacts on sea-ice properties are modified by the inclusion of ocean dynamical feedbacks.

  9. INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE AND TRENDS OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF ARCTIC TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article and summarized the regularities of formation of foreign experience and trends of development of Arctic territories. Set out the important points predetermine orientation and specificity of manifestations of national interests – potential participants of the subsoil in the Arctic zone. On the basis of the illuminated materials were obtained the following conclusions: Signifi cant interest in the Arctic show today, not only the fi ve countries (Russia, USA, Canada, Norway, Denmark, who own Arctic territories, but also polar state (Iceland, Sweden, Finland, the European Union and Asia. As a consequence of that, it is expected that in the XXI century the Arctic region will be the focus of attention as an official Arctic 45, and a number of states whose territory is quite removed from it; For Russia, given the current, acute political conditions (sanctions, confrontation with the West, Ukrainian crisis and war in the Middle East development of Arctic territories, some moved away, moved on tomorrow and the day after tomorrow on the agenda. This approach is fundamentally fl awed and fraught with a number of threats, because other countries do not decrease, but only increase their interest in this issue; Territorial opposition to all those involved in the topic of causing instability in the Arctic region, but does not represent a real threat for the emergence of large-scale conflict. Therefore, making the choice between the hard pressure of national interests and the interests of harmonization of the Arctic states, Russia must be based on international cooperationand mutual consideration of interests in the development of its Arctic strategy; Considering the cooperation of the countries of the Arctic Council and their cooperation in the framework of a global economic forum G8, there are prerequisites for the decision of the Arctic confl ict through negotiation and compromise. In this context it is very important to develop

  10. Current-use pesticides in seawater and their bioaccumulation in polar bear-ringed seal food chains of the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adam D; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R; Letcher, Robert J; McKinney, Melissa A; Fisk, Aaron T; McMeans, Bailey C; Tomy, Gregg T; Teixeira, Camilla; Wang, Xiaowa; Duric, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in seawater and their trophodynamics were investigated in 3 Canadian Arctic marine food chains. The greatest ranges of dissolved-phase concentrations in seawater for each CUP were endosulfan sulfate (less than method detection limit (MDL) to 19 pg L(-1) ) > dacthal (0.76-15 pg L(-1) ) > chlorpyrifos (less than MDL to 8.1 pg L(-1) ) > pentachloronitrobenzene (less than MDL to 2.6 pg L(-1) ) > α-endosulfan (0.20-2.3 pg L(-1) ). Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs, water-respiring organisms) were greatest in plankton, including chlorothalonil (log BAF = 7.4 ± 7.1 L kg(-1) , mean ± standard error), chlorpyrifos (log BAF = 6.9 ± 6.7 L kg(-1) ), and α-endosulfan (log BAF = 6.5 ± 6.0 L kg(-1) ). The largest biomagnification factors (BMFs) were found for dacthal in the capelin:plankton trophic relationship (BMF = 13 ± 5.0) at Cumberland Sound (Nunvavut), and for β-endosulfan (BMF = 16 ± 4.9) and α-endosulfan (BMF = 9.3 ± 2.8) in the polar bear-ringed seal relationship at Barrow and Rae Strait (NU), respectively. Concentrations of endosulfan sulfate exhibited trophic magnification (increasing concentrations with increasing trophic level) in the poikilothermic portion of the food web (trophic magnification factor = 1.4), but all of the CUPs underwent trophic dilution in the marine mammal food web, despite some trophic level-specific biomagnification. Together, these observations are most likely indicative of metabolism of these CUPs in mammals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1695-1707. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Genetic signatures of adaptation revealed from transcriptome sequencing of Arctic and red foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Kutschera, Verena E; Nilsson, Maria A; Janke, Axel

    2015-08-07

    The genus Vulpes (true foxes) comprises numerous species that inhabit a wide range of habitats and climatic conditions, including one species, the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) which is adapted to the arctic region. A close relative to the Arctic fox, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), occurs in subarctic to subtropical habitats. To study the genetic basis of their adaptations to different environments, transcriptome sequences from two Arctic foxes and one red fox individual were generated and analyzed for signatures of positive selection. In addition, the data allowed for a phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimate between the two fox species. The de novo assembly of reads resulted in more than 160,000 contigs/transcripts per individual. Approximately 17,000 homologous genes were identified using human and the non-redundant databases. Positive selection analyses revealed several genes involved in various metabolic and molecular processes such as energy metabolism, cardiac gene regulation, apoptosis and blood coagulation to be under positive selection in foxes. Branch site tests identified four genes to be under positive selection in the Arctic fox transcriptome, two of which are fat metabolism genes. In the red fox transcriptome eight genes are under positive selection, including molecular process genes, notably genes involved in ATP metabolism. Analysis of the three transcriptomes and five Sanger re-sequenced genes in additional individuals identified a lower genetic variability within Arctic foxes compared to red foxes, which is consistent with distribution range differences and demographic responses to past climatic fluctuations. A phylogenomic analysis estimated that the Arctic and red fox lineages diverged about three million years ago. Transcriptome data are an economic way to generate genomic resources for evolutionary studies. Despite not representing an entire genome, this transcriptome analysis identified numerous genes that are relevant to arctic

  12. ACTUAL ISSUES OF THE LEGAL REGIME OF ARCTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Igorevich Morozov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the current issues of the legal regime of the Arctic. The author describes the situation around the Arctic region, the role of legal regulation in the development of the Arctic.

  13. Human-induced Arctic moistening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis

    2008-04-25

    The Arctic and northern subpolar regions are critical for climate change. Ice-albedo feedback amplifies warming in the Arctic, and fluctuations of regional fresh water inflow to the Arctic Ocean modulate the deep ocean circulation and thus exert a strong global influence. By comparing observations to simulations from 22 coupled climate models, we find influence from anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols in the space-time pattern of precipitation change over high-latitude land areas north of 55 degrees N during the second half of the 20th century. The human-induced Arctic moistening is consistent with observed increases in Arctic river discharge and freshening of Arctic water masses. This result provides new evidence that human activity has contributed to Arctic hydrological change.

  14. Ecology of North American Arctic continental shelf benthos: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Andrew G.

    1991-08-01

    The zoogeography, ecology, and biology of continental shelf invertebrate benthos along the arctic coast of North America from Alaska to western Greenland are reviewed. Environmental influences are noted and the life histories as well as the food sources of the fauna are summarized. The existence of regionally associated, characteristic community structures, centred upon the northern Bering Sea and the eastern Chukchi Sea, the Beaufort Sea, the Canadian Archipelago, the eastern Canadian Arctic, and western Greenland, is indicated. Early field research was exploratory and fragmented. Since 1940 more extensive studies oriented toward surveys and environmental baselines have been conducted. Over the last few decades physiological ecology studies of selected species have been undertaken to better understand adaptations to polar conditions. Recent Canadian research has included long-term field experiments on the effects of oil spillage in arctic waters as well as quantitative studies of benthos across the Archipelago and within fiords and other specialized environments. This research has suggested the need for basic biological and ecological research from the level of species through complete ecosystems in arctic waters. Additional studies on the long-term effects of pollution should be undertaken in the colder regions where it is likely that biological processes are slower and the effects of pollution are more long-lasting. Specifically, the ability to define pelagic-benthic coupling in Canadian arctic waters would provide insight into the role of the benthos in low productivity arctic ecosystems. In summary co-operative international research programmes on continental shelf benthos throughout the Arctic Basin and its surrounding seas should be undertaken. Knowledge of the range of shelf environments will provide insight into the controlling physical and biological features of the environment as well as the role of the seafloor within the arctic environment.

  15. Regional contamination versus regional dietary differences: Understanding geographic variation in brominated and chlorinated contaminant levels in polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, M.A.; Letcher, R.J.; Aars, Jon; Born, E.W.; Branigan, M.; Dietz, R.; Evans, T.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Muir, D.C.G.; Peacock, E.; Sonne, C.

    2011-01-01

    The relative contribution of regional contamination versus dietary differences to geographic variation in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) contaminant levels is unknown. Dietary variation between Alaska Canada, East Greenland, and Svalbard subpopulations was assessed by muscle nitrogen and carbon stable isotope (?? 15N, ?? 13C) and adipose fatty acid (FA) signatures relative to their main prey (ringed seals). Western and southern Hudson Bay signatures were characterized by depleted ?? 15N and ??13C, lower proportions of C20 and C22 monounsaturated FAs and higher proportions of C18 and longer chain polyunsaturated FAs. East Greenland and Svalbard signatures were reversed relative to Hudson Bay. Alaskan ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Co-distribution of seabirds and their polar cod prey near the ice edge in southern Baffin Bay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeBlanc, Mathieu; Gauthier, S; Mosbech, Anders

    species, and age-1 polar cod found in bird stomachs were likely individuals associated to ice. At a large scale of hundreds of kilometers, seabirds and age-0 polar cod were more abundant in ice-covered habitats (30 to 100% ice concentration). At medium and small scale of 12.5 and 1 km respectively...... fish. The ongoing climate warming and the decrease in sea-ice extent may lead to the confinement of sympagic age-1 polar cod in northernmost regions of the Arctic and force seabirds to travel farther to reach more productive ice edges.......Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is the main prey of several arctic predators including many seabird species. Ice edges are known as important feeding locations for seabirds. How polar cod density affects arctic seabird distribution around offshore ice edges is still unclear. We tested the hypothesis...

