WorldWideScience

Sample records for polar projection map

  1. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    by the practical testing environment. As a result of the changes, a reasonable assumption would be to question the consequences caused by the variations in method procedures. Here, the aim is to highlight the proven or hypothetic consequences of variations of Projective Mapping. Presented variations will include...... instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm et.al., 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous perceptions are much dependent......Projective Mapping (Risvik et.al., 1994) and its Napping (Pagès, 2003) variations have become increasingly popular in the sensory field for rapid collection of spontaneous product perceptions. It has been applied in variations which sometimes are caused by the purpose of the analysis and sometimes...

  2. Projective geometry for polarization in geometric quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.; Dodson, C.T.J.

    1976-12-01

    It is important to know the extent to which the procedure of geometric quantization depends on a choice of polarization of the symplectic manifold that is the classical phase space. Published results have so far been restricted to real and transversal polarizations. Here we also consider these cases by presenting a formulation in terms of projective geometry. It turns out that there is a natural characterization of real transversal polarizations and maps among them using projective concepts. We give explicit constructions for Rsup(2n)

  3. The projective heat map

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces a simple dynamical model for a planar heat map that is invariant under projective transformations. The map is defined by iterating a polygon map, where one starts with a finite planar N-gon and produces a new N-gon by a prescribed geometric construction. One of the appeals of the topic of this book is the simplicity of the construction that yet leads to deep and far reaching mathematics. To construct the projective heat map, the author modifies the classical affine invariant midpoint map, which takes a polygon to a new polygon whose vertices are the midpoints of the original. The author provides useful background which makes this book accessible to a beginning graduate student or advanced undergraduate as well as researchers approaching this subject from other fields of specialty. The book includes many illustrations, and there is also a companion computer program.

  4. Map projections cartographic information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grafarend, Erik W; Syffus, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a timely review of map projections including sphere, ellipsoid, rotational surfaces, and geodetic datum transformations. Coverage includes computer vision, and remote sensing space projective mappings in photogrammetry.

  5. Map projections cartographic information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grafarend, Erik W

    2006-01-01

    In the context of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) the book offers a timely review of map projections (sphere, ellipsoid, rotational surfaces) and geodetic datum transformations. For the needs of photogrammetry, computer vision, and remote sensing space projective mappings are reviewed.

  6. Transfer maps and projection formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Tabuada, Goncalo

    2010-01-01

    Transfer maps and projection formulas are undoubtedly one of the key tools in the development and computation of (co)homology theories. In this note we develop an unified treatment of transfer maps and projection formulas in the non-commutative setting of dg categories. As an application, we obtain transfer maps and projection formulas in algebraic K-theory, cyclic homology, topological cyclic homology, and other scheme invariants.

  7. STEER Coastal Use Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Use Mapping Project is designed to collect critical information on human activities in and near the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER). The project...

  8. Understanding map projections: Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usery, E. Lynn; Kent, Alexander J.; Vujakovic, Peter

    2018-01-01

    It has probably never been more important in the history of cartography than now that people understand how maps work. With increasing globalization, for example, world maps provide a key format for the transmission of information, but are often poorly used. Examples of poor understanding and use of projections and the resultant maps are many; for instance, the use of rectangular world maps in the United Kingdom press to show Chinese and Korean missile ranges as circles, something which can only be achieved on equidistant projections and then only from one launch point (Vujakovic, 2014).

  9. Coordinate systems and map projections

    CERN Document Server

    Maling, DH

    1992-01-01

    A revised and expanded new edition of the definitive English work on map projections. The revisions take into account the huge advances in geometrical geodesy which have occurred since the early years of satellite geodesy. The detailed configuration of the geoid resulting from the GEOS and SEASAT altimetry measurements are now taken into consideration. Additionally, the chapter on computation of map projections is updated bearing in mind the availability of pocket calculators and microcomputers. Analytical derivation of some map projections including examples of pseudocylindrical and polyconic

  10. On polars of mixed projection bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang-Jian; Leng, Gang-Song

    2006-04-01

    Recently, Lutwak established general Minkowski inequality, Brunn-Minkowski inequality and Aleksandrov-Fenchel inequality for mixed projection bodies. In this paper, following Lutwak, we established their polar forms. As applications, we prove some interrelated results.

  11. Map Projections in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Wikipedia (wiki + encyclopaedia is a multilingual, web-based encyclopaedia with free content. It is a wiki, which means it is written by numerous volunteers, and most articles can be changed by anyone with Internet access and an adequate web browser. The project was started on January 15, 2001. Wikipedia currently has more than 3 700 000 articles in many languages (including a million articles in English.

  12. The European radon mapping project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossew, P.; Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M.

    2013-01-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  13. The European radon mapping project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P., E-mail: pbossew@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M., E-mail: tore.tollefsen@jrc.ec.europa.eu, E-mail: valeria.gruber@gmail.com, E-mail: marc.de-cort@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra, VA (Italy). DG Joint Research Centre. European Commission

    2013-07-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  14. Wavelet analysis of polarization maps of polycrystalline biological fluids networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, Y. A.

    2011-12-01

    The optical model of human joints synovial fluid is proposed. The statistic (statistic moments), correlation (autocorrelation function) and self-similar (Log-Log dependencies of power spectrum) structure of polarization two-dimensional distributions (polarization maps) of synovial fluid has been analyzed. It has been shown that differentiation of polarization maps of joint synovial fluid with different physiological state samples is expected of scale-discriminative analysis. To mark out of small-scale domain structure of synovial fluid polarization maps, the wavelet analysis has been used. The set of parameters, which characterize statistic, correlation and self-similar structure of wavelet coefficients' distributions of different scales of polarization domains for diagnostics and differentiation of polycrystalline network transformation connected with the pathological processes, has been determined.

  15. Adapting the HSV polarization-color mapping for regions with low irradiance and high polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Tyo, J; Ratliff, Bradley M; Alenin, Andrey S

    2016-10-15

    Many mappings from polarization into color have been developed so that polarization information can be displayed. One of the most common of these maps the angle of linear polarization into color hue and degree of linear polarization into color saturation, while preserving the irradiance information from the polarization data. While this strategy enjoys wide popularity, there is a large class of polarization images for which it is not ideal. It is common to have images where the strongest polarization signatures (in terms of degree of polarization) occur in regions of relatively low irradiance: either in shadow in reflective bands or in cold regions in emissive bands. Since the irradiance is low, the chromatic properties of the resulting images are generally not apparent. Here we present an alternate mapping that uses the statistics of the angle of polarization as a measure of confidence in the polarization signature, then amplifies the irradiance in regions of high confidence, and leaves it unchanged in regions of low confidence. Results are shown from an LWIR and a visible spectrum imager.

  16. Testing statistical isotropy in cosmic microwave background polarization maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Pranati K.; Samal, Pramoda Kumar; Panda, Srikanta; Mishra, Debesh D.; Aluri, Pavan K.

    2018-04-01

    We apply our symmetry based Power tensor technique to test conformity of PLANCK Polarization maps with statistical isotropy. On a wide range of angular scales (l = 40 - 150), our preliminary analysis detects many statistically anisotropic multipoles in foreground cleaned full sky PLANCK polarization maps viz., COMMANDER and NILC. We also study the effect of residual foregrounds that may still be present in the Galactic plane using both common UPB77 polarization mask, as well as the individual component separation method specific polarization masks. However, some of the statistically anisotropic modes still persist, albeit significantly in NILC map. We further probed the data for any coherent alignments across multipoles in several bins from the chosen multipole range.

  17. Cognition of normal pattern of myocardial polar map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Yasuo; Sasaki, Jiro; Kashima, Kenji; Matsumura, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kodama, Kazuhisa

    1989-01-01

    When we diagnose the presence of ischemic heart disease by the diagrams of computer-generated polar map of exercised thallium images, the estimation of the presence of the deficit is not sufficient, because many normal subjects are considered as abnormal. The mean+2SD of defect severity index (DSI) of 118 normal subjects was 120, and we defined the patients with DSI≤120 as normal. But in 139 patients with their DSI≤120, 28 patients had significant coronary stenosis (>75%) and this means that false negative was 20%. We estimated the pattern of the deficit and found that in 109 of 111 subjects with normal coronary arteries, and 16 of 28 patients with ischemic heart disease, the patterns of the diagrams of polar map were patchy. This means that the diagram of the polar map show patchy pattern more frequently in normal subjects. In 125 patients whose diagrams of polar map were patchy, 16 patients with ischemic heart disease were included (false negative was 13%). We conclude that the estimation of DSI and the pattern of the diagram of polar map should be simultaneously considered and this makes the more accurate diagnosis possible. (author)

  18. Lensing reconstruction from a patchwork of polarization maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namikawa, Toshiya; Nagata, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    The lensing signals involved in CMB polarization maps have already been measured with ground-based experiments such as SPTpol and POLARBEAR, and would become important as a probe of cosmological and astrophysical issues in the near future. Sizes of polarization maps from ground-based experiments are, however, limited by contamination of long wavelength modes of observational noise. To further extract the lensing signals, we explore feasibility of measuring lensing signals from a collection of small sky maps each of which is observed separately by a ground-based large telescope, i.e., lensing reconstruction from a patchwork map of large sky coverage organized from small sky patches. We show that, although the B-mode power spectrum obtained from the patchwork map is biased due to baseline uncertainty, bias on the lensing potential would be negligible if the B-mode on scales larger than the blowup scale of 1/f noise is removed in the lensing reconstruction. As examples of cosmological applications, we also show 1) the cross-correlations between the reconstructed lensing potential and full-sky temperature/polarization maps from satellite missions such as PLANCK and LiteBIRD, and 2) the use of the reconstructed potential for delensing B-mode polarization of LiteBIRD observation

  19. Excess B‐modes extracted from the Planck polarization maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    on both temperature and polarization data obtained by the WMAP satellite. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of neural networks for extracting the CMB signal from the Planck polarization data with high precision. Both auto‐correlation and cross‐correlation power spectra within...... a mask covering about 63 % of the sky have been used together with a “high pass filter” in order to minimize the influence of the remaining systematic errors in the Planck Q and U maps. Using the Planck 2015 released polarization maps, a BB power spectrum have been extracted by Multilayer Perceptron...... tensor to scalar ratios). The feasibility of the neural network to remove the residual systematics from the available Planck polarization data to a high level has been demonstrated. (© 2016 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...

  20. Imaging Local Polarization in Ferroelectric Thin Films by Coherent X-Ray Bragg Projection Ptychography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruszkewycz, S. O.; Highland, M. J.; Holt, M. V.; Kim, Dongjin; Folkman, C. M.; Thompson, Carol; Tripathi, A.; Stephenson, G. B.; Hong, Seungbum; Fuoss, P. H.

    2013-04-01

    We used x-ray Bragg projection ptychography (BPP) to map spatial variations of ferroelectric polarization in thin film PbTiO3, which exhibited a striped nanoscale domain pattern on a high-miscut (001) SrTiO3 substrate. By converting the reconstructed BPP phase image to picometer-scale ionic displacements in the polar unit cell, a quantitative polarization map was made that was consistent with other characterization. The spatial resolution of 5.7 nm demonstrated here establishes BPP as an important tool for nanoscale ferroelectric domain imaging, especially in complex environments accessible with hard x rays.

  1. Climate Ready Estuaries Partner Projects Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRE partners with the National Estuary Program to develop climate change projects in coastal U.S. areas, such as bays and harbors; to develop adaptation action plans, identify climate impacts and indicators, and more. This map shows project locations.

  2. Polarization-color mapping strategies: catching up with color theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Andrew W.; Alenin, Andrey S.; Vaughn, Israel J.; Tyo, J. Scott

    2017-09-01

    Current visualization techniques for mapping polarization data to a color coordinates defined by the Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV) color representation are analyzed in the context of perceptual uniformity. Since HSV is not designed to be perceptually uniform, the extent of non-uniformity should be evaluated by using robust color difference formulae and by comparison to the state-of-the-art uniform color space CAM02-UCS. For mapping just angle of polarization with HSV hue, the results show clear non-uniformity and implications for how this can misrepresent the data. UCS can be used to create alternative mapping techniques that are perceptually uniform. Implementing variation in lightness may increase shape discrimination within the scene. Future work will be dedicated to measuring performance of both current and proposed methods using psychophysical analysis.

  3. Modeling Research Project Risks with Fuzzy Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodea, Constanta Nicoleta; Dascalu, Mariana Iuliana

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a risks evaluation model for research projects. The model is based on fuzzy inference. The knowledge base for fuzzy process is built with a causal and cognitive map of risks. The map was especially developed for research projects, taken into account their typical lifecycle. The model was applied to an e-testing research…

  4. Excess B-modes extracted from the Planck polarization maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.

    2016-06-01

    One of the main obstacles for extracting the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from mm/submm observations is the pollution from the main Galactic components: synchrotron, free-free and thermal dust emission. The feasibility of using simple neural networks to extract CMB has been demonstrated on both temperature and polarization data obtained by the WMAP satellite. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of neural networks for extracting the CMB signal from the Planck polarization data with high precision. Both auto-correlation and cross-correlation power spectra within a mask covering about 63 % of the sky have been used together with a ``high pass filter'' in order to minimize the influence of the remaining systematic errors in the Planck Q and U maps. Using the Planck 2015 released polarization maps, a BB power spectrum have been extracted by Multilayer Perceptron neural networks. This spectrum contains a bright feature with signal to noise ratios ≃ 4.5 within 200 ≤ l ≤ 250. The spectrum is significantly brighter than the BICEP2 2015 spectrum, with a spectral behaviour quite different from the ``canonical'' models (weak lensing plus B-modes spectra with different tensor to scalar ratios). The feasibility of the neural network to remove the residual systematics from the available Planck polarization data to a high level has been demonstrated.

  5. RADARSAT: The Antarctic Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, Kenneth C.; Lindstrom, E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first Antarctic Imaging Campaign (AIC) occurred during the period September 9, 1997 through October 20, 1997. The AIC utilized the unique attributes of the Canadian RADARSAT-1 to acquire the first, high-resolution, synthetic aperture imagery covering the entire Antarctic Continent. Although the primary goal of the mission was the acquisition of image data, the nearly flawless execution of the mission enabled additional collections of exact repeat orbit data. These data, covering an extensive portion of the interior Antarctic, potentially are suitable for interferometric analysis of topography and surface velocity. This document summarizes the Project through completion with delivery of products to the NASA DAACs.

  6. Projection Mapping User Interface for Disabled People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelšvartas, Julius; Simutis, Rimvydas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis

    2018-01-01

    Difficulty in communicating is one of the key challenges for people suffering from severe motor and speech disabilities. Often such person can communicate and interact with the environment only using assistive technologies. This paper presents a multifunctional user interface designed to improve communication efficiency and person independence. The main component of this interface is a projection mapping technique used to highlight objects in the environment. Projection mapping makes it possible to create a natural augmented reality information presentation method. The user interface combines a depth sensor and a projector to create camera-projector system. We provide a detailed description of camera-projector system calibration procedure. The described system performs tabletop object detection and automatic projection mapping. Multiple user input modalities have been integrated into the multifunctional user interface. Such system can be adapted to the needs of people with various disabilities.

  7. Projection Mapping User Interface for Disabled People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simutis, Rimvydas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis

    2018-01-01

    Difficulty in communicating is one of the key challenges for people suffering from severe motor and speech disabilities. Often such person can communicate and interact with the environment only using assistive technologies. This paper presents a multifunctional user interface designed to improve communication efficiency and person independence. The main component of this interface is a projection mapping technique used to highlight objects in the environment. Projection mapping makes it possible to create a natural augmented reality information presentation method. The user interface combines a depth sensor and a projector to create camera-projector system. We provide a detailed description of camera-projector system calibration procedure. The described system performs tabletop object detection and automatic projection mapping. Multiple user input modalities have been integrated into the multifunctional user interface. Such system can be adapted to the needs of people with various disabilities. PMID:29686827

  8. Projection Mapping User Interface for Disabled People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Gelšvartas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulty in communicating is one of the key challenges for people suffering from severe motor and speech disabilities. Often such person can communicate and interact with the environment only using assistive technologies. This paper presents a multifunctional user interface designed to improve communication efficiency and person independence. The main component of this interface is a projection mapping technique used to highlight objects in the environment. Projection mapping makes it possible to create a natural augmented reality information presentation method. The user interface combines a depth sensor and a projector to create camera-projector system. We provide a detailed description of camera-projector system calibration procedure. The described system performs tabletop object detection and automatic projection mapping. Multiple user input modalities have been integrated into the multifunctional user interface. Such system can be adapted to the needs of people with various disabilities.

  9. Research Progress in Mathematical Analysis of Map Projection by Computer Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIAN Shaofeng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Map projection is an important component of modern cartography, and involves many fussy mathematical analysis processes, such as the power series expansions of elliptical functions, differential of complex and implicit functions, elliptical integral and the operation of complex numbers. The derivation of these problems by hand not only consumes much time and energy but also makes mistake easily, and sometimes can not be realized at all because of the impossible complexity. The research achievements in mathematical analysis of map projection by computer algebra are systematically reviewed in five aspects, i.e., the symbolic expressions of forward and inverse solution of ellipsoidal latitudes, the direct transformations between map projections with different distortion properties, expressions of Gauss projection by complex function, mathematical analysis of oblique Mercator projection, polar chart projection with its transformation. Main problems that need to be further solved in this research field are analyzed. It will be helpful to promote the development of map projection.

  10. Molecular polarization potential maps of the nucleic acid bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkorta, I.; Perez, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Ab initio calculations at the SCF level were carried out to compute the polarization potential map NM of the nucleic acid bases: cytosine, thymine, uracil, adedine, and guanine. For this purpose, the Dunning's 9s5p basis set contracted to a split-valence, was selected to perform the calculations. The molecular polarization potential (MPP) at each point was evaluated by the difference between the interaction energy of the molecule with a unit point charge and the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) at that point. MEPS and MPPS for the different molecules were computed with a density of 5 points/Angstrom 2 on the van der Waals surface of each molecule, defined using the van der Waals radii. Due to the symmetry of the molecules, only half the points were computed. The total number of points calculated was 558 for cytosine, 621 for thymine, 526 for uracil, 666 for adenine, and 699 for guanine. The results of these calculations are analyzed in terms of their implications on the molecular interactions between pairs of nucleic acid bases. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Circularly polarized near-field optical mapping of spin-resolved quantum Hall chiral edge states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyouda, Syuhei; Ito, Hironori; Shibata, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masumi; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Ootuka, Youiti; Nomura, Shintaro

    2015-04-08

    We have successfully developed a circularly polarized near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) that enables us to irradiate circularly polarized light with spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. As a demonstration, we perform real-space mapping of the quantum Hall chiral edge states near the edge of a Hall-bar structure by injecting spin polarized electrons optically at low temperature. The obtained real-space mappings show that spin-polarized electrons are injected optically to the two-dimensional electron layer. Our general method to locally inject spins using a circularly polarized NSOM should be broadly applicable to characterize a variety of nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  12. Mapping 180° polar domains using electron backscatter diffraction and dynamical scattering simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Matthew J.; Fancher, Chris M.; Patala, Srikanth [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); De Graef, Marc [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburg, PA (United States); Dickey, Elizabeth C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-02-15

    A novel technique, which directly and nondestructively maps polar domains using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is described and demonstrated. Through dynamical diffraction simulations and quantitative comparison to experimental EBSD patterns, the absolute orientation of a non-centrosymmetric crystal can be determined. With this information, the polar domains of a material can be mapped. The technique is demonstrated by mapping the non-ferroelastic, or 180°, ferroelectric domains in periodically poled LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals. Further, the authors demonstrate the possibility of mapping polarity using this technique in other polar materials system. - Highlights: • A novel technique to directly polar domains utilizing EBSD is demonstrated. • The technique relies on dynamical diffraction simulations of EBSD patterns. • The technique is demonstrated by mapping 180° domains in LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals. • Further application of this technique to other materials classes is discussed.

  13. PROPERTIES OF INTERSTELLAR TURBULENCE FROM GRADIENTS OF LINEAR POLARIZATION MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radio signals provides a very sensitive probe of fluctuations in the interstellar magnetic field and ionized gas density resulting from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We used a set of statistical tools to analyze images of the spatial gradient of linearly polarized radio emission (|∇P|) for both observational data from a test image of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey (SGPS) and isothermal three-dimensional simulations of MHD turbulence. Visually, in both observations and simulations, a complex network of filamentary structures is seen. Our analysis shows that the filaments in |∇P| can be produced both by interacting shocks and random fluctuations characterizing the non-differentiable field of MHD turbulence. The latter dominates for subsonic turbulence, while the former is only present in supersonic turbulence. We show that supersonic and subsonic turbulence exhibit different distributions as well as different morphologies in the maps of |∇P|. Particularly, filaments produced by shocks show a characteristic 'double jump' profile at the sites of shock fronts resulting from delta function-like increases in the density and/or magnetic field, while those produced by subsonic turbulence show a single jump profile. In order to quantitatively characterize these differences, we use the topology tool known as the genus curve as well as the probability distribution function moments of the image distribution. We find that higher values for the moments correspond to cases of |∇P| with larger sonic Mach numbers. The genus analysis of the supersonic simulations of |∇P| reveals a 'swiss cheese' topology, while the subsonic cases have characteristics of a 'clump' topology. Based on the analysis of the genus and the higher order moments, the SGPS test region data have a distribution and morphology that match subsonic- to transonic-type turbulence, which confirms what is now expected for the warm ionized medium.

  14. PROPERTIES OF INTERSTELLAR TURBULENCE FROM GRADIENTS OF LINEAR POLARIZATION MAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A. [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 N. Charter St., WI 53711 (United States); Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2012-04-20

    Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radio signals provides a very sensitive probe of fluctuations in the interstellar magnetic field and ionized gas density resulting from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We used a set of statistical tools to analyze images of the spatial gradient of linearly polarized radio emission (|{nabla}P|) for both observational data from a test image of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey (SGPS) and isothermal three-dimensional simulations of MHD turbulence. Visually, in both observations and simulations, a complex network of filamentary structures is seen. Our analysis shows that the filaments in |{nabla}P| can be produced both by interacting shocks and random fluctuations characterizing the non-differentiable field of MHD turbulence. The latter dominates for subsonic turbulence, while the former is only present in supersonic turbulence. We show that supersonic and subsonic turbulence exhibit different distributions as well as different morphologies in the maps of |{nabla}P|. Particularly, filaments produced by shocks show a characteristic 'double jump' profile at the sites of shock fronts resulting from delta function-like increases in the density and/or magnetic field, while those produced by subsonic turbulence show a single jump profile. In order to quantitatively characterize these differences, we use the topology tool known as the genus curve as well as the probability distribution function moments of the image distribution. We find that higher values for the moments correspond to cases of |{nabla}P| with larger sonic Mach numbers. The genus analysis of the supersonic simulations of |{nabla}P| reveals a 'swiss cheese' topology, while the subsonic cases have characteristics of a 'clump' topology. Based on the analysis of the genus and the higher order moments, the SGPS test region data have a distribution and morphology that match subsonic- to transonic-type turbulence, which confirms what is now

  15. Cartographic science: a compendium of map projections, with derivations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fenna, Donald

    2007-01-01

    "From basic projecting to advanced transformations, Cartographic Science: A Compendium of Map Projections, with Derivations comprehensively explores the depiction of a curved world on a flat surface...

  16. Relation between thallium-201/iodine 123-BMIPP subtraction and fluorine 18 deoxyglucose polar maps in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y; Hasegawa, S; Yamaguchi, H; Yoshioka, J; Uehara, T; Nishimura, T

    2000-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown discrepancies in the distribution of thallium-201 and iodine 123-beta-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Myocardial uptake of fluorine 18 deoxyglucose (FDG) is increased in the hypertrophic area in HCM. We examined whether the distribution of a Tl-201/BMIPP subtraction polar map correlates with that of an FDG polar map. We normalized to maximum count each Tl-201 and BMIPP bull's-eye polar map of 6 volunteers and obtained a standard Tl-201/BMIPP subtraction polar map by subtracting a normalized BMIPP bull's-eye polar map from a normalized Tl-201 bull's-eye polar map. The Tl-201/BMIPP subtraction polar map was then applied to 8 patients with HCM (mean age 65+/-12 years) to evaluate the discrepancy between Tl-201 and BMIPP distribution. We compared the Tl-201/BMIPP subtraction polar map with an FDG polar map. In patients with HCM, the Tl-201/BMIPP subtraction polar map showed a focal uptake pattern in the hypertrophic area similar to that of the FDG polar map. By quantitative analysis, the severity score of the Tl-201/BMIPP subtraction polar map was significantly correlated with the percent dose uptake of the FDG polar map. These results suggest that this new quantitative method may be an alternative to FDG positron emission tomography for the routine evaluation of HCM.

  17. The National Map - Missouri Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Governments depend on a common set of geographic base information as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and defense operations rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy. Available geographic data often have the following problems: * They do not align with each other because layers are frequently created or revised separately, * They do not match across administrative boundaries because each producing organization uses different methods and standards, and * They are not up to date because of the complexity and cost of revision. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing The National Map to be a seamless, continuously maintained, and nationally consistent set of online, public domain, geographic base information to address these issues. The National Map will serve as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using other data easily and consistently. In collaboration with other government agencies, the private sector, academia, and volunteer groups, the USGS will coordinate, integrate, and, where needed, produce and maintain base geographic data. The National Map will include digital orthorectified imagery; elevation data; vector data for hydrography, transportation, boundary, and structure features; geographic names; and land cover information. The data will be the source of revised paper topographic maps. Many technical and institutional issues must be resolved as The National Map is implemented. To begin the refinement of this new paradigm, pilot projects are being designed to identify and investigate these issues. The pilots are the foundation upon which future partnerships for data sharing and maintenance will be built.

  18. The National Map - Delaware Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Governments depend on a common set of geographic base information as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and defense operations rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy. Available geographic data often have the following problems: * They do not align with each other because layers are frequently created or revised separately, * They do not match across administrative boundaries because each producing organization uses different methods and standards, and * They are not up to date because of the complexity and cost of revision. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing The National Map to be a seamless, continuously maintained, and nationally consistent set of online, public domain, geographic base information to address these issues. The National Map will serve as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using other data easily and consistently. In collaboration with other government agencies, the private sector, academia, and volunteer groups, the USGS will coordinate, integrate, and, where needed, produce and maintain base geographic data. The National Map will include digital orthorectified imagery; elevation data; vector data for hydrography, transportation, boundary, and structure features; geographic names; and land cover information. The data will be the source of revised paper topographic maps. Many technical and institutional issues must be resolved as The National Map is implemented. To begin the refinement of this new paradigm, pilot projects are being designed to identify and investigate these issues. The pilots are the foundation upon which future partnerships for data sharing and maintenance will be built.

  19. The National Map - Pennsylvania Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Governments depend on a common set of geographic base information as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and defense operations rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy. Available geographic data often have the following problems: * They do not align with each other because layers are frequently created or revised separately, * They do not match across administrative boundaries because each producing organization uses different methods and standards, and * They are not up to date because of the complexity and cost of revision. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing The National Map to be a seamless, continuously maintained, and nationally consistent set of online, public domain, geographic base information to address these issues. The National Map will serve as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using other data easily and consistently. In collaboration with other government agencies, the private sector, academia, and volunteer groups, the USGS will coordinate, integrate, and, where needed, produce and maintain base geographic data. The National Map will include digital orthorectified imagery; elevation data; vector data for hydrography, transportation, boundary, and structure features; geographic names; and land cover information. The data will be the source of revised paper topographic maps. Many technical and institutional issues must be resolved as The National Map is implemented. To begin the refinement of this new paradigm, pilot projects are being designed to identify and investigate these issues. The pilots are the foundation upon which future partnerships for data sharing and maintenance will be built.

  20. The National Map - Texas Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Governments depend on a common set of geographic base information as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and defense operations rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy. Available geographic data often have the following problems: * They do not align with each other because layers are frequently created or revised separately, * They do not match across administrative boundaries because each producing organization uses different methods and standards, and * They are not up to date because of the complexity and cost of revision. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing The National Map to be a seamless, continuously maintained, and nationally consistent set of online, public domain, geographic base information to address these issues. The National Map will serve as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using other data easily and consistently. In collaboration with other government agencies, the private sector, academia, and volunteer groups, the USGS will coordinate, integrate, and, where needed, produce and maintain base geographic data. The National Map will include digital orthorectified imagery; elevation data; vector data for hydrography, transportation, boundary, and structure features; geographic names; and land cover information. The data will be the source of revised paper topographic maps. Many technical and institutional issues must be resolved as The National Map is implemented. To begin the refinement of this new paradigm, pilot projects are being designed to identify and investigate these issues. The pilots are the foundation upon which future partnerships for data sharing and maintenance will be built.

  1. The National Map - Florida Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Governments depend on a common set of geographic base information as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and defense operations rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy. Available geographic data often have the following problems: * They do not align with each other because layers are frequently created or revised separately, * They do not match across administrative boundaries because each producing organization uses different methods and standards, and * They are not up to date because of the complexity and cost of revision. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing The National Map to be a seamless, continuously maintained, and nationally consistent set of online, public domain, geographic base information to address these issues. The National Map will serve as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using other data easily and consistently. In collaboration with other government agencies, the private sector, academia, and volunteer groups, the USGS will coordinate, integrate, and, where needed, produce and maintain base geographic data. The National Map will include digital orthorectified imagery; elevation data; vector data for hydrography, transportation, boundary, and structure features; geographic names; and land cover information. The data will be the source of revised paper topographic maps. Many technical and institutional issues must be resolved as The National Map is implemented. To begin the refinement of this new paradigm, pilot projects are being designed to identify and investigate these issues. The pilots are the foundation upon which future partnerships for data sharing and maintenance will be built.

  2. Optical polarization maps of star-forming regions in Perseus, Taurus, and Ophiuchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, A.A.; Bastien, P.; Menard, F.; Myers, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    New optical linear polarization maps are presented of the star-forming regions near L1506 in Taurus, L1755 in Ophiuchus, and the complex of dark cloud which extends from L1448 in B5 in Perseus. The former two show a well-defined peak magnetic field direction in the plane of the sky with a finite dispersion about that peak which is smaller than would be expected for a random distribution of field distributions. The dispersion in the position angle of filamentary clouds within these complexes implies that clouds which appear elongated on the plane of the sky are not all associated with a pattern of polarization vectors particularly parallel or perpendicular to their geometry. Instead, clouds tend to be oriented at the angle formed by their axis and the mean direction of the local large-scale field. For the dark cloud complex, a bimodal distribution of the polarization vector angle is taken to result from at least two distributions of gas along the line of sight which appear as a complex in projection. 55 refs

  3. GeoMapApp as a platform for visualizing marine data from Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V.; Goodwillie, A. M.; O'hara, S. H.; Weissel, R.; McLain, K.; Chinhong, C.; Arko, R. A.; Chan, S.; Morton, J. J.; Pomeroy, D.

    2012-12-01

    To maximize the investment in expensive fieldwork the resulting data should be re-used as much as possible. In addition, unnecessary duplication of data collection effort should be avoided. This becomes even more important if access to field areas is as difficult and expensive as it is in Polar Regions. Making existing data discoverable in an easy to use platform is key to improve re-use and avoid duplication. A common obstacle is that use of existing data is often limited to specialists who know of the data existence and also have the right tools to view and analyze these data. GeoMapApp is a free, interactive, map based tool that allows users to discover, visualize, and analyze a large number of data sets. In addition to a global view, it provides polar map projections for displaying data in Arctic and Antarctic areas. Data that have currently been added to the system include Arctic swath bathymetry data collected from the USCG icebreaker Healy. These data are collected almost continuously including from cruises where bathymetry is not the main objective and for which existence of the acquired data may not be well known. In contrast, existence of seismic data from the Antarctic continental margin is well known in the seismic community. They are archived at and can be accessed through the Antarctic Seismic Data Library System (SDLS). Incorporating these data into GeoMapApp makes an even broader community aware of these data and the custom interface, which includes capabilities to visualize and explore these data, allows users without specific software or knowledge of the underlying data format to access the data. In addition to investigating these datasets, GeoMapApp provides links to the actual data sources to allow specialists the opportunity to re-use the original data. Important identification of data sources and data references are achieved on different levels. For access to the actual Antarctic seismic data GeoMapApp links to the SDLS site, where users have

  4. Foreground removal from WMAP 7 yr polarization maps using an MLP neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    . As a concrete example, the WMAP 7-year polarization data, the most reliable determination of the polarization properties of the CMB, has been analyzed. The analysis has adopted the frequency maps, noise models, window functions and the foreground models as provided by the WMAP Team, and no auxiliary data...

  5. Precision Foreground Removal in Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The most promising method for detecting primordial gravitational waves lies in the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background, or CMB. A measurement of...

  6. Mapping (dis)agreement in hydrologic projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke A.; Addor, Nans; Mizukami, Naoki; Newman, Andrew J.; Torfs, Paul J. J. F.; Clark, Martyn P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Teuling, Adriaan J.

    2018-03-01

    Hydrologic projections are of vital socio-economic importance. However, they are also prone to uncertainty. In order to establish a meaningful range of storylines to support water managers in decision making, we need to reveal the relevant sources of uncertainty. Here, we systematically and extensively investigate uncertainty in hydrologic projections for 605 basins throughout the contiguous US. We show that in the majority of the basins, the sign of change in average annual runoff and discharge timing for the period 2070-2100 compared to 1985-2008 differs among combinations of climate models, hydrologic models, and parameters. Mapping the results revealed that different sources of uncertainty dominate in different regions. Hydrologic model induced uncertainty in the sign of change in mean runoff was related to snow processes and aridity, whereas uncertainty in both mean runoff and discharge timing induced by the climate models was related to disagreement among the models regarding the change in precipitation. Overall, disagreement on the sign of change was more widespread for the mean runoff than for the discharge timing. The results demonstrate the need to define a wide range of quantitative hydrologic storylines, including parameter, hydrologic model, and climate model forcing uncertainty, to support water resource planning.

  7. Brain-mapping projects using the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Mitra, Partha

    2015-04-01

    Globally, there is an increasing interest in brain-mapping projects, including the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative project in the USA, the Human Brain Project (HBP) in Europe, and the Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS) project in Japan. These projects aim to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain. Brain/MINDS is focused on structural and functional mapping of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) brain. This non-human primate has numerous advantages for brain mapping, including a well-developed frontal cortex and a compact brain size, as well as the availability of transgenic technologies. In the present review article, we discuss strategies for structural and functional mapping of the marmoset brain and the relation of the common marmoset to other animals models. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Equidistant map projections of a triaxial ellipsoid with the use of reduced coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pędzich Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method of constructing equidistant map projections of a triaxial ellipsoid as a function of reduced coordinates. Equations for x and y coordinates are expressed with the use of the normal elliptic integral of the second kind and Jacobian elliptic functions. This solution allows to use common known and widely described in literature methods of solving such integrals and functions. The main advantage of this method is the fact that the calculations of x and y coordinates are practically based on a single algorithm that is required to solve the elliptic integral of the second kind. Equations are provided for three types of map projections: cylindrical, azimuthal and pseudocylindrical. These types of projections are often used in planetary cartography for presentation of entire and polar regions of extraterrestrial objects. The paper also contains equations for the calculation of the length of a meridian and a parallel of a triaxial ellipsoid in reduced coordinates. Moreover, graticules of three coordinates systems (planetographic, planetocentric and reduced in developed map projections are presented. The basic properties of developed map projections are also described. The obtained map projections may be applied in planetary cartography in order to create maps of extraterrestrial objects.

  9. The EPSA Project Finance Mapping Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chinthavali, Supriya [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Systems Analysis Office of DOE has requested a tool to compare the impact of various Federal policies on the financial viability of generation resources across the country. Policy options could include production tax credits, investment tax credits, solar renewable energy credits, tax abatement, accelerated depreciation, tax-free loans, and others. The tool would model the finances of projects in all fifty states, and possibly other geographic units like utility service territories and RTO/ISO territories. The tool would consider the facility s cost, financing, production, and revenues under different capital and market structures to determine things like levelized cost of energy, return on equity, and cost impacts on others (e.g., load-serving entities, society.) The tool would compare the cost and value of the facility to the local regional alternatives to determine how and where policy levers may provide sufficient incremental value to motivate investment. The results will be displayed through a purpose-built visualization that maps geographic variations and shows associated figures and tables.

  10. New POLDI - project of reincarnation of a polarized neutron diffractometer at the reactor PIK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobkalo, I.; Gavrilov, S.; Matveev, V.; Fenske, J.

    2017-06-01

    The project of a considerable modernization of the polarized neutron diffractometer POLDI is discussed. It assumes the adoption of POLDI to a broader range of magnetic investigations such as determination of magnetic structures, detailed investigation of complex magnetic structures, studies of magnetic domains, study of the magnetization density maps, magnetic form-factor particularities, local susceptibility, etc. The flexible construction should permit to use either spherical neutron polarimetry technique or flipping ratio technique. Different types of polarization system were analyzed. Original focusing fan-like bender is proposed as polarizer unit. Our simulations give evidence that for the wavelength range 1.3 - 3 Å and with suitable size, such a device can give much better efficiency than 3He cells, which are often in use. The higher flux at the sample position of a factor of at least 3.3, with lower divergence and good polarization degree from 98% (1.3 Å) to above 94% (3 Å) makes the bender set-up favorable over the layout with a 3He-cell.

  11. The use of process mapping in healthcare quality improvement projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, Grazia; Reed, Julie E; Lennox, Laura; Barlow, James

    2018-05-01

    Introduction Process mapping provides insight into systems and processes in which improvement interventions are introduced and is seen as useful in healthcare quality improvement projects. There is little empirical evidence on the use of process mapping in healthcare practice. This study advances understanding of the benefits and success factors of process mapping within quality improvement projects. Methods Eight quality improvement projects were purposively selected from different healthcare settings within the UK's National Health Service. Data were gathered from multiple data-sources, including interviews exploring participants' experience of using process mapping in their projects and perceptions of benefits and challenges related to its use. These were analysed using inductive analysis. Results Eight key benefits related to process mapping use were reported by participants (gathering a shared understanding of the reality; identifying improvement opportunities; engaging stakeholders in the project; defining project's objectives; monitoring project progress; learning; increased empathy; simplicity of the method) and five factors related to successful process mapping exercises (simple and appropriate visual representation, information gathered from multiple stakeholders, facilitator's experience and soft skills, basic training, iterative use of process mapping throughout the project). Conclusions Findings highlight benefits and versatility of process mapping and provide practical suggestions to improve its use in practice.

  12. The International Polar Year in Portugal: A New National Polar Programme and a Major Education and Outreach project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Victor, L.; Vieira, G.; Xavier, J.; Canario, A.

    2008-12-01

    Before the International Polar Year, in Portugal polar research was conducted by a very small group of scientists integrated in foreign projects or research institutions. Portugal was not member of the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), the European Polar Board (EPB), neither a subscriber of the Antarctic Treaty. In 2004 Portuguese Polar researchers considered the IPY as an opportunity to change this situation and organized the national Committee for the IPY. The objectives were ambitious: to answer the aforementioned issues in defining and proposing a National Polar Programme. In late 2008, close to the end of the IPY, the objectives were attained, except the Antarctic Treaty signature that is, however, in an advanced stage, having been approved by consensus at the National Parliament in early 2007. Portugal joined SCAR in July 2006, the EPB in 2007 and a set of 5 Antarctic research projects forming the roots of the National Polar Programme (ProPolar) have been approved by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT-MCTES). Scientifically, the IPY can already be considered a major success in Portugal with an improvement in polar scientific research, in the number of scientists performing field work in the Antarctic, organizing polar science meetings and producing an expected increase in the number of polar science peer- reviewed papers. The Portuguese IPY scientific activities were accompanied by a major education and outreach project funded by the Agencia Ciência Viva (MCTES): LATITUDE60! Education for the Planet in the IPY. This project lead by the universities of Algarve, Lisbon and by the Portuguese Association of Geography Teachers is heavily interdisciplinary, programmed for all ages, from kindergarten to adults, and hoped to bring together scientists and society. LATITUDE60! was a major success and focussed on showing the importance of the polar regions for Earth's environment, emphasising on the implications of polar change for

  13. Evaluation of Extraction Protocols for Simultaneous Polar and Non-Polar Yeast Metabolite Analysis Using Multivariate Projection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas P. Tambellini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic and lipidomic approaches aim to measure metabolites or lipids in the cell. Metabolite extraction is a key step in obtaining useful and reliable data for successful metabolite studies. Significant efforts have been made to identify the optimal extraction protocol for various platforms and biological systems, for both polar and non-polar metabolites. Here we report an approach utilizing chemoinformatics for systematic comparison of protocols to extract both from a single sample of the model yeast organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three chloroform/methanol/water partitioning based extraction protocols found in literature were evaluated for their effectiveness at reproducibly extracting both polar and non-polar metabolites. Fatty acid methyl esters and methoxyamine/trimethylsilyl derivatized aqueous compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to evaluate non-polar or polar metabolite analysis. The comparative breadth and amount of recovered metabolites was evaluated using multivariate projection methods. This approach identified an optimal protocol consisting of 64 identified polar metabolites from 105 ion hits and 12 fatty acids recovered, and will potentially attenuate the error and variation associated with combining metabolite profiles from different samples for untargeted analysis with both polar and non-polar analytes. It also confirmed the value of using multivariate projection methods to compare established extraction protocols.

  14. 2011 Joint Science Education Project: Research Experience in Polar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, J.; Ader, V.

    2011-12-01

    The Joint Science Education Project (JSEP), sponsored by the National Science Foundation, is a two-part program that brings together students and teachers from the United States, Greenland, and Denmark, for a unique cross-cultural, first-hand experience of the realities of polar science field research in Greenland. During JSEP, students experienced research being conducted on and near the Greenland ice sheet by attending researcher presentations, visiting NSF-funded field sites (including Summit and NEEM field stations, both located on the Greenland ice sheet), and designing and conducting research projects in international teams. The results of two of these projects will be highlighted. The atmospheric project investigated the differences in CO2, UVA, UVB, temperature, and albedo in different Arctic microenvironments, while also examining the interaction between the atmosphere and water present in the given environments. It was found that the carbon dioxide levels varied: glacial environments having the lowest levels, with an average concentration of 272.500 ppm, and non-vegetated, terrestrial environments having the highest, with an average concentration of 395.143 ppm. Following up on these results, it is planned to further investigate the interaction of the water and atmosphere, including water's role in the uptake of carbon dioxide. The ecology project investigated the occurrence of unusual large blooms of Nostoc cyanobacteria in Kangerlussuaq area lakes. The water chemistry of the lakes which contained the cyanobacteria and the lakes that did not were compared. The only noticeable difference was of the lakes' acidity, lakes containing the blooms had an average pH value of 8.58, whereas lakes without the blooms had an average pH value of 6.60. Further investigation of these results is needed to determine whether or not this was a cause or effect of the cyanobacteria blooms. As a next step, it is planned to attempt to grow the blooms to monitor their effects on

  15. IMPROVED SIMULATION OF NON-GAUSSIAN TEMPERATURE AND POLARIZATION COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsner, Franz; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an algorithm to generate temperature and polarization maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation containing non-Gaussianity of arbitrary local type. We apply an optimized quadrature scheme that allows us to predict and control integration accuracy, speed up the calculations, and reduce memory consumption by an order of magnitude. We generate 1000 non-Gaussian CMB temperature and polarization maps up to a multipole moment of l max = 1024. We validate the method and code using the power spectrum and the fast cubic (bispectrum) estimator and find consistent results. The simulations are provided to the community.

  16. Iowa LiDAR Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This is collection level metadata for LAS and ASCII data files from the statewide Iowa Lidar Project. The Iowa Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Project collects...

  17. Joint Science Education Project: Learning about polar science in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee Reed, Lynn

    2014-05-01

    The Joint Science Education Project (JSEP) is a successful summer science and culture opportunity in which students and teachers from the United States, Denmark, and Greenland come together to learn about the research conducted in Greenland and the logistics involved in supporting the research. They conduct experiments first-hand and participate in inquiry-based educational activities alongside scientists and graduate students at a variety of locations in and around Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, and on the top of the ice sheet at Summit Station. The Joint Committee, a high-level forum involving the Greenlandic, Danish and U.S. governments, established the Joint Science Education Project in 2007, as a collaborative diplomatic effort during the International Polar Year to: • Educate and inspire the next generation of polar scientists; • Build strong networks of students and teachers among the three countries; and • Provide an opportunity to practice language and communication skills Since its inception, JSEP has had 82 student and 22 teacher participants and has involved numerous scientists and field researchers. The JSEP format has evolved over the years into its current state, which consists of two field-based subprograms on site in Greenland: the Greenland-led Kangerlussuaq Science Field School and the U.S.-led Arctic Science Education Week. All travel, transportation, accommodations, and meals are provided to the participants at no cost. During the 2013 Kangerlussuaq Science Field School, students and teachers gathered data in a biodiversity study, created and set geo- and EarthCaches, calculated glacial discharge at a melt-water stream and river, examined microbes and tested for chemical differences in a variety of lakes, measured ablation at the edge of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and learned about fossils, plants, animals, minerals and rocks of Greenland. In addition, the students planned and led cultural nights, sharing food, games, stories, and traditions of

  18. Moonshot Laboratories' Lava Relief Google Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, B.; Tomita, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Moonshot Laboratories were conceived at the University Laboratory School (ULS) on Oahu, Hawaii as way to develop creative problem solvers able to resourcefully apply 21st century technologies to respond to the problems and needs of their communities. One example of this was involved students from ULS using modern mapping and imaging technologies to assist peers who had been displaced from their own school in Pahoe on the Big Island of Hawaii. During 2015, lava flows from the eruption of Kilauea Volcano were slowly encroaching into the district of Puna in 2015. The lava flow was cutting the main town of Pahoa in half, leaving no safe routes of passage into or out of the town. One elementary school in the path of the flow was closed entirely and a new one was erected north of the flow for students living on that side. Pahoa High School students and teachers living to the north were been forced to leave their school and transfer to Kea'au High School. These students were separated from friends, family and the community they grew up in and were being thrust into a foreign environment that until then had been their local rival. Using Google Mapping technologies, Moonshot Laboratories students created a dynamic map to introduce the incoming Pahoa students to their new school in Kea'au. Elements included a stylized My Maps basemap, YouTube video descriptions of the building, videos recorded by Google Glass showing first person experiences, and immersive images of classrooms were created using 360 cameras. During the first day of orientation at Kea'au for the 200 Pahoa students, each of them were given a tablet to view the map as they toured and got to know their new campus. The methods and technologies, and more importantly innovative thinking, used to create this map have enormous potential for how to educate all students about the world around us, and the issues facing it. http://www.moonshotincubator.com/

  19. Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project Digital Elevation Model, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The high-resolution Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project (RAMP) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) combines topographic data from a variety of sources to provide consistent...

  20. Vegetation (MCV / NVCS) Mapping Projects - California [ds515

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This metadata layer shows the footprint of vegetation mapping projects completed in California that have used the Manual California of Vegetation ( MCV 1st edition)...

  1. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Alpha Version

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Alpha Version consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km)...

  2. Coastal Use Mapping Project - Northwest Hawai'i

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Coastal Use Mapping Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center, NOAA's Pacific Islands Fisheries Science...

  3. Global Land Survey Impervious Mapping Project Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeColstoun, Eric Brown; Phillips, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The Global Land Survey Impervious Mapping Project (GLS-IMP) aims to produce the first global maps of impervious cover at the 30m spatial resolution of Landsat. The project uses Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat data as its base but incorporates training data generated from very high resolution commercial satellite data and using a Hierarchical segmentation program called Hseg. The web site contains general project information, a high level description of the science, examples of input and output data, as well as links to other relevant projects.

  4. Results of a Musa mapping project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagoda, P.J.L.; Noyer, J.L.; Baurens, F.C.

    1998-01-01

    A completed map, based on two selfed progenies from two banana cultivars (M53 and SFB5) is presented (roughly 1200 cM). More than three hundred markers are linked in 11 linkage groups representing the genome (2n=22) of Musa acuminata. Roughly one third of the markers are co-dominant restriction fragment polymorphisms (RFLPs; one hundred) or micro satellites (thirty). Two thirds of the markers are dominant amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs; 10% could be considered to be co-dominant). The mean linkage distance is 3 cM, but marker density still should be increased on a couple of linkage groups. Particularities for a mapping job in banana are discussed. Due to Musa acuminata sub-species specific translocations, up to 36% of all the markers tested show important segregation distortions. The need for a cooperative mapping initiative based on a proposed ''frame-map'' harbouring evenly spaced co-dominant ''anchor'' markers is proposed. CIRAD has published 45 sequence tagged micro satellite sites (STMS) in the EMBL database which are accessible at: ''http://www.ebi.ac.uk/'' using the keywords LAGODA and MICROSATELLITE (EMBL accessions X87258 to X87265, X90740 to X90750 and Z85950 to Z85977). (author)

  5. MAPPING THE LINEARLY POLARIZED SPECTRAL LINE EMISSION AROUND THE EVOLVED STAR IRC+10216

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girart, J. M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, C5p 2, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Patel, N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vlemmings, W. H. T. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Rao, Ramprasad, E-mail: girart@ice.cat [Submillimeter Array, Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 645 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2012-05-20

    We present spectro-polarimetric observations of several molecular lines obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward the carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch star IRC+10216. We have detected and mapped the linear polarization of the CO 3-2, SiS 19-18, and CS 7-6 lines. The polarization arises at a distance of {approx_equal} 450 AU from the star and is blueshifted with respect to the Stokes I. The SiS 19-18 polarization pattern appears to be consistent with a locally radial magnetic field configuration. However, the CO 3-2 and CS 7-6 line polarization suggests an overall complex magnetic field morphology within the envelope. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using spectro-polarimetric observations to carry out tomographic imaging of the magnetic field in circumstellar envelopes.

  6. LAN MAP: An Innovative Airborne Light at Night Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, Eric R.; Craine, B. L.; Craine, E. M.; Craine, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread installation of inefficient and misdirected artificial light at night (LAN) has led to increasing concerns about light pollution and its impact, not only on astronomical facilities but larger communities as well. Light pollution impacts scientific research, environmental ecosystems, human health, and quality of life. In recent years, the public policy response to light pollution has included formulation of government codes to regulate lighting design and installation. Various environmental groups now include light pollution among their rallying themes to protest both specific and general developments. The latter efforts are often conducted in the absence of any quantitative data and are frequently charged by emotion rather than reason. To bring some scientific objectivity, and quantitative data, to these discussions, we have developed a suite of tools for simultaneous photometric measurements and temporal monitoring of both local communities and the sky overhead. We have also developed novel protocols for the use of these tools, including a triad of airborne, ground mobile, and ground static photometric surveys. We present a summary of these tools and protocols, with special emphasis on the airborne systems, and discuss baseline and follow-up measurements of LAN environments in the vicinity of numerous observatories in Arizona, the home of the initial LAN MAP surveys.

  7. Selecting Map Projections in Minimizing Area Distortions in GIS Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kaya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Varioussoftware for Geographical Information Systems (GISs have been developed and used in many different engineering projects. In GIS applications, map coverage is important in terms of performing reliable and meaningful queries. Map projections can be conformal, equal-area and equidistant. The goal of an application plays an important role in choosing one of those projections. Choosing the equal-area projection for an application in which area information is used (forestry, agriculture, ecosystem etc reduces the amount of distortion on the area, but many users using GIS ignore this fact and continue to use applications with present map sheets no matter in what map projection it is. For example, extracting area information from data whose country system’s map sheet is in conformal projection is relatively more distorted, compared to an equal-area projection one. The goal of this study is to make the best decision in choosing the most proper equal-area projection among the choices provided by ArcGIS 9.0, which is a popular GIS software package, and making a comparison on area errors when conformal projection is used. In this study, the area of parcels chosen in three different regions and geographic coordinates and whose sizes vary between 0.01 to 1,000,000 ha are calculated according to Transversal Mercator (TM, 3°, Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM, 6° and 14 different equal-area projections existing in the ArcGIS 9.0 GIS software package. The parcel areas calculated with geographical coordinates are accepted as definite. The difference between the sizes calculated according to projection coordinates and real sizes of the parcels are determined. Consequently, the appropriate projections are decided for the areas smaller and equal than 1,000 ha and greater than 1,000 ha in the GIS software package.

  8. On the use of polar coordinate system in the projective graphic drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Andrey Viktorovich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Projective graphics is a polyhedra simulation method, which is based on the use of trace diagrams of initial polyhedron. Previously developed computer software allows using Cartesian coordinates. In some cases it is advisable to use polar coordinate system for description of projective graphics drawings. Using the example of icosahedron the authors analyzed the advantages of using projective graphics drawings in the polar coordinate system. The transition to the polar coordinate system is a tool that allows using certain patterns of projective graphics drawings in the process of calculation. When using polar coordinate system the search of Polar correspondence for the directs is simplified. In order to analyze the two lines in the polar coordinate system it is enough to compare the corresponding coefficients of the equations of these lines. The authors consider a diagram of the icosahedron in polar coordinates, and a corresponding fragment of calculation program in the Mathematica system. Some examples of forming based on icosahedrons are offered. Optimization of computer programs using polar coordinate system will simplifies the calculations of projective graphics drawings, accelerates the process of constructing three-dimensional models, which expand the possibilities of selecting original solutions. Finally, the authors conclude that it is appropriate to use the polar coordinate system only in the construction of projective graphics diagrams of the planes system having rich symmetry. All Platonic and Archimedean solids, Catalan solid possess this property.

  9. Insights into bird wing evolution and digit specification from polarizing region fate maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Matthew; Signolet, Jason; Sherman, Adrian; Sang, Helen; Tickle, Cheryll

    2011-08-09

    The proposal that birds descended from theropod dinosaurs with digits 2, 3 and 4 was recently given support by short-term fate maps, suggesting that the chick wing polarizing region-a group that Sonic hedgehog-expressing cells-gives rise to digit 4. Here we show using long-term fate maps that Green fluorescent protein-expressing chick wing polarizing region grafts contribute only to soft tissues along the posterior margin of digit 4, supporting fossil data that birds descended from theropods that had digits 1, 2 and 3. In contrast, digit IV of the chick leg with four digits (I-IV) arises from the polarizing region. To determine how digit identity is specified over time, we inhibited Sonic hedgehog signalling. Fate maps show that polarizing region and adjacent cells are specified in parallel through a series of anterior to posterior digit fates-a process of digit specification that we suggest is involved in patterning all vertebrate limbs with more than three digits.

  10. Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) mapping reveals nanocrystal orientation patterns in carbonate biominerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Pupa U.P.A., E-mail: pupa@physics.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystal orientation shown by Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) maps. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIC-mapping of carbonate biominerals reveals their ultrastructure at the nanoscale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation mechanisms of biominerals is discovered by PIC-mapping using PEEM. -- Abstract: Carbonate biominerals are one of the most interesting systems a physicist can study. They play a major role in the CO{sub 2} cycle, they master templation, self-assembly, nanofabrication, phase transitions, space filling, crystal nucleation and growth mechanisms. A new imaging modality was introduced in the last 5 years that enables direct observation of the orientation of carbonate single crystals, at the nano- and micro-scale. This is Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) mapping, which is based on X-ray linear dichroism, and uses PhotoElectron Emission spectroMicroscopy (PEEM). Here we present PIC-mapping results from biominerals, including the nacre and prismatic layers of mollusk shells, and sea urchin teeth. We describe various PIC-mapping approaches, and show that these lead to fundamental discoveries on the formation mechanisms of biominerals.