  17. Mercury in the marine environment of the Canadian Arctic: review of recent findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, Birgit; Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc; Brown, Tanya; Clayden, Meredith; Evans, Marlene; Fisk, Aaron; Gaden, Ashley; Girard, Catherine; Hare, Alex; Kirk, Jane; Lehnherr, Igor; Letcher, Robert; Loseto, Lisa; Macdonald, Robie; Mann, Erin; McMeans, Bailey; Muir, Derek; O'Driscoll, Nelson; Poulain, Alexandre; Reimer, Ken; Stern, Gary

    2015-03-15

    This review summarizes data and information which have been generated on mercury (Hg) in the marine environment of the Canadian Arctic since the previous Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR) was released in 2003. Much new information has been collected on Hg concentrations in marine water, snow and ice in the Canadian Arctic. The first measurements of methylation rates in Arctic seawater indicate that the water column is an important site for Hg methylation. Arctic marine waters were also found to be a substantial source of gaseous Hg to the atmosphere during the ice-free season. High Hg concentrations have been found in marine snow as a result of deposition following atmospheric mercury depletion events, although much of this Hg is photoreduced and re-emitted back to the atmosphere. The most extensive sampling of marine sediments in the Canadian Arctic was carried out in Hudson Bay where sediment total Hg (THg) concentrations were low compared with other marine regions in the circumpolar Arctic. Mass balance models have been developed to provide quantitative estimates of THg fluxes into and out of the Arctic Ocean and Hudson Bay. Several recent studies on Hg biomagnification have improved our understanding of trophic transfer of Hg through marine food webs. Over the past several decades, Hg concentrations have increased in some marine biota, while other populations showed no temporal change. Marine biota also exhibited considerable geographic variation in Hg concentrations with ringed seals, beluga and polar bears from the Beaufort Sea region having higher Hg concentrations compared with other parts of the Canadian Arctic. The drivers of these variable patterns of Hg bioaccumulation, both regionally and temporally, within the Canadian Arctic remain unclear. Further research is needed to identify the underlying processes including the interplay between biogeochemical and food web processes and climate change. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by

  18. Promoting Diversity Through Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (Polar ICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, J. D.; Hotaling, L. A.; Garza, C.; Van Dyk, P. B.; Hunter-thomson, K. I.; Middendorf, J.; Daniel, A.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Schofield, O.

    2017-12-01

    Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE) is an education and outreach program designed to provide public access to the Antarctic and Arctic regions through polar data and interactions with the scientists. The program provides multi-faceted science communication training for early career scientists that consist of a face-to face workshop and opportunities to apply these skills. The key components of the scientist training workshop include cultural competency training, deconstructing/decoding science for non-expert audiences, the art of telling science stories, and networking with members of the education and outreach community and reflecting on communication skills. Scientists partner with educators to provide professional development for K-12 educators and support for student research symposia. Polar ICE has initiated a Polar Literacy initiative that provides both a grounding in big ideas in polar science and science communication training designed to underscore the importance of the Polar Regions to the public while promoting interdisciplinary collaborations between scientists and educators. Our ultimate objective is to promote STEM identity through professional development of scientists and educators while developing career awareness of STEM pathways in Polar science.

  19. Arctic Haze Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Linlu; Xue, Yong

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic atmosphere is perturbed by nature/anthropogenic aerosol sources known as the Arctic haze, was firstly observed in 1956 by J. Murray Mitchell in Alaska (Mitchell, 1956). Pacyna and Shaw (1992) summarized that Arctic haze is a mixture of anthropogenic and natural pollutants from a variety of sources in different geographical areas at altitudes from 2 to 4 or 5 km while the source for layers of polluted air at altitudes below 2.5 km mainly comes from episodic transportation of anthropogenic sources situated closer to the Arctic. Arctic haze of low troposphere was found to be of a very strong seasonal variation characterized by a summer minimum and a winter maximum in Alaskan (Barrie, 1986; Shaw, 1995) and other Arctic region (Xie and Hopke, 1999). An anthropogenic factor dominated by together with metallic species like Pb, Zn, V, As, Sb, In, etc. and nature source such as sea salt factor consisting mainly of Cl, Na, and K (Xie and Hopke, 1999), dust containing Fe, Al and so on (Rahn et al.,1977). Black carbon and soot can also be included during summer time because of the mix of smoke from wildfires. The Arctic air mass is a unique meteorological feature of the troposphere characterized by sub-zero temperatures, little precipitation, stable stratification that prevents strong vertical mixing and low levels of solar radiations (Barrie, 1986), causing less pollutants was scavenged, the major revival pathway for particulates from the atmosphere in Arctic (Shaw, 1981, 1995; Heintzenberg and Larssen, 1983). Due to the special meteorological condition mentioned above, we can conclude that Eurasian is the main contributor of the Arctic pollutants and the strong transport into the Arctic from Eurasia during winter caused by the high pressure of the climatologically persistent Siberian high pressure region (Barrie, 1986). The paper intends to address the atmospheric characteristics of Arctic haze by comparing the clear day and haze day using different dataset

  20. PolarTREC—A Model Program for Taking Polar Literacy into the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Timm, K.; Larson, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Polar TREC—Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, is a three-year (2007-2009) NSF-funded International Polar Year (IPY) teacher professional development program that advances Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education by improving teacher content knowledge and instructional practices through Teacher Research Experiences (TRE) in the Arctic and Antarctic. Leveraging profound changes and fascinating science taking place in the polar regions, PolarTREC broadly disseminates activities and products to students, educators, researchers, and the public, connecting them with the Arctic and Antarctica and sustaining the widespread interest in the polar regions and building on the enthusiasm that was generated through IPY. Central to the PolarTREC Teacher Research Experience Model, over 40 teachers have spent two to eight weeks participating in hands-on research in the polar regions and sharing their experiences with diverse audiences via live events, online multimedia journals, and interactive bulletin boards. The Connecting Arctic/Antarctic Researchers and Educators (CARE) Network unifies learning community members participants, alumni, and others, developing a sustainable association of education professionals networking to share and apply polar STEM content and pedagogical skills. Educator and student feedback from preliminary results of the program evaluation has shown that PolarTREC’s comprehensive program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes in key areas including amount of time spent in school exploring research activities, importance of understanding science for future work, importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today’s world, as well as increased self-reported knowledge and interest in numerous science content areas. Building

  1. The greenhouse effect and the Arctic ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2002-01-01

    The impact on the Arctic ice of global warming is important for many people and for the environment. Less ice means changed conditions for the Inuits, hard times for the polar bears and changed conditions for the fishing sector. There is at present some uncertainty about the thickness of the ice and what might be the cause of its oscillation. It was reported a few years ago that the thickness of the ice had almost been reduced by 50 per cent since the 1950s and some researchers suggested that within a few decades the ice would disappear during the summer. These measurements have turned out not to be representative for the whole Arctic region, and it now appears that a great deal of the measured thickness variation can be attributed to changes in the atmospheric circulation. The article discusses the Arctic Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation in relation to the ice thickness, and climate models. Feedback mechanisms such as reduced albedo may have a big impact in the Arctic in a global greenhouse warming. Model simulations are at variance, and the scenarios for the future are uncertain

  2. Hydrocarbons in the Arctic: Economic prospects and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschard, Remi; Vially, Roland; Benard, Francine

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum installations in the Arctic differ widely owing to the region's complex geological history. They are classical, but prospecting and producing from 'polar' fields represent a technological challenge given the extreme climatic conditions. The distance of oil and gas fields from zones of consumption and the transportation difficulties entail gigantic investments for working these fields and bringing their production to the marketplace

  3. Dynamics and Morphology of Saturn’s North Polar Region During Cassini’s Final Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, John J.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ewald, Shawn; McCabe, Ryan M.; Gunnarson, Jacob; Garland, Justin; Gallego, Angelina

    2017-10-01

    We present an analysis of Saturn’s north polar region utilizing Cassini ISS images captured in visible and near-infrared wavelengths during late 2016 and 2017, including images captured during Cassini’s Grand Finale orbits. To measure the wind field in the region, we utilize the two-dimensional correlation imaging velocimetry (CIV) technique. We also calculate the relative vorticity and divergence from the wind field. To detect changes in the dynamics, we compare measurements of the wind, relative vorticity, and divergence in 2012 and 2013 with those from 2016/2017. We also compare cloud reflectivity between 2012/2013 and 2016/2017 in images that show the north pole under similar illumination conditions. To detect changes in cloud reflectivity, we utilize a Minnaert correction to calculate the zonal mean reflectivity as a function of latitude. Furthermore, we compare the winds and cloud reflectivity at several wavelengths in order to look for changes occurring at different altitudes. Our results indicate that while the dynamics of the north polar region have remained relatively stable, there have been significant morphology changes that have resulted in dramatic color changes. We hypothesize that these changes are a result of the seasonal cycle and linked to the increased production of photochemical hazes in the atmosphere. Our work has been supported by NASA PATM NNX14AK07G, NSF AAG 1212216, and NASA NESSF NNX15AQ70H.

  4. High Frequency Backscatter from the Polar and Auroral E-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Victoriya V.

    The Earth's ionosphere contains collisional and partially-ionized plasma. The electric field, produced by the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind, drives the plasma bulk motion, also known as convection, in the F-region of the ionosphere. It can also destabilize the plasma in the E-region, producing irregularities or waves. Intermediate-scale waves with wavelengths of hundreds of meters can cause scintillation and fading of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals, whereas the small-scale waves (lambda processes that generate small-scale plasma waves, and experimentally, by analyzing data collected with the newly-deployed high-southern-latitude radars within the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN). The theoretical part of this work focuses on symmetry properties of the general dispersion relation that describes wave propagation in the collisional plasma in the two-stream and gradient-drift instability regimes. The instability growth rate and phase velocity are examined under the presence of a background parallel electric field, whose influence is demonstrated to break the spatial symmetry of the wave propagation patterns. In the observational part of this thesis, a novel dual radar setup is used to examine E-region irregularities in the magnetic polar cap by probing the E-region along the same line from opposite directions. The phase velocity analysis together with raytracing simulations demonstrated that, in the polar cap, the radar backscatter is primarily controlled by the plasma density conditions. In particular, when the E-region layer is strong and stratified, the radar backscatter properties are controlled by the convection velocity, whereas for a tilted E-layer, the height and aspect angle conditions are more important. Finally, the fundamental dependence of the E-region irregularity phase velocity on the component of the plasma convection is investigated using two new SuperDARN radars at high southern

  5. Assessing polar bear (Ursus maritimus) population structure in the Hudson Bay region using SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viengkone, Michelle; Derocher, Andrew Edward; Richardson, Evan Shaun; Malenfant, René Michael; Miller, Joshua Moses; Obbard, Martyn E; Dyck, Markus G; Lunn, Nick J; Sahanatien, Vicki; Davis, Corey S

    2016-12-01

    Defining subpopulations using genetics has traditionally used data from microsatellite markers to investigate population structure; however, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have emerged as a tool for detection of fine-scale structure. In Hudson Bay, Canada, three polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ) subpopulations (Foxe Basin (FB), Southern Hudson Bay (SH), and Western Hudson Bay (WH)) have been delineated based on mark-recapture studies, radiotelemetry and satellite telemetry, return of marked animals in the subsistence harvest, and population genetics using microsatellites. We used SNPs to detect fine-scale population structure in polar bears from the Hudson Bay region and compared our results to the current designations using 414 individuals genotyped at 2,603 SNPs. Analyses based on discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and STRUCTURE support the presence of four genetic clusters: (i) Western-including individuals sampled in WH, SH (excluding Akimiski Island in James Bay), and southern FB (south of Southampton Island); (ii) Northern-individuals sampled in northern FB (Baffin Island) and Davis Strait (DS) (Labrador coast); (iii) Southeast-individuals from SH (Akimiski Island in James Bay); and (iv) Northeast-individuals from DS (Baffin Island). Population structure differed from microsatellite studies and current management designations demonstrating the value of using SNPs for fine-scale population delineation in polar bears.

  6. Optical polarization maps of star-forming regions in Perseus, Taurus, and Ophiuchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, A.A.; Bastien, P.; Menard, F.; Myers, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    New optical linear polarization maps are presented of the star-forming regions near L1506 in Taurus, L1755 in Ophiuchus, and the complex of dark cloud which extends from L1448 in B5 in Perseus. The former two show a well-defined peak magnetic field direction in the plane of the sky with a finite dispersion about that peak which is smaller than would be expected for a random distribution of field distributions. The dispersion in the position angle of filamentary clouds within these complexes implies that clouds which appear elongated on the plane of the sky are not all associated with a pattern of polarization vectors particularly parallel or perpendicular to their geometry. Instead, clouds tend to be oriented at the angle formed by their axis and the mean direction of the local large-scale field. For the dark cloud complex, a bimodal distribution of the polarization vector angle is taken to result from at least two distributions of gas along the line of sight which appear as a complex in projection. 55 refs

  7. Oil and Gas in a New Arctic. Developments of the Energy Issue and Regional Strategic Dynamic; Olja och gas i ett nytt och foeraendrat Arktis. Energifraagans utveckling mot bakgrund av regionens strategiska dynamik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granholm, Niklas; Kiesow, Ingolf

    2010-03-15

    This study has as its point of departure that large reserves of energy and minerals are deposited in the Arctic. There is uncertainty on how large these reserves are and if extraction of them is technically and economically feasible. As the Arctic gradually becomes more accessible as the melting of the sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean progresses, the region becomes more open to human activities than ever before. The energy issue in the Arctic develops against the background of the region's increasing geostrategic importance. Russia shows no hesitation, Norway also put considerable resources into energy extraction in the Arctic. Environ-mental protection is a more prominent issue in Norway, Canada and the USA than in Russia. In addition to the energy issue, other factors in the Arctic are also changing. Shipping, climate change, military strategy, nuclear weapons, overlapping territorial claims, developments in international security and national policies and efforts, are all parts of a development that does not easily let itself be described and analysed. The different factors under change develop according to their own character and inner logic and how they interact will be hard to foresee. Uncertainties of future developments in the Arctic therefore remain. The Arctic will become more clearly linked into developments in the rest of the world than hitherto. The region will no longer be exclusively an issue for the states in the region. The interest in the Arctic is on the increase, not only from the Arctic states, but also from external state actors in Europe and Asia, as well as multilateral organisations such as the European Union and NATO

  8. Requirements assessment and operational demands for a resource mapping rover mission to the lunar polar regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KLARER,PAUL R.; BINDER,ALAN B.; LENARD,ROGER X.

    2000-01-26

    A preliminary set of requirements for a robotic rover mission to the lunar polar region are described and assessed. Tasks to be performed by the rover include core drill sample acquisition, mineral and volatile soil content assay, and significant wide area traversals. Assessment of the postulated requirements is performed using first order estimates of energy, power, and communications throughput issues. Two potential rover system configurations are considered, a smaller rover envisioned as part of a group of multiple rovers, and a larger single rover envisioned along more traditional planetary surface rover concept lines.

  9. Attribution of polar warming to human influence

    OpenAIRE

    Gillett, NP; Stone, DA; Stott, PA; Nozawa, T; Karpechko, AY; Hegerl, GC; Wehner, MF; Jones, PD

    2008-01-01

    The polar regions have long been expected to warm strongly as a result of anthropogenic climate change, because of the positive feedbacks associated with melting ice and snow. Several studies have noted a rise in Arctic temperatures over recent decades, but have not formally attributed the changes to human influence, owing to sparse observations and large natural variability. Both warming and cooling trends have been observed in Antarctica, which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ...

  10. Surface temperatures in the polar regions from Nimbus 7 temperature humidity infrared radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    1994-01-01

    Monthly surface temperatures in the Arctic and Antarctic regions have been derived from the 11.5 micrometer thermal infrared channel of the Nimbus 7 temperature humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) for a whole year in 1979 and for a winter and a summer month from 1980 through 1985. The data set shows interannual variability and provides spatial details that allow identification of temperature patterns over sea ice and ice sheet surfaces. For example, the coldest spot in the southern hemisphere is observed to be consistently in the Antarctic plateau in the southern hemisphere, while that in the northern hemisphere is usually located in Greenland, or one of three other general areas: Siberia, the central Arctic, or the Canadian Archipelago. Also, in the southern hemisphere, the amplitude of the seasonal fluctuation of ice sheet temperatures is about 3 times that of sea ice, while in the northern hemisphere, the corresponding fluctuations for the two surfaces are about the same. The main sources of error in the retrieval are cloud and other atmospheric effects. These were minimized by first choosing the highest radiance value from the set of measurements during the day taken within a 30 km by 30 km grid of each daily map. Then the difference of daily maps was taken and where the difference is greater than a certain threshold (which in this case is 12 C), the data element is deleted. Overall, the monthly maps derived from the resulting daily maps are spatially and temporally consistent, are coherent with the topograph y of the Antarctic continent and the location of the sea ice edge, and are in qualitative agreement with climatological data. Quantitatively, THIR data are in good agreement with Antarctic ice sheet surface air temperature station data with a correlation coefficient of 0.997 and a standard deviation of 2.0 C. The absolute values are not as good over the sea ice edges, but a comparison with Russian 2-m drift station temperatures shows very high correlation

  11. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  12. Information on weather and sea conditions onboard polar cruise ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRÂNDUŞA CHIOTOROIU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The arctic and Antarctic regions are difficult to navigate because of their severe maritime conditions. Weather forecast, forecast of the sea ice and icebergs dynamics are extremely important when planning ships routes and tourism activities including embarkation/disembarkation from boats or landing operations. New meteorological services have been created in the arctic region for broadcast purposes. The information provided by these services and received onboard ships is presented in this paper. A risk assessment should be considered for Polar Water operations such as maneuvering in ice covered waters, anchoring, shore landings etc.

  13. Plasma Irregularity Production in the Polar Cap F-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Leslie

    Plasma in the Earth's ionosphere is highly irregular on scales ranging between a few centimeters and hundreds of kilometers. Small-scale irregularities or plasma waves can scatter radio waves resulting in a loss of signal for navigation and communication networks. The polar region is particularly susceptible to strong disturbances due to its direct connection with the Sun's magnetic field and energetic particles. In this thesis, factors that contribute to the production of decameter-scale plasma irregularities in the polar F region ionosphere are investigated. Both global and local control of irregularity production are studied, i.e. we consider global solar control through solar illumination and solar wind as well as much more local control by plasma density gradients and convection electric field. In the first experimental study, solar control of irregularity production is investigated using the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar at McMurdo, Antarctica. The occurrence trends for irregularities are analyzed statistically and a model is developed that describes the location of radar echoes within the radar's field-of-view. The trends are explained through variations in background plasma density with solar illumination affecting radar beam propagation. However, it is found that the irregularity occurrence during the night is higher than expected from ray tracing simulations based on a standard ionospheric density model. The high occurrence at night implies an additional source of plasma density and it is proposed that large-scale density enhancements called polar patches may be the source of this density. Additionally, occurrence maximizes around the terminator due to different competing irregularity production processes that favor a more or less sunlit ionosphere. The second study is concerned with modeling irregularity characteristics near a large-scale density gradient reversal, such as those expected near polar patches, with a particular focus on

  14. Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia)

    1996-04-01

    Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.