  11. Project Marna Natural Gamma Radiation MAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, E.; Fernandez, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The confusion created by the accident that occurred in one of the Chernobyl reactors in April of 1986 made the general public and governments aware of the need for improved monitoring of environmental radiation levels. The levels of total gamma radiation or total gamma exposure rate over large areas reached values as high as 400 micro Roentgen/hour (mu R/h) and at points exceeded 1000 mu R/h. It should be borne in mind that, depending on the type of geological formations, normal values range from 5 to 30 mu R/h. The IAEA recommended to all countries that natural gamma radiation maps be made available to evaluate the levels of natural gamma radiation and possible increases, and it also indicated its concern that information be standardized. In addition, it stressed the advisability of using data obtained from uranium prospecting. (Author)

  12. Assessing IT Projects Success with Extended Fuzzy Cognitive Maps & Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps in comparison to Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Bhutani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available IT projects hold a huge importance to economic growth. Today, half of the capital investments are in IT technology. IT systems and projects are extensive and time consuming; thus implying that its failure is not affordable, so proper feasibility study of assessing project success factors is required. A current methodology like Fuzzy Cognitive Maps has been experimented for identifying and evaluating the success factors in IT projects, but this technique has certain limitations. This paper discusses two new approaches to evaluate IT project success: Extended Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (E-FCM & Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (NCM.The limitations of FCM like non consideration for non-linear, conditional, time delay weights and indeterminate relations are targeted using E-FCM and NCM in this paper.

  13. Realization of universal optimal quantum machines by projective operators and stochastic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciarrino, F.; Sias, C.; Ricci, M.; De Martini, F.

    2004-01-01

    Optimal quantum machines can be implemented by linear projective operations. In the present work a general qubit symmetrization theory is presented by investigating the close links to the qubit purification process and to the programmable teleportation of any generic optimal antiunitary map. In addition, the contextual realization of the N→M cloning map and of the teleportation of the N→(M-N) universal-NOT (UNOT) gate is analyzed by a very general angular momentum theory. An extended set of experimental realizations by state symmetrization linear optical procedures is reported. These include the 1→2 cloning process, the UNOT gate and the quantum tomographic characterization of the optimal partial transpose map of polarization encoded qubits

  14. Mapping Vesta Mid-Latitude Quadrangle V-12EW: Mapping the Edge of the South Polar Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Schenk, P.; Williams, D. A.; Hiesinger, H.; Garry, W. B.; Yingst, R.; Buczkowski, D.; McCord, T. B.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Gaskell, R. W.; Neukum, G.; Schmedemann, N.; Marchi, S.; Nathues, A.; Le Corre, L.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; White, O. L.; DeSanctis, C.; Filacchione, G.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4Vesta on July 15, 2011, and is now collecting imaging, spectroscopic, and elemental abundance data during its one-year orbital mission. As part of the geological analysis of the surface, a series of 15 quadrangle maps are being produced based on Framing Camera images (FC: spatial resolution: ~65 m/pixel) along with Visible & Infrared Spectrometer data (VIR: spatial resolution: ~180 m/pixel) obtained during the High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO). This poster presentation concentrates on our geologic analysis and mapping of quadrangle V-12EW. This quadrangle is dominated by the arcuate edge of the large 460+ km diameter south polar topographic feature first observed by HST (Thomas et al., 1997). Sparsely cratered, the portion of this feature covered in V-12EW is characterized by arcuate ridges and troughs forming a generalized arcuate pattern. Mapping of this terrain and the transition to areas to the north will be used to test whether this feature has an impact or other (e.g., internal) origin. We are also using FC stereo and VIR images to assess whether their are any compositional differences between this terrain and areas further to the north, and image data to evaluate the distribution and age of young impact craters within the map area. The authors acknowledge the support of the Dawn Science, Instrument and Operations Teams.

  15. SAR China Land Mapping Project: Development, Production and Potential Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Guang; Fu, Wenxue; Yan, Shiyong; Song, Rui; Ji, Peng; Wang, Xinyuan

    2014-01-01

    Large-area, seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mosaics can reflect overall environmental conditions and highlight general trends in observed areas from a macroscopic standpoint, and effectively support research at the global scale, which is in high demand now across scientific fields. The SAR China Land Mapping Project (SCLM), supported by the Digital Earth Science Platform Project initiated and managed by the Center for Earth Observation and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CEODE), is introduced in this paper. This project produced a large-area SAR mosaic dataset and generated the first complete seamless SAR map covering the entire land area of China using EnviSat-ASAR images. The value of the mosaic map is demonstrated by some potential applications in studies of urban distribution, rivers and lakes, geologic structures, geomorphology and paleoenvironmental change

  16. Uav Photogrammetry: a Practical Solution for Challenging Mapping Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatseresht, M.; Hashempour, A. H.; Hasanlou, M.

    2015-12-01

    We have observed huge attentions to application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in aerial mapping since a decade ago. Though, it has several advantages for handling time/cost/quality issues, there are a dozen of challenges in working with UAVs. In this paper, we; as the Robotic Photogrammetry Research Group (RPRG), will firstly review these challenges then show its advantages in three special practical projects. For each project, we will share our experiences through description of the UAV specifications, flight settings and processing steps. At the end, we will illustrate final result of each project and show how this technology could make unbelievable benefits to clients including 3D city realistic model in decimetre level, ultra high quality map production in several centimetre level, and accessing to a high risk and rough relief area for mapping aims.

  17. IR SPECTRAL MAPPING OF THE MARTIAN SOUTH POLAR RESIDUAL CAP USING CRISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Campbell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are considered to be important in theories of abiogenesis (Allamandola, 2011 . There is evidence that PAHs have been detected on two icy Saturnian satellites using the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS on the Cassini spacecraft (Cruikshank et al., 2007. The hypothesised presence of PAHs in Mars south polar cap has not been systematically examined even though the Mars south polar cap may allow the preservation of organic molecules that are typically destroyed at the Martian surface by UV radiation (Dartnell et al. 2012. This hypothesis is supported by recent analyses of South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC structural evolution (Thomas et al., 2009 that suggest the possibility that seasonal and long term sublimation may excavate dust particles from within the polar ice. Periodic sublimation is believed to be responsible for the formation of so-called “Swiss Cheese Terrain”, a unique surface feature found only in the Martian south polar residual cap consisting of flat floored, circular depressions (Byrne, 2009. We show the first examples of work towards the detection of PAHs in Swiss Cheese Terrain, using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM, on board NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO. CRISM is designed to search for mineralogical indications of past and present water, thus providing extensive coverage of the south polar cap. In this work, we discuss whether CRISM infrared spectra can be used to detect PAHs in Swiss Cheese Terrain and demonstrate a number of maps showing shifts in spectral profiles over the SPRC.

  18. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas. PMID:25823872

  19. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-05-19

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas.

  20. Mapping Best and Emerging Practices of Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Thuesen, Christian; Aaris Boas, Charlotte; Thorslund, Michael V.; Marmier, Francois; Grex, Sara; Lybecker, Søren

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study of the connection between Best and Emerging practices of project management. Drawing upon network mapping as an analytical strategy, cases of Best and Emerging practices is analysed and juxtaposed. The case of Best practice is represented by the newly published ISO 21500 standard and the case for the Emerging practices by a deconstruction of the practices of a group of experienced project managers. The network analysis reveals a substantial difference be...

  1. The mouse-human anatomy ontology mapping project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamizu, Terry F; de Coronado, Sherri; Fragoso, Gilberto; Sioutos, Nicholas; Kadin, James A; Ringwald, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The overall objective of the Mouse-Human Anatomy Project (MHAP) was to facilitate the mapping and harmonization of anatomical terms used for mouse and human models by Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The anatomy resources designated for this study were the Adult Mouse Anatomy (MA) ontology and the set of anatomy concepts contained in the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt). Several methods and software tools were identified and evaluated, then used to conduct an in-depth comparative analysis of the anatomy ontologies. Matches between mouse and human anatomy terms were determined and validated, resulting in a highly curated set of mappings between the two ontologies that has been used by other resources. These mappings will enable linking of data from mouse and human. As the anatomy ontologies have been expanded and refined, the mappings have been updated accordingly. Insights are presented into the overall process of comparing and mapping between ontologies, which may prove useful for further comparative analyses and ontology mapping efforts, especially those involving anatomy ontologies. Finally, issues concerning further development of the ontologies, updates to the mapping files, and possible additional applications and significance were considered. DATABASE URL: http://obofoundry.org/cgi-bin/detail.cgi?id=ma2ncit.

  2. Conservation status of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in relation to projected sea-ice declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidre, K. L.; Regehr, E. V.; Akcakaya, H. R.; Amstrup, S. C.; Atwood, T.; Lunn, N.; Obbard, M.; Stern, H. L., III; Thiemann, G.; Wiig, O.

    2016-12-01

    Loss of Arctic sea ice due to climate change is the most serious threat to polar bears (Ursus maritimus) throughout their circumpolar range. We performed a data-based sensitivity analysis with respect to this threat by evaluating the potential response of the global polar bear population to projected sea-ice conditions. We conducted 1) an assessment of generation length for polar bears, 2) developed of a standardized sea-ice metric representing important habitat characteristics for the species; and 3) performed population projections over three generations, using computer simulation and statistical models representing alternative relationships between sea ice and polar bear abundance. Using three separate approaches, the median percent change in mean global population size for polar bears between 2015 and 2050 ranged from -4% (95% CI = -62%, 50%) to -43% (95% CI = -76%, -20%). Results highlight the potential for large reductions in the global population if sea-ice loss continues. They also highlight the large amount of uncertainty in statistical projections of polar bear abundance and the sensitivity of projections to plausible alternative assumptions. The median probability of a reduction in the mean global population size of polar bears greater than 30% over three generations was approximately 0.71 (range 0.20-0.95. The median probability of a reduction greater than 50% was approximately 0.07 (range 0-0.35), and the probability of a reduction greater than 80% was negligible.

  3. The CERN polarized atomic hydrogen beam target project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubischta, W.; Dick, L.

    1990-01-01

    The UA6-experiment at the CERN p bar p Colider is at present using an unpolarized hydrogen cluster target with a thickness up to 5.10 14 atoms/cm 2 . It is planned to replace this target by a polarized atomic hydrogen beam target with a thickness up to about 10 13 atoms/cm 2 . This paper discusses basic requirements and results of atom optical calculations

  4. Projector primary-based optimization for superimposed projection mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Bilal; Lee, Jong Hun; Lee, Yong Yi; Lee, Kwan H.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, many researchers have focused on fully overlapping projections for three-dimensional (3-D) projection mapping systems but reproducing a high-quality appearance using this technology still remains a challenge. On top of existing color compensation-based methods, much effort is still required to faithfully reproduce an appearance that is free from artifacts, colorimetric inconsistencies, and inappropriate illuminance over the 3-D projection surface. According to our observation, this is due to the fact that overlapping projections are treated as an additive-linear mixture of color. However, this is not the case according to our elaborated observations. We propose a method that enables us to use high-quality appearance data that are measured from original objects and regenerate the same appearance by projecting optimized images using multiple projectors, ensuring that the projection-rendered results look visually close to the real object. We prepare our target appearances by photographing original objects. Then, using calibrated projector-camera pairs, we compensate for missing geometric correspondences to make our method robust against noise. The heart of our method is a target appearance-driven adaptive sampling of the projection surface followed by a representation of overlapping projections in terms of the projector-primary response. This gives off projector-primary weights to facilitate blending and the system is applied with constraints. These samples are used to populate a light transport-based system. Then, the system is solved minimizing the error to get the projection images in a noise-free manner by utilizing intersample overlaps. We ensure that we make the best utilization of available hardware resources to recreate projection mapped appearances that look as close to the original object as possible. Our experimental results show compelling results in terms of visual similarity and colorimetric error.

  5. Projected polar bear sea ice habitat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G Hamilton

    Full Text Available Sea ice across the Arctic is declining and altering physical characteristics of marine ecosystems. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus have been identified as vulnerable to changes in sea ice conditions. We use sea ice projections for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 2006 - 2100 to gain insight into the conservation challenges for polar bears with respect to habitat loss using metrics developed from polar bear energetics modeling.Shifts away from multiyear ice to annual ice cover throughout the region, as well as lengthening ice-free periods, may become critical for polar bears before the end of the 21st century with projected warming. Each polar bear population in the Archipelago may undergo 2-5 months of ice-free conditions, where no such conditions exist presently. We identify spatially and temporally explicit ice-free periods that extend beyond what polar bears require for nutritional and reproductive demands.Under business-as-usual climate projections, polar bears may face starvation and reproductive failure across the entire Archipelago by the year 2100.

  6. Projected polar bear sea ice habitat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen G; Castro de la Guardia, Laura; Derocher, Andrew E; Sahanatien, Vicki; Tremblay, Bruno; Huard, David

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice across the Arctic is declining and altering physical characteristics of marine ecosystems. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have been identified as vulnerable to changes in sea ice conditions. We use sea ice projections for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 2006 - 2100 to gain insight into the conservation challenges for polar bears with respect to habitat loss using metrics developed from polar bear energetics modeling. Shifts away from multiyear ice to annual ice cover throughout the region, as well as lengthening ice-free periods, may become critical for polar bears before the end of the 21st century with projected warming. Each polar bear population in the Archipelago may undergo 2-5 months of ice-free conditions, where no such conditions exist presently. We identify spatially and temporally explicit ice-free periods that extend beyond what polar bears require for nutritional and reproductive demands. Under business-as-usual climate projections, polar bears may face starvation and reproductive failure across the entire Archipelago by the year 2100.

  7. Atomically-resolved mapping of polarization and electric fields across ferroelectric-oxide interfaces by Z-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisevich, Albina; Chang, Hye Jung; Kalinin, Sergei; Morozovska, Anna; Chu, Ying-Hao; Yu, Pu; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Pennycook, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Polarization, electric field, charge and potential across ferroelectric-oxide interfaces are obtained from direct atomic position mapping by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with Ginsburg-Landau-Devonshire theory. We compare two antiparallel polarization orientations, which allows separation of the polarization and intrinsic interface charge contributions. Using the Born effective charges, the complete interface electrostatics is obtained in real space, providing an alternative method to holography. The results provide new microscopic insight into the thermodynamics of polarization distribution at the atomic level. Research is sponsored by the of Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, U.S. DOE.

  8. Lightning mapping and dual-polarization radar observations of electrified storms at Langmuir Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, P. R.; Hyland, P. T.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.

    2013-12-01

    Observations being made at Langmuir Laboratory with the NM Tech Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and the University of Oklahoma ARRC PX-1000 dual polarization X-band radar strongly confirm and expand upon the normal polarity tripolar electrical structure of central New Mexico storms. This is in sharp contrast with the anomalously electrified storm structures observed in northern Colorado during and subsequent to the 2012 DC3 field campaign, as seen with North Colorado LMA and CSU CHILL dual-polarization radar observations. In this presentation we focus on the New Mexico observations, and several modes in which the tripolar structure appears initially to develop and evolve with time. Central New Mexico storms are often prolific producers of negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes, but rarely produce positive CGs. By contrast, many or most north Colorado storms are CG-deficient, with the relatively few CG discharges being of predominantly positive polarity. In addition, NM storms commonly produce bolt-from-the-blue (BFB) negative CGs, whereas anomalously electrified Colorado storms produce none. The occurrence of BFBs is indicative of a relatively weak lower positive charge region, while the occurrence of normal downward -CGs is indicative of a somewhat stronger lower positive charge. The lack of -CGs in Colorado storms results from lower positive charge being a dominant storm charge that is elevated in altitude. These and other basic features of the electrically activity of storms, coupled with dual polarization and Doppler radar observations of hydrometeor types and motions, are leading to a better understanding of the storm electrification processes.

  9. Confirmation of the detection of B modes in the Planck polarization maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.

    2018-01-01

    One of the main problems of extracting the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from submm/mm observations is correcting for the galactic components, mainly synchrotron, free–free, and thermal dust emission, with the required accuracy. Through a series of papers, it has been demonstrated that this t......One of the main problems of extracting the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from submm/mm observations is correcting for the galactic components, mainly synchrotron, free–free, and thermal dust emission, with the required accuracy. Through a series of papers, it has been demonstrated...... that this task can be fulfilled by means of simple neural networks with high confidence. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the CMB BB power spectrum detected in the Planck 2015 polarization maps is present in the improved Planck 2017 maps with higher signal‐to‐noise ratio. Two features have...

  10. Projection Mapping amb Shadertoy i openFrameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Borràs Massaguer, Lluís

    2015-01-01

    El projection mapping és un món molt complex, cada projecció explica una història diferent i hi ha molts perfils de persona treballant-hi al darrera, des del dissenyador gràfic, passant pels tècnics de vídeo i so fins a l’autor de la història. Les aplicacions que s’utilitzen per fer projection mapping, de les quals les més conegudes: ’Resolume Arena’, ’Mad Mapper’ i ’arkaos GrandVJ XT’ són aplicacions comercials a gran escala. És un tipus de software molt específic i, per tant, ...

  11. Mapping Plastic-Mulched Farmland with C-Band Full Polarization SAR Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasituya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plastic mulching is an important technology in agricultural production both in China and the rest of the world. In spite of its benefit of increasing crop yields, the booming expansion of the plastic mulching area has been changing the landscape patterns and affecting the environment. Accurate and effective mapping of Plastic-Mulched Farmland (PMF can provide useful information for leveraging its advantages and disadvantages. However, mapping the PMF with remote sensing is still challenging owing to its varying spectral characteristics with the crop growth and geographic spatial division. In this paper, we investigated the potential of Radarsat-2 data for mapping PMF. We obtained the backscattering intensity of different polarizations and multiple polarimetric decomposition descriptors. These remotely-sensed information was used as input features for Random Forest (RF and Support Vector Machine (SVM classifiers. The results indicated that the features from Radarsat-2 data have great potential for mapping PMF. The overall accuracies of PMF mapping with Radarsat-2 data were close to 75%. Although the classification accuracy with the back-scattering intensity information alone was relatively lower owing to the inherent speckle noise in SAR data, it has been improved significantly by introducing the polarimetric decomposition descriptors. The accuracy was nearly 75%. In addition, the features derived from the Entropy/Anisotropy/Alpha (H/A/Alpha polarimetric decomposition, such as Alpha, entropy, and so on, made a greater contribution to PMF mapping than the Freeman decomposition, Krogager decomposition and the Yamaguchi4 decomposition. The performances of different classifiers were also compared. In this study, the RF classifier performed better than the SVM classifier. However, it is expected that the classification accuracy of PMF with SAR remote sensing data can be improved by combining SAR remote sensing data with optical remote sensing data.

  12. Analysis of polarization in hydrogen bonded complexes: An asymptotic projection approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drici, Nedjoua

    2018-03-01

    The asymptotic projection technique is used to investigate the polarization effect that arises from the interaction between the relaxed, and frozen monomeric charge densities of a set of neutral and charged hydrogen bonded complexes. The AP technique based on the resolution of the original Kohn-Sham equations can give an acceptable qualitative description of the polarization effect in neutral complexes. The significant overlap of the electron densities, in charged and π-conjugated complexes, impose further development of a new functional, describing the coupling between constrained and non-constrained electron densities within the AP technique to provide an accurate representation of the polarization effect.

  13. Far-UV Spectral Mapping of Lunar Composition, Porosity, and Space Weathering: LRO Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Mandt, K.; Gladstone, R.; Liu, Y.; Hendrix, A. R.; Hurley, D.; Cahill, J. T.; Stickle, A. M.; Egan, A.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Grava, C.; Pryor, W. R.

    2016-12-01

    Far ultraviolet reflectance measurements of the Moon, icy satellites, comets, and asteroids obtained within the last decade have ushered in a new era of scientific advancement for UV surface investigations. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) has demonstrated an innovative nightside observing technique, putting a new light on permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and other features on the Moon. Dayside far-UV albedo maps complement the nightside data, and LRO's polar orbit and high data downlink capabilities enable searches for diurnal variations in spectral signals. We'll discuss the strengths of the far-UV reflectance imaging spectroscopy technique with respect to several new LAMP results. Detections of water frost and hydration signatures near 165 nm, for example, provide constraints on composition that complement infrared spectroscopy, visible imaging, neutron spectroscopy, radar, and other techniques. At far-UV wavelengths a relatively blue spectral slope is diagnostic of space weathering, which is opposite of the spectral reddening indicator of maturity at wavelengths longward of 180 nm. By utilizing natural diffuse illumination sources on the nightside the far-UV technique is able to identify relative increases in porosity within the PSRs, and provides an additional tool for determining relative surface ages. Prospects for future studies are further enabled by a new, more sensitive dayside operating mode enacted during the present LRO mission extension.

  14. Influence of consumers' cognitive style on results from projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Paula; Antúnez, Lucía; Berget, Ingunn; Oliveira, Denize; Christensen, Kasper; Vidal, Leticia; Naes, Tormod; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    Projective mapping (PM), one of the most holistic product profiling methods in approach, is increasingly being used to uncover consumers' perception of products and packages. Assessors rely on a process of synthesis for evaluating product information, which would determine the relative importance of the perceived characteristics they use for mapping them. Individual differences are expected, as participants are not instructed on the characteristics to consider for evaluating the degree of difference among samples, generating different perceptual spaces. Individual differences in cognitive style can affect synthesis processes and thus their perception of similarities and differences among samples. In this study, the influence of the cognitive style in the results of PM was explored. Two consumer studies were performed, one aimed at describing intrinsic sensory characteristics of chocolate flavoured milk and the other one looking into extrinsic (package only) of blueberry yogurts. Consumers completed the wholistic-analytic module of the extended Verbal Imagery Cognitive Styles Test & Extended Cognitive Style Analysis-Wholistic Analytic Test, to characterize their cognitive style. Differences between wholistic and analytic consumers in how they evaluated samples using projective mapping were found in both studies. Analytics separated the samples more in the PM perceptual space than wholistic consumers, showing more discriminating abilities. This may come from a deeper analysis of the samples, both from intrinsic and extrinsic point of views. From a sensory perspective (intrinsic), analytic consumers relied on more sensory characteristics, while wholistic mainly discriminated samples according to sweetness and bitterness/chocolate flavour. In the extrinsic study however, even if analytic consumers discriminated more between packs, they described the products using similar words in the descriptive step. One important recommendation coming from this study is the need to

  15. Mapping Best and Emerging Practices of Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Aaris Boas, Charlotte; Thorslund, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study of the connection between Best and Emerging practices of project management. Drawing upon network mapping as an analytical strategy, cases of Best and Emerging practices is analysed and juxtaposed. The case of Best practice is represented by the newly...... published ISO 21500 standard and the case for the Emerging practices by a deconstruction of the practices of a group of experienced project managers. The network analysis reveals a substantial difference between the Best and Emerging practices. Only two central concepts where shared namely Communication...... and Planning. Of these two concepts Communication where found to be the most central to both the Emerging and Best practices. The analysis further reveals a soft side of project management that is central in the Emerging practice but absent from the Best practices. Although this soft side might be interpreted...

  16. Density equalizing map projections (cartograms) in public health applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, D.W.

    1998-05-01

    In studying geographic disease distributions, one normally compares rates among arbitrarily defined geographic subareas (e.g. census tracts), thereby sacrificing some of the geographic detail of the original data. The sparser the data, the larger the subareas must be in order to calculate stable rates. This dilemma is avoided with the technique of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP){copyright}. Boundaries of geographic subregions are adjusted to equalize population density over the entire study area. Case locations plotted on the transformed map should have a uniform distribution if the underlying disease risk is constant. On the transformed map, the statistical analysis of the observed distribution is greatly simplified. Even for sparse distributions, the statistical significance of a supposed disease cluster can be calculated with validity. The DEMP algorithm was applied to a data set previously analyzed with conventional techniques; namely, 401 childhood cancer cases in four counties of California. The distribution of cases on the transformed map was analyzed visually and statistically. To check the validity of the method, the identical analysis was performed on 401 artificial cases randomly generated under the assumption of uniform risk. No statistically significant evidence for geographic non-uniformity of rates was found, in agreement with the original analysis performed by the California Department of Health Services.

  17. Robust Likelihoods for Inflationary Gravitational Waves from Maps of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Eric Ryan; Watts, Duncan J.

    2016-01-01

    The B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background provides a unique window into tensor perturbations from inflationary gravitational waves. Survey effects complicate the estimation and description of the power spectrum on the largest angular scales. The pixel-space likelihood yields parameter distributions without the power spectrum as an intermediate step, but it does not have the large suite of tests available to power spectral methods. Searches for primordial B-modes must rigorously reject and rule out contamination. Many forms of contamination vary or are uncorrelated across epochs, frequencies, surveys, or other data treatment subsets. The cross power and the power spectrum of the difference of subset maps provide approaches to reject and isolate excess variance. We develop an analogous joint pixel-space likelihood. Contamination not modeled in the likelihood produces parameter-dependent bias and complicates the interpretation of the difference map. We describe a null test that consistently weights the difference map. Excess variance should either be explicitly modeled in the covariance or be removed through reprocessing the data.

  18. Conservation status of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in relation to projected sea-ice declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Eric V.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Amstrup, Steven C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Lunn, Nicholas J.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Stern, Harry; Thiemann, Gregory W.; Wiig, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Loss of Arctic sea ice owing to climate change is the primary threat to polar bears throughout their range. We evaluated the potential response of polar bears to sea-ice declines by (i) calculating generation length (GL) for the species, which determines the timeframe for conservation assessments; (ii) developing a standardized sea-ice metric representing important habitat; and (iii) using statistical models and computer simulation to project changes in the global population under three approaches relating polar bear abundance to sea ice. Mean GL was 11.5 years. Ice-covered days declined in all subpopulation areas during 1979–2014 (median −1.26 days year−1). The estimated probabilities that reductions in the mean global population size of polar bears will be greater than 30%, 50% and 80% over three generations (35–41 years) were 0.71 (range 0.20–0.95), 0.07 (range 0–0.35) and less than 0.01 (range 0–0.02), respectively. According to IUCN Red List reduction thresholds, which provide a common measure of extinction risk across taxa, these results are consistent with listing the species as vulnerable. Our findings support the potential for large declines in polar bear numbers owing to sea-ice loss, and highlight near-term uncertainty in statistical projections as well as the sensitivity of projections to different plausible assumptions.

  19. Conservation status of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in relation to projected sea-ice declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Eric V; Laidre, Kristin L; Akçakaya, H Resit; Amstrup, Steven C; Atwood, Todd C; Lunn, Nicholas J; Obbard, Martyn; Stern, Harry; Thiemann, Gregory W; Wiig, Øystein

    2016-12-01

    Loss of Arctic sea ice owing to climate change is the primary threat to polar bears throughout their range. We evaluated the potential response of polar bears to sea-ice declines by (i) calculating generation length (GL) for the species, which determines the timeframe for conservation assessments; (ii) developing a standardized sea-ice metric representing important habitat; and (iii) using statistical models and computer simulation to project changes in the global population under three approaches relating polar bear abundance to sea ice. Mean GL was 11.5 years. Ice-covered days declined in all subpopulation areas during 1979-2014 (median -1.26 days year -1 ). The estimated probabilities that reductions in the mean global population size of polar bears will be greater than 30%, 50% and 80% over three generations (35-41 years) were 0.71 (range 0.20-0.95), 0.07 (range 0-0.35) and less than 0.01 (range 0-0.02), respectively. According to IUCN Red List reduction thresholds, which provide a common measure of extinction risk across taxa, these results are consistent with listing the species as vulnerable. Our findings support the potential for large declines in polar bear numbers owing to sea-ice loss, and highlight near-term uncertainty in statistical projections as well as the sensitivity of projections to different plausible assumptions. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Wavelet analysis of polarization azimuths maps for laser images of myocardial tissue for the purpose of diagnosing acute coronary insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchuliak, O. Ya.; Peresunko, A. P.; Bakko, Bouzan Adel; Kushnerick, L. Ya.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the foundations of a large scale - localized wavelet - polarization analysis - inhomogeneous laser images of histological sections of myocardial tissue. Opportunities were identified defining relations between the structures of wavelet coefficients and causes of death. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of myocardium protein fibrils is presented. The technique of determining the coordinate distribution of polarization azimuth of the points of laser images of myocardium histological sections is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order) parameters are presented which characterize distributions of wavelet - coefficients polarization maps of myocardium layers and death reasons.

  1. Application of time domain induced polarization to the mapping of lithotypes in a landfill site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gazoty

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A direct current (DC resistivity and time domain induced polarization (TDIP survey was undertaken at a decommissioned landfill site situated in Hørløkke, Denmark, for the purpose of mapping the waste deposits and to discriminate important geological units that control the hydrology of the surrounding area. It is known that both waste deposits and clay have clear signatures in TDIP data, making it possible to enhance the resolution of geological structures compared to DC surveys alone.

    Four DC/TDIP profiles were carried out crossing the landfill, and another seven profiles in the surroundings provide a sufficiently dense coverage of the entire area. The whole dataset was inverted using a 1-D laterally constrained inversion scheme, recently implemented for TDIP data, in order to use the entire decay curves for reconstructing the electrical parameters of the soil in terms of the Cole-Cole polarization model.

    Results show that it is possible to resolve both the geometry of the buried waste body and key geological structures. In particular, it was possible to find a silt/clay lens at depth that correlates with the flow direction of the pollution plume spreading out from the landfill and to map a shallow sandy layer rich in clay that likely has a strong influence on the hydrology of the site. This interpretation of the geophysical findings was constrained by borehole data, in terms of geology and gamma ray logging. The results of this study are important for the impact of the resolved geological units on the hydrology of the area, making it possible to construct more realistic scenarios of the variation of the pollution plume as a function of the climate change.

  2. Mapping of the solar wind electric field to the Earth's polar caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffoletto, F.R.; Hill, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we describe a quantitative model of a magnetically interconnected (open) magnetosphere, developed as a perturbation to Voigt's closed magnetosphere model with a given magnetopause shape. The ''interconnection'' (perturbation) field is obtained as a solution to a Neumann boundary value problem, with the magnetopause normal component distribution as a boundary condition. The normal component at the magnetopause is required to be time independent and is specified in accordance with one of two hypotheses: the subsolar point merging hypothesis and Crooker's antiparallel merging hypothesis. The resulting open magnetospheric configuration is used to map the magnetopause electric field down to the polar cap ionosphere. We present ionospheric convection patterns derived from three representative interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations for each of the two dayside merging geometries. Both merging geometries reproduce the observed convergence of convection streamlines near noon in a convection ''throat,'' and the east-west deflection of these streamlines in response to the east-west IMF component. The major difference between the two dayside merging geometries occurs for nonsouthward IMF, and consists of a Sun-aligned convection gap that bifurcates the polar cap in the case of the antiparallel merging geometry but not in the subsolar point merging geometry. This convection gap may plausibly be associated with the ''theta aurora'' structure observed when the IMF has a northward component. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  3. Mapping of landfills using time-domain spectral induced polarization data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazoty, Aurélie; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Pedersen, Jesper Bjergsted

    2012-01-01

    This study uses time-domain induced polarization data for the delineation and characterization of the former landfill site at Eskelund, Denmark. With optimized acquisition parameters combined with a new inversion algorithm, we use the full content of the decay curve and retrieve spectral informat......This study uses time-domain induced polarization data for the delineation and characterization of the former landfill site at Eskelund, Denmark. With optimized acquisition parameters combined with a new inversion algorithm, we use the full content of the decay curve and retrieve spectral...... information from time-domain IP data. Thirteen IP/DC profiles were collected in the area, supplemented by el-log drilling for accurate correlation between the geophysics and the lithology. The data were inverted using a laterally constrained 1D inversion considering the full decay curves to retrieve the four......-log measurements giving in situ values, for which the Cole-Cole parameters were computed. The 3D shape of the waste body was pinpointed and well-defined. The inversion of the IP data also shows a strong correlation with the initial stage of the waste dump and its composition combining an aerial map with acquired...

  4. Mapping and industrial IT project to a 2nd semester design-build project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Mads; Høgh, Stig

    2010-01-01

    CDIO means bringing the engineer's daily life and working practice into the educational system. In our opinion this is best done by selecting an appropriate project from industry. In this paper we describe how we have mapped an industrial IT project to a 2nd semester design-build project in the D......CDIO means bringing the engineer's daily life and working practice into the educational system. In our opinion this is best done by selecting an appropriate project from industry. In this paper we describe how we have mapped an industrial IT project to a 2nd semester design-build project...... in the Diploma IT program at the Technical University of Denmark. The system in question is a weighing system operating in a LAN environment. The system is used in the medical industry for producing tablets. We present the design of a curriculum to support the development of major components of the weighing...... system. A simple teaching model for software engineering is presented which combines technical disciplines with disciplines from section 2-4 in the CDIO syllabus. The implementation of a joint project involving several courses supports the CDIO perspective. Already the traditional IT-diploma education...

  5. Initial Results from the New Stress Map of Texas Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Snee, J. E.; Zoback, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Modern techniques for characterizing tectonic stress orientation and relative magnitude have been successfully used for more than 35 years. Nevertheless, large areas of North America lack high spatial resolution maps of stress orientation, magnitude, and faulting regime. In Texas, for example, data are foundational elements of attempts to characterize tectonic driving forces, understand hazards associated with induced seismicity, and optimize production of oil, gas, and geothermal resources. This year, we launched the Texas Stress Map project to characterize tectonic stress patterns at higher spatial resolution across Texas and nearby areas. Following a successful effort just completed in Oklahoma, we will evaluate borehole breakouts, drilling-induced tensile fractures, shear wave anisotropy, and earthquake data. The principal data source will be FMI (fullbore formation microimager), UBI (ultrasonic borehole imager), cross-dipole sonic, density, and caliper logs provided by private industry. Earthquake moment tensor solutions from the U.S. Geological Survey, Saint Louis University and other sources will also be used. Our initial focus is on the Permian Basin and Barnett Shale petroleum plays due to the availability of data, but we will expand our analysis across the state as the project progresses. In addition, we hope to eventually apply the higher spatial resolution data coverage to understanding tectonic and geodynamic characteristics of the southwestern United States and northeastern Mexico. Here we present early results from our work to constrain stress orientations and faulting regime in and near Texas, and we also provide a roadmap for the ongoing research.

  6. Mapping polar bear maternal denning habitat in the National Petroleum Reserve -- Alaska with an IfSAR digital terrain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Simac, Kristin S.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska (NPR-A) in northeastern Alaska provides winter maternal denning habitat for polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and also has high potential for recoverable hydrocarbons. Denning polar bears exposed to human activities may abandon their dens before their young are able to survive the severity of Arctic winter weather. To ensure that wintertime petroleum activities do not threaten polar bears, managers need to know the distribution of landscape features in which maternal dens are likely to occur. Here, we present a map of potential denning habitat within the NPR-A. We used a fine-grain digital elevation model derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) to generate a map of putative denning habitat. We then tested the map’s ability to identify polar bear denning habitat on the landscape. Our final map correctly identified 82% of denning habitat estimated to be within the NPR-A. Mapped denning habitat comprised 19.7 km2 (0.1% of the study area) and was widely dispersed. Though mapping denning habitat with IfSAR data was as effective as mapping with the photogrammetric methods used for other regions of the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain, the use of GIS to analyze IfSAR data allowed greater objectivity and flexibility with less manual labor. Analytical advantages and performance equivalent to that of manual cartographic methods suggest that the use of IfSAR data to identify polar bear maternal denning habitat is a better management tool in the NPR-A and wherever such data may be available.

  7. Orientation Mapping of Extruded Polymeric Composites by Polarized Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular orientation has a strong influence on polymeric composite materials’ mechanical properties. In this paper we describe the use of polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy as a powerful tool to map out the molecular orientation of a uniaxially oriented polypropylene- (PP- based composite material. Initial samples exhibited a high degree of surface fibrillation upon cutting. Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the degree of orientation in the skin and guide the development of the posttreatment process to optimize the skin relaxation while maintaining the high degree of orientation in the rest of the board. The PP oriented polymer composite (OPC was oriented through an extrusion process and its surface was then treated to achieve relaxation. Micro-Raman analysis at the surface region demonstrated the surface orientation relaxation, and the results provide an effective way to correlate the extent of relaxation and process conditions. Larger scale orientation mapping was also carried out over the entire cross-section (12.7 cm × 2.54 cm. The results agree well with prior expectation of the molecular orientation based on the extrusion and subsequent quenching process. The methodologies described here can be readily applied to other polymeric systems.

  8. Generation and communication of dynamic maps using light projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Steffen; Schlichting, Alexander; Brenner, Claus

    2018-05-01

    Many accidents are caused by miscommunication between traffic participants. Much research is being conducted in the area of car to car and car to infrastructure communication in order to eliminate this cause of accidents. How-ever, less attention is paid to the question how the behavior of a car can be communicated to pedestrians. Especially considering automated traffic, there is a lack of communication between cars and pedestrians. In this paper, we address the question how an autonomously driving car can inform pedestrians about its intentions. Especially in case of highly automated driving, making eye contact with a driver will give no clue about his or her intensions. We developed a prototype which continuously informs pedestrians about the intentions of the vehicle by projecting visual patterns onto the ground. Furthermore, the system communicates its interpretation of the observed situation to the pedestrians to warn them or to encourage them to perform a certain action. In order to communicate adaptively, the vehicle needs to develop an understanding of the dynamics of a city to know what to expect in certain situations and what speed is appropriate. To support this, we created a dynamic map, which estimates the number of pedestrians and cyclists in a certain area, which is then used to determine how `hazardous' the area is. This dynamic map is obtained from measurement data from many time instances, in contrast to the static car navigation maps, which are prevalent today. Apart from being used for communication purposes, the dynamic map can also influence the speed of a car, be it manually or autonomously driven. Adapting the speed in hazardous areas will avoid accidents where a car drives too fast, so that neither a human nor a computer-operated system would be able to stop in time.

  9. Oblique Projection Polarization Filtering-Based Interference Suppressions for Radar Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Bin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interferences coming from the radar members degrade the detection and recognition performance of the radar sensor networks (RSNs if the waveforms of the radar members are nonorthogonal. In this paper, we analyze the interferences by exploring the polarization information of the electromagnetic (EM waves. Then, we propose the oblique projection polarization filtering- (OPPF- based scheme to suppress the interferences while keeping the amplitude and phase of its own return in RSNs, even if the polarized states of the radar members are not orthogonal. We consider the cooperative RSNs environment where the polarization information of each radar member is known to all. The proposed method uses all radar members' polarization information to establish the corresponding filtering operator. The Doppler-shift and its uncertainty are independent of the polarization information, which contributes that the interferences can be suppressed without the utilization of the spatial, the temporal, the frequency, the time-delay and the Doppler-shift information. Theoretical analysis and the mathematical deduction show that the proposed scheme is a valid and simple implementation. Simulation results also demonstrate that this method can obtain a good filtering performance when dealing with the problem of interference suppressions for RSNs.

  10. IPRT polarized radiative transfer model intercomparison project - Three-dimensional test cases (phase B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, Claudia; Barlakas, Vasileios; Cornet, Céline; Evans, Frank; Wang, Zhen; Labonotte, Laurent C.; Macke, Andreas; Mayer, Bernhard; Wendisch, Manfred

    2018-04-01

    Initially unpolarized solar radiation becomes polarized by scattering in the Earth's atmosphere. In particular molecular scattering (Rayleigh scattering) polarizes electromagnetic radiation, but also scattering of radiation at aerosols, cloud droplets (Mie scattering) and ice crystals polarizes. Each atmospheric constituent produces a characteristic polarization signal, thus spectro-polarimetric measurements are frequently employed for remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties. Retrieval algorithms require efficient radiative transfer models. Usually, these apply the plane-parallel approximation (PPA), assuming that the atmosphere consists of horizontally homogeneous layers. This allows to solve the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) efficiently. For remote sensing applications, the radiance is considered constant over the instantaneous field-of-view of the instrument and each sensor element is treated independently in plane-parallel approximation, neglecting horizontal radiation transport between adjacent pixels (Independent Pixel Approximation, IPA). In order to estimate the errors due to the IPA approximation, three-dimensional (3D) vector radiative transfer models are required. So far, only a few such models exist. Therefore, the International Polarized Radiative Transfer (IPRT) working group of the International Radiation Commission (IRC) has initiated a model intercomparison project in order to provide benchmark results for polarized radiative transfer. The group has already performed an intercomparison for one-dimensional (1D) multi-layer test cases [phase A, 1]. This paper presents the continuation of the intercomparison project (phase B) for 2D and 3D test cases: a step cloud, a cubic cloud, and a more realistic scenario including a 3D cloud field generated by a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model and typical background aerosols. The commonly established benchmark results for 3D polarized radiative transfer are available at the IPRT website (http

  11. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field to continental scales using geostationary and polar orbiting satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared (TIR remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (e.g., air temperature, advection are affecting plant functioning. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil + canopy land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5 to 10-km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions on the order of 10 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple geostationary meteorological satellite systems, such as the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe, Africa

  12. Vectorial mapping of noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure of semiconducting FeSe surface with spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, K. F.; Yang, Fang; Song, Y. R. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Xiaole [Institute of Natural Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen, Xianfeng [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Canhua; Qian, Dong; Gao, C. L., E-mail: clgao@sjtu.edu.cn; Jia, Jin-Feng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing (China); Luo, Weidong, E-mail: wdluo@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Institute of Natural Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing (China)

    2016-02-08

    Antiferromagnetic semiconductors gain increasing interest due to their possible application in spintronics. Using spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy operating in a vector field, we mapped the noncollinear antiferromagnetic spin structure of a semiconducting hexagonal FeSe surface on the atomic scale. The surface possesses an in-plane compensated Néel structure which is further confirmed by first-principles calculations.

  13. Vectorial mapping of noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure of semiconducting FeSe surface with spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, K. F.; Yang, Fang; Song, Y. R.; Zhang, Xiaole; Chen, Xianfeng; Liu, Canhua; Qian, Dong; Gao, C. L.; Jia, Jin-Feng; Luo, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Antiferromagnetic semiconductors gain increasing interest due to their possible application in spintronics. Using spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy operating in a vector field, we mapped the noncollinear antiferromagnetic spin structure of a semiconducting hexagonal FeSe surface on the atomic scale. The surface possesses an in-plane compensated Néel structure which is further confirmed by first-principles calculations

  14. Mapping data through concept maps: an auxiliary tool for decision making regarding institutional projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Avila, Adriana L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a data mapping construction aimed to subsidize the decision making process regarding institutional projects, at different levels of responsibility, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. The conception models a systemic and adaptive tool which is based on the concept mapping theory developed by Novak. The Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN) is a research center of the Comissão de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), an autarchy attached to Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações. The main focus of IEN is research and development of nuclear science and technology. The developed tool creates a more effective and accessible way of sharing information. However, beyond project data integration into a specific instrument, it also has the intent to compensate the consequences of the continued reduction of the number of workers at IEN over recent years. The recent CNEN management report, published in 2016, showed the problematic situation caused by the loss of workers, stressing the high number of pensions granted and to be granted in the near future. The loss of labor force, besides exposing the urgent need for optimizing knowledge management efforts, also sheds light into another problem: the need for grouping responsibilities among the remaining workers. In this respect, the tool developed helps to face this challenge, enhancing autonomy at different levels but preserving the institutional guidelines. To conclude the report, and in order to exemplify the method, the paper also describes the map construction relative an innovative project proposal in a joint development towards the nuclear area. (author)

  15. Mapping data through concept maps: an auxiliary tool for decision making regarding institutional projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Avila, Adriana L., E-mail: adriana@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisão de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports a data mapping construction aimed to subsidize the decision making process regarding institutional projects, at different levels of responsibility, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. The conception models a systemic and adaptive tool which is based on the concept mapping theory developed by Novak. The Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN) is a research center of the Comissão de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), an autarchy attached to Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações. The main focus of IEN is research and development of nuclear science and technology. The developed tool creates a more effective and accessible way of sharing information. However, beyond project data integration into a specific instrument, it also has the intent to compensate the consequences of the continued reduction of the number of workers at IEN over recent years. The recent CNEN management report, published in 2016, showed the problematic situation caused by the loss of workers, stressing the high number of pensions granted and to be granted in the near future. The loss of labor force, besides exposing the urgent need for optimizing knowledge management efforts, also sheds light into another problem: the need for grouping responsibilities among the remaining workers. In this respect, the tool developed helps to face this challenge, enhancing autonomy at different levels but preserving the institutional guidelines. To conclude the report, and in order to exemplify the method, the paper also describes the map construction relative an innovative project proposal in a joint development towards the nuclear area. (author)

  16. Coastal Mapping Program Project TX1406: FREEPORT, TX.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  17. Coastal Mapping Program Project OR1401; SOUTH SLOUGH NERR, OR.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  18. Coastal Mapping Program Project MN1501: SILVER BAY, MN.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  19. Coastal Mapping Program Project MI1501: ST CLAIR, MI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  20. MAPPING THE POLARIZATION OF THE RADIO-LOUD Ly α NEBULA B3 J2330+3927

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Chang; Zabludoff, Ann; Smith, Paul; Jannuzi, Buell [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Yang, Yujin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eunchong; Lee, Myung Gyoon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 88226 (Korea, Republic of); Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, 1320 Frenger Mall, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Matsuda, Yuichi, E-mail: yyang@kasi.re.kr [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-01-10

    Ly α nebulae, or “Ly α blobs,” are extended (up to ∼100 kpc), bright (L{sub Lyα}  ≳ 10{sup 43} erg s{sup −1}) clouds of Ly α emitting gas that tend to lie in overdense regions at z  ∼ 2–5. The origin of the Ly α emission remains unknown, but recent theoretical work suggests that measuring the polarization might discriminate among powering mechanisms. Here we present the first narrowband imaging polarimetry of a radio-loud Ly α nebula, B3 J2330+3927, at z = 3.09, with an embedded active galactic nucleus (AGN). The AGN lies near the blob’s Ly α emission peak, and its radio lobes align roughly with the blob’s major axis. With the SPOL polarimeter on the 6.5 m MMT telescope, we map the total (Ly α + continuum) polarization in a grid of circular apertures of a radius of 0.″6 (4.4 kpc), detecting a significant (>2 σ ) polarization fraction P {sub %} in nine apertures and achieving strong upper limits (as low as 2%) elsewhere. P{sub %} increases from <2% at ∼5 kpc from the blob center to 17% at ∼15–25 kpc. The detections are distributed asymmetrically, roughly along the nebula’s major axis. The polarization angles θ are mostly perpendicular to this axis. Comparing the Ly α flux to that of the continuum and conservatively assuming that the continuum is highly polarized (20%–100%) and aligned with the total polarization, we place lower limits on the polarization of the Ly α emission P{sub %,Lyα} ranging from no significant polarization at ∼5 kpc from the blob center to 3%–17% at 10–25 kpc. Like the total polarization, the Ly α polarization detections occur more often along the blob’s major axis.

  1. MAPPING THE POLARIZATION OF THE RADIO-LOUD Ly α NEBULA B3 J2330+3927

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Chang; Zabludoff, Ann; Smith, Paul; Jannuzi, Buell; Yang, Yujin; Kim, Eunchong; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Prescott, Moire K. M.; Matsuda, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    Ly α nebulae, or “Ly α blobs,” are extended (up to ∼100 kpc), bright (L Lyα  ≳ 10 43 erg s −1 ) clouds of Ly α emitting gas that tend to lie in overdense regions at z  ∼ 2–5. The origin of the Ly α emission remains unknown, but recent theoretical work suggests that measuring the polarization might discriminate among powering mechanisms. Here we present the first narrowband imaging polarimetry of a radio-loud Ly α nebula, B3 J2330+3927, at z = 3.09, with an embedded active galactic nucleus (AGN). The AGN lies near the blob’s Ly α emission peak, and its radio lobes align roughly with the blob’s major axis. With the SPOL polarimeter on the 6.5 m MMT telescope, we map the total (Ly α + continuum) polarization in a grid of circular apertures of a radius of 0.″6 (4.4 kpc), detecting a significant (>2 σ ) polarization fraction P % in nine apertures and achieving strong upper limits (as low as 2%) elsewhere. P % increases from <2% at ∼5 kpc from the blob center to 17% at ∼15–25 kpc. The detections are distributed asymmetrically, roughly along the nebula’s major axis. The polarization angles θ are mostly perpendicular to this axis. Comparing the Ly α flux to that of the continuum and conservatively assuming that the continuum is highly polarized (20%–100%) and aligned with the total polarization, we place lower limits on the polarization of the Ly α emission P %,Lyα ranging from no significant polarization at ∼5 kpc from the blob center to 3%–17% at 10–25 kpc. Like the total polarization, the Ly α polarization detections occur more often along the blob’s major axis.

  2. The UK Human Genome Mapping Project online computing service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysavy, F R; Bishop, M J; Gibbs, G P; Williams, G W

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of computing and networking facilities developed by the Medical Research Council to provide online computing support to the Human Genome Mapping Project (HGMP) in the UK. The facility is connected to a number of other computing facilities in various centres of genetics and molecular biology research excellence, either directly via high-speed links or through national and international wide-area networks. The paper describes the design and implementation of the current system, a 'client/server' network of Sun, IBM, DEC and Apple servers, gateways and workstations. A short outline of online computing services currently delivered by this system to the UK human genetics research community is also provided. More information about the services and their availability could be obtained by a direct approach to the UK HGMP-RC.

  3. Seeing the unseen: an Indigenous heritage's mapping project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Justine

    2018-05-01

    Based on an ongoing qualitative and collaborative research project led in partnership with the Innu community of Pessamit, this paper brings into focus some specific issues regarding memories recollection and representation in a context of deterritorialization. The Innu First Nation has a specific historical and political context related to resources exploitation. Since their traditional lands have been the site of several large-scale hydroelectric projects, they have been intimately - and to a large extent, forcibly - involved in the economic transformation of Quebec since the 1950s. It should be noted, however, that their ancestral occupation has never been formerly recognized by the federal and provincial governments, a political and legal context partly responsible for the material and cultural losses they had to deal with. Through interviews we have conducted with the elders that travelled the rivers before the floods, we tried to rebuild, in some way, the cultural heritage embedded in those submerged lands. We used different cartographic tools and materials in a way to support and trigger the personal narratives the elders were remembering and sharing. This cultural mapping process revealed three main issues I would like to focus on. First, as the cartographic representations were getting closer to the landscapes the elders perceived and experimented as kids and young adults, the localization of significant places and the creation of personal narratives became easier and fluid. Secondly, we found, through that inquiry, how important an enhanced visibility of innu's flooded heritage can be on a political level. Finally, we came to the conclusion that mapping should be considered more as a conversation than a visual representation only.

  4. Project of Near-Real-Time Generation of ShakeMaps and a New Hazard Map in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Weginger, Stefan; Horn, Nikolaus; Hausmann, Helmut; Lenhardt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Target-orientated prevention and effective crisis management can reduce or avoid damage and save lives in case of a strong earthquake. To achieve this goal, a project for automatic generated ShakeMaps (maps of ground motion and shaking intensity) and updating the Austrian hazard map was started at ZAMG (Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik) in 2015. The first goal of the project is set for a near-real-time generation of ShakeMaps following strong earthquakes in Austria to provide rapid, accurate and official information to support the governmental crisis management. Using newly developed methods and software by SHARE (Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe) and GEM (Global Earthquake Model), which allows a transnational analysis at European level, a new generation of Austrian hazard maps will be ultimately calculated. More information and a status of our project will be given by this presentation.

  5. Detection and mapping of polar stratospheric clouds using limb scattering observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. von Savigny

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based measurements of Visible/NIR limb-scattered solar radiation are well suited for the detection and mapping of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs. This publication describes a method to detect PCSs from limb scattering observations with the Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY on the European Space Agency's Envisat spacecraft. The method is based on a color-index approach and requires a priori knowledge of the stratospheric background aerosol loading in order to avoid false PSC identifications by stratospheric background aerosol. The method is applied to a sample data set including the 2003 PSC season in the Southern Hemisphere. The PSCs are correlated with coincident UKMO model temperature data, and with very few exceptions, the detected PSCs occur at temperatures below 195–198 K. Monthly averaged PSC descent rates are about 1.5 km/month for the −50° S to −75° S latitude range and assume a maximum between August and September with a value of about 2.5 km/month. The main cause of the PSC descent is the slow descent of the lower stratospheric temperature minimum.

  6. Quantifying Microbe-Mineral Interactions Leading to Remotely Detectable Induced Polarization Signals (Final Project Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moysey, Stephen [Clemson University; Dean, Delphine [Clemson University; Dimitrios, Ntarlagiannis [Rutgers University

    2013-11-13

    The objective of this project was to investigate controls on induced polarization responses in porous media. The approach taken in the project was to compare electrical measurements made on mineral surfaces with atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to observations made at the column-scale using traditional spectral induced polarization measurements. In the project we evaluated a number of techniques for investigating the surface properties of materials, including the development of a new AFM measurement protocol that utilizes an external electric field to induce grain-scale polarizations that can be probed using a charged AFM tip. The experiments we performed focused on idealized systems (i.e., glass beads and silica gel) where we could obtain the high degree of control needed to understand how changes in the pore environment, which are determined by biogeochemical controls in the subsurface, affect mechanisms contributing to complex electrical conductivity, i.e., conduction and polarization, responses. The studies we performed can be classified into those affecting the chemical versus physical properties of the grain surface and pore space. Chemical alterations of the surface focused on evaluating how changes in pore fluid pH and ionic composition control surface conduction. These were performed as column flow through experiments where the pore fluid was exchanged in a column of silica gel. Given that silica gel has a high surface area due to internal grain porosity, high-quality data could be obtained where the chemical influences on the surface are clearly apparent and qualitatively consistent with theories of grain (i.e., Stern layer) polarization controlled by electrostatic surface sorption processes (i.e., triple layer theory). Quantitative fitting of the results by existing process-based polarization models (e.g., Leroy et al., 2008) has been less successful, however, due to what we have attributed to differences between existing models developed for

  7. The Polar Crust Project- BSC Diversity and Variability in the Arctic and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura; Borchhardt, Nadine; Komisc-Buchmann, Karin; Becker, Burkhard; Karsten, Ulf; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    The Polar Crust Project is a newly funded DFG initiative that aims to provide a precise evaluation of the biodiversity of eukaryotic green microalgae and cyanobacteria in Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) isolated from the Antarctic Peninsula and Arctic Svalbard. This project will include a thorough investigation into the composition of BSC in the Polar regions, this especially is important for Svalbard due to the severe lack of any previous research on such communities in this area. During our expedition to Spitsbergen, Svalbard in August 2014 we were particularly surprised to find that the coverage of BSC is extremely high and is certainly the dominant vegetation type around Ny Ålesund. Due to this discovery the project has now been extended to include long term measurements of CO2 gas exchange in order to gain exact seasonal carbon fixation rates and therefore discovering how the BSC contributes to the ecosystems carbon balance. The research areas of Spitsbergen were centred around 2 localities: Ny-Ålesund is a research town, home to the AWIPEV station, on the Brøgger peninsula. Longyearbyen, which is the largest settlement on the island, is found in the valley Longyeardalen on the shore of Adventfjorden. Areas where BSC is the prevalent vegetation type were identified, 6 around Ny-Ålesund and 4 for Longyearbyen, and vegetation surveys were conducted. This entailed 625 single point measurements at each site and identifying the crust/or other cover type. For example, green algal lichen, cyanobacterial crust, higher plant, open soil. Samples were also taken at every location in order to study the green algal and cyanobacterial diversity. The vegetation survey will allow us to get a good overview of the BSC composition at the different sites. In January 2015 an expedition to the Antarctic Peninsular took place, here the sampling method was repeated and therefore both Polar Regions BSC composition can be described and compared. Here, we wish to introduce the Polar

  8. Relation of project managers' personality and project performance: An approach based on value stream mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Bevilacqua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This work investigates the influence of project managers’ personality on the success of a project in a Multinational Corporation. The methodology proposed for analyzing the project managers’ personality is based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.Design/methodology/approach: Forty projects carried out in 2012 by multinational corporation, concerning new product development (NPD, have been analyzed, comparing the profile of project managers with results obtained in terms of traditional performance indexes (time delay and over-budget of projects and performance indexes usually used in “Lean Production” sector (waste time and type of “wastes”. A detailed analysis of the most important “wastes” during the project development is carried out using the Value Stream Mapping (VSM technique.Findings and Originality/value: Relying on the Myers–Briggs personality instrument, results show that extroverted managers (as opposed to introverted managers carry out projects that show lower delay and lower waste time. Introverted managers often make “Over-processing” and “Defect” types of waste. Moreover, lower delay and over-budget have been shown by perceiving managers.Research limitations: Regarding the limitations of this work it is necessary to highlight that we collected data from project managers in a retrospective way. While we believe that several aspects of our data collection effort helped enhance the accuracy of the results, future research could conduct real-time case study research to get more detailed insights into the proposed relationships and avoid retrospective bias. Moreover we focused on a single respondent, the project manager. This helped us ensure that their interpretations played an important role in product development. But, we cannot examined the opinion of team members that could be different from project managers opinion regarding some questions.Originality/value: This research provides insight useful

  9. Corrosion map for metal pipes in coastal Louisiana : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this project is to create a guidance document with maps : that delineate zones where metal pipe is prone to increased corrosion due : to environmental conditions. Results from this project will provide a logical : rationale to suppor...