  15. INVESTMENT AND INNOVATION FACTORS IN THE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING OF THE REGIONS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAMME OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE ARCTIC ZONE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Borisov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: in the article we have carried out research of efficiency of investment and innovative-technological activity in the mechanical engineering of the regions involved in the Program development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Presented the approach to the assessment of efficiency of investment and technological innovation activities in these regions and influence the development of mechanical engineering.Purpose: in the article we have carried out research of efficiency of investment and innovative-technological activity in the mechanical engineering of the regions involved in the Program development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Presented the approach to the assessment of efficiency of investment and technological innovation activities in these regions and influence the development of mechanical engineering.Methods: suggested and used the tools of forecasting and analytical studies of the effects that result from the impact of the investment and innovative-technological factors on the development of industry in the regions, with priority mechanical engineering.Results: as a result, we have got a quantitative evaluation of investment and innovative factors for the development of regional economies. We also have built integrated indicators of economic and technological effects arising from the investment and innovative-technological activity involving machinery production in these regions.Conclusions and relevance: interpretation of the results shows that in most regions innovation and investment activities have a significant impact on the competitiveness of manufactured machinery products and on the export potential of the region. The potential of regional economic development lies in the interaction of domestic production and the innovative technological component. In the course of the implementation of the Arctic project, the demand for new technologies and scientific results is formed, the specific

  16. A regional climate model for the Arctic and the North Atlantic; Ein regionales Klimamodell fuer die Arktis und den Nordatlantik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, H.

    2001-07-01

    The Arctic and the subpolar region of the North Atlantic with their complex net of mechanisms and feedbacks play an important role in the climate system. Because of the sparse observations and the low resolution of the global models the high-resolution regional climate model REMO provides an improved tool to investigate arctic processes. REMO is based on the former numerical weather prediction model EM of the German Weather Service (DWD) and was further developed at the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology (MPIfM) in Hamburg. It has two different parameterization schemes - the original one called DWD-physics and additionally the ECHAM4-physics from MPIfM. The dynamical scheme is in both cases identical. In a first step REMO is adapted to the new domain. This configuration covers the Arctic and the North Atlantic down to 40 N with a horizontal resolution of 0.5 x 0.5 and 121 x 145 grid points. Different periods are simulated with DWD- and ECHAM4-Physics in forecast - as well as in climate-mode. Lateral boundary conditions are taken from NCEP/NCAR-reanalysis. Comparing REMO with ship observations in the Labrador Sea yields a better correspondence than the reanalysis data. Simulated precipitation is overestimated most probably due to unrealistic high humidity in the NCEP/NCAR-reanalysis. Observed sensible heat fluxes are much lower than the REMO and NCEP/NCAR simulated fluxes. REMO simulations in climate- and forecast-mode with ECHAM4-parameterizations are compared with measured surface temperatures and precipitation distributions. While there are numerically generated spectral spikes in the NCEP/NCAR precipitation fields in the Arctic, they are not found in the REMO results. In a sensitivity study the impact of higher surface roughness in the marginal ice zone is investigated. Ensemble experiments show the high internal variability masking any signals due to the changed roughness length. This high internal variability is mostly due to the large model domain and the

  17. Experimental study of structure-forming deformations in ultra-slow spreading Arctic and Polar Atlantic ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinin, E. P.; Grokholsky, A. L.; Kokhan, A. V.

    2010-05-01

    The system of regional spreading ridges includes Reikjanes, Kolbeinsey, Mohns, Knipovich and Gakkel ridges. They are rather young (spreading initiated 58-60 Myr ago) and ultra-slow (spreading velocity ridges we apply experimental modeling. This study covers three of the ridges mentioned above: Reikjanes, Knipovich and Gakkel. The specified experimental complex and model material were used in modeling sets. The model material used in modeling is a colloidal system composed of mineral oils, solid hydrocarbon and surface-active substances. It has elastic-viscous-plastic properties, under temperature and strain rate, it is capable of failure like a brittle body. All experiments were held according to similarity conditions. Reikjanes ridge is situated south-west of Iceland. It shows changes of morphology from north to south. The northern part of it is characterized by axial rise, the southern part - by axial valley. The main feature of axial morphology is presence of s-shaped axial volcanic ridges (AVRs). The angle between ridge trend and plate divergence trend is nearly 60°. All these features are explained by influence of mantle flow from the Iceland mantle plum initiating the increasing of mantle temperature. It results in decreasing of litospheric brittle layer with approaching to Iceland. The experimental setting was following. The weak zone was emplaced obliquely, crustal thickness and width of weak zone varied in sets. Conditions of northern part of the ridge were reproduced in sets with the widest weak zone and the smallest crustal thickness and vice versa. In sets reproducing conditions of northern province we received long and non-discontinued AVRs, on the other hand we received short and displaced AVRs in south-like conditions. Knipovich ridge stretches along Spitsbergen continental margin. Ridge obliquity varies from 35 to 60° on different parts of the ridge. It consists of short divergent magmatic segments and long transform-like amagmatic segments with

  18. A History of Coastal Research in the Arctic (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H. J.; McGraw, M.

    2009-12-01

    The arctic shoreline is, according to the CIA World Factbook, 45,389 km long. However, a more realistic length from the standpoint of detailed research is the 200,000 km proposed at the 1999 Arctic Coastal Dynamics Workshop. Highly varied in form and material it is dominated by a variety of processes, is relatively remote, is ice-bound much of the year, and has generally been neglected by the scientific community. Before the 20th century, most of the information about its geology, hydrology, geomorphology, and biology was recorded in ship's logs or in explorer's books and was for the most part incidental to the narrative being related. The paucity of specific research is indicated by the relatively few relevant papers included in the more than 100,000 annotated entries published in the 15 volumes of the Arctic Bibliography (1953-1971) and in the nearly as extensive 27 volume bibliography prepared by the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) between 1952 and 1973. Nonetheless, there were some distinctive research endeavors during the early part of the 20th century; e.g., Leffingwell's 1919 Alaskan Arctic Coast observations, Nansen's 1921 strandflat studies, and Zenkovich's 1937 Murmansk research. During that period some organizations devoted to polar research, especially the USSR's Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute and the Scott Polar Research Institute (both in 1920) were established, although the amount of their research that could be considered coastal and arctic was limited. Specific research of the arctic's shoreline was mainly academic until after World War II when military, economic, industrial, and archaeological interests began demanding reliable, contemporary data. At the time numerous organizations with a primary focus on the Arctic were formed. Included are the Arctic Institute of North America (1945), the Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment (latter to become CRREL) and the Office of Naval Research's Arctic Research

  19. Goldschmidt crater and the Moon's north polar region: Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, L.C.; Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.W.; Clark, R.N.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J.W.; Isaacson, P.J.; McCord, T.B.; Moriarty, D.; Nettles, J.W.; Petro, N.E.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Soils within the impact crater Goldschmidt have been identified as spectrally distinct from the local highland material. High spatial and spectral resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter are used to examine the character of Goldschmidt crater in detail. Spectral parameters applied to a north polar mosaic of M3 data are used to discern large-scale compositional trends at the northern high latitudes, and spectra from three widely separated regions are compared to spectra from Goldschmidt. The results highlight the compositional diversity of the lunar nearside, in particular, where feldspathic soils with a low-Ca pyroxene component are pervasive, but exclusively feldspathic regions and small areas of basaltic composition are also observed. Additionally, we find that the relative strengths of the diagnostic OH/H2O absorption feature near 3000 nm are correlated with the mineralogy of the host material. On both global and local scales, the strongest hydrous absorptions occur on the more feldspathic surfaces. Thus, M3 data suggest that while the feldspathic soils within Goldschmidt crater are enhanced in OH/H2O compared to the relatively mafic nearside polar highlands, their hydration signatures are similar to those observed in the feldspathic highlands on the farside.

  20. Coronal temperatures, heating, and energy flow in a polar region of the sun at solar maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withbroe, G. L.; Kohl, J. L.; Weiser, H.; Munro, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The profiles of resonantly scattered Lyman-alpha coronal radiation have been used to determine the hydrogen kinetic temperature from 1.5 to 4 solar radius from the center of the polar region of the corona observed in 1980 at solar maximum. Hydrogen temperatures derived from the line profiles were found to decrease with height from 1.2 million K at r = 1.5 solar radii to 600,000 K at r = 4 solar radius. Comparison of the measured kinetic temperatures with predictions from a semiempirical two-fluid model showed evidence of a small amount of heating or a nonthermal contribution to the motions of coronal protons between 1.5 and 4 solar radius. The widths of the profiles confirmed an upper limit of 110 + or - 15 km/s on the rms magnitude of the line-of-sight component of velocities between 1.5 and 4 solar radius. Density measurements obtained in situ in the solar wind in the ecliptic were used to locate the sources of low speed and high-speed winds in the polar region. An eclipse photograph of the corona at solar maximum is provided.

  1. Thermal Stability of Frozen Volatiles in the North Polar Region of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, David A.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Harmon, John K.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    Earth-based radar observations have revealed the presence on Mercury of anomalously bright, depolarizing features that appear to be localized in the permanently shadowed regions of high-latitude impact craters [1]. Observations of similar radar signatures over a range of radar wavelengths implies that they correspond to deposits that are highly transparent at radar wavelengths and extend to depths of several meters below the surface [1]. Thermal models using idealized crater topographic profiles have predicted the thermal stability of surface and subsurface water ice at these same latitudes [2]. One of the major goals of the MESSENGER mission is to characterize the nature of radar-bright craters and presumed associated frozen volatile deposits at the poles of Mercury through complementary orbital observations by a suite of instruments [3]. Here we report on an examination of the thermal stability of water ice and other frozen volatiles in the north polar region of Mercury using topographic profiles obtained by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument [4] in conjunction with a three-dimensional ray-tracing thermal model previously used to study the thermal environment of polar craters on the Moon [5].

  2. Pitch Angle Scattering of Upgoing Electron Beams in Jupiter's Polar Regions by Whistler Mode Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Clark, G.; Mauk, B. H.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    The Juno spacecraft's Jupiter Energetic-particle Detector Instrument has observed field-aligned, unidirectional (upgoing) electron beams throughout most of Jupiter's entire polar cap region. The Waves instrument detected intense broadband whistler mode emissions occurring in the same region. In this paper, we investigate the pitch angle scattering of the upgoing electron beams due to interactions with the whistler mode waves. Profiles of intensity versus pitch angle for electron beams ranging from 2.53 to 7.22 Jovian radii show inconsistencies with the expected adiabatic invariant motion of the electrons. It is believed that the observed whistler mode waves perturb the electron motion and scatter them away from the magnetic field line. The diffusion equation has been solved by using diffusion coefficients which depend on the magnetic intensity of the whistler mode waves.

  3. On the validity of the ambipolar diffusion assumption in the polar mesopause region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Ballinger

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The decay of underdense meteor trails in the polar mesopause region is thought to be predominantly due to ambipolar diffusion, a process governed by the ambient temperature and pressure. Hence, observations of meteor decay times have been used to indirectly measure the temperature of the mesopause region. Using meteor observations from a SKiYMET radar in northern Sweden during 2005, this study found that weaker meteor trails have shorter decay times (on average than relatively stronger trails. This suggests that processes other than ambipolar diffusion can play a significant role in trail diffusion. One particular mechanism, namely electron-ion recombination, is explored. This process is dependent on the initial electron density within the meteor trail, and can lead to a disproportionate reduction in decay time, depending on the strength of the meteor.

  4. Analysis of world experience in constructing underground small nuclear power plants and assessment of its potential use in the Russian Arctic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Yu. G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the common ideology and main idea of locating underground nuclear plants. Specific examples in domestic and foreign experience have been analyzed. It has been established that underground small nuclear power plants can be used as an alternative source of electric and thermal energy for solving defense-strategic and social-economic tasks particularly when developing mineral raw material resources in the Russian Arctic regions

  5. Changing Arctic ecosystems: sea ice decline, permafrost thaw, and benefits for geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul; Whalen, Mary; Pearce, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Through the Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strives to inform resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. A key area for the USGS CAE initiative has been the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past 30 years, leading to reductions in sea ice and thawing of permafrost. Loss of sea ice has increased ocean wave action, leading to erosion and salt water inundation of coastal habitats. Saltwater tolerant plants are now thriving in these areas and this appears to be a positive outcome for geese in the Arctic. This finding is contrary to the deleterious effects that declining sea ice is having on habitats of ice-dependent animals, such as polar bear and walrus.

  6. Forecasters Handbook for the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    Arctic is the mountainous terrain. The * Aleutians extend for more than a thousand miles from the Alaskan Peninsula to Attu Island (Fig. 2-10). Unimak is... UNIMAK 10 ISLAND UNALASKA Figure 2-10. Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. 2-16 J NANSEN ALERT ,; SOUND AXEL INELLESIEE QUEEN/ ELIZABETH/ ISLANDSl GRE...received at Elmendorf Air Force Base on 11 May 1990. Arctic plume generation is apparent over Unimak Island in obvious close association with a polar

  7. From 'third pole' to north pole: a Himalayan origin for the arctic fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Li, Qiang; Takeuchi, Gary T; Xie, Guangpu

    2014-07-22

    The 'third pole' of the world is a fitting metaphor for the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau, in allusion to its vast frozen terrain, rivalling the Arctic and Antarctic, at high altitude but low latitude. Living Tibetan and arctic mammals share adaptations to freezing temperatures such as long and thick winter fur in arctic muskox and Tibetan yak, and for carnivorans, a more predatory niche. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first evolutionary link between an Early Pliocene (3.60-5.08 Myr ago) fox, Vulpes qiuzhudingi new species, from the Himalaya (Zanda Basin) and Kunlun Mountain (Kunlun Pass Basin) and the modern arctic fox Vulpes lagopus in the polar region. A highly hypercarnivorous dentition of the new fox bears a striking resemblance to that of V. lagopus and substantially predates the previous oldest records of the arctic fox by 3-4 Myr. The low latitude, high-altitude Tibetan Plateau is separated from the nearest modern arctic fox geographical range by at least 2000 km. The apparent connection between an ancestral high-elevation species and its modern polar descendant is consistent with our 'Out-of-Tibet' hypothesis postulating that high-altitude Tibet was a training ground for cold-environment adaptations well before the start of the Ice Age. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Response of Arctic sea level and hydrography to hydrological regime change over boreal catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourian, Mohammad J.; Sneeuw, Nico; Losch, Martin; Rabe, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Changes in freshwater influx into the Arctic Ocean are a key driver of regional dynamics and sea level change in the Arctic waters. Low-salinity surface waters maintain a strong stratification in the Arctic. This halocline largely shields the cool polar surface water and sea ice from the warmer waters of Atlantic origin below and, hence, inhibits vertical heat fluxes of heat, salt and nutrients. Recently observed changes in the freshwater content of the upper Arctic Ocean raise the question of the effect of these changes on the region. Changes in the freshwater budget affect regional steric sea level, but also the modified ocean dynamics may change sea level through mass transports within the Arctic. One component of the freshwater budget is continental runoff. The hydrological regime of river runoff appears to be non-stationary. There is both interannual variability and a significantly positive trend since the 1970s. The decreasing Arctic sea-ice cover may be a possible reason for the non-stationary behavior of runoff, especially in coastal and marginal seas. The decrease of sea ice due to global warming would lead to cloud formation and, indeed, increased precipitation. During the warmer season, increased precipitation would lead to more discharge of freshwater to the Arctic shelves and basins. The observational record of discharge into the Arctic Ocean, however, is still too sparse to address important science questions about the long-term behavior and development of Arctic sea level and climate. Given the insufficient monitoring from in situ gauge networks, and without any outlook of improvement, spaceborne approaches are currently being investigated. In this contribution we assess the long-term behavior of monthly runoff time series obtained from hydro-geodetic approaches and explore the effects of interannual runoff variability and long term trends on ocean model simulations.

  9. Brain region-specific perfluoroalkylated sulfonate (PFSA) and carboxylic acid (PFCA) accumulation and neurochemical biomarker responses in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers Pedersen, Kathrine; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, Robert; Greaves, Alana K; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is a growing class of contaminants in the Arctic environment, and include the established perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs; especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFSAs and PFCAs of varying chain length have been reported to bioaccumulate in lipid rich tissues of the brain among other tissues such as liver, and can reach high concentrations in top predators including the polar bear. PFCA and PFSA bioaccummulation in the brain has the potential to pose neurotoxic effects and therefore we conducted a study to investigate if variations in neurochemical transmitter systems i.e. the cholinergic, glutaminergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic, could be related to brain-specific bioaccumulation of PFASs in East Greenland polar bears. Nine brain regions from nine polar bears were analyzed for enzyme activity (monoamine oxidase (MAO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptor density (dopamine-2 (D2), muscarinic cholinergic (mAChR) and gamma-butyric acid type A (GABA-A)) along with PFSA and PFCA concentrations. Average brain ∑PFSA concentration was 25ng/g ww where PFOS accounted for 91%. Average ∑PFCA concentration was 88ng/g ww where PFUnDA, PFDoDA and PFTrDA combined accounted for 79%. The highest concentrations of PFASs were measured in brain stem, cerebellum and hippocampus. Correlative analyses were performed both across and within brain regions. Significant positive correlations were found between PFASs and MAO activity in occipital lobe (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=0.83, p=0.041, n=6) and across brain regions (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=0.47, p=0.001, ∑PFSA; rp=0.44, p>0.001; n=50). GABA-A receptor density was positively correlated with two PFASs across brain regions (PFOS; rp=0.33, p=0.02 and PFDoDA; rp=0.34, p=0.014; n=52). Significant negative correlations were found between mAChR density and PFASs in cerebellum (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=-0.95, p=0.013, n=5) and across brain regions (e.g.

  10. Goldstone/VLA 3.5cm Mars Radar Observations - "Stealths" and South Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Bryan; Chizek, M. R.; Slade, M. A.; Haldemann, A. F.; Muhleman, D. O.; Mao, T. F.