  10. A framework for extracting and representing project knowledge contexts using topic models and dynamic knowledge maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Li, Zheng; Li, Shuliang; Zhang, Yanyan

    2015-07-01

    There is still a lack of effective paradigms and tools for analysing and discovering the contents and relationships of project knowledge contexts in the field of project management. In this paper, a new framework for extracting and representing project knowledge contexts using topic models and dynamic knowledge maps under big data environments is proposed and developed. The conceptual paradigm, theoretical underpinning, extended topic model, and illustration examples of the ontology model for project knowledge maps are presented, with further research work envisaged.

  11. Mapping possible flowpaths of contaminants through surface and cross-borehole spectral time-domain induced polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Maurya, Pradip Kumar

    Traditional methods for mapping possible flowpaths of contaminants in sedimentary environments by boreholes may often be insufficient. Additional information may be acquired by geophysical methods. In the present study, cross-borehole and surface measurements were performed using time-domain indu......-domain induced polarization (TDIP). After measurements the entire test site was dug out, and the geology was described. A 2D spectral inversion of the combined dataset is presented, which is in great correspondence with the observed geology....

  12. Designing Knowledge Map for Knowledge Management projects Using Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    heidar najafi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research knowledge management has been studied as an interdisciplinary area. We aim to find an answer for this question that "what are the scientific structure and knowledge map of knowledge management projects regarding these two aspect of subject areas and keywords. For this purpose, nearly 40000 scientific documents including knowledge management as one of their keywords were selected from Scopus database and were studied in various subject areas. In this research,bar charts have been drawn for each index of subject areas and keywords. Besides, using Co-occurrence matrix, adjacency graphs were drawn and then clustered using Average-Link algorithm. Bar charts and graphs were drawn using R and Excel software. The results of this research showed that among the researches on knowledge management in the world, the most relevant scientific fields to knowledge management are Computer Sciences with 32.5%, Business, Management and Accounting with 14.5%, Engineering with 13.7%, Decisive Sciences with 12.6%, Mathematics with 7.07%, and Social Sciences with 6.63%, respectively. The most keywords collocate with knowledge management in the world are Human-Computer Interaction, Information Management, Systems Management, Information Technology, Manufacturing, Acquisition of Knowledge, Semantics, Knowledge Transfer, Ontology and Information Retrieval.

  13. Digitizing geographic data with GRIDOT; a generalized program for drawing overlay grids in various map projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.G.; Durfee, R.C.

    1976-09-01

    The GRIDOT computer program draws overlay grids on a Calcomp plotter for use in digitizing information from maps, rectified aerial photographs, and other sources of spatially distributed data related to regional environmental problems. The options of the program facilitate use of the overlays with standard maps and map projections of the continental United States. The overlay grid may be defined as a latitude-longitude grid (geodetic grid), a Universal Transverse Mercator Grid, or one of the standard state-plane coordinate system grids. The map for which the overlay is intended may be in an Albers Equal Area projection, a Lambert Conformal projection, a Polyconic projection, a Transverse Mercator projection, a Universal Transverse Mercator projection, or any of the standard state-plane projections

  14. Cartographic science: a compendium of map projections, with derivations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fenna, Donald

    2007-01-01

    .... Starting from widely described geometric projecting onto flat paper, cylinder, and cone, and then progressing through several layers of mathematics to reach modern projections, the author maximizes...

  15. Representing with Light. Video Projection Mapping for Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiani, C.; Guerra, F.; Pasini, T.; Visonà, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we describe a cross-disciplinary process that uses photogrammetric surveys as a precise basis for video projection mapping techniques. Beginning with a solid basis that uses geoinformatics technologies, such as laser scanning and photogrammetric survey, the method sets, as a first step, the physical and geometrical acquisition of the object. Precision and accuracy are the basics that allow the analysis of the artwork, both at a small or large scale, to evaluate details and correspondences. Testing contents at different scales of the object, using 3D printed replicas or real architectures is the second step of the investigation.The core of the process is the use of equations of collinearity into an interactive system such as Max 7, a visual programming language for music and multimedia, in order to facilitate operators to have a fast image correction, directly inside the interactive software. Interactivity gives also the opportunity to easily configure a set of actions to let the spectators to directly change and control the animation content. The paper goes through the different phases of the research, analysing the results and the progress through a series of events on real architecture and experiments on 3d printed models to test the level of involvement of the audience and the flexibility of the system in terms of content.The idea of using the collinearity equation inside da software Max 7 was developed for the M.Arch final Thesis by Massimo Visonà and Tommaso Pasini of the University of Venice (IUAV) in collaboration with the Digital Exhibit Postgraduate Master Course (MDE Iuav).

  16. A New Lunar Topographic Map of the Moon by KAGUYA-LALT: The First Precise Topography of the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, H.; Ishihara, Y.; Noda, H.; Goossens, S.; Tazawa, S.; Kawano, N.; Sasaki, S.; Oberst, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Japanese lunar explorer KAGUYA (SELENE) was launched successfully on September 14th, 2007. A laser altimeter (LALT) is on board the main orbiter of KAGUYA. The objectives of LALT are (1) determination of lunar global figure, (2) studies in internal structure and surface processes, (3) exploration of the lunar pole regions, and (4) reduction of lunar occultation data. LALT transmits laser pulses whose time width is about 20 nano-seconds and pulse interval is 1 second. Range accuracy is up to 5m. The range data are transformed to the topography of the moon with the aid of position and attitude data of the main orbiter. From the end of December 2007, LALT started continuous operation and a global topography map with unprecedented resolution was produced. Lunar mean radius is estimated as 1737.15±0.01 km and the COM-COF offset is 1.94 km based on the spherical harmonic model STM359_grid-02 derived from LALT topography. The amplitude of the power spectrum of STM359_grid-02 is larger than that of the previous model at L>30 degrees, which may reflect the process of basin formation and/or crustal evolution. In the polar regions where previous CLEMENTINE altimeter did not cover, many topographic features that were difficult to see on the imagery from spacecraft or ground based radar are discovered. The sunlit rate in the lunar polar regions is estimated by using the polar topographic map made from LALT topography. We found that i) the highest sunlit rate is 93~96 % in both polar regions and ii) the eternal shadow area is smaller than previous estimations. These results will be of great use for the planning of the lunar polar exploration in near future.

  17. 'Unstructured Data' Practices in Polar Institutions and Networks: a Case Study with the Arctic Options Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthur Berkman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arctic Options: Holistic Integration for Arctic Coastal-Marine Sustainability is a new three-year research project to assess future infrastructure associated with the Arctic Ocean regarding: (1 natural and living environment; (2 built environment; (3 natural resource development; and (4 governance. For the assessments, Arctic Options will generate objective relational schema from numeric data as well as textual data. This paper will focus on the ‘long tail of smaller, heterogeneous, and often unstructured datasets’ that ‘usually receive minimal data management consideration’,as observed in the 2013 Communiqué from the International Forum on Polar Data Activities in Global Data Systems.

  18. Inspiring students through an authentic polar science expedition: the RESEt Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattadori, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    RESEt (Research and Education Svalbard Experience www.resetsvalbard.it) is an ongoing educational project focusing mainly on polar and climate system topics. It started in 2014 and will end in 2017 with the high school diploma of the 22 students (16 y. o.) making the participant class. This class attend a school (Liceo Filzi, Rovereto, Trento. Italy) with a primary focus on disciplines like philosophy and education, rather then STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics). Nevertheless their science curricula include climate topics that are rather challenging to grasp and, at the same time, crucial for their scientific citizenship. Some questions arise: How to foster their interest in geosciences topics? How to engage them in authentic scientific knowledge? How to increase their interest in scientific university courses during their post-secondary career? RESEt project will attempt to answer these questions through the development of integrated activities distributed over the last three years of their high school cycle. The most important moment will be an educational scientific expedition at the Svalbard, an archipelago located in the Arctic. The expedition be entirely organized, planned, and directed by students. In Svalbard, students will visit the main scientific facilities devoted to climate studies including those of Italian CNR (National Research Council) and they will perform some environmental measurement using data-loggers. Students are even involved in the fundraising process to raise more than ten thousand Euros needed to for travel expenses. This work is aimed mainly at presenting some of the preliminary data collected during the RESEt project, including the fundraising aspects. The management of the RESEt project strongly relies on the experience and network gained by the abstract author during the participation to the Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program of International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as well as the support of Polar

  19. Induced Polarization with Electromagnetic Coupling: 3D Spectral Imaging Theory, EMSP Project No. 73836

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, F. Dale; Sogade, John

    2004-12-14

    This project was designed as a broad foundational study of spectral induced polarization (SIP) for characterization of contaminated sites. It encompassed laboratory studies of the effects of chemistry on induced polarization, development of 3D forward modeling and inversion codes, and investigations of inductive and capacitive coupling problems. In the laboratory part of the project a physico-chemical model developed in this project was used to invert laboratory IP spectra for the grain size and the effective grain size distribution of the sedimentary rocks as well as the formation factor, porosity, specific surface area, and the apparent fractal dimension. Furthermore, it was established that the IP response changed with the solution chemistry, the concentration of a given solution chemistry, valence of the constituent ions, and ionic radius. In the field part of the project, a 3D complex forward and inverse model was developed. It was used to process data acquired at two frequencies (1/16 Hz and 1/ 4Hz) in a cross-borehole configuration at the A-14 outfall area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) during March 2003 and June 2004. The chosen SRS site was contaminated with Tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and Trichloroethylene (PCE) that were disposed in this area for several decades till the 1980s. The imaginary conductivity produced from the inverted 2003 data correlated very well with the log10 (PCE) concentration derived from point sampling at 1 ft spacing in five ground-truth boreholes drilled after the data acquisition. The equivalent result for the 2004 data revealed that there were significant contaminant movements during the period March 2003 and June 2004, probably related to ground-truth activities and nearby remediation activities. Therefore SIP was successfully used to develop conceptual models of volume distributions of PCE/TCE contamination. In addition, the project developed non-polarizing electrodes that can be deployed in boreholes for years. A total of 28

  20. STRATEGIC MAPS AND CRITICAL FACTORS FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY: A PROPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Darcy Silva Junior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Project Management (PM and Strategic Management (SM are two subjects of growing importance in the corporate environment which are normally considered in isolation. One way of integrating these two concepts might be via the concept of project management maturity (Westphal et al., 2008. Rabechini and Pessoa (2005 state that to obtain project management maturity, it is necessary to achieve success in a number of critical factors which include organizational culture and structure, as well as sponsorship at both tactical and strategic levels (Silva et al., 2008. Another way of achieving this connection is by using Balanced Scorecard (BSC as an auxiliary tool to integrate between projects and organizational strategy (Brock et al., 2003. The original developers of the BSC, Kaplan e Norton, subsequently developed the concept of strategy mapping, which they affirm "represents the missing link between the formulation and the execution of the strategy" (Kaplan e Norton, 2004. This paper proposes a strategy map identifying critical factors for attaining project management maturity. To formulate the map, we used a qualitative, exploratory approach oriented by Project Management theory and strategy mapping. We first identified 13 critical factors, then developed a strategy map, which was evaluated by six specialists (three in SM area and three in PM area.The results suggest links between strategic mapping nad critical factors in project management. It also contributes to both areas independently. Specifically, the study identifies critical factors for project management maturity while demonstrating the applicability of strategic mapping techniques to Balanced Scorecard concepts.

  1. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: TECHNICAL OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Dawson, Kyle S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Hall, Patrick B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Anderson, Scott F. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Chen, Yuguang [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Denney, Kelly D. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Eftekharzadeh, Sarah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, 1000 East University Avenue, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Gao, Yang [Department of Engineering Physics and Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Green, Paul J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics/Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Jiang, Linhua [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Kelly, Brandon C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93107 (United States); and others

    2015-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project is a dedicated multi-object RM experiment that has spectroscopically monitored a sample of 849 broad-line quasars in a single 7 deg{sup 2} field with the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. The RM quasar sample is flux-limited to i {sub psf} = 21.7 mag, and covers a redshift range of 0.1 < z < 4.5 without any other cuts on quasar properties. Optical spectroscopy was performed during 2014 January-July dark/gray time, with an average cadence of ∼4 days, totaling more than 30 epochs. Supporting photometric monitoring in the g and i bands was conducted at multiple facilities including the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and the Steward Observatory Bok telescope in 2014, with a cadence of ∼2 days and covering all lunar phases. The RM field (R.A., decl. = 14:14:49.00, +53:05:00.0) lies within the CFHT-LS W3 field, and coincides with the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) Medium Deep Field MD07, with three prior years of multi-band PS1 light curves. The SDSS-RM six month baseline program aims to detect time lags between the quasar continuum and broad line region (BLR) variability on timescales of up to several months (in the observed frame) for ∼10% of the sample, and to anchor the time baseline for continued monitoring in the future to detect lags on longer timescales and at higher redshift. SDSS-RM is the first major program to systematically explore the potential of RM for broad-line quasars at z > 0.3, and will investigate the prospects of RM with all major broad lines covered in optical spectroscopy. SDSS-RM will provide guidance on future multi-object RM campaigns on larger scales, and is aiming to deliver more than tens of BLR lag detections for a homogeneous sample of quasars. We describe the motivation, design, and implementation of this program, and outline the science impact expected from the resulting data for RM and general quasar science.

  2. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: TECHNICAL OVERVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yue; Brandt, W. N.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Hall, Patrick B.; McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Anderson, Scott F.; Chen, Yuguang; Denney, Kelly D.; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Gao, Yang; Green, Paul J.; Greene, Jenny E.; Ho, Luis C.; Horne, Keith; Jiang, Linhua; Kelly, Brandon C.

    2015-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project is a dedicated multi-object RM experiment that has spectroscopically monitored a sample of 849 broad-line quasars in a single 7 deg 2 field with the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. The RM quasar sample is flux-limited to i psf = 21.7 mag, and covers a redshift range of 0.1 < z < 4.5 without any other cuts on quasar properties. Optical spectroscopy was performed during 2014 January-July dark/gray time, with an average cadence of ∼4 days, totaling more than 30 epochs. Supporting photometric monitoring in the g and i bands was conducted at multiple facilities including the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and the Steward Observatory Bok telescope in 2014, with a cadence of ∼2 days and covering all lunar phases. The RM field (R.A., decl. = 14:14:49.00, +53:05:00.0) lies within the CFHT-LS W3 field, and coincides with the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) Medium Deep Field MD07, with three prior years of multi-band PS1 light curves. The SDSS-RM six month baseline program aims to detect time lags between the quasar continuum and broad line region (BLR) variability on timescales of up to several months (in the observed frame) for ∼10% of the sample, and to anchor the time baseline for continued monitoring in the future to detect lags on longer timescales and at higher redshift. SDSS-RM is the first major program to systematically explore the potential of RM for broad-line quasars at z > 0.3, and will investigate the prospects of RM with all major broad lines covered in optical spectroscopy. SDSS-RM will provide guidance on future multi-object RM campaigns on larger scales, and is aiming to deliver more than tens of BLR lag detections for a homogeneous sample of quasars. We describe the motivation, design, and implementation of this program, and outline the science impact expected from the resulting data for RM and general quasar science

  3. Mapping practices of project management – merging top-down and bottom-up perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for studying different accounts of project management practices based on network mapping and analysis. Drawing upon network mapping and visualization as an analytical strategy top-down and bottom-up accounts of project management practice are analysed...... and compared. The analysis initially reveals a substantial difference between the top-down and bottom-up accounts of practice. Furthermore it identifies a soft side of project management that is central in the bottom-up account but absent from the top-down. Finally, the study shows that network mapping...

  4. The Pilot Lunar Geologic Mapping Project: Summary Results and Recommendations from the Copernicus Quadrangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Gaddis, L. R.; Hagerty, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    The first systematic lunar geologic maps were completed at 1:1M scale for the lunar near side during the 1960s using telescopic and Lunar Orbiter (LO) photographs [1-3]. The program under which these maps were completed established precedents for map base, scale, projection, and boundaries in order to avoid widely discrepant products. A variety of geologic maps were subsequently produced for various purposes, including 1:5M scale global maps [4-9] and large scale maps of high scientific interest (including the Apollo landing sites) [10]. Since that time, lunar science has benefitted from an abundance of surface information, including high resolution images and diverse compositional data sets, which have yielded a host of topical planetary investigations. The existing suite of lunar geologic maps and topical studies provide exceptional context in which to unravel the geologic history of the Moon. However, there has been no systematic approach to lunar geologic mapping since the flight of post-Apollo scientific orbiters. Geologic maps provide a spatial and temporal framework wherein observations can be reliably benchmarked and compared. As such, a lack of a systematic mapping program means that modern (post- Apollo) data sets, their scientific ramifications, and the lunar scientists who investigate these data, are all marginalized in regard to geologic mapping. Marginalization weakens the overall understanding of the geologic evolution of the Moon and unnecessarily partitions lunar research. To bridge these deficiencies, we began a pilot geologic mapping project in 2005 as a means to assess the interest, relevance, and technical methods required for a renewed lunar geologic mapping program [11]. Herein, we provide a summary of the pilot geologic mapping project, which focused on the geologic materials and stratigraphic relationships within the Copernicus quadrangle (0-30degN, 0-45degW).

  5. Projecting pipeline construction by AutoDesk Map; Projektierung von Rohrleitungsbaumassnahmen mit AutoDesk Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taschendorf, M.; Voigtlaender, M. [Hamburger Wasserwerke GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    Presented is AutoDesk Map, which enables the construction and planning of big grids for water- and gas supply. In this example industrial equipment is driven as objects in AutoDesk Map. Therefore the consistence of the data is guaranted and comprehensive CAD functions are available for industrial equipment and topologies. (GL)

  6. 77 FR 20355 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Award Amendment Requests and Project Service Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... collection). Affected Public: Current recipients of EDA assistance, to include (1) cities or other political... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Award Amendment Requests and Project Service Maps AGENCY: Economic Development...

  7. MRO CRISM MAP-PROJECTED TARGETED REDUCED DATA RECORD V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This volume contains the CRISM Map-projected Targeted Reduced Data Record (MTRDR) archive, a collection of multiband image cubes derived from targeted (gimbaled)...

  8. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Coastlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid...

  9. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Urban Extent Polygons, Revision 01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary output of the Global Rural Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) are a series of grids representing estimated population counts and density for the...

  10. Characteristics of magnetospheric convective electric fields as mapped onto the polar caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    A study is made of the open connected magnetosphere using two numerical computer models: the Hones-Taylor (1965), with image and internal dipoles being the only sources, and the Mead-Williams (1965) with a current sheet added. The objectives of the study are to demonstrate that steady state field line connection across the magnetopause is a possible mechanism for producing the polar cap electric fields detected there, and to show the interesting characteristics of such fields. A review of the literature pertinent to the polar cap electric fields is included

  11. Assessment of global and individual reproducibility of projective mapping with consumers

    OpenAIRE

    VIDAL, LETICIA; CADENA, RAFAEL SILVA; CORREA, SILVANA; ÁBALOS, ROSA A.; GÓMEZ, BEATRIZ; GIMÉNEZ, ANA; Varela, Paula; Ares, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of projective mapping with consumers for sensory characterization has markedly increased in the last 5 years. To have confidence in this methodology,it is necessary to ensure that a similar product profile would emerge if the test was repeated. Also, deciding whether the study should be replicated or not is a key issue in test implementation. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate global and individual reproducibility of projective mapping for sensory char...

  12. The Piniariarneq Project: Inughuit hunters map their important hunting areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Flora, Janne; Oberborbeck Andersen, Astrid

    industrialisation of the High Arctic in the near future. Mapping of important resource areas of local, human communities have also been conducted on numerous occasions, but has generally received much less attention, and often results from such efforts are difficult to integrate with biological data. Here, we...

  13. Uncovering Transdisciplinary Team Project Outcomes through Ripple Effect Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Catherine H.; Chalker-Scott, Linda; Martini, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary, geographically dispersed group of faculty and staff. As with many such teams, member retention requires effort, as busy individuals may not see the overall benefits of active team membership. Ripple effect mapping is a strategy that can illustrate the tangible and often…

  14. Open Source Projects in Software Engineering Education: A Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Debora M. C.; Almeida Bittencourt, Roberto; Chavez, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Context: It is common practice in academia to have students work with "toy" projects in software engineering (SE) courses. One way to make such courses more realistic and reduce the gap between academic courses and industry needs is getting students involved in open source projects (OSP) with faculty supervision. Objective: This study…

  15. Spin-orbit maps and electron spin dynamics for the luminosity upgrade project at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, G.Z.M.

    2001-09-01

    HERA is the high energy electron(positron)-proton collider at deutsches elektronen-synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg. Following eight years of successful running, five of which were with a longitudinally spin polarized electron(positron) beam for the HERMES experiment, the rings have now been modified to increase the luminosity by a factor of about five and spin rotators have been installed for the H1 and ZEUS experiments. The modifications involve nonstandard configurations of overlapping magnetic fields and other aspects which have profound implications for the polarization. This thesis addresses the problem of calculating the polarization in the upgraded machine and the measures needed to maintain the polarization. A central topic is the construction of realistic spin-orbit transport maps for the regions of overlapping fields and their implementation in existing software. This is the first time that calculations with such fields have been possible. Using the upgraded software, calculations are presented for the polarization that can be expected in the upgraded machine and an analysis is made of the contributions to depolarization from the various parts of the machine. It is concluded that about 50% polarization should be possible. The key issues for tuning the machine are discussed. The last chapter deals with a separate topic, namely how to exploit a simple unitary model of spin motion to describe electron depolarization and thereby expose a misconception appearing in the literature. (orig.)

  16. Jordan-Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, R D; Xicotencatl, M A; Granados, V D

    2004-01-01

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse

  17. Jordan Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, R. D.; Xicoténcatl, M. A.; Granados, V. D.

    2004-02-01

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.

  18. Jordan-Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, R D [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de IngenierIa y TecnologIas Avanzadas, IPN. Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico DF (Mexico); Xicotencatl, M A [Departamento de Matematicas del Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF, 07000 (Mexico); Granados, V D [Escuela Superior de FIsica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2004-02-20

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.

  19. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 5 - Energy density mapping projections. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. Task 5 focused on energy projection mapping to estimate and visualise the energy consumption density and GHG emissions under different scenarios. The scenarios from task 4 were built around the energy consumption density of the residential sector under future land use patterns and rely on different energy source combinations (the suite of pathways). In task 5 the energy usage under the different scenarios were fed back into GIS, thereby giving a visual representation of forecasted residential energy consumption per unit area. The methodology is identical to that used in task 2 where current usage was mapped, whereas the mapping in this task is for future forecasts. These results are documented in this report. In addition, GHG mapping under the various scenarios was also undertaken. (LN)

  20. The PolarSEEDS project: communicating Greenland melting through visualization and sonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, M.; Perl, J.; Saltz, I.; Ham, E.

    2013-12-01

    During fall of 2011 a group of faculty at the City College of New York from the Science and Art Divisions drafted a concept for a project about communicating results from his research concerning the melting of the Greenland ice sheet through 'unconventional' venues, such as Visual Arts and Music. The opportunity to build a team and perform a project came to reality when the City College of New York (CCNY) called for the City SEED call proposal (therefore the name POLARSEEDS). The call was looking to fund innovative interdisciplinary work that could create connections among different disciplines within CCNY. The faculty members of the project were affiliated with the Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (Tedesco), the Music Dept. and the Sonic Arts Center (Perl) and Art Dept. (Saltz and Ham). The PolarSEEDS project involved also six students at graduate and master level from the three departments. The project culminated in an exhibition at CCNY in which soundscapes obtained from sounds recorded during fieldwork in Greenland were combined with sonifications of the outputs of a climate model used to study melting in Greenland to generate ambient sounds. At the exhibit, many sonifications of the model outputs were available at computer stations together with the explanation of the different approaches undertaken to generate them. Large aerial photos of supraglacial streams and lakes over Greenland were exhibited together with infographics addressing some of the causes and implications of melting. Videos showing either footage of melting features or the impact of albedo on melting (through ad hoc experiments carried out in laboratory and filmed for the exhibit) were also exhibited. Lastly, the visitors had the opportunity to play an interactive web game developed for the project in which they had to balance the amount of clouds, solar radiation, rain and snow to keep the Greenland ice sheet from melting completely and flood New York City. In my presentation, I will

  1. PF2fit: Polar Fast Fourier Matched Alignment of Atomistic Structures with 3D Electron Microscopy Maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishna Bettadapura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There continue to be increasing occurrences of both atomistic structure models in the PDB (possibly reconstructed from X-ray diffraction or NMR data, and 3D reconstructed cryo-electron microscopy (3D EM maps (albeit at coarser resolution of the same or homologous molecule or molecular assembly, deposited in the EMDB. To obtain the best possible structural model of the molecule at the best achievable resolution, and without any missing gaps, one typically aligns (match and fits the atomistic structure model with the 3D EM map. We discuss a new algorithm and generalized framework, named PF(2 fit (Polar Fast Fourier Fitting for the best possible structural alignment of atomistic structures with 3D EM. While PF(2 fit enables only a rigid, six dimensional (6D alignment method, it augments prior work on 6D X-ray structure and 3D EM alignment in multiple ways: Scoring. PF(2 fit includes a new scoring scheme that, in addition to rewarding overlaps between the volumes occupied by the atomistic structure and 3D EM map, rewards overlaps between the volumes complementary to them. We quantitatively demonstrate how this new complementary scoring scheme improves upon existing approaches. PF(2 fit also includes two scoring functions, the non-uniform exterior penalty and the skeleton-secondary structure score, and implements the scattering potential score as an alternative to traditional Gaussian blurring. Search. PF(2 fit utilizes a fast polar Fourier search scheme, whose main advantage is the ability to search over uniformly and adaptively sampled subsets of the space of rigid-body motions. PF(2 fit also implements a new reranking search and scoring methodology that considerably improves alignment metrics in results obtained from the initial search.

  2. Mapping the Eskelund landfill using time-domain spectral induced polarization data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legaz, Aurélie; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Pedersen, Jesper Bjergsted

    2011-01-01

    Between November 2009 and July 2010, researchers from the HydroGeophysics Group, Aarhus University, carried out a survey in the former municipal landfill, Eskelund (Denmark). Induced polarization measurements (IP) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were used to define the spatial...... boundaries of the dump site. The joint application of these two methods may allow the discrimination between materials displaying an identical signature in resistivity (e.g., brine and clay)...

  3. Mapping the local organization of cell membranes using excitation-polarization-resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Alla; Wang, Xiao; Ranchon, Hubert; Savatier, Julien; Rigneault, Hervé; Ferrand, Patrick; Brasselet, Sophie

    2013-07-02

    Fluorescence anisotropy and linear dichroism imaging have been widely used for imaging biomolecular orientational distributions in protein aggregates, fibrillar structures of cells, and cell membranes. However, these techniques do not give access to complete orientational order information in a whole image, because their use is limited to parts of the sample where the average orientation of molecules is known a priori. Fluorescence anisotropy is also highly sensitive to depolarization mechanisms such as those induced by fluorescence energy transfer. A fully excitation-polarization-resolved fluorescence microscopy imaging that relies on the use of a tunable incident polarization and a nonpolarized detection is able to circumvent these limitations. We have developed such a technique in confocal epifluorescence microscopy, giving access to new regions of study in the complex and heterogeneous molecular organization of cell membranes. Using this technique, we demonstrate morphological changes at the subdiffraction scale in labeled COS-7 cell membranes whose cytoskeleton is perturbed. Molecular orientational order is also seen to be affected by cholesterol depletion, reflecting the strong interplay between lipid-packing regions and their nearby cytoskeleton. This noninvasive optical technique can reveal local organization in cell membranes when used as a complement to existing methods such as generalized polarization. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ART PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND URBAN REGENERATION. Mapping LA MINA PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Ricart

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of public art throughout the twentieth century has resulted since the 60’s in a kind of practical intervention in the urban domain with a strong social and participatory intention. This paper presents several of these projects in relation to the kind of participattory levels, and detecting different trends. The paper Specially focuses on the project “Cartografies de La Mina”, developed in Sant Adrià de Besòs (Barcelona between 2002 and 2005 by the POLIS Research Centre at the University of Barcelona.

  5. Zombie projects, negative networks, and multigenerational science: The temporality of the International Map of the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, William

    2017-06-01

    The International Map of the World was a hugely ambitious scheme to create standardized maps of the entire world. It was first proposed in 1891 and remained a going concern until 1986. Over the course of the project's official life, nearly every country in the world took part, and map sheets were published showing all but a few areas of the planet. But the project ended quite unceremoniously, repudiated by cartographers and mapping institutions alike, and it is now remembered as a 'sad story' of network failure. How can we evaluate this kind of sprawling, multigenerational project? In order to move beyond practitioners' (and historians') habit of summarizing the entire endeavor using the blunt categories of success and failure, I propose a more temporally aware reading, one that both disaggregates the (persistent) project from the (always changing) network and sees project and network as invertible, with the possibility of zombie projects and negative networks that can remain robust even when disconnected from their original goals. I therefore see the abandonment of the International Map of the World as resulting from vigorous collaboration and new norms in cartography, not from lack of cooperation or other resources. New categories are required for analyzing science over the long durée.

  6. Mapping of information and identification of construction waste at project life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Mochamad Agung; Handayani, Naniek Utami; Nurdiana, Asri; Sholeh, Moh Nur; Pamungkas, Gita Silvia

    2018-03-01

    The development of construction project towards green construction is needed in order to improve the efficiency of construction projects. One that needs to be minimized is construction waste. Construction waste is waste generated from construction project activities, both solid waste and non solid waste. More specifically, the waste happens at every phase of the project life cycle. Project life cycle are the stage of idea, design, construction, and operation/maintenance. Each phase is managed by different stakeholders. Therefore it requires special handling from the involved stakeholders. The objective of the study is to map the information and identify the waste at each phase of the project life cycle. The purpose of mapping is to figure out the process of information and product flow and with its timeline. This mapping used Value Stream Mapping (VSM). Identification of waste was done by distributing questionnaire to respondents to know the waste according to owner, consultant planner, contractor, and supervisory consultant. The result of the study is the mapping of information flow and product flow at the phases of idea, design, construction, and operation/ maintenance.

  7. Mapping our genes: The genome projects: How big, how fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1988-04-01

    For the past 2 years, scientific and technical journals in biology and medicine have extensively covered a debate about whether and how to determine the function and order of human genes on human chromosomes and when to determine the sequence of molecular building blocks that comprise DNA in those chromosomes. In 1987, these issues rose to become part of the public agenda. The debate involves science, technology, and politics. Congress is responsible for /open quotes/writing the rules/close quotes/ of what various federal agencies do and for funding their work. This report surveys the points made so far in the debate, focusing on those that most directly influence the policy options facing the US Congress. Congressional interest focused on how to assess the rationales for conducting human genome projects, how to fund human genome projects (at what level and through which mechanisms), how to coordinate the scientific and technical programs of the several federal agencies and private interests already supporting various genome projects, and how to strike a balance regarding the impact of genome projects on international scientific cooperation and international economic competition in biotechnology. OTA prepared this report with the assistance of several hundred experts throughout the world. 342 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Mapping Our Genes: The Genome Projects: How Big, How Fast

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    For the past 2 years, scientific and technical journals in biology and medicine have extensively covered a debate about whether and how to determine the function and order of human genes on human chromosomes and when to determine the sequence of molecular building blocks that comprise DNA in those chromosomes. In 1987, these issues rose to become part of the public agenda. The debate involves science, technology, and politics. Congress is responsible for ?writing the rules? of what various federal agencies do and for funding their work. This report surveys the points made so far in the debate, focusing on those that most directly influence the policy options facing the US Congress. Congressional interest focused on how to assess the rationales for conducting human genome projects, how to fund human genome projects (at what level and through which mechanisms), how to coordinate the scientific and technical programs of the several federal agencies and private interests already supporting various genome projects, and how to strike a balance regarding the impact of genome projects on international scientific cooperation and international economic competition in biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) prepared this report with the assistance of several hundred experts throughout the world.

  9. A helical optical for circular polarized UV-FEL project at the UVSOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hama, Hiroyuki [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Most of existing storage ring free electron lasers (SRFEL) are restricted those performances by degradation of mirrors in optical cavities. In general, the SRFEL gain at the short wavelength region with high energy electrons is quite low, and the high reflectivity mirrors such as dielectric multilayer mirrors are therefore required. The mirror degradation is considered as a result of irradiation of higher harmonic photons that are simultaneously emitted from planar optical klystron (OK) type undulators, which are commonly used in SRFEL. This problem is getting severer as the lasing wavelength becomes shorter. The UVSOR-FEL had been originally scheduled to be shutdown by 1996 because another undulator project for spectroscopic studies with circular polarized photon would take the FEL`s place. According to suggestion of the insertion device group of the SPring-8, we have designed a helical undulator that is able to vary degree and direction of the polarization easily. In addition, the undulator can be converted into a helical OK by replacing magnets at the center part of undulator in order to coexist with further FEL experiments. Using a calculated magnetic field for magnet configurations of the OK mode, the radiation spectrum at wide wavelength range was simulated by a Fourier transform of Lienard-Wiechert potentials. As a matter of course, some higher harmonics are radiated on the off-axis angle. However it was found out that the higher harmonics is almost negligible as far as inside a solid angle of the Gaussian laser mode. Moreover the gain at the UV region of 250 nm is expected to be much higher than our present FEL because of high brilliant fundamental radiation. The calculated spatial distribution of higher harmonics and the estimated instantaneous gain is presented. Advantages of the helical OK for SRFEL will be discussed in view of our experience, and a possibility of application two-color experiment with SR will be also mentioned.

  10. CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP): A New Paradigm for Polar Life Support and CELSS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Straight, Christian; Flynn, Michael; Bates, Maynard; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is a joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) project for the development, deployment and operation of CELSS technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. CAAP is implemented through the joint NSF/NASA Antarctic Space Analog Program (ASAP), initiated to support the pursuit of future NASA missions and to promote the transfer of space technologies to the NSF. Under a Memorandum of Agreement, the CAAP represents an example of a working dual agency cooperative project. NASA goals are operational testing of CELSS technologies and the conduct of scientific study to facilitate . technology selection, system design and methods development, including human dynamics as required for the operation of a CELSS. Although not fully closed, food production, water purification, and waste recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. The CAAP facility will be highly integrated with the new South Pole Station infrastructure and will be composed of a deployed hardware facility and a research activity. This paper will include a description of CAAP and its functionality, conceptual designs, component selection and sizing for the crop growth chamber, crop production expectations, and a brief report on an initial on-site visit. This paper will also provide a discussion of issues associated with power and energy use and the applicability of CAAP to direct technology transfer to society in general and remote communities in particular.

  11. Polarization-interference mapping of biological fluids polycrystalline films in differentiation of weak changes of optical anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, V. O.; Vanchuliak, O.; Sakhnovskiy, M. Y.; Dubolazov, O. V.; Grygoryshyn, P.; Soltys, I. V.; Olar, O. V.; Antoniv, A.

    2017-09-01

    The theoretical background of the azimuthally stable method of polarization-interference mapping of the histological sections of the biopsy of the prostate tissue on the basis of the spatial frequency selection of the mechanisms of linear and circular birefringence is presented. The diagnostic application of a new correlation parameter - complex degree of mutual anisotropy - is analytically substantiated. The method of measuring coordinate distributions of complex degree of mutual anisotropy with further spatial filtration of their high- and low-frequency components is developed. The interconnections of such distributions with parameters of linear and circular birefringence of prostate tissue histological sections are found. The objective criteria of differentiation of benign and malignant conditions of prostate tissue are determined.

  12. Mapping research activity on mental health disorders in Europe: study protocol for the Mapping_NCD project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Brigham, Karen; Darlington, Meryl; Wright, John S F; Lewison, Grant; Kanavos, Panos; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2016-05-26

    Mental health disorders (MHDs) constitute a large and growing disease burden in Europe, although they typically receive less attention and research funding than other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study protocol describes a methodology for the mapping of MHD research in Europe as part of Mapping_NCD, a 2-year project funded by the European Commission which seeks to map European research funding and impact for five NCDs in order to identify potential gaps, overlaps, synergies and opportunities, and to develop evidence-based policies for future research. The project aims to develop a multi-focal view of the MHD research landscape across the 28 European Union Member States, plus Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, through a survey of European funding entities, analysis of research initiatives undertaken in the public, voluntary/not-for-profit and commercial sectors, and expert interviews to contextualize the gathered data. The impact of MHD research will be explored using bibliometric analyses of scientific publications, clinical guidelines and newspaper stories reporting on research initiatives. Finally, these research inputs and outputs will be considered in light of various metrics that have been proposed to inform priorities for the allocation of research funds, including burden of disease, treatment gaps and cost of illness. Given the growing burden of MHDs, a clear and broad view of the current state of MHD research is needed to ensure that limited resources are directed to evidence-based priority areas. MHDs pose a particular challenge in mapping the research landscape due to their complex nature, high co-morbidity and varying diagnostic criteria. Undertaking such an effort across 31 countries is further challenged by differences in data collection, healthcare systems, reimbursement rates and clinical practices, as well as cultural and socioeconomic diversity. Using multiple methods to explore the spectrum of MHD research funding activity across Europe

  13. Web-based Tools for Educators: Outreach Activities of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, D. A.; Holvoet, J. F.; Gogineni, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Kansas (KU) has implemented extensive outreach activities focusing on Polar Regions as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project. The PRISM project is developing advanced intelligent remote sensing technology that involves radar systems, an autonomous rover, and communications systems to measure detailed ice sheet characteristics, and to determine bed conditions (frozen or wet) below active ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica. These measurements will provide a better understanding of the response of polar ice sheets to global climate change and the resulting impact the ice sheets will have on sea level rise. Many of the research and technological development aspects of the PRISM project, such as robotics, radar systems, climate change and exploration of harsh environments, can kindle an excitement and interest in students about science and technology. These topics form the core of our K-12 education and training outreach initiatives, which are designed to capture the imagination of young students, and prompt them to consider an educational path that will lead them to scientific or engineering careers. The K-12 PRISM outreach initiatives are being developed and implemented in a collaboration with the Advanced Learning Technology Program (ALTec) of the High Plains Regional Technology in Education Consortium (HPR*TEC). ALTec is associated with the KU School of Education, and is a well-established educational research center that develops and hosts web tools to enable teachers nationwide to network, collaborate, and share resources with other teachers. An example of an innovative and successful web interface developed by ALTec is called TrackStar. Teachers can use TrackStar over the Web to develop interactive, resource-based lessons (called tracks) on-line for their students. Once developed, tracks are added to the TrackStar database and can be accessed and modified

  14. High-Throughput Mapping of Single-Neuron Projections by Sequencing of Barcoded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebschull, Justus M; Garcia da Silva, Pedro; Reid, Ashlan P; Peikon, Ian D; Albeanu, Dinu F; Zador, Anthony M

    2016-09-07

    Neurons transmit information to distant brain regions via long-range axonal projections. In the mouse, area-to-area connections have only been systematically mapped using bulk labeling techniques, which obscure the diverse projections of intermingled single neurons. Here we describe MAPseq (Multiplexed Analysis of Projections by Sequencing), a technique that can map the projections of thousands or even millions of single neurons by labeling large sets of neurons with random RNA sequences ("barcodes"). Axons are filled with barcode mRNA, each putative projection area is dissected, and the barcode mRNA is extracted and sequenced. Applying MAPseq to the locus coeruleus (LC), we find that individual LC neurons have preferred cortical targets. By recasting neuroanatomy, which is traditionally viewed as a problem of microscopy, as a problem of sequencing, MAPseq harnesses advances in sequencing technology to permit high-throughput interrogation of brain circuits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Project Mapping to Build Capacity and Demonstrate Impact in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, S. N.; Searby, N. D.; Murphy, K. J.; Mataya, C. J.; Crepps, G.; Clayton, A.; Stevens, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Diverse organizations are increasingly using project mapping to communicate location-based information about their activities. NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD), through the Earth Science Data Systems and Applied Sciences' Capacity Building Program (CBP), has created a geographic information system of all ESD projects to support internal program management for the agency. The CBP's NASA DEVELOP program has built an interactive mapping tool to support capacity building for the program's varied constituents. This presentation will explore the types of programmatic opportunities provided by a geographic approach to management, communication, and strategic planning. We will also discuss the various external benefits that mapping supports and that build capacity in the Earth sciences. These include activities such as project matching (location-focused synergies), portfolio planning, inter- and intra-organizational collaboration, science diplomacy, and basic impact analysis.

  16. St. Louis area earthquake hazards mapping project; seismic and liquefaction hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Chris H.; Bauer, Robert A.; Chung, Jae-won; Rogers, David; Pierce, Larry; Voigt, Vicki; Mitchell, Brad; Gaunt, David; Williams, Robert; Hoffman, David; Hempen, Gregory L.; Steckel, Phyllis; Boyd, Oliver; Watkins, Connor M.; Tucker, Kathleen; McCallister, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    We present probabilistic and deterministic seismic and liquefaction hazard maps for the densely populated St. Louis metropolitan area that account for the expected effects of surficial geology on earthquake ground shaking. Hazard calculations were based on a map grid of 0.005°, or about every 500 m, and are thus higher in resolution than any earlier studies. To estimate ground motions at the surface of the model (e.g., site amplification), we used a new detailed near‐surface shear‐wave velocity model in a 1D equivalent‐linear response analysis. When compared with the 2014 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Model, which uses a uniform firm‐rock‐site condition, the new probabilistic seismic‐hazard estimates document much more variability. Hazard levels for upland sites (consisting of bedrock and weathered bedrock overlain by loess‐covered till and drift deposits), show up to twice the ground‐motion values for peak ground acceleration (PGA), and similar ground‐motion values for 1.0 s spectral acceleration (SA). Probabilistic ground‐motion levels for lowland alluvial floodplain sites (generally the 20–40‐m‐thick modern Mississippi and Missouri River floodplain deposits overlying bedrock) exhibit up to twice the ground‐motion levels for PGA, and up to three times the ground‐motion levels for 1.0 s SA. Liquefaction probability curves were developed from available standard penetration test data assuming typical lowland and upland water table levels. A simplified liquefaction hazard map was created from the 5%‐in‐50‐year probabilistic ground‐shaking model. The liquefaction hazard ranges from low (60% of area expected to liquefy) in the lowlands. Because many transportation routes, power and gas transmission lines, and population centers exist in or on the highly susceptible lowland alluvium, these areas in the St. Louis region are at significant potential risk from seismically induced liquefaction and associated

  17. Current activities and plans for polarized neutron instruments of the JSNS/J-PARC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusaka, M.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron polarization is one of the key technologies for the next generation megawatt-class pulsed spallation neutron sources, such as SNS in the US and the JSNS in Japan. To polarize or analyze neutron spin, several techniques are under development in Japan: a small d-spacing magnetic multilayer mirror, spin exchange type He-3 filter and a dynamical proton polarizer. Several application techniques related to polarized neutrons are also under development, such as, a microwave-induced optical nuclear polarization technique, which allows us to polarize protons in naphtalene doped with pentacene at 77 K; neutron focusing-SANS instrument utilizing a focusing magnet; a Drabkin spin-filter instrument that has two filters in series for neutron-pulse shaping

  18. Application of time domain induced polarization to the mapping of lithotypes in a landfill site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legaz, Aurélie; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Pedersen, Jesper Bjergsted

    2012-01-01

    area. It is known that both waste deposits andclay have clear signatures in TDIP data, making it possibleto enhance the resolution of geological structures comparedto DC surveys alone.Four DC/TDIP profiles were carried out crossing the landfill,and another seven profiles in the surroundings providea.......Results show that it is possible to resolve both the geometryof the buried waste body and key geological structures.In particular, it was possible to find a silt/clay lens at depththat correlates with the flow direction of the pollution plumespreading out from the landfill and to map a shallow sandylayer rich...

  19. Reproducibility of polar map generation and assessment of defect severity and extent assessment in myocardial perfusion imaging using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekolla, S.G.; Miethaner, C.; Nguyen, N.; Ziegler, S.I.; Schwaiger, M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of new software developed for the analysis of cardiac tomographic data. The algorithm delineates the long axis and defines the basal plane and subsequently generates polar maps to quantitatively and reproducibly assess the size and severity of perfusion defects. The developed technique requires an initial manual estimate of the left ventricular long axis and calculates the volumetric maximum myocardial activity distribution. This surface is used to map three-dimensional tracer accumulation onto a two-dimensional representation (polar map), which is the basis for further processing. The spatial information is used to compute geometrical and mechanical properties of a solid model of the left ventricle including the left heart chamber. A new estimate of the axis is determined from this model, and the previously outlined procedure is repeated together with an automated definition of the valve plane until differences between the polar maps can be neglected. This quantitative analysis software was validated in phantom studies with defects of known masses and in ten data sets from normals and patients with coronary artery disease of various severity. We investigated the reproducibility of the maps with the introduction of a similarity criterion where the ratio of two corresponding polar map elements lies within a 10% interval. The maps were also used to measure intra-and interobserver variability in respect of defect size and severity. In the phantom studies, it was possible to reliably assess mass information over a wide range of defects from 5 to 60 g (slope: 1.02, offset -0.68, r = 0.972). Patient studies revealed a statistically significant increase in the reproducibility of the automatic technique compared with the manual approach: 54%±19% (manual) compared with 88%±9% (automatic) for observer 1 and 61%±20% vs 82%±5% for observer 2, respectively. The intervariability analysis showed a significant

  20. Topography of the complete corticopontine projection: From experiments to principal maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve B Leergaard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian brain is characterized by orderly spatial distribution of its cellular components, commonly referred to as topographical organization. The topography of cortical and subcortical maps is thought to represent functional or computational properties. In the present investigation, we have studied map transformations and organizing principles in the projections from the cerebral cortex to the pontine nuclei, with emphasis on the mapping of the cortex as a whole onto the pontine nuclei. Following single or multiple axonal tracer injections into different cortical regions, three-dimensional (3-D distributions of anterogradely labeled axons in the pontine nuclei were mapped. All 3-D reconstructed data sets were normalized to a standardized local coordinate system for the pontine nuclei and uploaded in a database application (FACCS, Functional Anatomy of the Cerebro-Cerebellar System, available via The Rodent Brain Workbench, http://www.rbwb.org. The database application allowed flexible use of the data in novel combinations, and use of a previously published data sets. Visualization of different combinations of data was used to explore alternative principles of organization. As a result of these analyses, a principal map of the topography of corticopontine projections was developed. This map followed the organization of early spatiotemporal gradients present in the cerebral cortex and the pontine nuclei. With the principal map for corticopontine projections, a fairly accurate prediction of pontine target area can be made for any site of origin in the cerebral cortex. The map and the underlying shared data sets represent a basis for modeling of topographical organization and structure-function relationships in this system.

  1. Polarized light microscopy for 3-dimensional mapping of collagen fiber architecture in ocular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Jan, Ning-Jiun; Brazile, Bryn; Voorhees, Andrew; Lathrop, Kira L; Sigal, Ian A

    2018-04-06

    Collagen fibers play a central role in normal eye mechanics and pathology. In ocular tissues, collagen fibers exhibit a complex 3-dimensional (3D) fiber orientation, with both in-plane (IP) and out-of-plane (OP) orientations. Imaging techniques traditionally applied to the study of ocular tissues only quantify IP fiber orientation, providing little information on OP fiber orientation. Accurate description of the complex 3D fiber microstructures of the eye requires quantifying full 3D fiber orientation. Herein, we present 3dPLM, a technique based on polarized light microscopy developed to quantify both IP and OP collagen fiber orientations of ocular tissues. The performance of 3dPLM was examined by simulation and experimental verification and validation. The experiments demonstrated an excellent agreement between extracted and true 3D fiber orientation. Both IP and OP fiber orientations can be extracted from the sclera and the cornea, providing previously unavailable quantitative 3D measures and insight into the tissue microarchitecture. Together, the results demonstrate that 3dPLM is a powerful imaging technique for the analysis of ocular tissues. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. On brain activity mapping: insights and lessons from Brain Decoding Project to map memory patterns in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsien, Joe Z; Li, Meng; Osan, Remus; Chen, Guifen; Lin, Longnian; Wang, Phillip Lei; Frey, Sabine; Frey, Julietta; Zhu, Dajiang; Liu, Tianming; Zhao, Fang; Kuang, Hui

    2013-09-01

    The BRAIN project recently announced by the president Obama is the reflection of unrelenting human quest for cracking the brain code, the patterns of neuronal activity that define who we are and what we are. While the Brain Activity Mapping proposal has rightly emphasized on the need to develop new technologies for measuring every spike from every neuron, it might be helpful to consider both the theoretical and experimental aspects that would accelerate our search for the organizing principles of the brain code. Here we share several insights and lessons from the similar proposal, namely, Brain Decoding Project that we initiated since 2007. We provide a specific example in our initial mapping of real-time memory traces from one part of the memory circuit, namely, the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. We show how innovative behavioral tasks and appropriate mathematical analyses of large datasets can play equally, if not more, important roles in uncovering the specific-to-general feature-coding cell assembly mechanism by which episodic memory, semantic knowledge, and imagination are generated and organized. Our own experiences suggest that the bottleneck of the Brain Project is not only at merely developing additional new technologies, but also the lack of efficient avenues to disseminate cutting edge platforms and decoding expertise to neuroscience community. Therefore, we propose that in order to harness unique insights and extensive knowledge from various investigators working in diverse neuroscience subfields, ranging from perception and emotion to memory and social behaviors, the BRAIN project should create a set of International and National Brain Decoding Centers at which cutting-edge recording technologies and expertise on analyzing large datasets analyses can be made readily available to the entire community of neuroscientists who can apply and schedule to perform cutting-edge research.

  3. Project on comparison of structural parameters and electron density maps of oxalic acid dihydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Philip; Dam, J.; Harkema, Sybolt; Feil, D.

    1984-01-01

    Results obtained from four X-ray and five neutron data sets collected under a project sponsored by the Commission on Charge, Spin and Momentum Densities are analyzed by comparison of thermal parameters, positional parameters and X - N electron density maps. Three sets of theoretical calculations are

  4. Research and Mapping for MCEECDYA Project: Student Academic Engagement. Report 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ure, Christine; Gray, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Research and Mapping for MCEECDYA Project: Student Academic Engagement was to examine the characteristics of schools with a low Index of Community Socio-Educational Advantage (ICSEA) from all jurisdictions that were identified to be making a difference to student academic and to identify the key drivers and characteristics of…

  5. The Case Study as Research Heuristic: Lessons from the R&D Value Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; Klein, Hans K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of prototype case studies as the foundation for later evaluation through two studies from the "R&D Value Mapping Project," a study that will involve more than 30 cases. Explores the usefulness of case studies in defining and assessing subsequent research efforts. (SLD)

  6. Public mental health research in Europe : A systematic mapping for the ROAMER project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsman, A.K.; Ventus, D.B.J.; van der Feltz, C.M.; Wahlbeck, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As part of the ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe) project, aiming to create an integrated European roadmap for mental health research, we set out to map the hitherto unmapped territory of public mental health research in Europe. Methods: Five electronic databases

  7. Mapping cumulative environmental risks: examples from the EU NoMiracle project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistocchi, A.; Groenwold, J.; Lahr, J.; Loos, M.; Mujica, M.; Ragas, A.M.J.; Rallo, R.; Sala, S.; Schlink, U.; Strebel, K.; Vighi, M.; Vizcaino, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present examples of cumulative chemical risk mapping methods developed within the NoMiracle project. The different examples illustrate the application of the concentration addition (CA) approach to pesticides at different scale, the integration in space of cumulative risks to individual organisms

  8. Outcome mapping as methodology to monitor and evaluate community informatics projects: A case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to indicate how Outcome Mapping (OM) can be used as a methodology to monitor and evaluate a specific developmental informatics project currently under way in the Meraka Institute. OM was applied in the Broadband for All...