    2006-09-01

    The opposition of Mars in 2003 provided a fantastic opportunity to use the combined Goldstone/VLA radar to probe the surface with the highest resolution ever obtained on Mars with that instrument (as good as 70 km). Observations were made on August 11, 19, 28, and September 8. Details of data reduction and analysis of the radar echoes from the volcanic regions of the planet are presented in a companion paper in these proceedings (Chizek et al.). We will present results related to "Stealth" (and other radar-dark regions of the planet, including the Argyre and Hellas Planitiae, and a region to the west of the Elysium Mons caldera), and the south polar residual and seasonal ice caps. The size, shape, and reflectivity characteristics of Stealth and "mega-Stealth" (Edgett et al. 1997) are reaffirmed, with a better viewing geometry of the western extent of the feature than had been obtained previously. It had been speculated previously that Hellas Planitia should also be radar dark - this is confirmed by our imaging, though the reflectivity is not as low as for Stealth. We find a new radar dark area to the west of Elysium Mons, which is likely an ash fall from that volcano (similar to the relationship between Stealth and the Tharsis volcanoes). The south polar residual ice cap is a very bright reflector, as seen previously, but we now also see a very bright reflection from the seasonal cap, not seen previously. The cap is not uniformly bright, however, and the extent of the bright reflection does not correspond to that expected from the retreat of the cap as measured either from albedo or thermal emission characteristics. The NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  11. Quantitative studies of the Martian south polar region using spacecraft images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herkenhoff, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    Mariner 9 images were processed for comparison with nearly simultaneous infrared spectra of the south polar cap of Mars. Combined analysis of these observations indicates that the southern residual cap was covered by carbon dioxide frost throughout the summer of 1971-72. Five color/albedo units have been recognized and mapped in the southern layered deposits on Mars. Shadow brightnesses were measured and modeled in order to correct for the effects of atmospheric scattering and quantify the albedo and color of the surface. The layered deposits appear to be mantled by red dust, except where eolian stripping has exposed the darker, less red underlying bedrock. Frost and bare ground are mixed below the resolution of the images in many areas, some of which appear to be younger than the surrounding layered terrain. The available observational data suggest that the layered deposits are composed of bright dust, water ice, and a small amount of dark material. Weathering of the layered deposits by sublimation of water ice can account for the data presented here and previous observations of the north polar deposits. The non-volatile component of the layered deposits appears to consist mainly of bright red dust, with small amounts of dark dust or sand. Dark dust, perhaps similar to the magnetic material found at the Viking Lander sites, may preferentially form filamentary residue particle upon weathering of the deposits. Once eroded, these particles may saltate to form the dark dunes found in both polar regions. Eventual destruction of the particle could allow recycling of the dark dust into the layered deposits via atmospheric suspension

  12. Average thermospheric wind patterns over the polar regions, as observed by CHAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the CHAMP accelerometer are utilized to investigate the average thermospheric wind distribution in the polar regions at altitudes around 400 km. This study puts special emphasis on the seasonal differences in the wind patterns. For this purpose 131 days centered on the June solstice of 2003 are considered. Within that period CHAMP's orbit is precessing once through all local times. The cross-track wind estimates of all 2030 passes are used to construct mean wind vectors for 918 equal-area cells. These bin averages are presented in corrected geomagnetic coordinates. Both hemispheres are considered simultaneously providing summer and winter responses for the same prevailing geophysical conditions. The period under study is characterized by high magnetic activity (Kp=4− but moderate solar flux level (F10.7=124. Our analysis reveals clear wind features in the summer (Northern Hemisphere. Over the polar cap there is a fast day-to-night flow with mean speeds surpassing 600 m/s in the dawn sector. At auroral latitudes we find strong westward zonal winds on the dawn side. On the dusk side, however, an anti-cyclonic vortex is forming. The dawn/dusk asymmetry is attributed to the combined action of Coriolis and centrifugal forces. Along the auroral oval the sunward streaming plasma causes a stagnation of the day-to-night wind. This effect is particularly clear on the dusk side. On the dawn side it is evident only from midnight to 06:00 MLT. The winter (Southern Hemisphere reveals similar wind features, but they are less well ordered. The mean day-to-night wind over the polar cap is weaker by about 35%. Otherwise, the seasonal differences are mainly confined to the dayside (06:00–18:00 MLT. In addition, the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic pole in the south also causes hemispheric differences of the thermospheric wind distribution.

  13. Average thermospheric wind patterns over the polar regions, as observed by CHAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the CHAMP accelerometer are utilized to investigate the average thermospheric wind distribution in the polar regions at altitudes around 400 km. This study puts special emphasis on the seasonal differences in the wind patterns. For this purpose 131 days centered on the June solstice of 2003 are considered. Within that period CHAMP's orbit is precessing once through all local times. The cross-track wind estimates of all 2030 passes are used to construct mean wind vectors for 918 equal-area cells. These bin averages are presented in corrected geomagnetic coordinates. Both hemispheres are considered simultaneously providing summer and winter responses for the same prevailing geophysical conditions. The period under study is characterized by high magnetic activity (Kp=4− but moderate solar flux level (F10.7=124. Our analysis reveals clear wind features in the summer (Northern Hemisphere. Over the polar cap there is a fast day-to-night flow with mean speeds surpassing 600 m/s in the dawn sector. At auroral latitudes we find strong westward zonal winds on the dawn side. On the dusk side, however, an anti-cyclonic vortex is forming. The dawn/dusk asymmetry is attributed to the combined action of Coriolis and centrifugal forces. Along the auroral oval the sunward streaming plasma causes a stagnation of the day-to-night wind. This effect is particularly clear on the dusk side. On the dawn side it is evident only from midnight to 06:00 MLT. The winter (Southern Hemisphere reveals similar wind features, but they are less well ordered. The mean day-to-night wind over the polar cap is weaker by about 35%. Otherwise, the seasonal differences are mainly confined to the dayside (06:00–18:00 MLT. In addition, the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic pole in the south also causes hemispheric differences of the thermospheric wind distribution.

  14. Gastrointestinal helminths of arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from different bioclimatological regions in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Nansen, P.

    1996-01-01

    in the areas in northwest Greenland in close proximity to the Canadian Archipelago. Foxes from air bases, which are known to feed intensively on garbage, harbored similar numbers of species compared to foxes from settlements in the same regions. The number of T. leonina in animals less than 1 yr of age...

  15. Regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat over a sub-arctic landscape during late winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Hasager, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Based on measurements at Sodankyla Meteorological Observatory the regional (aggregated) momentum and sensible heat fluxes are estimated for two days over a site in Finnish Lapland during late winter. The forest covers 49% of the area. The study shows that the forest dominates and controls the reg...

  16. Cases of Lightweight Structures for Polar Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreros, Jessica Fernandoy; Christ, Julian; Shepherd, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The paper focuses on what the authors call ‘Polar Lightweight Structures’. The first part presents a collection of lightweight structures (LWS) designed and built for Antarctic conditions, with the aim of demonstrating the diversity of approaches attempted by designers. The second part of the paper...... presents two studies where different computational methods were applied for the design of generic LWS based on the local conditions of two particular Polar locations; namely, the Arctic region and Glacier Union in the Antarctic plateau. Both studies were conducted independently with the aim...

  17. Intra- and Inter- annual PM2.5 variations in the Arctic region during 2003-2017 based on the NASA's MERRA-2 re-analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, T. J.; Kim, K. M.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    We examined the intra- and inter-annual variations of PM2.5 in the Arctic region based on monthly mean aerosols (dust, sulfate, sea salt, and carbonaceous aerosols) and PM2.5 from NASA's latest reanalysis, MERRA2. We focus on the time period from January 2003 to the recent month (May 2017). The domain of the Arctic region was defined as North of 66.5N in this study. Although there are some exceptions, the largest contributions of dust, ammonium sulfate, sea salt, and carbonaceous aerosols (i.e., Black Carbon, BC, and Particulate Organic Matter, POM) to the fractions of PM2.5 were mainly seen in spring, spring, fall, and summer, respectively. During the focused time period, the fractions of dust, ammonium sulfate, sea salt, BC, and POM explains 2.7-42.5%, 9.5-37.5%, 16.7-73.1%, 0.5-2.8%, 1.5-58.0% of the Arctic PM2.5, respectively. If we picked up the top 10 high PM2.5 months during the period, those were separated into two seasons: summer (eight months) and winter (two months). For the composites of the summer months above, the areas with higher PM2.5 were Siberia, Far East, Alaska, and Canada and the regions where POM fractions were larger, implying the contributions from smokes due to active wildfires in summer seasons. For the winter months, the mixture of increased dust, ammonium sulfate, and sea salt was seen. However, the highest PM2.5 in the Arctic region was seen from the Kara Sea, Barents Sea, and Greenland Sea over which the contribution of sea salt was very large. This means the sea salt aerosols were the main contributor to the high PM2.5 winter months there. Based on our MERRA-2 analyses, continuous monitoring and development for better forecasting wildfire activities in summer and sea salt emissions in winter would be the keys for better understanding of the air quality in the Arctic region including mitigation and measures of it in the future.

  18. Over the Pole: A Fuel Efficiency Analysis of Employing Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson for Polar Route Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world- factbook//graphics/ref_maps/ political /jpg/arctic_region.jpg Department of Defense. (2013, November). 2013 Artic ...increasing navigable Arctic shipping lanes (Skya & Ashok, 2014). Due to polar ice melt there has been an increase in maritime activity in the Artic ...center location model in future airlift basing considerations. Many times politics plays a heavy hand in where certain assets are assigned

  19. Arctic Observing Network (AON): Enhancing Observing, Data Archiving and Data Discovery Capabilities as Arctic Environmental System Change Continues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, M. O.

    2008-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, under the auspices of the U.S. Inter-Agency Arctic Research Policy Committee, are leading the development of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) as part of the implementation of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) and as a legacy of International Polar Year (IPY). As the Observing Change component of SEARCH, AON complements the Understanding Change and Responding to Change components. AON addresses the need to enhance observing capabilities in a data-sparse region where environmental system changes are among the most rapid on Earth. AON data will contribute to research into understanding the causes and consequences of Arctic environmental system change and its global connections, and to improving predictive skill. AON is also a contribution to the development of a multi-nation, pan-Arctic observing network that is being discussed at the IPY 'Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks' (SAON) workshops. Enhancing Arctic observing capabilities faces many challenges, including coordination and integration of disparate observing elements and data systems that operate according to diverse policies and practices. There is wide agreement that data systems that provide archiving and discovery services are essential and integral to AON. In recognition of this, NSF is supporting the development of CADIS (Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service) as an AON portal for data discovery, a repository for data storage, and a platform for data analysis. NSF is also supporting ELOKA (Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge in the Arctic), a pilot project for a data management and networking service for community- based observing that keeps control of data in the hands of data providers while still allowing for broad searches and sharing of information. CADIS and ELOKA represent the application of cyberinfrastructure to meet AON data system needs that might also

  20. Problems on radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel management in the European Arctic Region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukov, Evgeny B.

    1999-01-01

    In the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions of Russia, radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel from the Northern Fleet and Mineconomiki, the technological repairing plant Atomflot and the Kola nuclear power plant and other activities is accumulating steadily and there is no adequate waste management system in the region. There is an action plan to remedy the situation, but it has been delayed because of insufficient funds. This presentation lists the volumes of liquid and solid radioactive wastes from these sources in 1996 and the expected volumes in 2020. It also lists the specific problems of the present waste management and main proposals of the action plan. In addition to federal funds, a number of projects are financed through international co-operation

  1. Limnological characteristics of 56 lakes in the Central Canadian Arctic Treeline Region

    OpenAIRE

    John P. SMOL; Xiaowa WANG; Derek C.G. MUIR; Kathleen M. RÜHLAND

    2003-01-01

    Measured environmental variables from 56 lakes across the Central Canadian Treeline Region exhibited clear limnological differences among subpolar ecozones, reflecting strong latitudinal changes in biome characteristics (e.g. vegetation, permafrost, climate). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) clearly separated forested sites from tundra sites based on distinct differences in limnological characteristics. Increases in major ions and related variables (e.g. dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC) we...

  2. Bouncing continents: insights into the physics of the polar regions of the Earth from the POLENET project in the International Polar Year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reading, Anya M

    2008-01-01

    When ice sheets melt, and reduce the load on the surface of the Earth, the land areas beneath them bounce back up. New, accurate observations are needed to investigate this uplift and its implications effectively. This article provides a topical starting point for investigating some applications of physics applied to the polar regions of the Earth, and interaction between the solid Earth, ice and oceans

  3. 75 FR 17763 - Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Fairbanks, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... ecological studies and management of this herd and the Western Arctic caribou herd), polar bears, grizzly...] Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Fairbanks, AK AGENCY: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, Refuge). The Revised CCP will establish goals and objectives...

  4. Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Distribution as an Indicator of Arctic Climate Change - Synthesis of Model Results and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw; Clement Kinney, Jaclyn; Jakacki, Jaromir; Osinski, Robert; Zwally, Jay

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic region is an integral part of the Earth's climate system through its influence on global surface energy and moisture fluxes and on atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Within the Arctic, its sea ice cover is possibly the most sensitive indicator of the polar amplified global warming and of the state of Arctic climate system as a whole. Hence changes in Arctic climate and the decline of multi-year sea ice cover have significant ramifications to the entire pan-Arctic region and beyond. Having the recorded average global surface temperature about 0.54°C (0.96°F) above the 20th Century average the decade of 2000-2009 has been the warmest of the 130-year record, with the maximum positive temperatures anomalies in the northern high latitude regions. Satellite records of the Arctic sea ice show a decreasing and accelerating trend in ice extent and concentration since the late 1979, as a result of the global warming. More importantly there is growing evidence that the Arctic sea ice thickness and volume have been decreasing at even faster rate. This means that our knowledge of the Arctic sea ice melt might be significantly biased due to the interpretation of 2-dimensional sea ice extent / concentration records only instead of ice thickness and volume. The rates of recent ice thickness and volume melt derived from our pan-Arctic coupled ice-ocean model results combined with recent remotely sensed data suggest an accelerating negative trend. This trend is robust and lends credence to the postulation that the Arctic not only might but it is likely to be ice-free during the summer in the near future. However, global climate models vary widely in their predictions of warming and the rate of Arctic ice melt, suggesting it may take anywhere from a couple of decades to more than a century to melt most of the summer sea ice cover. Also many regional models are limited in their representation of the rapid Arctic sea ice thinning and volume loss. The inability of models

  5. Status and trends in the structure of Arctic benthic food webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kędra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing climate warming is causing a dramatic loss of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean, and it is projected that the Arctic Ocean will become seasonally ice-free by 2040. Many studies of local Arctic food webs now exist, and with this review paper we aim to synthesize these into a large-scale assessment of the current status of knowledge on the structure of various Arctic marine food webs and their response to climate change, and to sea-ice retreat in particular. Key drivers of ecosystem change and potential consequences for ecosystem functioning and Arctic marine food webs are identified along the sea-ice gradient, with special emphasis on the following regions: seasonally ice-free Barents and Chukchi seas, loose ice pack zone of the Polar Front and Marginal Ice Zone, and permanently sea-ice covered High Arctic. Finally, we identify knowledge gaps in different Arctic marine food webs and provide recommendations for future studies.

  6. Atmospheric winter response to Arctic sea ice changes in reanalysis data and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiser, Ralf; Nakamura, Tetsu; Handorf, Dörthe; Romanowsky, Erik; Dethloff, Klaus; Ukita, Jinro; Yamazaki, Koji

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, Arctic regions showcased the most pronounced signals of a changing climate: Sea ice is reduced by more the ten percent per decade. At the same time, global warming trends have their maximum in Arctic latitudes often labled Arctic Amplification. There is strong evidence that amplified Arctic changes feed back into mid-latitudes in winter. We identified mechanisms that link recent Arctic changes through vertically propagating planetary waves to events of a weakened stratospheric polar vortex. Related anomalies propagate downward and lead to negative AO-like situations in the troposphere. European winter climate is sensitive to negative AO situations in terms of cold air outbreaks that are likely to occur more often in that case. These results based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data do not allow to dismiss other potential forcing factors leading to observed mid-latitude climate changes. Nevertheless, properly designed Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) experiments with AFES and ECHAM6 are able to reproduce observed atmospheric circulation changes if only observed sea ice changes in the Arctic are prescribed. This allows to deduce mechanisms that explain how Arctic Amplification can lead to a negative AO response via a stratospheric pathway. Further investigation of these mechanisms may feed into improved prediction systems.

  7. A Hero in the Friendly Arctic: Deconstructing Vilhjalmur Stefansson's Rhetorical Maneuver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Gaupseth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with Arctic explorer and anthropologist Vilhjalmur Stefansson's self-presentation in the expedition account The Friendly Arctic: The Story of Five Years in Polar Regions (1921, which tells the story of his travels and trials in the Canadian High Arctic in the years between 1913-1918. The account has been considered a key text to Stefansson's Arctic career, and provides a textbook example of his characteristic theory of living off the country in the so-called Eskimo way. Against the background of Stefansson's debated position as Arctic expert and visionary, I ask if it is possible to read the kind of criticism with which Stefansson frequently was met as rooted in some of the narrative aspects of his account. The narrative persona or implied author is a central element in the literature of exploration, as several literary scholars have pointed out. My reading is centred around the implied author of The Friendly Arctic, which I argue must be read in light of the sometimes conflicting roles given to Stefansson as protagonist and narrator in his own story. Close-readings of passages from the account raise the dilemma of how it is possible to present oneself as a hero in an essentially friendly Arctic.

  8. The Arctic Turn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon

    2018-01-01

    , a few states – Canada, Denmark, and the United States – sent other representatives. There was nothing unusual about the absence of Per Stig Møller, the Danish foreign minister – a Danish foreign minister had only once attended an Arctic Council ministerial meeting (Arctic Council 2016). Møller......In October 2006, representatives of the Arctic governments met in Salekhard in northern Siberia for the biennial Arctic Council ministerial meeting to discuss how the council could combat regional climate change, among other issues. While most capitals were represented by their foreign minister...... and Greenlandic affairs had mainly been about managing fishing quotas. Though crucial for Danish-Greenlandic relations, such issues were hardly top priorities for Her Majesty’s Foreign Service....

  9. 3 mm GMVA Observations of Total and Polarized Emission from Blazar and Radio Galaxy Core Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Casadio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present total and linearly polarized 3 mm Global mm-VLBI Array (GMVA; mm-VLBI: Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations at millimetre wavelengths images of a sample of blazars and radio galaxies from the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR 7 mm monitoring program designed to probe the innermost regions of active galactic nuclei (AGN jets and locate the sites of gamma-ray emission observed by the Fermi-LAT. The lower opacity at 3 mm and improved angular resolution—on the order of 50 microarcseconds—allow us to distinguish features in the jet not visible in the 7 mm VLBA data. We also compare two different methods used for the calibration of instrumental polarisation and we analyze the resulting images for some of the sources in the sample.