  9. CT image reconstruction of steel pipe section from few projections using the method of rotating polar-coordinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Shuaijun; Wu Zhifang

    2008-01-01

    Fast online inspection in steel pipe production is a big challenge. Radiographic CT imaging technology, a high performance non-destructive testing method, is quite appropriate for inspection and quality control of steel pipes. The method of rotating polar-coordinate is used to reconstruct the steel pipe section from few projections with the purpose of inspecting it online. It reduces the projection number needed and the data collection time, and accelerates the reconstruction algorithm and saves the inspection time evidently. The results of simulation experiment and actual experiment indicate that the image quality and reconstruction time of rotating polar-coordinate method meet the requirements of inspecting the steel tube section online basically. The study is of some theoretical significance and the method is expected to be widely used in practice. (authors)

  10. Comprehensive Binary Interaction Mapping of SH2 Domains via Fluorescence Polarization Reveals Novel Functional Diversification of ErbB Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, Mark F.; Chuu, Chih-pin; Jones, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    First-generation interaction maps of Src homology 2 (SH2) domains with receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) phosphosites have previously been generated using protein microarray (PM) technologies. Here, we developed a large-scale fluorescence polarization (FP) methodology that was able to characterize interactions between SH2 domains and ErbB receptor phosphosites with higher fidelity and sensitivity than was previously achieved with PMs. We used the FP assay to query the interaction of synthetic phosphopeptides corresponding to 89 ErbB receptor intracellular tyrosine sites against 93 human SH2 domains and 2 phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains. From 358,944 polarization measurements, the affinities for 1,405 unique biological interactions were determined, 83% of which are novel. In contrast to data from previous reports, our analyses suggested that ErbB2 was not more promiscuous than the other ErbB receptors. Our results showed that each receptor displays unique preferences in the affinity and location of recruited SH2 domains that may contribute to differences in downstream signaling potential. ErbB1 was enriched versus the other receptors for recruitment of domains from RAS GEFs whereas ErbB2 was enriched for recruitment of domains from tyrosine and phosphatidyl inositol phosphatases. ErbB3, the kinase inactive ErbB receptor family member, was predictably enriched for recruitment of domains from phosphatidyl inositol kinases and surprisingly, was enriched for recruitment of domains from tyrosine kinases, cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, and RHO GEFs but depleted for recruitment of domains from phosphatidyl inositol phosphatases. Many novel interactions were also observed with phosphopeptides corresponding to ErbB receptor tyrosines not previously reported to be phosphorylated by mass spectrometry, suggesting the existence of many biologically relevant RTK sites that may be phosphorylated but below the detection threshold of standard mass spectrometry procedures. This

  11. Comprehensive binary interaction mapping of SH2 domains via fluorescence polarization reveals novel functional diversification of ErbB receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J Hause

    Full Text Available First-generation interaction maps of Src homology 2 (SH2 domains with receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK phosphosites have previously been generated using protein microarray (PM technologies. Here, we developed a large-scale fluorescence polarization (FP methodology that was able to characterize interactions between SH2 domains and ErbB receptor phosphosites with higher fidelity and sensitivity than was previously achieved with PMs. We used the FP assay to query the interaction of synthetic phosphopeptides corresponding to 89 ErbB receptor intracellular tyrosine sites against 93 human SH2 domains and 2 phosphotyrosine binding (PTB domains. From 358,944 polarization measurements, the affinities for 1,405 unique biological interactions were determined, 83% of which are novel. In contrast to data from previous reports, our analyses suggested that ErbB2 was not more promiscuous than the other ErbB receptors. Our results showed that each receptor displays unique preferences in the affinity and location of recruited SH2 domains that may contribute to differences in downstream signaling potential. ErbB1 was enriched versus the other receptors for recruitment of domains from RAS GEFs whereas ErbB2 was enriched for recruitment of domains from tyrosine and phosphatidyl inositol phosphatases. ErbB3, the kinase inactive ErbB receptor family member, was predictably enriched for recruitment of domains from phosphatidyl inositol kinases and surprisingly, was enriched for recruitment of domains from tyrosine kinases, cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, and RHO GEFs but depleted for recruitment of domains from phosphatidyl inositol phosphatases. Many novel interactions were also observed with phosphopeptides corresponding to ErbB receptor tyrosines not previously reported to be phosphorylated by mass spectrometry, suggesting the existence of many biologically relevant RTK sites that may be phosphorylated but below the detection threshold of standard mass spectrometry

  12. Rhumb lines and map wars a social history of the Mercator projection

    CERN Document Server

    Monmonier, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In Rhumb Lines and Map Wars, Mark Monmonier offers an insightful, richly illustrated account of the controversies surrounding Flemish cartographer Gerard Mercator's legacy. He takes us back to 1569, when Mercator announced a clever method of portraying the earth on a flat surface, creating the first projection to take into account the earth's roundness. As Monmonier shows, mariners benefited most from Mercator's projection, which allowed for easy navigation of the high seas with rhumb lines-clear-cut routes with a constant compass bearing-for true direction. But the projection's popularity amo

  13. Robustness of Ensemble Climate Projections Analyzed with Climate Signal Maps: Seasonal and Extreme Precipitation for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Pfeifer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate signal maps can be used to identify regions where robust climate changes can be derived from an ensemble of climate change simulations. Here, robustness is defined as a combination of model agreement and the significance of the individual model projections. Climate signal maps do not show all information available from the model ensemble, but give a condensed view in order to be useful for non-climate scientists who have to assess climate change impact during the course of their work. Three different ensembles of regional climate projections have been analyzed regarding changes of seasonal mean and extreme precipitation (defined as the number of days exceeding the 95th percentile threshold of daily precipitation for Germany, using climate signal maps. Although the models used and the scenario assumptions differ for the three ensembles (representative concentration pathway (RCP 4.5 vs. RCP8.5 vs. A1B, some similarities in the projections of future seasonal and extreme precipitation can be seen. For the winter season, both mean and extreme precipitation are projected to increase. The strength, robustness and regional pattern of this increase, however, depends on the ensemble. For summer, a robust decrease of mean precipitation can be detected only for small regions in southwestern Germany and only from two of the three ensembles, whereas none of them projects a robust increase of summer extreme precipitation.

  14. Polar cloud observatory at Ny-Ålesund in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi; Takano, Toshiaki; Shiobara, Masataka; Okamoto, Hajime; Koike, Makoto; Ukita, Jinro

    2016-04-01

    Cloud is one of the main processes in the climate system and especially a large feed back agent for Arctic warming amplification (Yoshimori et al., 2014). From this reason, observation of polar cloud has been emphasized and 95 GHz cloud profiling radar in high precision was established at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in 2013 as one of the basic infrastructure in the GRENE (Green Network of Excellence Program) Arctic Climate Change Research Project. The radar, "FALCON-A", is a FM-CW (frequency modulated continuous wave) Doppler radar, developed for Arctic use by Chiba University (PI: T. Takano) in 2012, following its prototype, "FALCON-1" which was developed in 2006 (Takano et al., 2010). The specifications of the radar are, central frequency: 94.84 GHz; antenna power: 1 W; observation height: up to 15 km; range resolution: 48 m; beam width: 0.2 degree (15 m at 5 km); Doppler width: 3.2 m/s; time interval: 10 sec, and capable of archiving high sensitivity and high spatial and time resolution. An FM-CW type radar realizes similar sensitivity with much smaller parabolic antennas separated 1.4 m from each other used for transmitting and receiving the wave. Polarized Micro-Pulse Lidar (PMPL, Sigma Space MPL-4B-IDS), which is capable to measure the backscatter and depolarization ratio, has also been deployed to Ny-Ålesund in March 2012, and now operated to perform collocated measurements with FALCON-A. Simultaneous measurement data from collocated PMPL and FALCON-A are available for synergetic analyses of cloud microphysics. Cloud mycrophysics, such as effective radius of ice particles and ice water content, are obtained from the analysis based on algorithm, which is modified for ground-based measurements from Okamoto's retrieval algorithm for satellite based cloud profiling radar and lidar (CloudSat and CALIPSO; Okamoto et al., 2010). Results of two years will be shown in the presentation. Calibration is a point to derive radar reflectivity (dBZ) from original intensity data

  15. Planck intermediate results XXXIII. Signature of the magnetic field geometry of interstellar filaments in dust polarization maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    of the filaments and therefore to provide insight into the structure of their magnetic field (B). We present the polarization maps of three nearby (several parsecs long) star-forming filaments of moderate column density (N-H about 1022 cm-2): Musca, B211, and L1506. These three filaments are detected above...... angles in the three filaments (ψfil) are coherent along their lengths and not the same as in their backgrounds (ψbg). The differences between ψfil and ψbg are 12 degrees and 54 degrees for Musca and L1506, respectively, and only 6 degrees in the case of B211. These differences for Musca and L1506...... (by, e. g., radiative torques) and the structure of the B-field in causing variations in p, but we argue that the decrease in p from the backgrounds to the filaments results in part from depolarization associated with the 3D structure of the B-field: both its orientation in the POS and with respect...

  16. [Map of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in Spain. MapEA Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lage, Pablo; Martín-Carrasco, Manuel; Arrieta, Enrique; Rodrigo, Jesús; Formiga, Francesc

    In the current context of increased life expectancy and progressive aging of the population a very significant increase in the number of people with cognitive impairment and dementia is expected. Consequently, Spain will face an enormous social and health problem in the next decades. The Mapa de la enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras demencias en España project aims to analyse plans, prevention and early diagnosis activities, process of care and resources available across the 17 Spanish regions for the management of cognitive impairment and dementia in order to identify improvement areas, as well as to provide a list of recommendations. The working group consisted of an Advisory Committee of 5 national experts and a Committee of Experts from each region made up of professionals in the field of Neurology, Geriatrics, Psychiatry, and Primary Care, as well as representatives of Family Associations of People with Alzheimer's and other dementias. The Expert Committee of each region held meetings in which the current situation of care was reviewed. Plans available in Spain for dementia management are mostly obsolete or have not been implemented. Prevention and early detection activities are generally not carried out. There is great variability of care process that patients must follow for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of the disease, and not all diagnostic test are available in different regions. In general, resources are considered scarce and unknown. The Mapa de la enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras demencias en España study has been able to detect the main points that require changing n the management, organisation, and coordination of resources, such as information and training of the personnel involved. Furthermore, the study has revealed that, in Spain, the necessary conditions are in place in Spain, such as the availability and capacity of professionals involved, as well as there being the potential diagnostic and health care resources to address this room

  17. Measures and visualization methods of map projection distortions with the use of “python matplotlib library” as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pędzich Paweł

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the author of this article is to show the users of Geographical Information Systems how to present the distortions in a simple way. The intention of the author is also to popularize the knowledge in the scope of map projections and to inform the users of the maps that, despite all the advanced modern tools, an elimination of the problem, connected with the map projections and cartographical distortions occurring in them, has failed so far.

  18. Mars Public Mapping Project: Public Participation in Science Research; Providing Opportunities for Kids of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L. D.; Valderrama Graff, P.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Klug, S. L.; Deva, B.; Capages, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Mars Public Mapping Project is a web-based education and public outreach tool developed by the Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University. This tool allows the general public to identify and map geologic features on Mars, utilizing Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visible images, allowing public participation in authentic scientific research. In addition, participants are able to rate each image (based on a 1 to 5 star scale) to help build a catalog of some of the more appealing and interesting martian surface features. Once participants have identified observable features in an image, they are able to view a map of the global distribution of the many geologic features they just identified. This automatic feedback, through a global distribution map, allows participants to see how their answers compare to the answers of other participants. Participants check boxes "yes, no, or not sure" for each feature that is listed on the Mars Public Mapping Project web page, including surface geologic features such as gullies, sand dunes, dust devil tracks, wind streaks, lava flows, several types of craters, and layers. Each type of feature has a quick and easily accessible description and example image. When a participant moves their mouse over each example thumbnail image, a window pops up with a picture and a description of the feature. This provides a form of "on the job training" for the participants that can vary with their background level. For users who are more comfortable with Mars geology, there is also an advanced feature identification section accessible by a drop down menu. This includes additional features that may be identified, such as streamlined islands, valley networks, chaotic terrain, yardangs, and dark slope streaks. The Mars Public Mapping Project achieves several goals: 1) It engages the public in a manner that encourages active participation in scientific research and learning about geologic features and processes. 2) It helps to

  19. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project - A Progress Report-November 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, D.; Rogers, J.D.; Williams, R.A.; Cramer, C.H.; Bauer, R.A.; Hoffman, D.; Chung, J.; Hempen, G.L.; Steckel, P.H.; Boyd, O.L.; Watkins, C.M.; McCallister, N.S.; Schweig, E.

    2009-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (SLAEHMP) is producing digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards, including liquefaction and ground shaking, in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. Although not site specific enough to indicate the hazard at a house-by-house resolution, they can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes. Earthquakes currently cannot be predicted, but scientists can estimate how strongly the ground is likely to shake as the result of an earthquake. Earthquake hazard maps provide one way of conveying such estimates. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which produces earthquake hazard maps for the Nation, is working with local partners to develop detailed maps for urban areas vulnerable to strong ground shaking. These partners, which along with the USGS comprise the SLAEHMP, include the Missouri University of Science and Technology-Rolla (Missouri S&T), Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Saint Louis University, Missouri State Emergency Management Agency, and URS Corporation. Preliminary hazard maps covering a test portion of the 29-quadrangle St. Louis study area have been produced and are currently being evaluated by the SLAEHMP. A USGS Fact Sheet summarizing this project was produced and almost 1000 copies have been distributed at several public outreach meetings and field trips that have featured the SLAEHMP (Williams and others, 2007). In addition, a USGS website focusing on the SLAEHMP, which provides links to project results and relevant earthquake hazard information, can be found at: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/ceus/urban_map/st_louis/index.php. This progress report summarizes the

  20. Mapping Project on Energy and the Social Sciences. Progress report, October 1, 1978-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.A.; Doob, L.W.; Gould, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This is a progress report of activities in the fourth year of the Yale Institution for Social and Policy Studies Mapping Project on Energy and the Social Sciences. The Mapping Project evaluates past and present social and behavioral science energy studies, assesses the potential for social and behavioral science contributions to a resolution of the energy problems in the future, and diffuses social and behavioral science information and perspectives to policymakers and others concerned with US or world energy developments. Activities in FY 1979 included meetings, workshops, collecting bibliographic material, publications, evaluating DOE programs in buildings and transportation, performing a special study of potential social impacts of 4 coal technologies, and developing plans for 10 specific research studies on energy.

  1. Automatic transfer function design for medical visualization using visibility distributions and projective color mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lile; Tay, Wei-Liang; Nguyen, Binh P; Chui, Chee-Kong; Ong, Sim-Heng

    2013-01-01

    Transfer functions play a key role in volume rendering of medical data, but transfer function manipulation is unintuitive and can be time-consuming; achieving an optimal visualization of patient anatomy or pathology is difficult. To overcome this problem, we present a system for automatic transfer function design based on visibility distribution and projective color mapping. Instead of assigning opacity directly based on voxel intensity and gradient magnitude, the opacity transfer function is automatically derived by matching the observed visibility distribution to a target visibility distribution. An automatic color assignment scheme based on projective mapping is proposed to assign colors that allow for the visual discrimination of different structures, while also reflecting the degree of similarity between them. When our method was tested on several medical volumetric datasets, the key structures within the volume were clearly visualized with minimal user intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Offshore Energy Mapping for Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean: MARINA PLATFORM project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallos, G.; Galanis, G.; Spyrou, C.; Kalogeri, C.; Adam, A.; Athanasiadis, P.

    2012-04-01

    Deep offshore ocean energy mapping requires detailed modeling of the wind, wave, tidal and ocean circulation estimations. It requires also detailed mapping of the associated extremes. An important issue in such work is the co-generation of energy (generation of wind, wave, tides, currents) in order to design platforms on an efficient way. For example wind and wave fields exhibit significant phase differences and therefore the produced energy from both sources together requires special analysis. The other two sources namely tides and currents have different temporal scales from the previous two. Another important issue is related to the estimation of the environmental frequencies in order to avoid structural problems. These are issues studied at the framework of the FP7 project MARINA PLATFORM. The main objective of the project is to develop deep water structures that can exploit the energy from wind, wave, tidal and ocean current energy sources. In particular, a primary goal will be the establishment of a set of equitable and transparent criteria for the evaluation of multi-purpose platforms for marine renewable energy. Using these criteria, a novel system set of design and optimisation tools will be produced addressing new platform design, component engineering, risk assessment, spatial planning, platform-related grid connection concepts, all focussed on system integration and reducing costs. The University of Athens group is in charge for estimation and mapping of wind, wave, tidal and ocean current resources, estimate available energy potential, map extreme event characteristics and provide any additional environmental parameter required.

  3. THE STATUS OF TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING IN THE WORLD A UNGGIM–ISPRS PROJECT 2012–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Konecny

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In December 2011, UNGGIM initiated a cooperative project with ISPRS to resume the former UN Secretariat studies on the status of topographic mapping in the world, conducted between 1968 and 1986. After the design of a questionnaire with 27 questions, the UNGGIM Secretariat sent the questionnaires to the UN member states. 115 replies were received from the 193 member states and regions thereof. Regarding the global data coverage and age, the UN questionnaire survey was supplemented by data from the Eastview database. For each of the 27 questions, an interactive viewer was programmed permitting the analysis of the results. The authoritative data coverage at the various scale ranges has greatly increased between 1986 and 2012. Now, a 30 % 1 : 25 000 map data coverage and a 75 % 1 : 50 000 map data coverage has been completed. Nevertheless, there is still an updating problem, as data for some countries is 10 to 30 years old. Private Industry, with Google, Microsoft and Navigation system providers, have undertaken huge efforts to supplement authoritative mapping. For critical areas on the globe, MGCP committed to military mapping at 1 : 50 000. ISPRS has decided to make such surveys a sustainable issue by establishing a working group.

  4. The Status of Topographic Mapping in the World a Unggim-Isprs Project 2012-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecny, G.; Breitkopf, U.; Radtke, A.

    2016-06-01

    In December 2011, UNGGIM initiated a cooperative project with ISPRS to resume the former UN Secretariat studies on the status of topographic mapping in the world, conducted between 1968 and 1986. After the design of a questionnaire with 27 questions, the UNGGIM Secretariat sent the questionnaires to the UN member states. 115 replies were received from the 193 member states and regions thereof. Regarding the global data coverage and age, the UN questionnaire survey was supplemented by data from the Eastview database. For each of the 27 questions, an interactive viewer was programmed permitting the analysis of the results. The authoritative data coverage at the various scale ranges has greatly increased between 1986 and 2012. Now, a 30 % 1 : 25 000 map data coverage and a 75 % 1 : 50 000 map data coverage has been completed. Nevertheless, there is still an updating problem, as data for some countries is 10 to 30 years old. Private Industry, with Google, Microsoft and Navigation system providers, have undertaken huge efforts to supplement authoritative mapping. For critical areas on the globe, MGCP committed to military mapping at 1 : 50 000. ISPRS has decided to make such surveys a sustainable issue by establishing a working group.

  5. LRO Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Far-UV Investigations of Lunar Composition, Porosity, and Space Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Mandt, K. E.; Gladstone, R.; Hendrix, A.; Cahill, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Grava, C.; Hurley, D.; Egan, A.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Raut, U.; Byron, B. D.; Magana, L. O.; Stickle, A. M.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Pryor, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Far ultraviolet reflectance measurements of the Moon, icy satellites, comets, and asteroids have proven surprisingly useful for advancing our understanding of planetary surfaces. This new appreciation for planetary far-UV imaging spectroscopy is provided in large part thanks to nearly a decade of investigations with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP). LAMP has demonstrated an innovative nightside observing technique, putting a new light on permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and other features on the Moon. Dayside far-UV albedo maps complement the nightside data, enabling comparisons of direct and hemispheric (diffuse) illumination derived albedos. We'll discuss the strengths of the far-UV reflectance imaging spectroscopy technique with respect to several new LAMP results. Detections of water frost and hydration signatures near 165 nm, for example, provide constraints on composition that complement infrared spectroscopy, visible imaging, neutron spectroscopy, radar, and other techniques. LRO's polar orbit and high data downlink capabilities enable searches for diurnal variations in spectral signals. At far-UV wavelengths a relatively blue spectral slope is diagnostic of space weathering, which is opposite of the spectral reddening indicator of maturity at wavelengths longward of 180 nm. By utilizing natural diffuse illumination sources on the nightside the far-UV technique is able to identify relative increases in porosity within the PSRs, and provides an additional tool for determining relative surface ages. On October 6, 2016 LAMP enacted a new, more sensitive dayside operating mode that expands its ability to search for diurnally varying hydration signals associated with different regions and features.

  6. Illuminating "spin-polarized" Bloch wave-function projection from degenerate bands in decomposable centrosymmetric lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian

    2018-03-01

    The combination of space inversion and time-reversal symmetries results in doubly degenerate Bloch states with opposite spin. Many lattices with these symmetries can be constructed by combining a noncentrosymmetric potential (lacking this degeneracy) with its inverted copy. Using simple models, we unravel the evolution of local spin splitting during this process of inversion symmetry restoration, in the presence of spin-orbit interaction and sublattice coupling. Importantly, through an analysis of quantum mechanical commutativity, we examine the difficulty of identifying states that are simultaneously spatially segregated and spin polarized. We also explain how surface-sensitive experimental probes (such as angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, or ARPES) of "hidden spin polarization" in layered materials are susceptible to unrelated spin splitting intrinsically induced by broken inversion symmetry at the surface.

  7. Microbiological and ecological responses to global environmental changes in polar regions (MERGE): An IPY core coordinating project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Takeshi; Wilmotte, Annick

    2009-11-01

    An integrated program, “Microbiological and ecological responses to global environmental changes in polar regions” (MERGE), was proposed in the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 and endorsed by the IPY committee as a coordinating proposal. MERGE hosts original proposals to the IPY and facilitates their funding. MERGE selected three key questions to produce scientific achievements. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in terrestrial, lacustrine, and supraglacial habitats were targeted according to diversity and biogeography; food webs and ecosystem evolution; and linkages between biological, chemical, and physical processes in the supraglacial biome. MERGE hosted 13 original and seven additional proposals, with two full proposals. It respected the priorities and achievements of the individual proposals and aimed to unify their significant results. Ideas and projects followed a bottom-up rather than a top-down approach. We intend to inform the MERGE community of the initial results and encourage ongoing collaboration. Scientists from non-polar regions have also participated and are encouraged to remain involved in MERGE. MERGE is formed by scientists from Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Spain, UK, Uruguay, USA, and Vietnam, and associates from Chile, Denmark, Netherlands, and Norway.

  8. Getting around Antarctica: new high-resolution mappings of the grounded and freely-floating boundaries of the Antarctic ice sheet created for the International Polar Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bindschadler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Two ice-dynamic transitions of the Antarctic ice sheet – the boundary of grounded ice features and the freely-floating boundary – are mapped at 15-m resolution by participants of the International Polar Year project ASAID using customized software combining Landsat-7 imagery and ICESat/GLAS laser altimetry. The grounded ice boundary is 53 610 km long; 74 % abuts to floating ice shelves or outlet glaciers, 19 % is adjacent to open or sea-ice covered ocean, and 7 % of the boundary ice terminates on land. The freely-floating boundary, called here the hydrostatic line, is the most landward position on ice shelves that expresses the full amplitude of oscillating ocean tides. It extends 27 521 km and is discontinuous. Positional (one-sigma accuracies of the grounded ice boundary vary an order of magnitude ranging from ±52 m for the land and open-ocean terminating segments to ±502 m for the outlet glaciers. The hydrostatic line is less well positioned with errors over 2 km. Elevations along each line are selected from 6 candidate digital elevation models based on their agreement with ICESat elevation values and surface shape inferred from the Landsat imagery. Elevations along the hydrostatic line are converted to ice thicknesses by applying a firn-correction factor and a flotation criterion. BEDMAP-compiled data and other airborne data are compared to the ASAID elevations and ice thicknesses to arrive at quantitative (one-sigma uncertainties of surface elevations of ±3.6, ±9.6, ±11.4, ±30 and ±100 m for five ASAID-assigned confidence levels. Over one-half of the surface elevations along the grounded ice boundary and over one-third of the hydrostatic line elevations are ranked in the highest two confidence categories. A comparison between ASAID-calculated ice shelf thicknesses and BEDMAP-compiled data indicate a thin-ice bias of 41.2 ± 71.3 m for the ASAID ice thicknesses. The relationship between the seaward offset of the hydrostatic line

  9. Getting around Antarctica: New High-Resolution Mappings of the Grounded and Freely-Floating Boundaries of the Antarctic Ice Sheet Created for the International Polar Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, R.; Choi, H.; Wichlacz, A.; Bingham, R.; Bohlander, J.; Brunt, K.; Corr, H.; Drews, R.; Fricker, H.; Hall, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Two ice-dynamic transitions of the Antarctic ice sheet - the boundary of grounded ice features and the freely-floating boundary - are mapped at 15-m resolution by participants of the International Polar Year project ASAID using customized software combining Landsat-7 imagery and ICESat/GLAS laser altimetry. The grounded ice boundary is 53 610 km long; 74% abuts to floating ice shelves or outlet glaciers, 19% is adjacent to open or sea-ice covered ocean, and 7% of the boundary ice terminates on land. The freely-floating boundary, called here the hydrostatic line, is the most landward position on ice shelves that expresses the full amplitude of oscillating ocean tides. It extends 27 521 km and is discontinuous. Positional (one-sigma) accuracies of the grounded ice boundary vary an order of magnitude ranging from +/- 52m for the land and open-ocean terminating segments to +/- 502m for the outlet glaciers. The hydrostatic line is less well positioned with errors over 2 km. Elevations along each line are selected from 6 candidate digital elevation models based on their agreement with ICESat elevation values and surface shape inferred from the Landsat imagery. Elevations along the hydrostatic line are converted to ice thicknesses by applying a firn-correction factor and a flotation criterion. BEDMAP-compiled data and other airborne data are compared to the ASAID elevations and ice thicknesses to arrive at quantitative (one-sigma) uncertainties of surface elevations of +/-3.6, +/-9.6, +/-11.4, +/-30 and +/-100m for five ASAID-assigned confidence levels. Over one-half of the surface elevations along the grounded ice boundary and over one-third of the hydrostatic line elevations are ranked in the highest two confidence categories. A comparison between ASAID-calculated ice shelf thicknesses and BEDMAP-compiled data indicate a thin-ice bias of 41.2+/-71.3m for the ASAID ice thicknesses. The relationship between the seaward offset of the hydrostatic line from the grounded ice

  10. Technology evaluation report for the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the work performed in support of the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project. The project objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of remotely characterizing buried waste sites. To fulfill this objective, a remotely-operated vehicle, equipped with several sensors, was deployed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Descriptions of the equipment and areas involved in the project are included in this report. Additionally, this document provides data that was obtained during characterization operations at the Cold Test Pit and the Subsurface Disposal Area, both at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex, and at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The knowledge gained from the experience, that can be applied to the next generation remote-characterization system, is extensive and is presented in this report

  11. Cost Based Value Stream Mapping as a Sustainable Construction Tool for Underground Pipeline Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Gunduz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with application of Value Stream Mapping (VSM as a sustainable construction tool on a real construction project of installation of underground pipelines. VSM was adapted to reduce the high percentage of non-value-added activities and time wastes during each construction stage and the paper searched for an effective way to consider the cost for studied construction of underground pipeline. This paper is unique in its way that it adopts cost implementation of VSM to improve the productivity in underground pipeline projects. The data was observed and collected from site during construction, indicating the cycle time, value added and non-value added of each construction stage. The current state was built based on these details. This was an eye-opening exercise and a process management tool as a trigger for improvement. After the current state assessment, a future state is attempted by Value Stream Mapping tool balancing the resources using a Line of Balance (LOB technique. Moreover, a sustainable cost estimation model was developed during current state and future state to calculate the cost of underground pipeline construction. The result shows a cost reduction of 20.8% between current and future states. This reflects the importance of the cost based Value Stream Mapping in construction as a sustainable measurement tool. This new tool could be utilized in construction industry to add the sustainability and effective cost management.

  12. Visualizing Article Similarities via Sparsified Article Network and Map Projection for Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaonan; Machiraju, Raghu; Ritter, Alan; Yen, Po-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Systematic Reviews (SRs) of biomedical literature summarize evidence from high-quality studies to inform clinical decisions, but are time and labor intensive due to the large number of article collections. Article similarities established from textual features have been shown to assist in the identification of relevant articles, thus facilitating the article screening process efficiently. In this study, we visualized article similarities to extend its utilization in practical settings for SR researchers, aiming to promote human comprehension of article distributions and hidden patterns. To prompt an effective visualization in an interpretable, intuitive, and scalable way, we implemented a graph-based network visualization with three network sparsification approaches and a distance-based map projection via dimensionality reduction. We evaluated and compared three network sparsification approaches and the visualization types (article network vs. article map). We demonstrated the effectiveness in revealing article distribution and exhibiting clustering patterns of relevant articles with practical meanings for SRs.

  13. Status of mapping for pre-detailing and projects of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Fabio Vinicius Fontoura; Paoletto, Bonatto Silvia M. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Considering the ever growing need for widening and supplying of the national energy matrix, ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos SA presents its participation in the Pipeline area, through Cartography activities, pointing out the performance on strips yet to be implanted, with activities as aerial survey, laser surveys, creation of orthophotomap, tracing definition, rivers crossing, geotechnical surveys, cadaster, creation of cadaster maps, strips, basic project drawings, imagery maps, as well as activities for existing strips, such as: aerial survey, laser surveys, strips enlargements, new property surveys, detection of pipelines through PCM technology, planimetric survey of equipment, besides activities for Pipeline Strips Geometry - FEED - pointing out the detailing of the areas which will be used for the dumping of the digging material and definition of accesses to the pipeline strips. We shall also present the technological evolution and consequent product improvements, considering surveys performed with conventional and digital aerial survey cameras, besides laser data. (author)

  14. Managing and sharing the escalating number of sponge "unknowns": the SpongeMaps project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, J N A; Hall, K A; Ekins, M; Erpenbeck, D; Wörheide, G; Jolley-Rogers, G

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary collections of sponges in the Indo-west Pacific have escalated substantially due to pharmaceutical discovery, national bioregional planning, and compliance with international conventions on the seabed and its marine genetic resources beyond national jurisdictions. These partially processed operational taxonomic unit (OTU) collections now vastly outweigh the expertise available to make them better "known" via complete taxonomy, yet for many bioregions they represent the most significant body of currently available knowledge. Increasing numbers of cryptic species, previously undetected morphologically, are now being discovered by molecular and chemical analyses. The uncoordinated and fragmented nature of many previous collections, however, means that knowledge and expertise gained from a particular project are often lost to future projects without a biodiversity informatics legacy. Integrating these diverse data (GIS; OTUs; images; molecular, chemical, and other datasets) required a two-way iterative process so far unavailable for sponges with existing biodiversity informatics tools. SpongeMaps arose from the initial need for online collaboration to integrate morphometric data with molecular barcodes, including the Porifera Tree of Life (PorTol) project. It provides interrogation of existing data to better process new collections; capacity to create new OTUs; publication of online pages for individual species, so as to interpret GIS and other data for online biodiversity databases and services; and automatic links to external datasets for taxonomic hierarchy, specimen GIS and mapping, DNA sequence data, chemical structures, and images.

  15. Mapping epistemic cultures and learning potential of participants in citizen science projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabh, Priya; Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; O'Donoghue, Rob; Schudel, Ingrid

    2016-06-01

    The ever-widening scope and range of global change and interconnected systemic risks arising from people-environment relationships (social-ecological risks) appears to be increasing concern among, and involvement of, citizens in an increasingly diversified number of citizen science projects responding to these risks. We examined the relationship between epistemic cultures in citizen science projects and learning potential related to matters of concern. We then developed a typology of purposes and a citizen science epistemic-cultures heuristic and mapped 56 projects in southern Africa using this framework. The purpose typology represents the range of knowledge-production purposes, ranging from laboratory science to social learning, whereas the epistemic-cultures typology is a relational representation of scientist and citizen participation and their approach to knowledge production. Results showed an iterative relationship between matters of fact and matters of concern across the projects; the nexus of citizens' engagement in knowledge-production activities varied. The knowledge-production purposes informed and shaped the epistemic cultures of all the sampled citizen science projects, which in turn influenced the potential for learning within each project. Through a historical review of 3 phases in a long-term river health-monitoring project, we found that it is possible to evolve the learning curve of citizen science projects. This evolution involved the development of scientific water monitoring tools, the parallel development of pedagogic practices supporting monitoring activities, and situated engagement around matters of concern within social activism leading to learning-led change. We conclude that such evolutionary processes serve to increase potential for learning and are necessary if citizen science is to contribute to wider restructuring of the epistemic culture of science under conditions of expanding social-ecological risk. © 2016 Society for

  16. Genotype Imputation for Latinos Using the HapMap and 1000 Genomes Project Reference Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi eGao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Genotype imputation is a vital tool in genome-wide association studies (GWAS and meta-analyses of multiple GWAS results. Imputation enables researchers to increase genomic coverage and to pool data generated using different genotyping platforms. HapMap samples are often employed as the reference panel. More recently, the 1000 Genomes Project resource is becoming the primary source for reference panels. Multiple GWAS and meta-analyses are targeting Latinos, the most populous and fastest growing minority group in the US. However, genotype imputation resources for Latinos are rather limited compared to individuals of European ancestry at present, largely because of the lack of good reference data. One choice of reference panel for Latinos is one derived from the population of Mexican individuals in Los Angeles contained in the HapMap Phase 3 project and the 1000 Genomes Project. However, a detailed evaluation of the quality of the imputed genotypes derived from the public reference panels has not yet been reported. Using simulation studies, the Illumina OmniExpress GWAS data from the Los Angles Latino Eye Study and the MACH software package, we evaluated the accuracy of genotype imputation in Latinos. Our results show that the 1000 Genomes Project AMR+CEU+YRI reference panel provides the highest imputation accuracy for Latinos, and that also including Asian samples in the panel can reduce imputation accuracy. We also provide the imputation accuracy for each autosomal chromosome using the 1000 Genomes Project panel for Latinos. Our results serve as a guide to future imputation-based analysis in Latinos.

  17. Comparing The Accuracy of Different Map Projections and Datums Using Truth Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjed Naser Mohsin AL-Hameedawi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Positional inaccuracy is a major public engineering problem, and the cause of errors which lead to inaccurate measurements. The main challenge faced by many researchers is the accuracy. Hence, this paper involved comparing various map projections and datums effect on accuracy using 7 parameter method and root mean square errors (RMSE test. In order to prepare data for analysis, sets of points in the study area, which is located in north of Iraq in Sulaymaniyah Governorate (Arbat City, were selected as follows: first set of ten checkpoints (reference points was selected randomly. The cartographic parameters for these points were (Lat. /Long. coordinates and datum was WGS84 using Differential GPS. Then other sets of points were ten Ground Control Points (GCP for the same positions, but in this case were Cartesian coordinates with different projections and datums. The idea was to convert coordinates system of the second set points to geographic coordinate system for all specified projections using 7 parameter method. After that calculate RMSE between transformed coordinates and original coordinates (first set of checkpoints. The projection and datum that will guarantee less RMSE will be the best for study area. In this method required acquire ground control points (GCP and global position system points (GPS points, for the purpose completing the study all the needed coordinates were measured using DGPS. Not only datum transformation from global datum (WGS1984-UTM-Zone-38N to local datum (Karbala1979-UTM-Zone-38N were performed, but also producing new maps for the purpose of comparisons. The results demonstrated that UTM projection and local datum (Karbala1979-UTM-Zone-38N were the best for study area according to RMSE test.

  18. Improving Flood Risk Maps as a Capacity Building Activity: Fostering Public Participation and Raising Flood Risk Awareness in the German Mulde Region (project RISK MAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, J.; Meyer, V.; Kuhlicke, C.; Scheuer, S.; Unnerstall, H.

    2012-04-01

    The EU Floods Directive requires the establishment of flood risk maps for high risk areas in all EU Member States by 2013. However, if existing at all, the current practice of risk mapping still shows some deficits: Risk maps are often seen as an information tool rather than a communication tool. This means that e.g. important local knowledge is not incorporated and forms a contrast to the understanding of capacity building which calls for engaging individuals in the process of learning and adapting to change and for the establishment of a more interactive public administration that learns equally from its actions and from the feedback it receives. Furthermore, the contents of risk maps often do not match the requirements of the end users, so that risk maps are often designed and visualised in a way which cannot be easily understood by laypersons and/or which is not suitable for the respective needs of public authorities in risk and flood event management. The project RISK MAP aimed at improving flood risk maps as a means to foster public participation and raising flood risk awareness. For achieving this aim, RISK MAP (1) developed rules for appropriate stakeholder participation enabling the incorporation of local knowledge and preferences; (2) improved the content of risk maps by considering different risk criteria through the use of a deliberative multicriteria risk mapping tool; and (3) improved the visualisation of risk maps in order to produce user-friendly risk maps by applying the experimental graphic semiology (EGS) method that uses the eye tracking approach. The research was carried out in five European case studies where the status quo of risk mapping and the legal framework was analysed, several stakeholder interviews and workshops were conducted, the visual perception of risk maps was tested and - based on this empirical work - exemplary improved risk maps were produced. The presentation and paper will outline the main findings of the project which

  19. Toeplitz Operators, Pseudo-Homogeneous Symbols, and Moment Maps on the Complex Projective Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antonio Morales-Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Following previous works for the unit ball due to Nikolai Vasilevski, we define quasi-radial pseudo-homogeneous symbols on the projective space and obtain the corresponding commutativity results for Toeplitz operators. A geometric interpretation of these symbols in terms of moment maps is developed. This leads us to the introduction of a new family of symbols, extended pseudo-homogeneous, that provide larger commutative Banach algebras generated by Toeplitz operators. This family of symbols provides new commutative Banach algebras generated by Toeplitz operators on the unit ball.

  20. A Systematic Mapping on Supporting Approaches for Requirements Traceability in the Context of Software Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALCHER, P R.C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Requirements Traceability is seen as a quality factor with regard to software development, being present in standards and quality models. In this context, several techniques, models, frameworks and tools have been used to support it. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present a systematic mapping carried out in order to find in the literature approaches to support the requirements traceability in the context of software projects and make the categorization of the data found in order to demonstrate, by means of a reliable, accurate and auditable method, how this area has developed and what are the main approaches are used to implement it.

  1. The Polar WRF Downscaled Historical and Projected Twenty-First Century Climate for the Coast and Foothills of Arctic Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Cai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is most pronounced in the northern high latitude region. Yet, climate observations are unable to fully capture regional-scale dynamics due to the sparse weather station coverage, which limits our ability to make reliable climate-based assessments. A set of simulated data products was therefore developed for the North Slope of Alaska through a dynamical downscaling approach. The polar-optimized Weather Research and Forecast (Polar WRF model was forced by three sources: The ERA-interim reanalysis data (for 1979–2014, the Community Earth System Model 1.0 (CESM1.0 historical simulation (for 1950–2005, and the CESM1.0 projected (for 2006–2100 simulations in two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Climatic variables were produced in a 10-km grid spacing and a 3-h interval. The ERA-interim forced WRF (ERA-WRF proves the value of dynamical downscaling, which yields more realistic topographical-induced precipitation and air temperature, as well as corrects underestimations in observed precipitation. In summary, dry and cold biases to the north of the Brooks Range are presented in ERA-WRF, while CESM forced WRF (CESM-WRF holds wet and warm biases in its historical period. A linear scaling method allowed for an adjustment of the biases, while keeping the majority of the variability and extreme values of modeled precipitation and air temperature. CESM-WRF under RCP 4.5 scenario projects smaller increase in precipitation and air temperature than observed in the historical CESM-WRF product, while the CESM-WRF under RCP 8.5 scenario shows larger changes. The fine spatial and temporal resolution, long temporal coverage, and multi-scenario projections jointly make the dataset appropriate to address a myriad of physical and biological changes occurring on the North Slope of Alaska.

  2. The polar WRF downscaled historical and projected 21st century climate for the coast and foothills of Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lei; Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Gädeke, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is most pronounced in the northern high latitude region. Yet, climate observations are unable to fully capture regional-scale dynamics due to the sparse weather station coverage, which limits our ability to make reliable climate-based assessments. A set of simulated data products was therefore developed for the North Slope of Alaska through a dynamical downscaling approach. The polar-optimized Weather Research & Forecast (Polar WRF) model was forced by three sources: The ERA-interim reanalysis data (for 1979-2014), the Community Earth System Model 1.0 (CESM1.0) historical simulation (for 1950-2005), and the CESM1.0 projected (for 2006-2100) simulations in two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios. Climatic variables were produced in a 10-km grid spacing and a 3-hour interval. The ERA-interim forced WRF (ERA-WRF) proves the value of dynamical downscaling, which yields more realistic topographical-induced precipitation and air temperature, as well as corrects underestimations in observed precipitation. In summary, dry and cold biases to the north of the Brooks Range are presented in ERA-WRF, while CESM forced WRF (CESM-WRF) holds wet and warm biases in its historical period. A linear scaling method allowed for an adjustment of the biases, while keeping the majority of the variability and extreme values of modeled precipitation and air temperature. CESM-WRF under RCP 4.5 scenario projects smaller increase in precipitation and air temperature than observed in the historical CESM-WRF product, while the CESM-WRF under RCP8.5 scenario shows larger changes. The fine spatial and temporal resolution, long temporal coverage, and multi-scenario projections jointly make the dataset appropriate to address a myriad of physical and biological changes occurring on the North Slope of Alaska.

  3. Mapping geological structures in bedrock via large-scale direct current resistivity and time-domain induced polarization tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Matteo; Olsson, Per-Ivar; Johansson, Sara

    2017-01-01

    -current resistivity distribution of the subsoil and the phase of the complex conductivity using a constant-phase angle model. The joint interpretation of electrical resistivity and induced-polarization models leads to a better understanding of complex three-dimensional subsoil geometries. The results have been......An investigation of geological conditions is always a key point for planning infrastructure constructions. Bedrock surface and rock quality must be estimated carefully in the designing process of infrastructures. A large direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization survey has......, there are northwest-trending Permian dolerite dykes that are less deformed. Four 2D direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization profiles of about 1-km length have been carefully pre-processed to retrieve time-domain induced polarization responses and inverted to obtain the direct...

  4. Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects. Summary Report. Three Mile Island Unit 2 Polar Crane Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerge, D. H.; Miller, R. L.

    1984-08-01

    This document summarizes information concerning restoration of the Three Mile Island-Unit 2 Polar Crane to a fully operational condition following the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were placed in a computerized information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific data which could be utilized in planning for recovery activities should a similar accident occur in a nuclear generating plant. The information is presented in both computer output form and a manually assembled summarization. This report contains only the manpower requirements and radiation exposures actually incurred during recovery operations within the reactor containment and does not include support activities or costs. (author)

  5. Detection of myocardial 123I-BMIPP distribution abnormality in patients with ischemic heart disease based on normal data file in Bull's-eye polar map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Ishida, Yoshio; Hirose, Yoshiaki; Kawano, Shigeo; Fukuoka, Syuji; Hayashida, Kohei; Takamiya, Makoto; Nonogi, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Visual interpretation of 123 I-BMIPP (BMIPP) myocardial images has difficulties in detecting mild reduction in tracer uptake. We studied the significance of the objective assessment of myocardial BMIPP maldistributions at rest by using a Bull's-eye map and its normal data file for detecting ischemic heart disease. Twenty nine patients, 15 with prior myocardial infarction and 14 with effort angina were studied. The initial 15-min BMIPP image was evaluated by visual analysis and by generating the extent Bull's-eye map which exhibits regions with reduced % uptake under mean-2SD of 10 normal controls. The sensitivity for determining coronary lesions in non-infarcted myocardial regions with the extent map was superior to that with visual analysis (67% vs. 33%). In the regions supplied by the stenotic coronary artery, those which showed visually negative but positive in the map and which showed positive in both had higher incidence of wall motion abnormalities and severe coronary stenosis than those with normal findings in both. These results suggest that the objective assessment based on the normal data file in a Bull's-eye polar map is clinically important for improving the limitation or the visual interpretation in 123 I-BMIPP imaging. (author)

  6. Brain-wide map of efferent projections from rat barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela M. Zakiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The somatotopically organized whisker barrel field of the rat primary somatosensory (S1 cortex is a commonly used model system for anatomical and physiological investigations of sensory processing. The neural connections of the barrel cortex have been extensively mapped. But most investigations have focused on connections to limited regions of the brain, and overviews in the literature of the connections across the brain thus build on a range of material from different laboratories, presented in numerous publications. Furthermore, given the limitations of the conventional journal article format, analyses and interpretations are hampered by lack of access to the underlying experimental data. New opportunities for analyses have emerged with the recent release of an online resource of experimental data consisting of collections of high-resolution images from 6 experiments in which anterograde tracers were injected in S1 whisker or forelimb representations. Building on this material, we have conducted a detailed analysis of the brain wide distribution of the efferent projections of the rat barrel cortex. We compare our findings with the available literature and reports accumulated in the Brain Architecture Management System (BAMS2 database. We report well-known and less known intracortical and subcortical projections of the barrel cortex, as well as distinct differences between S1 whisker and forelimb related projections. Our results correspond well with recently published overviews, but provide additional information about relative differences among S1 projection targets. Our approach demonstrates how collections of shared experimental image data are suitable for brain-wide analysis and interpretation of connectivity mapping data.

  7. Investigating the use of the dual-polarized and large incident angle of SAR data for mapping the fluvial and aeolian deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gaber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mapping the spatial distributions of the fluvial deposits in terms of particles size as well as imaging the near-surface features along the non-vegetated aeolian sand-sheets, provides valuable geological information. Thus this work aims at investigating the contribution of the dual-polarization SAR data in classifying and mapping the surface sediments as well as investigating the effect of the radar incident-angle on improving the images of the hidden features under the desert sand cover. For mapping the fluvial deposits, the covariance matrix ([C2] using four dual-polarized ALOS/PALSAR-1 scenes cover the Wadi El Matulla, East Qena, Egypt were generated. This [C2] matrix was used to generate a supervised classification map with three main classes (gravel, gravel/sand and sand. The polarimetric scattering response, spectral reflectance and temperatures brightness of these 3 classes were extracted. However for the aeolian deposits investigation, two Radarsat-1 and three full-polarimetric ALOS/PALSAR-1 images, which cover the northwestern sandy part of Sinai, Egypt were calibrated, filtered, geocoded and ingested in a GIS database to image the near-surface features. The fluvial mapping results show that the values of the radar backscattered coefficient (σ° and the degree of randomness of the obtained three classes are increasing respectively by increasing their grain size. Moreover, the large incident angle (θi = 39.7 of the Radarsat-1 image has revealed a meandering buried stream under the sand sheet of the northwestern part of Sinai. Such buried stream does not appear in the other optical, SRTM and SAR dataset. The main reason is the enhanced contrast between the low backscattered return from the revealed meandering stream and the surroundings as a result of the increased backscattering intensity, which is related to the relatively large incident angle along the undulated surface of the study area. All archaeological

  8. Use of Open Standards and Technologies at the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Malhotra, S.; Bui, B.; Chang, G.; Goodale, C. E.; Ramirez, P.; Kim, R. M.; Sadaqathulla, S.; Rodriguez, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP), led by the Marshall Space Flight center (MSFC), is tasked by NASA. The project is responsible for the development of an information system to support lunar exploration activities. It provides lunar explorers a set of tools and lunar map and model products that are predominantly derived from present lunar missions (e.g., the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)) and from historical missions (e.g., Apollo). At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we have built the LMMP interoperable geospatial information system's underlying infrastructure and a single point of entry - the LMMP Portal by employing a number of open standards and technologies. The Portal exposes a set of services to users to allow search, visualization, subset, and download of lunar data managed by the system. Users also have access to a set of tools that visualize, analyze and annotate the data. The infrastructure and Portal are based on web service oriented architecture. We designed the system to support solar system bodies in general including asteroids, earth and planets. We employed a combination of custom software, commercial and open-source components, off-the-shelf hardware and pay-by-use cloud computing services. The use of open standards and web service interfaces facilitate platform and application independent access to the services and data, offering for instances, iPad and Android mobile applications and large screen multi-touch with 3-D terrain viewing functions, for a rich browsing and analysis experience from a variety of platforms. The web services made use of open standards including: Representational State Transfer (REST); and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)'s Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), Web Feature Service (WFS). Its data management services have been built on top of a set of open technologies including: Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) - open source data catalog, archive, file management, data grid framework

  9. Mapping project on land use changes in the carboniferous region of Santa Catarina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriano, D. D.; Pereira, M. D. B.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of remote sensing data for monitoring land use changes by means of digital image analysis is described. The following data were utilized: LANDSAT data from September 4, 1975, April 24, 1978, and September 8, 1981; LANDSAT paper photography data; area IV color photographs; IBGE topography maps, and auxiliary data about the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. Three kinds of analyses of digital images were carried out. The project identified and mapped major classes of land use areas including urban areas, coal deposits, agricultural areas, forests, lakes, and flood plains. Five areas directly affected by coal exploration southeast of Santa Catarina are identified and described. In addition, the classification system used for organizing data about land cover in a hierarchical arrangement is presented. The project made use of two remote sensing data sources: data of MSS spectral (Mulitspectral Scanner System)/LANDSAT on a scale of 1:100,000 with approximately 80 m resolution, and infrared color aerial photographs on a scale of 1:45,000 with approximately 5 m resolution. Therefore, the classification system included three levels, two selected to be compatible with aerial photography data and the third to conform to the resolution of MSS/LANDSAT.

  10. The Africa Yoga Project: A Participant-Driven Concept Map of Kenyan Teachers' Reported Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jessalyn E; Cook-Cottone, Catherine; Giambrone, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The Africa Yoga Project (AYP) trains and funds Kenyans to teach community yoga classes. Preliminary research with a small sample of AYP teachers suggested the program had a positive impact. This study used concept mapping to explore the experiences of a larger sample. Participants brainstormed statements about how practicing and/or teaching yoga changed them. They sorted statements into self-defined piles and rated them in terms of perceived importance. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) of sort data calculated statement coordinates wherein each statement is placed in proximity to other statements as a function of how frequently statements are sorted together by participants. These results are then and mapped in a two-dimensional space. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of these data identified clusters (i.e., concepts) among statements. Cluster average importance ratings gave the concept map depth and indicated concept importance. Bridging analysis and researchers' conceptual understanding of yoga literature facilitated HCA interpretive decisions. Of 72 AYP teachers, 52 and 48 teachers participated in brainstorming and sorting/rating activities, respectively. Teachers brainstormed 93 statements about how they had changed. The resultant MDS statement map had adequate validity (stress value = .29). HCA created a 12-cluster solution with the following concepts of perceived change: Identity as a Yoga Teacher; Prosocial Development; Existential Possibility; Genuine Positive Regard; Value and Respect for Others (highest importance); Presence, Acceptance, and Competence; Service and Trust; Non-judgment and Emotion Regulation (lowest importance); Engagement and Connection; Interpersonal Effectiveness; Psychosocial Functioning; and Physical Competence and Security. Teachers perceived the AYP as facilitating change across physical, mental, and spiritual domains. Additional research is needed to quantify and compare this change to other health promotion program outcomes.

  11. Low-Cost Mapping and Publishing Methods for Landscape Architectural Analysis and Design in Slum-Upgrading Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Rekittke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The research project “Grassroots GIS” focuses on the development of low-cost mapping and publishing methods for slums and slum-upgrading projects in Manila. In this project smartphones, collaborative mapping and 3D visualization applications are systematically employed to support landscape architectural analysis and design work in the context of urban poverty and urban informal settlements. In this paper we focus on the description of the developed methods and present preliminary results of this work-in-progress.

  12. The Power Plant Mapping Student Project: Bringing Citizen Science to Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayne, K.; Oda, T.; Gurney, K. R.; O'Keeffe, D.; Petron, G.; Tans, P. P.; Frost, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    An emission inventory (EI) is a conventional tool to quantify and monitor anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants into the atmosphere. Gridded EI can visually show geographical patterns of emissions and their changes over time. These patterns, when available, are often determined using location data collected by regional governments, industries, and researchers. Datasets such as Carbon Monitoring and Action (CARMA, www.carma.org) are particularly useful for mapping emissions from large point sources and have been widely used in the EI community. The EI community is aware of potentially significant errors in the geographical locations of point sources, including power plants. The big challenge, however, is to review tens of thousands of power plant locations around the world and correct them where needed. The Power Plant Mapping Student Project (PPMSP) is a platform designed for students in 4th through 12th grade to improve the geographical location of power plants indicated in existing datasets to benefit international EI research. In PPMSP, we use VENTUS, a web-based platform (http://ventus.project.asu.edu/) that invites citizens to contribute power plant location data. Using VENTUS, students view scenes in the vicinity of reported power plant coordinates on Google Maps. Students either verify the location of a power plant or search for it within a designated radius using various indicators, an e-guide, and a power plant photo gallery for assistance. If the power plant cannot be found, students mark the plant as unverified. To assure quality for research use, the project contains multiple checkpoints and levels of review. While participating in meaningful research that directly benefits the EI research community, students are engaged in relevant science curricula designed to meet each grade level's Next Generation Science Standards. Students study energy, climate change, the atmosphere, and geographical information systems. The curricula is

  13. Planck intermediate results: XLIV. Structure of the Galactic magnetic field from dust polarization maps of the southern Galactic cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I R; Arzoumanian, D.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the Planck satellite, we study the statistical properties of interstellar dust polarization at high Galactic latitudes around the south pole (b < −60°). Our aim is to advance the understanding of the magnetized interstellar medium (ISM), and to provide a modelling framework of the...

  14. SAT-MAP-CLIMATE project results[SATellite base bio-geophysical parameter MAPping and aggregation modelling for CLIMATE models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Hasager, C.; Woetmann Nielsen, N.; Soegaard, H.; Boegh, E.; Hesselbjerg Christensen, J.; Jensen, N.O.; Schultz Rasmussen, M.; Astrup, P.; Dellwik, E.

    2002-08-01

    Earth Observation (EO) data from imaging satellites are analysed with respect to albedo, land and sea surface temperatures, land cover types and vegetation parameters such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the leaf area index (LAI). The observed parameters are used in the DMI-HIRLAM-D05 weather prediction model in order to improve the forecasting. The effect of introducing actual sea surface temperatures from NOAA AVHHR compared to climatological mean values, shows a more pronounced land-sea breeze effect which is also observable in field observations. The albedo maps from NOAA AVHRR are rather similar to the climatological mean values so for the HIRLAM model this is insignicant, yet most likely of some importance in the HIRHAM regional climate model. Land cover type maps are assigned local roughness values determined from meteorological field observations. Only maps with a spatial resolution around 25 m can adequately map the roughness variations of the typical patch size distribution in Denmark. A roughness map covering Denmark is aggregated (ie area-average non-linearly) by a microscale aggregation model that takes the non-linear turbulent responses of each roughness step change between patches in an arbitrary pattern into account. The effective roughnesses are calculated into a 15 km by 15 km grid for the HIRLAM model. The effect of hedgerows is included as an added roughness effect as a function of hedge density mapped from a digital vector map. Introducing the new effective roughness maps into the HIRLAM model appears to remedy on the seasonal wind speed bias over land and sea in spring. A new parameterisation on the effective roughness for scalar surface fluxes is developed and tested on synthetic data. Further is a method for the estimation the evapotranspiration from albedo, surface temperatures and NDVI succesfully compared to field observations. The HIRLAM predictions of water vapour at 12 GMT are used for atmospheric correction of

  15. Coastal Mapping Program Project TX1403: RIO GRANDE RIVER TO PORT MANSFIELD, TX.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  16. Coastal Mapping Program Project TX1404; PORT MANSFIELD TO ROCKY SLOUGH, TX.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  17. Coastal Mapping Program Project FL1305: CEDAR KEY TO CLEARWATER, FL.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also supports...

  18. Coastal Mapping Program Project TX1405: ROCKY SLOUGH TO PACKERY CHANNEL, TX.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  19. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Composite Lags at z ≤ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jennifer; Shen, Yue; Horne, Keith; Brandt, W. N.; Greene, Jenny E.; Grier, C. J.; Ho, Luis C.; Kochanek, Chris; Schneider, Donald P.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena

    2017-09-01

    We present composite broad-line region (BLR) reverberation mapping lag measurements for Hα, Hβ, He II λ4686, and Mg II for a sample of 144, z ≲ 1 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project. Using only the 32-epoch spectroscopic light curves in the first six-month season of SDSS-RM observations, we compile correlation function measurements for individual objects and then coadd them to allow the measurement of the average lags for our sample at mean redshifts of 0.4 (for Hα) and ˜0.65 (for the other lines). At similar quasar luminosities and redshifts, the sample-averaged lag decreases in the order of Mg II, Hα, Hβ, and He II. This decrease in lags is accompanied by an increase in the mean line width of the four lines, and is roughly consistent with the virialized motion for BLR gas in photoionization equilibrium. These are among the first RM measurements of stratified BLR structure at z > 0.3. Dividing our sample by luminosity, Hα shows clear evidence of increasing lags with luminosity, consistent with the expectation from the measured BLR size-luminosity relation based on Hβ. The other three lines do not show a clear luminosity trend in their average lags due to the limited dynamic range of luminosity probed and the poor average correlation signals in the divided samples, a situation that will be improved with the incorporation of additional photometric and spectroscopic data from SDSS-RM. We discuss the utility and caveats of composite lag measurements for large statistical quasar samples with reverberation mapping data.

  20. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Composite Lags at z ≤ 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jennifer; Shen, Yue [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics/Astronomy, Univ. of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Kochanek, Chris [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Trump, Jonathan R. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, 2152 Hillside Road, Unit 3046, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Dawson, Kyle S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We present composite broad-line region (BLR) reverberation mapping lag measurements for H α , H β , He ii λ 4686, and Mg ii for a sample of 144, z ≲ 1 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project. Using only the 32-epoch spectroscopic light curves in the first six-month season of SDSS-RM observations, we compile correlation function measurements for individual objects and then coadd them to allow the measurement of the average lags for our sample at mean redshifts of 0.4 (for H α ) and ∼0.65 (for the other lines). At similar quasar luminosities and redshifts, the sample-averaged lag decreases in the order of Mg ii, H α , H β , and He ii. This decrease in lags is accompanied by an increase in the mean line width of the four lines, and is roughly consistent with the virialized motion for BLR gas in photoionization equilibrium. These are among the first RM measurements of stratified BLR structure at z > 0.3. Dividing our sample by luminosity, H α shows clear evidence of increasing lags with luminosity, consistent with the expectation from the measured BLR size–luminosity relation based on H β . The other three lines do not show a clear luminosity trend in their average lags due to the limited dynamic range of luminosity probed and the poor average correlation signals in the divided samples, a situation that will be improved with the incorporation of additional photometric and spectroscopic data from SDSS-RM. We discuss the utility and caveats of composite lag measurements for large statistical quasar samples with reverberation mapping data.

  1. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Composite Lags at z ≤ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jennifer; Shen, Yue; Horne, Keith; Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Greene, Jenny E.; Ho, Luis C.; Kochanek, Chris; Trump, Jonathan R.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena

    2017-01-01

    We present composite broad-line region (BLR) reverberation mapping lag measurements for H α , H β , He ii λ 4686, and Mg ii for a sample of 144, z ≲ 1 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project. Using only the 32-epoch spectroscopic light curves in the first six-month season of SDSS-RM observations, we compile correlation function measurements for individual objects and then coadd them to allow the measurement of the average lags for our sample at mean redshifts of 0.4 (for H α ) and ∼0.65 (for the other lines). At similar quasar luminosities and redshifts, the sample-averaged lag decreases in the order of Mg ii, H α , H β , and He ii. This decrease in lags is accompanied by an increase in the mean line width of the four lines, and is roughly consistent with the virialized motion for BLR gas in photoionization equilibrium. These are among the first RM measurements of stratified BLR structure at z > 0.3. Dividing our sample by luminosity, H α shows clear evidence of increasing lags with luminosity, consistent with the expectation from the measured BLR size–luminosity relation based on H β . The other three lines do not show a clear luminosity trend in their average lags due to the limited dynamic range of luminosity probed and the poor average correlation signals in the divided samples, a situation that will be improved with the incorporation of additional photometric and spectroscopic data from SDSS-RM. We discuss the utility and caveats of composite lag measurements for large statistical quasar samples with reverberation mapping data.

  2. Deep brain stimulation, brain maps and personalized medicine: lessons from the human genome project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fins, Joseph J; Shapiro, Zachary E

    2014-01-01

    Although the appellation of personalized medicine is generally attributed to advanced therapeutics in molecular medicine, deep brain stimulation (DBS) can also be so categorized. Like its medical counterpart, DBS is a highly personalized intervention that needs to be tailored to a patient's individual anatomy. And because of this, DBS like more conventional personalized medicine, can be highly specific where the object of care is an N = 1. But that is where the similarities end. Besides their differing medical and surgical provenances, these two varieties of personalized medicine have had strikingly different impacts. The molecular variant, though of a more recent vintage has thrived and is experiencing explosive growth, while DBS still struggles to find a sustainable therapeutic niche. Despite its promise, and success as a vetted treatment for drug resistant Parkinson's Disease, DBS has lagged in broadening its development, often encountering regulatory hurdles and financial barriers necessary to mount an adequate number of quality trials. In this paper we will consider why DBS-or better yet neuromodulation-has encountered these challenges and contrast this experience with the more successful advance of personalized medicine. We will suggest that personalized medicine and DBS's differential performance can be explained as a matter of timing and complexity. We believe that DBS has struggled because it has been a journey of scientific exploration conducted without a map. In contrast to molecular personalized medicine which followed the mapping of the human genome and the Human Genome Project, DBS preceded plans for the mapping of the human brain. We believe that this sequence has given personalized medicine a distinct advantage and that the fullest potential of DBS will be realized both as a cartographical or electrophysiological probe and as a modality of personalized medicine.

  3. How does sustainability certification affect the design process? Mapping final design projects at an architectural office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landgren, Mathilde; Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard

    2017-01-01

    process and informing the industry of them. This has led to optimised design processes such as Integrated Energy Design, in which many decisions related to energy consumption and indoor climate are made in the early design stages. The current tendency is to use an expanded notion of sustainability......, derived from the sustainability certification system itself, and to apply it even in the early design process. This perspective emphasises all phases of the life cycle of a building. The goal of the present study was to map how a Danish architectural office approached sustainability in the projects......The context of the study is the very strict regulation of energy consumption for operating buildings in Denmark. It is difficult to meet the requirements by system optimisation in the final design phase, so recent research has focused on ways of meeting the target by adapting the whole design...

  4. Mapping remodeling of thalamocortical projections in the living reeler mouse brain by diffusion tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsan, Laura-Adela; Dávid, Csaba; Reisert, Marco; Schnell, Susanne; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Staiger, Jochen F.

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in neuroscience is to accurately decipher in vivo the entire brain circuitry (connectome) at a microscopic level. Currently, the only methodology providing a global noninvasive window into structural brain connectivity is diffusion tractography. The extent to which the reconstructed pathways reflect realistic neuronal networks depends, however, on data acquisition and postprocessing factors. Through a unique combination of approaches, we designed and evaluated herein a framework for reliable fiber tracking and mapping of the living mouse brain connectome. One important wiring scheme, connecting gray matter regions and passing fiber-crossing areas, was closely examined: the lemniscal thalamocortical (TC) pathway. We quantitatively validated the TC projections inferred from in vivo tractography with correlative histological axonal tracing in the same wild-type and reeler mutant mice. We demonstrated noninvasively that changes in patterning of the cortical sheet, such as highly disorganized cortical lamination in reeler, led to spectacular compensatory remodeling of the TC pathway. PMID:23610438

  5. Simplified fringe order correction for absolute phase maps recovered with multiple-spatial-frequency fringe projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Lu, Lei; Zhong, Kai; Zhu, Ziqi

    2017-01-01

    Various kinds of fringe order errors may occur in the absolute phase maps recovered with multi-spatial-frequency fringe projections. In existing methods, multiple successive pixels corrupted by fringe order errors are detected and corrected pixel-by-pixel with repeating searches, which is inefficient for applications. To improve the efficiency of multiple successive fringe order corrections, in this paper we propose a method to simplify the error detection and correction by the stepwise increasing property of fringe order. In the proposed method, the numbers of pixels in each step are estimated to find the possible true fringe order values, repeating the search in detecting multiple successive errors can be avoided for efficient error correction. The effectiveness of our proposed method is validated by experimental results. (paper)

  6. The Africa Yoga Project and Well-Being: A Concept Map of Students' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambrone, Carla A; Cook-Cottone, Catherine P; Klein, Jessalyn E

    2018-03-01

    Concept mapping methodology was used to explore the perceived impact of practicing yoga with the Africa Yoga Project (AYP)-an organisation created to increase health and well-being by providing community-based yoga classes throughout Kenya. AYP's mission fit with theoretical models of well-being is discussed. Anecdotal evidence and initial qualitative research suggested the AYP meaningfully impacted adult students. Of the hundreds of AYP's adult students, 56 and 82 students participated in Phases I and II, respectively. Phase I brainstorming resulted in 94 student-generated statements about their perceived change. Phase II participants sorted and rated statements in terms of importance. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis of sort data was utilised to map and group statements into clusters. Based on statistical and interpretive criteria, a five-cluster solution with the following concepts was identified as the best model of students' change: Personal Growth; Interpersonal Effectiveness (lowest importance); Physical and Social Benefits; Emotional Resiliency; and Improved Self-Concept (highest importance). Overall, students reported positive perceptions of the AYP. Additional research is needed to quantify students' change, and to compare the AYP outcomes to those of other programs aimed at poverty-related stress reduction and well-being. © 2018 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  7. Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Roberts, Barry L.; Passell, Howard D.; Jensen, Daniel; Forsgren, Christopher; Sehlke, Gerald; Cook, Margaret A.; King, Carey W.; Larsen, Sara

    2014-05-01

    New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

  8. APPLICABILITY OF A STRATEGIC MAP UNDER THE PERSPECTIVE OF CRITICAL FACTORS FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY AT A LARGE FINANCIAL INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Darcy da Silva Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Project Management and Strategic Management are two subjects of major relevance within the corporate environment, despite usually being treated separately, at organizations. However, for Westphal et al. (2008 one of the ways to link project management and strategy is through project management maturity, and to this effect, a series of actions that can be characterized as critical factors (Rabechini Jr. & Pessoa, 2005 are required. Another way of seeking this connection is by means of the strategic map concept which, according to Kaplan and Norton (2004, p.10, “represents the lost link between strategy formulation and the execution of the strategy”. In this study the purpose is to evaluate the applicability of a strategic map, from a critical factors perspective, on project management maturity, as proposed by Silva Jr. and Luciano (2010. Thus a qualitative and exploratory approach case study was conducted at a large financial institution, where three interview scripts were applied on nine professionals, whereby three were leaders, three were project managers and three, functional managers. Furthermore, a graphical representation standard was designed picturing possible situations concerning the applicability of strategic objectives of the map proposed in the case under study. As a result, an important academic contribution to the vague and scarce literature on the relationship between project management and organizational strategy was verified, in addition to mapping possibilities of improvements for the organization, which otherwise might have been impossible to identify.

  9. The Global Trachoma Mapping Project: Methodology of a 34-Country Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Anthony W.; Pavluck, Alexandre L.; Courtright, Paul; Aboe, Agatha; Adamu, Liknaw; Alemayehu, Wondu; Alemu, Menbere; Alexander, Neal D. E.; Kello, Amir Bedri; Bero, Berhanu; Brooker, Simon J.; Chu, Brian K.; Dejene, Michael; Emerson, Paul M.; Flueckiger, Rebecca M.; Gadisa, Solomon; Gass, Katherine; Gebre, Teshome; Habtamu, Zelalem; Harvey, Erik; Haslam, Dominic; King, Jonathan D.; Mesurier, Richard Le; Lewallen, Susan; Lietman, Thomas M.; MacArthur, Chad; Mariotti, Silvio P.; Massey, Anna; Mathieu, Els; Mekasha, Addis; Millar, Tom; Mpyet, Caleb; Muñoz, Beatriz E.; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Ogden, Stephanie; Pearce, Joseph; Sarah, Virginia; Sisay, Alemayehu; Smith, Jennifer L.; Taylor, Hugh R.; Thomson, Jo; West, Sheila K.; Willis, Rebecca; Bush, Simon; Haddad, Danny; Foster, Allen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To complete the baseline trachoma map worldwide by conducting population-based surveys in an estimated 1238 suspected endemic districts of 34 countries. Methods: A series of national and sub-national projects owned, managed and staffed by ministries of health, conduct house-to-house cluster random sample surveys in evaluation units, which generally correspond to “health district” size: populations of 100,000–250,000 people. In each evaluation unit, we invite all residents aged 1 year and older from h households in each of c clusters to be examined for clinical signs of trachoma, where h is the number of households that can be seen by 1 team in 1 day, and the product h × c is calculated to facilitate recruitment of 1019 children aged 1–9 years. In addition to individual-level demographic and clinical data, household-level water, sanitation and hygiene data are entered into the purpose-built LINKS application on Android smartphones, transmitted to the Cloud, and cleaned, analyzed and ministry-of-health-approved via a secure web-based portal. The main outcome measures are the evaluation unit-level prevalence of follicular trachoma in children aged 1–9 years, prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis in adults aged 15 + years, percentage of households using safe methods for disposal of human feces, and percentage of households with proximate access to water for personal hygiene purposes. Results: In the first year of fieldwork, 347 field teams commenced work in 21 projects in 7 countries. Conclusion: With an approach that is innovative in design and scale, we aim to complete baseline mapping of trachoma throughout the world in 2015. PMID:26158580

  10. The Making of a Tsunami Hazard Map: Lessons Learned from the TSUMAPS-NEAM Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, R.

    2017-12-01

    Following the worldwide surge of awareness toward tsunami hazard and risk in the last decade, Europe has promoted a better understanding of the tsunami phenomenon through research projects (e.g. TRANSFER, ASTARTE) and started programs for preventing the tsunami impact along the coastlines of the North-East Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and connected Seas (NEAM) region (e.g. the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System, NEAMTWS, coordinated by IOC/UNESCO). An indispensable tool toward long-term coastal planning and an effective design and subsequent use of TWS is the availability of a comprehensive Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA). The TSUMAPS-NEAM project took the pledge of producing the first region-wide long-term homogenous PTHA map from earthquake sources. The hazard assessment was built upon state-of-the-art procedures and standards, enriched by some rather innovative/experimental approaches such as: (1) the statistical treatment of potential seismic sources, combining all the available information (seismicity, moment tensors, tectonics), and considering earthquakes occurring on major crustal faults and subduction interfaces; (2) an intensive computational approach to tsunami generation and linear propagation across the sea up to an offshore fixed depth; (3) the use of approximations for shoaling and inundation, based on local bathymetry, and for tidal stages; and (4) the exploration of several alternatives for the basic input data and their parameters which produces a number of models that are treated through an ensemble uncertainty quantification. This presentation will summarize the TSUMAPS-NEAM project goals, implementation, and achieved results, as well as the humps and bumps we run into during its development. The TSUMAPS-NEAM Project (http://www.tsumaps-neam.eu/) is co-financed by the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism, Agreement Number: ECHO/SUB/2015/718568/PREV26.

  11. Mapping microscopic order in plant and mammalian cells and tissues: novel differential polarization attachment for new generation confocal microscopes (DP-LSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, G.; Pawlak, K.; Pomozi, I.; Tóth, E. A.; Molnár, A.; Matkó, J.; Garab, G.

    2014-03-01

    Elucidation of the molecular architecture of complex, highly organized molecular macro-assemblies is an important, basic task for biology. Differential polarization (DP) measurements, such as linear (LD) and circular dichroism (CD) or the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission (r), which can be carried out in a dichrograph or spectrofluorimeter, respectively, carry unique, spatially averaged information about the molecular organization of the sample. For inhomogeneous samples—e.g. cells and tissues—measurements on macroscopic scale are not satisfactory, and in some cases not feasible, thus microscopic techniques must be applied. The microscopic DP-imaging technique, when based on confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM), allows the pixel by pixel mapping of anisotropy of a sample in 2D and 3D. The first DP-LSM configuration, which, in fluorescence mode, allowed confocal imaging of different DP quantities in real-time, without interfering with the ‘conventional’ imaging, was built on a Zeiss LSM410. It was demonstrated to be capable of determining non-confocally the linear birefringence (LB) or LD of a sample and, confocally, its FDLD (fluorescence detected LD), the degree of polarization (P) and the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission (r), following polarized and non-polarized excitation, respectively (Steinbach et al 2009 Acta Histochem.111 316-25). This DP-LSM configuration, however, cannot simply be adopted to new generation microscopes with considerably more compact structures. As shown here, for an Olympus FV500, we designed an easy-to-install DP attachment to determine LB, LD, FDLD and r, in new-generation confocal microscopes, which, in principle, can be complemented with a P-imaging unit, but specifically to the brand and type of LSM.

  12. Mapping microscopic order in plant and mammalian cells and tissues: novel differential polarization attachment for new generation confocal microscopes (DP-LSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, G; Pawlak, K; Garab, G; Pomozi, I; Tóth, E A; Molnár, A; Matkó, J

    2014-01-01

    Elucidation of the molecular architecture of complex, highly organized molecular macro-assemblies is an important, basic task for biology. Differential polarization (DP) measurements, such as linear (LD) and circular dichroism (CD) or the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission (r), which can be carried out in a dichrograph or spectrofluorimeter, respectively, carry unique, spatially averaged information about the molecular organization of the sample. For inhomogeneous samples—e.g. cells and tissues—measurements on macroscopic scale are not satisfactory, and in some cases not feasible, thus microscopic techniques must be applied. The microscopic DP-imaging technique, when based on confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM), allows the pixel by pixel mapping of anisotropy of a sample in 2D and 3D. The first DP-LSM configuration, which, in fluorescence mode, allowed confocal imaging of different DP quantities in real-time, without interfering with the ‘conventional’ imaging, was built on a Zeiss LSM410. It was demonstrated to be capable of determining non-confocally the linear birefringence (LB) or LD of a sample and, confocally, its FDLD (fluorescence detected LD), the degree of polarization (P) and the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission (r), following polarized and non-polarized excitation, respectively (Steinbach et al 2009 Acta Histochem.111 316–25). This DP-LSM configuration, however, cannot simply be adopted to new generation microscopes with considerably more compact structures. As shown here, for an Olympus FV500, we designed an easy-to-install DP attachment to determine LB, LD, FDLD and r, in new-generation confocal microscopes, which, in principle, can be complemented with a P-imaging unit, but specifically to the brand and type of LSM. (paper)

  13. Mapping of the atomic hydrogen density in combustion processes at atmospheric pressure by two-photon polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiger, A.; Gruetzmacher, K.; Steiger, M.; Gonzalo, A.B.; Rosa, M.I. de la

    2001-01-01

    With laser spectroscopic techniques used so far, quantitative measurements of atomic number densities in flames and other combustion processes at atmospheric pressure yield no satisfying results because high quenching rates remarkably reduce the signal size and the results suffer from large uncertainties. Whereas, two-photon polarization spectroscopy is not limited by quenching, as the polarization signal is a direct measure of the two-photon absorption. This sensitive laser technique with high spatial and temporal resolution has been applied to determine absolute number densities and the kinetic temperatures of atomic hydrogen in flames for the first time. The great potential of this method of measurement comes into its own only in conjunction with laser radiation of highest possible spectral quality, i.e. single-frequency ns-pulses with peak irradiance of up to 1 GW/cm 2 tunable around 243 nm for 1S-2S two-photon transition of atomic hydrogen

  14. Polarized Raman anisotropic response of collagen in tendon: towards 3D orientation mapping of collagen in tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Galvis

    Full Text Available In this study, polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS was used to characterize the anisotropic response of the amide I band of collagen as a basis for evaluating three-dimensional collagen fibril orientation in tissues. Firstly, the response was investigated theoretically by applying classical Raman theory to collagen-like peptide crystal structures. The theoretical methodology was then tested experimentally, by measuring amide I intensity anisotropy in rat tail as a function of the orientation of the incident laser polarization. For the theoretical study, several collagen-like triple-helical peptide crystal structures obtained from the Protein Data Bank were rotated "in plane" and "out of plane" to evaluate the role of molecular orientation on the intensity of the amide I band. Collagen-like peptides exhibit a sinusoidal anisotropic response when rotated "in plane" with respect to the polarized incident laser. Maximal intensity was obtained when the polarization of the incident light is perpendicular to the molecule and minimal when parallel. In the case of "out of plane" rotation of the molecular structure a decreased anisotropic response was observed, becoming completely isotropic when the structure was perpendicular to the plane of observation. The theoretical Raman response of collagen was compared to that of alpha helical protein fragments. In contrast to collagen, alpha helices have a maximal signal when incident light is parallel to the molecule and minimal when perpendicular. For out-of-plane molecular orientations alpha-helix structures display a decreased average intensity. Results obtained from experiments on rat tail tendon are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions, thus demonstrating the high potential of PRS for experimental evaluation of the three-dimensional orientation of collagen fibers in biological tissues.

  15. Software project management tools in global software development: a systematic mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadli, Saad Yasser; Idri, Ali; Ros, Joaquín Nicolás; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; de Gea, Juan M Carrillo; Toval, Ambrosio

    2016-01-01

    Global software development (GSD) which is a growing trend in the software industry is characterized by a highly distributed environment. Performing software project management (SPM) in such conditions implies the need to overcome new limitations resulting from cultural, temporal and geographic separation. The aim of this research is to discover and classify the various tools mentioned in literature that provide GSD project managers with support and to identify in what way they support group interaction. A systematic mapping study has been performed by means of automatic searches in five sources. We have then synthesized the data extracted and presented the results of this study. A total of 102 tools were identified as being used in SPM activities in GSD. We have classified these tools, according to the software life cycle process on which they focus and how they support the 3C collaboration model (communication, coordination and cooperation). The majority of the tools found are standalone tools (77%). A small number of platforms (8%) also offer a set of interacting tools that cover the software development lifecycle. Results also indicate that SPM areas in GSD are not adequately supported by corresponding tools and deserve more attention from tool builders.

  16. Prevalence of incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging: Cuban project to map the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Gonzalez, Gertrudis de los Angeles; Alvarez Sanchez, Marilet; Jordan Gonzalez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of incidental findings in healthy subjects of the Cuban Human Brain Mapping Project sample, it was performed a retrospective descriptive study of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained from 394 healthy subjects that make up the sample of the project, between 2006-2007, with an age range of 18 to 68 years (mean 33,12), of which 269 (68,27 %) are male and 125 (31,73 %) are women. It was shown that 40,36 % had one or more anomaly in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In total, the number of incidental findings was 188, 23,6 % of which were brain findings and 24,11 % were non-brain findings, among the latter, were the sinusopathy with 20,81 % and maxillary polyps with 3,30 %. The most prevalent brain findings were: intrasellar arachnoidocele, 11,93 %, followed by the prominence of the pituitary gland, 5,84 %, ventricular asymmetry, 1,77 % and bone defects, 1,02 %. Other brain abnormalities found with very low prevalence had no pathological significance, except for two cases with brain tumor, which were immediately sent to a specialist. Incidental findings in MRI are common in the general population (40,36 %), being the sinusopathy, and intrasellar arachnoidocele the most common findings. Asymptomatic individuals who have any type of structural abnormality provide invaluable information on the prevalence of these abnormalities in a presumably healthy population, which may be used as references for epidemiological studies

  17. Bouncing continents: insights into the physics of the polar regions of the Earth from the POLENET project in the International Polar Year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reading, Anya M

    2008-01-01

    When ice sheets melt, and reduce the load on the surface of the Earth, the land areas beneath them bounce back up. New, accurate observations are needed to investigate this uplift and its implications effectively. This article provides a topical starting point for investigating some applications of physics applied to the polar regions of the Earth, and interaction between the solid Earth, ice and oceans

  18. Rescuing and Sharing Historical Vegetation Data for Ecological Analysis: The California Vegetation Type Mapping Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggi Kelly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Research efforts that synthesize historical and contemporary ecological data with modeling approaches improve our understanding of the complex response of species, communities, and landscapes to changing biophysical conditions through time and in space. Historical ecological data are particularly important in this respect. There are remaining barriers that limit such data synthesis, and technological improvements that make multiple diverse datasets more readily available for integration and synthesis are needed. This paper presents one case study of the Wieslander Vegetation Type Mapping project in California and highlights the importance of rescuing, digitizing and sharing historical datasets. We review the varied ecological uses of the historical collection: the vegetation maps have been used to understand legacies of land use change and plan for the future; the plot data have been used to examine changes to chaparral and forest communities around the state and to predict community structure and shifts under a changing climate; the photographs have been used to understand changing vegetation structure; and the voucher specimens in combination with other specimen collections have been used for large scale distribution modeling efforts. The digitization and sharing of the data via the web has broadened the scope and scale of the types of analysis performed. Yet, additional research avenues can be pursued using multiple types of VTM data, and by linking VTM data with contemporary data. The digital VTM collection is an example of a data infrastructure that expands the potential of large scale research through the integration and synthesis of data drawn from numerous data sources; its journey from analog to digital is a cautionary tale of the importance of finding historical data, digitizing it with best practices, linking it with other datasets, and sharing it with the research community.

  19. DATA QUALIFICATION REPORT: DATA QUALIFICATION REPORT FOR 1991 1:1200 TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS FOR USE ON THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knop, M.F.; Grant, T.A.; Bonisolli, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    This Data Qualification Report (DQR) is prepared in accordance with the provisions of AP-SIII.2Q, Rev. 0, ICN 3, Qualification of Unqualified Data and the Documentation of Rationale for Accepted Data and Data Qualification Plan for 1991 Topographic Maps 1:1200 Scale for use on the Yucca Mountain Project, DQP-WHS-CI-000001, Rev. 00 (BSC 2002a). This DQR presents an evaluation of a set of 90 topographic sheets at 1:1200 scale (and an associated electronic file) that covers an approximate 18 square mile area surrounding the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository surface facilities location in Midway Valley, Nevada. These maps, that require qualification, are now being used to determine the physical characteristics of watershed sub-areas, interconnecting channels, and drainage channel cross-sections for hydrologic engineering studies of the north portal pad and vicinity. The result of this effort is to qualify one data tracking number (DTN) containing the electronic version of the mapping data. This DTN is: M09906COV98462.000. Coverage: TOP02FTS. The underlying quality assurance (QA) issue associated with these topographic maps is that the maps were originally designated as not for use in the design of items important to safety, waste isolation, and/or of programmatic importance. The maps were therefore generated outside the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) QA program. Based on a comparison with corroborating information, this report concludes that the topographic maps are qualified. The comparison found that the mapping was reasonably accurate when compared with other mapping and survey data within the coverage area of the maps. Relative map accuracy was found to be very good and suitable for the hydrologic engineering studies being considered. Absolute accuracy is good but could not be demonstrated to comply with national map accuracy standards. Point locations that require high absolute accuracy should be

  20. Mapping the above and belowground biomass in three landscapes in Cameroon, Rwanda and DRC: pilot cases in REDD+ pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufo Kankeu, R.

    2017-12-01

    A number of biomass/carbon maps have been recently produced using different approaches and despite their comparison there is still a gap. To fill this gap there is a need to provide accurate maps based on the field data on all types of land use and land cover. Based on the field data from plots established in three pilot projects around Virunga National park in Rwanda, Tri-national Sangha landscape in Cameroon and lac Télé-Lac Tumba landscape in DRC, this paper intend to analyse the relationship between land use change and biomass and present the variability through biomass/carbon maps. The above and belowground biomass was calculated from 95 nested plots of 20 meters radius. The value of biomass/carbon per plot were thus used to elaborate carbon maps of each study site. In the same the way the correlation between the land use and underground and above ground carbon stock were analysed using geographically weighted regression. These data have been joint with classified Spot 5 image and aggregated to come out will acceptable result. Results show that there is a strong relationship between land use in various project sites and the carbon stock related, the change of a forest cover directly impact on carbon stock/biomass.in the same way carbon map realized base on field data and IDW, Kriging or spline module show an idea on the carbon distribution but the maps are not accurate giving the distance between plots,

  1. Mapping of Polar Areas Based on High-Resolution Satellite Images: The Example of the Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczyński, Zdzisław; Różycki, Sebastian; Bylina, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    To produce orthophotomaps or digital elevation models, the most commonly used method is photogrammetric measurement. However, the use of aerial images is not easy in polar regions for logistical reasons. In these areas, remote sensing data acquired from satellite systems is much more useful. This paper presents the basic technical requirements of different products which can be obtain (in particular orthoimages and digital elevation model (DEM)) using Very-High-Resolution Satellite (VHRS) images. The study area was situated in the vicinity of the Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station on the Western Shore of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Western Antarctic. Image processing was applied on two triplets of images acquired by the Pléiades 1A and 1B in March 2013. The results of the generation of orthoimages from the Pléiades systems without control points showed that the proposed method can achieve Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of 3-9 m. The presented Pléiades images are useful for thematic remote sensing analysis and processing of measurements. Using satellite images to produce remote sensing products for polar regions is highly beneficial and reliable and compares well with more expensive airborne photographs or field surveys.

  2. Mapping compound cosmic telescopes containing multiple projected cluster-scale halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, S. Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Physics Division L-210, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Wong, Kenneth C. [EACOA Fellow, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), Taipei 10641, Taiwan (China); Zabludoff, Ann I. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Keeton, Charles R., E-mail: ammons1@llnl.gov, E-mail: kwong@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: aiz@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: keeton@physics.rutgers.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Lines of sight with multiple projected cluster-scale gravitational lenses have high total masses and complex lens plane interactions that can boost the area of magnification, or étendue, making detection of faint background sources more likely than elsewhere. To identify these new 'compound' cosmic telescopes, we have found directions in the sky with the highest integrated mass densities, as traced by the projected concentrations of luminous red galaxies (LRGs). We use new galaxy spectroscopy to derive preliminary magnification maps for two such lines of sight with total mass exceeding ∼3 × 10{sup 15} M {sub ☉}. From 1151 MMT Hectospec spectra of galaxies down to i {sub AB} = 21.2, we identify two to three group- and cluster-scale halos in each beam. These are well traced by LRGs. The majority of the mass in beam J085007.6+360428 (0850) is contributed by Zwicky 1953, a massive cluster at z = 0.3774, whereas beam J130657.5+463219 (1306) is composed of three halos with virial masses of 6 × 10{sup 14}-2 × 10{sup 15} M {sub ☉}, one of which is A1682. The magnification maps derived from our mass models based on spectroscopy and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry alone display substantial étendue: the 68% confidence bands on the lens plane area with magnification exceeding 10 for a source plane of z{sub s} = 10 are [1.2, 3.8] arcmin{sup 2} for 0850 and [2.3, 6.7] arcmin{sup 2} for 1306. In deep Subaru Suprime-Cam imaging of beam 0850, we serendipitously discover a candidate multiply imaged V-dropout source at z {sub phot} = 5.03. The location of the candidate multiply imaged arcs is consistent with the critical curves for a source plane of z = 5.03 predicted by our mass model. Incorporating the position of the candidate multiply imaged galaxy as a constraint on the critical curve location in 0850 narrows the 68% confidence band on the lens plane area with μ > 10 and z{sub s} = 10 to [1.8, 4.2] arcmin{sup 2}, an étendue range comparable to that of

  3. An Ultra-Wideband, Microwave Radar for Measuring Snow Thickness on Sea Ice and Mapping Near-Surface Internal Layers in Polar Firn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Ben; Gomez-Garcia, Daniel; Leuschen, Carl; Paden, John; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Patel, Azsa; Markus, Thorsten; Holt, Benjamin; Gogineni, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice is generally covered with snow, which can vary in thickness from a few centimeters to >1 m. Snow cover acts as a thermal insulator modulating the heat exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, and it impacts sea-ice growth rates and overall thickness, a key indicator of climate change in polar regions. Snow depth is required to estimate sea-ice thickness using freeboard measurements made with satellite altimeters. The snow cover also acts as a mechanical load that depresses ice freeboard (snow and ice above sea level). Freeboard depression can result in flooding of the snow/ice interface and the formation of a thick slush layer, particularly in the Antarctic sea-ice cover. The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an ultra-wideband, microwave radar capable of operation on long-endurance aircraft to characterize the thickness of snow over sea ice. The low-power, 100mW signal is swept from 2 to 8GHz allowing the air/snow and snow/ ice interfaces to be mapped with 5 c range resolution in snow; this is an improvement over the original system that worked from 2 to 6.5 GHz. From 2009 to 2012, CReSIS successfully operated the radar on the NASA P-3B and DC-8 aircraft to collect data on snow-covered sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic for NASA Operation IceBridge. The radar was found capable of snow depth retrievals ranging from 10cm to >1 m. We also demonstrated that this radar can be used to map near-surface internal layers in polar firn with fine range resolution. Here we describe the instrument design, characteristics and performance of the radar.

  4. Coupling X-band dual-polarized mini-radars and hydro-meteorological forecast models: the HYDRORAD project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Picciotti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-meteorological hazards like convective outbreaks leading to torrential rain and floods are among the most critical environmental issues world-wide. In that context weather radar observations have proven to be very useful in providing information on the spatial distribution of rainfall that can support early warning of floods. However, quantitative precipitation estimation by radar is subjected to many limitations and uncertainties. The use of dual-polarization at high frequency (i.e. X-band has proven particularly useful for mitigating some of the limitation of operational systems, by exploiting the benefit of easiness to transport and deploy and the high spatial and temporal resolution achievable at small antenna sizes. New developments on X-band dual-polarization technology in recent years have received the interest of scientific and operational communities in these systems. New enterprises are focusing on the advancement of cost-efficient mini-radar network technology, based on high-frequency (mainly X-band and low-power weather radar systems for weather monitoring and hydro-meteorological forecasting. Within the above context, the main objective of the HYDRORAD project was the development of an innovative mbox{integrated} decision support tool for weather monitoring and hydro-meteorological applications. The integrated system tool is based on a polarimetric X-band mini-radar network which is the core of the decision support tool, a novel radar products generator and a hydro-meteorological forecast modelling system that ingests mini-radar rainfall products to forecast precipitation and floods. The radar products generator includes algorithms for attenuation correction, hydrometeor classification, a vertical profile reflectivity correction, a new polarimetric rainfall estimators developed for mini-radar observations, and short-term nowcasting of convective cells. The hydro-meteorological modelling system includes the Mesoscale Model 5

  5. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  6. Experimental research of the NN scattering with polarized particles at the VdG accelerator of Charles University. Project 'NN interactions'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, N.S.; Broz, J.; Cerny, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to study three-nucleon interactions using 14-16 MeV polarized neutron beam in conjunction with polarized deuteron target. Spin-dependent total cross-section differences Δρ L and Δρ T will be measured in the energy range, where there are no experimental data, with sufficient accuracy to check the contribution of the three-nucleon forces. In the test run, the obtained deuteron vector polarizations were P - = (- 39.5 ± 2)% and P + = (32.9 ± 2)%. The proposed experiment is the continuation of the preceding measurements of the same quantities in the np scattering at the Van de Graaff accelerator of Charles University

  7. Two Gonostomatid Ciliates from the Soil of Lombardia, Italy; including Note on the Soil Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Daizy; Kumar, Santosh; La Terza, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    Two gonostomatid ciliates, Gonostomum paronense n. sp. and G. strenuum, isolated from the soil sample of paddy field, Lombardia, Italy, were investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation. Gonostomum paronense n. sp. is mainly characterized by a tailed body, frontoventral cirri arranged in pairs, and presence of pretransverse and transverse cirri. Morphologically and morphometrically, the new species is similar to Gonostomum namibiense in having a tailed body and frontoventral cirral pairs; however, it differs mainly in the number of frontoventral cirral pairs (seven vs. three). Phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU rDNA sequences show that the new species is more closely related to G. namibiense than to G. strenuum, supporting the morphological classification based on the cirral pattern and the tailed body. However, due to the poor nodal support and absence of gene sequence of the type species Gonostomum, a more robust phylogeny of this group still remains unresolved. The biometric data of the Italian population of Gonostomum strenuum overlap with those from other known populations. Both species were collected from the industrial area of Parona, in the framework of the "Soil Mapping, Lombardia" project in which, for the first time in Italy, soil ciliates were used as bioindicators of soil quality. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  8. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: RAPID C iv BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Schneider, D. P.; Hall, P. B.; Shen, Yue; Vivek, M.; Dawson, K. S.; Ak, N. Filiz; Chen, Yuguang; Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, B. M.; Green, Paul J.; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D.; Pâris, I.; Tao, Charling; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Bizyaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity C iv broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4σ) variability in the equivalent width (EW) of the broad (∼4000 km s −1 wide) C iv trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (∼29 hr), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The EW varied by ∼10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability places a lower limit on the density of the absorbing gas of n e ≳ 3.9 × 10 5 cm −3 . The broad absorption line variability characteristics of this quasar are consistent with those observed in previous studies of quasars, indicating that such short-term variability may in fact be common and thus can be used to learn about outflow characteristics and contributions to quasar/host-galaxy feedback scenarios

  9. Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP): visualize project-level information for U.S. funded research in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, A.; Cody, R. P.; Barba, M.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Score, R.; Dover, M.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Habermann, T.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP; http://armap.org/) is a suite of online applications and data services that support Arctic science by providing project tracking information (who's doing what, when and where in the region) for United States Government funded projects. In collaboration with 17 research agencies, project locations are displayed in a visually enhanced web mapping application. Key information about each project is presented along with links to web pages that provide additional information. The mapping application includes new reference data layers and an updated ship tracks layer. Visual enhancements are achieved by redeveloping the front-end from FLEX to HTML5 and JavaScript, which now provide access to mobile users utilizing tablets and cell phone devices. New tools have been added that allow users to navigate, select, draw, measure, print, use a time slider, and more. Other module additions include a back-end Apache SOLR search platform that provides users with the capability to perform advance searches throughout the ARMAP database. Furthermore, a new query builder interface has been developed in order to provide more intuitive controls to generate complex queries. These improvements have been made to increase awareness of projects funded by numerous entities in the Arctic, enhance coordination for logistics support, help identify geographic gaps in research efforts and potentially foster more collaboration amongst researchers working in the region. Additionally, ARMAP can be used to demonstrate past, present, and future research efforts supported by the U.S. Government.

  10. Comparison of resting β-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and thallium-201 tomography using quantitative polar maps in patients with unstable angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Akio; Takada, Yasuo; Nagasaka, Makoto; Kato, Rinya; Watanabe, Toshiya; Shimokata, Keiko; Yasui, Shoji

    1997-01-01

    We compared resting β-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) tomography with resting thallium-201 tomography in 28 patients with unstable angina. Tracer distribution was displayed on a polar map and compared with a normal standard deviation map obtained from a group of 12 normal subjects. The extent scores and severity scores obtained by BMIPP were significantly greater than those obtained by thallium-201. Confirmation by coronary angiography revealed the sensitivity of the methods in identifying patients to be 89% for BMIPP and 54% for thallium-201. There were significant differences between BMIPP and thallium-201 in the sensitivities of detecting postischemic jeopardized myocardium in the area supplied by the right coronary artery (RCA; 53% vs 18%, p<0.05), left circumflex artery (LCX; 78% vs 39%, p<0.025) and all 3 vessels combined (71% vs 35%, p<0.001) but no significant differences in specificity (RCA: 82% vs 64%; LCX: 70% vs 90%; and total 3 vessels combined: 75% vs 79%). In conclusion, resting BMIPP tomography is more sensitive than resting thallium-201 tomography in detecting postischemic myocardial damage in patients with unstable angina. (author)

  11. Specific issues, exact locations: case study of a community mapping project to improve safety in a disadvantaged community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qummouh, Rana; Rose, Vanessa; Hall, Pat

    2012-12-01

    Safety is a health issue and a significant concern in disadvantaged communities. This paper describes an example of community-initiated action to address perceptions of fear and safety in a suburb in south-west Sydney which led to the development of a local, community-driven research project. As a first step in developing community capacity to take action on issues of safety, a joint resident-agency group implemented a community safety mapping project to identify the extent of safety issues in the community and their exact geographical location. Two aerial maps of the suburb, measuring one metre by two metres, were placed on display at different locations for four months. Residents used coloured stickers to identify specific issues and exact locations where crime and safety were a concern. Residents identified 294 specific safety issues in the suburb, 41.9% (n=123) associated with public infrastructure, such as poor lighting and pathways, and 31.9% (n=94) associated with drug-related issues such as drug activity and discarded syringes. Good health promotion practice reflects community need. In a very practical sense, this project responded to community calls for action by mapping resident knowledge on specific safety issues and exact locations and presenting these maps to local decision makers for further action.

  12. Disseminated Museum Displays and Participation of Students from Underrepresented Populations in Polar Research: Education and Outreach for Joint Projects in GPS and Seismology Solid Earth Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Wilson, T. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Johns, B.; Anderson, K.; Taber, J.

    2006-12-01

    Two Antarctic projects developed by solid earth scientists in the GPS and seismology communities have rich education and outreach activities focused on disseminating information gleaned from this research and on including students from underrepresented groups. Members of the UNAVCO and IRIS research consortia along with international partners from Australia, Canada, Chile, Germany, Italy, New Zealand and the U.K. aim to deploy an ambitious GPS/seismic network to observe the Antarctic glaciological and geologic system using a multidisciplinary and internationally coordinated approach. The second project supports this network. UNAVCO and IRIS are designing and building a reliable power and communication system for autonomous polar station operation which use the latest power and communication technologies for ease of deployment and reliable multi-year operation in severe polar environments. This project will disseminate research results through an IPY/POLENET web-based museum style display based on the next-generation "Museum Lite" capability primarily supported by IRIS. "Museum Lite" uses a standard PC, touch-screen monitor, and standard Internet browsers to exploit the scalability and access of the Internet and to provide customizable content in an interactive setting. The unit is suitable for research departments, public schools, and an assortment of public venues, and can provide wide access to real-time geophysical data, ongoing research, and general information. The POLENET group will work with members of the two consortia to provide content about the project and polar science in general. One unit is to be installed at Barrow's Ilisagvit College through the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium, one at McMurdo Station in Antarctica, and two at other sites to be determined (likely in New Zealand/Australia and in the U.S.). In January, 2006, Museum Lite exhibit was installed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Evaluation of this prototype is underway. These

  13. The Irma-sponge Project Frhymap: Flood Risk and Hydrological Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, L.; Pfister, L.

    In the context of both increasing socio-economic developments in floodplains and the recent heavy floodings that have occurred in the Rhine and Meuse basins, the need for reliable hydro-climatological data, easily transposable hydrological and hydraulic models, as well as risk management tools has increased crucially. In the FRHYMAP project, some of these issues were addressed within a common mesoscale experimen- tal basin: the Alzette river basin, located in the Grand-duchy of Luxembourg. The various aspects concerning flooding events, reaching from the hydro-climatological analysis of field data to the risk assessment of socio-economic impacts, taking into account past and future climate and landuse changes were analysed by the six partici- pating research institutes (CREBS, L; CEREG, F; DLR, D; EPFL, CH; UB, D; VUB, B). Hydro-climatological data analysis over the past five decades has shown that in the study area, the increase in westerly and south-westerly atmospheric circulation patterns induced higher winter rainfall totals, leading to more frequent groundwater resurgences and ultimately also to higher daily maximum streamflow of the Alzette. The thus increased flood hazard has nonetheless a certain spatial variability, closely linked to the rainfall distribution patterns, which are strongly depending on the topo- graphical characteristics of the study area. Although the overall regime of the Alzette is more dependent on climate fluctuations, land use changes (mining activities, urbani- sation) had a marked effect on the rainfall-runoff relationship in some sub-basins over the last decades. By linking model parameters to physiographical basin characteris- tics, regionalised and thus easily transposable hydrological models were developed. Within a study area with very little long-term observation series, this technique, com- bined with the use of hydraulic models, allowed to define hydrological hazard pro- ducing and hydrological risk exposed areas. The

  14. Memory Space / Time Lived in Representation to Mental Maps: The Case of School Project "our neighborhood, our place"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinei Pereira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The representations and memory of living space are essential to developing mental maps and cartographic documents. In this regard this investigation as a primary objective to understand how mind maps can contribute pedagogically classes in Geography and History as well, breaking the dichotomy space / time. From the point of view of theoretical and methodological the research relied on the analysis of the school project “Our Neighborhood, Our Place” developed at the Municipal School “Vereador Hamilton Teodoro” in Governador Valadares (MG, along with a group of 7th grades from elementary school and the articulation of authors who discuss the concepts of representation, memory, space and place.

  15. Polarized Neutron Diffraction as a Tool for Mapping Molecular Magnetic Anisotropy: Local Susceptibility Tensors in Co(II) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridier, Karl; Gillon, Béatrice; Gukasov, Arsen; Chaboussant, Grégory; Cousson, Alain; Luneau, Dominique; Borta, Ana; Jacquot, Jean-François; Checa, Ruben; Chiba, Yukako; Sakiyama, Hiroshi; Mikuriya, Masahiro

    2016-01-11

    Polarized neutron diffraction (PND) experiments were carried out at low temperature to characterize with high precision the local magnetic anisotropy in two paramagnetic high-spin cobalt(II) complexes, namely [Co(II) (dmf)6 ](BPh4 )2 (1) and [Co(II) 2 (sym-hmp)2 ](BPh4 )2 (2), in which dmf=N,N-dimethylformamide; sym-hmp=2,6-bis[(2-hydroxyethyl)methylaminomethyl]-4-methylphenolate, and BPh4 (-) =tetraphenylborate. This allowed a unique and direct determination of the local magnetic susceptibility tensor on each individual Co(II) site. In compound 1, this approach reveals the correlation between the single-ion easy magnetization direction and a trigonal elongation axis of the Co(II) coordination octahedron. In exchange-coupled dimer 2, the determination of the individual Co(II) magnetic susceptibility tensors provides a clear outlook of how the local magnetic properties on both Co(II) sites deviate from the single-ion behavior because of antiferromagnetic exchange coupling. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Application of Open Source Software by the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, P.; Goodale, C. E.; Bui, B.; Chang, G.; Kim, R. M.; Law, E.; Malhotra, S.; Rodriguez, L.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Crichton, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP), led by the Marshall Space Flight center (MSFC), is responsible for the development of an information system to support lunar exploration, decision analysis, and release of lunar data to the public. The data available through the lunar portal is predominantly derived from present lunar missions (e.g., the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)) and from historical missions (e.g., Apollo). This project has created a gold source of data, models, and tools for lunar explorers to exercise and incorporate into their activities. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we focused on engineering and building the infrastructure to support cataloging, archiving, accessing, and delivery of lunar data. We decided to use a RESTful service-oriented architecture to enable us to abstract from the underlying technology choices and focus on interfaces to be used internally and externally. This decision allowed us to leverage several open source software components and integrate them by either writing a thin REST service layer or relying on the API they provided; the approach chosen was dependent on the targeted consumer of a given interface. We will discuss our varying experience using open source products; namely Apache OODT, Oracle Berkley DB XML, Apache Solr, and Oracle OpenSSO (now named OpenAM). Apache OODT, developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and recently migrated over to Apache, provided the means for ingestion and cataloguing of products within the infrastructure. Its usage was based upon team experience with the project and past benefit received on other projects internal and external to JPL. Berkeley DB XML, distributed by Oracle for both commercial and open source use, was the storage technology chosen for our metadata. This decision was in part based on our use Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata, which is expressed in XML, and the desire to keep it in its native form and exploit other technologies built on

  17. High Resolution Mineral Mapping of the Oman Drilling Project Cores with Imaging Spectroscopy: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, R. N.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Kelemen, P. B.; Manning, C. E.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Harris, M.; Michibayashi, K.; Takazawa, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Oman Drilling Project provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the formation and alteration of oceanic crust and peridotite. Key to answering the main questions of the project are a characterization of the primary and secondary minerals present within the drill core and their spatial relationships. To that end, we used the Caltech imaging spectrometer system to scan the entire 1.5-km archive half of the core from all four gabbro and listvenite boreholes (GT1A, GT2A, GT3A, and BT1B) at 250 µm/pixel aboard the JAMSTEC Drilling Vessel Chikyu during the ChikyuOman core description campaign. The instrument measures the visible and shortwave infrared reflectance spectra of the rocks as a function of wavelength from 0.4 to 2.6 µm. This wavelength range is sensitive to many mineral groups, including hydrated minerals (phyllosilicates, zeolites, amorphous silica polytypes), carbonates, sulfates, and transition metals, most commonly iron-bearing mineralogies. To complete the measurements, the core was illuminated with a halogen light source and moved below the spectrometer at 1 cm/s by the Chikyu's Geotek track. Data are corrected and processed to reflectance using measurements of dark current and a spectralon calibration panel. The data provide a unique view of the mineralogy at high spatial resolution. Analysis of the images for complete downhole trends is ongoing. Thus far, a variety of minerals have been identified within their petrologic contexts, including but not limited to magnesite, dolomite, calcite, quartz (through an Si-OH absorption due to minor H2O), serpentine, chlorite, epidote, zeolites, mica (fuchsite), kaolinite, prehnite, gypsum, amphibole, and iron oxides. Further analysis will likely identify more minerals. Results include rapidly distinguishing the cations present within carbonate minerals and identifying minerals of volumetrically-low abundance within the matrix and veins of core samples. This technique, for example, accurately identifies

  18. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: RAPID C iv BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Vivek, M.; Dawson, K. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Ak, N. Filiz [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Chen, Yuguang [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, B. M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Green, Paul J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jiang, Linhua [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); McGreer, Ian D. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Pâris, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Tao, Charling [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS /IN2P3, 163, avenue de Luminy, Case 902, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: grier@psu.edu [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2015-06-10

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity C iv broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4σ) variability in the equivalent width (EW) of the broad (∼4000 km s{sup −1} wide) C iv trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (∼29 hr), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The EW varied by ∼10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability places a lower limit on the density of the absorbing gas of n{sub e} ≳ 3.9 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}. The broad absorption line variability characteristics of this quasar are consistent with those observed in previous studies of quasars, indicating that such short-term variability may in fact be common and thus can be used to learn about outflow characteristics and contributions to quasar/host-galaxy feedback scenarios.

  19. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Land-Water-Ecosystem Quality in Polar and Mountainous Regions: A New Interregional Project (INT5153)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dercon, Gerd [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, IAEA, Seibersdorf (Austria); Gerardo-Abaya, Jane [Division for Asia and the Pacific Section 2, Department of Technical Cooperation, IAEA, Vienna (Austria); Mavlyudov, Bulat [Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2014-07-15

    The INT5153 project aims to improve the understanding of the impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems on both a local and global scale for their better management and conservation. Seven core and five related benchmark sites have been selected from different global regions for specific assessments of the impact of climate change with the following expected outcomes and outputs: Outcomes: • Improved understanding of the impact of climate change on the cryosphere in polar and mountainous ecosystems and its effects on landwater- ecosystem quality at both local and global scales. • Recommendations for improvement of regional policies for soil and agricultural water management, conservation, and environmental protection in polar and mountainous regions. Outputs: • Specific strategies to minimize the adverse effects of, and adapt to, reduced seasonal snow and glacier covered areas on land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountain regions across the world. • Enhanced interregional network of laboratories and institutions competent in the assessment of climate change impacts on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality, using isotopic and nuclear techniques. • Increased number of young scientists trained in the use of isotope and nuclear techniques to assess the impact of climate change on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountainous ecosystems. • Platform/database with global access for continuing work and monitoring of impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems at local and global scales, as well as for communicating findings to policy makers and communities. • Improved understanding of the effects of climate change disseminated through appropriate publications, policy briefs, and through a dedicated internet platform. • Methodologies and protocols for investigations in specific ecosystems and conservation/adaptation measures for agriculture areas.

  20. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Land-Water-Ecosystem Quality in Polar and Mountainous Regions: A New Interregional Project (INT5153)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercon, Gerd; Gerardo-Abaya, Jane; Mavlyudov, Bulat

    2014-01-01

    The INT5153 project aims to improve the understanding of the impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems on both a local and global scale for their better management and conservation. Seven core and five related benchmark sites have been selected from different global regions for specific assessments of the impact of climate change with the following expected outcomes and outputs: Outcomes: • Improved understanding of the impact of climate change on the cryosphere in polar and mountainous ecosystems and its effects on landwater- ecosystem quality at both local and global scales. • Recommendations for improvement of regional policies for soil and agricultural water management, conservation, and environmental protection in polar and mountainous regions. Outputs: • Specific strategies to minimize the adverse effects of, and adapt to, reduced seasonal snow and glacier covered areas on land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountain regions across the world. • Enhanced interregional network of laboratories and institutions competent in the assessment of climate change impacts on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality, using isotopic and nuclear techniques. • Increased number of young scientists trained in the use of isotope and nuclear techniques to assess the impact of climate change on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountainous ecosystems. • Platform/database with global access for continuing work and monitoring of impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems at local and global scales, as well as for communicating findings to policy makers and communities. • Improved understanding of the effects of climate change disseminated through appropriate publications, policy briefs, and through a dedicated internet platform. • Methodologies and protocols for investigations in specific ecosystems and conservation/adaptation measures for agriculture areas

  1. Direct mapping of the angle-dependent barrier to reaction for Cl + CHD3 using polarized scattering data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huilin; Wang, Fengyan; Czakó, Gábor; Liu, Kopin

    2017-12-01

    The transition state, which gates and modulates reactive flux, serves as the central concept in our understanding of activated reactions. The barrier height of the transition state can be estimated from the activation energy taken from thermal kinetics data or from the energetic threshold in the measured excitation function (the dependence of reaction cross-sections on initial collision energies). However, another critical and equally important property, the angle-dependent barrier to reaction, has not yet been amenable to experimental determination until now. Here, using the benchmark reaction of Cl + CHD3(v1 = 1) as an example, we show how to map this anisotropic property of the transition state as a function of collision energy from the preferred reactant bond alignment of the backward-scattered products—the imprints of small impact-parameter collisions. The deduced bend potential at the transition state agrees with ab initio calculations. We expect that the method should be applicable to many other direct reactions with a collinear barrier.

  2. Terrain Correction on the moving equal area cylindrical map projection of the surface of a reference ellipsoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A.; Safari, A.; Grafarend, E.

    2003-04-01

    An operational algorithm for computing the ellipsoidal terrain correction based on application of closed form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates in the cylindrical equal area map projected surface of a reference ellipsoid has been developed. As the first step the mapping of the points on the surface of a reference ellipsoid onto the cylindrical equal area map projection of a cylinder tangent to a point on the surface of reference ellipsoid closely studied and the map projection formulas are computed. Ellipsoidal mass elements with various sizes on the surface of the reference ellipsoid is considered and the gravitational potential and the vector of gravitational intensity of these mass elements has been computed via the solution of Newton integral in terms of ellipsoidal coordinates. The geographical cross section areas of the selected ellipsoidal mass elements are transferred into cylindrical equal area map projection and based on the transformed area elements Cartesian mass elements with the same height as that of the ellipsoidal mass elements are constructed. Using the close form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates the potential of the Cartesian mass elements are computed and compared with the same results based on the application of the ellipsoidal Newton integral over the ellipsoidal mass elements. The results of the numerical computations show that difference between computed gravitational potential of the ellipsoidal mass elements and Cartesian mass element in the cylindrical equal area map projection is of the order of 1.6 × 10-8m^2/s^2 for a mass element with the cross section size of 10 km × 10 km and the height of 1000 m. For a 1 km × 1 km mass element with the same height, this difference is less than 1.5 × 10-4 m^2}/s^2. The results of the numerical computations indicate that a new method for computing the terrain correction based on the closed form solution of the Newton integral in

  3. Retrospective Conversion of Solar Data Printed in "Synoptic Maps of the Solar Chromosphere": A Scientific and Librarianship Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenceau, A.; Aboudarham, J.; Renié, C.

    2015-04-01

    Between 1928 and 2003, the Observatoire de Paris published solar activity maps and their corresponding data tables, first in the Annals of the Meudon Observatory, then in the Synoptic Maps of the Solar Chromosphere. These maps represent the main solar structures in a single view and spread out on a complete Carrington rotation as well as tables of associated data, containing various information on these structures such as positions, length, morphological characteristics, and behavior. Since 2003, these maps and data tables have not been released in print, as they are only published on the online BASS2000 database, the solar database maintained by LESIA (Laboratory for space studies and astrophysical instruments). In order to make the first 80 years of observations which were available only in paper accessible and usable, the LESIA and the Library of the Observatory have started a project to digitize the publications, enter the data with the assistance of a specialized company, and then migrate the files obtained in BASS2000 and in the Heliophysics Features Catalog created in the framework of the European project HELIO.

  4. Validation of projective mapping as potential sensory screening tool for application by the honeybush herbal tea industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moelich, Erika Ilette; Muller, Magdalena; Joubert, Elizabeth; Næs, Tormod; Kidd, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Honeybush herbal tea is produced from the endemic South African Cyclopia species. Plant material subjected to a high-temperature oxidation step ("fermentation") forms the bulk of production. Production lags behind demand forcing tea merchants to use blends of available material to supply local and international markets. The distinct differences in the sensory profiles of the herbal tea produced from the different Cyclopia species require that special care is given to blending to ensure a consistent, high quality product. Although conventional descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) is highly effective in providing a detailed sensory profile of herbal tea infusions, industry requires a method that is more time- and cost-effective. Recent advances in sensory science have led to the development of rapid profiling methodologies. The question is whether projective mapping can successfully be used for the sensory characterisation of herbal tea infusions. Trained assessors performed global and partial projective mapping to determine the validity of this technique for the sensory characterisation of infusions of five Cyclopia species. Similar product configurations were obtained when comparing results of DSA and global and partial projective mapping. Comparison of replicate sessions showed RV coefficients >0.8. A similarity index, based on multifactor analysis, was calculated to determine assessor repeatability. Global projective mapping, demonstrated to be a valid method for providing a broad sensory characterisation of Cyclopia species, is thus suitable as a rapid quality control method of honeybush infusions. Its application by the honeybush industry could improve the consistency of the sensory profile of blended products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Earthquake Scenarios Based Upon the Data and Methodologies of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukstales, K. S.; Petersen, M. D.; Frankel, A. D.; Harmsen, S. C.; Wald, D. J.; Quitoriano, V. R.; Haller, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project (NSHMP) utilizes a database of over 500 faults across the conterminous United States to constrain earthquake source models for probabilistic seismic hazard maps. Additionally, the fault database is now being used to produce a suite of deterministic ground motions for earthquake scenarios that are based on the same fault source parameters and empirical ground motion prediction equations used for the probabilistic hazard maps. Unlike the calculated hazard map ground motions, local soil amplification is applied to the scenario calculations based on the best available Vs30 (average shear-wave velocity down to 30 meters) mapping, or in some cases using topographic slope as a proxy. Systematic outputs include all standard USGS ShakeMap products, including GIS, KML, XML, and HAZUS input files. These data are available from the ShakeMap web pages with a searchable archive. The scenarios are being produced within the framework of a geographic information system (GIS) so that alternative scenarios can readily be produced by altering fault source parameters, Vs30 soil amplification, as well as the weighting of ground motion prediction equations used in the calculations. The alternative scenarios can then be used for sensitivity analysis studies to better characterize uncertainty in the source model and convey this information to decision makers. By providing a comprehensive collection of earthquake scenarios based upon the established data and methods of the USGS NSHMP, we hope to provide a well-documented source of data which can be used for visualization, planning, mitigation, loss estimation, and research purposes.