  10. Source-to-sink cycling of aeolian sediment in the north polar region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.; Kocurek, G.

    2012-12-01

    Aeolian sand dunes are prominent features on the landscapes of Earth, Mars, Venus and Titan and sedimentary deposits interpreted as aeolian in origin are found in the rock records of Earth and Mars. The widespread occurrence of aeolian dunes on the surface of these worlds and within their deep-time depositional records suggests that aeolian systems are and likely have been a default depositional environment for the Solar System. Within an aeolian source-to-sink context, we hypothesize that planet-specific boundary conditions strongly impact production, transport, accumulation and preservation of aeolian sediment, whereas dunes and dune-field patterns remain largely similar. This hypothesis is explored within the north polar region of Mars, which hosts the most extensive aeolian dune fields and aeolian sedimentary deposits yet recognized on Mars and appears to be a region of dynamic source-to-sink cycling of aeolian sediments. The Planum Boreum Cavi Unit rests beneath north polar ice cap of Mars and is composed of several hundred meters of niveo-aeolian dune cross-stratification. The overall architecture of the unit consists of sets of preserved dune topography with an upward increase in the abundance of ice. Dune sets are defined by stabilized, polygonally fractured bounding surfaces, erosional bounding surfaces and typical internal lee foresets made of sediment and ice. The accumulation of the Cavi Unit is interpreted as occurring through freezing and serves as an example of a cold temperature boundary condition on aeolian sediment accumulation. Preservation of the Cavi Unit arises because of deposition of the overlying ice cap and contrasts with preservation of aeolian sediment on Earth, which is largely driven by eustasy and tectonics. The Cavi Unit is thought to be one source of sediment for the north polar Olympia Undae Dune Field. The region of Olympia Undae near the Cavi Unit shows a reticulate dune field pattern composed of two sets of nearly orthogonal

  11. Polarized dependence of nonlinear susceptibility in a single layer graphene system in infrared region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solookinejad, G., E-mail: ghsolooki@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of a single-layer graphene nanostructure driven by a weak probe light and an elliptical polarized coupling field is discussed theoretically. The Landau levels of graphene can be separated in infrared or terahertz regions under the strong magnetic field. Therefore, by using the density matrix formalism in quantum optic, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of the medium can be derived. It is demonstrated that by adjusting the elliptical parameter, one can manipulate the linear and nonlinear absorption as well as Kerr nonlinearity of the medium. It is realized that the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity can be possible with zero linear absorption and nonlinear amplification at some values of elliptical parameter. Our results may be having potential applications in quantum information science based on Nano scales devices.

  12. Polar Science Is Cool!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Children are fascinated by the fact that polar scientists do research in extremely cold and dangerous places. In the Arctic they might be viewed as lunch by a polar bear. In the Antarctic, they could lose toes and fingers to frostbite and the wind is so fast it can rip skin off. They camp on ice in continuous daylight, weeks from any form of…

  13. Contemporary Arctic Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    During recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed at a rate about twice the rest of the globe. Sea ice melting is increasing and the Greenland ice sheet is losing mass at an accelerated rate. Arctic warming, decrease in the sea ice cover and fresh water input to the Arctic ocean may eventually impact the Arctic sea level. In this presentation, we review our current knowledge of contemporary Arctic sea level changes. Until the beginning of the 1990s, Arctic sea level variations were essentially deduced from tide gauges located along the Russian and Norwegian coastlines. Since then, high inclination satellite altimetry missions have allowed measuring sea level over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean (up to 80 degree north). Measuring sea level in the Arctic by satellite altimetry is challenging because the presence of sea ice cover limits the full capacity of this technique. However adapted processing of raw altimetric measurements significantly increases the number of valid data, hence the data coverage, from which regional sea level variations can be extracted. Over the altimetry era, positive trend patterns are observed over the Beaufort Gyre and along the east coast of Greenland, while negative trends are reported along the Siberian shelf. On average over the Arctic region covered by satellite altimetry, the rate of sea level rise since 1992 is slightly less than the global mea sea level rate (of about 3 mm per year). On the other hand, the interannual variability is quite significant. Space gravimetry data from the GRACE mission and ocean reanalyses provide information on the mass and steric contributions to sea level, hence on the sea level budget. Budget studies show that regional sea level trends over the Beaufort Gyre and along the eastern coast of Greenland, are essentially due to salinity changes. However, in terms of regional average, the net steric component contributes little to the observed sea level trend. The sea level budget in the Arctic

  14. Sub regional cooperation and protection of the arctic marine environments: The Barents Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-07-01

    The report deals with questions related to effectiveness of subregional co-operation in the Barents Sea. Efforts have differed from global processes by their clearer programmatic profile. Relatively more resources, in terms of both expertise and financial funds, have been invested in order to enhance the knowledge-base for management decisions in the region as well as the administrative and technical capacity to avoid behaviour liable to threaten the marine environment. Many of the programmatic activities encouraged at other levels have been planned, financed and organised at the subregional level. Comparatively less attention has been given to establishing new regulative norms for environmental protection from either industrial or military activity in the region. The Regional Council ensures that both county level decision makers and representatives of the indigenous population are involved. A point is the general balance between the environmental and the economic component. Moreover, the inclusiveness of the Barents Council provides linkages to potential partners in development found beyond the Barents Sea area. The subregional level has served to relate environmental protection to broader foreign policy issues and has strengthened environmental networks across the Nordic Russian divide which in turn has generated financial resources and expertise. The main reason for the higher fund raising capacity of subregional processes is that geographic proximity ensures denser networks of interdependence partly by the fact that Nordic neighbours have a clear self interest in financing environmental projects in Russia, particularly those addressing industrial pollution from the border areas and those designed to prevent dumping of radioactive waste and partly by ensuring that environmental projects may serve broader purposes associated with national security. The willingness on the part of Norway and other Nordic states to use their financial powers for problem solving

  15. The Arctic zone: possibilities and risks of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentsov, A.; Bolsunovskaya, Y.; Melnikovich, E.

    2016-09-01

    The authors analyze the Arctic region innovative possibilities from the perspective of political ideology and strategy. The Arctic region with its natural resources and high economic potential attracts many companies and it has become an important area of transnational development. At present, the Arctic region development is of great importance in terms of natural resource management and political system development. However, the most important development issue in the Arctic is a great risk of different countries’ competing interests in economic, political, and legal context. These are challenges for international partnership creating in the Arctic zone, Russian future model developing for the Arctic, and recognition of the Arctic as an important resource for the Russians. The Russian economic, military, and political expansion in the Arctic region has the potential to strengthen the national positions. The authors present interesting options for minimizing and eliminating political risks during the Arctic territories development and define an effective future planning model for the Russian Arctic.

  16. Japan’s arctic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Streltsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article is devoted to the public policy of modern Japan in the Arctic. The Japanese government has put forward clear and well-specifi ed targets of the intensifi cation of Japan’s efforts in the economic development of the Arctic region. Among the priorities of the Arctic policy one should mention such areas as the development of maritime transportation, development of hydrocarbon deposits of the Arctic shelf, sea fi shing, as well as the preservation and increase of the sea bioresources.

  17. Disparities in Arctic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-02-04

    Life at the top of the globe is drastically different. Harsh climate devoid of sunlight part of the year, pockets of extreme poverty, and lack of physical infrastructure interfere with healthcare and public health services. Learn about the challenges of people in the Arctic and how research and the International Polar Year address them.  Created: 2/4/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 2/20/2008.

  18. Thermokarst Associations with Landscape Characteristics in Arctic Alaska: Implications for Future Permafrost Degradation at Landscape to Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balser, A.; Jones, J. B.; Jorgenson, T.

    2010-12-01

    Permafrost degradation affects Arctic landscapes, and is controlled by myriad landscape characteristics. Thermokarst features can develop by catastrophic failure, gradual subsidence, or continual mass wasting and can be classified into discernible modes based upon mechanism, morphology and substrate characteristics. Relationships among landscape characteristics and several different modes of thermokarst provided strong predictors of regional scale thermokarst distribution. In the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska, several distinct modes of thermokarst predominated. Active-layer detachment slides were associated with 4-7° slopes, non-carbonate parent lithologies (particularly micaceous shale), ice-rich upper permafrost with >40 % segregation ice in a 20 cm horizon directly beneath the active layer, and non-tussock vegetation. Glacial thermokarst (including the central kettle lake and surrounding retrogressive thaw slumps), was confined to valley bottoms where glacial recession has deposited stagnate glacial ice typically insulated by ablation till, colluvial blankets, and peat. Thermo-erosional gullies occurred in landscapes that have substantial massive ice (typically wedges, although less commonly abundant segregated ice) and sustained surface water flow. Retrogressive thaw slumps not associated with buried glacial ice formed on 6-12° slopes with ice-rich permafrost containing >35 % visible segregated ice. These slumps occurred either on low hillslope positions along convex bluffs, or as secondary features extending uphill from pre-existing active-layer detachment slides. Observations indicate that thermokarst formation has three essential components: (1) sufficient volume of ground ice of varying morphologies; (2) a set of distinctive landscape conditions (e.g. surficial materials, slopes and gravitational energy, vegetation, and water flow); and (3) a triggering mechanism caused by unusual weather or a disturbance event, although glacial thermokarst

  19. How Do We Know that the Arctic is Changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, J. E.

    2009-12-01