  6. The World Spatiotemporal Analytics and Mapping Project (WSTAMP): Discovering, Exploring, and Mapping Spatiotemporal Patterns Across Heterogenous Space-Time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, A.; Stewart, R.; Held, E.; Piburn, J.; Allen, M. R.; McManamay, R.; Sanyal, J.; Sorokine, A.; Bhaduri, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Spatiotemporal (ST) analytics applied to major spatio-temporal data sources from major vendors such as USGS, NOAA, World Bank and World Health Organization have tremendous value in shedding light on the evolution of physical, cultural, and geopolitical landscapes on a local and global level. Especially powerful is the integration of these physical and cultural datasets across multiple and disparate formats, facilitating new interdisciplinary analytics and insights. Realizing this potential first requires an ST data model that addresses challenges in properly merging data from multiple authors, with evolving ontological perspectives, semantical differences, changing attributes, and content that is textual, numeric, categorical, and hierarchical. Equally challenging is the development of analytical and visualization approaches that provide a serious exploration of this integrated data while remaining accessible to practitioners with varied backgrounds. The WSTAMP project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has yielded two major results in addressing these challenges: 1) development of the WSTAMP database, a significant advance in ST data modeling that integrates 16000+ attributes covering 200+ countries for over 50 years from over 30 major sources and 2) a novel online ST exploratory and analysis tool providing an array of modern statistical and visualization techniques for analyzing these data temporally, spatially, and spatiotemporally under a standard analytic workflow. We report on these advances, provide an illustrative case study, and inform how others may freely access the tool.

  7. Estimation of Bridge Height over Water from Polarimetric SAR Image Data Using Mapping and Projection Algorithm and De-Orientation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haipeng; Xu, Feng; Jin, Ya-Qiu; Ouchi, Kazuo

    An inversion method of bridge height over water by polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is developed. A geometric ray description to illustrate scattering mechanism of a bridge over water surface is identified by polarimetric image analysis. Using the mapping and projecting algorithm, a polarimetric SAR image of a bridge model is first simulated and shows that scattering from a bridge over water can be identified by three strip lines corresponding to single-, double-, and triple-order scattering, respectively. A set of polarimetric parameters based on the de-orientation theory is applied to analysis of three types scattering, and the thinning-clustering algorithm and Hough transform are then employed to locate the image positions of these strip lines. These lines are used to invert the bridge height. Fully polarimetric image data of airborne Pi-SAR at X-band are applied to inversion of the height and width of the Naruto Bridge in Japan. Based on the same principle, this approach is also applicable to spaceborne ALOSPALSAR single-polarization data of the Eastern Ocean Bridge in China. The results show good feasibility to realize the bridge height inversion.

  8. Ellipsoidal terrain correction based on multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection of the reference ellipsoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A. A.; Safari, A.

    2004-09-01

    An operational algorithm for computation of terrain correction (or local gravity field modeling) based on application of closed-form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates in multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection of the reference ellipsoid is presented. Multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection of the reference ellipsoid has been derived and is described in detail for the first time. Ellipsoidal mass elements with various sizes on the surface of the reference ellipsoid are selected and the gravitational potential and vector of gravitational intensity (i.e. gravitational acceleration) of the mass elements are computed via numerical solution of the Newton integral in terms of geodetic coordinates {λ,ϕ,h}. Four base- edge points of the ellipsoidal mass elements are transformed into a multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection surface to build Cartesian mass elements by associating the height of the corresponding ellipsoidal mass elements to the transformed area elements. Using the closed-form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates, the gravitational potential and vector of gravitational intensity of the transformed Cartesian mass elements are computed and compared with those of the numerical solution of the Newton integral for the ellipsoidal mass elements in terms of geodetic coordinates. Numerical tests indicate that the difference between the two computations, i.e. numerical solution of the Newton integral for ellipsoidal mass elements in terms of geodetic coordinates and closed-form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates, in a multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection, is less than 1.6×10-8 m2/s2 for a mass element with a cross section area of 10×10 m and a height of 10,000 m. For a mass element with a cross section area of 1×1 km and a height of 10,000 m the difference is less than 1.5×10-4m2/s2. Since 1.5× 10-4 m2/s2 is equivalent to 1.5×10-5m in the vertical

  9. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project FL1415: APALACHICOLA RIVER (MOUTH) TO SAUL CREEK, FL.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  10. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project FL1421: ST JOHNS RIVER, FL.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  11. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project WA1406: OLYMPIA, WA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  12. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project WA1405: STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA, WA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  13. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project FL1414: VENICE INLET - ICW, FL.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  14. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project WA1002: PUDGET SOUND - WHIDBEY ISLAND, WA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  15. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project OR1210: CAPE PERPETUA TO CLATSOP SPIT, OR.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  16. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: Coral Reef Habitat Mapping Projects in 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps are a critical cornerstone of coral reef management, research and planning, with direct links to management needs in a number of forms. To accurately...

  17. Automated georeference of the 1: 20,000 Romanian maps under Lambert-Cholesky (1916-1959) projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, I.; Balint, C.; Craciunescu, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Ovejanu, I.; Bartos-Elekes, Zs.

    2009-04-01

    Before the 1918 Union, the Romanian territories were subject of several dominations, for which reason the cartographic data base for each Romanian province was different from an area to another. Starting from the second half of the 19th century, Valachia, Moldavia and Dobrogea (Dacia Pontica or Scitia Minor) field mapping was made, implicitly cartographic representations, different as structure. The projection systems used, the chosen geoid, the nomenclature and the distribution of the map pages were not uniform. For an example, the Bessel ellipsoid and the Cassini cross cylindrical projection were used especially to the eastern side of the Zimnicea central meridian (23 degree east from Paris), while to its western side the Bonne conic equivalent projection was used, as defined on the Clarke ellipsoid (Năstase, 1975, pages 86-87). In the other Romanian provinces, such as Transylvania, Romanian Banat, Bessarabia (Moldavia Republic) and Southern Bucovina, the major part of the cartographic products (surface contour maps) were made as polyhedral projections. During the World War I, when artillery was a redoubtable weapon a necessary idea was born to articulate an unitary cartographic projection concerning the entire Romanian territory, which should respond to the principle of conformity. Between 1916-1917, pursuant to the above argumented measure, a new datum/location surface, a new projection system and a new nomenclature were introduced. The Lambert projection system was used as modified by the French land surveyor, the mathematician and officer Andre Louis Cholensky. He was born in 1875 in Mont Guyon and passed away on the battle field in Northern France in the month of August 1918. During September 1916 up to February 1918, following the Franco-Romanian military convention, he was a Commander of the Geographic Department of the Romanian Army (Brezinsky-Gross-Cholensky, 1996). The calculations for passing from the various projections (as previously mentioned

  18. Polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The book on 'polarized neutrons' is intended to inform researchers in condensed matter physics and chemistry of the diversity of scientific problems that can be investigated using polarized neutron beams. The contents include chapters on:- neutron polarizers and instrumentation, polarized neutron scattering, neutron polarization analysis experiments and precessing neutron polarization. (U.K.)

  19. A regional land use survey based on remote sensing and other data: A report on a LANDSAT and computer mapping project, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nez, G. (Principal Investigator); Mutter, D.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The project mapped land use/cover classifications from LANDSAT computer compatible tape data and combined those results with other multisource data via computer mapping/compositing techniques to analyze various land use planning/natural resource management problems. Data were analyzed on 1:24,000 scale maps at 1.1 acre resolution. LANDSAT analysis software and linkages with other computer mapping software were developed. Significant results were also achieved in training, communication, and identification of needs for developing the LANDSAT/computer mapping technologies into operational tools for use by decision makers.

  20. Polarization Decay Fit for Assured Cathodic Protection of Steel Structures: Final Report on Project F12-AR03

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    other technical reports published by ERDC, visit the ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. DoD Corrosion Prevention and...vii Unit Conversion Factors...structure. Therefore, polarization data can erroneously show increases or decreases in decay rates purely due to passing rain storms or the

  1. Implementation of forest cover and carbon mapping in the Greater Mekong subregion and Malaysia project - A case study of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pungkul, S.; Suraswasdi, C.; Phonekeo, V.

    2014-02-01

    The Great Mekong Subregion (GMS) contains one of the world's largest tropical forests and plays a vital role in sustainable development and provides a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, the forest in this Subregion is experiencing deforestation rates at high level due to human activities. The reduction of the forest area has negative influence to the environmental and natural resources issues, particularly, more severe disasters have occurred due to global warming and the release of the greenhouse gases. Therefore, in order to conduct forest management in the Subregion efficiently, the Forest Cover and Carbon Mapping in Greater Mekong Subregion and Malaysia project was initialized by the Asia-Pacific Network for Sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation (APFNet) with the collaboration of various research institutions including Institute of Forest Resource Information Technique (IFRIT), Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF) and the countries in Sub region and Malaysia comprises of Cambodia, the People's Republic of China (Yunnan province and Guangxi province), Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The main target of the project is to apply the intensive use of recent satellite remote sensing technology, establishing regional forest cover maps, documenting forest change processes and estimating carbon storage in the GMS and Malaysia. In this paper, the authors present the implementation of the project in Thailand and demonstrate the result of forest cover mapping in the whole country in 2005 and 2010. The result of the project will contribute towards developing efficient tools to support decision makers to clearly understand the dynamic change of the forest cover which could benefit sustainable forest resource management in Thailand and the whole Subregion.

  2. A semester-long soil mapping project for an undergraduate pedology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David J.

    2015-04-01

    Most students taking a pedology course will never work as soil mappers. But many will use soil maps at some point in their careers. At Montana State University, students spent 3 "lab" hours a week, complementing two lectures a week, in the field learning how to study soils literally from the ground up. The only prerequisites for enrollment were completion of an introductory soil science class and 3rd year standing at the university. The area to be mapped, just a km from campus, included a steep mountain backslope, and a complex footslope-toeslope area with diverse soils. Students were divided into teams of 3-4, with approximately 40 students altogether split over two sections that overlapped in the field by one hour. In the first lab session, groups completed a very basic description of just one soil profile. In subsequent weeks, they rotated through multiple pits excavated in a small area, and expanded their soil profile descriptions and interpretations. As students developed proficiency, they were assigned more dispersed locations to study, working for the most part independently as I hiked between pits. Throughout this process, every pit was geolocated using a GPS unit, and every profile description was copied and retained in a designated class file. Student groups delineated map units using stereo air photography, then used these delineations to guide the selection of their final locations to describe. At the end of the course, groups used all of the combined and georeferenced profile descriptions to construct a soil map of the study area complete with map unit descriptions. Most students struggled to make sense of the substantial variability within their map units, but through this struggle -- and their semester of field work -- they gained an appreciation for the value and limitations of a soil map that could not be obtained from even the most entertaining lecture. Both the class and particularly the field sessions received consistently high student reviews

  3. Consumers' perceptions toward 3 different fermented dairy products: Insights from focus groups, word association, and projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmerino, Erick A; Ferraz, Juliana P; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Pinto, Letícia P F; Freitas, Mônica Q; Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2017-11-01

    Yogurts, fermented milk beverages, and fermented milks have great similarity and are widely accepted by Brazilian population, but the factors that influence their choice and consumption are unknown. In this sense, the present study aimed to identify the main aspects involved in consumers' perception of 3 different products, comparing the findings by using the 2 fast qualitative methods, word association and projective mapping, and a standard method, focus group. The tasks were performed by different participants through graphic stimuli (word association and projective mapping) and focus interviews (focus group). Results showed that all the 3 methodologies identified numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the consumer choices regarding fermented dairy products. Major dimensions were closely related to the sensory aspects, emotional factors, perception of benefits, and composition, among others. It is noteworthy that the stimuli related to fermented milk beverages evoked rejecting responses, possibly due to the dissociation between information and consumers' expectation. Although minor differences were observed between the number and type of dimensions that were obtained, similar conclusions can be drawn from all 3 sensory methods, which shows the relevance of qualitative and projective methods for investigation of consumers' perception. These findings can help dairy companies to provide subsidies and guidelines for the reformulation of their products, marketing strategies, and improvement in the communication between producers and consumers from different fermented dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. TESTING TREE-CLASSIFIER VARIANTS AND ALTERNATE MODELING METHODOLOGIES IN THE EAST GREAT BASIN MAPPING UNIT OF THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT (SW REGAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested two methods for dataset generation and model construction, and three tree-classifier variants to identify the most parsimonious and thematically accurate mapping methodology for the SW ReGAP project. Competing methodologies were tested in the East Great Basin mapping un...

  5. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  6. A VAX/VMS mapped section/virtual memory utility package: Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarrington, L.

    1990-02-01

    A VAX/VMS Mapped Section/Virtual Memory Utility Package is a collection of FORTRAN subprograms that allocate virtual memory and, optionally, map that memory to a file. The subprograms use VMS system services and run-time libraries for allocating and mapping memory; therefore, the utility package is system dependent and functional on that platform only. FORTRAN-77 is one of the most widely used languages for computer programming. Languages have been developed in the past few decades that provide more powerful tools than FORTRAN and overcome some of its limitations. Two limitations addressed by this paper which have been a source of frustration to many programmers are that (1) FORTRAN does not provide dynamic array allocation and (2) FORTRAN file input-output is very slow. The solutions presented here are for the VAX/VMS operating system and use system services that are not part of the standard FORTRAN language description. Also discussed in this paper are dynamic array allocation, mapped sections of the program memory, and support modules. 3 refs

  7. The SAURON project - VI. Line strength maps of 48 elliptical and lenticular galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Emsellem, Eric; Bacon, R.; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc

    2006-01-01

    We present absorption line strength maps of 48 representative elliptical and lenticular galaxies obtained as part of a survey of nearby galaxies using our custom-built integral-field spectrograph, SAURON, operating on the William Herschel Telescope. Using high-quality spectra, spatially binned to a

  8. Thinking Maps in Writing Project in English for Taiwanese Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu Shu

    2016-01-01

    Thinking Maps is a language of eight visual patterns, each based on a fundamental thought process, designed by Dr. David N. Hyerle. The visual patterns are based on cognitive skills and applied in all content areas. Not only are they used in different combinations for depth and complexity, but are also used by all members in the school community.…

  9. Creating a Road Map for 21st Century Geography Education: Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Daniel C.; Wertheim, Jill A.; Schell, Emily M.; Shavelson, Richard; Bednarz, Sarah; Heffron, Susan; Roth, Kathy; Dobson, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The National Geographic Society, the Association of American Geographers, the American Geographical Society, and the National Council for Geographic Education partnered to outline a "road map" for long-term strategies to improve K-12 geography education. The partner organizations assembled three committees to create synthesis reports, each of…

  10. Predicting and Mapping Potential Whooping Crane Stopover Habitat to Guide Site Selection for Wind Energy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migration is one of the most poorly understood components of a bird’s life cycle. For that reason, migratory stopover habitats are often not part of conservation planning and may be overlooked when planning new development projects. This project highlights and addresses an overl...

  11. SACRIFICING THE ECOLOGICAL RESOLUTION OF VEGETATION MAPS AT THE ALTAR OF THEMATIC ACCURACY: ASSESSED MAP ACCURACIES FOR HIERARCHICAL VEGETATION CLASSIFICATIONS IN THE EASTERN GREAT BASIN OF THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT (SW REGAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SW ReGAP) improves upon previous GAP projects conducted in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah to provide a consistent, seamless vegetation map for this large and ecologically diverse geographic region. Nevada's compone...

  12. Projective mapping with food stickers: A good tool for better understanding perception of fish in children of different ages

    OpenAIRE

    Daltoe, Marina Mitterer; Breda, Leandra Schuastz; Belusso, A.C.; Nogueira, Barbara Arruda; Rodrigues, Deyse Pegorini; Fiszman, Susana; Varela, Paula

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the perception of fish products among school children of three different age groups, 5–6 years, 7–8 years and 9–0 years. In order to do so, we used Projective Mapping (PM) with food stickers and a word association task (WA). A total of 149 children from three public schools in the state of Parana, Brazil, have participated on this study. The age groups were interviewed (on 1–1 basis) by six monitors qualified to apply the sensory methods us...

  13. Map of projects of energy efficiency and of renewable energies by the AFD and FFEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, Claude; Ries, Alain

    2008-04-01

    The AFD (the French Agency for Development) and the FFEM (French Fund for World Environment) are involved in cooperation and partnership projects for the development of energy efficiency, notably, but not only, in developing and emerging countries. This report proposes a review and an analysis of these projects in terms of concerned sectors, interveners, type of financing, and geographical area. It also comments and discusses the evolutions of financial commitments. In a second part, and based on these experiences, the report highlights the starting conditions for projects in energy efficiency. These conditions are distinguished in terms of national context, of economic conditions, of financing, of technical capacities, and of environmental and social factors

  14. Region 9 Tribal Grant Program - Project Officer and Tribal Contact Information Map Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    This compilation of geospatial data is for the purpose of managing and communicating information about current EPA project officers, tribal contacts, and tribal grants, both internally and with external stakeholders.

  15. Preliminary mapping of surficial geology of Midway Valley Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Swan, F.H.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M.; Gibson, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    The tectonics program for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada must evaluate the potential for surface faulting beneath the prospective surface facilities. To help meet this goal, Quaternary surficial mapping studies and photolineament analyses were conducted to provide data for evaluating the location, recency, and style of faulting with Midway Valley at the eastern base of Yucca Mountain, the preferred location of these surface facilities. This interim report presents the preliminary results of this work

  16. Organization of spinocerebellar projection map in three types of agranular cerebellum: Purkinje cells vs. granule cells as organizer element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenio Nunes, M.L.; Sotelo, C.; Wehrle, R.

    1988-01-01

    The organization of the spinocerebellar projection was analysed by the anterograde axonal WGA-HRP (horseradish peroxidase-wheat germ agglutinin conjugate) tracing method in three different types of agranular cerebellar cortex either induced experimentally by X-irradiation or occurring spontaneously in weaver (wv/wv) and staggerer (sg/sg) mutant mice. The results of this study show that in the X-irradiated rat and weaver mouse, in both of which the granule cells are directly affected and die early in development, the spinal axons reproduce, with few differences, the normal spinocerebellar pattern. Conversely, in staggerer mouse, in which the Purkinje cells are intrinsically affected and granule neurons do not seem to be primarily perturbed by the staggerer gene action, the spinocerebellar organization is severely modified. These findings appear somewhat paradoxical because if granule cells, the synaptic targets of mossy spinocerebellar fibers, were necessary for the organization of spinocerebellar projection, the staggerer cerebellum would exhibit a much more normal projectional map than the weaver and the X-irradiated cerebella. It is, therefore, obvious that granule cells, and even specific synaptogenesis, are not essential for the establishment of the normal spinocerebellar topography. On the other hand, the fact that the Purkinje cells are primarily affected in the unique agranular cortex in which the spinocerebellar organization is severely modified suggests that these neurons could be the main element in the organization of the spinocerebellar projection map. This hypothesis is discussed in correlation with already-reported findings on the zonation of the cerebellar cortex by biochemically different clusters of Purkinje cells

  17. Developing Dual Polarization Applications For 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) New Weather Radar: A Cooperative Project With The National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, W.P.; Peterson, W.A.; Carey, L.D.; Deierling, W.; McNamara, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar includes dual polarization capability, which has not been available to 45 WS previously. The 45 WS has teamed with NSSTC with funding from NASA Marshall Spaceflight Flight Center to improve their use of this new dual polarization capability when it is implemented operationally. The project goals include developing a temperature profile adaptive scan strategy, developing training materials, and developing forecast techniques and tools using dual polarization products. The temperature profile adaptive scan strategy will provide the scan angles that provide the optimal compromise between volume scan rate, vertical resolution, phenomena detection, data quality, and reduced cone-of-silence for the 45 WS mission. The mission requirements include outstanding detection of low level boundaries for thunderstorm prediction, excellent vertical resolution in the atmosphere electrification layer between 0 C and -20 C for lightning forecasting and Lightning Launch Commit Criteria evaluation, good detection of anvil clouds for Lightning Launch Commit Criteria evaluation, reduced cone-of-silence, fast volume scans, and many samples per pulse for good data quality. The training materials will emphasize the appropriate applications most important to the 45 WS mission. These include forecasting the onset and cessation of lightning, forecasting convective winds, and hopefully the inference of electrical fields in clouds. The training materials will focus on annotated radar imagery based on products available to the 45 WS. Other examples will include time sequenced radar products without annotation to simulate radar operations. This will reinforce the forecast concepts and also allow testing of the forecasters. The new dual polarization techniques and tools will focus on

  18. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey, San Angelo National Topographic Map: Texas, West Texas Project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Angelo National Topographic Map NH14-1 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included

  19. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Evansville National Topographic Map, Indiana and Kentucky, southeast US Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Evansville National Topographic Map NJ16-8 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  20. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Winchester National topographic map, Kentucky. Southeast US project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Winchester National Topographic Map NJ16-9 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  1. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Woodward National Topographic Map, Oklahoma, West Texas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Woodward National Topographic Map NJ14-11 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  2. Using Intervention Mapping for a Needs Assessment on Preconception Care in Suriname: The Perisur Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.E.; Korfker, D.G.; Detmar, S.B.; Hindori, M.P.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Vondeling, H.; Hindori-Mohangoo, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Every year approximately 10,000 babies are born in Suriname of which an estimated 400 die in the perinatal period. The main purpose of the Perisur project is to improve perinatal outcomes and improve under-five and maternal health. This study focused on introducing preconception care in

  3. Contribution of Earth Observation data to flood risk mapping in the framework of the NATO SFP 'TIGRU' Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancalie, Gheorghe; Alecu, Corina; Craciunescul, Vasile; Diamandi, Andrei; Oancea, Simona; Brakenridge, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    An important contribution of Earth Observation (EO) derived information in the topic of managing flooding connected phenomena could, be envisaged at the level of mapping aspects. EO satellites can provide necessary information for flood hazard and vulnerability assessment and mapping, which are directly used in the decision-making process. The EO data-derived information of the land cover/land use is important because it makes possible periodical updating and comparisons, and thus contribute to characterize the human presence and to provide elements on the vulnerability aspects, as well as the evaluation of the impact of the flooding. In order to obtain high-level thematic products the data extracted from the EO images must be integrated with other non-space ancillary data (topographical, penological, meteorological data) and hydrologic/hydraulic models outputs. This approach may be used in different phases of establishing the sensitive areas such as: the management of the database-built up from the ensemble of the spatially geo-referenced information; the elaboration of the risk indices from morpho-hydro graphical, meteorological and hydrological data; the interfacing with the models in order to improve their compatibility with input data; recovery of results and the possibility to work out scenarios; presentation of results as synthesis maps easy to access and interpret, additionally adequate to be combined with other information layouts resulted from the GIS database. The paper presents the specific methods, developed in the framework of the NATO SfP 'TIGRU' project 'Monitoring of extreme flood events in Romania and Hungary using EO data' for deriving satellite-based applications and products for flood risk mapping. The study area is situated in the Crisul Alb - Crisul Negru - K6r6s transboundary basin, crossing the Romanian - Hungarian border. Using the optical and microwave data supplied by the new satellite sensors (U.S. DMSP/Quikscat, LANDSAT-7/TM, EOS

  4. The polarization of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    It is insufficient to know coordinates and momentum to describe a state of a neutron. It is necessary to define a spin orientation. As far as it is known from quantum mechanics, a half spin has a projection in the positive direction or in the negative direction. The probability of both projections in an unpolarized beam is equal. If a direction exists, in which the projection is more probably then beam is called polarized in this direction. It is essential to know polarization of neutrons for characteristics of a neutron source, which is emitting it. The question of polarization of fast neutrons came up in 50's. The present work is the review of polarization of fast neutrons and methods of polarization analysis. This also includes information about polarization of fast neutrons from first papers, which described polarization in the D(d,n) 3 He, 7 Li (p,n) 7 Be, T(p,n) 3 He reactions. (authors)

  5. Dependence of black fragment azimuthal and projected angular distributions on polar angle in silicon-emulsion collisions at 4.5A GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fuhu; Abd Allah, Nabil N.; Singh, B.K.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental results of dependence of black fragment azimuth (φ) and projected angle (ψ) distributions on polar angle θ in silicon-emulsion collisions at 4.5A GeV/c (the Dubna momentum) are reported. There are two regions of enhancement around φ=±90 deg. for different θ ranges. These enhancements are due to directed (v 1 ) and elliptic (v 2 ) flows. The v 1 and v 2 dependence of values on θ shows that the directed flow is weak and the elliptic flow is strong in these collisions. A multisource ideal gas model is used to describe the experimental results of dependence. The Monte Carlo calculated results are approximately in agreement with the experimental data

  6. Ten Years of OpenStreetMap Project: Have We Addressed Data Quality Appropriately? – Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maythm al-bakri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has increasingly been recognised that the future developments in geospatial data handling will centre on geospatial data on the web: Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI. The evaluation of VGI data quality, including positional and shape similarity, has become a recurrent subject in the scientific literature in the last ten years. The OpenStreetMap (OSM project is the most popular one of the leading platforms of VGI datasets. It is an online geospatial database to produce and supply free editable geospatial datasets for a worldwide. The goal of this paper is to present a comprehensive overview of the quality assurance of OSM data. In addition, the credibility of open source geospatial data is discussed, highlighting the difficulties and challenges of VGI data quality assessment. The conclusion is that for OSM dataset, it is quite difficult to control its quality. It therefore makes sense to use OSM data for applications do not need high quality spatial datasets.

  7. ACCURATE POLARIZATION CALIBRATION AT 800 MHz WITH THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Kuo, Cheng-Yu [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astro-Math Building, AS/NTU, 1 Roosevelt Road Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Masui, Kiyoshi Wesley [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Oppermann, Niels; Pen, Ue-Li [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada); Peterson, Jeffrey B., E-mail: ywliao@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Physics, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh PA 15213 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Polarization leakage of foreground synchrotron emission is a critical issue in H i intensity mapping experiments. While the sought-after H i emission is unpolarized, polarized foregrounds such as Galactic and extragalactic synchrotron radiation, if coupled with instrumental impurity, can mimic or overwhelm the H i signals. In this paper, we present the methodology for polarization calibration at 700–900 MHz, applied on data obtained from the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We use astrophysical sources, both polarized and unpolarized sources including quasars and pulsars, as calibrators to characterize the polarization leakage and control systematic effects in our GBT H i intensity mapping project. The resulting fractional errors on polarization measurements on boresight are well controlled to within 0.6%–0.8% of their total intensity. The polarized beam patterns are measured by performing spider scans across both polarized quasars and pulsars. A dominant Stokes I to V leakage feature and secondary features of Stokes I to Q and I to U leakages in the 700–900 MHz frequency range are identified. These characterizations are important for separating foreground polarization leakage from the H i 21 cm signal.

  8. ACCURATE POLARIZATION CALIBRATION AT 800 MHz WITH THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Masui, Kiyoshi Wesley; Oppermann, Niels; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Polarization leakage of foreground synchrotron emission is a critical issue in H i intensity mapping experiments. While the sought-after H i emission is unpolarized, polarized foregrounds such as Galactic and extragalactic synchrotron radiation, if coupled with instrumental impurity, can mimic or overwhelm the H i signals. In this paper, we present the methodology for polarization calibration at 700–900 MHz, applied on data obtained from the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We use astrophysical sources, both polarized and unpolarized sources including quasars and pulsars, as calibrators to characterize the polarization leakage and control systematic effects in our GBT H i intensity mapping project. The resulting fractional errors on polarization measurements on boresight are well controlled to within 0.6%–0.8% of their total intensity. The polarized beam patterns are measured by performing spider scans across both polarized quasars and pulsars. A dominant Stokes I to V leakage feature and secondary features of Stokes I to Q and I to U leakages in the 700–900 MHz frequency range are identified. These characterizations are important for separating foreground polarization leakage from the H i 21 cm signal.

  9. The use of collaborative digital platforms in the perspective of shared administration. The MiraMap project in Turin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Coscia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to illustrate an innovative approach to urban planning and shared Administration based on the use of collaborative digital platforms involving the Public Administration / citizen. This perspective is expressed in the MiraMap pilot project in Turin, in the District of Mirafiori Sud, which has been drawn up by a research group of the Politecnico di Torino. The project implements and develops a previous experience carried out in 2013 (Crowdmapping Mirafiori Sud, the main purpose of which was to determine whether the use of ICT could generate and support processes of social inclusion. Through the reading of the MiraMap process, of its objectives, of the methodology adopted, of its phases and lines of action, are highlighted the interdisciplinary and technical reasoning relative to: the structuring of relations with the institutions, in particular with the Public Administration, in the processes of planning and management of public space; the triggering of the processes of inclusion, participation and civic engagement; the identification of contributions that these trials can generate in the construction of a renewed urban governance. Lastly, this contribution outlines a possible methodology for monitoring and evaluation of ex-post impact, based on Community Impact Assessment/Evaluation (CIA/CIE, that evaluates in a descriptive manner the impacts - monetary and non-monetary - that have derived from the project in relation to the various actors involved. The use of ICT can foster the process of transparency and strengthen the accountability of the Public Administration, provided that the technology is an enabling factor and one of exclusion. The detailed analysis of the case provides ideas for reflection on this innovative approach: the citizen/PA relationship can contribute in the medium-long term to conveying positive socio-economic impacts on the territory, making the citizen more informed and involved and the Administration more

  10. Preliminary Assessment of JERS-1 SAR to Discriminating Boreal Landscape Features for the Boreal Forest Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kyle; Williams, Cynthia; Podest, Erika; Chapman, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the JERS-1 North American Boreal Forest Mapping Project and a preliminary assessment of JERS-1 SAR imagery for application to discriminating features applicable to boreal landscape processes. The present focus of the JERS-1 North American Boreal Forest Mapping Project is the production of continental scale wintertime and summertime SAR mosaics of the North American boreal forest for distribution to the science community. As part of this effort, JERS-1 imagery has been collected over much of Alaska and Canada during the 1997-98 winter and 1998 summer seasons. To complete the mosaics, these data will be augmented with data collected during previous years. These data will be made available to the scientific community via CD ROM containing these and similar data sets compiled from companion studies of Asia and Europe. Regional landscape classification with SAR is important for the baseline information it will provide about distribution of woodlands, positions of treeline, current forest biomass, distribution of wetlands, and extent of major rivercourses. As well as setting the stage for longer term change detection, comparisons across several years provides additional baseline information about short-term landscape change. Rapid changes, including those driven by fire, permafrost heat balance, flooding, and insect outbreaks can dominate boreal systems. We examine JERS-1 imagery covering selected sites in Alaska and Canada to assess quality and applicability to such relevant ecological and hydrological issues. The data are generally of high quality and illustrate many potential applications. A texture-based classification scheme is applied to selected regions to assess the applicability of these data for distinguishing distribution of such landcover types as wetland, tundra, woodland and forested landscapes.

  11. Project CONVERGE: Initial Results From the Mapping of Surface Currents in Palmer Deep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statscewich, H.; Kohut, J. T.; Winsor, P.; Oliver, M. J.; Bernard, K. S.; Cimino, M. A.; Fraser, W.

    2016-02-01

    The Palmer Deep submarine canyon on the Western Antarctic Peninsula provides a conduit for upwelling of relatively warm, nutrient rich waters which enhance local primary production and support a food web productive enough to sustain a large top predator biomass. In an analysis of ten years of satellite-tagged penguins, Oliver et al. (2013) showed that circulation features associated with tidal flows may be a key driver of nearshore predator distributions. During diurnal tides, the penguins feed close to their breeding colonies and during semi-diurnal tides, the penguins make foraging trips to the more distant regions of Palmer Deep. It is hypothesized that convergent features act to concentrate primary producers and aggregate schools of krill that influence the behavior of predator species. The initial results from a six month deployment of a High Frequency Radar network in Palmer Deep are presented in an attempt to characterize and quantify convergent features. During a three month period from January through March 2015, we conducted in situ sampling consisting of multiple underwater glider deployments, small boat acoustic surveys of Antarctic krill, and penguin ARGOS-linked satellite telemetry and time-depth recorders (TDRs). The combination of real-time surface current maps with adaptive in situ sampling introduces High Frequency Radar to the Antarctic in a way that allows us to rigorously and efficiently test the influence of local tidal processes on top predator foraging ecology.

  12. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  13. Polarized Neutron Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Roessli, B.; Böni, P.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of polarized neutron scattering is reviewed with emphasis on applications. Many examples of the usefulness of the method in various fields of physics are given like the determination of spin density maps, measurement of complex magnetic structures with spherical neutron polarimetry, inelastic neutron scattering and separation of coherent and incoherent scattering with help of the generalized XYZ method.

  14. The MELANIE project: from a biopsy to automatic protein map interpretation by computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, R D; Hochstrasser, D F; Funk, M; Vargas, J R; Pellegrini, C; Muller, A F; Scherrer, J R

    1991-10-01

    The goals of the MELANIE project are to determine if disease-associated patterns can be detected in high resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (HR 2D-PAGE) images and if a diagnosis can be established automatically by computer. The ELSIE/MELANIE system is a set of computer programs which automatically detect, quantify, and compare protein spots shown on HR 2D-PAGE images. Classification programs help the physician to find disease-associated patterns from a given set of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis images and to form diagnostic rules. Prototype expert systems that use these rules to establish a diagnosis from new HR 2D-PAGE images have been developed. They successfully diagnosed cirrhosis of the liver and were able to distinguish a variety of cancer types from biopsies known to be cancerous.

  15. The Megamaser Cosmology Project. X. High-resolution Maps and Mass Constraints for SMBHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Braatz, J. A.; Condon, J. J.; Lo, K. Y.; Reid, M. J.; Henkel, C.; Pesce, D. W.; Greene, J. E.; Gao, F.; Kuo, C. Y.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.

    2018-02-01

    We present high-resolution (submas) Very Long Baseline Interferometry maps of nuclear H2O megamasers for seven galaxies. In UGC 6093, the well-aligned systemic masers and high-velocity masers originate in an edge-on, flat disk and we determine the mass of the central supermassive black holes (SMBH) to be M SMBH = 2.58 × 107 M ⊙ (±7%). For J1346+5228, the distribution of masers is consistent with a disk, but the faint high-velocity masers are only marginally detected, and we constrain the mass of the SMBH to be in the range (1.5–2.0) × 107 M ⊙. The origin of the masers in Mrk 1210 is less clear, as the systemic and high-velocity masers are misaligned and show a disorganized velocity structure. We present one possible model in which the masers originate in a tilted, warped disk, but we do not rule out the possibility of other explanations including outflow masers. In NGC 6926, we detect a set of redshifted masers, clustered within a parsec of each other, and a single blueshifted maser about 4.4 pc away, an offset that would be unusually large for a maser disk system. Nevertheless, if it is a disk system, we estimate the enclosed mass to be M SMBH < 4.8 × 107 M ⊙. For NGC 5793, we detect redshifted masers spaced about 1.4 pc from a clustered set of blueshifted features. The orientation of the structure supports a disk scenario as suggested by Hagiwara et al. We estimate the enclosed mass to be M SMBH < 1.3 × 107 M ⊙. For NGC 2824 and J0350‑0127, the masers may be associated with parsec- or subparsec-scale jets or outflows.

  16. Mapping the (Invisible Salaried Woman Architect: the Australian Parlour Research Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lisa Burns

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, feminist historians and polemicists have struggled to uncover the ordinary lives of women. They believe that gender ideals and biases are a critical part of the weft and weave of daily life. But the quotidian has been a restricted field in our discipline, often used to define a particular building type rather than the lives of architects. For example, we know little about the workdays of professionals or their labour in the workplace. The architectural office - its daily transactions and everyday culture - remains obscure. Even when represented in histories of the profession, the architectural office is filtered through a top-down lens trained on practice directors. The labour and lives of architecture’s male and female employees is unexplored terrain, but we could begin with the demographics: up to three-quarters of Australian women in architecture are salaried workers, continuing a historical trend. In the past, women generally worked for others. The gendering of salaried architectural workers raises questions about the relationship between gender and office work. Feminist historians and theorists have suggested that the office plays a role in forming gender ideals and practices. This paper endeavours to critically describe the lives and labour of women architects at the office, using survey and interview data from a large-scale Australian research project, publicly known through its website Parlour. This research inquires into gender disadvantage and investigates how gender ideals and norms shape the culture of the architectural workplace. The project’s research questions, evidence and explanations form the basis of this essay. The Parlour project is an ongoing platform for sharing information and research, but it gives particular voice to women’s experience in architecture, an experience largely shaped by salaried employment, studentship and the ownership of small practices.

  17. ARM Radiosondes for National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project Validation Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, Lori [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tobin, David [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Reale, Anthony [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Knuteson, Robert [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Feltz, Michelle [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Liu, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This IOP has been a coordinated effort involving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) Climate Research Facility, the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison, and the JPSS project to validate SNPP NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture sounding products from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). In this arrangement, funding for radiosondes was provided by the JPSS project to ARM. These radiosondes were launched coincident with the SNPP satellite overpasses (OP) at four of the ARM field sites beginning in July 2012 and running through September 2017. Combined with other ARM data, an assessment of the radiosonde data quality was performed and post-processing corrections applied producing an ARM site Best Estimate (BE) product. The SNPP targeted radiosondes were integrated into the NOAA Products Validation System (NPROVS+) system, which collocated the radiosondes with satellite products (NOAA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA], European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites [EUMETSAT], Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite [GOES], Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate [COSMIC]) and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP forecasts for use in product assessment and algorithm development. This work was a fundamental, integral, and cost-effective part of the SNPP validation effort and provided critical accuracy assessments of the SNPP temperature and water vapor soundings.

  18. The Boston Methane Project: Mapping Surface Emissions to Inform Atmospheric Estimation of Urban Methane Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N.; Crosson, E.; Down, A.; Hutyra, L.; Jackson, R. B.; McKain, K.; Rella, C.; Raciti, S. M.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Lost and unaccounted natural gas can amount to over 6% of Massachusetts' total annual greenhouse gas inventory (expressed as equivalent CO2 tonnage). An unknown portion of this loss is due to natural gas leaks in pipeline distribution systems. The objective of the Boston Methane Project is to estimate the overall leak rate from natural gas systems in metropolitan Boston, and to compare this flux with fluxes from the other primary methane emissions sources. Companion talks at this meeting describe the atmospheric measurement and modeling framework, and chemical and isotopic tracers that can partition total atmospheric methane flux into natural gas and non-natural gas components. This talk focuses on estimation of surface emissions that inform the atmospheric modeling and partitioning. These surface emissions include over 3,300 pipeline natural gas leaks in Boston. For the state of Massachusetts as a whole, the amount of natural gas reported as lost and unaccounted for by utility companies was greater than estimated landfill emissions by an order of magnitude. Moreover, these landfill emissions were overwhelmingly located outside of metro Boston, while gas leaks are concentrated in exactly the opposite pattern, increasing from suburban Boston toward the urban core. Work is in progress to estimate spatial distribution of methane emissions from wetlands and sewer systems. We conclude with a description of how these spatial data sets will be combined and represented for application in atmospheric modeling.

  19. Radon measurements in air in waterworks and indoor swimming pools - a primary mapping project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinko, J.; Mjoenes, L.; Soederman, A.-L.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 the Swedish Work Environment Authority asked five regional offices around the country; Falun, Malmoe, Vaexjoe, Umeaa and Oerebro, to measure radon in air in workplaces where water was likely to enhance radon levels indoors. Track etch detectors were used and placed in workplaces according to the SSI measurement protocol for determining the annual average radon concentration in homes. Rooms that are frequently used by employees were measured. The detectors were exposed between 1 to 3 months. 225 detectors were used in the project and analysed at the same laboratory. The results showed that the radon concentration in waterworks often is high. Measurements were made in 60 waterworks. Levels exceeding 1000 Bq/m 3 were found in 49 of them and levels exceeding 4000 Bq/m 3 were found in 21 waterworks. The variation between waterworks may be a result of the radon concentration in the raw water, the amount of radon gas escaping to the air when water is treated, the air exchange rate in the building and where the detectors were deployed. Measurements were made in 28 indoor swimming baths. The maximum level was 290 Bq/m 3 , but most concentrations were between 30 to 70 Bq/m 3 . The conclusion is that high radon levels do not seem to be a problem in indoor swimming baths. Maybe this is due to good ventilation or the fact that water often has been treated for radon before it is used in swimming pools. The results from measurement in food industries such as breweries showed no extreme radon levels except for a fish farm where levels over 1000 Bq/m 3 were measured in the farming room and 790 Bq/m 3 in the office. The radon concentrations in laundries were relatively low, between 30 and 170 Bq/m 3

  20. The Milky Way Project: Mapping star formation in our home Galaxy, one click at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Tharindu K.; Povich, Matthew S.; Dixon, Don; Velasco, Jose; Milky Way Project Team

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years, citizen science has helped astronomers comb through large data sets to identify patterns and objects that are not easily found through automated processes. The Milky Way Project (MWP), a popular citizen science initiative, presents internet users with images from the GLIMPSE, MIPSGAL, SMOG and CYGNUS-X surveys of the Galactic plane using the Spitzer Space Telescope. These citizen scientists are directed to make "classification" drawings on the images to identify targeted classes of astronomical objects. We present an updated data reduction pipeline for the MWP. Written from the ground up in Python, this data reduction pipeline allows for the aggregation of classifications made by MWP users into catalogs of infrared (IR) bubbles, IR bow shocks and “yellowballs” (which may be the early precursors of IR bubbles). Coupled with the more accurate bubble classification tool used in the latest iterations of the MWP, this pipeline enables for better accuracy in the shapes and sizes of the bubbles when compared with those listed in the first MWP data release (DR1). We obtain an initial catalog of over 4000 bubbles using 2 million user classifications made between 2012 and 2015. Combined with the classifications from the latest MWP iteration (2016-2017), we will use a database of over 4 million classifications to produce a MWP DR2 bubble catalog. We will also create the first catalog of candidate IR bow shocks identified through citizen science and an updated “yellowball” catalog. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants CAREER-1454334 and AST-1411851.

  1. Planck intermediate results: XLVI. Reduction of large-scale systematic effects in HFI polarization maps and estimation of the reionization optical depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the identification, modelling, and removal of previously unexplained systematic effects in the polarization data of the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) on large angular scales, including new mapmaking and calibration procedures, new and more complete end-to-end simulat...

  2. A comparison of photograph-interpreted and IfSAR-derived maps of polar bear denning habitat for the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.

    2018-05-11

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in Alaska use the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for maternal denning. Pregnant bears den in snow banks for more than 3 months in winter during which they give birth to and nurture young. Denning is one of the most vulnerable times in polar bear life history as the family group cannot simply walk away from a disturbance without jeopardizing survival of newly born cubs. The ANWR includes the “1002 Area”, a region recently opened for oil and gas exploration by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). As a part of its mission, the DOI “… protects and manages the Nation's natural resources …” and is therefore responsible for conserving polar bears and encouraging development of energy potential. Because future industrial activities could overlap habitats used by denning polar bears, identifying these habitats can inform the decisions of resource managers tasked to develop resources and protect polar bears. To help inform these efforts, we qualitatively compared the distribution of denning habitat identified by two different methods: previously published habitat from manual interpretation of aerial photographs, and habitat derived by computer interrogation of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) digital terrain models (DTM). Because photograph-interpreted methods depicted denning habitat as a line and IfSAR-derived methods depicted habitat as a polygon, we assessed agreement between the two methods with distance measurements. We found that 77.5 percent of IfSAR-derived denning habitat (79.6 km2 ; 1.2 percent of the 6,837.0 km2 1002 Area) was within 600 m of photograph-interpreted habitat (3,026.9 km), including 53.9 percent within 200 m. This distribution differed from that of randomly distributed points, as only 49.4 percent of these occurred within 600 m of photograph-interpreted habitat, including 18.3 percent within 200 m. Both methods appear to identify the major physiographic features that polar bears

  3. The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP): a Geoportal for Visualizing Project-level Information About U.S. Funded Research in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, A.; Cody, R. P.; Barba, M.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Score, R.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP; http://armap.org/) is a suite of online applications and data services that support Arctic science by providing project tracking information (who's doing what, when and where in the region) for United States Government funded projects. In collaboration with 17 research agencies, project locations are displayed in a visually enhanced web mapping application. Key information about each project is presented along with links to web pages that provide additional information, including links to data where possible. The latest ARMAP iteration has i) reworked the search user interface (UI) to enable multiple filters to be applied in user-driven queries and ii) implemented ArcGIS Javascript API 4.0 to allow for deployment of 3D maps directly into a users web-browser and enhanced customization of popups. Module additions include i) a dashboard UI powered by a back-end Apache SOLR engine to visualize data in intuitive and interactive charts; and ii) a printing module that allows users to customize maps and export these to different formats (pdf, ppt, gif and jpg). New reference layers and an updated ship tracks layer have also been added. These improvements have been made to improve discoverability, enhance logistics coordination, identify geographic gaps in research/observation effort, and foster enhanced collaboration among the research community. Additionally, ARMAP can be used to demonstrate past, present, and future research effort supported by the U.S. Government.

  4. Polarization preservation in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    The successful operation of a high energy polarized beam at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) with the concommitant development of depolarizing resonance correction techniques has led to the present project of commissioning such a beam at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). A description of the project was presented at the 1981 National Accelerator Conference. I would like to now present a more detailed description of how we plan to preserve the polarization during acceleration, and to present our game plan for tuning through some 50 resonances and reaching our goal of a 26 GeV polarized proton beam with greater than 60% polarization

  5. Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Polarization calibration analysis for CMB measurements with ACTPol and Advanced ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Brian; ACTPol Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) is a polarization sensitive upgrade for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, located at an elevation of 5190 m on Cerro Toco in Chile. Achieving first light in 2013, ACTPol is entering its third observation season. Advanced ACTPol is a next generation upgrade for ACTPol, with additional frequencies, polarization modulation, and new detector arrays, that will begin in 2016. I will first present an overview of the two projects and then focus on describing the methods used for polarization angle calibration of the ACTPol detectors. These methods utilize polarization ray tracing in the optical design software CODEV together with detector positions determined from planet observations and represent a critical input for mapping the polarization of the CMB.

  6. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. VII. Understanding the Ultraviolet Anomaly in NGC 5548 with X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, S.; Pogge, R. W.; Adams, S. M.; Beatty, T. G.; Bisogni, S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Gupta, A. [Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Page, K.; Goad, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Krongold, Y. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuidad de Mexico (Mexico); Anderson, M. D.; Bazhaw, C.; Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Suite 605, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Arévalo, P. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretana N 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso (Chile); Barth, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Bigley, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny, Crimea 298409 (Russian Federation); Boroson, T. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Bottorff, M. C. [Fountainwood Observatory, Department of Physics FJS 149, Southwestern University, 1011 East University Avenue, Georgetown, TX 78626 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Eberly College of Science, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Breeveld, A. A. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-09-01

    During the Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project observations of NGC 5548, the continuum and emission-line variability became decorrelated during the second half of the six-month-long observing campaign. Here we present Swift and Chandra X-ray spectra of NGC 5548 obtained as part of the campaign. The Swift spectra show that excess flux (relative to a power-law continuum) in the soft X-ray band appears before the start of the anomalous emission-line behavior, peaks during the period of the anomaly, and then declines. This is a model-independent result suggesting that the soft excess is related to the anomaly. We divide the Swift data into on- and off-anomaly spectra to characterize the soft excess via spectral fitting. The cause of the spectral differences is likely due to a change in the intrinsic spectrum rather than to variable obscuration or partial covering. The Chandra spectra have lower signal-to-noise ratios, but are consistent with the Swift data. Our preferred model of the soft excess is emission from an optically thick, warm Comptonizing corona, the effective optical depth of which increases during the anomaly. This model simultaneously explains all three observations: the UV emission-line flux decrease, the soft-excess increase, and the emission-line anomaly.

  7. Mapping Application for Penguin Populations and Projected Dynamics (MAPPPD): Data and Tools for Dynamic Management and Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, G. R. W.; Naveen, R.; Schwaller, M.; Che-Castaldo, C.; McDowall, P.; Schrimpf, M.; Schrimpf, Michael; Lynch, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    The Mapping Application for Penguin Populations and Projected Dynamics (MAPPPD) is a web-based, open access, decision-support tool designed to assist scientists, non-governmental organizations and policy-makers working to meet the management objectives as set forth by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and other components of the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) (that is, Consultative Meetings and the ATS Committee on Environmental Protection). MAPPPD was designed specifically to complement existing efforts such as the CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program (CEMP) and the ATS site guidelines for visitors. The database underlying MAPPPD includes all publicly available (published and unpublished) count data on emperor, gentoo, Adelie) and chinstrap penguins in Antarctica. Penguin population models are used to assimilate available data into estimates of abundance for each site and year.Results are easily aggregated across multiple sites to obtain abundance estimates over any user-defined area of interest. A front end web interface located at www.penguinmap.com provides free and ready access to the most recent count and modelled data, and can act as a facilitator for data transfer between scientists and Antarctic stakeholders to help inform management decisions for the continent.

  8. Do it yourself remote sensing: Generating an inexpensive, high tech, real science lake mapping project for the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Stephen M.

    1993-01-01

    The utilization of modest equipment and software revealed bottom contours and water column conditions of a dynamic water body. Classroom discussions of field techniques and equipment capabilities followed by exercises with the data sets in cause-and-effect analysis all contributed to participatory education in the process of science. This project is presented as a case study of the value of engaging secondary and collegiate level students in planning, executing and appraising a real world investigation which they can directly relate to. A 1 km wide bay, experiencing marsh inflow, along an 8 km long lake situated 120 km north of Ottawa, Canada, on the glaciated Canadian Precambrian Shield was mapped in midsummer for submerged topography, bottom composition, temperature profile, turbudity, dissolved oxygen and biota distribution. Low level aerial photographs scanned into image processing software are permitting spatial classification of bottom variations in biology and geology. Instrumentation consisted of a portable sport fishing SONAR depth finder, an electronic lead line multiprobe with photocell, thermistor and dissolved oxygen sensors, a selective depth water sampler, portable pH meter, an underwater camera mounted on a home-made platform with a bottom-contact trigger and a disposable underwater camera for shallow survey work. Sampling transects were referenced using a Brunton hand transit triangulating several shore markers.

  9. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. VII. Understanding the Ultraviolet Anomaly in NGC 5548 with X-Ray Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, S.; Pogge, R. W.; Adams, S. M.; Beatty, T. G.; Bisogni, S.; Gupta, A.; Page, K.; Goad, M. R.; Krongold, Y.; Anderson, M. D.; Bazhaw, C.; Bentz, M. C.; Arévalo, P.; Barth, A. J.; Bigley, A.; Borman, G. A.; Boroson, T. A.; Bottorff, M. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Breeveld, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    During the Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project observations of NGC 5548, the continuum and emission-line variability became decorrelated during the second half of the six-month-long observing campaign. Here we present Swift and Chandra X-ray spectra of NGC 5548 obtained as part of the campaign. The Swift spectra show that excess flux (relative to a power-law continuum) in the soft X-ray band appears before the start of the anomalous emission-line behavior, peaks during the period of the anomaly, and then declines. This is a model-independent result suggesting that the soft excess is related to the anomaly. We divide the Swift data into on- and off-anomaly spectra to characterize the soft excess via spectral fitting. The cause of the spectral differences is likely due to a change in the intrinsic spectrum rather than to variable obscuration or partial covering. The Chandra spectra have lower signal-to-noise ratios, but are consistent with the Swift data. Our preferred model of the soft excess is emission from an optically thick, warm Comptonizing corona, the effective optical depth of which increases during the anomaly. This model simultaneously explains all three observations: the UV emission-line flux decrease, the soft-excess increase, and the emission-line anomaly.

  10. SAT-WIND project. Final report[Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Astrup, P.; Nielsen, M. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)

  11. SAT-WIND project. Final report[Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C B; Astrup, P; Nielsen, M [and others

    2007-04-15

    The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)

  12. The Polarization of Achernar

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, D.

    2005-11-01

    Recent near-infrared measurements of the angular diameter of Achernar (the bright Be star alpha Eridani) with the ESO VLT interferometer have been interpreted as the detection of an extremely oblate photosphere, with a ratio of equatorial to polar radius of at least 1.56 ± 0.05 and a minor axis orientation of 39° ± 1° (from North to East). The optical linear polarization of this star during an emission phase in 1995 September was 0.12 ± 0.02% at position angle 37° ± 8° (in equatorial coordinates), which is the direction of the projection of the rotation axis on the plane of the sky according to the theory of polarization by electron scattering in an equatorially flattened circumstellar disk. These two independent determinations of the orientation of the rotation axis are therefore in agreement. The observational history of correlations between Hα emission and polarization as found in the literature is that of a typical Be star, with the exception of an interesting question raised by the contrast between Schröder's measurement of a small polarization perpendicular to the projected rotation axis in 1969--70 and Tinbergen's measurement of zero polarization in 1974.5, both at times when emission was reportedly absent.

  13. Spatial land-use inventory, modeling, and projection/Denver metropolitan area, with inputs from existing maps, airphotos, and LANDSAT imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, C.; Miller, L. D.; Christenson, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    A landscape model was constructed with 34 land-use, physiographic, socioeconomic, and transportation maps. A simple Markov land-use trend model was constructed from observed rates of change and nonchange from photointerpreted 1963 and 1970 airphotos. Seven multivariate land-use projection models predicting 1970 spatial land-use changes achieved accuracies from 42 to 57 percent. A final modeling strategy was designed, which combines both Markov trend and multivariate spatial projection processes. Landsat-1 image preprocessing included geometric rectification/resampling, spectral-band, and band/insolation ratioing operations. A new, systematic grid-sampled point training-set approach proved to be useful when tested on the four orginal MSS bands, ten image bands and ratios, and all 48 image and map variables (less land use). Ten variable accuracy was raised over 15 percentage points from 38.4 to 53.9 percent, with the use of the 31 ancillary variables. A land-use classification map was produced with an optimal ten-channel subset of four image bands and six ancillary map variables. Point-by-point verification of 331,776 points against a 1972/1973 U.S. Geological Survey (UGSG) land-use map prepared with airphotos and the same classification scheme showed average first-, second-, and third-order accuracies of 76.3, 58.4, and 33.0 percent, respectively.

  14. Clinical usefulness of myocardial iodine-123-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid distribution abnormality in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy based on normal data file in bull's-eye polar map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Mitani, Isao; Sumita, Shinichi

    1998-01-01

    Visual interpretation of iodine-123-beta-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid ( 123 I-BMIPP) myocardial images cannot easily detect mild reduction in tracer uptake. Objective assessment of myocardial 123 I-BMIPP maldistributions at rest was attempted using a bull's-eye map and its normal data file for detecting myocardial damage in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Six patients, two with Kearns-Sayre syndrome and four with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS), and 10 normal subjects were studied. Fractional myocardial uptake of 1 23 I-BMIPP was also measured by dynamic static imaging to assess the global myocardial free fatty acid. These data were compared with the cardiothoracic ratio measured by chest radiography and left ventricular ejection fraction assessed by echocardiography. Abnormal cardiothoracic ratio and lower ejection fraction were detected in only one patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Abnormal fractional myocardial uptake was detected in two patients (1.61%, 1.91%), whereas abnormal regional 123 I-BMIPP uptake assessed by the bull's-eye map was detected in five patients (83%). All patients showed abnormal uptake in the anterior portion, and one showed progressive atrioventricular conduction abnormality and systolic dysfunction with extended 123 I-BMIPP abnormal uptake. The results suggest that assessment based on the normal data file in a bull's-eye polar map is clinically useful for detection of myocardial damage in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. (author)

  15. Peculiarities of annihilation of polarized positronium in polarized media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silenko, A.Ya.

    2005-01-01

    Features of positronium annihilation (PA) in polarized media are investigated. Strong exchange interaction with nonpaired electrons of paramagnetic atoms essentially accelerates the PA in comparison with annihilation of free positrons. The value of the spin projection on the direction of polarized nonpaired electrons has essential effect on the orthopositronium lifetime and on the width of the gamma spectrum annihilation line. It is shown that these features of PA permit to use it for studying the paramagnetic polarization [ru

  16. Maps into projective spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha N Bhosle. Acknowledgements. This work was initiated during the author's visit to the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge,. UK as a visiting fellow to participate in the programme Moduli Spaces (MOS) during. June 2011. She would like to thank the Institute for hospitality and excellent working environment. References.

  17. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  18. The structure of polarization maps of skin histological sections in the Fourier domain for the tasks of benign and malignant formations differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, V. A.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Savich, V. O.; Novakovskaya, O. Y.; Olar, O. V.; Marchuk, Y. F.

    2015-02-01

    The optical model of birefringent networks of biological tissues is presented. The technique of Fourier polarimetry for selection of manifestations of linear and circular birefringence of protein fibrils is suggested. The results of investigations of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th orders), correlation (dispersion and excess of autocorrelation functions) and scalar-self-similar (logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) structure of Fourier spectra of polarization azimuths distribution of laser images of skin samples are presented. The criteria of differentiation of postoperative biopsy of benign (keratoma) and malignant (adenocarcinoma) skin tumors are determined.

  19. Regional Mapping and Resource Assessment of Shallow Gas Hydrates of Japan Sea - METI Launched 3 Years Project in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, R.

    2014-12-01

    Agency of Natural Resources and Energy of METI launched a 3 years shallow gas hydrate exploration project in 2013 to make a precise resource assessment of shallow gas hydrates in the eastern margin of Japan Sea and around Hokkaido. Shallow gas hydrates of Japan Sea occur in fine-grained muddy sediments of shallow subsurface of mounds and gas chimneys in the form of massive nodular to platy accumulation. Gas hydrate bearing mounds are often associated with active methane seeps, bacterial mats and carbonate concretions and pavements. Gases of gas hydrates are derived either from deep thermogenic, shallow microbial or from the mixed gases, contrasting with totally microbial deep-seated stratigraphically controlled hydrates. Shallow gas hydrates in Japan Sea have not been considered as energy resource due to its limited distribution in narrow Joetsu basin. However recently academic research surveys have demonstrated regional distribution of gas chimney and hydrate mound in a number of sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of Japan Sea. Regional mapping of gas chimney and hydrate mound by means of MBES and SBP surveys have confirmed that more than 200 gas chimneys exist in 100 km x 100 km area. ROV dives have identified dense accumulation of hydrates on the wall of half collapsed hydrate mound down to 30 mbsf. Sequential LWD and shallow coring campaign in the Summer of 2014, R/V Hakurei, which is equipped with Fugro Seacore R140 drilling rig, drilled through hydrate mounds and gas chimneys down to the BGHS (base of gas hydrate stability) level and successfully recovered massive gas hydrates bearing sediments from several horizons.

  20. Mapping water availability, cost and projected consumptive use in the eastern United States with comparisons to the west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Moreland, Barbie D.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.; Kobos, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The availability of freshwater supplies to meet future demand is a growing concern. Water availability metrics are needed to inform future water development decisions. With the help of water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1300 watersheds throughout the 31 contiguous states in the eastern US complimenting a prior study of the west. The compiled set of water availability data is unique in that it considers multiple sources of water (fresh surface and groundwater, wastewater and brackish groundwater); accommodates institutional controls placed on water use; is accompanied by cost estimates to access, treat and convey each unique source of water; and is compared to projected future growth in consumptive water use to 2030. Although few administrative limits have been set on water availability in the east, water managers have identified 315 fresh surface water and 398 fresh groundwater basins (with 151 overlapping basins) as areas of concern (AOCs) where water supply challenges exist due to drought related concerns, environmental flows, groundwater overdraft, or salt water intrusion. This highlights a difference in management where AOCs are identified in the east which simply require additional permitting, while in the west strict administrative limits are established. Although the east is generally considered ‘water rich’ roughly a quarter of the basins were identified as AOCs; however, this is still in strong contrast to the west where 78% of the surface water basins are operating at or near their administrative limit. Little effort was noted on the part of eastern or western water managers to quantify non-fresh water resources.

  1. Neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firk, F.W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Some recent experiments involving polarized neutrons are discussed; they demonstrate how polarization studies provide information on fundamental aspects of nuclear structure that cannot be obtained from more traditional neutron studies. Until recently, neutron polarization studies tended to be limited either to very low energies or to restricted regions at higher energies, determined by the kinematics of favorable (p, vector n) and (d, vector n) reactions. With the advent of high intensity pulsed electron and proton accelerators and of beams of vector polarized deuterons, this is no longer the case. One has entered an era in which neutron polarization experiments are now being carried out, in a routine way, throughout the entire range from thermal energies to tens-of-MeV. The significance of neutron polarization studies is illustrated in discussions of a wide variety of experiments that include the measurement of T-invariance in the β-decay of polarized neutrons, a search for the effects of meson exchange currents in the photo-disintegration of the deuteron, the determination of quantum numbers of states in the fission of aligned 235 U and 237 Np induced by polarized neutrons, and the double- and triple-scattering of fast neutrons by light nuclei

  2. Anisotropically biaxial strain in non-polar (112-0) plane In x Ga1-x N/GaN layers investigated by X-ray reciprocal space mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guijuan; Li, Huijie; Wang, Lianshan; Meng, Yulin; Ji, Zesheng; Li, Fangzheng; Wei, Hongyuan; Yang, Shaoyan; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-07-03

    In this study, the indium composition x as well as the anisotropically biaxial strain in non-polar a-plane In x Ga 1-x N on GaN is studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. In accordance with XRD reciprocal lattice space mapping, with increasing indium composition, the maximum of the In x Ga 1-x N reciprocal lattice points progressively shifts from a fully compressive strained to a fully relaxed position, then to reversed tensile strained. To fully understand the strain in the ternary alloy layers, it is helpful to grow high-quality device structures using a-plane nitrides. As the layer thickness increases, the strain of In x Ga 1-x N layer releases through surface roughening and the 3D growth-mode.

  3. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  4. Effect of background dielectric on TE-polarized photonic bandgap of metallodielectric photonic crystals using Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Aliasghar; Rezaei, Behrooz

    2016-11-20

    Using the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method, we have calculated the photonic band structure of two-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals having the square and triangular lattices of circular metal rods in a dielectric background. We have selected the transverse electric mode of electromagnetic waves, and the resulting band structures showed the existence of photonic bandgap in these structures. We theoretically study the effect of background dielectric on the photonic bandgap.

  5. Photonic Crystal Polarizing and Non-Polarizing Beam Splitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Ying, Guan; Jin-Hui, Shi; Li-Boo, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    A polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and a non-polarizing beam splitter (NPBS) based on a photonic crystal (PC) directional coupler are demonstrated. The photonic crystal directional coupler consists of a hexagonal lattice of dielectric pillars in air and has a complete photonic band gap. The photonic band structure and the band gap map are calculated using the plane wave expansion (PWE) method. The splitting properties of the splitter are investigated numerically using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method

  6. Introduction of digital soil mapping techniques for the nationwide regionalization of soil condition in Hungary; the first results of the DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Laborczi, Annamária; Szatmári, Gábor; Takács, Katalin; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Szabó, József; Dobos, Endre

    2014-05-01

    Due to the former soil surveys and mapping activities significant amount of soil information has accumulated in Hungary. Present soil data requirements are mainly fulfilled with these available datasets either by their direct usage or after certain specific and generally fortuitous, thematic and/or spatial inference. Due to the more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data, there might be notable imperfection as for the accuracy and reliability of the delivered products. With a recently started project (DOSoReMI.hu; Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) we would like to significantly extend the potential, how countrywide soil information requirements could be satisfied in Hungary. We started to compile digital soil related maps which fulfil optimally the national and international demands from points of view of thematic, spatial and temporal accuracy. The spatial resolution of the targeted countrywide, digital, thematic maps is at least 1:50.000 (approx. 50-100 meter raster resolution). DOSoReMI.hu results are also planned to contribute to the European part of GSM.net products. In addition to the auxiliary, spatial data themes related to soil forming factors and/or to indicative environmental elements we heavily lean on the various national soil databases. The set of the applied digital soil mapping techniques is gradually broadened incorporating and eventually integrating geostatistical, data mining and GIS tools. In our paper we will present the first results. - Regression kriging (RK) has been used for the spatial inference of certain quantitative data, like particle size distribution components, rootable depth and organic matter content. In the course of RK-based mapping spatially segmented categorical information provided by the SMUs of Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS) has been also used in the form of indicator variables. - Classification and regression trees (CART) were

  7. International Project - Atlas of Geological Maps of Central Asia and Adjacent Territories 1:2 500 000 Scale - the Status and the Development Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, Y.; Petrov, O. V.; Dong, S.; Morozov, A.; Shokalsky, S.; Pospelov, I.; Erinchek, Y.; Milshteyn, E.

    2011-12-01

    This project is launched by geological surveys of Russia, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and the Republic of Korea with participation of National Academies of Sciences under the aegis of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World since 2004. The project goal is the compilation and subsequent monitoring of the set of digital geological maps for the large part of the Asian continent (20 million km2). Each country finances its own part of the project while all the issues concerning methods and technologies are discussed collectively during annual meetings and joint filed excursions. At the 33d IGC, were shown 4 digital maps of the Atlas at 1: 2,5M - geological, tectonic, metallogenic and energy resources. Geological and energy resources maps were compiled and published by the Chinese part while tectonic and metallogenic maps by Russian side (VSEGEI, Saint-Petersburg). The geological map was also used as the base for the compilation of the other maps of the Atlas. On the tectonic map colours indicate several stages of the continental crust consolidation within fold belts, their tectonic reworking and rifting. The map also shows rock complexes-indicators of geodynamic settings. In the platform areas, the colour reflects the time of beginning of the sedimentary cover formation while its shades reflect the thickness of the sediments. The metallogenic map of the Atlas depicts 1380 objects of metallogenic zoning (from super-provinces to ore clusters) and is accompanied with a database (more than 5000 ore deposits). The map of energy resources with the database contains information on the of coal- and oil-and-gas-bearing basins and main coal and hydrocarbon deposits. In 2009 the study area was extended to the North, East and South in order to embrace bigger territory with ore-bearing Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic belts of the Asian continent's Pacific margin. According to nearest plans, discussed with the head of Rosnedra Dr. Anatoliy Ledovskikh and the director of the

  8. Graphics of polar figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  9. Ionic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ferroelectricity occurs in many different kinds of materials. Many of the technologically important solids, which are ferroelectric, can be classified as ionic. Any microscopic theory of ferroelectricity must contain a description of local polarization forces. We have collaborated in the development of a theory of ionic polarization which is quite successful. Its basic assumption is that the polarization is derived from the properties of the individual ions. We have applied this theory successfully to diverse subjects as linear and nonlinear optical response, phonon dispersion, and piezoelectricity. We have developed numerical methods using the local Density approximation to calculate the multipole polarizabilities of ions when subject to various fields. We have also developed methods of calculating the nonlinear hyperpolarizability, and showed that it can be used to explain light scattering experiments. This paper elaborates on this polarization theory

  10. QMM Project. A proposal for field map measurement of the six HRS Quadrupoles in Hall A, CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonvieille, H.; Quemener, G.; Vernin, P.

    1993-12-01

    The proposed measurements of the magnetic field maps of the six HRS quadrupoles in Hall A at CEBAF is summarized. The basis of the measurement using rotating coils and a preliminary design of the apparatus are presented. (author)

  11. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  12. Polarization measurement for internal polarized gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhenyu; Ye Yunxiu; Lv Haijiang; Mao Yajun

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an introduction to internal polarized gaseous targets, polarization method, polarization measurement method and procedure. To get the total nuclear polarization of hydrogen atoms (including the polarization of the recombined hydrogen molecules) in the target cell, authors have measured the parameters relating to atomic polarization and polarized hydrogen atoms and molecules. The total polarization of the target during our measurement is P T =0.853 ± 0.036. (authors)

  13. Mapping the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  14. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  15. Research on generating various polarization-modes in polarized illumination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinping; Lin, Wumei; Fan, Zhenjie

    2013-08-01

    With the increase of the numerical aperture (NA), the polarization of light affects the imaging quality of projection lens more significantly. On the contrary, according to the mask pattern, the resolution of projection lens can be improved by using the polarized illumination. That is to say, using the corresponding polarized beam (or polarization-mode) along with the off-axis illumination will improve the resolution and the imaging quality of the of projection lens. Therefore, the research on the generation of various polarization modes and its conversion methods become more and more important. In order to realize various polarization modes in polarized illumination system, after read a lot of references, we provide a way that fitting for the illumination system with the wavelength of 193nm.Six polarization-modes and a depolarized mode are probably considered. Wave-plate stack is used to generate linearly polarization-mode, which have a higher degree polarization. In order to generate X-Y and Y-X polarization mode, the equipment consisting of four sectors of λ/2 wave plate was used. We combined 16 sectors of λ/2 wave plate which have different orientations of the "slow" axis to generate radial and azimuthal polarization. Finally, a multi-polarization control device was designed. Using the kind of multi-polarization control device which applying this method could help to choose the polarization modes conveniently and flexibility for the illumination system.

  16. Implementation of forest cover and carbon mapping in the Greater Mekong subregion and Malaysia project – A case study of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pungkul, S; Suraswasdi, C; Phonekeo, V

    2014-01-01

    The Great Mekong Subregion (GMS) contains one of the world's largest tropical forests and plays a vital role in sustainable development and provides a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, the forest in this Subregion is experiencing deforestation rates at high level due to human activities. The reduction of the forest area has negative influence to the environmental and natural resources issues, particularly, more severe disasters have occurred due to global warming and the release of the greenhouse gases. Therefore, in order to conduct forest management in the Subregion efficiently, the Forest Cover and Carbon Mapping in Greater Mekong Subregion and Malaysia project was initialized by the Asia-Pacific Network for Sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation (APFNet) with the collaboration of various research institutions including Institute of Forest Resource Information Technique (IFRIT), Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF) and the countries in Sub region and Malaysia comprises of Cambodia, the People's Republic of China (Yunnan province and Guangxi province), Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The main target of the project is to apply the intensive use of recent satellite remote sensing technology, establishing regional forest cover maps, documenting forest change processes and estimating carbon storage in the GMS and Malaysia. In this paper, the authors present the implementation of the project in Thailand and demonstrate the result of forest cover mapping in the whole country in 2005 and 2010. The result of the project will contribute towards developing efficient tools to support decision makers to clearly understand the dynamic change of the forest cover which could benefit sustainable forest resource management in Thailand and the whole Subregion

  17. Combined DC resistivity and induced polarization (DC-IP) for mapping the internal composition of a mine waste rock pile in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Christopher; Tsourlos, Panagiotis; Ramasamy, Murugan; Nivorlis, Aristeidis; Mkandawire, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Mine waste rock piles (WRPs) can contain sulfidic minerals whose interaction with oxygen and water can generate acid mine drainage (AMD). Thus, WRPs can be a long-term source of environmental pollution. Since the generation of AMD and its release into the environment is dependent on the net volume and bulk composition of waste rock, effective characterization of WRPs is necessary for successful remedial design and monitoring. In this study, a combined DC resistivity and induced polarization (DC-IP) approach was employed to characterize an AMD-generating WRP in the Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada. Two-dimensional (2D) DC-IP imaging with 6 survey lines was performed to capture the full WRP landform. 2D DC results indicated a highly heterogeneous and moderately conductive waste rock underlain by a resistive bedrock containing numerous fractures. 2D IP (chargeability) results identified several highly-chargeable regions within the waste, with normalized chargeability delineating regions specific to waste mineralogy only. Three-dimensional (3D) DC-IP imaging, using 17 parallel lines on the plateau of the pile, was then used to focus on the composition of the waste rock. The full 3D inverted DC-IP distributions were used to identify coincident and continuous zones (isosurfaces) of low resistivity (0.4 mS/m) that were inferred as generated AMD (leachate) and stored AMD (sulfides), respectively. Integrated geological, hydrogeological and geochemical data increased confidence in the geoelectrical interpretations. Knowledge on the location of potentially more reactive waste material is extremely valuable for improved long-term AMD monitoring at the WRP.

  18. Sources of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.

    1983-01-01

    Various sources of polarized neutrons are reviewed. Monoenergetic source produced with unpolarized or polarized beams, white sources of polarized neutrons, production by transmissions through polarized hydrogen targets and polarized thermal neutronsare discussed, with appropriate applications included. (U.K.)

  19. Monotone Hybrid Projection Algorithms for an Infinitely Countable Family of Lipschitz Generalized Asymptotically Quasi-Nonexpansive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharaporn Cholamjiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove a weak convergence theorem of the modified Mann iteration process for a uniformly Lipschitzian and generalized asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mapping in a uniformly convex Banach space. We also introduce two kinds of new monotone hybrid methods and obtain strong convergence theorems for an infinitely countable family of uniformly Lipschitzian and generalized asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mappings in a Hilbert space. The results improve and extend the corresponding ones announced by Kim and Xu (2006 and Nakajo and Takahashi (2003.

  20. Predicting 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Douglas, David C.; Nielson, R.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, T.L.; Stirling, I.; Mauritzen, Mette; Born, E.W.; Wiig, O.; Deweaver, E.; Serreze, Mark C.; Belikov, Stanislav; Holland, M.M.; Maslanik, J.; Aars, Jon; Bailey, D.A.; Derocher, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Projections of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) sea ice habitat distribution in the polar basin during the 21st century were developed to understand the consequences of anticipated sea ice reductions on polar bear populations. We used location data from satellitecollared polar bears and environmental data (e.g., bathymetry, distance to coastlines, and sea ice) collected from 1985 to 1995 to build resource selection functions (RSFs). RSFs described habitats that polar bears preferred in summer, autumn, winter, and spring. When applied to independent data from 1996 to 2006, the RSFs consistently identified habitats most frequently used by polar bears. We applied the RSFs to monthly maps of 21st-century sea ice concentration projected by 10 general circulation models (GCMs) used in the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, under the A1B greenhouse gas forcing scenario. Despite variation in their projections, all GCMs indicated habitat losses in the polar basin during the 21st century. Losses in the highest-valued RSF habitat (optimal habitat) were greatest in the southern seas of the polar basin, especially the Chukchi and Barents seas, and least along the Arctic Ocean shores of Banks Island to northern Greenland. Mean loss of optimal polar bear habitat was greatest during summer; from an observed 1.0 million km2 in 1985-1995 (baseline) to a projected multi-model mean of 0.32 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-68% change). Projected winter losses of polar bear habitat were less: from 1.7 million km2 in 1985-1995 to 1.4 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-17% change). Habitat losses based on GCM multi-model means may be conservative; simulated rates of habitat loss during 1985-2006 from many GCMs were less than the actual observed rates of loss. Although a reduction in the total amount of optimal habitat will likely reduce polar bear populations, exact relationships between habitat losses and population demographics remain unknown. Density and energetic

  1. The Polar Cusp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtet, J.A.; Egeland, A.

    1985-01-01

    The upper atmosphere at high latitudes is often called the ''earth's window to outer space.'' Through various electrodynamic coupling processes, as well as direct transfer of particles, many of the geophysical effects displayed are direct manifestations of phenomena occurring in deep space. The high latitude ionosphere also exerts a feedback on the regions of the magnetosphere and atmosphere to which it is coupled. Of particular interest are the sections of the near space known as the Polar Cusp. A vast portion of the Earth's magnetic field envelope is electrically connected to these regions. This geometry results in a spatial mapping of the magnetospheric processes and a focusing on the ionosphere. In the Polar Cusps, the solar wind plasma also has direct access to the upper atmosphere

  2. Discrete tomographic reconstruction of 2D polycrystal orientation maps from X-ray diffraction projections using Gibbs priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodek, L.; Knudsen, E.; Poulsen, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    discrete tomographic algorithm, applying image-modelling Gibbs priors and a homogeneity condition. The optimization of the objective function is accomplished via the Gibbs Sampler in conjunction with simulated annealing. In order to express the structure of the orientation map, the similarity...

  3. The SAURON project - XI. Stellar populations from absorption-line strength maps of 24 early-type spirals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Ganda, Katia; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; van de Ven, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    We present absorption-line strength maps of a sample of 24 representative early-type spiral galaxies, mostly of type Sa, obtained as part of the SAURON (Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae) survey of nearby galaxies using our custom-built integral-field spectrograph. Using

  4. Map of the portfolio of projects of energy efficiency and of renewable energies by the AFD group and the FFEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumie, Koulm; Briand, Claude; Ries, Alain

    2007-09-01

    The AFD (the French Agency for Development) and the FFEM (French Fund for World Environment) are involved in cooperation and partnership projects for the development of energy efficiency, notably, but not only, in developing and emerging countries. This report first proposes a classification of these projects according to a typology which comprises the concerned sectors (urban planning and housing, fuels, hydroelectricity and wind energy, electricity distribution, industries and services, transports and mobility, capacity building, multi-sector), the intervener (AFD, FFEM, and Proparco, an AFD's subsidy), the project evolution in time (number of projects, evolution of funding), the funding type (loan types, subsidy, credit line), and the geographical area. The second part discusses the conditions to start projects in energy management: legal framework, economic conditions, funding, social and environmental factors, and technical factors. Appendices propose a set of ten technical sheets which indicate and discuss conditions of success as well as obstacles for different types of projects: big dams, mini hydroelectric projects, wind energy, biomass/biogas co-generation, bio-fuels, decentralised rural electrification based on renewable energy projects, collective transports and energy efficiency in transports, development of partnerships and institutional support, multi-sector tools of investment, and carbon market

  5. SNR polarization and the direction of the magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are currently engaged in a program to map polarization in SNRs at 8.4 GHz. These results are compared with earlier Parkes 5 GHz maps to deduce the direction of magnetic field, Faraday rotation and depolarization

  6. The Boomerang Nebula: a highly polarized bipolar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.N.R.; Scarrott, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    An optical linear polarization map of a bipolar nebula is presented. Polarizations of approximately 60 per cent are observed in the optically thin lobes. The map leads to a geometry of the object consisting of a central star with an equatorial disc of dust and optically thin lobes illuminated by the central star. The grains in the disc are aligned. The object is a protoplanetary nebula. (author)

  7. YY Sex: a Polar Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabdeev, M. M.; Shimanskiy, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Tazieva, Z. R.

    2017-06-01

    We present spectroscopic investigations of a cataclysmic variable star, YY Sex. There are some uncertainties in the classification of this object. We calculate Doppler maps for Hβ and HeII λ4686Å and show that there is no sign of disk accretion in YY Sex. Consequently, we conclude that YY Sex is a polar.

  8. Comments to a polar bear population model

    OpenAIRE

    Øritsland, Nils Are

    1985-01-01

    Larsen, T. & Ugland, K. I. (Polar Research 2 n.s., 117-118) note correctly that a Leslie matrix model treats cubs and females as independent units which is not the case for polar bears. Population projections using the Leslie model with hunting mortalities added are instructive first approximations in evaluations of field data, however, and are recommended as exercises also for polar bear biologists. An APL programme for such projections is available.

  9. Polarization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Brief review is presented of the high energy polarization study including experimental data and the theoretical descriptions. The mostimportant proposals at the biggest accelerators and the crucial technical developments are also listed which may become a main-line of spin physics. 35 refs.; 10 figs.; 4 tabs

  10. Polar Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These three images were taken on three different orbits over the north polar cap in April 1999. Each shows a different part of the same ice-free trough. The left and right images are separated by a distance of more than 100 kilometers (62 miles). Note the similar layers in each image.

  11. WORLD SPATIOTEMPORAL ANALYTICS AND MAPPING PROJECT (WSTAMP: DISCOVERING, EXPLORING, AND MAPPING SPATIOTEMPORAL PATTERNS ACROSS THE WORLD’S LARGEST OPEN SORUCE DATA SETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Stewart

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of spatiotemporal (ST analytics to integrated data from major sources such as the World Bank, United Nations, and dozens of others holds tremendous potential for shedding new light on the evolution of cultural, health, economic, and geopolitical landscapes on a global level. Realizing this potential first requires an ST data model that addresses challenges in properly merging data from multiple authors, with evolving ontological perspectives, semantical differences, and changing attributes, as well as content that is textual, numeric, categorical, and hierarchical. Equally challenging is the development of analytical and visualization approaches that provide a serious exploration of this integrated data while remaining accessible to practitioners with varied backgrounds. The WSTAMP project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has yielded two major results in addressing these challenges: 1 development of the WSTAMP database, a significant advance in ST data modeling that integrates 10,000+ attributes covering over 200 nation states spanning over 50 years from over 30 major sources and 2 a novel online ST exploratory and analysis tool providing an array of modern statistical and visualization techniques for analyzing these data temporally, spatially, and spatiotemporally under a standard analytic workflow. We discuss the status of this work and report on major findings.

  12. World Spatiotemporal Analytics and Mapping Project (wstamp): Discovering, Exploring, and Mapping Spatiotemporal Patterns across the World's Largest Open Soruce Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R.; Piburn, J.; Sorokine, A.; Myers, A.; Moehl, J.; White, D.

    2015-07-01

    The application of spatiotemporal (ST) analytics to integrated data from major sources such as the World Bank, United Nations, and dozens of others holds tremendous potential for shedding new light on the evolution of cultural, health, economic, and geopolitical landscapes on a global level. Realizing this potential first requires an ST data model that addresses challenges in properly merging data from multiple authors, with evolving ontological perspectives, semantical differences, and changing attributes, as well as content that is textual, numeric, categorical, and hierarchical. Equally challenging is the development of analytical and visualization approaches that provide a serious exploration of this integrated data while remaining accessible to practitioners with varied backgrounds. The WSTAMP project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has yielded two major results in addressing these challenges: 1) development of the WSTAMP database, a significant advance in ST data modeling that integrates 10,000+ attributes covering over 200 nation states spanning over 50 years from over 30 major sources and 2) a novel online ST exploratory and analysis tool providing an array of modern statistical and visualization techniques for analyzing these data temporally, spatially, and spatiotemporally under a standard analytic workflow. We discuss the status of this work and report on major findings.

  13. World Spatiotemporal Analytics and Mapping Project (WSTAMP): Discovering, Exploring, and Mapping Spatiotemporal Patterns across the World s Largest Open Source Geographic Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Robert N [ORNL; Piburn, Jesse O [ORNL; Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL; Myers, Aaron T [ORNL; White, Devin A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The application of spatiotemporal (ST) analytics to integrated data from major sources such as the World Bank, United Nations, and dozens of others holds tremendous potential for shedding new light on the evolution of cultural, health, economic, and geopolitical landscapes on a global level. Realizing this potential first requires an ST data model that addresses challenges in properly merging data from multiple authors, with evolving ontological perspectives, semantical differences, and changing attributes, as well as content that is textual, numeric, categorical, and hierarchical. Equally challenging is the development of analytical and visualization approaches that provide a serious exploration of this integrated data while remaining accessible to practitioners with varied backgrounds. The WSTAMP project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has yielded two major results in addressing these challenges: 1) development of the WSTAMP database, a significant advance in ST data modeling that integrates 10,000+ attributes covering over 200 nation states spanning over 50 years from over 30 major sources and 2) a novel online ST exploratory and analysis tool providing an array of modern statistical and visualization techniques for analyzing these data temporally, spatially, and spatiotemporally under a standard analytic workflow. We discuss the status of this work and report on major findings. Acknowledgment Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6285, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U. S. Department of Energy under contract no. DEAC05-00OR22725. Copyright This manuscript has been authored by employees of UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Accordingly, the United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or

  14. Diagnosing and mapping pulmonary emphysema on X-ray projection images: incremental value of grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, Felix G; Schwab, Felix; Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Herzen, Julia; Achterhold, Klaus; Auweter, Sigrid; Bamberg, Fabian; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Bohla, Alexander; Eickelberg, Oliver; Loewen, Rod; Gifford, Martin; Ruth, Ronald; Reiser, Maximilian F; Pfeiffer, Franz; Nikolaou, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging can increase the sensitivity of X-ray projection images in the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema and allow for a more accurate assessment of emphysema distribution. Lungs from three mice with pulmonary emphysema and three healthy mice were imaged ex vivo using a laser-driven compact synchrotron X-ray source. Median signal intensities of transmission (T), dark-field (V) and a combined parameter (normalized scatter) were compared between emphysema and control group. To determine the diagnostic value of each parameter in differentiating between healthy and emphysematous lung tissue, a receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed both on a per-pixel and a per-individual basis. Parametric maps of emphysema distribution were generated using transmission, dark-field and normalized scatter signal and correlated with histopathology. Transmission values relative to water were higher for emphysematous lungs than for control lungs (1.11 vs. 1.06, pemphysema provides color-coded parametric maps, which show the best correlation with histopathology. In a murine model, the complementary information provided by X-ray transmission and dark-field images adds incremental diagnostic value in detecting pulmonary emphysema and visualizing its regional distribution as compared to conventional X-ray projections.

  15. BaseMap

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The goal of this project is to provide a convenient base map that can be used as a starting point for CA projects. It's simple, but designed to work at a number of...

  16. North Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour. In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime. The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  17. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT: THE M BH-σ* RELATION FOR REVERBERATION-MAPPED ACTIVE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Treu, Tommaso; Bennert, Vardha N.; Barth, Aaron J.; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Bentz, Misty C.; Wright, Shelley A.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Martini, Paul; Canalizo, Gabriela; Gates, Elinor; Greene, Jenny; Malkan, Matthew A.; Stern, Daniel; Minezaki, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the black hole mass versus stellar velocity dispersion (M BH -σ * ) relation of active galaxies, we measured the velocity dispersions of a sample of local Seyfert 1 galaxies, for which we have recently determined black hole masses using reverberation mapping. For most objects, stellar velocity dispersions were measured from high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra centered on the Ca II triplet region (∼8500 A), obtained at the Keck, Palomar, and Lick Observatories. For two objects, in which the Ca II triplet region was contaminated by nuclear emission, the measurement was based on high-quality H-band spectra obtained with the OH-Suppressing Infrared Imaging Spectrograph at the Keck-II telescope. Combining our new measurements with data from the literature, we assemble a sample of 24 active galaxies with stellar velocity dispersions and reverberation-based black hole mass measurements in the range of black hole mass 10 6 BH /M sun 9 . We use this sample to obtain reverberation-mapping constraints on the slope and intrinsic scatter of the M BH -σ * relation of active galaxies. Assuming a constant virial coefficient f for the reverberation-mapping black hole masses, we find a slope β = 3.55 ± 0.60 and the intrinsic scatter σ int = 0.43 ± 0.08 dex in the relation log(M BH /M sun ) = α + β log(σ * /200 km s -1 ), which are consistent with those found for quiescent galaxies. We derive an updated value of the virial coefficient f by finding the value which places the reverberation masses in best agreement with the M BH -σ * relation of quiescent galaxies; using the quiescent M BH -σ * relation determined by Gueltekin et al., we find log f = 0.72 +0.09 -0.10 with an intrinsic scatter of 0.44 ± 0.07 dex. No strong correlations between f and parameters connected to the physics of accretion (such as the Eddington ratio or line-shape measurements) are found. The uncertainty of the virial coefficient remains one of the main sources of the

  18. CMB polarization at large angular scales: Data analysis of the POLAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, Christopher W.; Keating, Brian G.; Oliveira-Costa, Angelica de; Tegmark, Max; Timbie, Peter T.

    2003-01-01

    The coming flood of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments, spurred by the recent detection of CMB polarization by the DASI and WMAP instruments, will be confronted by many new analysis tasks specific to polarization. For the analysis of CMB polarization data sets, the devil is truly in the details. With this in mind, we present details of the data analysis for the POLAR experiment, which recently led to the tightest upper limits on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation at large angular scales. We discuss the data selection process, map-making algorithms, offset removal, and likelihood analysis which were used to find upper limits on the polarization. Stated using the modern convention for reporting CMB Stokes parameters, these limits are 5.0 μK on both E- and B-type polarization at 95% confidence. Finally, we discuss simulations used to test our analysis techniques and to probe the fundamental limitations of the experiment

  19. Lunar true polar wander inferred from polar hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, M A; Miller, R S; Keane, J T; Laneuville, M; Paige, D A; Matsuyama, I; Lawrence, D J; Crotts, A; Poston, M J

    2016-03-24

    The earliest dynamic and thermal history of the Moon is not well understood. The hydrogen content of deposits near the lunar poles may yield insight into this history, because these deposits (which are probably composed of water ice) survive only if they remain in permanent shadow. If the orientation of the Moon has changed, then the locations of the shadowed regions will also have changed. The polar hydrogen deposits have been mapped by orbiting neutron spectrometers, and their observed spatial distribution does not match the expected distribution of water ice inferred from present-day lunar temperatures. This finding is in contrast to the distribution of volatiles observed in similar thermal environments at Mercury's poles. Here we show that polar hydrogen preserves evidence that the spin axis of the Moon has shifted: the hydrogen deposits are antipodal and displaced equally from each pole along opposite longitudes. From the direction and magnitude of the inferred reorientation, and from analysis of the moments of inertia of the Moon, we hypothesize that this change in the spin axis, known as true polar wander, was caused by a low-density thermal anomaly beneath the Procellarum region. Radiogenic heating within this region resulted in the bulk of lunar mare volcanism and altered the density structure of the Moon, changing its moments of inertia. This resulted in true polar wander consistent with the observed remnant polar hydrogen. This thermal anomaly still exists and, in part, controls the current orientation of the Moon. The Procellarum region was most geologically active early in lunar history, which implies that polar wander initiated billions of years ago and that a large portion of the measured polar hydrogen is ancient, recording early delivery of water to the inner Solar System. Our hypothesis provides an explanation for the antipodal distribution of lunar polar hydrogen, and connects polar volatiles to the geologic and geophysical evolution of the Moon

  20. DMSP SSM/I Daily and Monthly Polar Gridded Bootstrap Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DMSP SSM/I Daily and Monthly Polar Gridded Bootstrap Sea Ice Concentrations in polar stereographic projection currently include Defense Meteorological Satellite...

  1. Polar Applications of Spaceborne Scatterometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Wind scatterometers were originally developed for observation of near-surface winds over the ocean. They retrieve wind indirectly by measuring the normalized radar cross section (σo) of the surface, and estimating the wind via a geophysical model function relating σo to the vector wind. The σo measurements have proven to be remarkably capable in studies of the polar regions where they can map snow cover; detect the freeze/thaw state of forest, tundra, and ice; map and classify sea ice; and track icebergs. Further, a long time series of scatterometer σo observations is available to support climate studies. In addition to fundamental scientific research, scatterometer data are operationally used for sea-ice mapping to support navigation. Scatterometers are, thus, invaluable tools for monitoring the polar regions. In this paper, a brief review of some of the polar applications of spaceborne wind scatterometer data is provided. The paper considers both C-band and Ku-band scatterometers, and the relative merits of fan-beam and pencil-beam scatterometers in polar remote sensing are discussed. PMID:28919936

  2. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT: VELOCITY-DELAY MAPS FROM THE MAXIMUM-ENTROPY METHOD FOR Arp 151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Barth, Aaron J.; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Horne, Keith; Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Treu, Tommaso; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Gates, Elinor L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Minezaki, Takeo; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2010-01-01

    We present velocity-delay maps for optical H I, He I, and He II recombination lines in Arp 151, recovered by fitting a reverberation model to spectrophotometric monitoring data using the maximum-entropy method. H I response is detected over the range 0-15 days, with the response confined within the virial envelope. The Balmer-line maps have similar morphologies but exhibit radial stratification, with progressively longer delays for Hγ to Hβ to Hα. The He I and He II response is confined within 1-2 days. There is a deficit of prompt response in the Balmer-line cores but strong prompt response in the red wings. Comparison with simple models identifies two classes that reproduce these features: free-falling gas and a half-illuminated disk with a hot spot at small radius on the receding lune. Symmetrically illuminated models with gas orbiting in an inclined disk or an isotropic distribution of randomly inclined circular orbits can reproduce the virial structure but not the observed asymmetry. Radial outflows are also largely ruled out by the observed asymmetry. A warped-disk geometry provides a physically plausible mechanism for the asymmetric illumination and hot spot features. Simple estimates show that a disk in the broad-line region of Arp 151 could be unstable to warping induced by radiation pressure. Our results demonstrate the potential power of detailed modeling combined with monitoring campaigns at higher cadence to characterize the gas kinematics and physical processes that give rise to the broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei.

  3. Real-time navigation system for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients using projection mapping with indocyanine green fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masahiro; Takeuchi, Megumi; Suzuki, Eiji; Sato, Fumiaki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Torii, Masae; Kawaguchi-Sakita, Nobuko; Nishino, Hiroto; Seo, Satoru; Hatano, Etsuro; Toi, Masakazu

    2018-05-09

    Inability to visualize indocyanine green fluorescence images in the surgical field limits the application of current near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIR) systems for real-time navigation during sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in breast cancer patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Medical Imaging Projection System (MIPS), which uses active projection mapping, for SLN biopsy. A total of 56 patients (59 procedures) underwent SLN biopsy using the MIPS between March 2016 and November 2017. After SLN biopsy using the MIPS, residual SLNs were removed using a conventional NIR camera and/or radioisotope method. The primary endpoint of this study was identification rate of SLNs using the MIPS. In all procedures, at least one SLN was detected by the MIPS, giving an SLN identification rate of 100% [95% confidence interval (CI) 94-100%]. SLN biopsy was successfully performed without operating lights in all procedures. In total, 3 positive SLNs were excised using MIPS, but were not included in the additional SLNs excised by other methods. The median number of SLNs excised using the MIPS was 3 (range 1-7). Of procedures performed after preoperative systemic therapy, the median number of SLNs excised using the MIPS was 3 (range 2-6). The MIPS is effective in detecting SLNs in patients with breast cancer, providing continuous and accurate projection of fluorescence signals in the surgical field, without need for operating lights, and could be useful in real-time navigation surgery for SLN biopsy.

  4. Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    18 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-outlined polygons on a frost-covered surface in the south polar region of Mars. In summer, this surface would not be bright and the polygons would not have dark outlines--these are a product of the presence of seasonal frost. Location near: 77.2oS, 204.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  5. Next generation sub-millimeter wave focal plane array coupling concepts: an ESA TRP project to develop multichroic focal plane pixels for future CMB polarization experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, N.; Bucher, M.; De Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Deo, P.; DePetris, M.; Doherty, S.; Ghribi, A.; Gradziel, M.; Kuzmin, L.; Maffei, B.; Mahashabde, S.; Masi, S.; Murphy, J. A.; Noviello, F.; O'Sullivan, C.; Pagano, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Robinson, M.; Stompor, R.; Tartari, A.; van der Vorst, M.; Verhoeve, P.

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this activity is to develop new focal plane coupling array concepts and technologies that optimise the coupling from reflector optics to the large number of detectors for next generation sub millimetre wave telescopes particularly targeting measurement of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In this 18 month TRP programme the consortium are tasked with developing, manufacturing and experimentally verifying a prototype multichroic pixel which would be suitable for the large focal plane arrays which will be demanded to reach the required sensitivity of future CMB polarization missions. One major development was to have multichroic operation to potentially reduce the required focal plane size of a CMB mission. After research in the optimum telescope design and definition of requirements based on a stringent science case review, a number of compact focal plane architecture concepts were investigated before a pixel demonstrator consisting of a planar mesh lens feeding a backend Resonant Cold Electron Bolometer RCEB for filtering and detection of the dual frequency signal was planned for manufacture and test. In this demonstrator the frequencies of the channels was chosen to be 75 and 105 GHz in the w band close to the peak CMB signal. In the next year the prototype breadboards will be developed to test the beams produced by the manufactured flat lenses fed by a variety of antenna configurations and the spectral response of the RCEBs will also be verified.

  6. The evolving Alaska mapping program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P.D.; O'Brien, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the development of mapping in Alaska, the current status of the National Mapping Program, and future plans for expanding and improving the mapping coverage. Research projects with Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Return Vidicon imagery and real- and synthetic-aperture radar; image mapping programs; digital mapping; remote sensing projects; the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act; and the Alaska High-Altitude Aerial Photography Program are also discussed.-from Authors

  7. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Mapping filmmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus ...... is on their learning practices and how they create ‘learning paths’ in relation to resources in diverse learning contexts, whether formal, non-formal and informal contexts.......This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus...

  9. Polarization Characterization of a Multi-Moded Feed Structure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Polarization Characterization of a Multi-Moded Feed Structure projects characterize the polarization response of a multi-moded feed horn as an innovative...

  10. Magnetic Polarity Stratigraphy and Rock Magnetic Data From the Continuous Cored Record of Triassic Continental Environmental Change, the Colorado Plateau Coring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissman, J. W.; McIntosh, J.; Buhedma, H. M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the fact that the Triassic Period (ca. 251.9-201.3 Ma) is bound by two of Earth's largest mass extinctions, experienced giant bolide impacts and eruption of three large igneous provinces, and witnessed evolution of the main components of modern tetrapod communities, the time interval has sparse geochronologic calibration. The US NSF- and ICDP-funded coring of Phase 1 of the CPCP was completed in 2013, with the recovery of two major cores (6.35 cm diameter: 1A, 518m length and 2B, 253m; 31km apart) from the Petrified Forest National Park spanning the Chinle and Moenkopi fms. Core 1A has been fully sampled, with specimens obtained either by drilling or by extraction of core fragments and packing in ceramic boxes. Specimens are subjected to progressive thermal demagnetization or a combination of alternating field (AF) followed by thermal treatment. In several cases, specimens were extracted from each core segment to test for internal consistency. Chinle hematitic mudstones and siltstones have NRM intensities between 130 to 0.5 mA/m, with bulk susceptibilities from 2 x 10-2 to 5 x 10-5 SI units. More indurated hematitic siltstones/ medium sandstones of the Moenkopi Fm have NRM intensities and bulk susceptibilities that are far less variable (NRM: 9.0 to 1.2 mA/m, MS: 3.0 X 10-4 and 0.5 x 10-5 SI vol). Thermal demagnetization typically isolates magnetizations of N declination and shallow inclination (interpreted as normal polarity) and antipodes (reverse) (image), a polarity stratigraphy is being compiled for much of the section. Response is typically more interpretable for very hematitic Chinle mudstone sections and most Moenkopi rocks. Coarser grained, less hematitic Chinle strata rarely yield interpretable results, likely due to coarse-grained detrital magnetite, and it is likely that these intervals will not yield robust polarity information. Some core segments yield well-resolved magnetizations that are inconsistent with a Triassic field and we suspect

  11. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  12. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  13. Polar crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makosinski, S.

    1981-01-01

    In many applications polar cranes have to be repeatedly positioned with high accuracy. A guidance system is disclosed which has two pairs of guides. Each guide consists of two rollers carried by a sheave rotatable mounted on the crane bridge, the rollers being locatable one on each side of a guideway, e.g. the circular track on which the bridge runs. The pairs of guides are interconnected by respective rope loops which pass around and are locked to the respective pairs of sheaves in such a manner that movement of one guide results in equal movement of the other guide in a sense to maintain the repeatability of positioning of the centre of the bridge. A hydraulically-linked guide system is also described. (author)

  14. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT: BROAD-LINE REGION RADII AND BLACK HOLE MASSES FROM REVERBERATION MAPPING OF Hβ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Barth, Aaron J.; Baliber, Nairn; Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Greene, Jenny E.; Hidas, Marton G.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Hiner, Kyle D.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Lee, Nicholas; Li, Weidong; Serduke, Frank J. D.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Steele, Thea N.; Gates, Elinor L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Minezaki, Takeo; Sakata, Yu

    2009-01-01

    We have recently completed a 64-night spectroscopic monitoring campaign at the Lick Observatory 3-m Shane telescope with the aim of measuring the masses of the black holes in 12 nearby (z 6 -10 7 M sun and also the well-studied nearby active galactic nucleus (AGN) NGC 5548. Nine of the objects in the sample (including NGC 5548) showed optical variability of sufficient strength during the monitoring campaign to allow for a time lag to be measured between the continuum fluctuations and the response to these fluctuations in the broad Hβ emission. We present here the light curves for all the objects in this sample and the subsequent Hβ time lags for the nine objects where these measurements were possible. The Hβ lag time is directly related to the size of the broad-line region (BLR) in AGNs, and by combining the Hβ lag time with the measured width of the Hβ emission line in the variable part of the spectrum, we determine the virial mass of the central supermassive black hole in these nine AGNs. The absolute calibration of the black hole masses is based on the normalization derived by Onken et al., which brings the masses determined by reverberation mapping into agreement with the local M BH -σ * relationship for quiescent galaxies. We also examine the time lag response as a function of velocity across the Hβ line profile for six of the AGNs. The analysis of four leads to rather ambiguous results with relatively flat time lags as a function of velocity. However, SBS 1116+583A exhibits a symmetric time lag response around the line center reminiscent of simple models for circularly orbiting BLR clouds, and Arp 151 shows an asymmetric profile that is most easily explained by a simple gravitational infall model. Further investigation will be necessary to fully understand the constraints placed on the physical models of the BLR by the velocity-resolved response in these objects.

  15. Polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzzelli, A; Cabella, P; De Gasperis, G; Vittorio, N

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present an extension of the ROMA map-making code for data analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background polarization, with particular attention given to the inflationary polarization B-modes. The new algorithm takes into account a possible cross- correlated noise component among the different detectors of a CMB experiment. We tested the code on the observational data of the BOOMERanG (2003) experiment and we show that we are provided with a better estimate of the power spectra, in particular the error bars of the BB spectrum are smaller up to 20% for low multipoles. We point out the general validity of the new method. A possible future application is the LSPE balloon experiment, devoted to the observation of polarization at large angular scales. (paper)

  16. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, and shallow aquifers and confining units; Excel spread sheet with core names, coordinates, and data co, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize...

  17. Geometric invariant theory for polarized curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Gilberto; Melo, Margarida; Viviani, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate GIT quotients of polarized curves. More specifically, we study the GIT problem for the Hilbert and Chow schemes of curves of degree d and genus g in a projective space of dimension d-g, as d decreases with respect to g. We prove that the first three values of d at which the GIT quotients change are given by d=a(2g-2) where a=2, 3.5, 4. We show that, for a>4, L. Caporaso's results hold true for both Hilbert and Chow semistability. If 3.5maps to the moduli stack of weakly-pseudo-stable curves. If 2map to the moduli stack of pseudo-stable curves. We also analyze in detail the critical values a=3.5 and a=4, where the Hilbert semistable locus is strictly smaller than the Chow semistable locus. As an application, we obtain three compactications of the universal Jacobian over the moduli space of stable curves, weakly-pseudo-stable curves and pseu...

  18. We Must Invest in Applied Knowledge of Computational Neurosciences and Neuroinformatics as an Important Future in Malaysia: The Malaysian Brain Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumari, Putra; Idris, Zamzuri; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2017-03-01

    The Academy of Sciences Malaysia and the Malaysian Industry-Government group for High Technology has been working hard to project the future of big data and neurotechnology usage up to the year 2050. On the 19 September 2016, the International Brain Initiative was announced by US Under Secretary of State Thomas Shannon at a meeting that accompanied the United Nations' General Assembly in New York City. This initiative was seen as an important effort but deemed costly for developing countries. At a concurrent meeting hosted by the US National Science Foundation at Rockefeller University, numerous countries discussed this massive project, which would require genuine collaboration between investigators in the realms of neuroethics. Malaysia's readiness to embark on using big data in the field of brain, mind and neurosciences is to prepare for the 4th Industrial Revolution which is an important investment for the country's future. The development of new strategies has also been encouraged by the involvement of the Society of Brain Mapping and Therapeutics, USA and the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility.

  19. Polarized protons at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Various aspects of the project of modifying the Brookhaven AGS for the production of polarized proton beams are discussed. It is observed that pure spin state cross sections are of great importance in many investigations since differences between spin states are frequently significant. Financial and technical aspects of the modification of the Brookhaven accelerator are also discussed

  20. Superconducting polarizing magnet for a movable polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchenko, N.G.; Bartenev, V.D.; Blinov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    The superconducting polarizing magnet was constructed for the JINR (Dubna) movable polarized target (MPT) with working volume 200 mm long and 30 mm in diameter. The magnet provides a polarizing magnetic field up to 6 T in the centre with the uniformity of 4.5 x 10 -4 in the working volume of the target. The magnet contains a main solenoidal winding 558 mm long and 206/144 mm in diameters, and compensating and correcting winding placed at its ends. The windings are made of a NbTi wire, impregnated with the epoxy resin and placed in the horizontal cryostat. The diameter of the 'warm' aperture of the magnet cryostat is 96 mm. The design and technology of the magnet winding are described. Results of the magnetic field map measurements, using a NMR-magnetometer are given. A similar magnet constructed at DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay (France), represented a model for the present development. The MPT array is installed in the beam line of polarized neutrons produced by break-up of polarized deuterons extracted from the synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies (LHE), JINR (Dubna)

  1. Minimising street work disruption by mapping cavities derived from 3D GPR-data: a new sewerage project in Torrente (Valencia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Ana; Garcia, Francisco; Ramirez, Manuel; Benlloch, Javier

    2015-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar is usually employed for non-destructive detection of cavities in karst areas and road maintenance. This paper describes the inspection for cavity detection in a street located in Torrente (Valencia, Spain) where a new sewerage project was planned. Torrente population growth (more than 80,000 inhabitants last year) has caused urban development southwards from its downtown. According to municipality geologic configuration, new urbanized areas are located in mountains composed of limestone with presence of karst systems. During excavation work for a sewerage system installation, a 4 x 2 x 1.5 m shallow cave was found in one planned street. For this reason, digging activities were stopped and a GPR survey was carried out on the street. A 1x1 m grid was collected using a GSSI SIR-3000 equipment. A 400 MHz frequency antenna was used for reaching 2.5 m approx. depth, attending the characteristics of the discovered cave and the excavation project depth. GPR records were calibrated in situ, thanks to the unearthed cavity. The 3D GPR-data interpretation mapped several caves only on one side of the street. The detected cavities coincided with the sewerage system layout. These underground spaces were isolated from each other, as small individual karst caves. The outcomes of this study allowed the modification of the sewerage project. Therefore, the sewerage system layout was moved to the other side of the street where no cavities were detected with the GPR survey. GPR is proved to be an efficient tool to be taken into consideration by civil engineers and architects for designing new infrastructures (e.g. sewerage systems) in urban planning areas. We conclude GPR helps minimising cost, time and inconveniences to neighbourhood during excavation works, especially in cities.

  2. A spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection map for patient dose evaluation: A new first line patient quality assurance tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Weigang; Graff, Pierre; Boettger, Thomas; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); and others

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To develop a spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection (DD-MIP) as an online patient dose evaluation tool for visualizing the dose differences between the planning dose and dose on the treatment day. Methods: Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT) images acquired on the treatment day are used for generating the dose difference index. Each index is represented by different colors for underdose, acceptable, and overdose regions. A maximal intensity projection (MIP) algorithm is developed to compress all the information of an arbitrary 3D dose difference index into a 2D DD-MIP image. In such an algorithm, a distance transformation is generated based on the planning CT. Then, two new volumes representing the overdose and underdose regions of the dose difference index are encoded with the distance transformation map. The distance-encoded indices of each volume are normalized using the skin distance obtained on the planning CT. After that, two MIPs are generated based on the underdose and overdose volumes with green-to-blue and green-to-red lookup tables, respectively. Finally, the two MIPs are merged with an appropriate transparency level and rendered in planning CT images. Results: The spatially encoded DD-MIP was implemented in a dose-guided radiotherapy prototype and tested on 33 MVCBCT images from six patients. The user can easily establish the threshold for the overdose and underdose. A 3% difference between the treatment and planning dose was used as the threshold in the study; hence, the DD-MIP shows red or blue color for the dose difference >3% or {<=}3%, respectively. With such a method, the overdose and underdose regions can be visualized and distinguished without being overshadowed by superficial dose differences. Conclusions: A DD-MIP algorithm was developed that compresses information from 3D into a single or two orthogonal projections while hinting the user whether the dose difference is on the skin surface or deeper.

  3. A spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection map for patient dose evaluation: a new first line patient quality assurance tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weigang; Graff, Pierre; Boettger, Thomas; Pouliot, Jean

    2011-04-01

    To develop a spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection (DD-MIP) as an online patient dose evaluation tool for visualizing the dose differences between the planning dose and dose on the treatment day. Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT) images acquired on the treatment day are used for generating the dose difference index. Each index is represented by different colors for underdose, acceptable, and overdose regions. A maximal intensity projection (MIP) algorithm is developed to compress all the information of an arbitrary 3D dose difference index into a 2D DD-MIP image. In such an algorithm, a distance transformation is generated based on the planning CT. Then, two new volumes representing the overdose and underdose regions of the dose difference index are encoded with the distance transformation map. The distance-encoded indices of each volume are normalized using the skin distance obtained on the planning CT. After that, two MIPs are generated based on the underdose and overdose volumes with green-to-blue and green-to-red lookup tables, respectively. Finally, the two MIPs are merged with an appropriate transparency level and rendered in planning CT images. The spatially encoded DD-MIP was implemented in a dose-guided radiotherapy prototype and tested on 33 MVCBCT images from six patients. The user can easily establish the threshold for the overdose and underdose. A 3% difference between the treatment and planning dose was used as the threshold in the study; hence, the DD-MIP shows red or blue color for the dose difference > 3% or < or = 3%, respectively. With such a method, the overdose and underdose regions can be visualized and distinguished without being overshadowed by superficial dose differences. A DD-MIP algorithm was developed that compresses information from 3D into a single or two orthogonal projections while hinting the user whether the dose difference is on the skin surface or deeper.

  4. Modeling optical and UV polarization of AGNs. IV. Polarization timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Lobos, P. A.; Goosmann, R. W.; Marin, F.; Savić, D.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Optical observations cannot resolve the structure of active galactic nuclei (AGN), and a unified model for AGN was inferred mostly from indirect methods, such as spectroscopy and variability studies. Optical reverberation mapping allowed us to constrain the spatial dimension of the broad emission line region and thereby to measure the mass of supermassive black holes. Recently, reverberation was also applied to the polarized signal emerging from different AGN components. In principle, this should allow us to measure the spatial dimensions of the sub-parsec reprocessing media. Aim. We conduct numerical modeling of polarization reverberation and provide theoretical predictions for the polarization time lag induced by different AGN components. The model parameters are adjusted to the observational appearance of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. Methods: We modeled scattering-induced polarization and tested different geometries for the circumnuclear dust component. Our tests included the effects of clumpiness and different dust prescriptions. To further extend the model, we also explored the effects of additional ionized winds stretched along the polar direction, and of an equatorial scattering ring that is responsible for the polarization angle observed in pole-on AGN. The simulations were run using a time-dependent version of the STOKES code. Results: Our modeling confirms the previously found polarization characteristics as a function of the observer`s viewing angle. When the dust adopts a flared-disk geometry, the lags reveal a clear difference between type 1 and type 2 AGN. This distinction is less clear for a torus geometry where the time lag is more sensitive to the geometry and optical depth of the inner surface layers of the funnel. The presence of a scattering equatorial ring and ionized outflows increased the recorded polarization time lags, and the polar outflows smooths out dependence on viewing angle, especially for the higher optical depth of the

  5. PolarHub: A Global Hub for Polar Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a NSF project in developing a large-scale web crawler PolarHub to discover automatically the distributed polar dataset in the format of OGC web services (OWS) in the cyberspace. PolarHub is a machine robot; its goal is to visit as many webpages as possible to find those containing information about polar OWS, extract this information and store it into the backend data repository. This is a very challenging task given huge data volume of webpages on the Web. Three unique features was introduced in PolarHub to make it distinctive from earlier crawler solutions: (1) a multi-task, multi-user, multi-thread support to the crawling tasks; (2) an extensive use of thread pool and Data Access Object (DAO) design patterns to separate persistent data storage and business logic to achieve high extendibility of the crawler tool; (3) a pattern-matching based customizable crawling algorithm to support discovery of multi-type geospatial web services; and (4) a universal and portable client-server communication mechanism combining a server-push and client pull strategies for enhanced asynchronous processing. A series of experiments were conducted to identify the impact of crawling parameters to the overall system performance. The geographical distribution pattern of all PolarHub identified services is also demonstrated. We expect this work to make a major contribution to the field of geospatial information retrieval and geospatial interoperability, to bridge the gap between data provider and data consumer, and to accelerate polar science by enhancing the accessibility and reusability of adequate polar data.

  6. Open land use map

    OpenAIRE

    Mildorf, T.; Charvát, K.; Jezek, J.; Templer, Simon; Malewski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Open Land Use Map is an initiative that has been started by the Plan4business project and that will be extended as part of the SDI4Apps project in the future. This service aims to create an improved worldwide land use map. The initial map will be prepared using the CORINE Land Cover, Global Cover dataset and Open Street Map. Contributors, mainly volunteers, will able to change the geometry and assign up-to-date land use according to the HILUCS specification. For certain regions more detailed ...

  7. Graphics of polar figure; Graficado de figura polar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R

    1991-11-15

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  8. Nuclear polarization and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaettli, H.

    1985-01-01

    Different possibilities for the use of polarized nuclei in thermal neutron scattering on condensed matter are reviewed. Highly polarized nuclei are the starting point for studying dipolar magnetic order. Systematic measurement of spin-dependent scattering lengths is possible on samples with polarized nuclei. Highly polarized hydrogen should help to unravel complicated structures in chemistry and biology. The use of polarized proton targets as an energy-independent neutron polarizer in the thermal and epithermal region should be considered afresh. (author)

  9. Strong Control of Salts on Near Surface Liquid Water Content in a High Polar Desert Indicated by Near Surface Resistivity Mapping with a Helicopter-Borne TEM Sensor, Lower Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Auken, E.; Mikucki, J.; Myers, K. F.; Dugan, H.; Doran, P. T.; Virginia, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Closed depressions in the Lower Taylor Valley (McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica) have near surface (top 5m) electrical resistivity that is lower by about an order of magnitude than the resistivity of nearby slopes and ridges (100s of ohm-m vs. 1000s). We interpret this spatial pattern as being due to long term concentration of salts carried by liquid water and/or deliquescent vapor fronts. High concentration of salts in the top decimeters to meters beneath the surface may prolong the existence and abundance of liquid water in this otherwise very cold and dry high polar desert. Due to its connections with life and chemical transport, liquid water is a much studied feature in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. This setting can be used as an analogue for similar features on the surface of Mars, where liquid water tracks have been observed and are believed to be controlled by eutectic brines. Our study demonstrates the utility of mapping at a regional scale via helicopter-borne Transient EM. Airborne EM covers more ground and can measure deeper than surface-based measurements, at the expense of resolution. This allows creating valley-scale datasets which could not feasibly be collected on the ground. Our remote measurements complement physical samples that indicate that soluble salts concentrate in certain areas of surface soil where water moves ions and is later removed by evaporation or sublimation. In areas where we measured low resistivity, the integrated liquid water fraction in the top 5m may be a few to several percent by volume, equivalent to a few or several dozens of cm of water layer thickness. This estimate assumes that the interstitial waters have very low resistivity, comparable to seawater or hypersaline brines at freezing (0.2-0.35 ohm-m). If soil water was considerably fresher than this, liquid water content would have to reach dozens of percent throughout the top 5m for bulk resistivities to drop to 100s of ohm-m. We consider the latter case to be unlikely as

  10. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbestel, Vera; De Henauw, Stefaan; Maes, Lea; Haerens, Leen; Mårild, Staffan; Eiben, Gabriele; Lissner, Lauren; Moreno, Luis A; Frauca, Natalia Lascorz; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Kovács, Eva; Konstabel, Kenn; Tornaritis, Michael; Gallois, Katharina; Hassel, Holger; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. The intervention mapping protocol (IMP) was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity by using to the intervention mapping heuristic. The

  11. Neutron polarization in polarized 3He targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Payne, G.L.; Bernstein, A.M.; Chupp, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    Simple formulas for the neutron and proton polarizations in polarized 3 He targets are derived assuming (1) quasielastic final states; (2) no final-state interactions; (3) no meson-exchange currents; (4) large momentum transfers; (5) factorizability of 3 He SU(4) response-function components. Numerical results from a wide variety of bound-state solutions of the Faddeev equations are presented. It is found that this simple model predicts the polarization of neutrons in a fully polarized 3 He target to be 87%, while protons should have a slight residual polarization of -2.7%. Numerical studies show that this model works very well for quasielastic electron scattering

  12. Representation of pheromones, interspecific signals, and plant odors in higher olfactory centers; mapping physiologically identified antennal-lobe projection neurons in the male heliothine moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Cheng eZhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the primary olfactory centre of the moth brain, for example, a few enlarged glomeruli situated dorsally, at the entrance of the antennal nerve, are devoted to information about female-produced substances whereas a set of more numerous ordinary glomeruli receives input about general odorants. Heliothine moths are particularly suitable for studying central chemosensory mechanisms not only because of their anatomically separated systems for plant odours and pheromones but also due to their use of female-produced substances in communication across the species. Thus, the male-specific system of heliothine moths includes two sub arrangements, one ensuring attraction and mating behavior by carrying information about pheromones released by conspecifics, and the other reproductive isolation via signal information emitted from heterospecifics. Based on previous tracing experiments, a general chemotopic organization of the male-specific glomeruli has been demonstrated in a number of heliothine species. As compared to the well explored organization of the moth antennal lobe, demonstrating a non-overlapping representation of the biologically relevant stimuli, less is known about the neural arrangement residing at the following synaptic level, i.e. the mushroom body calyces and the lateral horn. In the study presented here, we have labelled physiologically characterized antennal-lobe projection neurons in males of the two heliothine species, Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa assulta, for the purpose of mapping their target regions in the protocerebrum. In order to compare the representation of plant odours, pheromones, and interspecific signals in the higher brain regions of each species, we have created standard brain atlases and registered three-dimensional models of distinct uniglomerular projection neuron types into the relevant atlas.

  13. Time reversal tests in polarized neutron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Koichiro; Bowman, J.D.; Crawford, B.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In recent years the nuclear weak interaction has been studied in the compound nucleus via parity violation. The observed parity-violating effects are strongly enhanced by nuclear structure. The predictions are that the interaction of polarized neutrons with polarized nuclear targets could be also used to perform sensitive tests of time-reversal-violation because of the nuclear enhancements. The author has designed experiments to search for time-reversal violation in neutron-nucleus interactions. He has also developed techniques to polarize neutrons with laser-polarized 3 He gas targets. Using the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, he has performed two experiments at LANSCE: an absolute neutron beam polarization measurement with an accuracy of 0.2--0.3% and a neutron spin-rotation measurement on a 139 La sample

  14. Ortho-Babinet polarization-interrogating filter: an interferometric approach to polarization measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Delden, Jay S

    2003-07-15

    A novel, interferometric, polarization-interrogating filter assembly and method for the simultaneous measurement of all four Stokes parameters across a partially polarized irradiance image in a no-moving-parts, instantaneous, highly sensitive manner is described. In the reported embodiment of the filter, two spatially varying linear retarders and a linear polarizer comprise an ortho-Babinet, polarization-interrogating (OBPI) filter. The OBPI filter uniquely encodes the incident ensemble of electromagnetic wave fronts comprising a partially polarized irradiance image in a controlled, deterministic, spatially varying manner to map the complete state of polarization across the image to local variations in a superposed interference pattern. Experimental interferograms are reported along with a numerical simulation of the method.

  15. The ecosystem of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the sub-polar front and Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone; ECO-MAR project strategy and description of the sampling programme 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priede, Imants G.; Billett, David S. M.; Brierley, Andrew S.; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Inall, Mark; Miller, Peter I.; Cousins, Nicola J.; Shields, Mark A.; Fujii, Toyonobu

    2013-12-01

    The ECOMAR project investigated photosynthetically-supported life on the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) between the Azores and Iceland focussing on the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone area in the vicinity of the sub-polar front where the North Atlantic Current crosses the MAR. Repeat visits were made to four stations at 2500 m depth on the flanks of the MAR in the years 2007-2010; a pair of northern stations at 54°N in cold water north of the sub-polar front and southern stations at 49°N in warmer water influenced by eddies from the North Atlantic Current. At each station an instrumented mooring was deployed with current meters and sediment traps (100 and 1000 m above the sea floor) to sample downward flux of particulate matter. The patterns of water flow, fronts, primary production and export flux in the region were studied by a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements. Sonar, tow nets and profilers sampled pelagic fauna over the MAR. Swath bathymetry surveys across the ridge revealed sediment-covered flat terraces parallel to the axis of the MAR with intervening steep rocky slopes. Otter trawls, megacores, baited traps and a suite of tools carried by the R.O.V. Isis including push cores, grabs and a suction device collected benthic fauna. Video and photo surveys were also conducted using the SHRIMP towed vehicle and the R.O.V. Isis. Additional surveying and sampling by landers and R.O.V. focussed on the summit of a seamount (48°44‧N, 28°10‧W) on the western crest of the MAR between the two southern stations.

  16. Using an intervention mapping approach for planning, implementing and assessing a community-led project towards malaria elimination in the Eastern Province of Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingabire, Chantal Marie; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Kateera, Fredrick; Rulisa, Alexis; Van Den Borne, Bart; Nieuwold, Ingmar; Muvunyi, Claude; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Van Vugt, Michele; Mutesa, Leon; Alaii, Jane

    2016-12-16

    Active community participation in malaria control is key to achieving malaria pre-elimination in Rwanda. This paper describes development, implementation and evaluation of a community-based malaria elimination project in Ruhuha sector, Bugesera district, Eastern province of Rwanda. Guided by an intervention mapping approach, a needs assessment was conducted using household and entomological surveys and focus group interviews. Data related to behavioural, epidemiological, entomological and economical aspects were collected. Desired behavioural and environmental outcomes were identified concurrently with behavioural and environmental determinants. Theoretical methods and their practical applications were enumerated to guide programme development and implementation. An operational plan including the scope and sequence as well as programme materials was developed. Two project components were subsequently implemented following community trainings: (1) community malaria action teams (CMATs) were initiated in mid-2014 as platforms to deliver malaria preventive messages at village level, and (2) a mosquito larval source control programme using biological substances was deployed for a duration of 6 months, implemented from January to July 2015. Process and outcome evaluation has been conducted for both programme components to inform future scale up. The project highlighted malaria patterns in the area and underpinned behavioural and environmental factors contributing to malaria transmission. Active involvement of the community in collaboration with CMATs contributed to health literacy, particularly increasing ability to make knowledgeable decisions in regards to malaria prevention and control. A follow up survey conducted six months following the establishment of CMATs reported a reduction of presumed malaria cases at the end of 2014. The changes were related to an increase in the acceptance and use of available preventive measures, such as indoor residual spraying and

  17. Ergodicity of polygonal slap maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Magno, Gianluigi; Pedro Gaivão, José; Lopes Dias, João; Duarte, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Polygonal slap maps are piecewise affine expanding maps of the interval obtained by projecting the sides of a polygon along their normals onto the perimeter of the polygon. These maps arise in the study of polygonal billiards with non-specular reflection laws. We study the absolutely continuous invariant probabilities (acips) of the slap maps for several polygons, including regular polygons and triangles. We also present a general method for constructing polygons with slap maps with more than one ergodic acip. (paper)

  18. Project COLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  19. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepost, R.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented

  20. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  1. Algorithms for necklace maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Necklace maps visualize quantitative data associated with regions by placing scaled symbols, usually disks, without overlap on a closed curve (the necklace) surrounding the map regions. Each region is projected onto an interval on the necklace that contains its symbol. In this paper we address the

  2. Measurement of electron beam polarization at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, H.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1988-01-01

    One of the unique features of the SLC is its capability to accelerate longitudinally polarized electrons. The SLC polarization group has been performed to implement the polarization program at the SLC. Technically the polarization project consists of three main parts: (1) a polarized source, (2) spin-rotating superconducting solenoid magnets to be used to manipulate the direction of the electron spin, and (3) the polarimeters needed to monitor and measure the electron beam polarization. It is this last topic that will concern us here. Two types of polarimeters will be used - Compton and Moeller. (orig./HSI)

  3. Polarized neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Novitskij, V.V.; Alfimenkov, V.P.; Galinskij, E.M.; Mareev, Yu.D.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason', L.; Tsulaya, V.M.; Tsulaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The polarized neutron spectrometer, intended for studying the interaction of polarized neutrons with nuclei and condensed media in the area of energies from thermal up to several electron-volt, is developed at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna). Diffraction on the Co(92%)-Fe(8%) magnetized monocrystals is used for the neutron polarization and polarization analysis. The neutron polarization within the whole energy range equals ∼ 95% [ru

  4. Picard-Fuchs uniformization and modularity of the mirror map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    Arithmetic properties of mirror symmetry (type IIA-IIB string duality) are studied. We give criteria for the mirror map q-series of certain families of Calabi-Yau manifolds to be automorphic functions. For families of elliptic curves and lattice polarized K3 surfaces with surjective period mappings, global Torelli theorems allow one to present these criteria in terms of the ramification behavior of natural algebraic invariants - the functional and generalized functional invariants respectively. In particular, when applied to one parameter families of rank 19 lattice polarized K3 surfaces, our criterion demystifies the mirror-Moonshine phenomenon of Lian and Yau and highlights its non-monstrous nature. The lack of global Torelli theorems and presence of instanton corrections makes Calabi-Yau threefold families more complicated. Via the constraints of special geometry, the Picard-Fuchs equations for one parameter families of Calabi-Yau threefolds imply a differential equation criterion for automorphicity of the mirror map in terms of the Yukawa coupling. In the absence of instanton corrections, the projective periods map to a twisted cubic space curve. A hierarchy of ''algebraic'' instanton corrections correlated with the differential Galois group of the Picard-Fuchs equation is proposed. (orig.)

  5. Linear polarized fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, R.B.; Nowakowski, J.; Martin, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    We report here limits on the linear (and circular) polarization of the cosmic microwave background on small angular scales, 18''≤ θ ≤ 160''. The limits are based on radio maps of Stokes parameters and polarisation (linear and circular). (author)

  6. Plasma polarization spectroscopy on the ECR helium plasma in a cusp magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Iwamae, A.; Fujimoto, T.; Uchida, M.; Maekawa, T.

    2004-01-01

    Helium emission lines have been observed on the ECR plasma in a cusp field with the polarized components resolved. The polarization map is constructed for the 501.6 nm (2 1 S-3 1 P) line emission. Lines from n 1 P and n 1 D levels are strongly polarized and those from n 3 D levels are weakly polarized. As the helium pressure increases the polarization degree decreases. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional thermal structure of the South Polar Vortex of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, Ricardo; Garate-Lopez, Itziar; Garcia-Muñoz, Antonio; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín

    2014-11-01

    We have analyzed thermal infrared images provided by the VIRTIS-M instrument aboard Venus Express (VEX) to obtain high resolution thermal maps of the Venus south polar region between 55 and 85 km altitudes. The maps investigate three different dynamical configurations of the polar vortex including its classical dipolar shape, a regularly oval shape and a transition shape between the different configurations of the vortex. We apply the atmospheric model described by García Muñoz et al. (2013) and a variant of the retrieval algorithm detailed in Grassi et al. (2008) to obtain maps of temperature over the Venus south polar region in the quoted altitude range. These maps are discussed in terms of cloud motions and relative vorticity distribution obtained previously (Garate-Lopez et al. 2013). Temperature maps retrieved at 55 - 63 km show the same structures that are observed in the ~5 µm radiance images. This altitude range coincides with the optimal expected values of the cloud top altitude at polar latitudes and magnitudes derived from the analysis of ~5 µm images are measured at this altitude range. We also study the imprint of the vortex on the thermal field above the cloud level which extends up to 80 km. From the temperature maps, we also study the vertical stability of different atmospheric layers. The cold collar is clearly the most statically stable structure at polar latitudes, while the vortex and subpolar latitudes show lower stability values. Furthermore, the hot filaments present within the vortex at 55-63 km exhibit lower values of static stability than their immediate surroundings.ReferencesGarate-Lopez et al. Nat. Geosci. 6, 254-257 (2013).García Muñoz et al. Planet. Space Sci. 81, 65-73 (2013).Grassi, D. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 113, 1-12 (2008).AcknowledgementsWe thank ESA for supporting Venus Express, ASI, CNES and the other national space agencies supporting VIRTIS on VEX and their principal investigators G. Piccioni and P. Drossart. This work

  8. Star-Mapping Tools Enable Tracking of Endangered Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Software programmer Jason Holmberg of Portland, Oregon, partnered with a Goddard Space Flight Center astrophysicist to develop a method for tracking the elusive whale shark using the unique spot patterns on the fish s skin. Employing a star-mapping algorithm originally designed for the Hubble Space Telescope, Holmberg created the Shepherd Project, a photograph database and pattern-matching system that can identify whale sharks by their spots and match images contributed to the database by photographers from around the world. The system has been adapted for tracking other rare and endangered animals, including polar bears and ocean sunfish.

  9. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1985-01-01

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  10. Trachoma in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Results of 46 Baseline Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilangalanga, Janvier; Ndjemba, Jean Marie; Uvon, Pitchouna A; Kibangala, Felix M; Mwandulo, Jean-Lebone Safari B; Mavula, Nicaise; Ndombe, Martin; Kazadi, Junior; Limbaka, Henry; Cohn, Daniel; Tougoue, Jean-Jacques; Kabore, Achille; Rotondo, Lisa; Willis, Rebecca; Bio, Amadou Alfa; Kadri, Boubacar; Bakhtiari, Ana; Ngondi, Jeremiah M; Solomon, Anthony W

    2017-08-29

    Trachoma was suspected to be endemic in parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We aimed to estimate prevalences of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), trichiasis, and water and sanitation (WASH) indicators in suspected-endemic Health Zones. A population-based prevalence survey was undertaken in each of 46 Health Zones across nine provinces of DRC, using Global Trachoma Mapping Project methods. A two-stage cluster random sampling design was used in each Health Zone, whereby 25 villages (clusters) and 30 households per cluster were sampled. Consenting eligible participants (children aged 1-9 years and adults aged ≥15 years) were examined for trachoma by GTMP-certified graders; households were assessed for access to WASH. A total of 32,758 households were surveyed, and 141,853 participants (98.2% of those enumerated) were examined for trachoma. Health Zone-level TF prevalence in 1-9-year-olds ranged from 1.9-41.6%. Among people aged ≥15 years, trichiasis prevalences ranged from 0.02-5.1% (95% CI 3.3-6.8). TF prevalence in 1-9-year-olds was ≥5% in 30 Health Zones, while trichiasis prevalence was ≥0.2% in 37 Health Zones. Trachoma is a public health problem in 39 of 46 Health Zones surveyed. To meet elimination targets, 37 Health Zones require expanded trichiasis surgery services while 30 health zones require antibiotics, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement interventions. Survey data suggest that trachoma is widespread: further surveys are warranted.

  11. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: BIASES IN z  > 1.46 REDSHIFTS DUE TO QUASAR DIVERSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denney, K. D.; Peterson, B. M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J.; Trump, J. R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ge, J., E-mail: denney@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Astronomy Department University of Florida 211 Bryant Space Science Center P.O. Box 112055 Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We use the coadded spectra of 32 epochs of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Reverberation Mapping Project observations of 482 quasars with z  > 1.46 to highlight systematic biases in the SDSS- and Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS)-pipeline redshifts due to the natural diversity of quasar properties. We investigate the characteristics of this bias by comparing the BOSS-pipeline redshifts to an estimate from the centroid of He ii λ 1640. He ii has a low equivalent width but is often well-defined in high-S/N spectra, does not suffer from self-absorption, and has a narrow component which, when present (the case for about half of our sources), produces a redshift estimate that, on average, is consistent with that determined from [O ii] to within the He ii and [O ii] centroid measurement uncertainties. The large redshift differences of ∼1000 km s{sup −1}, on average, between the BOSS-pipeline and He ii-centroid redshifts, suggest there are significant biases in a portion of BOSS quasar redshift measurements. Adopting the He ii-based redshifts shows that C iv does not exhibit a ubiquitous blueshift for all quasars, given the precision probed by our measurements. Instead, we find a distribution of C iv-centroid blueshifts across our sample, with a dynamic range that (i) is wider than that previously reported for this line, and (ii) spans C iv centroids from those consistent with the systemic redshift to those with significant blueshifts of thousands of kilometers per second. These results have significant implications for measurement and use of high-redshift quasar properties and redshifts, and studies based thereon.

  12. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: BIASES IN z  > 1.46 REDSHIFTS DUE TO QUASAR DIVERSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, K. D.; Peterson, B. M.; Horne, Keith; Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J.; Trump, J. R.; Ho, Luis C.; Ge, J.

    2016-01-01

    We use the coadded spectra of 32 epochs of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Reverberation Mapping Project observations of 482 quasars with z  > 1.46 to highlight systematic biases in the SDSS- and Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS)-pipeline redshifts due to the natural diversity of quasar properties. We investigate the characteristics of this bias by comparing the BOSS-pipeline redshifts to an estimate from the centroid of He ii λ 1640. He ii has a low equivalent width but is often well-defined in high-S/N spectra, does not suffer from self-absorption, and has a narrow component which, when present (the case for about half of our sources), produces a redshift estimate that, on average, is consistent with that determined from [O ii] to within the He ii and [O ii] centroid measurement uncertainties. The large redshift differences of ∼1000 km s −1 , on average, between the BOSS-pipeline and He ii-centroid redshifts, suggest there are significant biases in a portion of BOSS quasar redshift measurements. Adopting the He ii-based redshifts shows that C iv does not exhibit a ubiquitous blueshift for all quasars, given the precision probed by our measurements. Instead, we find a distribution of C iv-centroid blueshifts across our sample, with a dynamic range that (i) is wider than that previously reported for this line, and (ii) spans C iv centroids from those consistent with the systemic redshift to those with significant blueshifts of thousands of kilometers per second. These results have significant implications for measurement and use of high-redshift quasar properties and redshifts, and studies based thereon.

  13. Hydrogen Distribution in the Lunar Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Bakhtin, B. N.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Harshmann, K.; Fedosov, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a method of conversion of the lunar neutron counting rate measured by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument collimated neutron detectors, to water equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in the top approximately 1 m layer of lunar regolith. Polar maps of the Moon’s inferred hydrogen abundance are presented and discussed.

  14. Scattering Polarization in Solar Flares

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpán, Jiří; Heinzel, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 778, č. 1 (2013), L6/1-L6/6 ISSN 2041-8205 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/1652; GA ČR GPP209/12/P741 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : line formation * polarization * radiative transfer Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.602, year: 2013

  15. Quantum reconstruction of an intense polarization squeezed optical state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, Ch.; Heersink, J.; Dong, R.

    2007-01-01

    We perform a reconstruction of the polarization sector of the density matrix of an intense polarization squeezed beam starting from a complete set of Stokes measurements. By using an appropriate quasidistribution, we map this onto the Poincare space, providing a full quantum mechanical characteri...

  16. Optical modeling and polarization calibration for CMB measurements with ACTPol and Advanced ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Brian; Austermann, Jason; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Coughlin, Kevin P.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeff; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D.; Newburgh, Laura; Page, Lyman A.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Simon, Sara M.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Ward, Jonathan T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) is a polarization sensitive upgrade to the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, located at an elevation of 5190 m on Cerro Toco in Chile. ACTPol uses transition edge sensor bolometers coupled to orthomode transducers to measure both the temperature and polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Calibration of the detector angles is a critical step in producing polarization maps of the CMB. Polarization angle offsets in the detector calibration can cause leakage in polarization from E to B modes and induce a spurious signal in the EB and TB cross correlations, which eliminates our ability to measure potential cosmological sources of EB and TB signals, such as cosmic birefringence. We calibrate the ACTPol detector angles by ray tracing the designed detector angle through the entire optical chain to determine the projection of each detector angle on the sky. The distribution of calibrated detector polarization angles are consistent with a global offset angle from zero when compared to the EB-nulling offset angle, the angle required to null the EB cross-correlation power spectrum. We present the optical modeling process. The detector angles can be cross checked through observations of known polarized sources, whether this be a galactic source or a laboratory reference standard. To cross check the ACTPol detector angles, we use a thin film polarization grid placed in front of the receiver of the telescope, between the receiver and the secondary reflector. Making use of a rapidly rotating half-wave plate (HWP) mount we spin the polarizing grid at a constant speed, polarizing and rotating the incoming atmospheric signal. The resulting sinusoidal signal is used to determine the detector angles. The optical modeling calibration was shown to be consistent with a global offset angle of zero when compared to EB nulling in the first ACTPol results and will continue to be a part of our calibration implementation. The first

  17. Preserving Geological Samples and Metadata from Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, A.; Sjunneskog, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Office of Polar Programs at the National Science Foundation (NSF-OPP) has long recognized the value of preserving earth science collections due to the inherent logistical challenges and financial costs of collecting geological samples from Polar Regions. NSF-OPP established two national facilities to make Antarctic geological samples and drill cores openly and freely available for research. The Antarctic Marine Geology Research Facility (AMGRF) at Florida State University was established in 1963 and archives Antarctic marine sediment cores, dredge samples and smear slides along with ship logs. The United States Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) at Ohio State University was established in 2003 and archives polar rock samples, marine dredges, unconsolidated materials and terrestrial cores, along with associated materials such as field notes, maps, raw analytical data, paleomagnetic cores, thin sections, microfossil mounts, microslides and residues. The existence of the AMGRF and USPRR helps to minimize redundant sample collecting, lessen the environmental impact of doing polar field work, facilitates field logistics planning and complies with the data sharing requirement of the Antarctic Treaty. USPRR acquires collections through donations from institutions and scientists and then makes these samples available as no-cost loans for research, education and museum exhibits. The AMGRF acquires sediment cores from US based and international collaboration drilling projects in Antarctica. Destructive research techniques are allowed on the loaned samples and loan requests are accepted from any accredited scientific institution in the world. Currently, the USPRR has more than 22,000 cataloged rock samples available to scientists from around the world. All cataloged samples are relabeled with a USPRR number, weighed, photographed and measured for magnetic susceptibility. Many aspects of the sample metadata are included in the database, e.g. geographical location, sample

  18. Map of Nasca Geoglyphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzalová, K.; Pavelka, K.

    2013-07-01

    The Czech Technical University in Prague in the cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences in Dresden (Germany) work on the Nasca Project. The cooperation started in 2004 and much work has been done since then. All work is connected with Nasca lines in southern Peru. The Nasca project started in 1995 and its main target is documentation and conservation of the Nasca lines. Most of the project results are presented as WebGIS application via Internet. In the face of the impending destruction of the soil drawings, it is possible to preserve this world cultural heritage for the posterity at least in a digital form. Creating of Nasca lines map is very useful. The map is in a digital form and it is also available as a paper map. The map contains planimetric component of the map, map lettering and altimetry. Thematic folder in this map is a vector layer of the geoglyphs in Nasca/Peru. Basis for planimetry are georeferenced satellite images, altimetry is created from digital elevation model. This map was created in ArcGis software.

  19. MAP OF NASCA GEOGLYPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanzalová

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Technical University in Prague in the cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences in Dresden (Germany work on the Nasca Project. The cooperation started in 2004 and much work has been done since then. All work is connected with Nasca lines in southern Peru. The Nasca project started in 1995 and its main target is documentation and conservation of the Nasca lines. Most of the project results are presented as WebGIS application via Internet. In the face of the impending destruction of the soil drawings, it is possible to preserve this world cultural heritage for the posterity at least in a digital form. Creating of Nasca lines map is very useful. The map is in a digital form and it is also available as a paper map. The map contains planimetric component of the map, map lettering and altimetry. Thematic folder in this map is a vector layer of the geoglyphs in Nasca/Peru. Basis for planimetry are georeferenced satellite images, altimetry is created from digital elevation model. This map was created in ArcGis software.

  20. Effects of a Question Prompt-Based Concept Mapping Approach on Students' Learning Achievements, Attitudes and 5C Competences in Project-Based Computer Course Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Ying; Huang, Iwen; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Concept mapping has been widely used in various fields to facilitate students' organization of knowledge. Previous studies have, however, pointed out that it is difficult for students to construct concept maps from the abundant searched data without appropriate scaffolding. Thus, researchers have suggested that students could produce high quality…

  1. Scattering with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the history of neutron scattering, it was shown very soon that the use of polarized neutron beams brings much more information than usual scattering with unpolarized neutrons. We shall develop here the different scattering methods that imply polarized neutrons: 1) polarized beams without polarization analysis, the flipping ratio method; 2) polarized beams with a uniaxial polarization analysis; 3) polarized beams with a spherical polarization analysis. For all these scattering methods, we shall give examples of the physical problems which can been solved by these methods, particularly in the field of magnetism: investigation of complex magnetic structures, investigation of spin or magnetization densities in metals, insulators and molecular compounds, separation of magnetic and nuclear scattering, investigation of magnetic properties of liquids and amorphous materials and even, for non magnetic material, separation between coherent and incoherent scattering. (author)

  2. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  3. POLARIZATION REMOTE SENSING PHYSICAL MECHANISM, KEY METHODS AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available China's long-term planning major projects "high-resolution earth observation system" has been invested nearly 100 billion and the satellites will reach 100 to 2020. As to 2/3 of China's area covered by mountains,it has a higher demand for remote sensing. In addition to light intensity, frequency, phase, polarization is also the main physical characteristics of remote sensing electromagnetic waves. Polarization is an important component of the reflected information from the surface and the atmospheric information, and the polarization effect of the ground object reflection is the basis of the observation of polarization remote sensing. Therefore, the effect of eliminating the polarization effect is very important for remote sensing applications. The main innovations of this paper is as follows: (1 Remote sensing observation method. It is theoretically deduced and verified that the polarization can weaken the light in the strong light region, and then provide the polarization effective information. In turn, the polarization in the low light region can strengthen the weak light, the same can be obtained polarization effective information. (2 Polarization effect of vegetation. By analyzing the structure characteristics of vegetation, polarization information is obtained, then the vegetation structure information directly affects the absorption of biochemical components of leaves. (3 Atmospheric polarization neutral point observation method. It is proved to be effective to achieve the ground-gas separation, which can achieve the effect of eliminating the atmospheric polarization effect and enhancing the polarization effect of the object.

  4. Evidence of sharp and diffuse domain walls in BiFeO3 by means of unit-cell-wise strain and polarization maps obtained with high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubk, A; Rossell, M D; Seidel, J; He, Q; Yang, S Y; Chu, Y H; Ramesh, R; Hÿtch, M J; Snoeck, E

    2012-07-27

    Domain walls (DWs) substantially influence a large number of applications involving ferroelectric materials due to their limited mobility when shifted during polarization switching. The discovery of greatly enhanced conduction at BiFeO(3) DWs has highlighted yet another role of DWs as a local material state with unique properties. However, the lack of precise information on the local atomic structure is still hampering microscopical understanding of DW properties. Here, we examine the atomic structure of BiFeO(3) 109° DWs with pm precision by a combination of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and a dedicated structural analysis. By measuring simultaneously local polarization and strain, we provide direct experimental proof for the straight DW structure predicted by ab initio calculations as well as the recently proposed theory of diffuse DWs, thus resolving a long-standing discrepancy between experimentally measured and theoretically predicted DW mobilities.

  5. Techniques in polarization physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausnitzer, G.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the current status of the technical tools necessary to perform different kinds of polarization experiments is presented, and the absolute and relative accuracy with which data can be obtained is discussed. A description of polarized targets and sources of polarized fast neutrons is included. Applications of polarization techniques to other fields is mentioned briefly. (14 figures, 3 tables, 110 references) (U.S.)

  6. Polarized Moessbauer transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the emission, absorption and scattering of polarized gamma rays are reviewed for a general case of combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions; various possibilities of obtaining polarized gamma sources are described and examples are given of the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with polarized gamma rays in solving problems of solid state physics. (A.K.)

  7. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  8. Calculation of polarization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-09-01

    Basically there are two areas of accelerator applications that involve beam polarization. One is the acceleration of a polarized beam (most likely a proton beam) in a synchrotron. Another concerns polarized beams in an electron storage ring. In both areas, numerical techniques have been very useful

  9. Acceleration of polarized particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1992-05-01

    The spin kinetics of polarized beams in circular accelerators is reviewed in the case of spin-1/2 particles (electrons and protons) with emphasis on the depolarization phenomena. The acceleration of polarized proton beams in synchrotrons is described together with the cures applied to reduce depolarization, including the use of 'Siberian Snakes'. The in-situ polarization of electrons in storage rings due to synchrotron radiation is studied as well as depolarization in presence of ring imperfections. The applications of electron polarization to accurately calibrate the rings in energy and to use polarized beams in colliding-beam experiments are reviewed. (author) 76 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  10. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  11. Statistics of cosmic microwave background polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamionkowski, M.; Kosowsky, A.; Stebbins, A.

    1997-01-01

    We present a formalism for analyzing a full-sky temperature and polarization map of the cosmic microwave background. Temperature maps are analyzed by expanding over the set of spherical harmonics to give multipole moments of the two-point correlation function. Polarization, which is described by a second-rank tensor, can be treated analogously by expanding in the appropriate tensor spherical harmonics. We provide expressions for the complete set of temperature and polarization multipole moments for scalar and tensor metric perturbations. Four sets of multipole moments completely describe isotropic temperature and polarization correlations; for scalar metric perturbations one set is identically zero, giving the possibility of a clean determination of the vector and tensor contributions. The variance with which the multipole moments can be measured in idealized experiments is evaluated, including the effects of detector noise, sky coverage, and beam width. Finally, we construct coordinate-independent polarization two-point correlation functions, express them in terms of the multipole moments, and derive small-angle limits. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Approximate likelihood approaches for detecting the influence of primordial gravitational waves in cosmic microwave background polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhen; Anderes, Ethan; Knox, Lloyd

    2018-05-01

    One of the major targets for next-generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments is the detection of the primordial B-mode signal. Planning is under way for Stage-IV experiments that are projected to have instrumental noise small enough to make lensing and foregrounds the dominant source of uncertainty for estimating the tensor-to-scalar ratio r from polarization maps. This makes delensing a crucial part of future CMB polarization science. In this paper we present a likelihood method for estimating the tensor-to-scalar ratio r from CMB polarization observations, which combines the benefits of a full-scale likelihood approach with the tractability of the quadratic delensing technique. This method is a pixel space, all order likelihood analysis of the quadratic delensed B modes, and it essentially builds upon the quadratic delenser by taking into account all order lensing and pixel space anomalies. Its tractability relies on a crucial factorization of the pixel space covariance matrix of the polarization observations which allows one to compute the full Gaussian approximate likelihood profile, as a function of r , at the same computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation.

  13. Model-Mapped RPA for Determining the Effective Coulomb Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Hirofumi; Jang, Seung Woo; Kino, Hiori; Han, Myung Joon; Kuroki, Kazuhiko; Kotani, Takao

    2017-04-01

    We present a new method to obtain a model Hamiltonian from first-principles calculations. The effective interaction contained in the model is determined on the basis of random phase approximation (RPA). In contrast to previous methods such as projected RPA and constrained RPA (cRPA), the new method named "model-mapped RPA" takes into account the long-range part of the polarization effect to determine the effective interaction in the model. After discussing the problems of cRPA, we present the formulation of the model-mapped RPA, together with a numerical test for the single-band Hubbard model of HgBa2CuO4.

  14. Historical Topographic Map Collection bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The goal of this project, which began publishing the historical scanned maps in 2011, is to provide a digital repository of USGS topographic maps, available to the public at no cost. For more than 125 years, USGS topographic maps have accurately portrayed the complex geography of the Nation. The USGS is the Nation’s largest producer of printed topographic maps, and prior to 2006, USGS topographic maps were created using traditional cartographic methods and printed using a lithographic printing process. As the USGS continues the release of a new generation of topographic maps (US Topo) in electronic form, the topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, land management planning, and leisure.

  15. Workshop on polarized neutron filters and polarized pulsed neutron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi

    2004-07-01

    The workshop was held in KEK by thirty-three participants on April 26, 2004. The polarized neutron filter method was only discussed. It consists of three parts; the first part was discussed on the polarized neutron methods, the second part on the polarized neutron experiments and the third on the pulse neutron spectrometer and polarized neutron experiments. The six papers were presented such as the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, neutron polarization by proton polarized filter, soft master and neutron scattering, polarized neutron in solid physics, polarization experiments by chopper spectroscope and neutron polarization system in superHRPD. (S.Y.)

  16. Imputation of variants from the 1000 Genomes Project modestly improves known associations and can identify low-frequency variant-phenotype associations undetected by HapMap based imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Andrew R; Perry, John R B; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hernandez, Dena G; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Melzer, David; Gibbs, J Raphael; Nalls, Michael A; Weedon, Michael N; Spector, Tim D; Richards, J Brent; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Singleton, Andrew B; Frayling, Timothy M

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have been limited by the reliance on common variants present on microarrays or imputable from the HapMap Project data. More recently, the completion of the 1000 Genomes Project has provided variant and haplotype information for several million variants derived from sequencing over 1,000 individuals. To help understand the extent to which more variants (including low frequency (1% ≤ MAF 1000 Genomes imputation, respectively, and 9 and 11 that reached a stricter, likely conservative, threshold of P1000 Genomes genotype data modestly improved the strength of known associations. Of 20 associations detected at P1000 Genomes imputed data and one was nominally more strongly associated in HapMap imputed data. We also detected an association between a low frequency variant and phenotype that was previously missed by HapMap based imputation approaches. An association between rs112635299 and alpha-1 globulin near the SERPINA gene represented the known association between rs28929474 (MAF = 0.007) and alpha1-antitrypsin that predisposes to emphysema (P = 2.5×10(-12)). Our data provide important proof of principle that 1000 Genomes imputation will detect novel, low frequency-large effect associations.

  17. Instrumentation with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Muenzer, W.; Ostermann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering with polarization analysis is an indispensable tool for the investigation of novel materials exhibiting electronic, magnetic, and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition, polarized neutrons are necessary for neutron spin precession techniques that path the way to obtain extremely high resolution in space and time. Last but not least, polarized neutrons are being used for fundamental studies as well as very recently for neutron imaging. Many years ago, neutron beam lines were simply adapted for polarized beam applications by adding polarizing elements leading usually to unacceptable losses in neutron intensity. Recently, an increasing number of beam lines are designed such that an optimum use of polarized neutrons is facilitated. In addition, marked progress has been obtained in the technology of 3 He polarizers and the reflectivity of large-m supermirrors. Therefore, if properly designed, only factors of approximately 2-3 in neutron intensity are lost. It is shown that S-benders provide neutron beams with an almost wavelength independent polarization. Using twin cavities, polarized beams with a homogeneous phase space and P>0.99 can be produced without significantly sacrificing intensity. It is argued that elliptic guides, which are coated with large m polarizing supermirrors, provide the highest flux.

  18. Exploring Science Through Polar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bell, R. E.; Zadoff, L.; Kelsey, R.

    2003-12-01

    Exploring the Poles is a First Year Seminar course taught at Barnard College, Columbia University. First Year Seminars are required of incoming students and are designed to encourage critical analysis in a small class setting with focused discussion. The class links historical polar exploration with current research in order to: introduce non-scientists to the value of environmental science through polar literature; discuss issues related to venturing into the unknown that are of relevance to any discipline: self-reliance, leadership, preparation, decisions under uncertainty; show students the human face of science; change attitudes about science and scientists; use data to engage students in exploring/understanding the environment and help them learn to draw conclusions from data; integrate research and education. These goals are met by bringing analysis of early exploration efforts together with a modern understanding of the polar environment. To date to class has followed the efforts of Nansen in the Fram, Scott and Amundsen in their race to the pole, and Shackleton's Endurance. As students read turn-of-the-century expedition journals, expedition progress is progressively revealed on an interactive map showing the environmental context. To bring the exploration process to life, students are assigned to expedition teams for specific years and the fates of the student "expeditions" are based on their own decisions. For example, in the Arctic, they navigate coastal sea ice and become frozen into the ice north of Siberia, re-creating Nansen's polar drift. Fates of the teams varied tremendously: some safely emerged at Fram Strait in 4 years, while others nearly became hopelessly lost in the Beaufort Gyre. Students thus learn about variability in the current polar environment through first hand experience, enabling them to appreciate the experiences, decisions, and, in some cases, the luck, of polar explorers. Evaluation by the Columbia Center for New Media, Teaching

  19. Polar bears and sea ice habitat change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.; Butterworth, Andy

    2017-01-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is an obligate apex predator of Arctic sea ice and as such can be affected by climate warming-induced changes in the extent and composition of pack ice and its impacts on their seal prey. Sea ice declines have negatively impacted some polar bear subpopulations through reduced energy input because of loss of hunting habitats, higher energy costs due to greater ice drift, ice fracturing and open water, and ultimately greater challenges to recruit young. Projections made from the output of global climate models suggest that polar bears in peripheral Arctic and sub-Arctic seas will be reduced in numbers or become extirpated by the end of the twenty-first century if the rate of climate warming continues on its present trajectory. The same projections also suggest that polar bears may persist in the high-latitude Arctic where heavy multiyear sea ice that has been typical in that region is being replaced by thinner annual ice. Underlying physical and biological oceanography provides clues as to why polar bear in some regions are negatively impacted, while bears in other regions have shown no apparent changes. However, continued declines in sea ice will eventually challenge the survival of polar bears and efforts to conserve them in all regions of the Arctic.

  20. ispace's Polar Ice Explorer: Commerically Exploring the Poles of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada-Diaz, A.; Acierno, K.; Rasera, J. N.; Lamamy, J.-A.

    2018-04-01

    This work provides the background, rationales, and scientific objectives for the ispace Polar Ice Explorer Project, an ISRU exploratory mission that aims to provide data about the lunar polar environment.

  1. Crowdsourcing The National Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elizabeth; Craun, Kari J.; Korris, Erin M.; Brostuen, David A.; Moore, Laurence R.

    2015-01-01

    Using crowdsourcing techniques, the US Geological Survey’s (USGS) Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) project known as “The National Map Corps (TNMCorps)” encourages citizen scientists to collect and edit data about man-made structures in an effort to provide accurate and authoritative map data for the USGS National Geospatial Program’s web-based The National Map. VGI is not new to the USGS, but past efforts have been hampered by available technologies. Building on lessons learned, TNMCorps volunteers are successfully editing 10 different structure types in all 50 states as well as Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands.

  2. Statistical methods in physical mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.O.

    1995-05-01

    One of the great success stories of modern molecular genetics has been the ability of biologists to isolate and characterize the genes responsible for serious inherited diseases like fragile X syndrome, cystic fibrosis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. This dissertation concentrates on constructing high-resolution physical maps. It demonstrates how probabilistic modeling and statistical analysis can aid molecular geneticists in the tasks of planning, execution, and evaluation of physical maps of chromosomes and large chromosomal regions. The dissertation is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the field of physical mapping, describing the role of physical mapping in gene isolation and ill past efforts at mapping chromosomal regions. The next two chapters review and extend known results on predicting progress in large mapping projects. Such predictions help project planners decide between various approaches and tactics for mapping large regions of the human genome. Chapter 2 shows how probability models have been used in the past to predict progress in mapping projects. Chapter 3 presents new results, based on stationary point process theory, for progress measures for mapping projects based on directed mapping strategies. Chapter 4 describes in detail the construction of all initial high-resolution physical map for human chromosome 19. This chapter introduces the probability and statistical models involved in map construction in the context of a large, ongoing physical mapping project. Chapter 5 concentrates on one such model, the trinomial model. This chapter contains new results on the large-sample behavior of this model, including distributional results, asymptotic moments, and detection error rates. In addition, it contains an optimality result concerning experimental procedures based on the trinomial model. The last chapter explores unsolved problems and describes future work

  3. Statistical methods in physical mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, David O. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    One of the great success stories of modern molecular genetics has been the ability of biologists to isolate and characterize the genes responsible for serious inherited diseases like fragile X syndrome, cystic fibrosis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. This dissertation concentrates on constructing high-resolution physical maps. It demonstrates how probabilistic modeling and statistical analysis can aid molecular geneticists in the tasks of planning, execution, and evaluation of physical maps of chromosomes and large chromosomal regions. The dissertation is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the field of physical mapping, describing the role of physical mapping in gene isolation and ill past efforts at mapping chromosomal regions. The next two chapters review and extend known results on predicting progress in large mapping projects. Such predictions help project planners decide between various approaches and tactics for mapping large regions of the human genome. Chapter 2 shows how probability models have been used in the past to predict progress in mapping projects. Chapter 3 presents new results, based on stationary point process theory, for progress measures for mapping projects based on directed mapping strategies. Chapter 4 describes in detail the construction of all initial high-resolution physical map for human chromosome 19. This chapter introduces the probability and statistical models involved in map construction in the context of a large, ongoing physical mapping project. Chapter 5 concentrates on one such model, the trinomial model. This chapter contains new results on the large-sample behavior of this model, including distributional results, asymptotic moments, and detection error rates. In addition, it contains an optimality result concerning experimental procedures based on the trinomial model. The last chapter explores unsolved problems and describes future work.

  4. Multiphoton polarization Bremsstrahlung effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovinskij, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    A general approach to induced polarization effects was formulated on the basis of theory of many particles in a strong periodic field. Correlation with the perturbation theory is shown and the types of effective polarization potentials both for isolated atoms and ions, and for ions in plasma, are provided. State of art in the theory of forced polarization Bremsstrahlung effect is analyzed and some outlooks for further experimental and theoretical studies are outlined [ru

  5. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  6. Polarization of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    Linear polarization of starlight may be produced by electron scattering in the extended atmospheres of early type stars. Techniques are investigated for the measurement and interpretation of this polarization. Polarimetric observations were made of twelve visual double star systems in which at least one member was a B type star as a means of separating the intrinsic stellar polarization from the polarization produced in the interstellar medium. Four of the double stars contained a Be star. Evidence for intrinsic polarization was found in five systems including two of the Be systems, one double star with a short period eclipsing binary, and two systems containing only normal early type stars for which emission lines have not been previously reported. The interpretation of these observations in terms of individual stellar polarizations and their wavelength dependence is discussed. The theoretical basis for the intrinsic polarization of early type stars is explored with a model for the disk-like extended atmospheres of Be stars. Details of a polarimeter for the measurement of the linear polarization of astronomical point sources are also presented with narrow band (Δ lambda = 100A) measurements of the polarization of γ Cas from lambda 4000 to lambda 5800

  7. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  8. Polarized gas targets for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    It is widely recognized that polarized gas targets in electron storage rings represent a new opportunity for precision nuclear physics studies. New developments in polarized target technology specific to internal applications will be discussed. In particular, polarized gas targets have been used in the VEPP-3 electron ring in Novosibirsk. A simple storage cell was used to increase the total target thickness by a factor of 15 over the simple gas jet target from an atomic beam source. Results from the initial phase of this project will be reported. In addition, the plans for increasing the luminosity by an additional order or magnitude will be presented. The application of this work to polarized hydrogen and deuterium targets for the HERA ring will be noted. The influence of beam-induced depolarization, a phenomena encountered in short-pulse electron storage rings, will be discussed. Finally, the performance tests of laser-driven sources will be presented. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  9. Projective geometry and projective metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    The basic results and methods of projective and non-Euclidean geometry are indispensable for the geometer, and this book--different in content, methods, and point of view from traditional texts--attempts to emphasize that fact. Results of special theorems are discussed in detail only when they are needed to develop a feeling for the subject or when they illustrate a general method. On the other hand, an unusual amount of space is devoted to the discussion of the fundamental concepts of distance, motion, area, and perpendicularity.Topics include the projective plane, polarities and conic sectio

  10. Development of remote sensing technology in New Zealand, part 1. Seismotectonic, structural, volcanologic and geomorphic study of New Zealand, part 2. Indigenous forest assessment, part 3. Mapping land use and environmental studies in New Zealand, part 4. New Zealand forest service LANDSAT projects, part 5. Vegetation map and landform map of Aupouri Peninsula, Northland, part 6. Geographical applications of LANDSAT mapping, part 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probine, M. C.; Suggate, R. P.; Mcgreevy, M. G.; Stirling, I. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Inspection of pixels obtained from LANDSAT of New Zealand revealed that not only can ships and their wakes be detected, but that information on the size, state of motion, and direction of movement was inferred by calculating the total number of pixels occupied by the vessel and wake, the orientation of these pixels, and the sum of their radiance values above the background level. Computer enhanced images showing the Waimihia State Forest and much of Kaingaroa State Forest on 22 December 1975 were examined. Most major forest categories were distinguished on LANDSAT imagery. However, the LANDSAT imagery seemed to be most useful for updating and checking existing forest maps, rather than making new maps with many forest categories. Snow studies were performed using two basins: Six Mile Creek and Mt. Robert. The differences in radiance levels indicated that a greater areal snow cover in Six Mile Creek Basin with the effect of lower radiance values from vegetation/snow regions. A comparison of the two visible bands (MSS 4 and 5) demonstrate this difference for the two basins.

  11. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project.I. Ultraviolet Observations of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on Hubble Space Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rosa, G.; Peterson, B.M.; Ely, J.; Kriss, G.A.; Crenshaw, D.M.; Horne, K.; Korista, K.T.; Netzer, H.; Pogge, R.W.; Arévalo, P.; Barth, A.J.; Bentz, M.C.; Brandt, W.N.; Breeveld, A.A.; Brewer, B.J.; Dalla Bontà, E.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Denney, K.D.; Dietrich, M.; Edelson, R.; Evans, P.A.; Fausnaugh, M.M.; Gehrels, N.; Gelbord, J.M.; Goad, M.R.; Grier, C.J.; Grupe, D.; Hall, P.B.; Kaastra, J.; Kelly, B.C.; Kennea, J.A.; Kochanek, C.S.; Lira, P.; Mathur, S.; McHardy, I.M.; Nousek, J.A.; Pancoast, A.; Papadakis, I.; Pei, L.; Schimoia, J.S.; Siegel, M.; Starkey, D.; Treu, T.; Uttley, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vestergaard, M.; Villforth, C.; Yan, H.; Young, S.; Zu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first results from a six-month long reverberation-mapping experiment in the ultraviolet based on 171 observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Significant correlated variability is found in the continuum and

  12. Development and Evaluation of a Web Map Mind Tool Environment with the Theory of Spatial Thinking and Project-Based Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huei-Tse; Yu, Tsai-Fang; Wu, Yi-Xuan; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2016-01-01

    The theory of spatial thinking is relevant to the learning and teaching of many academic domains. One promising method to facilitate learners' higher-order thinking is to utilize a web map mind tool to assist learners in applying spatial thinking to cooperative problem solving. In this study, an environment is designed based on the theory of…

  13. Climatescan.nl: the development of a web-based map application to encourage knowledge-sharing of climate-proofing and urban resilient projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tipping, Jonathan; Boogaard, Floris; Jaeger, R.; Duffy, A.; Klomp, T.; Manenschijn, M.

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, there has been an explosion in the number and diversity of projects undertaken to address urban resilience and climate proofing. Sharing the knowledge gained from these projects demands increasingly innovative and accessible methods. This paper details the outcomes of one such

  14. Quadrupole magnetic mapping of the high resolution spectrometers of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, Hall A. (Q.M.M. project: Quadrupole Magnetic Measurement)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quemener, Gilles

    1997-01-01

    This thesis describes the magnetic measurements that have been performed on the superconducting quadrupoles of the High Resolution Spectrometers of TJNAF, Hall A (USA), which are designed to measure particle momentum up to 4 GeV.c -1 with a σp/p = 10 -4 resolution. The mapping method is based on rotating coil technique, the originality being a segmentation of the probe along the quad axis. Together with an accurate magnet modelling, the measurement of the flux variations through the set of rotating coils allows to determine the magnetic field at each point. We use the 3D field formalism, i.e., the Fourier-Bessel expansion of the field obtained by solving the Laplace equation. We describe the QMM method and then the apparatus consisting in two probes of length 1.6 m and 3.2 m built to map the three quadrupoles Q1, Q2, Q3. Data processing uses Fourier analysis. The mapping of the Electron Arm took place in situ in 1996. A first set of results concerns integral measurements including the properties of excitation cycle of the magnets (saturation and hysteresis). Second set of results in terms of local field yields the 3D field maps of the quadrupoles. After having applied corrections to the data we obtain a local field accuracy of 5 Gauss on each component, i.e. an uncertainty of 5.10 -4 relative to the quadrupole central field. We use SNAKE ray-tracing code with the implementation of QMM field maps and obtain preliminary results on HRS optics. (author)

  15. Discursive Maps at the Edge of Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Discursive Maps at the Edge of Chaos A Monograph by Major Mathieu Primeau Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Engineer School of Advanced Military...Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Discursive Maps at the Edge of Chaos 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...meaning of boundaries and polarize conflict towards violence. The edge of chaos is the fine line between disorder and coherence. Discursive maps

  16. TRANSVERSELY POLARIZED Λ PRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BORER, D.

    2000-01-01

    Transversely polarized Λ production in hard scattering processes is discussed in terms of a leading twist T-odd fragmentation function which describes the fragmentation of an unpolarized quark into a transversely polarized Λ. We focus on the properties of this function and its relevance for the RHIC and HERMES experiments

  17. Our Polar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2009-01-01

    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  18. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  19. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  20. Order and chaos in polarized nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    Methods for investigating temporal complexity in Hamiltonian systems are applied to the dynamics of a polarized optical laser beam propagating as a travelling wave in a medium with cubically nonlinear polarizability (i.e., a Kerr medium). The theory of Hamiltonian systems with symmetry is used to study the geometry of phase space for the optical problem, transforming from C 2 to S 2 x (J,θ), where (J,θ) is a symplectic action-angle pair. The bifurcations of the phase portraits of the Hamiltonian motion on S 2 are classified and shown graphically. These bifurcations create various saddle connections on S 2 as either J (the beam intensity), or the optical parameters of the medium are varied. After this bifurcation analysis, the Melnikov method is used to demonstrate analytically that the saddle connections break and intersect transversely in a Poincare map under spatially periodic perturbations of the optical parameters of the medium. These transverse intersections in the Poincare map imply intermittent polarization switching with extreme sensitivity to initial conditions characterized by a Smale horseshoe construction for the travelling waves of a polarized optical laser pulse. The resulting chaotic behavior in the form of sensitive dependence on initial conditions may have implications for the control and predictability of nonlinear optical polarization switching in birefringent media. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab