WorldWideScience

Sample records for polar projection map

  1. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    the applied framework, semantic restrictions, the choice of type of assessors and the validation of product separations. The applied framework concerns the response surface as presented to the assessor in different shapes, e.g. rectangular, square or round. Semantic restrictions are a part of the assessor...... instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm et.al., 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous perceptions are much dependent...

  2. Projective geometry for polarization in geometric quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.; Dodson, C.T.J.

    1976-12-01

    It is important to know the extent to which the procedure of geometric quantization depends on a choice of polarization of the symplectic manifold that is the classical phase space. Published results have so far been restricted to real and transversal polarizations. Here we also consider these cases by presenting a formulation in terms of projective geometry. It turns out that there is a natural characterization of real transversal polarizations and maps among them using projective concepts. We give explicit constructions for Rsup(2n)

  3. Map Projection Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Map Projection Transitions is a very successful web application about map projections. The web page (http://www.jasondavies.com/maps/transition pre­sents a world map with graticule and country borders in the oblique Aitoff projection, with the South Pole. The map is not static, but animated. The South Pole moves toward the bottom and Earth rotates around its poles. The animation lasts five seconds, after which the projection changes and movement continues for five seconds, after which the projection changes again. Names of projections appear in a separate window. There are a total of 56 projections. The South Pole eventually becomes invisible and the North Pole appears at the top. Various parts of Earth appear in the center of the map by rotating around the poles.

  4. The projective heat map

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces a simple dynamical model for a planar heat map that is invariant under projective transformations. The map is defined by iterating a polygon map, where one starts with a finite planar N-gon and produces a new N-gon by a prescribed geometric construction. One of the appeals of the topic of this book is the simplicity of the construction that yet leads to deep and far reaching mathematics. To construct the projective heat map, the author modifies the classical affine invariant midpoint map, which takes a polygon to a new polygon whose vertices are the midpoints of the original. The author provides useful background which makes this book accessible to a beginning graduate student or advanced undergraduate as well as researchers approaching this subject from other fields of specialty. The book includes many illustrations, and there is also a companion computer program.

  5. Map projections: A working manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, John P.

    1987-01-01

    After decades of using only one map projection, the Polyconic, for its mapping program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) now uses several of the more common projections for its published maps. For larger scale maps, including topographic quadrangles and the State Base Map Series, conformal projections such as the Transverse Mercator and the Lambert Conformal Conic are used. Equal-area and equidistant projections appear in the National Atlas. Other projections, such as the Miller Cylindrical and the Van der Grinten, are chosen occasionally for convenience, sometimes making use of existing base maps prepared by others. Some projections treat the Earth only as a sphere, others as either ellipsoid or sphere.

  6. Map projections cartographic information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grafarend, Erik W; Syffus, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a timely review of map projections including sphere, ellipsoid, rotational surfaces, and geodetic datum transformations. Coverage includes computer vision, and remote sensing space projective mappings in photogrammetry.

  7. Map projections cartographic information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grafarend, Erik W

    2006-01-01

    In the context of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) the book offers a timely review of map projections (sphere, ellipsoid, rotational surfaces) and geodetic datum transformations. For the needs of photogrammetry, computer vision, and remote sensing space projective mappings are reviewed.

  8. STEER Coastal Use Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Use Mapping Project is designed to collect critical information on human activities in and near the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER). The project...

  9. Understanding map projections: Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usery, E. Lynn; Kent, Alexander J.; Vujakovic, Peter

    2018-01-01

    It has probably never been more important in the history of cartography than now that people understand how maps work. With increasing globalization, for example, world maps provide a key format for the transmission of information, but are often poorly used. Examples of poor understanding and use of projections and the resultant maps are many; for instance, the use of rectangular world maps in the United Kingdom press to show Chinese and Korean missile ranges as circles, something which can only be achieved on equidistant projections and then only from one launch point (Vujakovic, 2014).

  10. Coordinate systems and map projections

    CERN Document Server

    Maling, DH

    1992-01-01

    A revised and expanded new edition of the definitive English work on map projections. The revisions take into account the huge advances in geometrical geodesy which have occurred since the early years of satellite geodesy. The detailed configuration of the geoid resulting from the GEOS and SEASAT altimetry measurements are now taken into consideration. Additionally, the chapter on computation of map projections is updated bearing in mind the availability of pocket calculators and microcomputers. Analytical derivation of some map projections including examples of pseudocylindrical and polyconic

  11. Maps into projective spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show that the moduli space of morphisms of a fixed degree from to a projective space has a smooth compactification. As another application of the cohomology of the Picard bundle, we compute a top intersection number for the moduli space confirming the Vafa–Intriligator formulae in the nodal case.

  12. Map Projections in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Wikipedia (wiki + encyclopaedia is a multilingual, web-based encyclopaedia with free content. It is a wiki, which means it is written by numerous volunteers, and most articles can be changed by anyone with Internet access and an adequate web browser. The project was started on January 15, 2001. Wikipedia currently has more than 3 700 000 articles in many languages (including a million articles in English.

  13. The European radon mapping project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossew, P.; Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M.

    2013-01-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  14. The European radon mapping project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P., E-mail: pbossew@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M., E-mail: tore.tollefsen@jrc.ec.europa.eu, E-mail: valeria.gruber@gmail.com, E-mail: marc.de-cort@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra, VA (Italy). DG Joint Research Centre. European Commission

    2013-07-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  15. Wavelet analysis of polarization maps of polycrystalline biological fluids networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, Y. A.

    2011-12-01

    The optical model of human joints synovial fluid is proposed. The statistic (statistic moments), correlation (autocorrelation function) and self-similar (Log-Log dependencies of power spectrum) structure of polarization two-dimensional distributions (polarization maps) of synovial fluid has been analyzed. It has been shown that differentiation of polarization maps of joint synovial fluid with different physiological state samples is expected of scale-discriminative analysis. To mark out of small-scale domain structure of synovial fluid polarization maps, the wavelet analysis has been used. The set of parameters, which characterize statistic, correlation and self-similar structure of wavelet coefficients' distributions of different scales of polarization domains for diagnostics and differentiation of polycrystalline network transformation connected with the pathological processes, has been determined.

  16. The First Polarization Maps from the GMRT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We present the first set of polarimetric images made with the GMRT. We find that the instrumental polarization leakage at the GMRT varies with frequency. It is possible to calibrate these terms to better than 1% accuracy, making it feasible to study sources that are polarized at the few per cent level.

  17. Map projections and the Internet: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Fritz; Battersby, Sarah E.; Finn, Michael P.; Clarke, Keith

    2017-01-01

    The field of map projections can be described as mathematical, static, and challenging. However, this description is evolving in concert with the development of the Internet. The Internet has enabled new outlets for software applications, learning, and interaction with and about map projections . This chapter examines specific ways in which the Internet has moved map projections from a relatively obscure paper-based setting to a more engaging and accessible online environment. After a brief overview of map projections, this chapter discusses four perspectives on how map projections have been integrated into the Internet. First, map projections and their role in web maps and mapping services is examined. Second, an overview of online atlases and the map projections chosen for their maps is presented. Third, new programming languages and code libraries that enable map projections to be included in mapping applications are reviewed. Fourth, the Internet has facilitated map projection education and research especially with the map reader’s comprehension and understanding of complex topics like map projection distortion is discussed.

  18. Adapting the HSV polarization-color mapping for regions with low irradiance and high polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Tyo, J; Ratliff, Bradley M; Alenin, Andrey S

    2016-10-15

    Many mappings from polarization into color have been developed so that polarization information can be displayed. One of the most common of these maps the angle of linear polarization into color hue and degree of linear polarization into color saturation, while preserving the irradiance information from the polarization data. While this strategy enjoys wide popularity, there is a large class of polarization images for which it is not ideal. It is common to have images where the strongest polarization signatures (in terms of degree of polarization) occur in regions of relatively low irradiance: either in shadow in reflective bands or in cold regions in emissive bands. Since the irradiance is low, the chromatic properties of the resulting images are generally not apparent. Here we present an alternate mapping that uses the statistics of the angle of polarization as a measure of confidence in the polarization signature, then amplifies the irradiance in regions of high confidence, and leaves it unchanged in regions of low confidence. Results are shown from an LWIR and a visible spectrum imager.

  19. On the Development of Map Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Lapaine

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Many important persons gave their contribution to development of theory and practice of map projections through the history. In scripts of professor Frančula on map projections, more than 100 individuals were mentioned by whose credit today we have a great number of map projections and possibility of their usage. Basic information about around twenty persons important for the development of map projections over two and a half millennia were gathered and arranged in this paper. In addition, a historical review of map projections is given, and procedure of world map creation which served as illustration is explained.

  20. Testing statistical isotropy in cosmic microwave background polarization maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Pranati K.; Samal, Pramoda Kumar; Panda, Srikanta; Mishra, Debesh D.; Aluri, Pavan K.

    2018-04-01

    We apply our symmetry based Power tensor technique to test conformity of PLANCK Polarization maps with statistical isotropy. On a wide range of angular scales (l = 40 - 150), our preliminary analysis detects many statistically anisotropic multipoles in foreground cleaned full sky PLANCK polarization maps viz., COMMANDER and NILC. We also study the effect of residual foregrounds that may still be present in the Galactic plane using both common UPB77 polarization mask, as well as the individual component separation method specific polarization masks. However, some of the statistically anisotropic modes still persist, albeit significantly in NILC map. We further probed the data for any coherent alignments across multipoles in several bins from the chosen multipole range.

  1. Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Sarah K.; French, R. A.; Nall, M. E.; Muery, K. G.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The information provided through LMMP will assist CxP in: planning tasks in the areas of landing site evaluation and selection, design and placement of landers and other stationary assets, design of rovers and other mobile assets, developing terrain-relative navigation (TRN) capabilities, and assessment and planning of science traverses. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, and the USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. Two visualization systems are being developed, a web-based system called Lunar Mapper, and a desktop client, ILIADS, which will be downloadable from the LMMP portal. LMMP will provide such products as local and regional imagery and DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting and gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and to ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar

  2. Bidirectional log-polar mapping for invariant object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanian, Courosh; Rak, Steven J.

    1991-08-01

    The representation of visual information in human striate cortex is of significance to machine vision. Invariance to certain geometrical transformations in the field-of-view may be provided by the computational anatomy of the visual cortex. For example, there is evidence that the retino-cortical mapping is closely approximated by a log-polar transform. When combined with the foveation response, log-polar mapping can provide a basis for translation, rotation, and scale-invariant perception. There is also evidence that the visual system is sensitive to the spatial frequency content of its input. Although a Fourier transform is physiologically implausible, some authors have suggested its use for invariant object recognition because the magnitude of the Fourier transform is shift invariant. The Fourier transform magnitude operation followed by log-polar mapping can also provide a basis for translation, rotation, and scale-invariant perception. Both of these image-transform (feature mapping) algorithms give mathematical invariance to translation, rotation, and dilation. For an automatic recognition system, however, the feature mapping module has to be robust to discretization error, noise, and possible obscuration. Robustness considerations led to the development of the bi- directional log-polar mapping (BPM) algorithm. The BPM algorithm overcomes the pixel- dropout problems associated with conventional approaches to log-polar mapping. The authors evaluate several feature mapping models, both biologically and mathematically inspired, for their effect on recognition performance when embedded in a neural-network-based, object- recognition system. The modular recognition system, consisting of image restoration, detection, segmentation, feature extraction, invariant mapping, and classification, is being developed to classify objects in laser radar range imagery. Synthetic laser radar range images of four vehicles rotated in the field-of-view, scaled to various ranges, and

  3. Climate Ready Estuaries Partner Projects Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRE partners with the National Estuary Program to develop climate change projects in coastal U.S. areas, such as bays and harbors; to develop adaptation action plans, identify climate impacts and indicators, and more. This map shows project locations.

  4. World Family Map Project. Prototype Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, W. Bradford; Lippman, Laura; Whitney, Camille

    2009-01-01

    In 2010, the "World Family Map Project" seeks to launch a research initiative that will track central indicators of family strength around the globe. The "World Family Map Project" (WFMP) would partner with Child Trends, a nonpartisan research organization in Washington, D.C., the Institute of Marriage and Family Canada, and…

  5. Modeling Research Project Risks with Fuzzy Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodea, Constanta Nicoleta; Dascalu, Mariana Iuliana

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a risks evaluation model for research projects. The model is based on fuzzy inference. The knowledge base for fuzzy process is built with a causal and cognitive map of risks. The map was especially developed for research projects, taken into account their typical lifecycle. The model was applied to an e-testing research…

  6. Excess B‐modes extracted from the Planck polarization maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    One of the main obstacles for extracting the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from mm/submm observations is the pollution from the main Galactic components: synchrotron, free‐free and thermal dust emission. The feasibility of using simple neural networks to extract CMB has been demonstrated...... a mask covering about 63 % of the sky have been used together with a “high pass filter” in order to minimize the influence of the remaining systematic errors in the Planck Q and U maps. Using the Planck 2015 released polarization maps, a BB power spectrum have been extracted by Multilayer Perceptron...

  7. Excess B-modes extracted from the Planck polarization maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.

    2016-06-01

    One of the main obstacles for extracting the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from mm/submm observations is the pollution from the main Galactic components: synchrotron, free-free and thermal dust emission. The feasibility of using simple neural networks to extract CMB has been demonstrated on both temperature and polarization data obtained by the WMAP satellite. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of neural networks for extracting the CMB signal from the Planck polarization data with high precision. Both auto-correlation and cross-correlation power spectra within a mask covering about 63 % of the sky have been used together with a ``high pass filter'' in order to minimize the influence of the remaining systematic errors in the Planck Q and U maps. Using the Planck 2015 released polarization maps, a BB power spectrum have been extracted by Multilayer Perceptron neural networks. This spectrum contains a bright feature with signal to noise ratios ≃ 4.5 within 200 ≤ l ≤ 250. The spectrum is significantly brighter than the BICEP2 2015 spectrum, with a spectral behaviour quite different from the ``canonical'' models (weak lensing plus B-modes spectra with different tensor to scalar ratios). The feasibility of the neural network to remove the residual systematics from the available Planck polarization data to a high level has been demonstrated.

  8. Custom map projections for regional groundwater models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2017-01-01

    For regional groundwater flow models (areas greater than 100,000 km2), improper choice of map projection parameters can result in model error for boundary conditions dependent on area (recharge or evapotranspiration simulated by application of a rate using cell area from model discretization) and length (rivers simulated with head-dependent flux boundary). Smaller model areas can use local map coordinates, such as State Plane (United States) or Universal Transverse Mercator (correct zone) without introducing large errors. Map projections vary in order to preserve one or more of the following properties: area, shape, distance (length), or direction. Numerous map projections are developed for different purposes as all four properties cannot be preserved simultaneously. Preservation of area and length are most critical for groundwater models. The Albers equal-area conic projection with custom standard parallels, selected by dividing the length north to south by 6 and selecting standard parallels 1/6th above or below the southern and northern extent, preserves both area and length for continental areas in mid latitudes oriented east-west. Custom map projection parameters can also minimize area and length error in non-ideal projections. Additionally, one must also use consistent vertical and horizontal datums for all geographic data. The generalized polygon for the Floridan aquifer system study area (306,247.59 km2) is used to provide quantitative examples of the effect of map projections on length and area with different projections and parameter choices. Use of improper map projection is one model construction problem easily avoided.

  9. Mapping International Cancer Activities – Global Cancer Project Map Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH’s Dr. Sudha Sivaram, Dr. Makeda Williams, and Ms. Kalina Duncan have partnered with Drs. Ami Bhatt and Franklin Huang at Global Oncology, Inc. (GO) to develop the Global Cancer Project Map - a web-based tool designed to facilitate cancer research and control activity planning.

  10. Differences in polar-map patterns using the novel technologies for myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccarato, Orazio; Marcassa, Claudio; Lizio, Domenico; Leva, Lucia; Lucignani, Giovanni; Savi, Annarita; Scabbio, Camilla; Matheoud, Roberta; Lecchi, Michela; Brambilla, Marco

    2017-10-01

    New technologies are available in MPI. Our aim was to evaluate their impact on the uniformity of normal myocardial uptake in the polar-map representation, over different count statistics, with and without the attenuation (AC) and scatter corrections (SC). A phantom study was performed using 5 Anger gamma cameras with filtered back projection or iterative reconstruction with resolution recovery (IRR), with or without SCAC; a D530c, with or without AC; and a D-SPECT. Count statistics ranged up to a quarter of the reference for the conventional gamma cameras and up to one half for the advanced scanners. Using polar maps, the segmental uptakes and their uncertainties, the 'global uniformity' of polar maps expressed as the coefficient of variation (COV) among the segmental uptakes and the anterior/inferior (ANT/INF) ratio were calculated. Both segmental uptakes and their uncertainties did not depend on the count statistics in the range studied. An increase in the segmental uptakes was found from IRR to IRR + SCAC (78.0% ± 13.5% vs 86.1% ± 9.4%; P adoption of specific normality databases, developed for each system and reconstruction method employed.

  11. Political polarization projection: social projection of partisan attitude extremity and attitudinal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, Leaf; Judd, Charles M; Sherman, David K

    2012-07-01

    What influences perceptions of political polarization? The authors examine the polarization of people's own political attitudes as a source of perceived polarization: Individuals with more extreme partisan attitudes perceive greater polarization than individuals with less extreme partisan attitudes. This "polarization projection" was demonstrated in 3 studies in which people estimated the distribution of others' political attitudes: one study with a nationally representative sample concerning the 2008 presidential election, and 2 studies concerning university students evaluating a policy regarding scarce resource allocation. These studies demonstrate that polarization projection occurs simultaneously with and independently of simple projection, the tendency to assume that others share one's partisan political attitudes. Polarization projection may occur partly because people assume that others engage in similar attitudinal processes as the self, such as extensive thought and emotional arousal. The projection of various attitudinal processes was demonstrated in a study concerning health care reform policies. Further supporting this explanation, polarization projection increased when people introspected about their own attitudinal processes, which increased the accessibility of those processes. Implications for perceptions of partisanship, social judgment, and civic behavior are discussed.

  12. Molecular polarization potential maps of the nucleic acid bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkorta, I.; Perez, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Ab initio calculations at the SCF level were carried out to compute the polarization potential map NM of the nucleic acid bases: cytosine, thymine, uracil, adedine, and guanine. For this purpose, the Dunning's 9s5p basis set contracted to a split-valence, was selected to perform the calculations. The molecular polarization potential (MPP) at each point was evaluated by the difference between the interaction energy of the molecule with a unit point charge and the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) at that point. MEPS and MPPS for the different molecules were computed with a density of 5 points/Angstrom 2 on the van der Waals surface of each molecule, defined using the van der Waals radii. Due to the symmetry of the molecules, only half the points were computed. The total number of points calculated was 558 for cytosine, 621 for thymine, 526 for uracil, 666 for adenine, and 699 for guanine. The results of these calculations are analyzed in terms of their implications on the molecular interactions between pairs of nucleic acid bases. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Circularly polarized near-field optical mapping of spin-resolved quantum Hall chiral edge states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyouda, Syuhei; Ito, Hironori; Shibata, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masumi; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Ootuka, Youiti; Nomura, Shintaro

    2015-04-08

    We have successfully developed a circularly polarized near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) that enables us to irradiate circularly polarized light with spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. As a demonstration, we perform real-space mapping of the quantum Hall chiral edge states near the edge of a Hall-bar structure by injecting spin polarized electrons optically at low temperature. The obtained real-space mappings show that spin-polarized electrons are injected optically to the two-dimensional electron layer. Our general method to locally inject spins using a circularly polarized NSOM should be broadly applicable to characterize a variety of nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  14. Cartographic science: a compendium of map projections, with derivations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fenna, Donald

    2007-01-01

    "From basic projecting to advanced transformations, Cartographic Science: A Compendium of Map Projections, with Derivations comprehensively explores the depiction of a curved world on a flat surface...

  15. Optical polarization maps of star-forming regions in Perseus, Taurus, and Ophiuchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, A.A.; Bastien, P.; Menard, F.; Myers, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    New optical linear polarization maps are presented of the star-forming regions near L1506 in Taurus, L1755 in Ophiuchus, and the complex of dark cloud which extends from L1448 in B5 in Perseus. The former two show a well-defined peak magnetic field direction in the plane of the sky with a finite dispersion about that peak which is smaller than would be expected for a random distribution of field distributions. The dispersion in the position angle of filamentary clouds within these complexes implies that clouds which appear elongated on the plane of the sky are not all associated with a pattern of polarization vectors particularly parallel or perpendicular to their geometry. Instead, clouds tend to be oriented at the angle formed by their axis and the mean direction of the local large-scale field. For the dark cloud complex, a bimodal distribution of the polarization vector angle is taken to result from at least two distributions of gas along the line of sight which appear as a complex in projection. 55 refs

  16. GeoMapApp as a platform for visualizing marine data from Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V.; Goodwillie, A. M.; O'hara, S. H.; Weissel, R.; McLain, K.; Chinhong, C.; Arko, R. A.; Chan, S.; Morton, J. J.; Pomeroy, D.

    2012-12-01

    To maximize the investment in expensive fieldwork the resulting data should be re-used as much as possible. In addition, unnecessary duplication of data collection effort should be avoided. This becomes even more important if access to field areas is as difficult and expensive as it is in Polar Regions. Making existing data discoverable in an easy to use platform is key to improve re-use and avoid duplication. A common obstacle is that use of existing data is often limited to specialists who know of the data existence and also have the right tools to view and analyze these data. GeoMapApp is a free, interactive, map based tool that allows users to discover, visualize, and analyze a large number of data sets. In addition to a global view, it provides polar map projections for displaying data in Arctic and Antarctic areas. Data that have currently been added to the system include Arctic swath bathymetry data collected from the USCG icebreaker Healy. These data are collected almost continuously including from cruises where bathymetry is not the main objective and for which existence of the acquired data may not be well known. In contrast, existence of seismic data from the Antarctic continental margin is well known in the seismic community. They are archived at and can be accessed through the Antarctic Seismic Data Library System (SDLS). Incorporating these data into GeoMapApp makes an even broader community aware of these data and the custom interface, which includes capabilities to visualize and explore these data, allows users without specific software or knowledge of the underlying data format to access the data. In addition to investigating these datasets, GeoMapApp provides links to the actual data sources to allow specialists the opportunity to re-use the original data. Important identification of data sources and data references are achieved on different levels. For access to the actual Antarctic seismic data GeoMapApp links to the SDLS site, where users have

  17. The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S. K.; Nall, M. E.; French, R. A.; Muery, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The information provided through LMMP will assist CxP in: planning tasks in the areas of landing site evaluation and selection, design and placement of landers and other stationary assets, design of rovers and other mobile assets, developing terrain-relative navigation (TRN) capabilities, and assessment and planning of science traverses. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL - US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, and the USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation’s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. Two visualization systems are being developed, a web-based system called Lunar Mapper, and a desktop client, ILIADS, which will be downloadable from the LMMP portal. LMMP will provide such products as local and regional imagery and DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting and gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and to ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar

  18. Foreground removal from WMAP 7 yr polarization maps using an MLP neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    . As a concrete example, the WMAP 7-year polarization data, the most reliable determination of the polarization properties of the CMB, has been analyzed. The analysis has adopted the frequency maps, noise models, window functions and the foreground models as provided by the WMAP Team, and no auxiliary data...

  19. Precision Foreground Removal in Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The most promising method for detecting primordial gravitational waves lies in the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background, or CMB. A measurement of...

  20. Mapping (dis)agreement in hydrologic projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke A.; Addor, Nans; Mizukami, Naoki; Newman, Andrew J.; Torfs, Paul J. J. F.; Clark, Martyn P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Teuling, Adriaan J.

    2018-03-01

    Hydrologic projections are of vital socio-economic importance. However, they are also prone to uncertainty. In order to establish a meaningful range of storylines to support water managers in decision making, we need to reveal the relevant sources of uncertainty. Here, we systematically and extensively investigate uncertainty in hydrologic projections for 605 basins throughout the contiguous US. We show that in the majority of the basins, the sign of change in average annual runoff and discharge timing for the period 2070-2100 compared to 1985-2008 differs among combinations of climate models, hydrologic models, and parameters. Mapping the results revealed that different sources of uncertainty dominate in different regions. Hydrologic model induced uncertainty in the sign of change in mean runoff was related to snow processes and aridity, whereas uncertainty in both mean runoff and discharge timing induced by the climate models was related to disagreement among the models regarding the change in precipitation. Overall, disagreement on the sign of change was more widespread for the mean runoff than for the discharge timing. The results demonstrate the need to define a wide range of quantitative hydrologic storylines, including parameter, hydrologic model, and climate model forcing uncertainty, to support water resource planning.

  1. New POLDI - project of reincarnation of a polarized neutron diffractometer at the reactor PIK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobkalo, I.; Gavrilov, S.; Matveev, V.; Fenske, J.

    2017-06-01

    The project of a considerable modernization of the polarized neutron diffractometer POLDI is discussed. It assumes the adoption of POLDI to a broader range of magnetic investigations such as determination of magnetic structures, detailed investigation of complex magnetic structures, studies of magnetic domains, study of the magnetization density maps, magnetic form-factor particularities, local susceptibility, etc. The flexible construction should permit to use either spherical neutron polarimetry technique or flipping ratio technique. Different types of polarization system were analyzed. Original focusing fan-like bender is proposed as polarizer unit. Our simulations give evidence that for the wavelength range 1.3 - 3 Å and with suitable size, such a device can give much better efficiency than 3He cells, which are often in use. The higher flux at the sample position of a factor of at least 3.3, with lower divergence and good polarization degree from 98% (1.3 Å) to above 94% (3 Å) makes the bender set-up favorable over the layout with a 3He-cell.

  2. Brain-mapping projects using the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Mitra, Partha

    2015-04-01

    Globally, there is an increasing interest in brain-mapping projects, including the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative project in the USA, the Human Brain Project (HBP) in Europe, and the Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS) project in Japan. These projects aim to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain. Brain/MINDS is focused on structural and functional mapping of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) brain. This non-human primate has numerous advantages for brain mapping, including a well-developed frontal cortex and a compact brain size, as well as the availability of transgenic technologies. In the present review article, we discuss strategies for structural and functional mapping of the marmoset brain and the relation of the common marmoset to other animals models. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. The World Karst Aquifer Mapping project: concept, mapping procedure and map of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Auler, Augusto S.; Bakalowicz, Michel; Drew, David; Griger, Franziska; Hartmann, Jens; Jiang, Guanghui; Moosdorf, Nils; Richts, Andrea; Stevanovic, Zoran; Veni, George; Goldscheider, Nico

    2017-05-01

    Karst aquifers contribute substantially to freshwater supplies in many regions of the world, but are vulnerable to contamination and difficult to manage because of their unique hydrogeological characteristics. Many karst systems are hydraulically connected over wide areas and require transboundary exploration, protection and management. In order to obtain a better global overview of karst aquifers, to create a basis for sustainable international water-resources management, and to increase the awareness in the public and among decision makers, the World Karst Aquifer Mapping (WOKAM) project was established. The goal is to create a world map and database of karst aquifers, as a further development of earlier maps. This paper presents the basic concepts and the detailed mapping procedure, using France as an example to illustrate the step-by-step workflow, which includes generalization, differentiation of continuous and discontinuous carbonate and evaporite rock areas, and the identification of non-exposed karst aquifers. The map also shows selected caves and karst springs, which are collected in an associated global database. The draft karst aquifer map of Europe shows that 21.6% of the European land surface is characterized by the presence of (continuous or discontinuous) carbonate rocks; about 13.8% of the land surface is carbonate rock outcrop.

  4. Equidistant map projections of a triaxial ellipsoid with the use of reduced coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pędzich Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method of constructing equidistant map projections of a triaxial ellipsoid as a function of reduced coordinates. Equations for x and y coordinates are expressed with the use of the normal elliptic integral of the second kind and Jacobian elliptic functions. This solution allows to use common known and widely described in literature methods of solving such integrals and functions. The main advantage of this method is the fact that the calculations of x and y coordinates are practically based on a single algorithm that is required to solve the elliptic integral of the second kind. Equations are provided for three types of map projections: cylindrical, azimuthal and pseudocylindrical. These types of projections are often used in planetary cartography for presentation of entire and polar regions of extraterrestrial objects. The paper also contains equations for the calculation of the length of a meridian and a parallel of a triaxial ellipsoid in reduced coordinates. Moreover, graticules of three coordinates systems (planetographic, planetocentric and reduced in developed map projections are presented. The basic properties of developed map projections are also described. The obtained map projections may be applied in planetary cartography in order to create maps of extraterrestrial objects.

  5. Evaluation of Extraction Protocols for Simultaneous Polar and Non-Polar Yeast Metabolite Analysis Using Multivariate Projection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas P. Tambellini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic and lipidomic approaches aim to measure metabolites or lipids in the cell. Metabolite extraction is a key step in obtaining useful and reliable data for successful metabolite studies. Significant efforts have been made to identify the optimal extraction protocol for various platforms and biological systems, for both polar and non-polar metabolites. Here we report an approach utilizing chemoinformatics for systematic comparison of protocols to extract both from a single sample of the model yeast organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three chloroform/methanol/water partitioning based extraction protocols found in literature were evaluated for their effectiveness at reproducibly extracting both polar and non-polar metabolites. Fatty acid methyl esters and methoxyamine/trimethylsilyl derivatized aqueous compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to evaluate non-polar or polar metabolite analysis. The comparative breadth and amount of recovered metabolites was evaluated using multivariate projection methods. This approach identified an optimal protocol consisting of 64 identified polar metabolites from 105 ion hits and 12 fatty acids recovered, and will potentially attenuate the error and variation associated with combining metabolite profiles from different samples for untargeted analysis with both polar and non-polar analytes. It also confirmed the value of using multivariate projection methods to compare established extraction protocols.

  6. The EPSA Project Finance Mapping Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chinthavali, Supriya [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Systems Analysis Office of DOE has requested a tool to compare the impact of various Federal policies on the financial viability of generation resources across the country. Policy options could include production tax credits, investment tax credits, solar renewable energy credits, tax abatement, accelerated depreciation, tax-free loans, and others. The tool would model the finances of projects in all fifty states, and possibly other geographic units like utility service territories and RTO/ISO territories. The tool would consider the facility s cost, financing, production, and revenues under different capital and market structures to determine things like levelized cost of energy, return on equity, and cost impacts on others (e.g., load-serving entities, society.) The tool would compare the cost and value of the facility to the local regional alternatives to determine how and where policy levers may provide sufficient incremental value to motivate investment. The results will be displayed through a purpose-built visualization that maps geographic variations and shows associated figures and tables.

  7. 2011 Joint Science Education Project: Research Experience in Polar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, J.; Ader, V.

    2011-12-01

    The Joint Science Education Project (JSEP), sponsored by the National Science Foundation, is a two-part program that brings together students and teachers from the United States, Greenland, and Denmark, for a unique cross-cultural, first-hand experience of the realities of polar science field research in Greenland. During JSEP, students experienced research being conducted on and near the Greenland ice sheet by attending researcher presentations, visiting NSF-funded field sites (including Summit and NEEM field stations, both located on the Greenland ice sheet), and designing and conducting research projects in international teams. The results of two of these projects will be highlighted. The atmospheric project investigated the differences in CO2, UVA, UVB, temperature, and albedo in different Arctic microenvironments, while also examining the interaction between the atmosphere and water present in the given environments. It was found that the carbon dioxide levels varied: glacial environments having the lowest levels, with an average concentration of 272.500 ppm, and non-vegetated, terrestrial environments having the highest, with an average concentration of 395.143 ppm. Following up on these results, it is planned to further investigate the interaction of the water and atmosphere, including water's role in the uptake of carbon dioxide. The ecology project investigated the occurrence of unusual large blooms of Nostoc cyanobacteria in Kangerlussuaq area lakes. The water chemistry of the lakes which contained the cyanobacteria and the lakes that did not were compared. The only noticeable difference was of the lakes' acidity, lakes containing the blooms had an average pH value of 8.58, whereas lakes without the blooms had an average pH value of 6.60. Further investigation of these results is needed to determine whether or not this was a cause or effect of the cyanobacteria blooms. As a next step, it is planned to attempt to grow the blooms to monitor their effects on

  8. A map of taste neuron projections in the Drosophila CNS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We provide a map of the projections of taste neurons in the CNS of Drosophila. Using a collection of 67 GAL4 drivers representing the entire repertoire of Gr taste receptors, we systematically map the projections of neurons expressing these drivers in the thoracico-abdominal ganglion and the suboesophageal ganglion ...

  9. The use of process mapping in healthcare quality improvement projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, Grazia; Reed, Julie E; Lennox, Laura; Barlow, James

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Process mapping provides insight into systems and processes in which improvement interventions are introduced and is seen as useful in healthcare quality improvement projects. There is little empirical evidence on the use of process mapping in healthcare practice. This study advances understanding of the benefits and success factors of process mapping within quality improvement projects. Methods Eight quality improvement projects were purposively selected from different healthcare settings within the UK's National Health Service. Data were gathered from multiple data-sources, including interviews exploring participants' experience of using process mapping in their projects and perceptions of benefits and challenges related to its use. These were analysed using inductive analysis. Results Eight key benefits related to process mapping use were reported by participants (gathering a shared understanding of the reality; identifying improvement opportunities; engaging stakeholders in the project; defining project's objectives; monitoring project progress; learning; increased empathy; simplicity of the method) and five factors related to successful process mapping exercises (simple and appropriate visual representation, information gathered from multiple stakeholders, facilitator's experience and soft skills, basic training, iterative use of process mapping throughout the project). Conclusions Findings highlight benefits and versatility of process mapping and provide practical suggestions to improve its use in practice.

  10. Computer Software for Displaying Map Projections and Comparing Distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikle, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Discusses software that educators can use to teach about distortions associated with alternative map projections. Examines the Projection, MicroCAM, World, and Atlas-GIS software programs. Suggests using the software in either introductory or more advanced courses dealing with map design or thematic cartography. Explains how to obtain the…

  11. Rigorous vectorial modeling for polarized illumination and projection pupil in OPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaolin; Song, Hua; Lucas, Kevin; Ward, Brian; Shiely, James

    2008-05-01

    High NA and Ultra-High NA (NA>1.0) applications for low k1 imaging strongly demand the adoption of polarized illumination as a resolution enhancement technology since proper illumination polarization configuration can greatly improve the image contrast hence pattern printing fidelity and the effectiveness of optical proximity correction (OPC). However, current OPC/RET modeling software can only model the light source polarization of simple types, such as TE, TM, X, Y, or sector polarization with relatively simple configuration. Realistic polarized light used in scanners is more complex than the aforementioned simple ones. As a result, simulation accuracy and quality of the OPC result will be compromised by the simplification of the light source polarization modeling in the traditional approach. With ever shrinking CD error budget in the manufacturing of IC's at advanced technology nodes, more accurate and comprehensive illumination source modeling for lithography simulations and OPC/RET is needed. On the other hand, for polarized illumination to be fully effective, ideally all the components in the optical lithography system should not alter the polarization state of light during its propagation from illuminator to wafer surface. In current OPC modeling tools, it is typically assumed that the amplitude and polarization state of the light do not change as it passes through the projection lens pupil, i.e. the polarization aberration of projection lens pupil is ignored. However, in reality, the projection lens pupil of the scanner does change the amplitude and the polarization state to some extent, and ignorance of projection pupil induced polarization state and amplitude changes will cause CD errors un-tolerable at the 45nm device generation and beyond. We developed an OPC-deployable modeling approach to model arbitrarily polarized light source and arbitrarily polarized projection lens pupil. Based on polarization state vector descriptions of a general illumination

  12. Joint Science Education Project: Learning about polar science in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee Reed, Lynn

    2014-05-01

    The Joint Science Education Project (JSEP) is a successful summer science and culture opportunity in which students and teachers from the United States, Denmark, and Greenland come together to learn about the research conducted in Greenland and the logistics involved in supporting the research. They conduct experiments first-hand and participate in inquiry-based educational activities alongside scientists and graduate students at a variety of locations in and around Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, and on the top of the ice sheet at Summit Station. The Joint Committee, a high-level forum involving the Greenlandic, Danish and U.S. governments, established the Joint Science Education Project in 2007, as a collaborative diplomatic effort during the International Polar Year to: • Educate and inspire the next generation of polar scientists; • Build strong networks of students and teachers among the three countries; and • Provide an opportunity to practice language and communication skills Since its inception, JSEP has had 82 student and 22 teacher participants and has involved numerous scientists and field researchers. The JSEP format has evolved over the years into its current state, which consists of two field-based subprograms on site in Greenland: the Greenland-led Kangerlussuaq Science Field School and the U.S.-led Arctic Science Education Week. All travel, transportation, accommodations, and meals are provided to the participants at no cost. During the 2013 Kangerlussuaq Science Field School, students and teachers gathered data in a biodiversity study, created and set geo- and EarthCaches, calculated glacial discharge at a melt-water stream and river, examined microbes and tested for chemical differences in a variety of lakes, measured ablation at the edge of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and learned about fossils, plants, animals, minerals and rocks of Greenland. In addition, the students planned and led cultural nights, sharing food, games, stories, and traditions of

  13. Iowa LiDAR Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This is collection level metadata for LAS and ASCII data files from the statewide Iowa Lidar Project. The Iowa Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Project collects...

  14. Google Maps Mashups of NASA Data Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Search, analysis and display of NASA science data by non-GIS experts can be facilitated using so-called "Web 2.0" technologies. Google Maps is a popular geospatial...

  15. Automated system to acquire fluorescence, polarization and anisotropy maps within liquid flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintella, Cristina M; Gonçalves, Cristiane C; Pepe, Iuri; Lima, Angelo M V; Musse, Ana Paula S

    2002-01-01

    Maps of polarization and anisotropy can be helpful for flow analysis systems (FIA, CFA, etc.) with reactions dependent on the intermolecular alignment as well as for dispersion control. Maps can be acquired manually, but when a scan over a sample area is required, the acquisition becomes tiresome and has low precision. The paper describes an automatic flexible system for high-precision sample positioning with closed loop self control, remote data acquisition and storage controlled by a BASIC program. The system was developed to acquire maps up to 850 mm(2) of the sample (liquid flows, solids, interfaces, etc.), with up to 100 mum(2) precision. To evaluate the equipment, performance is presented as the scan of a thin liquid film of monoethylene glycol (MEG) flowing on borosilicate. Tests were performed with and without surfactantes at submicellar concentrations: two concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and one of polyethylene oxide (PEO). For pure MEG, the intermolecular alignment initially increased, then decreased. When SDS was added, both polarization and anisotropy only increased progressively with the flow. This might be explained by the surfactant decrease of interfacial interaction. When PEO was added, both polarization and anisotropy decreased pronouncedly over the entire map, which might be due to macromolecular aggregates within the bulk generating misaligned molecular domains. The system presented as sample positioning repeatability of 0.1% and a high polarization reproducibility (error margin < 6 in 1000).

  16. On the use of polar coordinate system in the projective graphic drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Andrey Viktorovich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Projective graphics is a polyhedra simulation method, which is based on the use of trace diagrams of initial polyhedron. Previously developed computer software allows using Cartesian coordinates. In some cases it is advisable to use polar coordinate system for description of projective graphics drawings. Using the example of icosahedron the authors analyzed the advantages of using projective graphics drawings in the polar coordinate system. The transition to the polar coordinate system is a tool that allows using certain patterns of projective graphics drawings in the process of calculation. When using polar coordinate system the search of Polar correspondence for the directs is simplified. In order to analyze the two lines in the polar coordinate system it is enough to compare the corresponding coefficients of the equations of these lines. The authors consider a diagram of the icosahedron in polar coordinates, and a corresponding fragment of calculation program in the Mathematica system. Some examples of forming based on icosahedrons are offered. Optimization of computer programs using polar coordinate system will simplifies the calculations of projective graphics drawings, accelerates the process of constructing three-dimensional models, which expand the possibilities of selecting original solutions. Finally, the authors conclude that it is appropriate to use the polar coordinate system only in the construction of projective graphics diagrams of the planes system having rich symmetry. All Platonic and Archimedean solids, Catalan solid possess this property.

  17. Moonshot Laboratories' Lava Relief Google Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, B.; Tomita, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Moonshot Laboratories were conceived at the University Laboratory School (ULS) on Oahu, Hawaii as way to develop creative problem solvers able to resourcefully apply 21st century technologies to respond to the problems and needs of their communities. One example of this was involved students from ULS using modern mapping and imaging technologies to assist peers who had been displaced from their own school in Pahoe on the Big Island of Hawaii. During 2015, lava flows from the eruption of Kilauea Volcano were slowly encroaching into the district of Puna in 2015. The lava flow was cutting the main town of Pahoa in half, leaving no safe routes of passage into or out of the town. One elementary school in the path of the flow was closed entirely and a new one was erected north of the flow for students living on that side. Pahoa High School students and teachers living to the north were been forced to leave their school and transfer to Kea'au High School. These students were separated from friends, family and the community they grew up in and were being thrust into a foreign environment that until then had been their local rival. Using Google Mapping technologies, Moonshot Laboratories students created a dynamic map to introduce the incoming Pahoa students to their new school in Kea'au. Elements included a stylized My Maps basemap, YouTube video descriptions of the building, videos recorded by Google Glass showing first person experiences, and immersive images of classrooms were created using 360 cameras. During the first day of orientation at Kea'au for the 200 Pahoa students, each of them were given a tablet to view the map as they toured and got to know their new campus. The methods and technologies, and more importantly innovative thinking, used to create this map have enormous potential for how to educate all students about the world around us, and the issues facing it. http://www.moonshotincubator.com/

  18. Coastal Use Mapping Project - Northwest Hawai'i

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Coastal Use Mapping Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center, NOAA's Pacific Islands Fisheries Science...

  19. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Alpha Version

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Alpha Version consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km)...

  20. Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project Digital Elevation Model, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The high-resolution Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project (RAMP) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) combines topographic data from a variety of sources to provide consistent...

  1. Airborne Wide Area Imager for Wildfire Mapping and Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An advanced airborne imaging system for fire detection/mapping is proposed. The goal of the project is to improve control and management of wildfires in order to...

  2. Global Land Survey Impervious Mapping Project Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeColstoun, Eric Brown; Phillips, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The Global Land Survey Impervious Mapping Project (GLS-IMP) aims to produce the first global maps of impervious cover at the 30m spatial resolution of Landsat. The project uses Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat data as its base but incorporates training data generated from very high resolution commercial satellite data and using a Hierarchical segmentation program called Hseg. The web site contains general project information, a high level description of the science, examples of input and output data, as well as links to other relevant projects.

  3. Results of a Musa mapping project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagoda, P.J.L.; Noyer, J.L.; Baurens, F.C.

    1998-01-01

    A completed map, based on two selfed progenies from two banana cultivars (M53 and SFB5) is presented (roughly 1200 cM). More than three hundred markers are linked in 11 linkage groups representing the genome (2n=22) of Musa acuminata. Roughly one third of the markers are co-dominant restriction fragment polymorphisms (RFLPs; one hundred) or micro satellites (thirty). Two thirds of the markers are dominant amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs; 10% could be considered to be co-dominant). The mean linkage distance is 3 cM, but marker density still should be increased on a couple of linkage groups. Particularities for a mapping job in banana are discussed. Due to Musa acuminata sub-species specific translocations, up to 36% of all the markers tested show important segregation distortions. The need for a cooperative mapping initiative based on a proposed ''frame-map'' harbouring evenly spaced co-dominant ''anchor'' markers is proposed. CIRAD has published 45 sequence tagged micro satellite sites (STMS) in the EMBL database which are accessible at: ''http://www.ebi.ac.uk/'' using the keywords LAGODA and MICROSATELLITE (EMBL accessions X87258 to X87265, X90740 to X90750 and Z85950 to Z85977). (author)

  4. The PHOCUS Project: Particle Interactions in the Polar Summer Mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbel, J.; Hedin, J.; Khaplanov, M.

    2012-12-01

    On the morning of July 21, 2011, the PHOCUS sounding rocket was launched from Esrange, Sweden, into strong noctilucent clouds (NLC) and polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) observed by the Esrange lidar and the ESRAD MST radar. The aim of the PHOCUS project (Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer mesosphere) is to study mesospheric particles (ice and meteoric smoke) and their interaction with their neutral and charged environment. Starting out from first ideas in 2005, PHOCUS has developed into a comprehensive venture that connects to a number of new and renewed scientific questions. Interactions of interest comprise the charging and nucleation of particles, the relationship between meteoric smoke and ice, and the influence of these particles on gas-phase chemistry. This presentation gives an overview of the campaign and scientific results. The backbone of the campaign was a sounding rocket with 18 instruments from 8 scientific groups in Sweden, Norway, Germany, Austria and the USA. Atmospheric composition and ice particle properties were probed by a set of optical instruments from Stockholm University, in collaboration with the University in Trondheim. Exciting new instrument developments concerned microwave radiometers for in situ measurements of water vapour at 183 and 558 GHz by Chalmers University of Technology. Charged particles were probed by impact detectors from the University of Colorado, the University of Tromsø and the Leibniz Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), complemented by direct particle sampling from Stockholm University. The neutral and charged background state of the atmosphere was quantified by the Technical University Graz, IAP, and the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment. Important ground-based instrumentation included the Esrange lidar, the ESRAD MST radar, the SkiYMET meteor radar and EISCAT.

  5. LAN MAP: An Innovative Airborne Light at Night Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, Eric R.; Craine, B. L.; Craine, E. M.; Craine, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread installation of inefficient and misdirected artificial light at night (LAN) has led to increasing concerns about light pollution and its impact, not only on astronomical facilities but larger communities as well. Light pollution impacts scientific research, environmental ecosystems, human health, and quality of life. In recent years, the public policy response to light pollution has included formulation of government codes to regulate lighting design and installation. Various environmental groups now include light pollution among their rallying themes to protest both specific and general developments. The latter efforts are often conducted in the absence of any quantitative data and are frequently charged by emotion rather than reason. To bring some scientific objectivity, and quantitative data, to these discussions, we have developed a suite of tools for simultaneous photometric measurements and temporal monitoring of both local communities and the sky overhead. We have also developed novel protocols for the use of these tools, including a triad of airborne, ground mobile, and ground static photometric surveys. We present a summary of these tools and protocols, with special emphasis on the airborne systems, and discuss baseline and follow-up measurements of LAN environments in the vicinity of numerous observatories in Arizona, the home of the initial LAN MAP surveys.

  6. Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) mapping reveals nanocrystal orientation patterns in carbonate biominerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Pupa U.P.A., E-mail: pupa@physics.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystal orientation shown by Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) maps. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIC-mapping of carbonate biominerals reveals their ultrastructure at the nanoscale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation mechanisms of biominerals is discovered by PIC-mapping using PEEM. -- Abstract: Carbonate biominerals are one of the most interesting systems a physicist can study. They play a major role in the CO{sub 2} cycle, they master templation, self-assembly, nanofabrication, phase transitions, space filling, crystal nucleation and growth mechanisms. A new imaging modality was introduced in the last 5 years that enables direct observation of the orientation of carbonate single crystals, at the nano- and micro-scale. This is Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) mapping, which is based on X-ray linear dichroism, and uses PhotoElectron Emission spectroMicroscopy (PEEM). Here we present PIC-mapping results from biominerals, including the nacre and prismatic layers of mollusk shells, and sea urchin teeth. We describe various PIC-mapping approaches, and show that these lead to fundamental discoveries on the formation mechanisms of biominerals.

  7. Project Marna Natural Gamma Radiation MAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, E.; Fernandez, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The confusion created by the accident that occurred in one of the Chernobyl reactors in April of 1986 made the general public and governments aware of the need for improved monitoring of environmental radiation levels. The levels of total gamma radiation or total gamma exposure rate over large areas reached values as high as 400 micro Roentgen/hour (mu R/h) and at points exceeded 1000 mu R/h. It should be borne in mind that, depending on the type of geological formations, normal values range from 5 to 30 mu R/h. The IAEA recommended to all countries that natural gamma radiation maps be made available to evaluate the levels of natural gamma radiation and possible increases, and it also indicated its concern that information be standardized. In addition, it stressed the advisability of using data obtained from uranium prospecting. (Author)

  8. Planck intermediate results XXXIII. Signature of the magnetic field geometry of interstellar filaments in dust polarization maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    Planck observations at 353 GHz provide the first fully sampled maps of the polarized dust emission towards interstellar filaments and their backgrounds (i.e., the emission observed in the surroundings of the filaments). The data allow us to determine the intrinsic polarization properties of the f......Planck observations at 353 GHz provide the first fully sampled maps of the polarized dust emission towards interstellar filaments and their backgrounds (i.e., the emission observed in the surroundings of the filaments). The data allow us to determine the intrinsic polarization properties...

  9. Assessing IT Projects Success with Extended Fuzzy Cognitive Maps & Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps in comparison to Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Bhutani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available IT projects hold a huge importance to economic growth. Today, half of the capital investments are in IT technology. IT systems and projects are extensive and time consuming; thus implying that its failure is not affordable, so proper feasibility study of assessing project success factors is required. A current methodology like Fuzzy Cognitive Maps has been experimented for identifying and evaluating the success factors in IT projects, but this technique has certain limitations. This paper discusses two new approaches to evaluate IT project success: Extended Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (E-FCM & Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (NCM.The limitations of FCM like non consideration for non-linear, conditional, time delay weights and indeterminate relations are targeted using E-FCM and NCM in this paper.

  10. IR SPECTRAL MAPPING OF THE MARTIAN SOUTH POLAR RESIDUAL CAP USING CRISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Campbell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are considered to be important in theories of abiogenesis (Allamandola, 2011 . There is evidence that PAHs have been detected on two icy Saturnian satellites using the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS on the Cassini spacecraft (Cruikshank et al., 2007. The hypothesised presence of PAHs in Mars south polar cap has not been systematically examined even though the Mars south polar cap may allow the preservation of organic molecules that are typically destroyed at the Martian surface by UV radiation (Dartnell et al. 2012. This hypothesis is supported by recent analyses of South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC structural evolution (Thomas et al., 2009 that suggest the possibility that seasonal and long term sublimation may excavate dust particles from within the polar ice. Periodic sublimation is believed to be responsible for the formation of so-called “Swiss Cheese Terrain”, a unique surface feature found only in the Martian south polar residual cap consisting of flat floored, circular depressions (Byrne, 2009. We show the first examples of work towards the detection of PAHs in Swiss Cheese Terrain, using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM, on board NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO. CRISM is designed to search for mineralogical indications of past and present water, thus providing extensive coverage of the south polar cap. In this work, we discuss whether CRISM infrared spectra can be used to detect PAHs in Swiss Cheese Terrain and demonstrate a number of maps showing shifts in spectral profiles over the SPRC.

  11. Infrastructure Mega projects and Spatial Polarization in Rio de Janeiro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    patterns of segregation and polarization on these levels. Beyond the fact that such patterns follow urban development tendencies under the impact of globalization which also have been documented elsewhere, we are interested here in looking at how the Guanabara Bay Clean-up Programme has contributed...

  12. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas. PMID:25823872

  13. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-05-19

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas.

  14. Polarization Reversal Over Flooded Regions and Applications to Large-Scale Flood Mapping with Spaceborne Scatterometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Liu, W. Timothy; Xie, Xiao-Su

    1999-01-01

    We present the polarization reversal in backscatter over flooded land regions, and demonstrate for the first time the utility of spaceborne Ku-band scatterometer for large-scale flood mapping. Scatterometer data were collected over the globe by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) operated at 14 GHz on the Japanese ADEOS spacecraft from September 1996 to June 1997. During this time span, several severe floods occurred. Over most land surface, vertical polarization backscatter (Sigma(sub upsilon(upsilon)) is larger than horizontal polarization backscatter (sigma(sub hh)). Such polarization characteristics is reversed and sigma(sub upsilon(upsilon)) is smaller than sigma(sub hh) over flooded regions, except under a dense forest canopy. The total backscatter from the flooded landscape consists of direct backscatter and boundary-interaction backscatter. The direct term is contributed by direct backscattering from objects protruding above the water surface, and by backscattering from waves on the water surface. The boundary-interaction term is contributed by the forward scattering from the protruding objects and then reflected from the water surface, and also by the forward scattering from these objects after the water-surface reflection. Over flooded regions, the boundary-interaction term is dominant at large incidence angles and the strong water-surface reflection is much larger for horizontal polarization than the vertical one due to the Brewster effect in transverse-magnetic waves. These scattering mechanisms cause the polarization reversal over flooded regions. An example obtained with the Analytic Wave Theory is used to illustrate the scattering mechanisms leading to the polarization reversal. We then demonstrate the utility of spaceborne Ku-band scatterometer for large-scale flood mapping. We process NSCAT data to obtain the polarization ratio sigma(sub hh)/sigma(sub upsilon(upsilon)) with colocated data at incidence angles larger than 40 deg. The results over Asian

  15. Conservation status of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in relation to projected sea-ice declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidre, K. L.; Regehr, E. V.; Akcakaya, H. R.; Amstrup, S. C.; Atwood, T.; Lunn, N.; Obbard, M.; Stern, H. L., III; Thiemann, G.; Wiig, O.

    2016-12-01

    Loss of Arctic sea ice due to climate change is the most serious threat to polar bears (Ursus maritimus) throughout their circumpolar range. We performed a data-based sensitivity analysis with respect to this threat by evaluating the potential response of the global polar bear population to projected sea-ice conditions. We conducted 1) an assessment of generation length for polar bears, 2) developed of a standardized sea-ice metric representing important habitat characteristics for the species; and 3) performed population projections over three generations, using computer simulation and statistical models representing alternative relationships between sea ice and polar bear abundance. Using three separate approaches, the median percent change in mean global population size for polar bears between 2015 and 2050 ranged from -4% (95% CI = -62%, 50%) to -43% (95% CI = -76%, -20%). Results highlight the potential for large reductions in the global population if sea-ice loss continues. They also highlight the large amount of uncertainty in statistical projections of polar bear abundance and the sensitivity of projections to plausible alternative assumptions. The median probability of a reduction in the mean global population size of polar bears greater than 30% over three generations was approximately 0.71 (range 0.20-0.95. The median probability of a reduction greater than 50% was approximately 0.07 (range 0-0.35), and the probability of a reduction greater than 80% was negligible.

  16. Projected polar bear sea ice habitat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen G; Castro de la Guardia, Laura; Derocher, Andrew E; Sahanatien, Vicki; Tremblay, Bruno; Huard, David

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice across the Arctic is declining and altering physical characteristics of marine ecosystems. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have been identified as vulnerable to changes in sea ice conditions. We use sea ice projections for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 2006 - 2100 to gain insight into the conservation challenges for polar bears with respect to habitat loss using metrics developed from polar bear energetics modeling. Shifts away from multiyear ice to annual ice cover throughout the region, as well as lengthening ice-free periods, may become critical for polar bears before the end of the 21st century with projected warming. Each polar bear population in the Archipelago may undergo 2-5 months of ice-free conditions, where no such conditions exist presently. We identify spatially and temporally explicit ice-free periods that extend beyond what polar bears require for nutritional and reproductive demands. Under business-as-usual climate projections, polar bears may face starvation and reproductive failure across the entire Archipelago by the year 2100.

  17. Projected polar bear sea ice habitat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G Hamilton

    Full Text Available Sea ice across the Arctic is declining and altering physical characteristics of marine ecosystems. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus have been identified as vulnerable to changes in sea ice conditions. We use sea ice projections for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 2006 - 2100 to gain insight into the conservation challenges for polar bears with respect to habitat loss using metrics developed from polar bear energetics modeling.Shifts away from multiyear ice to annual ice cover throughout the region, as well as lengthening ice-free periods, may become critical for polar bears before the end of the 21st century with projected warming. Each polar bear population in the Archipelago may undergo 2-5 months of ice-free conditions, where no such conditions exist presently. We identify spatially and temporally explicit ice-free periods that extend beyond what polar bears require for nutritional and reproductive demands.Under business-as-usual climate projections, polar bears may face starvation and reproductive failure across the entire Archipelago by the year 2100.

  18. Self organizing maps in urban heat stress projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    A self organizing map (SOM) is an unsupervised machine learning algorithm well suited for identifying patterns in large datasets. It has been used successfully to classify atmospheric states in climate data and as part of statistical downscaling procedures. This study aims to use SOMs to produce downscaled CMIP5-based projections of wet-bulb temperature in urban areas, taking into account the regional atmospheric state and learned local dynamics. These downscaled projections will be compared to the CMIP5 models as well as to observations and then used to project local extreme heat stress events in the future.

  19. DOE project on genome mapping and sequencing. Progress report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, G.A.

    1992-12-31

    These efforts on the human genome project were initiated in September, 1990, to contribute towards completion of the human genome project physical mapping effort. In the original application, the authors proposed a novel strategy for constructing a physical map of human chromosome 11, based upon techniques derived in this group and by others. The original goals were to (1) produce a set of cosmid reference clones mapped to specific sites by high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization, (2) produce a set of associated STS sequences and PCR primers for each site, (3) isolate YAC clones corresponding to each STS and, (4) construct YAC contigs such that > 90% of the chromosome would be covered by contigs of 2 mb or greater. Since that time, and with the advent of new technology and reagents, the strategy has been modified slightly but still retains the same goals as originally proposed. The authors have added a project to produce chromosome 11-specific cDNAs and determine the map location and DNA sequence of a selected portion of them.

  20. Atomically-resolved mapping of polarization and electric fields across ferroelectric-oxide interfaces by Z-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisevich, Albina; Chang, Hye Jung; Kalinin, Sergei; Morozovska, Anna; Chu, Ying-Hao; Yu, Pu; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Pennycook, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Polarization, electric field, charge and potential across ferroelectric-oxide interfaces are obtained from direct atomic position mapping by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with Ginsburg-Landau-Devonshire theory. We compare two antiparallel polarization orientations, which allows separation of the polarization and intrinsic interface charge contributions. Using the Born effective charges, the complete interface electrostatics is obtained in real space, providing an alternative method to holography. The results provide new microscopic insight into the thermodynamics of polarization distribution at the atomic level. Research is sponsored by the of Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, U.S. DOE.

  1. Airborne laser swath mapping: results from project laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, William E.; Shrestha, Ramesh L.

    1998-09-01

    During October 1996, the University of Florida, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the Florida Department of Transportation and the United States Geological Survey-Center for Coastal Geology and Regional Marine Studies jointly conducted a demonstration/test project of airborne laser swath mapping. Project Laser Swath-mapping Evaluation and Resurvey, included mapping of more than three hundred kilometers of beaches, stretching from Mexico Beach, just east of Panama City, Florida, to the western tip of Perdido Key, Alabama. The observations collected along the beaches included returns from the water surface at a number of inlets and from near short portions of the Gulf. The typical flying altitude during the tests was 350 meters above the surface, with an airspeed of 75 meters per second. The laser swatch mapping system operated at 5000 pulses per second, and scanned in a saw tooth pattern with a scan angle of plus and minus 15 degrees and a scan rate of 25 Hz. More than 50 million data points were collected in about three hours of operations, spread over three days. Proprietary computer software was used by the vendor to combine aircraft orientation (roll, pitch and yaw) values from an inertial navigation unit in the laser scanning unit, the angular orientation of the scanner mirror, and the range data to compute vectors from the aircraft to the reflecting surface. These vectors were added to the location of the aircraft, determined by phase difference kinematic Global Positioning System observations to compute the coordinates of the reflecting surface at each measurement epoch, expressed in UTM Northings and Eastings and ellipsoid heights. Commercial software was then used to create a variety of products, including 3D shaded relief `snapshots,' contour maps, false colored maps, cross sections and profiles. Repeat coverage was used to estimate the short term repeatability of the measurements and comparisons with cross sections from classical

  2. Application of time domain induced polarization to the mapping of lithotypes in a landfill site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legaz, Aurélie; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Pedersen, Jesper Bjergsted

    2012-01-01

    area. It is known that both waste deposits andclay have clear signatures in TDIP data, making it possibleto enhance the resolution of geological structures comparedto DC surveys alone.Four DC/TDIP profiles were carried out crossing the landfill,and another seven profiles in the surroundings providea.......Results show that it is possible to resolve both the geometryof the buried waste body and key geological structures.In particular, it was possible to find a silt/clay lens at depththat correlates with the flow direction of the pollution plumespreading out from the landfill and to map a shallow sandylayer rich......A direct current (DC) resistivity and time domaininduced polarization (TDIP) survey was undertaken at a decommissionedlandfill site situated in Hørløkke, Denmark,for the purpose of mapping the waste deposits and to discriminateimportant geological units that control the hydrology ofthe surrounding...

  3. Mapping Plastic-Mulched Farmland with C-Band Full Polarization SAR Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasituya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plastic mulching is an important technology in agricultural production both in China and the rest of the world. In spite of its benefit of increasing crop yields, the booming expansion of the plastic mulching area has been changing the landscape patterns and affecting the environment. Accurate and effective mapping of Plastic-Mulched Farmland (PMF can provide useful information for leveraging its advantages and disadvantages. However, mapping the PMF with remote sensing is still challenging owing to its varying spectral characteristics with the crop growth and geographic spatial division. In this paper, we investigated the potential of Radarsat-2 data for mapping PMF. We obtained the backscattering intensity of different polarizations and multiple polarimetric decomposition descriptors. These remotely-sensed information was used as input features for Random Forest (RF and Support Vector Machine (SVM classifiers. The results indicated that the features from Radarsat-2 data have great potential for mapping PMF. The overall accuracies of PMF mapping with Radarsat-2 data were close to 75%. Although the classification accuracy with the back-scattering intensity information alone was relatively lower owing to the inherent speckle noise in SAR data, it has been improved significantly by introducing the polarimetric decomposition descriptors. The accuracy was nearly 75%. In addition, the features derived from the Entropy/Anisotropy/Alpha (H/A/Alpha polarimetric decomposition, such as Alpha, entropy, and so on, made a greater contribution to PMF mapping than the Freeman decomposition, Krogager decomposition and the Yamaguchi4 decomposition. The performances of different classifiers were also compared. In this study, the RF classifier performed better than the SVM classifier. However, it is expected that the classification accuracy of PMF with SAR remote sensing data can be improved by combining SAR remote sensing data with optical remote sensing data.

  4. Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (EAEHMP) - Progress Report, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Haase, Jennifer L.; Moore, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Maps of surficial geology, deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard, and liquefaction potential index have been prepared by various members of the Evansville Area Earthquake Hazard Mapping Project for seven quadrangles in the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, metropolitan areas. The surficial geologic maps feature 23 types of surficial geologic deposits, artificial fill, and undifferentiated bedrock outcrop and include alluvial and lake deposits of the Ohio River valley. Probabilistic and deterministic seismic hazard and liquefaction hazard mapping is made possible by drawing on a wealth of information including surficial geologic maps, water well logs, and in-situ testing profiles using the cone penetration test, standard penetration test, down-hole shear wave velocity tests, and seismic refraction tests. These data were compiled and collected with contributions from the Indiana Geological Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, Illinois State Geological Survey, United States Geological Survey, and Purdue University. Hazard map products are in progress and are expected to be completed by the end of 2009, with a public roll out in early 2010. Preliminary results suggest that there is a 2 percent probability that peak ground accelerations of about 0.3 g will be exceeded in much of the study area within 50 years, which is similar to the 2002 USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps for a firm rock site value. Accelerations as high as 0.4-0.5 g may be exceeded along the edge of the Ohio River basin. Most of the region outside of the river basin has a low liquefaction potential index (LPI), where the probability that LPI is greater than 5 (that is, there is a high potential for liquefaction) for a M7.7 New Madrid type event is only 20-30 percent. Within the river basin, most of the region has high LPI, where the probability that LPI is greater than 5 for a New Madrid type event is 80-100 percent.

  5. Formation of a direction map by projection learning using Kohonen's self-organization map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouno, H; Kurata, K

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a modification of Kohonen's self-organization map (SOM) algorithm. When the input signal space is not convex, some reference vectors of SOM can protrude from it. The input signal space must be convex to keep all the reference vectors fixed on it for any updates. Thus, we introduce a projection learning method that fixes the reference vectors onto the input signal space. This version of SOM can be applied to a non-convex input signal space. We applied SOM with projection learning to a direction map observed in the primary visual cortex of area 17 of ferrets, and area 18 of cats. Neurons in those areas responded selectively to the orientation of edges or line segments, and their directions of motion. Some iso-orientation domains were subdivided into selective regions for the opposite direction of motion. The abstract input signal space of the direction map described in the manner proposed by Obermayer and Blasdel [(1993) J Neurosci 13: 4114-4129] is not convex. We successfully used SOM with projection learning to reproduce a direction-orientation joint map.

  6. The RWP-RK factor GROUNDED promotes embryonic polarity by facilitating YODA MAP kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sangho; Palmer, Travis M; Lukowitz, Wolfgang

    2011-08-09

    The division of plant zygotes is typically asymmetric, generating daughter cells with different developmental fates. In Arabidopsis, the apical daughter cell produces the proembryo, whereas the basal daughter cell forms the mostly extraembryonic suspensor. Establishment of apical and basal fates is known to depend on the YODA (YDA) mitogen-associated protein (MAP) kinase cascade and WUSCHEL-LIKE HOMEOBOX (WOX) homeodomain transcription factors. Mutations in GROUNDED (GRD) cause anatomical defects implying a partial loss of developmental asymmetry in the first division. Subsequently, suspensor-specific WOX8 expression disappears while proembryo-specific ZLL expression expands in the mutants, revealing that basal fates are confounded. GRD encodes a small nuclear protein of the RWP-RK family and is broadly transcribed in the early embryo. Loss of GRD eliminates the dominant effects of hyperactive YDA variants, indicating that GRD is required for YDA-dependent signaling in the embryo. However, GRD function is not regulated via direct phosphorylation by MAP kinases, and forced expression of GRD does not suppress the effect of yda mutations. In a strong synthetic interaction, grd;wox8;wox9 triple mutants arrest as zygotes or one-cell embryos lacking apparent polarity. The predicted transcription factor GRD acts cooperatively with WOX homeodomain proteins to establish embryonic polarity in the first division. Like YDA, GRD promotes zygote elongation and basal cell fates. GRD function is required for YDA-dependent signaling but apparently not regulated by the YDA MAP kinase cascade. Similarity of GRD to Chlamydomonas MID suggests a conserved role for small RWP-RK proteins in regulating the transcriptional programs of generative cells and the zygote. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Far-UV Spectral Mapping of Lunar Composition, Porosity, and Space Weathering: LRO Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Mandt, K.; Gladstone, R.; Liu, Y.; Hendrix, A. R.; Hurley, D.; Cahill, J. T.; Stickle, A. M.; Egan, A.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Grava, C.; Pryor, W. R.

    2016-12-01

    Far ultraviolet reflectance measurements of the Moon, icy satellites, comets, and asteroids obtained within the last decade have ushered in a new era of scientific advancement for UV surface investigations. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) has demonstrated an innovative nightside observing technique, putting a new light on permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and other features on the Moon. Dayside far-UV albedo maps complement the nightside data, and LRO's polar orbit and high data downlink capabilities enable searches for diurnal variations in spectral signals. We'll discuss the strengths of the far-UV reflectance imaging spectroscopy technique with respect to several new LAMP results. Detections of water frost and hydration signatures near 165 nm, for example, provide constraints on composition that complement infrared spectroscopy, visible imaging, neutron spectroscopy, radar, and other techniques. At far-UV wavelengths a relatively blue spectral slope is diagnostic of space weathering, which is opposite of the spectral reddening indicator of maturity at wavelengths longward of 180 nm. By utilizing natural diffuse illumination sources on the nightside the far-UV technique is able to identify relative increases in porosity within the PSRs, and provides an additional tool for determining relative surface ages. Prospects for future studies are further enabled by a new, more sensitive dayside operating mode enacted during the present LRO mission extension.

  8. Conservation status of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in relation to projected sea-ice declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Eric V; Laidre, Kristin L; Akçakaya, H Resit; Amstrup, Steven C; Atwood, Todd C; Lunn, Nicholas J; Obbard, Martyn; Stern, Harry; Thiemann, Gregory W; Wiig, Øystein

    2016-12-01

    Loss of Arctic sea ice owing to climate change is the primary threat to polar bears throughout their range. We evaluated the potential response of polar bears to sea-ice declines by (i) calculating generation length (GL) for the species, which determines the timeframe for conservation assessments; (ii) developing a standardized sea-ice metric representing important habitat; and (iii) using statistical models and computer simulation to project changes in the global population under three approaches relating polar bear abundance to sea ice. Mean GL was 11.5 years. Ice-covered days declined in all subpopulation areas during 1979-2014 (median -1.26 days year -1 ). The estimated probabilities that reductions in the mean global population size of polar bears will be greater than 30%, 50% and 80% over three generations (35-41 years) were 0.71 (range 0.20-0.95), 0.07 (range 0-0.35) and less than 0.01 (range 0-0.02), respectively. According to IUCN Red List reduction thresholds, which provide a common measure of extinction risk across taxa, these results are consistent with listing the species as vulnerable. Our findings support the potential for large declines in polar bear numbers owing to sea-ice loss, and highlight near-term uncertainty in statistical projections as well as the sensitivity of projections to different plausible assumptions. © 2016 The Authors.

  9. Mapping Best and Emerging Practices of Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Aaris Boas, Charlotte; Thorslund, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    and Planning. Of these two concepts Communication where found to be the most central to both the Emerging and Best practices. The analysis further reveals a soft side of project management that is central in the Emerging practice but absent from the Best practices. Although this soft side might be interpreted......This paper presents results of a study of the connection between Best and Emerging practices of project management. Drawing upon network mapping as an analytical strategy, cases of Best and Emerging practices is analysed and juxtaposed. The case of Best practice is represented by the newly...... published ISO 21500 standard and the case for the Emerging practices by a deconstruction of the practices of a group of experienced project managers. The network analysis reveals a substantial difference between the Best and Emerging practices. Only two central concepts where shared namely Communication...

  10. Robust Likelihoods for Inflationary Gravitational Waves from Maps of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Eric Ryan; Watts, Duncan J.

    2016-01-01

    The B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background provides a unique window into tensor perturbations from inflationary gravitational waves. Survey effects complicate the estimation and description of the power spectrum on the largest angular scales. The pixel-space likelihood yields parameter distributions without the power spectrum as an intermediate step, but it does not have the large suite of tests available to power spectral methods. Searches for primordial B-modes must rigorously reject and rule out contamination. Many forms of contamination vary or are uncorrelated across epochs, frequencies, surveys, or other data treatment subsets. The cross power and the power spectrum of the difference of subset maps provide approaches to reject and isolate excess variance. We develop an analogous joint pixel-space likelihood. Contamination not modeled in the likelihood produces parameter-dependent bias and complicates the interpretation of the difference map. We describe a null test that consistently weights the difference map. Excess variance should either be explicitly modeled in the covariance or be removed through reprocessing the data.

  11. FINANCIAL STABILITY TRANSFORMATION ON THE TERRITORIES DURING THE PROJECT "URAL INDUSTRIAL –URAL POLAR"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Tatarkin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In article possible ways of financial stability transformation of Ural federal district regions in conditions of project "Urals industrial – Urals Polar" realization are considered. Necessity of use of budgetary funds, and also opportunities on attraction of private investments for financing construction of a transport corridor proves. The scheme of financing under the project, established on the mechanism of Public Private Partnership is certain.

  12. Density equalizing map projections (cartograms) in public health applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, D.W.

    1998-05-01

    In studying geographic disease distributions, one normally compares rates among arbitrarily defined geographic subareas (e.g. census tracts), thereby sacrificing some of the geographic detail of the original data. The sparser the data, the larger the subareas must be in order to calculate stable rates. This dilemma is avoided with the technique of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP){copyright}. Boundaries of geographic subregions are adjusted to equalize population density over the entire study area. Case locations plotted on the transformed map should have a uniform distribution if the underlying disease risk is constant. On the transformed map, the statistical analysis of the observed distribution is greatly simplified. Even for sparse distributions, the statistical significance of a supposed disease cluster can be calculated with validity. The DEMP algorithm was applied to a data set previously analyzed with conventional techniques; namely, 401 childhood cancer cases in four counties of California. The distribution of cases on the transformed map was analyzed visually and statistically. To check the validity of the method, the identical analysis was performed on 401 artificial cases randomly generated under the assumption of uniform risk. No statistically significant evidence for geographic non-uniformity of rates was found, in agreement with the original analysis performed by the California Department of Health Services.

  13. Application of time domain induced polarization to the mapping of lithotypes in a landfill site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gazoty

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A direct current (DC resistivity and time domain induced polarization (TDIP survey was undertaken at a decommissioned landfill site situated in Hørløkke, Denmark, for the purpose of mapping the waste deposits and to discriminate important geological units that control the hydrology of the surrounding area. It is known that both waste deposits and clay have clear signatures in TDIP data, making it possible to enhance the resolution of geological structures compared to DC surveys alone.

    Four DC/TDIP profiles were carried out crossing the landfill, and another seven profiles in the surroundings provide a sufficiently dense coverage of the entire area. The whole dataset was inverted using a 1-D laterally constrained inversion scheme, recently implemented for TDIP data, in order to use the entire decay curves for reconstructing the electrical parameters of the soil in terms of the Cole-Cole polarization model.

    Results show that it is possible to resolve both the geometry of the buried waste body and key geological structures. In particular, it was possible to find a silt/clay lens at depth that correlates with the flow direction of the pollution plume spreading out from the landfill and to map a shallow sandy layer rich in clay that likely has a strong influence on the hydrology of the site. This interpretation of the geophysical findings was constrained by borehole data, in terms of geology and gamma ray logging. The results of this study are important for the impact of the resolved geological units on the hydrology of the area, making it possible to construct more realistic scenarios of the variation of the pollution plume as a function of the climate change.

  14. Oblique Projection Polarization Filtering-Based Interference Suppressions for Radar Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Bin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interferences coming from the radar members degrade the detection and recognition performance of the radar sensor networks (RSNs if the waveforms of the radar members are nonorthogonal. In this paper, we analyze the interferences by exploring the polarization information of the electromagnetic (EM waves. Then, we propose the oblique projection polarization filtering- (OPPF- based scheme to suppress the interferences while keeping the amplitude and phase of its own return in RSNs, even if the polarized states of the radar members are not orthogonal. We consider the cooperative RSNs environment where the polarization information of each radar member is known to all. The proposed method uses all radar members' polarization information to establish the corresponding filtering operator. The Doppler-shift and its uncertainty are independent of the polarization information, which contributes that the interferences can be suppressed without the utilization of the spatial, the temporal, the frequency, the time-delay and the Doppler-shift information. Theoretical analysis and the mathematical deduction show that the proposed scheme is a valid and simple implementation. Simulation results also demonstrate that this method can obtain a good filtering performance when dealing with the problem of interference suppressions for RSNs.

  15. IPRT polarized radiative transfer model intercomparison project - Three-dimensional test cases (phase B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, Claudia; Barlakas, Vasileios; Cornet, Céline; Evans, Frank; Wang, Zhen; Labonotte, Laurent C.; Macke, Andreas; Mayer, Bernhard; Wendisch, Manfred

    2018-04-01

    Initially unpolarized solar radiation becomes polarized by scattering in the Earth's atmosphere. In particular molecular scattering (Rayleigh scattering) polarizes electromagnetic radiation, but also scattering of radiation at aerosols, cloud droplets (Mie scattering) and ice crystals polarizes. Each atmospheric constituent produces a characteristic polarization signal, thus spectro-polarimetric measurements are frequently employed for remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties. Retrieval algorithms require efficient radiative transfer models. Usually, these apply the plane-parallel approximation (PPA), assuming that the atmosphere consists of horizontally homogeneous layers. This allows to solve the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) efficiently. For remote sensing applications, the radiance is considered constant over the instantaneous field-of-view of the instrument and each sensor element is treated independently in plane-parallel approximation, neglecting horizontal radiation transport between adjacent pixels (Independent Pixel Approximation, IPA). In order to estimate the errors due to the IPA approximation, three-dimensional (3D) vector radiative transfer models are required. So far, only a few such models exist. Therefore, the International Polarized Radiative Transfer (IPRT) working group of the International Radiation Commission (IRC) has initiated a model intercomparison project in order to provide benchmark results for polarized radiative transfer. The group has already performed an intercomparison for one-dimensional (1D) multi-layer test cases [phase A, 1]. This paper presents the continuation of the intercomparison project (phase B) for 2D and 3D test cases: a step cloud, a cubic cloud, and a more realistic scenario including a 3D cloud field generated by a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model and typical background aerosols. The commonly established benchmark results for 3D polarized radiative transfer are available at the IPRT website (http

  16. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission investigation no. 25 (Tellus project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deparatesi, S. G. (Principal Investigator); Reiniger, P. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The TELLUS pilot project, utilizing 0.5 to 1.1 micron and 10.5 to 12.5 micron day and/or night imagery from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, is described. The application of remotely sensed data to synoptic evaluation of evapotranspiration and moisture in agricultural soils was considered. The influence of topography, soils, land use, and meteorology on surface temperature distribution was evaluated. Anthropogenic heat release was investigated. Test areas extended from semi-arid land in southern Italy to polders in the Netherlands, and from vine-growing hills in the Rhineland to grasslands in Buckinghamshire.

  17. Mapping polar bear maternal denning habitat in the National Petroleum Reserve -- Alaska with an IfSAR digital terrain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Simac, Kristin S.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska (NPR-A) in northeastern Alaska provides winter maternal denning habitat for polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and also has high potential for recoverable hydrocarbons. Denning polar bears exposed to human activities may abandon their dens before their young are able to survive the severity of Arctic winter weather. To ensure that wintertime petroleum activities do not threaten polar bears, managers need to know the distribution of landscape features in which maternal dens are likely to occur. Here, we present a map of potential denning habitat within the NPR-A. We used a fine-grain digital elevation model derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) to generate a map of putative denning habitat. We then tested the map’s ability to identify polar bear denning habitat on the landscape. Our final map correctly identified 82% of denning habitat estimated to be within the NPR-A. Mapped denning habitat comprised 19.7 km2 (0.1% of the study area) and was widely dispersed. Though mapping denning habitat with IfSAR data was as effective as mapping with the photogrammetric methods used for other regions of the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain, the use of GIS to analyze IfSAR data allowed greater objectivity and flexibility with less manual labor. Analytical advantages and performance equivalent to that of manual cartographic methods suggest that the use of IfSAR data to identify polar bear maternal denning habitat is a better management tool in the NPR-A and wherever such data may be available.

  18. Selection of promising sweet potato clones using projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Esteban; Ares, Gastón; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Varela, Pablo; Bologna, Franco; Lado, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Increasing demand for sweet potato in regions with temperate climates has triggered interest in the development of new cultivars. Breeding of this crop should consider sensory characteristics in order to meet consumers' expectations. This requires the application of simple and cost-effective methodologies that allow quality evaluation from a sensory perspective. With the objective of identifying the key sensory characteristics of different sweet potato genotypes, two commercial cultivars and seven clones were evaluated during three consecutive years using projective mapping by an untrained consumer panel. This methodology allowed the discrimination of the genotypes, identifying similarities and differences among groups based on sensory terms selected by the assessors. Genotypes were differentiated in terms of texture and flavor characteristics (firmness, moisture, smoothness, creaminess, flavor intensity, sweetness and bitterness). Materials for future crossings were identified. The evaluation of the sensory characteristics of sweet potato clones and cultivars using projective mapping is a quick, cost-effective and reliable tool for the selection of new advanced sweet potato clones with superior sensory characteristics compared to the reference cultivars INIA Arapey and Cuarí. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field to continental scales using geostationary and polar orbiting satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared (TIR remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (e.g., air temperature, advection are affecting plant functioning. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil + canopy land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5 to 10-km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions on the order of 10 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple geostationary meteorological satellite systems, such as the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe, Africa

  20. Mapping geological structures in bedrock via large-scale direct current resistivity and time-domain induced polarization tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Matteo; Olsson, Per-Ivar; Johansson, Sara

    2017-01-01

    An investigation of geological conditions is always a key point for planning infrastructure constructions. Bedrock surface and rock quality must be estimated carefully in the designing process of infrastructures. A large direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization survey has b...... been performed in Dalby, Lund Municipality, southern Sweden, with the aim of mapping lithological variations in bedrock. The geology at the site is characterised by Precambrian granitic gneisses and amphibolites, which are intensely deformed, fractured, and partly weathered. In addition......-polarization profiles. The direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization methodology proved to be a suitable technique for extensively mapping weathered zones with poor geotechnical characteristics and tectonic structures, which can lead to severe problems for infrastructure construction and....../or constitute risk zones for aquifer contamination....

  1. Polar Bear Conservation Status in Relation to Projected Sea-ice Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The status of the world's 19 subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) varies as a function of sea-ice conditions, ecology, management, and other factors. Previous methods to project the response of polar bears to loss of Arctic sea ice—the primary threat to the species—include expert opinion surveys, Bayesian Networks providing qualitative stressor assessments, and subpopulations-specific demographic analyses. Here, we evaluated the global conservation status of polar bears using a data-based sensitivity analysis. First, we estimated generation length for subpopulations with available data (n=11). Second, we developed standardized sea-ice metrics representing habitat availability. Third, we projected global population size under alternative assumptions for relationships between sea ice and subpopulation abundance. Estimated generation length (median = 11.4 years; 95%CI = 9.8 to 13.6) and sea-ice change (median = loss of 1.26 ice-covered days per year; 95%CI = 0.70 to 3.37) varied across subpopulations. Assuming a one-to-one proportional relationship between sea ice and abundance, the median percent change in global population size over three polar bear generations was -30% (95%CI = -35% to -25%). Assuming a linear relationship between sea ice and normalized estimates of subpopulation abundance, median percent change was -4% (95% CI = -62% to +50%) or -43% (95% CI = -76% to -20%), depending on how subpopulations were grouped and how inference was extended from relatively well-studied subpopulations (n=7) to those with little or no data. Our findings suggest the potential for large reductions in polar bear numbers over the next three polar bear generations if sea-ice loss due to climate change continues as forecasted.

  2. ION BEAM POLARIZATION DYNAMICS IN THE 8 GEV BOOSTER OF THE JLEIC PROJECT AT JLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratenko, A. M. [GOO Zaryad, Russkaya st., 41, Novosibirsk, 630058, Russia; Kondratenko, M. A. [GOO Zaryad, Russkaya st., 41, Novosibirsk, 630058, Russia; Morozov, Vasiliy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Lin, Fanglei; Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Filatov, Yuri [MIPT, Dolgoprudniy, Moscow Region, Russia

    2016-05-01

    In the Jefferson Lab’s Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC) project, an injector of polarized ions into the collider ring is a superconducting 8 GeV booster. Both figure-8 and racetrack booster versions were considered. Our analysis showed that the figure-8 ring configuration allows one to preserve the polarization of any ion species during beam acceleration using only small longitudinal field with an integral less than 0.5 Tm. In the racetrack booster, to pre-serve the polarization of ions with the exception of deu-terons, it suffices to use a solenoidal Siberian snake with a maximum field integral of 30 Tm. To preserve deuteron polarization, we propose to use arc magnets for the race-track booster structure with a field ramp rate of the order of 1 T/s. We calculate deuteron and proton beam polari-zations in both the figure-8 and racetrack boosters includ-ing alignment errors of their magnetic elements using the Zgoubi code.

  3. MAPPING THE POLARIZATION OF THE RADIO-LOUD Ly α NEBULA B3 J2330+3927

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Chang; Zabludoff, Ann; Smith, Paul; Jannuzi, Buell [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Yang, Yujin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eunchong; Lee, Myung Gyoon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 88226 (Korea, Republic of); Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, 1320 Frenger Mall, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Matsuda, Yuichi, E-mail: yyang@kasi.re.kr [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-01-10

    Ly α nebulae, or “Ly α blobs,” are extended (up to ∼100 kpc), bright (L{sub Lyα}  ≳ 10{sup 43} erg s{sup −1}) clouds of Ly α emitting gas that tend to lie in overdense regions at z  ∼ 2–5. The origin of the Ly α emission remains unknown, but recent theoretical work suggests that measuring the polarization might discriminate among powering mechanisms. Here we present the first narrowband imaging polarimetry of a radio-loud Ly α nebula, B3 J2330+3927, at z = 3.09, with an embedded active galactic nucleus (AGN). The AGN lies near the blob’s Ly α emission peak, and its radio lobes align roughly with the blob’s major axis. With the SPOL polarimeter on the 6.5 m MMT telescope, we map the total (Ly α + continuum) polarization in a grid of circular apertures of a radius of 0.″6 (4.4 kpc), detecting a significant (>2 σ ) polarization fraction P {sub %} in nine apertures and achieving strong upper limits (as low as 2%) elsewhere. P{sub %} increases from <2% at ∼5 kpc from the blob center to 17% at ∼15–25 kpc. The detections are distributed asymmetrically, roughly along the nebula’s major axis. The polarization angles θ are mostly perpendicular to this axis. Comparing the Ly α flux to that of the continuum and conservatively assuming that the continuum is highly polarized (20%–100%) and aligned with the total polarization, we place lower limits on the polarization of the Ly α emission P{sub %,Lyα} ranging from no significant polarization at ∼5 kpc from the blob center to 3%–17% at 10–25 kpc. Like the total polarization, the Ly α polarization detections occur more often along the blob’s major axis.

  4. Mapping data through concept maps: an auxiliary tool for decision making regarding institutional projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Avila, Adriana L., E-mail: adriana@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisão de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports a data mapping construction aimed to subsidize the decision making process regarding institutional projects, at different levels of responsibility, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. The conception models a systemic and adaptive tool which is based on the concept mapping theory developed by Novak. The Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN) is a research center of the Comissão de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), an autarchy attached to Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações. The main focus of IEN is research and development of nuclear science and technology. The developed tool creates a more effective and accessible way of sharing information. However, beyond project data integration into a specific instrument, it also has the intent to compensate the consequences of the continued reduction of the number of workers at IEN over recent years. The recent CNEN management report, published in 2016, showed the problematic situation caused by the loss of workers, stressing the high number of pensions granted and to be granted in the near future. The loss of labor force, besides exposing the urgent need for optimizing knowledge management efforts, also sheds light into another problem: the need for grouping responsibilities among the remaining workers. In this respect, the tool developed helps to face this challenge, enhancing autonomy at different levels but preserving the institutional guidelines. To conclude the report, and in order to exemplify the method, the paper also describes the map construction relative an innovative project proposal in a joint development towards the nuclear area. (author)

  5. Mapping data through concept maps: an auxiliary tool for decision making regarding institutional projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Avila, Adriana L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a data mapping construction aimed to subsidize the decision making process regarding institutional projects, at different levels of responsibility, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. The conception models a systemic and adaptive tool which is based on the concept mapping theory developed by Novak. The Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN) is a research center of the Comissão de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), an autarchy attached to Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações. The main focus of IEN is research and development of nuclear science and technology. The developed tool creates a more effective and accessible way of sharing information. However, beyond project data integration into a specific instrument, it also has the intent to compensate the consequences of the continued reduction of the number of workers at IEN over recent years. The recent CNEN management report, published in 2016, showed the problematic situation caused by the loss of workers, stressing the high number of pensions granted and to be granted in the near future. The loss of labor force, besides exposing the urgent need for optimizing knowledge management efforts, also sheds light into another problem: the need for grouping responsibilities among the remaining workers. In this respect, the tool developed helps to face this challenge, enhancing autonomy at different levels but preserving the institutional guidelines. To conclude the report, and in order to exemplify the method, the paper also describes the map construction relative an innovative project proposal in a joint development towards the nuclear area. (author)

  6. Mapping and industrial IT project to a 2nd semester design-build project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Mads; Høgh, Stig

    2010-01-01

    CDIO means bringing the engineer's daily life and working practice into the educational system. In our opinion this is best done by selecting an appropriate project from industry. In this paper we describe how we have mapped an industrial IT project to a 2nd semester design-build project...... system. A simple teaching model for software engineering is presented which combines technical disciplines with disciplines from section 2-4 in the CDIO syllabus. The implementation of a joint project involving several courses supports the CDIO perspective. Already the traditional IT-diploma education...... in the Diploma IT program at the Technical University of Denmark. The system in question is a weighing system operating in a LAN environment. The system is used in the medical industry for producing tablets. We present the design of a curriculum to support the development of major components of the weighing...

  7. High-altitude chemical-release systems for Project BIME (Brazilian Ionospheric Modification Experiments) Project IMS (Ionospheric Modification Studies) Project PIIE (Polar Ionospheric Irregularities Experiment) Project Polar Arcs. Final report, 30 September 1981-30 June 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, C.S.; Murphy, W.J.

    1987-07-31

    Project BIME, a Spread-F observation program involved the launching of two Nike-Black Brant rockets each containing a payload containing Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil (ANFO). The rockets were launched from Barriera Do Inferno Launch Site in Natal, Brazil in August of 1982. Project IMS, an F-layer modification experiment involved three launch vehicles. A Nike-Tomahawk and two Sonda III rockets. The Nike-Tomahawk carried a sulfur hexafluoride (SF/sub 6/) payload. One of the Sonda III rockets carried a payload that consisted of an SF/sub 6/ canister and a samarium/strontium thermite canister. The remaining Sonda III carried a payload that consisted of a trifluorobromo methane (CF/sub 3/Br) canister and a samarium thermite canister. The rockets were launched from Wallops Island Launch Facility, Virginia in November of 1984. Project PIIE and Polar Arcs, a program to investigate polar ionospheric irregularities, involved the launch of a Nike-Black Brant rocket which housed one samarium thermite canister and six barium canisters. An attempted launch of the payload was returned in March of 1985, however, launch criteria could not be met and the payload was returned to FRC for storage and refurbishment for launch in 1987. The rocket was launched successfully from Sondrestrom Air Base, Greenland in March of 1987.

  8. Coastal Mapping Program Project TX1406: FREEPORT, TX.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  9. Coastal Mapping Program Project OR1401; SOUTH SLOUGH NERR, OR.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  10. Coastal Mapping Program Project MN1501: SILVER BAY, MN.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  11. Coastal Mapping Program Project MI1501: ST CLAIR, MI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  12. Quantifying Microbe-Mineral Interactions Leading to Remotely Detectable Induced Polarization Signals (Final Project Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moysey, Stephen [Clemson University; Dean, Delphine [Clemson University; Dimitrios, Ntarlagiannis [Rutgers University

    2013-11-13

    The objective of this project was to investigate controls on induced polarization responses in porous media. The approach taken in the project was to compare electrical measurements made on mineral surfaces with atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to observations made at the column-scale using traditional spectral induced polarization measurements. In the project we evaluated a number of techniques for investigating the surface properties of materials, including the development of a new AFM measurement protocol that utilizes an external electric field to induce grain-scale polarizations that can be probed using a charged AFM tip. The experiments we performed focused on idealized systems (i.e., glass beads and silica gel) where we could obtain the high degree of control needed to understand how changes in the pore environment, which are determined by biogeochemical controls in the subsurface, affect mechanisms contributing to complex electrical conductivity, i.e., conduction and polarization, responses. The studies we performed can be classified into those affecting the chemical versus physical properties of the grain surface and pore space. Chemical alterations of the surface focused on evaluating how changes in pore fluid pH and ionic composition control surface conduction. These were performed as column flow through experiments where the pore fluid was exchanged in a column of silica gel. Given that silica gel has a high surface area due to internal grain porosity, high-quality data could be obtained where the chemical influences on the surface are clearly apparent and qualitatively consistent with theories of grain (i.e., Stern layer) polarization controlled by electrostatic surface sorption processes (i.e., triple layer theory). Quantitative fitting of the results by existing process-based polarization models (e.g., Leroy et al., 2008) has been less successful, however, due to what we have attributed to differences between existing models developed for

  13. Constraining foreground spectrum with the projection-induced polarization for the cosmological global 21-cm experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, Bang D.; Bradley, Richard F.; Burns, Professor O.

    2018-01-01

    Detecting the cosmological global (sky-averaged) 21-cm spectrum as a function of observed frequency will provide a powerful tool to study the thermal history of intergalactic medium (IGM) in the high-redshift Universe (~ 400 million years after the Big Bang). The biggest challenge in conventional ground-based total-power global 21-cm experiments is the removal of the Galactic and extragalactic synchrotron foreground (~ 1e4-1e5 K) to uncover the weak cosmological signal (~ 10-100 mK). The foreground is further corrupted by the frequency-dependent instrumental systematics. We have developed a new polarimetry-based observational approach that aims to measure the foreground emission by modulating it as a function of time through its circumpolar motion. Due to geometry, the projection of the anisotropic foreground sources onto the dual-polarized antenna induces a net foreground polarization, which is distinct from the much weaker intrinsic polarization of synchrotron sources. Instead of pointing the radio antenna at the zenith as in the conventional experiments, we point the antenna at the North Celestial Pole (NCP) and measure the projection-induced polarization modulated by the foreground's circumpolar diurnal periodicity. This temporal signature allows us to separate the dynamic foreground spectrum from the static cosmological background. In this presentation, we describe the design, construction, and initial results from the "Cosmic Twilight Polarimeter'' (CTP) as a proof-of-concept implementation of this technique. The instrument consists of a dual-polarized broadband antenna (60-120 MHz) with a two-stage thermally stabilized front-end electronics, tilted toward the NCP. The instrument is currently being evaluated at a site near Charlottesville, VA. Ultimately, the instrument will be relocated to an RFI-quiet site closer to the Geographic North Pole (GNP) to mitigate sky obstruction due to the horizon at a lower latitude.

  14. The Polar Crust Project- BSC Diversity and Variability in the Arctic and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura; Borchhardt, Nadine; Komisc-Buchmann, Karin; Becker, Burkhard; Karsten, Ulf; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    The Polar Crust Project is a newly funded DFG initiative that aims to provide a precise evaluation of the biodiversity of eukaryotic green microalgae and cyanobacteria in Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) isolated from the Antarctic Peninsula and Arctic Svalbard. This project will include a thorough investigation into the composition of BSC in the Polar regions, this especially is important for Svalbard due to the severe lack of any previous research on such communities in this area. During our expedition to Spitsbergen, Svalbard in August 2014 we were particularly surprised to find that the coverage of BSC is extremely high and is certainly the dominant vegetation type around Ny Ålesund. Due to this discovery the project has now been extended to include long term measurements of CO2 gas exchange in order to gain exact seasonal carbon fixation rates and therefore discovering how the BSC contributes to the ecosystems carbon balance. The research areas of Spitsbergen were centred around 2 localities: Ny-Ålesund is a research town, home to the AWIPEV station, on the Brøgger peninsula. Longyearbyen, which is the largest settlement on the island, is found in the valley Longyeardalen on the shore of Adventfjorden. Areas where BSC is the prevalent vegetation type were identified, 6 around Ny-Ålesund and 4 for Longyearbyen, and vegetation surveys were conducted. This entailed 625 single point measurements at each site and identifying the crust/or other cover type. For example, green algal lichen, cyanobacterial crust, higher plant, open soil. Samples were also taken at every location in order to study the green algal and cyanobacterial diversity. The vegetation survey will allow us to get a good overview of the BSC composition at the different sites. In January 2015 an expedition to the Antarctic Peninsular took place, here the sampling method was repeated and therefore both Polar Regions BSC composition can be described and compared. Here, we wish to introduce the Polar

  15. Detection and mapping of polar stratospheric clouds using limb scattering observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. von Savigny

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based measurements of Visible/NIR limb-scattered solar radiation are well suited for the detection and mapping of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs. This publication describes a method to detect PCSs from limb scattering observations with the Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY on the European Space Agency's Envisat spacecraft. The method is based on a color-index approach and requires a priori knowledge of the stratospheric background aerosol loading in order to avoid false PSC identifications by stratospheric background aerosol. The method is applied to a sample data set including the 2003 PSC season in the Southern Hemisphere. The PSCs are correlated with coincident UKMO model temperature data, and with very few exceptions, the detected PSCs occur at temperatures below 195–198 K. Monthly averaged PSC descent rates are about 1.5 km/month for the −50° S to −75° S latitude range and assume a maximum between August and September with a value of about 2.5 km/month. The main cause of the PSC descent is the slow descent of the lower stratospheric temperature minimum.

  16. Rab17 and rab18, small GTPases with specificity for polarized epithelial cells: genetic mapping in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, E B; Barbosa, M D; Zerial, M; Kingsmore, S F

    1997-11-01

    The Rab subfamily of small GTPases plays an important role in the regulation of membrane traffic in eukaryotic cells. While most Rab proteins are equally expressed in polarized and nonpolarized cells, Rab17 and Rab18 show epithelial cell specificity. Here we report the genetic mapping of Rab17 and Rab18 on mouse chromosomes 1 and 18, respectively. We also discuss some implications of Rab17 and Rab18 mapping, including their candidacy for the mouse mutations ln (leaden), Tw (twirler), and ax (ataxia). Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  17. Relation of project managers' personality and project performance: An approach based on value stream mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Bevilacqua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This work investigates the influence of project managers’ personality on the success of a project in a Multinational Corporation. The methodology proposed for analyzing the project managers’ personality is based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.Design/methodology/approach: Forty projects carried out in 2012 by multinational corporation, concerning new product development (NPD, have been analyzed, comparing the profile of project managers with results obtained in terms of traditional performance indexes (time delay and over-budget of projects and performance indexes usually used in “Lean Production” sector (waste time and type of “wastes”. A detailed analysis of the most important “wastes” during the project development is carried out using the Value Stream Mapping (VSM technique.Findings and Originality/value: Relying on the Myers–Briggs personality instrument, results show that extroverted managers (as opposed to introverted managers carry out projects that show lower delay and lower waste time. Introverted managers often make “Over-processing” and “Defect” types of waste. Moreover, lower delay and over-budget have been shown by perceiving managers.Research limitations: Regarding the limitations of this work it is necessary to highlight that we collected data from project managers in a retrospective way. While we believe that several aspects of our data collection effort helped enhance the accuracy of the results, future research could conduct real-time case study research to get more detailed insights into the proposed relationships and avoid retrospective bias. Moreover we focused on a single respondent, the project manager. This helped us ensure that their interpretations played an important role in product development. But, we cannot examined the opinion of team members that could be different from project managers opinion regarding some questions.Originality/value: This research provides insight useful

  18. Corrosion map for metal pipes in coastal Louisiana : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this project is to create a guidance document with maps : that delineate zones where metal pipe is prone to increased corrosion due : to environmental conditions. Results from this project will provide a logical : rationale to suppor...

  19. 'Unstructured Data' Practices in Polar Institutions and Networks: a Case Study with the Arctic Options Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthur Berkman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arctic Options: Holistic Integration for Arctic Coastal-Marine Sustainability is a new three-year research project to assess future infrastructure associated with the Arctic Ocean regarding: (1 natural and living environment; (2 built environment; (3 natural resource development; and (4 governance. For the assessments, Arctic Options will generate objective relational schema from numeric data as well as textual data. This paper will focus on the ‘long tail of smaller, heterogeneous, and often unstructured datasets’ that ‘usually receive minimal data management consideration’,as observed in the 2013 Communiqué from the International Forum on Polar Data Activities in Global Data Systems.

  20. Induced Polarization with Electromagnetic Coupling: 3D Spectral Imaging Theory, EMSP Project No. 73836

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, F. Dale; Sogade, John

    2004-12-14

    This project was designed as a broad foundational study of spectral induced polarization (SIP) for characterization of contaminated sites. It encompassed laboratory studies of the effects of chemistry on induced polarization, development of 3D forward modeling and inversion codes, and investigations of inductive and capacitive coupling problems. In the laboratory part of the project a physico-chemical model developed in this project was used to invert laboratory IP spectra for the grain size and the effective grain size distribution of the sedimentary rocks as well as the formation factor, porosity, specific surface area, and the apparent fractal dimension. Furthermore, it was established that the IP response changed with the solution chemistry, the concentration of a given solution chemistry, valence of the constituent ions, and ionic radius. In the field part of the project, a 3D complex forward and inverse model was developed. It was used to process data acquired at two frequencies (1/16 Hz and 1/ 4Hz) in a cross-borehole configuration at the A-14 outfall area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) during March 2003 and June 2004. The chosen SRS site was contaminated with Tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and Trichloroethylene (PCE) that were disposed in this area for several decades till the 1980s. The imaginary conductivity produced from the inverted 2003 data correlated very well with the log10 (PCE) concentration derived from point sampling at 1 ft spacing in five ground-truth boreholes drilled after the data acquisition. The equivalent result for the 2004 data revealed that there were significant contaminant movements during the period March 2003 and June 2004, probably related to ground-truth activities and nearby remediation activities. Therefore SIP was successfully used to develop conceptual models of volume distributions of PCE/TCE contamination. In addition, the project developed non-polarizing electrodes that can be deployed in boreholes for years. A total of 28

  1. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound during galvanic labyrinth polarization depicts central vestibular processing, demonstrating bilateral vestibular projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Hans-Georg; Guldin, Wolfgang; Fritzsche, Danny; Clarke, Andrew H

    2008-07-01

    The combination of galvanic labyrinth polarization and transcranial Doppler ultrasound was employed to depict the neurovascular coupling in the cerebral vestibular areas. For galvanic stimulation, surface electrodes were attached to the right and left mastoid and two further electrodes were fixed near to each shoulder blade. Thus, each pair of electrodes (mastoid to shoulder) facilitated unilateral stimulation of the ipsilateral vestibular labyrinth. Blood flow in the middle cerebral artery and the internal carotid artery in both hemispheres was measured by means of Doppler ultrasound. The transcranial Doppler ultrasound system was head-fixed and allowed continuous monitoring of the blood flow throughout the trials. Using a series of different stimulation modes (bilateral, unilateral left, unilateral right and sham), the changes in mean blood flow velocity were evaluated by comparing baseline blood flow under resting conditions to blood flow during stimulation. A total of 18 trials were performed with each of seven volunteer subjects. Galvanic labyrinth polarization elicited a clear sensation of pendular body movement in all subjects. Significant blood flow increase (P < 0.05) in both hemispheres was observed during bilateral stimulation. Of more interest is that unilateral stimulation also elicited a significant increase in flow in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral hemispheres, demonstrating the existence of bilateral projections from each vestibular labyrinth. The combination of galvanic labyrinth polarization with transcranial Doppler ultrasound blood flow measurement provides a novel approach to the functional assessment of the vestibular system (deep cerebral structures and cortical areas). This novel technique provides a useful tool for clinical examinations.

  2. Chapter 8 - Mapping existing vegetation composition and structure for the LANDFIRE Prototype Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliang Zhu; James Vogelmann; Donald Ohlen; Jay Kost; Xuexia Chen; Brian Tolk

    2006-01-01

    The Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Prototype Project, or LANDFIRE Prototype Project, required the mapping of existing vegetation composition (cover type) and structural stages at a 30-m spatial resolution to provide baseline vegetation data for the development of wildland fuel maps and for comparison to simulated historical vegetation reference...

  3. A New Lunar Topographic Map of the Moon by KAGUYA-LALT: The First Precise Topography of the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, H.; Ishihara, Y.; Noda, H.; Goossens, S.; Tazawa, S.; Kawano, N.; Sasaki, S.; Oberst, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Japanese lunar explorer KAGUYA (SELENE) was launched successfully on September 14th, 2007. A laser altimeter (LALT) is on board the main orbiter of KAGUYA. The objectives of LALT are (1) determination of lunar global figure, (2) studies in internal structure and surface processes, (3) exploration of the lunar pole regions, and (4) reduction of lunar occultation data. LALT transmits laser pulses whose time width is about 20 nano-seconds and pulse interval is 1 second. Range accuracy is up to 5m. The range data are transformed to the topography of the moon with the aid of position and attitude data of the main orbiter. From the end of December 2007, LALT started continuous operation and a global topography map with unprecedented resolution was produced. Lunar mean radius is estimated as 1737.15±0.01 km and the COM-COF offset is 1.94 km based on the spherical harmonic model STM359_grid-02 derived from LALT topography. The amplitude of the power spectrum of STM359_grid-02 is larger than that of the previous model at L>30 degrees, which may reflect the process of basin formation and/or crustal evolution. In the polar regions where previous CLEMENTINE altimeter did not cover, many topographic features that were difficult to see on the imagery from spacecraft or ground based radar are discovered. The sunlit rate in the lunar polar regions is estimated by using the polar topographic map made from LALT topography. We found that i) the highest sunlit rate is 93~96 % in both polar regions and ii) the eternal shadow area is smaller than previous estimations. These results will be of great use for the planning of the lunar polar exploration in near future.

  4. Mapping practices of project management – merging top-down and bottom-up perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for studying different accounts of project management practices based on network mapping and analysis. Drawing upon network mapping and visualization as an analytical strategy top-down and bottom-up accounts of project management practice are analysed...... and compared. The analysis initially reveals a substantial difference between the top-down and bottom-up accounts of practice. Furthermore it identifies a soft side of project management that is central in the bottom-up account but absent from the top-down. Finally, the study shows that network mapping...... is a promising strategy for visualizing and analysing different accounts of project management practices....

  5. Cartographic science: a compendium of map projections, with derivations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fenna, Donald

    2007-01-01

    .... Starting from widely described geometric projecting onto flat paper, cylinder, and cone, and then progressing through several layers of mathematics to reach modern projections, the author maximizes...

  6. STRATEGIC MAPS AND CRITICAL FACTORS FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY: A PROPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Darcy Silva Junior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Project Management (PM and Strategic Management (SM are two subjects of growing importance in the corporate environment which are normally considered in isolation. One way of integrating these two concepts might be via the concept of project management maturity (Westphal et al., 2008. Rabechini and Pessoa (2005 state that to obtain project management maturity, it is necessary to achieve success in a number of critical factors which include organizational culture and structure, as well as sponsorship at both tactical and strategic levels (Silva et al., 2008. Another way of achieving this connection is by using Balanced Scorecard (BSC as an auxiliary tool to integrate between projects and organizational strategy (Brock et al., 2003. The original developers of the BSC, Kaplan e Norton, subsequently developed the concept of strategy mapping, which they affirm "represents the missing link between the formulation and the execution of the strategy" (Kaplan e Norton, 2004. This paper proposes a strategy map identifying critical factors for attaining project management maturity. To formulate the map, we used a qualitative, exploratory approach oriented by Project Management theory and strategy mapping. We first identified 13 critical factors, then developed a strategy map, which was evaluated by six specialists (three in SM area and three in PM area.The results suggest links between strategic mapping nad critical factors in project management. It also contributes to both areas independently. Specifically, the study identifies critical factors for project management maturity while demonstrating the applicability of strategic mapping techniques to Balanced Scorecard concepts.

  7. Project MAP: Model Accounting Plan for Special Education. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Robert J.

    The Model Accounting Plan (MAP) is a demographic accounting system designed to meet three major goals related to improving planning, evaluation, and monitoring of special education programs. First, MAP provides local-level data for administrators and parents to monitor the progress, transition patterns, expected attainments, and associated costs…

  8. Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Induced Polarization for Mapping the Subsurface of Alluvial Fans: A Case Study in Punata (Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Gonzales Amaya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual models of aquifer systems can be refined and complemented with geophysical data, and they can assist in understanding hydrogeological properties such as groundwater storage capacity. This research attempts to use geoelectrical methods, Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Induced Polarization parameters, for mapping the subsurface in alluvial fans and to demonstrate its applicability; the Punata alluvial fan was used as a case study. The resistivity measurements proved to be a good tool for mapping the subsurface in the fan, especially when used in combination with Induced Polarization parameters (i.e., Normalized Chargeability. The Punata alluvial fan characterization indicated that the top part of the subsurface is composed of boulders in a matrix of finer particles and that the grain size decreases with depth; the electrical resistivity of these deposits ranged from 200 to 1000 Ωm, while the values of normalized chargeability were lower than 0.05 mS/m. The bottom of the aquifer system consisted of a layer with high clay content, and the resistivity ranged from 10 to 100 Ωm, while the normalized chargeability is higher than 0.07 mS/m. With the integration of these results and lithological information, a refined conceptual model is proposed; this model gives a more detailed description of the local aquifer system. It can be concluded that geoelectrical methods are useful for mapping aquifer systems in alluvial fans.

  9. Fluorescence polarization of tetracycline derivatives as a technique for mapping nonmelanoma skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, Anna N; Salomatina, Elena V; Neel, Victor; Anderson, Rox; Flotte, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most common form of human cancer, often resulting in high morbidity. Low visual contrast of these tumors makes their delineation a challenging problem. Employing a linearly polarized monochromatic light source and a wide-field CCD camera, we have developed a technique for fluorescence polarization imaging of the nonmelanoma cancers stained using antibiotics from the tetracycline family. To determine the feasibility of the method, fluorescence polarization images of 86 thick, fresh cancer excisions were studied. We found that the level of endogenous fluorescence polarization was much lower than that of exogenous, and that the average values of fluorescence polarization of tetracycline derivatives were significantly higher in cancerous as compared to normal tissue. Out of 86 tumors [54 stained in demeclocycline (DMN) and 32 in tetracycline (TCN)], in 79 cases (51-DMN, 28-TCN) the location, size, and shape of the lesions were identified accurately. The results of this trial indicate that nonmelanoma skin tumors can be distinguished from healthy tissue based on the differences in exogenous fluorescence polarization of TCN and/or DMN. Therefore, the developed technique can provide an important new tool for image-guided cancer surgery.

  10. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: TECHNICAL OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Dawson, Kyle S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Hall, Patrick B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Anderson, Scott F. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Chen, Yuguang [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Denney, Kelly D. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Eftekharzadeh, Sarah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, 1000 East University Avenue, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Gao, Yang [Department of Engineering Physics and Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Green, Paul J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics/Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Jiang, Linhua [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Kelly, Brandon C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93107 (United States); and others

    2015-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project is a dedicated multi-object RM experiment that has spectroscopically monitored a sample of 849 broad-line quasars in a single 7 deg{sup 2} field with the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. The RM quasar sample is flux-limited to i {sub psf} = 21.7 mag, and covers a redshift range of 0.1 < z < 4.5 without any other cuts on quasar properties. Optical spectroscopy was performed during 2014 January-July dark/gray time, with an average cadence of ∼4 days, totaling more than 30 epochs. Supporting photometric monitoring in the g and i bands was conducted at multiple facilities including the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and the Steward Observatory Bok telescope in 2014, with a cadence of ∼2 days and covering all lunar phases. The RM field (R.A., decl. = 14:14:49.00, +53:05:00.0) lies within the CFHT-LS W3 field, and coincides with the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) Medium Deep Field MD07, with three prior years of multi-band PS1 light curves. The SDSS-RM six month baseline program aims to detect time lags between the quasar continuum and broad line region (BLR) variability on timescales of up to several months (in the observed frame) for ∼10% of the sample, and to anchor the time baseline for continued monitoring in the future to detect lags on longer timescales and at higher redshift. SDSS-RM is the first major program to systematically explore the potential of RM for broad-line quasars at z > 0.3, and will investigate the prospects of RM with all major broad lines covered in optical spectroscopy. SDSS-RM will provide guidance on future multi-object RM campaigns on larger scales, and is aiming to deliver more than tens of BLR lag detections for a homogeneous sample of quasars. We describe the motivation, design, and implementation of this program, and outline the science impact expected from the resulting data for RM and general quasar science.

  11. A Continuously Updated, Global Land Classification Map Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate a fully automatic capability for generating a global, high resolution (30 m) land classification map, with continuous updates from...

  12. The Pilot Lunar Geologic Mapping Project: Summary Results and Recommendations from the Copernicus Quadrangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Gaddis, L. R.; Hagerty, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    The first systematic lunar geologic maps were completed at 1:1M scale for the lunar near side during the 1960s using telescopic and Lunar Orbiter (LO) photographs [1-3]. The program under which these maps were completed established precedents for map base, scale, projection, and boundaries in order to avoid widely discrepant products. A variety of geologic maps were subsequently produced for various purposes, including 1:5M scale global maps [4-9] and large scale maps of high scientific interest (including the Apollo landing sites) [10]. Since that time, lunar science has benefitted from an abundance of surface information, including high resolution images and diverse compositional data sets, which have yielded a host of topical planetary investigations. The existing suite of lunar geologic maps and topical studies provide exceptional context in which to unravel the geologic history of the Moon. However, there has been no systematic approach to lunar geologic mapping since the flight of post-Apollo scientific orbiters. Geologic maps provide a spatial and temporal framework wherein observations can be reliably benchmarked and compared. As such, a lack of a systematic mapping program means that modern (post- Apollo) data sets, their scientific ramifications, and the lunar scientists who investigate these data, are all marginalized in regard to geologic mapping. Marginalization weakens the overall understanding of the geologic evolution of the Moon and unnecessarily partitions lunar research. To bridge these deficiencies, we began a pilot geologic mapping project in 2005 as a means to assess the interest, relevance, and technical methods required for a renewed lunar geologic mapping program [11]. Herein, we provide a summary of the pilot geologic mapping project, which focused on the geologic materials and stratigraphic relationships within the Copernicus quadrangle (0-30degN, 0-45degW).

  13. The PolarSEEDS project: communicating Greenland melting through visualization and sonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, M.; Perl, J.; Saltz, I.; Ham, E.

    2013-12-01

    During fall of 2011 a group of faculty at the City College of New York from the Science and Art Divisions drafted a concept for a project about communicating results from his research concerning the melting of the Greenland ice sheet through 'unconventional' venues, such as Visual Arts and Music. The opportunity to build a team and perform a project came to reality when the City College of New York (CCNY) called for the City SEED call proposal (therefore the name POLARSEEDS). The call was looking to fund innovative interdisciplinary work that could create connections among different disciplines within CCNY. The faculty members of the project were affiliated with the Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (Tedesco), the Music Dept. and the Sonic Arts Center (Perl) and Art Dept. (Saltz and Ham). The PolarSEEDS project involved also six students at graduate and master level from the three departments. The project culminated in an exhibition at CCNY in which soundscapes obtained from sounds recorded during fieldwork in Greenland were combined with sonifications of the outputs of a climate model used to study melting in Greenland to generate ambient sounds. At the exhibit, many sonifications of the model outputs were available at computer stations together with the explanation of the different approaches undertaken to generate them. Large aerial photos of supraglacial streams and lakes over Greenland were exhibited together with infographics addressing some of the causes and implications of melting. Videos showing either footage of melting features or the impact of albedo on melting (through ad hoc experiments carried out in laboratory and filmed for the exhibit) were also exhibited. Lastly, the visitors had the opportunity to play an interactive web game developed for the project in which they had to balance the amount of clouds, solar radiation, rain and snow to keep the Greenland ice sheet from melting completely and flood New York City. In my presentation, I will

  14. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Coastlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid...

  15. 77 FR 20355 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Award Amendment Requests and Project Service Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... collection). Affected Public: Current recipients of EDA assistance, to include (1) cities or other political... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Award Amendment Requests and Project Service Maps AGENCY: Economic Development...

  16. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Population Density Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid....

  17. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Settlement Points, Revision 01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary output of the Global Rural Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) are a series of grids representing estimated population counts and density for the...

  18. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): National Administrative Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid...

  19. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Settlement Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid...

  20. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Population Count Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid...

  1. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): National Identifier Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid...

  2. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Urban Extents Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid....

  3. MRO CRISM MAP-PROJECTED TARGETED REDUCED DATA RECORD V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This volume contains the CRISM Map-projected Targeted Reduced Data Record (MTRDR) archive, a collection of multiband image cubes derived from targeted (gimbaled)...

  4. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Land and Geographic Unit Area Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid....

  5. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Urban Extent Polygons, Revision 01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary output of the Global Rural Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) are a series of grids representing estimated population counts and density for the...

  6. LRO MOON MINI-RF 5 MAP-PROJECTED CALIBRATED DATA REC V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains archival map-projected calibrated data acquired from the Mini-RF instrument during the LRO mission and associated ancillary data.

  7. Mapping the Eskelund landfill using time-domain spectral induced polarization data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legaz, Aurélie; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Pedersen, Jesper Bjergsted

    2011-01-01

    Between November 2009 and July 2010, researchers from the HydroGeophysics Group, Aarhus University, carried out a survey in the former municipal landfill, Eskelund (Denmark). Induced polarization measurements (IP) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were used to define the spatial...

  8. Jordan Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, R. D.; Xicoténcatl, M. A.; Granados, V. D.

    2004-02-01

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.

  9. Jordan-Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, R D [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de IngenierIa y TecnologIas Avanzadas, IPN. Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico DF (Mexico); Xicotencatl, M A [Departamento de Matematicas del Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF, 07000 (Mexico); Granados, V D [Escuela Superior de FIsica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2004-02-20

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.

  10. A map of taste neuron projections in the Drosophila CNS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The elements can be interpreted in terms of the taste organ from which the projections originate, the structures from which they originate, and the quality of taste information that they represent. The extensive diversity in projection patterns provides an anatomical basis for functional diversity in responses elicited by different ...

  11. Open Source Projects in Software Engineering Education: A Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Debora M. C.; Almeida Bittencourt, Roberto; Chavez, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Context: It is common practice in academia to have students work with "toy" projects in software engineering (SE) courses. One way to make such courses more realistic and reduce the gap between academic courses and industry needs is getting students involved in open source projects (OSP) with faculty supervision. Objective: This study…

  12. A helical optical for circular polarized UV-FEL project at the UVSOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hama, Hiroyuki [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Most of existing storage ring free electron lasers (SRFEL) are restricted those performances by degradation of mirrors in optical cavities. In general, the SRFEL gain at the short wavelength region with high energy electrons is quite low, and the high reflectivity mirrors such as dielectric multilayer mirrors are therefore required. The mirror degradation is considered as a result of irradiation of higher harmonic photons that are simultaneously emitted from planar optical klystron (OK) type undulators, which are commonly used in SRFEL. This problem is getting severer as the lasing wavelength becomes shorter. The UVSOR-FEL had been originally scheduled to be shutdown by 1996 because another undulator project for spectroscopic studies with circular polarized photon would take the FEL`s place. According to suggestion of the insertion device group of the SPring-8, we have designed a helical undulator that is able to vary degree and direction of the polarization easily. In addition, the undulator can be converted into a helical OK by replacing magnets at the center part of undulator in order to coexist with further FEL experiments. Using a calculated magnetic field for magnet configurations of the OK mode, the radiation spectrum at wide wavelength range was simulated by a Fourier transform of Lienard-Wiechert potentials. As a matter of course, some higher harmonics are radiated on the off-axis angle. However it was found out that the higher harmonics is almost negligible as far as inside a solid angle of the Gaussian laser mode. Moreover the gain at the UV region of 250 nm is expected to be much higher than our present FEL because of high brilliant fundamental radiation. The calculated spatial distribution of higher harmonics and the estimated instantaneous gain is presented. Advantages of the helical OK for SRFEL will be discussed in view of our experience, and a possibility of application two-color experiment with SR will be also mentioned.

  13. PF2fit: Polar Fast Fourier Matched Alignment of Atomistic Structures with 3D Electron Microscopy Maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishna Bettadapura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There continue to be increasing occurrences of both atomistic structure models in the PDB (possibly reconstructed from X-ray diffraction or NMR data, and 3D reconstructed cryo-electron microscopy (3D EM maps (albeit at coarser resolution of the same or homologous molecule or molecular assembly, deposited in the EMDB. To obtain the best possible structural model of the molecule at the best achievable resolution, and without any missing gaps, one typically aligns (match and fits the atomistic structure model with the 3D EM map. We discuss a new algorithm and generalized framework, named PF(2 fit (Polar Fast Fourier Fitting for the best possible structural alignment of atomistic structures with 3D EM. While PF(2 fit enables only a rigid, six dimensional (6D alignment method, it augments prior work on 6D X-ray structure and 3D EM alignment in multiple ways: Scoring. PF(2 fit includes a new scoring scheme that, in addition to rewarding overlaps between the volumes occupied by the atomistic structure and 3D EM map, rewards overlaps between the volumes complementary to them. We quantitatively demonstrate how this new complementary scoring scheme improves upon existing approaches. PF(2 fit also includes two scoring functions, the non-uniform exterior penalty and the skeleton-secondary structure score, and implements the scattering potential score as an alternative to traditional Gaussian blurring. Search. PF(2 fit utilizes a fast polar Fourier search scheme, whose main advantage is the ability to search over uniformly and adaptively sampled subsets of the space of rigid-body motions. PF(2 fit also implements a new reranking search and scoring methodology that considerably improves alignment metrics in results obtained from the initial search.

  14. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 5 - Energy density mapping projections. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. Task 5 focused on energy projection mapping to estimate and visualise the energy consumption density and GHG emissions under different scenarios. The scenarios from task 4 were built around the energy consumption density of the residential sector under future land use patterns and rely on different energy source combinations (the suite of pathways). In task 5 the energy usage under the different scenarios were fed back into GIS, thereby giving a visual representation of forecasted residential energy consumption per unit area. The methodology is identical to that used in task 2 where current usage was mapped, whereas the mapping in this task is for future forecasts. These results are documented in this report. In addition, GHG mapping under the various scenarios was also undertaken. (LN)

  15. CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP): A New Paradigm for Polar Life Support and CELSS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Straight, Christian; Flynn, Michael; Bates, Maynard; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is a joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) project for the development, deployment and operation of CELSS technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. CAAP is implemented through the joint NSF/NASA Antarctic Space Analog Program (ASAP), initiated to support the pursuit of future NASA missions and to promote the transfer of space technologies to the NSF. Under a Memorandum of Agreement, the CAAP represents an example of a working dual agency cooperative project. NASA goals are operational testing of CELSS technologies and the conduct of scientific study to facilitate . technology selection, system design and methods development, including human dynamics as required for the operation of a CELSS. Although not fully closed, food production, water purification, and waste recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. The CAAP facility will be highly integrated with the new South Pole Station infrastructure and will be composed of a deployed hardware facility and a research activity. This paper will include a description of CAAP and its functionality, conceptual designs, component selection and sizing for the crop growth chamber, crop production expectations, and a brief report on an initial on-site visit. This paper will also provide a discussion of issues associated with power and energy use and the applicability of CAAP to direct technology transfer to society in general and remote communities in particular.

  16. The Piniariarneq Project: Inughuit hunters map their important hunting areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Flora, Janne; Oberborbeck Andersen, Astrid

    industrialisation of the High Arctic in the near future. Mapping of important resource areas of local, human communities have also been conducted on numerous occasions, but has generally received much less attention, and often results from such efforts are difficult to integrate with biological data. Here, we......Presently, Greenland is the scene of an extensive mapping of key habitats of important plants and animals, biodiversity hotspots, and ecosystem functioning, the results of which are to inform spatial planning processes to mitigate the effects climate change and an anticipated increased......). This app allowed them to record detailed information on individual hunting trips, which beyond the route itself, included means of transportation, the composition of the hunting party, catches and observations of animals, as well as anything else the hunter found relevant to document through geotagged...

  17. Lessons from the gender mapping project. What's the score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, T

    1998-07-01

    As part of Oxfam's efforts to address gender issues during the past year, the agency mapped its progress on gender policy implementation in its international program. If Oxfam is to retain its enviable reputation on gender issues, it must translate the lessons learned from the mapping activity into action plans and strategies. The mapping activity revealed that 1) Oxfam lacks consistent indicators of progress in implementing gender policy, and it is difficult to assess the long-term impact of the work; 2) program and policy evaluations contain little information on the impact of provision of resources, especially in relations to women's status in the household; 3) Oxfam needs to continue to invest in its successful gender analyses at the grassroots level; 4) gender issues are established in Oxfam policies and procedures but must be translated into action; 5) leadership is a critical gender issue, and Oxfam has not achieved its quota of female managers or created working environments sensitive to the caring responsibilities of staff; and 6) Oxfam needs to increase gender-sensitive advocacy work in its program.

  18. Map design and production issues for the Utah Gap Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John A.; Wittmann, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The cartographic preparation and printing of four maps for the Utah GAP Project presented a wide range of challenges in cartographic design and production. In meeting these challenges, the map designers had to balance the purpose of the maps together with their legibility and utility against both the researchers' desire to show as much detail as possible and the technical limitations inherent in the printing process. This article describes seven design and production issues in order to illustrate the challenges of making maps from a merger of satellite data and GIS databases, and to point toward future investigation and development.

  19. Mapping of information and identification of construction waste at project life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Mochamad Agung; Handayani, Naniek Utami; Nurdiana, Asri; Sholeh, Moh Nur; Pamungkas, Gita Silvia

    2018-03-01

    The development of construction project towards green construction is needed in order to improve the efficiency of construction projects. One that needs to be minimized is construction waste. Construction waste is waste generated from construction project activities, both solid waste and non solid waste. More specifically, the waste happens at every phase of the project life cycle. Project life cycle are the stage of idea, design, construction, and operation/maintenance. Each phase is managed by different stakeholders. Therefore it requires special handling from the involved stakeholders. The objective of the study is to map the information and identify the waste at each phase of the project life cycle. The purpose of mapping is to figure out the process of information and product flow and with its timeline. This mapping used Value Stream Mapping (VSM). Identification of waste was done by distributing questionnaire to respondents to know the waste according to owner, consultant planner, contractor, and supervisory consultant. The result of the study is the mapping of information flow and product flow at the phases of idea, design, construction, and operation/ maintenance.

  20. Zombie projects, negative networks, and multigenerational science: The temporality of the International Map of the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, William

    2017-06-01

    The International Map of the World was a hugely ambitious scheme to create standardized maps of the entire world. It was first proposed in 1891 and remained a going concern until 1986. Over the course of the project's official life, nearly every country in the world took part, and map sheets were published showing all but a few areas of the planet. But the project ended quite unceremoniously, repudiated by cartographers and mapping institutions alike, and it is now remembered as a 'sad story' of network failure. How can we evaluate this kind of sprawling, multigenerational project? In order to move beyond practitioners' (and historians') habit of summarizing the entire endeavor using the blunt categories of success and failure, I propose a more temporally aware reading, one that both disaggregates the (persistent) project from the (always changing) network and sees project and network as invertible, with the possibility of zombie projects and negative networks that can remain robust even when disconnected from their original goals. I therefore see the abandonment of the International Map of the World as resulting from vigorous collaboration and new norms in cartography, not from lack of cooperation or other resources. New categories are required for analyzing science over the long durée.

  1. ART PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND URBAN REGENERATION. Mapping LA MINA PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Ricart

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of public art throughout the twentieth century has resulted since the 60’s in a kind of practical intervention in the urban domain with a strong social and participatory intention. This paper presents several of these projects in relation to the kind of participattory levels, and detecting different trends. The paper Specially focuses on the project “Cartografies de La Mina”, developed in Sant Adrià de Besòs (Barcelona between 2002 and 2005 by the POLIS Research Centre at the University of Barcelona.

  2. Web-based Tools for Educators: Outreach Activities of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, D. A.; Holvoet, J. F.; Gogineni, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Kansas (KU) has implemented extensive outreach activities focusing on Polar Regions as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project. The PRISM project is developing advanced intelligent remote sensing technology that involves radar systems, an autonomous rover, and communications systems to measure detailed ice sheet characteristics, and to determine bed conditions (frozen or wet) below active ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica. These measurements will provide a better understanding of the response of polar ice sheets to global climate change and the resulting impact the ice sheets will have on sea level rise. Many of the research and technological development aspects of the PRISM project, such as robotics, radar systems, climate change and exploration of harsh environments, can kindle an excitement and interest in students about science and technology. These topics form the core of our K-12 education and training outreach initiatives, which are designed to capture the imagination of young students, and prompt them to consider an educational path that will lead them to scientific or engineering careers. The K-12 PRISM outreach initiatives are being developed and implemented in a collaboration with the Advanced Learning Technology Program (ALTec) of the High Plains Regional Technology in Education Consortium (HPR*TEC). ALTec is associated with the KU School of Education, and is a well-established educational research center that develops and hosts web tools to enable teachers nationwide to network, collaborate, and share resources with other teachers. An example of an innovative and successful web interface developed by ALTec is called TrackStar. Teachers can use TrackStar over the Web to develop interactive, resource-based lessons (called tracks) on-line for their students. Once developed, tracks are added to the TrackStar database and can be accessed and modified

  3. Requirements assessment and operational demands for a resource mapping rover mission to the lunar polar regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KLARER,PAUL R.; BINDER,ALAN B.; LENARD,ROGER X.

    2000-01-26

    A preliminary set of requirements for a robotic rover mission to the lunar polar region are described and assessed. Tasks to be performed by the rover include core drill sample acquisition, mineral and volatile soil content assay, and significant wide area traversals. Assessment of the postulated requirements is performed using first order estimates of energy, power, and communications throughput issues. Two potential rover system configurations are considered, a smaller rover envisioned as part of a group of multiple rovers, and a larger single rover envisioned along more traditional planetary surface rover concept lines.

  4. Mapping Our Genes: The Genome Projects: How Big, How Fast

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    For the past 2 years, scientific and technical journals in biology and medicine have extensively covered a debate about whether and how to determine the function and order of human genes on human chromosomes and when to determine the sequence of molecular building blocks that comprise DNA in those chromosomes. In 1987, these issues rose to become part of the public agenda. The debate involves science, technology, and politics. Congress is responsible for �writing the rules� of what various federal agencies do and for funding their work. This report surveys the points made so far in the debate, focusing on those that most directly influence the policy options facing the US Congress. Congressional interest focused on how to assess the rationales for conducting human genome projects, how to fund human genome projects (at what level and through which mechanisms), how to coordinate the scientific and technical programs of the several federal agencies and private interests already supporting various genome projects, and how to strike a balance regarding the impact of genome projects on international scientific cooperation and international economic competition in biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) prepared this report with the assistance of several hundred experts throughout the world.

  5. Mapping our genes: The genome projects: How big, how fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1988-04-01

    For the past 2 years, scientific and technical journals in biology and medicine have extensively covered a debate about whether and how to determine the function and order of human genes on human chromosomes and when to determine the sequence of molecular building blocks that comprise DNA in those chromosomes. In 1987, these issues rose to become part of the public agenda. The debate involves science, technology, and politics. Congress is responsible for /open quotes/writing the rules/close quotes/ of what various federal agencies do and for funding their work. This report surveys the points made so far in the debate, focusing on those that most directly influence the policy options facing the US Congress. Congressional interest focused on how to assess the rationales for conducting human genome projects, how to fund human genome projects (at what level and through which mechanisms), how to coordinate the scientific and technical programs of the several federal agencies and private interests already supporting various genome projects, and how to strike a balance regarding the impact of genome projects on international scientific cooperation and international economic competition in biotechnology. OTA prepared this report with the assistance of several hundred experts throughout the world. 342 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Mapping (un)certainties in the sign of hydrological projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke; Addor, Nans; Mizukami, Naoki; Newman, Andrew; Torfs, Paul; Clark, Martyn; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Teuling, Ryan

    2017-04-01

    While hydrological projections are of vital importance, particularly for water infrastructure design and food production, they are also prone to different sources of uncertainty. Using a multi-model set-up we investigated the uncertainty in hydrological projections for the period 2070-2100 associated with the parameterization of hydrological models, hydrological model structure, and General Circulation Models (GCMs) needed to force the hydrological model, for 605 basins throughout the contiguous United States. The use of such a large sample of basins gave us the opportunity to recognize spatial patterns in the results, and to attribute the uncertainty to particular hydrological processes. We investigated the sign of the projected change in mean annual runoff. The parameterization influenced the sign of change in 5 to 34% of the basins, depending on the hydrological model and GCM forcing. The hydrological model structure led to uncertainty in the sign of the change in 13 to 26% of the basins, depending on GCM forcing. This uncertainty could largely be attributed to the conceptualization of snow processes in the hydrological models. In 14% of the basins, none of the hydrological models was behavioural, which could be related to catchments with high aridity and intermittent flow behaviour. In 41 to 69% of the basins, the sign of the change was uncertain due to GCM forcing, which could be attributed to disagreement among the climate models regarding the projected change in precipitation. The results demonstrate that even the sign of change in mean annual runoff is highly uncertain in the majority of the investigated basins. If we want to use hydrological projections for water management purposes, including the design of water infrastructure, we clearly need to increase our understanding of climate and hydrological processes and their feedbacks.

  7. Comparison of polar formatting and back-projection algorithms for spotlight-mode SAR image formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakowatz, Charles V., Jr.; Doren, Neall

    2006-05-01

    The convolution/back-projection (CBP) algorithm has recently once again been touted as the "gold standard" for spotlight-mode SAR image formation, as it is proclaimed to achieve better image quality than the well-known and often employed polar formatting algorithm (PFA). In addition, it has been suggested that PFA is less flexible than CBP in that PFA can only compute the SAR image on one grid and PFA cannot add or subtract pulses from the imaging process. The argument for CBP acknowledges the computational burden of CBP compared to PFA, but asserts that the increased image accuracy and flexibility of the formation process is warranted, at least in some imaging scenarios. Because CBP can now be sped up by the proper algorithm design, it becomes, according to this line of analysis, the clear algorithm of choice for SAR image formation. In this paper we reject the above conclusion by showing that PFA and CBP achieve the same image quality, and that PFA has complete flexibility, including choice of imaging plane, size of illuminated beam area to be imaged, resolution of the image, and others. We demonstrate these claims via formation of both simulated and real SAR imagery using both algorithms.

  8. The logic of selecting an appropriate map projection in a Decision Support System (DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Michael P.; Usery, E. Lynn; Woodard, Laura N.; Yamamoto, Kristina H.

    2017-01-01

    There are undeniable practical consequences to consider when choosing an appropriate map projection for a specific region. The surface of a globe covered by global, continental, and regional maps are so singular that each type distinctively affects the amount of distortion incurred during a projection transformation because of the an assortment of effects caused by distance, direction, scale , and area. A Decision Support System (DSS) for Map Projections of Small Scale Data was previously developed to help select an appropriate projection. This paper reports on a tutorial to accompany that DSS. The DSS poses questions interactively, allowing the user to decide on the parameters, which in turn determines the logic path to a solution. The objective of including a tutorial to accompany the DSS is achieved by visually representing the path of logic that is taken to a recommended map projection derived from the parameters the user selects. The tutorial informs the DSS user about the pedigree of the projection and provides a basic explanation of the specific projection design. This information is provided by informational pop-ups and other aids.

  9. Mapping Project Connections Over Time in a Heliophysics Education Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, H. B.; Young, C. A.; Mayo, L.

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the goal of the synergies created among the 20+ projects in the Science Mission Directorate Heliophysics Consortium, participants were asked to identify connections before and after the first and second years. Social network analysis shows the changes in the number and nature of the connections. Further data collection and analysis focused on the nature of the connections, how they were developed, and if and how they are sustained. The nature and extent of connections was examined in relationship to the consortium structures and activities. What kinds of community-building activities are effective? Which activities and communication is valued by the projects? When a collaboration is established, does it use the community tools or move off line? These and other questions will be discussed.

  10. Mapping of landfills using time-domain spectral induced polarization data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazoty, Aurélie; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Pedersen, Jesper Bjergsted

    2012-01-01

    information from time-domain IP data. Thirteen IP/DC profiles were collected in the area, supplemented by el-log drilling for accurate correlation between the geophysics and the lithology. The data were inverted using a laterally constrained 1D inversion considering the full decay curves to retrieve the four......This study uses time-domain induced polarization data for the delineation and characterization of the former landfill site at Eskelund, Denmark. With optimized acquisition parameters combined with a new inversion algorithm, we use the full content of the decay curve and retrieve spectral...... Cole-Cole parameters. For all profiles, the results reveal a highly chargeable unit that shows a very good agreement to the findings from 15 boreholes covering the area, where the extent of the waste deposits was measured. The thickness and depth of surface measurements were furthermore validated by el-log...

  11. High-Throughput Mapping of Single-Neuron Projections by Sequencing of Barcoded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebschull, Justus M; Garcia da Silva, Pedro; Reid, Ashlan P; Peikon, Ian D; Albeanu, Dinu F; Zador, Anthony M

    2016-09-07

    Neurons transmit information to distant brain regions via long-range axonal projections. In the mouse, area-to-area connections have only been systematically mapped using bulk labeling techniques, which obscure the diverse projections of intermingled single neurons. Here we describe MAPseq (Multiplexed Analysis of Projections by Sequencing), a technique that can map the projections of thousands or even millions of single neurons by labeling large sets of neurons with random RNA sequences ("barcodes"). Axons are filled with barcode mRNA, each putative projection area is dissected, and the barcode mRNA is extracted and sequenced. Applying MAPseq to the locus coeruleus (LC), we find that individual LC neurons have preferred cortical targets. By recasting neuroanatomy, which is traditionally viewed as a problem of microscopy, as a problem of sequencing, MAPseq harnesses advances in sequencing technology to permit high-throughput interrogation of brain circuits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. interPopula: a Python API to access the HapMap Project dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Antao Tiago

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The HapMap project is a publicly available catalogue of common genetic variants that occur in humans, currently including several million SNPs across 1115 individuals spanning 11 different populations. This important database does not provide any programmatic access to the dataset, furthermore no standard relational database interface is provided. Results interPopula is a Python API to access the HapMap dataset. interPopula provides integration facilities with both the Pyt...

  13. Polarization-interference Jones-matrix mapping of biological crystal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, O. G.; Dubolazov, O. V.; Pidkamin, L. Y.; Sidor, M. I.; Pavlyukovich, N.; Pavlyukovich, O.

    2018-01-01

    The paper consists of two parts. The first part presents short theoretical basics of the method of Jones-matrix mapping with the help of reference wave. It was provided experimentally measured coordinate distributions of modulus of Jones-matrix elements of polycrystalline film of bile. It was defined the values and ranges of changing of statistic moments, which characterize such distributions. The second part presents the data of statistic analysis of the distributions of matrix elements of polycrystalline film of urine of donors and patients with albuminuria. It was defined the objective criteria of differentiation of albuminuria.

  14. Project Mapping to Build Capacity and Demonstrate Impact in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, S. N.; Searby, N. D.; Murphy, K. J.; Mataya, C. J.; Crepps, G.; Clayton, A.; Stevens, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Diverse organizations are increasingly using project mapping to communicate location-based information about their activities. NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD), through the Earth Science Data Systems and Applied Sciences' Capacity Building Program (CBP), has created a geographic information system of all ESD projects to support internal program management for the agency. The CBP's NASA DEVELOP program has built an interactive mapping tool to support capacity building for the program's varied constituents. This presentation will explore the types of programmatic opportunities provided by a geographic approach to management, communication, and strategic planning. We will also discuss the various external benefits that mapping supports and that build capacity in the Earth sciences. These include activities such as project matching (location-focused synergies), portfolio planning, inter- and intra-organizational collaboration, science diplomacy, and basic impact analysis.

  15. St. Louis area earthquake hazards mapping project; seismic and liquefaction hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Chris H.; Bauer, Robert A.; Chung, Jae-won; Rogers, David; Pierce, Larry; Voigt, Vicki; Mitchell, Brad; Gaunt, David; Williams, Robert; Hoffman, David; Hempen, Gregory L.; Steckel, Phyllis; Boyd, Oliver; Watkins, Connor M.; Tucker, Kathleen; McCallister, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    We present probabilistic and deterministic seismic and liquefaction hazard maps for the densely populated St. Louis metropolitan area that account for the expected effects of surficial geology on earthquake ground shaking. Hazard calculations were based on a map grid of 0.005°, or about every 500 m, and are thus higher in resolution than any earlier studies. To estimate ground motions at the surface of the model (e.g., site amplification), we used a new detailed near‐surface shear‐wave velocity model in a 1D equivalent‐linear response analysis. When compared with the 2014 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Model, which uses a uniform firm‐rock‐site condition, the new probabilistic seismic‐hazard estimates document much more variability. Hazard levels for upland sites (consisting of bedrock and weathered bedrock overlain by loess‐covered till and drift deposits), show up to twice the ground‐motion values for peak ground acceleration (PGA), and similar ground‐motion values for 1.0 s spectral acceleration (SA). Probabilistic ground‐motion levels for lowland alluvial floodplain sites (generally the 20–40‐m‐thick modern Mississippi and Missouri River floodplain deposits overlying bedrock) exhibit up to twice the ground‐motion levels for PGA, and up to three times the ground‐motion levels for 1.0 s SA. Liquefaction probability curves were developed from available standard penetration test data assuming typical lowland and upland water table levels. A simplified liquefaction hazard map was created from the 5%‐in‐50‐year probabilistic ground‐shaking model. The liquefaction hazard ranges from low (60% of area expected to liquefy) in the lowlands. Because many transportation routes, power and gas transmission lines, and population centers exist in or on the highly susceptible lowland alluvium, these areas in the St. Louis region are at significant potential risk from seismically induced liquefaction and associated

  16. Mapping Circumstellar Matter with Polarized Light: The Case of Supernova 2014J in M82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Lifan; Baade, Dietrich; Brown, Peter. J.; Cikota, Aleksandar; Cracraft, Misty; Höflich, Peter A.; Maund, Justyn R.; Patat, Ferdinando; Sparks, William B.; Spyromilio, Jason; Stevance, Heloise F.; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2018-02-01

    Optical polarimetry is an effective way of probing the environment of a supernova for dust. We acquired linear HST ACS/WFC polarimetry in bands F475W, F606W, and F775W of the supernova (SN) 2014J in M82 at six epochs from ∼277 days to ∼1181 days after the B-band maximum. The polarization measured at day 277 shows conspicuous deviations from other epochs. These differences can be attributed to at least ∼{10}-6 {M}ȯ of circumstellar dust located at a distance of ∼ 5× {10}17 {cm} from the SN. The scattering dust grains revealed by these observations seem to be aligned with the dust in the interstellar medium that is responsible for the large reddening toward the supernova. The presence of this circumstellar dust sets strong constraints on the progenitor system that led to the explosion of SN 2014J; however, it cannot discriminate between single- and double-degenerate models.

  17. Topography of the complete corticopontine projection: From experiments to principal maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve B Leergaard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian brain is characterized by orderly spatial distribution of its cellular components, commonly referred to as topographical organization. The topography of cortical and subcortical maps is thought to represent functional or computational properties. In the present investigation, we have studied map transformations and organizing principles in the projections from the cerebral cortex to the pontine nuclei, with emphasis on the mapping of the cortex as a whole onto the pontine nuclei. Following single or multiple axonal tracer injections into different cortical regions, three-dimensional (3-D distributions of anterogradely labeled axons in the pontine nuclei were mapped. All 3-D reconstructed data sets were normalized to a standardized local coordinate system for the pontine nuclei and uploaded in a database application (FACCS, Functional Anatomy of the Cerebro-Cerebellar System, available via The Rodent Brain Workbench, http://www.rbwb.org. The database application allowed flexible use of the data in novel combinations, and use of a previously published data sets. Visualization of different combinations of data was used to explore alternative principles of organization. As a result of these analyses, a principal map of the topography of corticopontine projections was developed. This map followed the organization of early spatiotemporal gradients present in the cerebral cortex and the pontine nuclei. With the principal map for corticopontine projections, a fairly accurate prediction of pontine target area can be made for any site of origin in the cerebral cortex. The map and the underlying shared data sets represent a basis for modeling of topographical organization and structure-function relationships in this system.

  18. How does sustainability certification affect the design process? Mapping final design projects at an architectural office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landgren, Mathilde; Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard

    2017-01-01

    , derived from the sustainability certification system itself, and to apply it even in the early design process. This perspective emphasises all phases of the life cycle of a building. The goal of the present study was to map how a Danish architectural office approached sustainability in the projects...... they undertook in the course of a year. All the projects concerned were intended to conform to the German Sustainability Certification System DGNB. We developed a mapping tool to document these case projects and found that different sets of certification criteria were used in each project. This demonstrates...... process and informing the industry of them. This has led to optimised design processes such as Integrated Energy Design, in which many decisions related to energy consumption and indoor climate are made in the early design stages. The current tendency is to use an expanded notion of sustainability...

  19. Understanding earthquake hazards in urban areas - Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Oliver S.

    2012-01-01

    The region surrounding Evansville, Indiana, has experienced minor damage from earthquakes several times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and the proximity of Evansville to the Wabash Valley and New Madrid seismic zones, there is concern among nearby communities about hazards from earthquakes. Earthquakes currently cannot be predicted, but scientists can estimate how strongly the ground is likely to shake as a result of an earthquake and are able to design structures to withstand this estimated ground shaking. Earthquake-hazard maps provide one way of conveying such information and can help the region of Evansville prepare for future earthquakes and reduce earthquake-caused loss of life and financial and structural loss. The Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (EAEHMP) has produced three types of hazard maps for the Evansville area: (1) probabilistic seismic-hazard maps show the ground motion that is expected to be exceeded with a given probability within a given period of time; (2) scenario ground-shaking maps show the expected shaking from two specific scenario earthquakes; (3) liquefaction-potential maps show how likely the strong ground shaking from the scenario earthquakes is to produce liquefaction. These maps complement the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Maps but are more detailed regionally and take into account surficial geology, soil thickness, and soil stiffness; these elements greatly affect ground shaking.

  20. Developing of Globally Homogeneous Geographic Data Set Through Global Mapping Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashkim Idrizi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Global mapping is an international collaborative initiative through voluntary participation of national mapping organizations of the world, aiming to develop a globally homogeneous geographic data set at the ground resolution of 1 km, and to establish concrete partnership among governments, NGOs, private sectors, data providers and users to share information and knowledge for sound decision-making. The primary objective of Global Map project is to contribute to the sustainable development through the provision of base framework geographic dataset, which is necessary to understand the current situation and changes of environment of the world. The purpose of the Global Map is to accurately describe the present status of the global environment in international cooperation with respective National Mapping Organizations (NMOs of the world. International Steering Committee for Global Mapping (ISCGM has been playing a central role in the development of the Global Map data sets. It was established in February 13th 1996 in Tsukuba Japan by the participants of the Preparatory Meeting of the ISCGM, and its First Meeting was held on February 14th, 1996. The Global Map data sets produced by converting existing geographic information into Global Map Specifications and country-specific data sets for 22 countries developed by respective NMOs are currently distributed to the public through the internet web site www.iscgm.org. The Global Map data of Macedonia as a first European country was published at the web page of the International Steering Committee for Global Mapping on March 8th 2006. This data is open for all governmental institutions, private sector and other users, only for non-commercial uses.

  1. Polarization Imaging Apparatus for Cell and Tissue Imaging and Diagnostics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work proposes to capitalize on our Phase I success in a novel visible-near infrared Stokes polarization imaging technology based on high performance fast...

  2. CryoSat-2 swath interferometric altimetry for mapping polar land ice terrain and elevation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, N.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Foresta, L.; Shepherd, A.; Muir, A.; Hogg, A. E.; Roca, M.; Nagler, T.; Baker, S.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reference and repeat-observations of Glacier and Ice Sheet Margin (GISM) topography are critical to identify changes in ice thickness, provide estimates of mass gain or loss and thus quantify the contribution of the cryosphere to sea level change. The lack of such sustained observations was identified in the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) Cryosphere Theme Report as a major shortcoming. Conventional altimetry measurements over GISMs exist, but coverage has been sparse and characterized by coarse ground resolution. Additionally, and more importantly, they proved ineffective in the presence of steep slopes, a typical feature of GISM areas. Since the majority of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass loss is estimated to lie within 100 km from the coast, but only about 10% is surveyed, there is the need for more robust and dense observations of GISMs, in both time and space. The ESA Altimetry mission CryoSat aims at gaining better insight into the evolution of the Cryosphere. CryoSat's revolutionary design features a Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), with two antennas for interferometry. The corresponding SAR Interferometer (SARIn) mode of operation increases spatial resolution while resolving the angular origin of off-nadir echoes occurring over sloping terrain. The SARIn mode is activated over GISMs and the elevation for the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA) is a standard product of the CryoSat mission. Here we present, through a wide range of examples in Polar settings, a new approach for more comprehensively exploiting the SARIn mode of CryoSat and produce ice elevation and elevation change with enhanced spatial resolution compared to standard CryoSat elevation products. In this so-called CryoSat Swath SARIn (CSSARIn) approach, the signal beyond the POCA is analysed, leading to between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude more elevation measurements than conventional approaches, and providing elevation where conventional POCA fails. We will

  3. Public mental health research in Europe : A systematic mapping for the ROAMER project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsman, A.K.; Ventus, D.B.J.; van der Feltz, C.M.; Wahlbeck, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As part of the ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe) project, aiming to create an integrated European roadmap for mental health research, we set out to map the hitherto unmapped territory of public mental health research in Europe. Methods: Five electronic databases

  4. Research and Mapping for MCEECDYA Project: Student Academic Engagement. Report 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ure, Christine; Gray, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Research and Mapping for MCEECDYA Project: Student Academic Engagement was to examine the characteristics of schools with a low Index of Community Socio-Educational Advantage (ICSEA) from all jurisdictions that were identified to be making a difference to student academic and to identify the key drivers and characteristics of…

  5. Evaluation of the sensory characteristics of strawberry cultivars throughout the harvest season using projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Esteban; Varela, Pablo; de Saldamando, Luis; Ares, Gastón

    2014-02-01

    Strawberry breeding programs should be able to rely on valid and simple methodologies for evaluating sensory quality of new cultivars. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the applicability of a simple sensory methodology, named projective mapping, to evaluate the sensory characteristics of strawberry cultivars and advanced selections throughout the harvest season. Three strawberry cultivars and two advanced selections were evaluated by an untrained assessor panel using projective mapping in three different moments of the harvest season: June (early season), August (mid-season) and September (peak harvest). Instrumental measurements were also performed. Projective mapping enabled the identification of the main sensory characteristics of the strawberry cultivars and advanced selections, as well as the similarities and differences among them. Sensory characteristics of the five evaluated strawberry cultivars and advanced selections largely varied throughout the harvest season. Simple instrumental measurements were not able to predict the sensory characteristics of the strawberry cultivars, suggesting the importance of sensory methodologies for the evaluation of new cultivars in breeding programs. Projective mapping consisted of a quick alternative for the evaluation of new cultivars relative to standard commercial cultivars. Its main advantage is that a large number of cultivars can be screened with minimal investment of time and resources. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Rhumb lines and map wars a social history of the Mercator projection

    CERN Document Server

    Monmonier, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In Rhumb Lines and Map Wars, Mark Monmonier offers an insightful, richly illustrated account of the controversies surrounding Flemish cartographer Gerard Mercator's legacy. He takes us back to 1569, when Mercator announced a clever method of portraying the earth on a flat surface, creating the first projection to take into account the earth's roundness. As Monmonier shows, mariners benefited most from Mercator's projection, which allowed for easy navigation of the high seas with rhumb lines-clear-cut routes with a constant compass bearing-for true direction. But the projection's popularity amo

  7. ShakeMap/Hazus Scenario Projects and Support for the New Madrid 2011 National Level Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have coordinated on the development of new products that support an extensive library of ShakeMap scenarios, largely based on the USGS National Hazard Map sources of earthquakes that are supporting Hazards U.S. (HAZUS) loss estimations. These scenarios are used to support a broad range of emergency management activities, including mitigation, recovery and preparedness planning, as well as exercises for response. We have successfully documented where these scenarios have led to risk reduction actions. To date these have been implemented as pilot studies under the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) in Washington, Utah, Nevada and more recently in New England. As a result of these ShakeMap/HAZUS demonstration projects, we developed a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for producing standardized loss mapping templates. These maps and associated tables help translate earthquake loss information to support a broad range of emergency management activities. The SOP includes step by step instructions with standardized map templates, symbology and terminology, which was initiated in support of the New Madrid 2011 National Level Exercise. We developed enhancements to the integration of ShakeMap and Hazus based on the NLE scenarios that can be implemented for other scenarios, as well as real earthquake events. The NLE was especially challenging as 8 States were impacted. A new utility developed internally by FEMA (EQExport) greatly expedited the data flow by automatically exporting the SQL based results into compressed geodatabases, as well as implementing custom map templates, reports and Google Earth KML files. This free open source utility provides the basis for automating map and results production from the Hazus earthquake model. Another development for NLE was to display results data into FlexViewers both inside and outside of FEMA. We benefited from a new real

  8. Measures and visualization methods of map projection distortions with the use of “python matplotlib library” as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pędzich Paweł

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the author of this article is to show the users of Geographical Information Systems how to present the distortions in a simple way. The intention of the author is also to popularize the knowledge in the scope of map projections and to inform the users of the maps that, despite all the advanced modern tools, an elimination of the problem, connected with the map projections and cartographical distortions occurring in them, has failed so far.

  9. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project - A Progress Report-November 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, D.; Rogers, J.D.; Williams, R.A.; Cramer, C.H.; Bauer, R.A.; Hoffman, D.; Chung, J.; Hempen, G.L.; Steckel, P.H.; Boyd, O.L.; Watkins, C.M.; McCallister, N.S.; Schweig, E.

    2009-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (SLAEHMP) is producing digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards, including liquefaction and ground shaking, in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. Although not site specific enough to indicate the hazard at a house-by-house resolution, they can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes. Earthquakes currently cannot be predicted, but scientists can estimate how strongly the ground is likely to shake as the result of an earthquake. Earthquake hazard maps provide one way of conveying such estimates. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which produces earthquake hazard maps for the Nation, is working with local partners to develop detailed maps for urban areas vulnerable to strong ground shaking. These partners, which along with the USGS comprise the SLAEHMP, include the Missouri University of Science and Technology-Rolla (Missouri S&T), Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Saint Louis University, Missouri State Emergency Management Agency, and URS Corporation. Preliminary hazard maps covering a test portion of the 29-quadrangle St. Louis study area have been produced and are currently being evaluated by the SLAEHMP. A USGS Fact Sheet summarizing this project was produced and almost 1000 copies have been distributed at several public outreach meetings and field trips that have featured the SLAEHMP (Williams and others, 2007). In addition, a USGS website focusing on the SLAEHMP, which provides links to project results and relevant earthquake hazard information, can be found at: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/ceus/urban_map/st_louis/index.php. This progress report summarizes the

  10. [Map of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in Spain. MapEA Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lage, Pablo; Martín-Carrasco, Manuel; Arrieta, Enrique; Rodrigo, Jesús; Formiga, Francesc

    In the current context of increased life expectancy and progressive aging of the population a very significant increase in the number of people with cognitive impairment and dementia is expected. Consequently, Spain will face an enormous social and health problem in the next decades. The Mapa de la enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras demencias en España project aims to analyse plans, prevention and early diagnosis activities, process of care and resources available across the 17 Spanish regions for the management of cognitive impairment and dementia in order to identify improvement areas, as well as to provide a list of recommendations. The working group consisted of an Advisory Committee of 5 national experts and a Committee of Experts from each region made up of professionals in the field of Neurology, Geriatrics, Psychiatry, and Primary Care, as well as representatives of Family Associations of People with Alzheimer's and other dementias. The Expert Committee of each region held meetings in which the current situation of care was reviewed. Plans available in Spain for dementia management are mostly obsolete or have not been implemented. Prevention and early detection activities are generally not carried out. There is great variability of care process that patients must follow for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of the disease, and not all diagnostic test are available in different regions. In general, resources are considered scarce and unknown. The Mapa de la enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras demencias en España study has been able to detect the main points that require changing n the management, organisation, and coordination of resources, such as information and training of the personnel involved. Furthermore, the study has revealed that, in Spain, the necessary conditions are in place in Spain, such as the availability and capacity of professionals involved, as well as there being the potential diagnostic and health care resources to address this room

  11. Mapping Episodic Stream Activity for the Ridgecrest Solar Power Project, Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeaux-Yost, S. N.; Brady, R. H., III; Vyverberg, K.; Weinman, B.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale renewable energy projects are being developed in the California desert region on large tracts of predominantly undeveloped land (total area of developed land for individual project sites vary from 327 acres to 8,230 acres). The absence of a standard method of identifying and accounting for episodic streams in arid and semi-arid (dryland) regions is an area of conflict between project developers and the government agencies responsible for protecting natural resources and permitting renewable energy projects. There is a need for an accurate dryland stream delineation protocol that is consistent, efficient, accessible, and accurately reflects the extent and distribution of streams on a site. Dryland stream delineation protocol based on a scientific, geomorphic and ecological understanding of dryland stream processes will help ensure dryland streams are accurately identified for the purposes of environmental impact assessments and project permitting. Such a method is currently being developed by the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW). This thesis work critically evaluates the stream delineation and stream impact assessment previously completed by the developer for the proposed renewable energy project in El Paso Fan, El Paso Mountains, Ridgecrest, Kern County, California. This evaluation is then compared and contrasted with the results achieved in the field using the MESA (Mapping Episodic Stream Activity) stream delineation methods and protocols and mobile GIS mapping technology.

  12. Scaled distribution mapping: a bias correction method that preserves raw climate model projected changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Switanek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Commonly used bias correction methods such as quantile mapping (QM assume the function of error correction values between modeled and observed distributions are stationary or time invariant. This article finds that this function of the error correction values cannot be assumed to be stationary. As a result, QM lacks justification to inflate/deflate various moments of the climate change signal. Previous adaptations of QM, most notably quantile delta mapping (QDM, have been developed that do not rely on this assumption of stationarity. Here, we outline a methodology called scaled distribution mapping (SDM, which is conceptually similar to QDM, but more explicitly accounts for the frequency of rain days and the likelihood of individual events. The SDM method is found to outperform QM, QDM, and detrended QM in its ability to better preserve raw climate model projected changes to meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation.

  13. interPopula: a Python API to access the HapMap Project dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Tiago

    2010-12-21

    The HapMap project is a publicly available catalogue of common genetic variants that occur in humans, currently including several million SNPs across 1115 individuals spanning 11 different populations. This important database does not provide any programmatic access to the dataset, furthermore no standard relational database interface is provided. interPopula is a Python API to access the HapMap dataset. interPopula provides integration facilities with both the Python ecology of software (e.g. Biopython and matplotlib) and other relevant human population datasets (e.g. Ensembl gene annotation and UCSC Known Genes). A set of guidelines and code examples to address possible inconsistencies across heterogeneous data sources is also provided. interPopula is a straightforward and flexible Python API that facilitates the construction of scripts and applications that require access to the HapMap dataset.

  14. Illuminating "spin-polarized" Bloch wave-function projection from degenerate bands in decomposable centrosymmetric lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian

    2018-03-01

    The combination of space inversion and time-reversal symmetries results in doubly degenerate Bloch states with opposite spin. Many lattices with these symmetries can be constructed by combining a noncentrosymmetric potential (lacking this degeneracy) with its inverted copy. Using simple models, we unravel the evolution of local spin splitting during this process of inversion symmetry restoration, in the presence of spin-orbit interaction and sublattice coupling. Importantly, through an analysis of quantum mechanical commutativity, we examine the difficulty of identifying states that are simultaneously spatially segregated and spin polarized. We also explain how surface-sensitive experimental probes (such as angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, or ARPES) of "hidden spin polarization" in layered materials are susceptible to unrelated spin splitting intrinsically induced by broken inversion symmetry at the surface.

  15. A fast beam hardening correction method incorporated in a filtered back-projection based MAP algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shouhua; Wu, Huazhen; Sun, Yi; Li, Jing; Li, Guang; Gu, Ning

    2017-03-01

    The beam hardening effect can induce strong artifacts in CT images, which result in severely deteriorated image quality with incorrect intensities (CT numbers). This paper develops an effective and efficient beam hardening correction algorithm incorporated in a filtered back-projection based maximum a posteriori (BHC-FMAP). In the proposed algorithm, the beam hardening effect is modeled and incorporated into the forward-projection of the MAP to suppress beam hardening induced artifacts, and the image update process is performed by Feldkamp-Davis-Kress method based back-projection to speed up the convergence. The proposed BHC-FMAP approach does not require information about the beam spectrum or the material properties, or any additional segmentation operation. The proposed method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated using both phantom and animal projection data. The experimental results demonstrate that the BHC-FMAP method can efficiently provide a good correction of beam hardening induced artefacts.

  16. Mapping Project on Energy and the Social Sciences. Progress report, October 1, 1978-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.A.; Doob, L.W.; Gould, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This is a progress report of activities in the fourth year of the Yale Institution for Social and Policy Studies Mapping Project on Energy and the Social Sciences. The Mapping Project evaluates past and present social and behavioral science energy studies, assesses the potential for social and behavioral science contributions to a resolution of the energy problems in the future, and diffuses social and behavioral science information and perspectives to policymakers and others concerned with US or world energy developments. Activities in FY 1979 included meetings, workshops, collecting bibliographic material, publications, evaluating DOE programs in buildings and transportation, performing a special study of potential social impacts of 4 coal technologies, and developing plans for 10 specific research studies on energy.

  17. Singapore Genome Variation Project: a haplotype map of three Southeast Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Yik-Ying; Sim, Xueling; Ong, Rick T H; Tan, Adrian K S; Chen, Jieming; Tantoso, Erwin; Small, Kerrin S; Ku, Chee-Seng; Lee, Edmund J D; Seielstad, Mark; Chia, Kee-Seng

    2009-11-01

    The Singapore Genome Variation Project (SGVP) provides a publicly available resource of 1.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 268 individuals from the Chinese, Malay, and Indian population groups in Southeast Asia. This online database catalogs information and summaries on genotype and phased haplotype data, including allele frequencies, assessment of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and recombination rates in a format similar to the International HapMap Project. Here, we introduce this resource and describe the analysis of human genomic variation upon agglomerating data from the HapMap and the Human Genome Diversity Project, providing useful insights into the population structure of the three major population groups in Asia. In addition, this resource also surveyed across the genome for variation in regional patterns of LD between the HapMap and SGVP populations, and for signatures of positive natural selection using two well-established metrics: iHS and XP-EHH. The raw and processed genetic data, together with all population genetic summaries, are publicly available for download and browsing through a web browser modeled with the Generic Genome Browser.

  18. Demonstration That Calibration of the Instrument Response to Polarizations Parallel and Perpendicular to the Object Space Projected Slit of an Imaging Spectrometer Enable Measurement of the Atmospheric Absorption Spectrum in Region of the Weak CO2 Band for the Case of Arbitrary Polarization: Implication for the Geocarb Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumer, J. B.; Rairden, R. L.; Polonsky, I. N.; O'Brien, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (TIMS) unit rebuilt to operate in a narrow spectral region, approximately 1603 to 1615 nm, of the weak CO2 band as described by Kumer et al. (2013, Proc. SPIE 8867, doi:10.1117/12.2022668) was used to conduct the demonstration. An integrating sphere (IS), linear polarizers and quarter wave plate were used to confirm that the instrument's spectral response to unpolarized light, to 45° linearly polarized light and to circular polarized light are identical. In all these cases the intensity components Ip = Is where Ip is the component parallel to the object space projected slit and Is is perpendicular to the slit. In the circular polarized case Ip = Is in the time averaged sense. The polarizer and IS were used to characterize the ratio Rθ of the instrument response to linearly polarized light at the angle θ relative to parallel from the slit, for increments of θ from 0 to 90°, to that of the unpolarized case. Spectra of diffusely reflected sunlight passed through the polarizer in increments of θ, and divided by the respective Rθ showed identical results, within the noise limit, for solar spectrum multiplied by the atmospheric transmission and convolved by the Instrument Line Shape (ILS). These measurements demonstrate that unknown polarization in the diffusely reflected sunlight on this small spectral range affect only the slow change across the narrow band in spectral response relative to that of unpolarized light and NOT the finely structured / high contrast spectral structure of the CO2 atmospheric absorption that is used to retrieve the atmospheric content of CO2. The latter is one of the geoCARB mission objectives (Kumer et al, 2013). The situation is similar for the other three narrow geoCARB bands; O2 A band 757.9 to 768.6 nm; strong CO2 band 2045.0 to 2085.0 nm; CH4 and CO region 2300.6 to 2345.6 nm. Polonsky et al have repeated the mission simulation study doi:10.5194/amt-7-959-2014 assuming no use of a geo

  19. LRO Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Far-UV Investigations of Lunar Composition, Porosity, and Space Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Mandt, K. E.; Gladstone, R.; Hendrix, A.; Cahill, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Grava, C.; Hurley, D.; Egan, A.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Raut, U.; Byron, B. D.; Magana, L. O.; Stickle, A. M.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Pryor, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Far ultraviolet reflectance measurements of the Moon, icy satellites, comets, and asteroids have proven surprisingly useful for advancing our understanding of planetary surfaces. This new appreciation for planetary far-UV imaging spectroscopy is provided in large part thanks to nearly a decade of investigations with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP). LAMP has demonstrated an innovative nightside observing technique, putting a new light on permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and other features on the Moon. Dayside far-UV albedo maps complement the nightside data, enabling comparisons of direct and hemispheric (diffuse) illumination derived albedos. We'll discuss the strengths of the far-UV reflectance imaging spectroscopy technique with respect to several new LAMP results. Detections of water frost and hydration signatures near 165 nm, for example, provide constraints on composition that complement infrared spectroscopy, visible imaging, neutron spectroscopy, radar, and other techniques. LRO's polar orbit and high data downlink capabilities enable searches for diurnal variations in spectral signals. At far-UV wavelengths a relatively blue spectral slope is diagnostic of space weathering, which is opposite of the spectral reddening indicator of maturity at wavelengths longward of 180 nm. By utilizing natural diffuse illumination sources on the nightside the far-UV technique is able to identify relative increases in porosity within the PSRs, and provides an additional tool for determining relative surface ages. On October 6, 2016 LAMP enacted a new, more sensitive dayside operating mode that expands its ability to search for diurnally varying hydration signals associated with different regions and features.

  20. Getting around Antarctica: new high-resolution mappings of the grounded and freely-floating boundaries of the Antarctic ice sheet created for the International Polar Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bindschadler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Two ice-dynamic transitions of the Antarctic ice sheet – the boundary of grounded ice features and the freely-floating boundary – are mapped at 15-m resolution by participants of the International Polar Year project ASAID using customized software combining Landsat-7 imagery and ICESat/GLAS laser altimetry. The grounded ice boundary is 53 610 km long; 74 % abuts to floating ice shelves or outlet glaciers, 19 % is adjacent to open or sea-ice covered ocean, and 7 % of the boundary ice terminates on land. The freely-floating boundary, called here the hydrostatic line, is the most landward position on ice shelves that expresses the full amplitude of oscillating ocean tides. It extends 27 521 km and is discontinuous. Positional (one-sigma accuracies of the grounded ice boundary vary an order of magnitude ranging from ±52 m for the land and open-ocean terminating segments to ±502 m for the outlet glaciers. The hydrostatic line is less well positioned with errors over 2 km. Elevations along each line are selected from 6 candidate digital elevation models based on their agreement with ICESat elevation values and surface shape inferred from the Landsat imagery. Elevations along the hydrostatic line are converted to ice thicknesses by applying a firn-correction factor and a flotation criterion. BEDMAP-compiled data and other airborne data are compared to the ASAID elevations and ice thicknesses to arrive at quantitative (one-sigma uncertainties of surface elevations of ±3.6, ±9.6, ±11.4, ±30 and ±100 m for five ASAID-assigned confidence levels. Over one-half of the surface elevations along the grounded ice boundary and over one-third of the hydrostatic line elevations are ranked in the highest two confidence categories. A comparison between ASAID-calculated ice shelf thicknesses and BEDMAP-compiled data indicate a thin-ice bias of 41.2 ± 71.3 m for the ASAID ice thicknesses. The relationship between the seaward offset of the hydrostatic line

  1. Discussion on accurate phase-height mapping in fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjing; Su, Xianyu; Chen, Wenjing

    2017-10-01

    Establishing a highly accurate phase-to-height mapping relationship is very important in fringe projection profilometry, which guarantees the accuracy of final three-dimensional reconstruction. The influence coming from lens distortion, random noises, and the nontelecentric projecting and imaging of the measurement system is analyzed in detail, followed by the exhaustive discussion of a more accurate phase-to-height mapping method. The mapping tabulation between absolute phase and height information is set up by the piecewise linear fitting method within the whole measurement range for per-pixel. Our method is compared with the previously used methods, such as linear fitting (LF), quadratic fitting (QF), and cubic fitting (CF) methods. Computer simulations and experiments verify that the reconstructed height distribution employing our method is more accurate than either LF or QF methods when the random noise is obvious. In addition, if the random noise can be controlled to low level and the lens distortion is considered, the reconstruction accuracy of our method is better than that of the CF method.

  2. Cost Based Value Stream Mapping as a Sustainable Construction Tool for Underground Pipeline Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Gunduz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with application of Value Stream Mapping (VSM as a sustainable construction tool on a real construction project of installation of underground pipelines. VSM was adapted to reduce the high percentage of non-value-added activities and time wastes during each construction stage and the paper searched for an effective way to consider the cost for studied construction of underground pipeline. This paper is unique in its way that it adopts cost implementation of VSM to improve the productivity in underground pipeline projects. The data was observed and collected from site during construction, indicating the cycle time, value added and non-value added of each construction stage. The current state was built based on these details. This was an eye-opening exercise and a process management tool as a trigger for improvement. After the current state assessment, a future state is attempted by Value Stream Mapping tool balancing the resources using a Line of Balance (LOB technique. Moreover, a sustainable cost estimation model was developed during current state and future state to calculate the cost of underground pipeline construction. The result shows a cost reduction of 20.8% between current and future states. This reflects the importance of the cost based Value Stream Mapping in construction as a sustainable measurement tool. This new tool could be utilized in construction industry to add the sustainability and effective cost management.

  3. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Summary report: Three Mile Island Unit 2 polar crane recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.

    1984-08-01

    This document summarizes information concerning restoration of the Three Mile Island-Unit 2 Polar Crane to a fully operational condition following the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were placed in a computerized information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific data which could be utilized in planning for recovery activities should a similar accident occur in a nuclear generating plant. The information is presented in both computer output form and a manually assembled summarization. This report contains only the manpower requirements and radiation exposures actually incurred during recovery operations within the reactor containment and does not include support activities or costs.

  4. Visualizing Article Similarities via Sparsified Article Network and Map Projection for Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaonan; Machiraju, Raghu; Ritter, Alan; Yen, Po-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Systematic Reviews (SRs) of biomedical literature summarize evidence from high-quality studies to inform clinical decisions, but are time and labor intensive due to the large number of article collections. Article similarities established from textual features have been shown to assist in the identification of relevant articles, thus facilitating the article screening process efficiently. In this study, we visualized article similarities to extend its utilization in practical settings for SR researchers, aiming to promote human comprehension of article distributions and hidden patterns. To prompt an effective visualization in an interpretable, intuitive, and scalable way, we implemented a graph-based network visualization with three network sparsification approaches and a distance-based map projection via dimensionality reduction. We evaluated and compared three network sparsification approaches and the visualization types (article network vs. article map). We demonstrated the effectiveness in revealing article distribution and exhibiting clustering patterns of relevant articles with practical meanings for SRs.

  5. Status of mapping for pre-detailing and projects of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Fabio Vinicius Fontoura; Paoletto, Bonatto Silvia M. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Considering the ever growing need for widening and supplying of the national energy matrix, ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos SA presents its participation in the Pipeline area, through Cartography activities, pointing out the performance on strips yet to be implanted, with activities as aerial survey, laser surveys, creation of orthophotomap, tracing definition, rivers crossing, geotechnical surveys, cadaster, creation of cadaster maps, strips, basic project drawings, imagery maps, as well as activities for existing strips, such as: aerial survey, laser surveys, strips enlargements, new property surveys, detection of pipelines through PCM technology, planimetric survey of equipment, besides activities for Pipeline Strips Geometry - FEED - pointing out the detailing of the areas which will be used for the dumping of the digging material and definition of accesses to the pipeline strips. We shall also present the technological evolution and consequent product improvements, considering surveys performed with conventional and digital aerial survey cameras, besides laser data. (author)

  6. Managing and sharing the escalating number of sponge "unknowns": the SpongeMaps project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, J N A; Hall, K A; Ekins, M; Erpenbeck, D; Wörheide, G; Jolley-Rogers, G

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary collections of sponges in the Indo-west Pacific have escalated substantially due to pharmaceutical discovery, national bioregional planning, and compliance with international conventions on the seabed and its marine genetic resources beyond national jurisdictions. These partially processed operational taxonomic unit (OTU) collections now vastly outweigh the expertise available to make them better "known" via complete taxonomy, yet for many bioregions they represent the most significant body of currently available knowledge. Increasing numbers of cryptic species, previously undetected morphologically, are now being discovered by molecular and chemical analyses. The uncoordinated and fragmented nature of many previous collections, however, means that knowledge and expertise gained from a particular project are often lost to future projects without a biodiversity informatics legacy. Integrating these diverse data (GIS; OTUs; images; molecular, chemical, and other datasets) required a two-way iterative process so far unavailable for sponges with existing biodiversity informatics tools. SpongeMaps arose from the initial need for online collaboration to integrate morphometric data with molecular barcodes, including the Porifera Tree of Life (PorTol) project. It provides interrogation of existing data to better process new collections; capacity to create new OTUs; publication of online pages for individual species, so as to interpret GIS and other data for online biodiversity databases and services; and automatic links to external datasets for taxonomic hierarchy, specimen GIS and mapping, DNA sequence data, chemical structures, and images.

  7. Mapping epistemic cultures and learning potential of participants in citizen science projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabh, Priya; Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; O'Donoghue, Rob; Schudel, Ingrid

    2016-06-01

    The ever-widening scope and range of global change and interconnected systemic risks arising from people-environment relationships (social-ecological risks) appears to be increasing concern among, and involvement of, citizens in an increasingly diversified number of citizen science projects responding to these risks. We examined the relationship between epistemic cultures in citizen science projects and learning potential related to matters of concern. We then developed a typology of purposes and a citizen science epistemic-cultures heuristic and mapped 56 projects in southern Africa using this framework. The purpose typology represents the range of knowledge-production purposes, ranging from laboratory science to social learning, whereas the epistemic-cultures typology is a relational representation of scientist and citizen participation and their approach to knowledge production. Results showed an iterative relationship between matters of fact and matters of concern across the projects; the nexus of citizens' engagement in knowledge-production activities varied. The knowledge-production purposes informed and shaped the epistemic cultures of all the sampled citizen science projects, which in turn influenced the potential for learning within each project. Through a historical review of 3 phases in a long-term river health-monitoring project, we found that it is possible to evolve the learning curve of citizen science projects. This evolution involved the development of scientific water monitoring tools, the parallel development of pedagogic practices supporting monitoring activities, and situated engagement around matters of concern within social activism leading to learning-led change. We conclude that such evolutionary processes serve to increase potential for learning and are necessary if citizen science is to contribute to wider restructuring of the epistemic culture of science under conditions of expanding social-ecological risk. © 2016 Society for

  8. Genotype Imputation for Latinos Using the HapMap and 1000 Genomes Project Reference Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi eGao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Genotype imputation is a vital tool in genome-wide association studies (GWAS and meta-analyses of multiple GWAS results. Imputation enables researchers to increase genomic coverage and to pool data generated using different genotyping platforms. HapMap samples are often employed as the reference panel. More recently, the 1000 Genomes Project resource is becoming the primary source for reference panels. Multiple GWAS and meta-analyses are targeting Latinos, the most populous and fastest growing minority group in the US. However, genotype imputation resources for Latinos are rather limited compared to individuals of European ancestry at present, largely because of the lack of good reference data. One choice of reference panel for Latinos is one derived from the population of Mexican individuals in Los Angeles contained in the HapMap Phase 3 project and the 1000 Genomes Project. However, a detailed evaluation of the quality of the imputed genotypes derived from the public reference panels has not yet been reported. Using simulation studies, the Illumina OmniExpress GWAS data from the Los Angles Latino Eye Study and the MACH software package, we evaluated the accuracy of genotype imputation in Latinos. Our results show that the 1000 Genomes Project AMR+CEU+YRI reference panel provides the highest imputation accuracy for Latinos, and that also including Asian samples in the panel can reduce imputation accuracy. We also provide the imputation accuracy for each autosomal chromosome using the 1000 Genomes Project panel for Latinos. Our results serve as a guide to future imputation-based analysis in Latinos.

  9. Mapping geological structures in bedrock via large-scale direct current resistivity and time-domain induced polarization tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Matteo; Olsson, Per-Ivar; Johansson, Sara

    2017-01-01

    An investigation of geological conditions is always a key point for planning infrastructure constructions. Bedrock surface and rock quality must be estimated carefully in the designing process of infrastructures. A large direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization survey has......, there are northwest-trending Permian dolerite dykes that are less deformed. Four 2D direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization profiles of about 1-km length have been carefully pre-processed to retrieve time-domain induced polarization responses and inverted to obtain the direct......-current resistivity distribution of the subsoil and the phase of the complex conductivity using a constant-phase angle model. The joint interpretation of electrical resistivity and induced-polarization models leads to a better understanding of complex three-dimensional subsoil geometries. The results have been...

  10. Improving Flood Risk Maps as a Capacity Building Activity: Fostering Public Participation and Raising Flood Risk Awareness in the German Mulde Region (project RISK MAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, J.; Meyer, V.; Kuhlicke, C.; Scheuer, S.; Unnerstall, H.

    2012-04-01

    The EU Floods Directive requires the establishment of flood risk maps for high risk areas in all EU Member States by 2013. However, if existing at all, the current practice of risk mapping still shows some deficits: Risk maps are often seen as an information tool rather than a communication tool. This means that e.g. important local knowledge is not incorporated and forms a contrast to the understanding of capacity building which calls for engaging individuals in the process of learning and adapting to change and for the establishment of a more interactive public administration that learns equally from its actions and from the feedback it receives. Furthermore, the contents of risk maps often do not match the requirements of the end users, so that risk maps are often designed and visualised in a way which cannot be easily understood by laypersons and/or which is not suitable for the respective needs of public authorities in risk and flood event management. The project RISK MAP aimed at improving flood risk maps as a means to foster public participation and raising flood risk awareness. For achieving this aim, RISK MAP (1) developed rules for appropriate stakeholder participation enabling the incorporation of local knowledge and preferences; (2) improved the content of risk maps by considering different risk criteria through the use of a deliberative multicriteria risk mapping tool; and (3) improved the visualisation of risk maps in order to produce user-friendly risk maps by applying the experimental graphic semiology (EGS) method that uses the eye tracking approach. The research was carried out in five European case studies where the status quo of risk mapping and the legal framework was analysed, several stakeholder interviews and workshops were conducted, the visual perception of risk maps was tested and - based on this empirical work - exemplary improved risk maps were produced. The presentation and paper will outline the main findings of the project which

  11. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project - A PowerPoint Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    This Open-File Report contains illustrative materials, in the form of PowerPoint slides, used for an oral presentation given at the Earthquake Insight St. Louis, Mo., field trip held on May 28, 2009. The presentation focused on summarizing the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (SLAEHMP) justification, goals, achievements, and products, for an audience of business and public officials. The individual PowerPoint slides highlight, in an abbreviated format, the topics addressed; they are discussed below and are explained with additional text as appropriate.

  12. A Systematic Mapping on Supporting Approaches for Requirements Traceability in the Context of Software Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALCHER, P R.C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Requirements Traceability is seen as a quality factor with regard to software development, being present in standards and quality models. In this context, several techniques, models, frameworks and tools have been used to support it. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present a systematic mapping carried out in order to find in the literature approaches to support the requirements traceability in the context of software projects and make the categorization of the data found in order to demonstrate, by means of a reliable, accurate and auditable method, how this area has developed and what are the main approaches are used to implement it.

  13. The Genome Russia project: closing the largest remaining omission on the world Genome map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksyk, Taras K; Brukhin, Vladimir; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    We are witnessing the great era of genome exploration of the world, as genetic variation in people is being detailed across multiple varied world populations in an effort unprecedented since the first human genome sequence appeared in 2001. However, these efforts have yet to produce a comprehensive mapping of humankind, because important regions of modern human civilization remain unexplored. The Genome Russia Project promises to fill one of the largest gaps, the expansive regions across the Russian Federation, informing not just medical genomics of the territories, but also the migration settlements  of historic and pre-historic Eurasian peoples.

  14. Toeplitz Operators, Pseudo-Homogeneous Symbols, and Moment Maps on the Complex Projective Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antonio Morales-Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Following previous works for the unit ball due to Nikolai Vasilevski, we define quasi-radial pseudo-homogeneous symbols on the projective space and obtain the corresponding commutativity results for Toeplitz operators. A geometric interpretation of these symbols in terms of moment maps is developed. This leads us to the introduction of a new family of symbols, extended pseudo-homogeneous, that provide larger commutative Banach algebras generated by Toeplitz operators. This family of symbols provides new commutative Banach algebras generated by Toeplitz operators on the unit ball.

  15. Brain-wide map of efferent projections from rat barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela M. Zakiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The somatotopically organized whisker barrel field of the rat primary somatosensory (S1 cortex is a commonly used model system for anatomical and physiological investigations of sensory processing. The neural connections of the barrel cortex have been extensively mapped. But most investigations have focused on connections to limited regions of the brain, and overviews in the literature of the connections across the brain thus build on a range of material from different laboratories, presented in numerous publications. Furthermore, given the limitations of the conventional journal article format, analyses and interpretations are hampered by lack of access to the underlying experimental data. New opportunities for analyses have emerged with the recent release of an online resource of experimental data consisting of collections of high-resolution images from 6 experiments in which anterograde tracers were injected in S1 whisker or forelimb representations. Building on this material, we have conducted a detailed analysis of the brain wide distribution of the efferent projections of the rat barrel cortex. We compare our findings with the available literature and reports accumulated in the Brain Architecture Management System (BAMS2 database. We report well-known and less known intracortical and subcortical projections of the barrel cortex, as well as distinct differences between S1 whisker and forelimb related projections. Our results correspond well with recently published overviews, but provide additional information about relative differences among S1 projection targets. Our approach demonstrates how collections of shared experimental image data are suitable for brain-wide analysis and interpretation of connectivity mapping data.

  16. Use of Open Standards and Technologies at the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Malhotra, S.; Bui, B.; Chang, G.; Goodale, C. E.; Ramirez, P.; Kim, R. M.; Sadaqathulla, S.; Rodriguez, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP), led by the Marshall Space Flight center (MSFC), is tasked by NASA. The project is responsible for the development of an information system to support lunar exploration activities. It provides lunar explorers a set of tools and lunar map and model products that are predominantly derived from present lunar missions (e.g., the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)) and from historical missions (e.g., Apollo). At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we have built the LMMP interoperable geospatial information system's underlying infrastructure and a single point of entry - the LMMP Portal by employing a number of open standards and technologies. The Portal exposes a set of services to users to allow search, visualization, subset, and download of lunar data managed by the system. Users also have access to a set of tools that visualize, analyze and annotate the data. The infrastructure and Portal are based on web service oriented architecture. We designed the system to support solar system bodies in general including asteroids, earth and planets. We employed a combination of custom software, commercial and open-source components, off-the-shelf hardware and pay-by-use cloud computing services. The use of open standards and web service interfaces facilitate platform and application independent access to the services and data, offering for instances, iPad and Android mobile applications and large screen multi-touch with 3-D terrain viewing functions, for a rich browsing and analysis experience from a variety of platforms. The web services made use of open standards including: Representational State Transfer (REST); and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)'s Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), Web Feature Service (WFS). Its data management services have been built on top of a set of open technologies including: Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) - open source data catalog, archive, file management, data grid framework

  17. Mapping project on land use changes in the carboniferous region of Santa Catarina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriano, D. D.; Pereira, M. D. B.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of remote sensing data for monitoring land use changes by means of digital image analysis is described. The following data were utilized: LANDSAT data from September 4, 1975, April 24, 1978, and September 8, 1981; LANDSAT paper photography data; area IV color photographs; IBGE topography maps, and auxiliary data about the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. Three kinds of analyses of digital images were carried out. The project identified and mapped major classes of land use areas including urban areas, coal deposits, agricultural areas, forests, lakes, and flood plains. Five areas directly affected by coal exploration southeast of Santa Catarina are identified and described. In addition, the classification system used for organizing data about land cover in a hierarchical arrangement is presented. The project made use of two remote sensing data sources: data of MSS spectral (Mulitspectral Scanner System)/LANDSAT on a scale of 1:100,000 with approximately 80 m resolution, and infrared color aerial photographs on a scale of 1:45,000 with approximately 5 m resolution. Therefore, the classification system included three levels, two selected to be compatible with aerial photography data and the third to conform to the resolution of MSS/LANDSAT.

  18. Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  19. The Africa Yoga Project: A Participant-Driven Concept Map of Kenyan Teachers' Reported Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jessalyn E; Cook-Cottone, Catherine; Giambrone, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The Africa Yoga Project (AYP) trains and funds Kenyans to teach community yoga classes. Preliminary research with a small sample of AYP teachers suggested the program had a positive impact. This study used concept mapping to explore the experiences of a larger sample. Participants brainstormed statements about how practicing and/or teaching yoga changed them. They sorted statements into self-defined piles and rated them in terms of perceived importance. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) of sort data calculated statement coordinates wherein each statement is placed in proximity to other statements as a function of how frequently statements are sorted together by participants. These results are then and mapped in a two-dimensional space. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of these data identified clusters (i.e., concepts) among statements. Cluster average importance ratings gave the concept map depth and indicated concept importance. Bridging analysis and researchers' conceptual understanding of yoga literature facilitated HCA interpretive decisions. Of 72 AYP teachers, 52 and 48 teachers participated in brainstorming and sorting/rating activities, respectively. Teachers brainstormed 93 statements about how they had changed. The resultant MDS statement map had adequate validity (stress value = .29). HCA created a 12-cluster solution with the following concepts of perceived change: Identity as a Yoga Teacher; Prosocial Development; Existential Possibility; Genuine Positive Regard; Value and Respect for Others (highest importance); Presence, Acceptance, and Competence; Service and Trust; Non-judgment and Emotion Regulation (lowest importance); Engagement and Connection; Interpersonal Effectiveness; Psychosocial Functioning; and Physical Competence and Security. Teachers perceived the AYP as facilitating change across physical, mental, and spiritual domains. Additional research is needed to quantify and compare this change to other health promotion program outcomes.

  20. Planck intermediate results: XLIV. Structure of the Galactic magnetic field from dust polarization maps of the southern Galactic cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I R; Arzoumanian, D.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the Planck satellite, we study the statistical properties of interstellar dust polarization at high Galactic latitudes around the south pole (b < −60°). Our aim is to advance the understanding of the magnetized interstellar medium (ISM), and to provide a modelling framework of the...... is an important step towards a model that can be used to assess the accuracy of component-separation methods in present and future CMB experiments designed to search the B mode CMB polarization from primordial gravity waves....

  1. Low-Cost Mapping and Publishing Methods for Landscape Architectural Analysis and Design in Slum-Upgrading Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Rekittke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The research project “Grassroots GIS” focuses on the development of low-cost mapping and publishing methods for slums and slum-upgrading projects in Manila. In this project smartphones, collaborative mapping and 3D visualization applications are systematically employed to support landscape architectural analysis and design work in the context of urban poverty and urban informal settlements. In this paper we focus on the description of the developed methods and present preliminary results of this work-in-progress.

  2. Identifying emerging trends in recreational drug use; outcomes from the Psychonaut Web Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluca, Paolo; Davey, Zoe; Corazza, Ornella; Di Furia, Lucia; Farre, Magi; Flesland, Liv Holmefjord; Mannonen, Miia; Majava, Aino; Peltoniemi, Teuvo; Pasinetti, Manuela; Pezzolesi, Cinzia; Scherbaum, Norbert; Siemann, Holger; Skutle, Arvid; Torrens, Marta; van der Kreeft, Peer; Iversen, Erik; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2012-12-03

    This paper presents the outcomes of the 2-year European Union funded Psychonaut Web Mapping Project which aimed at developing and implementing an integrated web mapping system to promptly identify and learn about novel psychoactive substances (NPS; "legal highs") through the regular monitoring of the Internet. More than 200 discussion forums, social media, online shops, websites and other Internet resources (e.g. YouTube, eBay, Google, Google Insight) have been extensively and regularly monitored in 7 European countries (UK, Finland, Norway, Belgium, Germany, Italy and Spain) for emerging trends of NPS throughout the period of the study. Key online resources have been identified as "leading edge" which have provided accurate and timely information on novel emerging compounds. In total more than 400 substances/products have been recorded. NPS have been noted online before reaching wider audiences. Although a high number of novel psychoactive substances have been identified in the 2-year duration of the project, not all have become trends that needed public health response. Conversely, new recreational drug phenomena such as "spice drugs," mephedrone and naphyrone were all identified as emerging trends in forums and websites. In addition, it has been possible for the first time to collate detailed information on these and several more compounds even though no or limited scientific publications were available. It is therefore recommended that these monitoring activities are to be continued, that more countries, researchers and health professionals are involved, and that the findings are widely shared with all the relevant agencies, health professionals and future research projects. Implications, advantages and limitations of using the Internet as primary source for identifying emerging trends are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Review of 100 facts: polar lands; 365 penguins; Amazing Arctic & Antarctic projects you can build yourself; Apun: the Arctic snow; Matthew Henson: the quest for the North Pole; Polar bears in danger; Polar regions; Race to the South Poleetc.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Helle

    2010-01-01

    The polar regions have captured the world’s attention, and children’s book authors and publishers are no exception. These dozen titles are just a sample of the bucketload of polar-themed children’s books that have been published during the last couple of years.

  4. The Power Plant Mapping Student Project: Bringing Citizen Science to Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayne, K.; Oda, T.; Gurney, K. R.; O'Keeffe, D.; Petron, G.; Tans, P. P.; Frost, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    An emission inventory (EI) is a conventional tool to quantify and monitor anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants into the atmosphere. Gridded EI can visually show geographical patterns of emissions and their changes over time. These patterns, when available, are often determined using location data collected by regional governments, industries, and researchers. Datasets such as Carbon Monitoring and Action (CARMA, www.carma.org) are particularly useful for mapping emissions from large point sources and have been widely used in the EI community. The EI community is aware of potentially significant errors in the geographical locations of point sources, including power plants. The big challenge, however, is to review tens of thousands of power plant locations around the world and correct them where needed. The Power Plant Mapping Student Project (PPMSP) is a platform designed for students in 4th through 12th grade to improve the geographical location of power plants indicated in existing datasets to benefit international EI research. In PPMSP, we use VENTUS, a web-based platform (http://ventus.project.asu.edu/) that invites citizens to contribute power plant location data. Using VENTUS, students view scenes in the vicinity of reported power plant coordinates on Google Maps. Students either verify the location of a power plant or search for it within a designated radius using various indicators, an e-guide, and a power plant photo gallery for assistance. If the power plant cannot be found, students mark the plant as unverified. To assure quality for research use, the project contains multiple checkpoints and levels of review. While participating in meaningful research that directly benefits the EI research community, students are engaged in relevant science curricula designed to meet each grade level's Next Generation Science Standards. Students study energy, climate change, the atmosphere, and geographical information systems. The curricula is

  5. Mapping microscopic order in plant and mammalian cells and tissues: novel differential polarization attachment for new generation confocal microscopes (DP-LSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, G.; Pawlak, K.; Pomozi, I.; Tóth, E. A.; Molnár, A.; Matkó, J.; Garab, G.

    2014-03-01

    Elucidation of the molecular architecture of complex, highly organized molecular macro-assemblies is an important, basic task for biology. Differential polarization (DP) measurements, such as linear (LD) and circular dichroism (CD) or the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission (r), which can be carried out in a dichrograph or spectrofluorimeter, respectively, carry unique, spatially averaged information about the molecular organization of the sample. For inhomogeneous samples—e.g. cells and tissues—measurements on macroscopic scale are not satisfactory, and in some cases not feasible, thus microscopic techniques must be applied. The microscopic DP-imaging technique, when based on confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM), allows the pixel by pixel mapping of anisotropy of a sample in 2D and 3D. The first DP-LSM configuration, which, in fluorescence mode, allowed confocal imaging of different DP quantities in real-time, without interfering with the ‘conventional’ imaging, was built on a Zeiss LSM410. It was demonstrated to be capable of determining non-confocally the linear birefringence (LB) or LD of a sample and, confocally, its FDLD (fluorescence detected LD), the degree of polarization (P) and the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission (r), following polarized and non-polarized excitation, respectively (Steinbach et al 2009 Acta Histochem.111 316-25). This DP-LSM configuration, however, cannot simply be adopted to new generation microscopes with considerably more compact structures. As shown here, for an Olympus FV500, we designed an easy-to-install DP attachment to determine LB, LD, FDLD and r, in new-generation confocal microscopes, which, in principle, can be complemented with a P-imaging unit, but specifically to the brand and type of LSM.

  6. Mapping microscopic order in plant and mammalian cells and tissues: novel differential polarization attachment for new generation confocal microscopes (DP-LSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, G; Pawlak, K; Garab, G; Pomozi, I; Tóth, E A; Molnár, A; Matkó, J

    2014-01-01

    Elucidation of the molecular architecture of complex, highly organized molecular macro-assemblies is an important, basic task for biology. Differential polarization (DP) measurements, such as linear (LD) and circular dichroism (CD) or the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission (r), which can be carried out in a dichrograph or spectrofluorimeter, respectively, carry unique, spatially averaged information about the molecular organization of the sample. For inhomogeneous samples—e.g. cells and tissues—measurements on macroscopic scale are not satisfactory, and in some cases not feasible, thus microscopic techniques must be applied. The microscopic DP-imaging technique, when based on confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM), allows the pixel by pixel mapping of anisotropy of a sample in 2D and 3D. The first DP-LSM configuration, which, in fluorescence mode, allowed confocal imaging of different DP quantities in real-time, without interfering with the ‘conventional’ imaging, was built on a Zeiss LSM410. It was demonstrated to be capable of determining non-confocally the linear birefringence (LB) or LD of a sample and, confocally, its FDLD (fluorescence detected LD), the degree of polarization (P) and the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission (r), following polarized and non-polarized excitation, respectively (Steinbach et al 2009 Acta Histochem.111 316–25). This DP-LSM configuration, however, cannot simply be adopted to new generation microscopes with considerably more compact structures. As shown here, for an Olympus FV500, we designed an easy-to-install DP attachment to determine LB, LD, FDLD and r, in new-generation confocal microscopes, which, in principle, can be complemented with a P-imaging unit, but specifically to the brand and type of LSM. (paper)

  7. Mapping microscopic order in plant and mammalian cells and tissues: novel differential polarization attachment for new generation confocal microscopes (DP-LSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, G; Pawlak, K; Pomozi, I; Tóth, E A; Molnár, A; Matkó, J; Garab, G

    2014-02-24

    Elucidation of the molecular architecture of complex, highly organized molecular macro-assemblies is an important, basic task for biology. Differential polarization (DP) measurements, such as linear (LD) and circular dichroism (CD) or the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission (r), which can be carried out in a dichrograph or spectrofluorimeter, respectively, carry unique, spatially averaged information about the molecular organization of the sample. For inhomogeneous samples-e.g. cells and tissues-measurements on macroscopic scale are not satisfactory, and in some cases not feasible, thus microscopic techniques must be applied. The microscopic DP-imaging technique, when based on confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM), allows the pixel by pixel mapping of anisotropy of a sample in 2D and 3D. The first DP-LSM configuration, which, in fluorescence mode, allowed confocal imaging of different DP quantities in real-time, without interfering with the 'conventional' imaging, was built on a Zeiss LSM410. It was demonstrated to be capable of determining non-confocally the linear birefringence (LB) or LD of a sample and, confocally, its FDLD (fluorescence detected LD), the degree of polarization (P) and the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission (r), following polarized and non-polarized excitation, respectively (Steinbach et al 2009 Acta Histochem.111 316-25). This DP-LSM configuration, however, cannot simply be adopted to new generation microscopes with considerably more compact structures. As shown here, for an Olympus FV500, we designed an easy-to-install DP attachment to determine LB, LD, FDLD and r, in new-generation confocal microscopes, which, in principle, can be complemented with a P-imaging unit, but specifically to the brand and type of LSM.

  8. Coastal Mapping Program Project TX1404; PORT MANSFIELD TO ROCKY SLOUGH, TX.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  9. Coastal Mapping Program Project TX1403: RIO GRANDE RIVER TO PORT MANSFIELD, TX.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  10. Coastal Mapping Program Project TX1405: ROCKY SLOUGH TO PACKERY CHANNEL, TX.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  11. Coastal Mapping Program Project FL1305: CEDAR KEY TO CLEARWATER, FL.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also supports...

  12. SAT-MAP-CLIMATE project results[SATellite base bio-geophysical parameter MAPping and aggregation modelling for CLIMATE models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Hasager, C.; Woetmann Nielsen, N.; Soegaard, H.; Boegh, E.; Hesselbjerg Christensen, J.; Jensen, N.O.; Schultz Rasmussen, M.; Astrup, P.; Dellwik, E.

    2002-08-01

    Earth Observation (EO) data from imaging satellites are analysed with respect to albedo, land and sea surface temperatures, land cover types and vegetation parameters such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the leaf area index (LAI). The observed parameters are used in the DMI-HIRLAM-D05 weather prediction model in order to improve the forecasting. The effect of introducing actual sea surface temperatures from NOAA AVHHR compared to climatological mean values, shows a more pronounced land-sea breeze effect which is also observable in field observations. The albedo maps from NOAA AVHRR are rather similar to the climatological mean values so for the HIRLAM model this is insignicant, yet most likely of some importance in the HIRHAM regional climate model. Land cover type maps are assigned local roughness values determined from meteorological field observations. Only maps with a spatial resolution around 25 m can adequately map the roughness variations of the typical patch size distribution in Denmark. A roughness map covering Denmark is aggregated (ie area-average non-linearly) by a microscale aggregation model that takes the non-linear turbulent responses of each roughness step change between patches in an arbitrary pattern into account. The effective roughnesses are calculated into a 15 km by 15 km grid for the HIRLAM model. The effect of hedgerows is included as an added roughness effect as a function of hedge density mapped from a digital vector map. Introducing the new effective roughness maps into the HIRLAM model appears to remedy on the seasonal wind speed bias over land and sea in spring. A new parameterisation on the effective roughness for scalar surface fluxes is developed and tested on synthetic data. Further is a method for the estimation the evapotranspiration from albedo, surface temperatures and NDVI succesfully compared to field observations. The HIRLAM predictions of water vapour at 12 GMT are used for atmospheric correction of

  13. Mapping remodeling of thalamocortical projections in the living reeler mouse brain by diffusion tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsan, Laura-Adela; Dávid, Csaba; Reisert, Marco; Schnell, Susanne; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Staiger, Jochen F.

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in neuroscience is to accurately decipher in vivo the entire brain circuitry (connectome) at a microscopic level. Currently, the only methodology providing a global noninvasive window into structural brain connectivity is diffusion tractography. The extent to which the reconstructed pathways reflect realistic neuronal networks depends, however, on data acquisition and postprocessing factors. Through a unique combination of approaches, we designed and evaluated herein a framework for reliable fiber tracking and mapping of the living mouse brain connectome. One important wiring scheme, connecting gray matter regions and passing fiber-crossing areas, was closely examined: the lemniscal thalamocortical (TC) pathway. We quantitatively validated the TC projections inferred from in vivo tractography with correlative histological axonal tracing in the same wild-type and reeler mutant mice. We demonstrated noninvasively that changes in patterning of the cortical sheet, such as highly disorganized cortical lamination in reeler, led to spectacular compensatory remodeling of the TC pathway. PMID:23610438

  14. Simplified fringe order correction for absolute phase maps recovered with multiple-spatial-frequency fringe projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Lu, Lei; Zhong, Kai; Zhu, Ziqi

    2017-01-01

    Various kinds of fringe order errors may occur in the absolute phase maps recovered with multi-spatial-frequency fringe projections. In existing methods, multiple successive pixels corrupted by fringe order errors are detected and corrected pixel-by-pixel with repeating searches, which is inefficient for applications. To improve the efficiency of multiple successive fringe order corrections, in this paper we propose a method to simplify the error detection and correction by the stepwise increasing property of fringe order. In the proposed method, the numbers of pixels in each step are estimated to find the possible true fringe order values, repeating the search in detecting multiple successive errors can be avoided for efficient error correction. The effectiveness of our proposed method is validated by experimental results. (paper)

  15. Facilitating Programming of Vision-Equipped Robots through Robotic Skills and Projection Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard

    for robotic automation. Where industrial robots traditionally are placed behind security fences and programmed to perform simple, repetitive tasks, this next generation of robots will be able to work side-by-side with humans and collaborate on completing common tasks. This thesis investigates methods for fast...... and intuitive programming and interaction with collaborative, industrial robots. The work is divided into two areas: Vision-enabled robotic skills and projection mapping interfaces. The purpose of robotic skills in general is to allow non-experts in robotics to program robots in an intuitive manner......The field of collaborative industrial robots is currently developing fast both in the industry and in the scientific community. Companies such as Rethink Robotics and Universal Robots are redefining the concept of an industrial robot and entire new markets and use cases are becoming relevant...

  16. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Composite Lags at z ≤ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jennifer; Shen, Yue; Horne, Keith; Brandt, W. N.; Greene, Jenny E.; Grier, C. J.; Ho, Luis C.; Kochanek, Chris; Schneider, Donald P.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena

    2017-09-01

    We present composite broad-line region (BLR) reverberation mapping lag measurements for Hα, Hβ, He II λ4686, and Mg II for a sample of 144, z ≲ 1 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project. Using only the 32-epoch spectroscopic light curves in the first six-month season of SDSS-RM observations, we compile correlation function measurements for individual objects and then coadd them to allow the measurement of the average lags for our sample at mean redshifts of 0.4 (for Hα) and ˜0.65 (for the other lines). At similar quasar luminosities and redshifts, the sample-averaged lag decreases in the order of Mg II, Hα, Hβ, and He II. This decrease in lags is accompanied by an increase in the mean line width of the four lines, and is roughly consistent with the virialized motion for BLR gas in photoionization equilibrium. These are among the first RM measurements of stratified BLR structure at z > 0.3. Dividing our sample by luminosity, Hα shows clear evidence of increasing lags with luminosity, consistent with the expectation from the measured BLR size-luminosity relation based on Hβ. The other three lines do not show a clear luminosity trend in their average lags due to the limited dynamic range of luminosity probed and the poor average correlation signals in the divided samples, a situation that will be improved with the incorporation of additional photometric and spectroscopic data from SDSS-RM. We discuss the utility and caveats of composite lag measurements for large statistical quasar samples with reverberation mapping data.

  17. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Composite Lags at z ≤ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jennifer; Shen, Yue; Horne, Keith; Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Greene, Jenny E.; Ho, Luis C.; Kochanek, Chris; Trump, Jonathan R.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena

    2017-01-01

    We present composite broad-line region (BLR) reverberation mapping lag measurements for H α , H β , He ii λ 4686, and Mg ii for a sample of 144, z ≲ 1 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project. Using only the 32-epoch spectroscopic light curves in the first six-month season of SDSS-RM observations, we compile correlation function measurements for individual objects and then coadd them to allow the measurement of the average lags for our sample at mean redshifts of 0.4 (for H α ) and ∼0.65 (for the other lines). At similar quasar luminosities and redshifts, the sample-averaged lag decreases in the order of Mg ii, H α , H β , and He ii. This decrease in lags is accompanied by an increase in the mean line width of the four lines, and is roughly consistent with the virialized motion for BLR gas in photoionization equilibrium. These are among the first RM measurements of stratified BLR structure at z > 0.3. Dividing our sample by luminosity, H α shows clear evidence of increasing lags with luminosity, consistent with the expectation from the measured BLR size–luminosity relation based on H β . The other three lines do not show a clear luminosity trend in their average lags due to the limited dynamic range of luminosity probed and the poor average correlation signals in the divided samples, a situation that will be improved with the incorporation of additional photometric and spectroscopic data from SDSS-RM. We discuss the utility and caveats of composite lag measurements for large statistical quasar samples with reverberation mapping data.

  18. THE "CARTA DELLA NATURA" MAPPING PROJECT IN THE SUPRAMONTE AREA (CENTRAL-EAST SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. CAMARDA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1991, the Italian framework law on protected areas, has been calling for the editing of a national Nature Map, an instrument for the assessment of the state of the environment in Italy. The methodology applied in Sardinia is comparable with those applied in the other regions of Italy, with the necessary modifications, generalizations and integrations. Satellite imagery represents the fundamental informative layer to provide a synoptic view of the whole territory. In a second proceeding step, supervised classification is thematically enhanced by using logical niche models of species and habitats derived from assessed relationships between species-habitats known distributions patterns and available predictors, i.e. GIS thematic layers. This has resulted in the production of a habitat map with 24 habitat and land use classes. The environmental assessment procedure delivered four maps, the ecological value, the environmental sensitivity, the anthropic pressure and the land vulnerability (fragility. A reduction from 70 to 24 habitat/land use types, is coherent with the aims of the projects and planned deliverables. These 24 classes have been detected with semi-automatic procedures and with a high level of reliability. It is a reasonable compromise between thematic resolution and the possibility to record a synoptic view of the whole land in an acceptable lap of time. Various stakeholders will benefit from knowing the current condition of habitats distribution. Described deliverables are powerful tools for monitoring at regional level future land-use and habitat changes on a solid quantitative basis, for environmental conservation and habitat management.

  19. THE "CARTA DELLA NATURA" MAPPING PROJECT IN THE SUPRAMONTE AREA (CENTRAL-EAST SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. BRUNDU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1991, the Italian framework law on protected areas, has been calling for the editing of a national Nature Map, an instrument for the assessment of the state of the environment in Italy. The methodology applied in Sardinia is comparable with those applied in the other regions of Italy, with the necessary modifications, generalizations and integrations. Satellite imagery represents the fundamental informative layer to provide a synoptic view of the whole territory. In a second proceeding step, supervised classification is thematically enhanced by using logical niche models of species and habitats derived from assessed relationships between species-habitats known distributions patterns and available predictors, i.e. GIS thematic layers. This has resulted in the production of a habitat map with 24 habitat and land use classes. The environmental assessment procedure delivered four maps, the ecological value, the environmental sensitivity, the anthropic pressure and the land vulnerability (fragility. A reduction from 70 to 24 habitat/land use types, is coherent with the aims of the projects and planned deliverables. These 24 classes have been detected with semi-automatic procedures and with a high level of reliability. It is a reasonable compromise between thematic resolution and the possibility to record a synoptic view of the whole land in an acceptable lap of time. Various stakeholders will benefit from knowing the current condition of habitats distribution. Described deliverables are powerful tools for monitoring at regional level future land-use and habitat changes on a solid quantitative basis, for environmental conservation and habitat management.

  20. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Composite Lags at z ≤ 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jennifer; Shen, Yue [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics/Astronomy, Univ. of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Kochanek, Chris [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Trump, Jonathan R. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, 2152 Hillside Road, Unit 3046, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Dawson, Kyle S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We present composite broad-line region (BLR) reverberation mapping lag measurements for H α , H β , He ii λ 4686, and Mg ii for a sample of 144, z ≲ 1 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project. Using only the 32-epoch spectroscopic light curves in the first six-month season of SDSS-RM observations, we compile correlation function measurements for individual objects and then coadd them to allow the measurement of the average lags for our sample at mean redshifts of 0.4 (for H α ) and ∼0.65 (for the other lines). At similar quasar luminosities and redshifts, the sample-averaged lag decreases in the order of Mg ii, H α , H β , and He ii. This decrease in lags is accompanied by an increase in the mean line width of the four lines, and is roughly consistent with the virialized motion for BLR gas in photoionization equilibrium. These are among the first RM measurements of stratified BLR structure at z > 0.3. Dividing our sample by luminosity, H α shows clear evidence of increasing lags with luminosity, consistent with the expectation from the measured BLR size–luminosity relation based on H β . The other three lines do not show a clear luminosity trend in their average lags due to the limited dynamic range of luminosity probed and the poor average correlation signals in the divided samples, a situation that will be improved with the incorporation of additional photometric and spectroscopic data from SDSS-RM. We discuss the utility and caveats of composite lag measurements for large statistical quasar samples with reverberation mapping data.

  1. Deep brain stimulation, brain maps and personalized medicine: lessons from the human genome project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fins, Joseph J; Shapiro, Zachary E

    2014-01-01

    Although the appellation of personalized medicine is generally attributed to advanced therapeutics in molecular medicine, deep brain stimulation (DBS) can also be so categorized. Like its medical counterpart, DBS is a highly personalized intervention that needs to be tailored to a patient's individual anatomy. And because of this, DBS like more conventional personalized medicine, can be highly specific where the object of care is an N = 1. But that is where the similarities end. Besides their differing medical and surgical provenances, these two varieties of personalized medicine have had strikingly different impacts. The molecular variant, though of a more recent vintage has thrived and is experiencing explosive growth, while DBS still struggles to find a sustainable therapeutic niche. Despite its promise, and success as a vetted treatment for drug resistant Parkinson's Disease, DBS has lagged in broadening its development, often encountering regulatory hurdles and financial barriers necessary to mount an adequate number of quality trials. In this paper we will consider why DBS-or better yet neuromodulation-has encountered these challenges and contrast this experience with the more successful advance of personalized medicine. We will suggest that personalized medicine and DBS's differential performance can be explained as a matter of timing and complexity. We believe that DBS has struggled because it has been a journey of scientific exploration conducted without a map. In contrast to molecular personalized medicine which followed the mapping of the human genome and the Human Genome Project, DBS preceded plans for the mapping of the human brain. We believe that this sequence has given personalized medicine a distinct advantage and that the fullest potential of DBS will be realized both as a cartographical or electrophysiological probe and as a modality of personalized medicine.

  2. APPLICABILITY OF A STRATEGIC MAP UNDER THE PERSPECTIVE OF CRITICAL FACTORS FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY AT A LARGE FINANCIAL INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Darcy da Silva Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Project Management and Strategic Management are two subjects of major relevance within the corporate environment, despite usually being treated separately, at organizations. However, for Westphal et al. (2008 one of the ways to link project management and strategy is through project management maturity, and to this effect, a series of actions that can be characterized as critical factors (Rabechini Jr. & Pessoa, 2005 are required. Another way of seeking this connection is by means of the strategic map concept which, according to Kaplan and Norton (2004, p.10, “represents the lost link between strategy formulation and the execution of the strategy”. In this study the purpose is to evaluate the applicability of a strategic map, from a critical factors perspective, on project management maturity, as proposed by Silva Jr. and Luciano (2010. Thus a qualitative and exploratory approach case study was conducted at a large financial institution, where three interview scripts were applied on nine professionals, whereby three were leaders, three were project managers and three, functional managers. Furthermore, a graphical representation standard was designed picturing possible situations concerning the applicability of strategic objectives of the map proposed in the case under study. As a result, an important academic contribution to the vague and scarce literature on the relationship between project management and organizational strategy was verified, in addition to mapping possibilities of improvements for the organization, which otherwise might have been impossible to identify.

  3. Polarized Raman anisotropic response of collagen in tendon: towards 3D orientation mapping of collagen in tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Galvis

    Full Text Available In this study, polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS was used to characterize the anisotropic response of the amide I band of collagen as a basis for evaluating three-dimensional collagen fibril orientation in tissues. Firstly, the response was investigated theoretically by applying classical Raman theory to collagen-like peptide crystal structures. The theoretical methodology was then tested experimentally, by measuring amide I intensity anisotropy in rat tail as a function of the orientation of the incident laser polarization. For the theoretical study, several collagen-like triple-helical peptide crystal structures obtained from the Protein Data Bank were rotated "in plane" and "out of plane" to evaluate the role of molecular orientation on the intensity of the amide I band. Collagen-like peptides exhibit a sinusoidal anisotropic response when rotated "in plane" with respect to the polarized incident laser. Maximal intensity was obtained when the polarization of the incident light is perpendicular to the molecule and minimal when parallel. In the case of "out of plane" rotation of the molecular structure a decreased anisotropic response was observed, becoming completely isotropic when the structure was perpendicular to the plane of observation. The theoretical Raman response of collagen was compared to that of alpha helical protein fragments. In contrast to collagen, alpha helices have a maximal signal when incident light is parallel to the molecule and minimal when perpendicular. For out-of-plane molecular orientations alpha-helix structures display a decreased average intensity. Results obtained from experiments on rat tail tendon are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions, thus demonstrating the high potential of PRS for experimental evaluation of the three-dimensional orientation of collagen fibers in biological tissues.

  4. The Identity Mapping Project: Demographic differences in patterns of distributed identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Richard L; Dionisio, John David N; Forney, Andrew; Dorin, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The advent of cloud computing and a multi-platform digital environment is giving rise to a new phase of human identity called "The Distributed Self." In this conception, aspects of the self are distributed into a variety of 2D and 3D digital personas with the capacity to reflect any number of combinations of now malleable personality traits. In this way, the source of human identity remains internal and embodied, but the expression or enactment of the self becomes increasingly external, disembodied, and distributed on demand. The Identity Mapping Project (IMP) is an interdisciplinary collaboration between psychology and computer Science designed to empirically investigate the development of distributed forms of identity. Methodologically, it collects a large database of "identity maps" - computerized graphical representations of how active someone is online and how their identity is expressed and distributed across 7 core digital domains: email, blogs/personal websites, social networks, online forums, online dating sites, character based digital games, and virtual worlds. The current paper reports on gender and age differences in online identity based on an initial database of distributed identity profiles.

  5. The Africa Yoga Project and Well-Being: A Concept Map of Students' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambrone, Carla A; Cook-Cottone, Catherine P; Klein, Jessalyn E

    2018-03-01

    Concept mapping methodology was used to explore the perceived impact of practicing yoga with the Africa Yoga Project (AYP)-an organisation created to increase health and well-being by providing community-based yoga classes throughout Kenya. AYP's mission fit with theoretical models of well-being is discussed. Anecdotal evidence and initial qualitative research suggested the AYP meaningfully impacted adult students. Of the hundreds of AYP's adult students, 56 and 82 students participated in Phases I and II, respectively. Phase I brainstorming resulted in 94 student-generated statements about their perceived change. Phase II participants sorted and rated statements in terms of importance. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis of sort data was utilised to map and group statements into clusters. Based on statistical and interpretive criteria, a five-cluster solution with the following concepts was identified as the best model of students' change: Personal Growth; Interpersonal Effectiveness (lowest importance); Physical and Social Benefits; Emotional Resiliency; and Improved Self-Concept (highest importance). Overall, students reported positive perceptions of the AYP. Additional research is needed to quantify students' change, and to compare the AYP outcomes to those of other programs aimed at poverty-related stress reduction and well-being. © 2018 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  6. The Wudapt Project: Engaging a Global Community to Map and Characterize Cities Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddema, J. J.; Mills, G.; See, L. M.; Bechtel, B.; Ching, J.

    2016-12-01

    Over 50% of the world's population lives is urban areas that occupy about 2-4% of the terrestrial surface. These human built environments account for approximately 70% of anthropogenic carbon emissions and within these locations we observe some of the most extreme human altered climates with direct impacts on human health and air quality. Counterintuitively, while most humans live in urban spaces, there is a dearth of knowledge about the true nature of these urban spaces. Within human settlements there are significant variations in building types, building materials, energy management systems, transport systems, water and air quality management systems and socio-economic activities. For most of the world's cities there are few if any observations of these systems, and little knowledge of urban extent and distribution of urban types within cities. The World Urban Database and Portal Tools (WUDAPT), aims to fill this knowledge gap. This project merges local expert knowledge with open source remote sensing tools, Landsat data and GIS software to classify cities into 10 major neighborhood scale classes based on urban morphology characteristics. Known as Local Climate Zones (LCZs), these classes represent relatively homogeneous urban areas that can give a first approximation to typical urban climate and environmental impacts regardless of location or temporal occurrence. This project is designed to engage scientists and citizens in the mapping process, but also to provide participants (citizens, scientists, planners and policy makers) with output products. To date this project has classified about 200 cities worldwide. This presentation illustrates the process and products of the WUDAPT project and its potential benefits for local and global science. A next step will develop methods for linking LCZ areas to socioeconomic information and local building characteristics and uses.

  7. The Making of a Tsunami Hazard Map: Lessons Learned from the TSUMAPS-NEAM Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, R.

    2017-12-01

    Following the worldwide surge of awareness toward tsunami hazard and risk in the last decade, Europe has promoted a better understanding of the tsunami phenomenon through research projects (e.g. TRANSFER, ASTARTE) and started programs for preventing the tsunami impact along the coastlines of the North-East Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and connected Seas (NEAM) region (e.g. the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System, NEAMTWS, coordinated by IOC/UNESCO). An indispensable tool toward long-term coastal planning and an effective design and subsequent use of TWS is the availability of a comprehensive Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA). The TSUMAPS-NEAM project took the pledge of producing the first region-wide long-term homogenous PTHA map from earthquake sources. The hazard assessment was built upon state-of-the-art procedures and standards, enriched by some rather innovative/experimental approaches such as: (1) the statistical treatment of potential seismic sources, combining all the available information (seismicity, moment tensors, tectonics), and considering earthquakes occurring on major crustal faults and subduction interfaces; (2) an intensive computational approach to tsunami generation and linear propagation across the sea up to an offshore fixed depth; (3) the use of approximations for shoaling and inundation, based on local bathymetry, and for tidal stages; and (4) the exploration of several alternatives for the basic input data and their parameters which produces a number of models that are treated through an ensemble uncertainty quantification. This presentation will summarize the TSUMAPS-NEAM project goals, implementation, and achieved results, as well as the humps and bumps we run into during its development. The TSUMAPS-NEAM Project (http://www.tsumaps-neam.eu/) is co-financed by the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism, Agreement Number: ECHO/SUB/2015/718568/PREV26.

  8. The oryza map alignment project: the golden path to unlocking the genetic potential of wild rice species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Rod A; Ammiraju, Jetty S S; Luo, Meizhong; Kim, Hyeran; Yu, Yeisoo; Kudrna, Dave; Goicoechea, Jose L; Wang, Wenming; Nelson, Will; Rao, Kiran; Brar, Darshan; Mackill, Dave J; Han, Bin; Soderlund, Cari; Stein, Lincoln; SanMiguel, Phillip; Jackson, Scott

    2005-09-01

    The wild species of the genus Oryza offer enormous potential to make a significant impact on agricultural productivity of the cultivated rice species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima. To unlock the genetic potential of wild rice we have initiated a project entitled the 'Oryza Map Alignment Project' (OMAP) with the ultimate goal of constructing and aligning BAC/STC based physical maps of 11 wild and one cultivated rice species to the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project's finished reference genome--O. sativa ssp. japonica c. v. Nipponbare. The 11 wild rice species comprise nine different genome types and include six diploid genomes (AA, BB, CC, EE, FF and GG) and four tetrapliod genomes (BBCC, CCDD, HHKK and HHJJ) with broad geographical distribution and ecological adaptation. In this paper we describe our strategy to construct robust physical maps of all 12 rice species with an emphasis on the AA diploid O. nivara--thought to be the progenitor of modern cultivated rice.

  9. Bouncing continents: insights into the physics of the polar regions of the Earth from the POLENET project in the International Polar Year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reading, Anya M

    2008-01-01

    When ice sheets melt, and reduce the load on the surface of the Earth, the land areas beneath them bounce back up. New, accurate observations are needed to investigate this uplift and its implications effectively. This article provides a topical starting point for investigating some applications of physics applied to the polar regions of the Earth, and interaction between the solid Earth, ice and oceans

  10. Investigating the use of the dual-polarized and large incident angle of SAR data for mapping the fluvial and aeolian deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Ahmed; Amarah, Bassam A.; Abdelfattah, Mohamed; Ali, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    Mapping the spatial distributions of the fluvial deposits in terms of particles size as well as imaging the near-surface features along the non-vegetated aeolian sand-sheets, provides valuable geological information. Thus this work aims at investigating the contribution of the dual-polarization SAR data in classifying and mapping the surface sediments as well as investigating the effect of the radar incident-angle on improving the images of the hidden features under the desert sand cover. For mapping the fluvial deposits, the covariance matrix ([C2]) using four dual-polarized ALOS/PALSAR-1 scenes cover the Wadi El Matulla, East Qena, Egypt were generated. This [C2] matrix was used to generate a supervised classification map with three main classes (gravel, gravel/sand and sand). The polarimetric scattering response, spectral reflectance and temperatures brightness of these 3 classes were extracted. However for the aeolian deposits investigation, two Radarsat-1 and three full-polarimetric ALOS/PALSAR-1 images, which cover the northwestern sandy part of Sinai, Egypt were calibrated, filtered, geocoded and ingested in a GIS database to image the near-surface features. The fluvial mapping results show that the values of the radar backscattered coefficient (σ°) and the degree of randomness of the obtained three classes are increasing respectively by increasing their grain size. Moreover, the large incident angle (θi = 39.7) of the Radarsat-1 image has revealed a meandering buried stream under the sand sheet of the northwestern part of Sinai. Such buried stream does not appear in the other optical, SRTM and SAR dataset. The main reason is the enhanced contrast between the low backscattered return from the revealed meandering stream and the surroundings as a result of the increased backscattering intensity, which is related to the relatively large incident angle along the undulated surface of the study area. All archaeological observations support the existence of

  11. Prevalence of incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging: Cuban project to map the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Gonzalez, Gertrudis de los Angeles; Alvarez Sanchez, Marilet; Jordan Gonzalez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of incidental findings in healthy subjects of the Cuban Human Brain Mapping Project sample, it was performed a retrospective descriptive study of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained from 394 healthy subjects that make up the sample of the project, between 2006-2007, with an age range of 18 to 68 years (mean 33,12), of which 269 (68,27 %) are male and 125 (31,73 %) are women. It was shown that 40,36 % had one or more anomaly in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In total, the number of incidental findings was 188, 23,6 % of which were brain findings and 24,11 % were non-brain findings, among the latter, were the sinusopathy with 20,81 % and maxillary polyps with 3,30 %. The most prevalent brain findings were: intrasellar arachnoidocele, 11,93 %, followed by the prominence of the pituitary gland, 5,84 %, ventricular asymmetry, 1,77 % and bone defects, 1,02 %. Other brain abnormalities found with very low prevalence had no pathological significance, except for two cases with brain tumor, which were immediately sent to a specialist. Incidental findings in MRI are common in the general population (40,36 %), being the sinusopathy, and intrasellar arachnoidocele the most common findings. Asymptomatic individuals who have any type of structural abnormality provide invaluable information on the prevalence of these abnormalities in a presumably healthy population, which may be used as references for epidemiological studies

  12. Software project management tools in global software development: a systematic mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadli, Saad Yasser; Idri, Ali; Ros, Joaquín Nicolás; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; de Gea, Juan M Carrillo; Toval, Ambrosio

    2016-01-01

    Global software development (GSD) which is a growing trend in the software industry is characterized by a highly distributed environment. Performing software project management (SPM) in such conditions implies the need to overcome new limitations resulting from cultural, temporal and geographic separation. The aim of this research is to discover and classify the various tools mentioned in literature that provide GSD project managers with support and to identify in what way they support group interaction. A systematic mapping study has been performed by means of automatic searches in five sources. We have then synthesized the data extracted and presented the results of this study. A total of 102 tools were identified as being used in SPM activities in GSD. We have classified these tools, according to the software life cycle process on which they focus and how they support the 3C collaboration model (communication, coordination and cooperation). The majority of the tools found are standalone tools (77%). A small number of platforms (8%) also offer a set of interacting tools that cover the software development lifecycle. Results also indicate that SPM areas in GSD are not adequately supported by corresponding tools and deserve more attention from tool builders.

  13. [New drugs of abuse on the Web: the role of the Psychonaut Web Mapping Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifano, Fabrizio; Ricciardi, Alessandra; Corazza, Ornella; Deluca, Paolo; Davey, Zoe; Rafanelli, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    In the rapid change of drug scenarios, as the powerful development in the drug market, particularly in the number and the kind of the compound available, Internet plays a dominant role to become one of the major "drug market". The European Commission funded the Psychonaut Web Mapping Project (carried out in the time-frame January 2008-December 2009), with the aim to start/implement an Early Warning System (through the data/information collected from the Web virtual market), to identify and categorise novel recreational drugs/psychoactive compounds (synthetical/herbal drugs), and new trends in drug use to provide information for immediate and prevention intervention. The Psychonaut is a multi-site research project involving 8 research centres (De Sleutel, Belgium; University of Hertfordshire School of Pharmacy, St George's University of London, England; A-klinikkasäätiö, Finlandia; Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Germany; Assessorato Salute Regione Marche, Italy; Drug Abuse Unit, Spain; Centre of Competence Bergen Clinics Foundation, Norway) based in 7 European Countries (England, Italy, Belgium, Finland, Germany, Spain, Norway).

  14. Atomically resolved mapping of polarization and electric fields across ferroelectric/oxide interface by Z-contrast imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Hye Jung; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Morozovska, Anna N.; Huijben, Mark; Chu, Ying-Hao; Yu, Pu; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Eliseev, Evgeny A.; Svechnikov, George S.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Borisevich, Albina Y.

    2011-01-01

    Direct atomic displacement mapping at ferroelectric interfaces by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy(STEM) (a-STEM image, b-corresponding displacement profile) is combined with Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire theory to obtain the complete interface electrostatics in real

  15. Coupling X-band dual-polarized mini-radars and hydro-meteorological forecast models: the HYDRORAD project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Picciotti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-meteorological hazards like convective outbreaks leading to torrential rain and floods are among the most critical environmental issues world-wide. In that context weather radar observations have proven to be very useful in providing information on the spatial distribution of rainfall that can support early warning of floods. However, quantitative precipitation estimation by radar is subjected to many limitations and uncertainties. The use of dual-polarization at high frequency (i.e. X-band has proven particularly useful for mitigating some of the limitation of operational systems, by exploiting the benefit of easiness to transport and deploy and the high spatial and temporal resolution achievable at small antenna sizes. New developments on X-band dual-polarization technology in recent years have received the interest of scientific and operational communities in these systems. New enterprises are focusing on the advancement of cost-efficient mini-radar network technology, based on high-frequency (mainly X-band and low-power weather radar systems for weather monitoring and hydro-meteorological forecasting. Within the above context, the main objective of the HYDRORAD project was the development of an innovative mbox{integrated} decision support tool for weather monitoring and hydro-meteorological applications. The integrated system tool is based on a polarimetric X-band mini-radar network which is the core of the decision support tool, a novel radar products generator and a hydro-meteorological forecast modelling system that ingests mini-radar rainfall products to forecast precipitation and floods. The radar products generator includes algorithms for attenuation correction, hydrometeor classification, a vertical profile reflectivity correction, a new polarimetric rainfall estimators developed for mini-radar observations, and short-term nowcasting of convective cells. The hydro-meteorological modelling system includes the Mesoscale Model 5

  16. Coupling X-band dual-polarized mini-radars and hydro-meteorological forecast models: the HYDRORAD project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciotti, E.; Marzano, F. S.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Kalogiros, J.; Fessas, Y.; Volpi, A.; Cazac, V.; Pace, R.; Cinque, G.; Bernardini, L.; De Sanctis, K.; Di Fabio, S.; Montopoli, M.; Anagnostou, M. N.; Telleschi, A.; Dimitriou, E.; Stella, J.

    2013-05-01

    Hydro-meteorological hazards like convective outbreaks leading to torrential rain and floods are among the most critical environmental issues world-wide. In that context weather radar observations have proven to be very useful in providing information on the spatial distribution of rainfall that can support early warning of floods. However, quantitative precipitation estimation by radar is subjected to many limitations and uncertainties. The use of dual-polarization at high frequency (i.e. X-band) has proven particularly useful for mitigating some of the limitation of operational systems, by exploiting the benefit of easiness to transport and deploy and the high spatial and temporal resolution achievable at small antenna sizes. New developments on X-band dual-polarization technology in recent years have received the interest of scientific and operational communities in these systems. New enterprises are focusing on the advancement of cost-efficient mini-radar network technology, based on high-frequency (mainly X-band) and low-power weather radar systems for weather monitoring and hydro-meteorological forecasting. Within the above context, the main objective of the HYDRORAD project was the development of an innovative integrated decision support tool for weather monitoring and hydro-meteorological applications. The integrated system tool is based on a polarimetric X-band mini-radar network which is the core of the decision support tool, a novel radar products generator and a hydro-meteorological forecast modelling system that ingests mini-radar rainfall products to forecast precipitation and floods. The radar products generator includes algorithms for attenuation correction, hydrometeor classification, a vertical profile reflectivity correction, a new polarimetric rainfall estimators developed for mini-radar observations, and short-term nowcasting of convective cells. The hydro-meteorological modelling system includes the Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) and the Army Corps

  17. Mapping of Polar Areas Based on High-Resolution Satellite Images: The Example of the Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczyński, Zdzisław; Różycki, Sebastian; Bylina, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    To produce orthophotomaps or digital elevation models, the most commonly used method is photogrammetric measurement. However, the use of aerial images is not easy in polar regions for logistical reasons. In these areas, remote sensing data acquired from satellite systems is much more useful. This paper presents the basic technical requirements of different products which can be obtain (in particular orthoimages and digital elevation model (DEM)) using Very-High-Resolution Satellite (VHRS) images. The study area was situated in the vicinity of the Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station on the Western Shore of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Western Antarctic. Image processing was applied on two triplets of images acquired by the Pléiades 1A and 1B in March 2013. The results of the generation of orthoimages from the Pléiades systems without control points showed that the proposed method can achieve Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of 3-9 m. The presented Pléiades images are useful for thematic remote sensing analysis and processing of measurements. Using satellite images to produce remote sensing products for polar regions is highly beneficial and reliable and compares well with more expensive airborne photographs or field surveys.

  18. An Ultra-Wideband, Microwave Radar for Measuring Snow Thickness on Sea Ice and Mapping Near-Surface Internal Layers in Polar Firn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Ben; Gomez-Garcia, Daniel; Leuschen, Carl; Paden, John; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Patel, Azsa; Markus, Thorsten; Holt, Benjamin; Gogineni, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice is generally covered with snow, which can vary in thickness from a few centimeters to >1 m. Snow cover acts as a thermal insulator modulating the heat exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, and it impacts sea-ice growth rates and overall thickness, a key indicator of climate change in polar regions. Snow depth is required to estimate sea-ice thickness using freeboard measurements made with satellite altimeters. The snow cover also acts as a mechanical load that depresses ice freeboard (snow and ice above sea level). Freeboard depression can result in flooding of the snow/ice interface and the formation of a thick slush layer, particularly in the Antarctic sea-ice cover. The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an ultra-wideband, microwave radar capable of operation on long-endurance aircraft to characterize the thickness of snow over sea ice. The low-power, 100mW signal is swept from 2 to 8GHz allowing the air/snow and snow/ ice interfaces to be mapped with 5 c range resolution in snow; this is an improvement over the original system that worked from 2 to 6.5 GHz. From 2009 to 2012, CReSIS successfully operated the radar on the NASA P-3B and DC-8 aircraft to collect data on snow-covered sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic for NASA Operation IceBridge. The radar was found capable of snow depth retrievals ranging from 10cm to >1 m. We also demonstrated that this radar can be used to map near-surface internal layers in polar firn with fine range resolution. Here we describe the instrument design, characteristics and performance of the radar.

  19. Rescuing and Sharing Historical Vegetation Data for Ecological Analysis: The California Vegetation Type Mapping Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggi Kelly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Research efforts that synthesize historical and contemporary ecological data with modeling approaches improve our understanding of the complex response of species, communities, and landscapes to changing biophysical conditions through time and in space. Historical ecological data are particularly important in this respect. There are remaining barriers that limit such data synthesis, and technological improvements that make multiple diverse datasets more readily available for integration and synthesis are needed. This paper presents one case study of the Wieslander Vegetation Type Mapping project in California and highlights the importance of rescuing, digitizing and sharing historical datasets. We review the varied ecological uses of the historical collection: the vegetation maps have been used to understand legacies of land use change and plan for the future; the plot data have been used to examine changes to chaparral and forest communities around the state and to predict community structure and shifts under a changing climate; the photographs have been used to understand changing vegetation structure; and the voucher specimens in combination with other specimen collections have been used for large scale distribution modeling efforts. The digitization and sharing of the data via the web has broadened the scope and scale of the types of analysis performed. Yet, additional research avenues can be pursued using multiple types of VTM data, and by linking VTM data with contemporary data. The digital VTM collection is an example of a data infrastructure that expands the potential of large scale research through the integration and synthesis of data drawn from numerous data sources; its journey from analog to digital is a cautionary tale of the importance of finding historical data, digitizing it with best practices, linking it with other datasets, and sharing it with the research community.

  20. DATA QUALIFICATION REPORT: DATA QUALIFICATION REPORT FOR 1991 1:1200 TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS FOR USE ON THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.F. Knop; T.A. Grant; R.W. Bonisolli

    2005-06-25

    This Data Qualification Report (DQR) is prepared in accordance with the provisions of AP-SIII.2Q, Rev. 0, ICN 3, Qualification of Unqualified Data and the Documentation of Rationale for Accepted Data and Data Qualification Plan for 1991 Topographic Maps 1:1200 Scale for use on the Yucca Mountain Project, DQP-WHS-CI-000001, Rev. 00 (BSC 2002a). This DQR presents an evaluation of a set of 90 topographic sheets at 1:1200 scale (and an associated electronic file) that covers an approximate 18 square mile area surrounding the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository surface facilities location in Midway Valley, Nevada. These maps, that require qualification, are now being used to determine the physical characteristics of watershed sub-areas, interconnecting channels, and drainage channel cross-sections for hydrologic engineering studies of the north portal pad and vicinity. The result of this effort is to qualify one data tracking number (DTN) containing the electronic version of the mapping data. This DTN is: M09906COV98462.000. Coverage: TOP02FTS. The underlying quality assurance (QA) issue associated with these topographic maps is that the maps were originally designated as not for use in the design of items important to safety, waste isolation, and/or of programmatic importance. The maps were therefore generated outside the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) QA program. Based on a comparison with corroborating information, this report concludes that the topographic maps are qualified. The comparison found that the mapping was reasonably accurate when compared with other mapping and survey data within the coverage area of the maps. Relative map accuracy was found to be very good and suitable for the hydrologic engineering studies being considered. Absolute accuracy is good but could not be demonstrated to comply with national map accuracy standards. Point locations that require high absolute accuracy should be

  1. DATA QUALIFICATION REPORT: DATA QUALIFICATION REPORT FOR 1991 1:1200 TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS FOR USE ON THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knop, M.F.; Grant, T.A.; Bonisolli, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    This Data Qualification Report (DQR) is prepared in accordance with the provisions of AP-SIII.2Q, Rev. 0, ICN 3, Qualification of Unqualified Data and the Documentation of Rationale for Accepted Data and Data Qualification Plan for 1991 Topographic Maps 1:1200 Scale for use on the Yucca Mountain Project, DQP-WHS-CI-000001, Rev. 00 (BSC 2002a). This DQR presents an evaluation of a set of 90 topographic sheets at 1:1200 scale (and an associated electronic file) that covers an approximate 18 square mile area surrounding the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository surface facilities location in Midway Valley, Nevada. These maps, that require qualification, are now being used to determine the physical characteristics of watershed sub-areas, interconnecting channels, and drainage channel cross-sections for hydrologic engineering studies of the north portal pad and vicinity. The result of this effort is to qualify one data tracking number (DTN) containing the electronic version of the mapping data. This DTN is: M09906COV98462.000. Coverage: TOP02FTS. The underlying quality assurance (QA) issue associated with these topographic maps is that the maps were originally designated as not for use in the design of items important to safety, waste isolation, and/or of programmatic importance. The maps were therefore generated outside the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) QA program. Based on a comparison with corroborating information, this report concludes that the topographic maps are qualified. The comparison found that the mapping was reasonably accurate when compared with other mapping and survey data within the coverage area of the maps. Relative map accuracy was found to be very good and suitable for the hydrologic engineering studies being considered. Absolute accuracy is good but could not be demonstrated to comply with national map accuracy standards. Point locations that require high absolute accuracy should be

  2. PIPER: Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazear, Justin; Benford, D.; Chuss, D.; Fixsen, D.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G.; Jhabvala, C.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A.; Mirel, P.; Mosely, H.; Staguhn, J.; Wollack, E.; Weston, A.; Vlahacos, K.; Bennett, C.; Eimer, J.; Halpern, M.; Irwin, K.; Dotson, J.; Ade, P.; Tucker, C.

    2011-05-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in search of the expected signature of primordial gravity waves excited during an inflationary epoch shortly after the Big Bang. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, one sensitive to the Q Stokes parameter and the other to U. Sky signals will be detected with 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers distributed in four rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 100 mK. To maximize the sensitivity of the instrument, both telescopes are mounted within a single open bucket dewar and are maintained at 1.5 K throughout flight, with no ambient-temperature windows between the sky and the detectors. To mitigate the effects of systematic errors, the polarized sky signals will be modulated using a variable-delay polarization modulator. PIPER will observe at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to separate the CMB from polarized dust emission within the Galaxy. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce nearly full-sky maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. I will discuss the current status and potential science returns from the PIPER project.

  3. Mapping European habitats to support the design and implementation of a pan-European ecological network; the PEENHAB-project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mücher, C.A.; Hennekens, S.M.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Schaminée, J.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The overall objective of the PEENHAB project to develop a methodology to identify spatially all major habitats in Europe. The Pan-European Ecological Network (PEEN) anticipates in the development of an indicative map of an ecological network for the whole of Europe. The design of such an indicative

  4. Mapping the Implementation and Application of the ESG (MAP-ESG Project): Final Report of the Project Steering Group. ENQA Occasional Papers 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Elena, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 the organisations that form the E4 Group, notably ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education), ESU (European Students Union), EUA (European University Association), and EURASHE (European Association of Institutions in Higher Education) launched the "Mapping the Implementation and Application of the Standards…

  5. MeshSLAM: Robust Localization and Large-Scale Mapping in Barren Terrain Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robots need to know their location to map of their surroundings but without global positioning data they need a map to identify their surroundings and estimate their...

  6. Incorporating Concept Mapping in Project-Based Learning: Lessons from Watershed Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, James; Landenberger, Rick; Warner, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    The concept map tool set forth by Novak and colleagues is underutilized in education. A meta-analysis has encouraged teachers to make extensive use of concept mapping, and researchers have advocated computer-based concept mapping applications that exploit hyperlink technology. Through an NSF sponsored geosciences education grant, middle and…

  7. Comparison of resting {beta}-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and thallium-201 tomography using quantitative polar maps in patients with unstable angina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Akio; Takada, Yasuo; Nagasaka, Makoto; Kato, Rinya; Watanabe, Toshiya; Shimokata, Keiko; Yasui, Shoji [Nagoya National Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    We compared resting {beta}-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) tomography with resting thallium-201 tomography in 28 patients with unstable angina. Tracer distribution was displayed on a polar map and compared with a normal standard deviation map obtained from a group of 12 normal subjects. The extent scores and severity scores obtained by BMIPP were significantly greater than those obtained by thallium-201. Confirmation by coronary angiography revealed the sensitivity of the methods in identifying patients to be 89% for BMIPP and 54% for thallium-201. There were significant differences between BMIPP and thallium-201 in the sensitivities of detecting postischemic jeopardized myocardium in the area supplied by the right coronary artery (RCA; 53% vs 18%, p<0.05), left circumflex artery (LCX; 78% vs 39%, p<0.025) and all 3 vessels combined (71% vs 35%, p<0.001) but no significant differences in specificity (RCA: 82% vs 64%; LCX: 70% vs 90%; and total 3 vessels combined: 75% vs 79%). In conclusion, resting BMIPP tomography is more sensitive than resting thallium-201 tomography in detecting postischemic myocardial damage in patients with unstable angina. (author)

  8. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  9. Two Gonostomatid Ciliates from the Soil of Lombardia, Italy; including Note on the Soil Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Daizy; Kumar, Santosh; La Terza, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    Two gonostomatid ciliates, Gonostomum paronense n. sp. and G. strenuum, isolated from the soil sample of paddy field, Lombardia, Italy, were investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation. Gonostomum paronense n. sp. is mainly characterized by a tailed body, frontoventral cirri arranged in pairs, and presence of pretransverse and transverse cirri. Morphologically and morphometrically, the new species is similar to Gonostomum namibiense in having a tailed body and frontoventral cirral pairs; however, it differs mainly in the number of frontoventral cirral pairs (seven vs. three). Phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU rDNA sequences show that the new species is more closely related to G. namibiense than to G. strenuum, supporting the morphological classification based on the cirral pattern and the tailed body. However, due to the poor nodal support and absence of gene sequence of the type species Gonostomum, a more robust phylogeny of this group still remains unresolved. The biometric data of the Italian population of Gonostomum strenuum overlap with those from other known populations. Both species were collected from the industrial area of Parona, in the framework of the "Soil Mapping, Lombardia" project in which, for the first time in Italy, soil ciliates were used as bioindicators of soil quality. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  10. Predicting and mapping potential Whooping Crane stopover habitat to guide site selection for wind energy projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaire, J Amy; Kreakie, Betty J; Keitt, Timothy; Minor, Emily

    2014-04-01

    Migratory stopover habitats are often not part of planning for conservation or new development projects. We identified potential stopover habitats within an avian migratory flyway and demonstrated how this information can guide the site-selection process for new development. We used the random forests modeling approach to map the distribution of predicted stopover habitat for the Whooping Crane (Grus americana), an endangered species whose migratory flyway overlaps with an area where wind energy development is expected to become increasingly important. We then used this information to identify areas for potential wind power development in a U.S. state within the flyway (Nebraska) that minimize conflicts between Whooping Crane stopover habitat and the development of clean, renewable energy sources. Up to 54% of our study area was predicted to be unsuitable as Whooping Crane stopover habitat and could be considered relatively low risk for conflicts between Whooping Cranes and wind energy development. We suggest that this type of analysis be incorporated into the habitat conservation planning process in areas where incidental take permits are being considered for Whooping Cranes or other species of concern. Field surveys should always be conducted prior to construction to verify model predictions and understand baseline conditions. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. 3D Inversion of Induced Polarization Data From Borehole Measurements to Map Subsurface Contaminations of Tetrachloroethylene and Trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, V. A.; Sogade, J.; Minsley, B.; Lambert, M.; Coles, D.; Repert, P.; Morgan, F.; Rossabi, J.; Riha, B.

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to image contaminant plumes of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and Trichloroethylene (TCE) in a subsurface environment. PCE and TCE have been used in the metals fabrication industry since the start of the second word war and subsequently millions of tons of these chemicals have been released in to the environment. Once in the water supply these contaminants are difficult to remove and can be toxic at the part per billion level. Remediation at the source of many of these contaminated sites, in the form of vapour extraction, can effectively remove alot of the chemicals but without techniques to delineate the size and shape of the contaminated zone, or to monitor the effectiveness of the remediation effort, it is difficult to quantify the remediation success. Using complex resistivity methods it is possible to determine the spatial extent and concentration of these chemicals due to their effect on the pore space chemistry. Even at parts per billion the contaminantas can significantly alter the IP signature enabling detection. Data were collected from a site in South Carolina where these chemcals are known to have been released in large quantities from the 1950's through to the 1980's. Induced Polarization data were measured in a multi-borehole environment to ensure good data coverage. Data is inverted using a 3D finite difference bi-conjugate gradient method and correlated to ground truth boreholes within the region of interest.

  12. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Land-Water-Ecosystem Quality in Polar and Mountainous Regions: A New Interregional Project (INT5153)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercon, Gerd; Gerardo-Abaya, Jane; Mavlyudov, Bulat

    2014-01-01

    The INT5153 project aims to improve the understanding of the impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems on both a local and global scale for their better management and conservation. Seven core and five related benchmark sites have been selected from different global regions for specific assessments of the impact of climate change with the following expected outcomes and outputs: Outcomes: • Improved understanding of the impact of climate change on the cryosphere in polar and mountainous ecosystems and its effects on landwater- ecosystem quality at both local and global scales. • Recommendations for improvement of regional policies for soil and agricultural water management, conservation, and environmental protection in polar and mountainous regions. Outputs: • Specific strategies to minimize the adverse effects of, and adapt to, reduced seasonal snow and glacier covered areas on land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountain regions across the world. • Enhanced interregional network of laboratories and institutions competent in the assessment of climate change impacts on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality, using isotopic and nuclear techniques. • Increased number of young scientists trained in the use of isotope and nuclear techniques to assess the impact of climate change on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountainous ecosystems. • Platform/database with global access for continuing work and monitoring of impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems at local and global scales, as well as for communicating findings to policy makers and communities. • Improved understanding of the effects of climate change disseminated through appropriate publications, policy briefs, and through a dedicated internet platform. • Methodologies and protocols for investigations in specific ecosystems and conservation/adaptation measures for agriculture areas

  13. Specific issues, exact locations: case study of a community mapping project to improve safety in a disadvantaged community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qummouh, Rana; Rose, Vanessa; Hall, Pat

    2012-12-01

    Safety is a health issue and a significant concern in disadvantaged communities. This paper describes an example of community-initiated action to address perceptions of fear and safety in a suburb in south-west Sydney which led to the development of a local, community-driven research project. As a first step in developing community capacity to take action on issues of safety, a joint resident-agency group implemented a community safety mapping project to identify the extent of safety issues in the community and their exact geographical location. Two aerial maps of the suburb, measuring one metre by two metres, were placed on display at different locations for four months. Residents used coloured stickers to identify specific issues and exact locations where crime and safety were a concern. Residents identified 294 specific safety issues in the suburb, 41.9% (n=123) associated with public infrastructure, such as poor lighting and pathways, and 31.9% (n=94) associated with drug-related issues such as drug activity and discarded syringes. Good health promotion practice reflects community need. In a very practical sense, this project responded to community calls for action by mapping resident knowledge on specific safety issues and exact locations and presenting these maps to local decision makers for further action.

  14. The Irma-sponge Project Frhymap: Flood Risk and Hydrological Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, L.; Pfister, L.

    In the context of both increasing socio-economic developments in floodplains and the recent heavy floodings that have occurred in the Rhine and Meuse basins, the need for reliable hydro-climatological data, easily transposable hydrological and hydraulic models, as well as risk management tools has increased crucially. In the FRHYMAP project, some of these issues were addressed within a common mesoscale experimen- tal basin: the Alzette river basin, located in the Grand-duchy of Luxembourg. The various aspects concerning flooding events, reaching from the hydro-climatological analysis of field data to the risk assessment of socio-economic impacts, taking into account past and future climate and landuse changes were analysed by the six partici- pating research institutes (CREBS, L; CEREG, F; DLR, D; EPFL, CH; UB, D; VUB, B). Hydro-climatological data analysis over the past five decades has shown that in the study area, the increase in westerly and south-westerly atmospheric circulation patterns induced higher winter rainfall totals, leading to more frequent groundwater resurgences and ultimately also to higher daily maximum streamflow of the Alzette. The thus increased flood hazard has nonetheless a certain spatial variability, closely linked to the rainfall distribution patterns, which are strongly depending on the topo- graphical characteristics of the study area. Although the overall regime of the Alzette is more dependent on climate fluctuations, land use changes (mining activities, urbani- sation) had a marked effect on the rainfall-runoff relationship in some sub-basins over the last decades. By linking model parameters to physiographical basin characteris- tics, regionalised and thus easily transposable hydrological models were developed. Within a study area with very little long-term observation series, this technique, com- bined with the use of hydraulic models, allowed to define hydrological hazard pro- ducing and hydrological risk exposed areas. The

  15. Application of Open Source Software by the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, P.; Goodale, C. E.; Bui, B.; Chang, G.; Kim, R. M.; Law, E.; Malhotra, S.; Rodriguez, L.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Crichton, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP), led by the Marshall Space Flight center (MSFC), is responsible for the development of an information system to support lunar exploration, decision analysis, and release of lunar data to the public. The data available through the lunar portal is predominantly derived from present lunar missions (e.g., the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)) and from historical missions (e.g., Apollo). This project has created a gold source of data, models, and tools for lunar explorers to exercise and incorporate into their activities. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we focused on engineering and building the infrastructure to support cataloging, archiving, accessing, and delivery of lunar data. We decided to use a RESTful service-oriented architecture to enable us to abstract from the underlying technology choices and focus on interfaces to be used internally and externally. This decision allowed us to leverage several open source software components and integrate them by either writing a thin REST service layer or relying on the API they provided; the approach chosen was dependent on the targeted consumer of a given interface. We will discuss our varying experience using open source products; namely Apache OODT, Oracle Berkley DB XML, Apache Solr, and Oracle OpenSSO (now named OpenAM). Apache OODT, developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and recently migrated over to Apache, provided the means for ingestion and cataloguing of products within the infrastructure. Its usage was based upon team experience with the project and past benefit received on other projects internal and external to JPL. Berkeley DB XML, distributed by Oracle for both commercial and open source use, was the storage technology chosen for our metadata. This decision was in part based on our use Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata, which is expressed in XML, and the desire to keep it in its native form and exploit other technologies built on

  16. High Resolution Mineral Mapping of the Oman Drilling Project Cores with Imaging Spectroscopy: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, R. N.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Kelemen, P. B.; Manning, C. E.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Harris, M.; Michibayashi, K.; Takazawa, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Oman Drilling Project provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the formation and alteration of oceanic crust and peridotite. Key to answering the main questions of the project are a characterization of the primary and secondary minerals present within the drill core and their spatial relationships. To that end, we used the Caltech imaging spectrometer system to scan the entire 1.5-km archive half of the core from all four gabbro and listvenite boreholes (GT1A, GT2A, GT3A, and BT1B) at 250 µm/pixel aboard the JAMSTEC Drilling Vessel Chikyu during the ChikyuOman core description campaign. The instrument measures the visible and shortwave infrared reflectance spectra of the rocks as a function of wavelength from 0.4 to 2.6 µm. This wavelength range is sensitive to many mineral groups, including hydrated minerals (phyllosilicates, zeolites, amorphous silica polytypes), carbonates, sulfates, and transition metals, most commonly iron-bearing mineralogies. To complete the measurements, the core was illuminated with a halogen light source and moved below the spectrometer at 1 cm/s by the Chikyu's Geotek track. Data are corrected and processed to reflectance using measurements of dark current and a spectralon calibration panel. The data provide a unique view of the mineralogy at high spatial resolution. Analysis of the images for complete downhole trends is ongoing. Thus far, a variety of minerals have been identified within their petrologic contexts, including but not limited to magnesite, dolomite, calcite, quartz (through an Si-OH absorption due to minor H2O), serpentine, chlorite, epidote, zeolites, mica (fuchsite), kaolinite, prehnite, gypsum, amphibole, and iron oxides. Further analysis will likely identify more minerals. Results include rapidly distinguishing the cations present within carbonate minerals and identifying minerals of volumetrically-low abundance within the matrix and veins of core samples. This technique, for example, accurately identifies

  17. Demonstration of Interferometric SAR Onboard Processing for Planetary Mapping Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This task will enable future planetary mapping missions through a technique called interferometric synthetic aperture radar, using microwave and triangulation to...

  18. The Earth's Geocorona and Geotail as Observed by LRO's Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, R.; Retherford, K. D.; Stern, S. A.; Egan, A. F.; Miles, P. F.; Versteeg, M.; Davis, M.; Parker, J.; Kaufmann, D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Steffl, A. J.; Mukherjee, J.; Karnes, P.; Feldman, P. D.; Hurley, D.; Pryor, W. R.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    We present new observations of Earth's geocorona and geotail, as observed by the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) imaging ultraviolet spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. These data were obtained serendipitously during campaigns to observe the lunar atmosphere during June 2011 and December 2011. In both cases, the Earth was approximately half full (last quarter in June 2011, first quarter in December 2011), so that the sub-solar and anti-solar regions were well observed. The observations were acquired over the course of several hours, with the Earth passing over the LAMP slit once per LRO-orbit (period ~113 minutes), with a shift along the length of the LAMP slit (6 degrees long) in the Earth-Sun direction of ~1 degree/orbit (periodic data downlinks interrupt some orbits). The spatial resolution is 0.3 degrees (~0.3 RE at Earth, as seen from the Moon). In addition to spectral data over LAMP's 57-196 nm bandpass (which includes Earth FUV dayglow emissions from, e.g., He 58.4 nm, O 130.4 nm, O 135.6 nm, and reflected sunlight), the total analog count rate monitored by LAMP is dominated by the geocoronal and interplanetary Lyα signal, and can thus be used to directly estimate geocoronal and geotail brightnesses out to ~10 RE. We will present comparisons with model calculations using the lyao_rt code of Bishop [J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 63, 331, 2001]. These observations demonstrate the utility of heliophysics observations from the Moon.

  19. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: RAPID C iv BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Vivek, M.; Dawson, K. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Ak, N. Filiz [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Chen, Yuguang [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, B. M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Green, Paul J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jiang, Linhua [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); McGreer, Ian D. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Pâris, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Tao, Charling [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS /IN2P3, 163, avenue de Luminy, Case 902, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: grier@psu.edu [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2015-06-10

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity C iv broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4σ) variability in the equivalent width (EW) of the broad (∼4000 km s{sup −1} wide) C iv trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (∼29 hr), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The EW varied by ∼10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability places a lower limit on the density of the absorbing gas of n{sub e} ≳ 3.9 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}. The broad absorption line variability characteristics of this quasar are consistent with those observed in previous studies of quasars, indicating that such short-term variability may in fact be common and thus can be used to learn about outflow characteristics and contributions to quasar/host-galaxy feedback scenarios.

  20. Terrain Correction on the moving equal area cylindrical map projection of the surface of a reference ellipsoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A.; Safari, A.; Grafarend, E.

    2003-04-01

    An operational algorithm for computing the ellipsoidal terrain correction based on application of closed form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates in the cylindrical equal area map projected surface of a reference ellipsoid has been developed. As the first step the mapping of the points on the surface of a reference ellipsoid onto the cylindrical equal area map projection of a cylinder tangent to a point on the surface of reference ellipsoid closely studied and the map projection formulas are computed. Ellipsoidal mass elements with various sizes on the surface of the reference ellipsoid is considered and the gravitational potential and the vector of gravitational intensity of these mass elements has been computed via the solution of Newton integral in terms of ellipsoidal coordinates. The geographical cross section areas of the selected ellipsoidal mass elements are transferred into cylindrical equal area map projection and based on the transformed area elements Cartesian mass elements with the same height as that of the ellipsoidal mass elements are constructed. Using the close form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates the potential of the Cartesian mass elements are computed and compared with the same results based on the application of the ellipsoidal Newton integral over the ellipsoidal mass elements. The results of the numerical computations show that difference between computed gravitational potential of the ellipsoidal mass elements and Cartesian mass element in the cylindrical equal area map projection is of the order of 1.6 × 10-8m^2/s^2 for a mass element with the cross section size of 10 km × 10 km and the height of 1000 m. For a 1 km × 1 km mass element with the same height, this difference is less than 1.5 × 10-4 m^2}/s^2. The results of the numerical computations indicate that a new method for computing the terrain correction based on the closed form solution of the Newton integral in

  1. The shrinking projection method for solving generalized equilibrium problems and common fixed points for asymptotically quasi-ϕ-nonexpansive mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saewan Siwaporn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we introduce a new hybrid projection iterative scheme based on the shrinking projection method for finding a common element of the set of solutions of the generalized mixed equilibrium problems and the set of common fixed points for a pair of asymptotically quasi-ϕ-nonexpansive mappings in Banach spaces and set of variational inequalities for an α-inverse strongly monotone mapping. The results obtained in this article improve and extend the recent ones announced by Matsushita and Takahashi (Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2004(1:37-47, 2004, Qin et al. (Appl. Math. Comput. 215:3874-3883, 2010, Chang et al. (Nonlinear Anal. 73:2260-2270, 2010, Kamraksa and Wangkeeree (J. Nonlinear Anal. Optim.: Theory Appl. 1(1:55-69, 2010 and many others. AMS Subject Classification: 47H05, 47H09, 47J25, 65J15.

  2. Integrating a Digital Concept Mapping into a PPT Slide Writing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ai Chun; Yang, Pei Yi

    2013-01-01

    Carried out during a semester-long EFL (English as a foreign language) drama class, this research aimed to scrutinize the effects of digital concept mapping via LMS on English majors' (N = 38) PowerPoint (PPT) slide writing skills in Taiwan. Students were instructed to follow the concept mapping agenda via university learning management system…

  3. Polarization Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Fressengeas, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The physics of polarization optics *Polarized light propagation *Partially polarized light; DEA; After a brief introduction to polarization optics, this lecture reviews the basic formalisms for dealing with it: Jones Calculus for totally polarized light and Stokes parameters associated to Mueller Calculus for partially polarized light.

  4. Retrospective Conversion of Solar Data Printed in "Synoptic Maps of the Solar Chromosphere": A Scientific and Librarianship Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenceau, A.; Aboudarham, J.; Renié, C.

    2015-04-01

    Between 1928 and 2003, the Observatoire de Paris published solar activity maps and their corresponding data tables, first in the Annals of the Meudon Observatory, then in the Synoptic Maps of the Solar Chromosphere. These maps represent the main solar structures in a single view and spread out on a complete Carrington rotation as well as tables of associated data, containing various information on these structures such as positions, length, morphological characteristics, and behavior. Since 2003, these maps and data tables have not been released in print, as they are only published on the online BASS2000 database, the solar database maintained by LESIA (Laboratory for space studies and astrophysical instruments). In order to make the first 80 years of observations which were available only in paper accessible and usable, the LESIA and the Library of the Observatory have started a project to digitize the publications, enter the data with the assistance of a specialized company, and then migrate the files obtained in BASS2000 and in the Heliophysics Features Catalog created in the framework of the European project HELIO.

  5. Earthquake Scenarios Based Upon the Data and Methodologies of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukstales, K. S.; Petersen, M. D.; Frankel, A. D.; Harmsen, S. C.; Wald, D. J.; Quitoriano, V. R.; Haller, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project (NSHMP) utilizes a database of over 500 faults across the conterminous United States to constrain earthquake source models for probabilistic seismic hazard maps. Additionally, the fault database is now being used to produce a suite of deterministic ground motions for earthquake scenarios that are based on the same fault source parameters and empirical ground motion prediction equations used for the probabilistic hazard maps. Unlike the calculated hazard map ground motions, local soil amplification is applied to the scenario calculations based on the best available Vs30 (average shear-wave velocity down to 30 meters) mapping, or in some cases using topographic slope as a proxy. Systematic outputs include all standard USGS ShakeMap products, including GIS, KML, XML, and HAZUS input files. These data are available from the ShakeMap web pages with a searchable archive. The scenarios are being produced within the framework of a geographic information system (GIS) so that alternative scenarios can readily be produced by altering fault source parameters, Vs30 soil amplification, as well as the weighting of ground motion prediction equations used in the calculations. The alternative scenarios can then be used for sensitivity analysis studies to better characterize uncertainty in the source model and convey this information to decision makers. By providing a comprehensive collection of earthquake scenarios based upon the established data and methods of the USGS NSHMP, we hope to provide a well-documented source of data which can be used for visualization, planning, mitigation, loss estimation, and research purposes.

  6. Polar map or novel three-dimensional display technique for the improved detection of inferior wall myocardial infarction using tomographic radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, M.J.; Cross, S.; Norton, M.Y.; Lomax, A.; Jennings, K.; Walton, S.

    1994-01-01

    Tomographic radionuclide ventriculography has the potential to be a significant improvement over conventional planar imaging. Although tomographic imaging can now be performed with relative ease, it is little used. This is most probably due to a perceived imbalance between potential clinical benefit and the extra complications of imaging. We investigated this matter by examining a series of 30 patients with isolated inferior or anterior myocardial infarction, identified by cardiac catheterization. Using either radionuclide imaging method, a significant wall motion abnormality was defined as matching (and appropriately located) phase and amplitude values outwith of two standard deviations from control values. These values were obtained from a series of 25 controls and represent construction values used to create a conventional polar map display. Overall detection rates for anterior myocardial infarction were 93 and 100% for planar and tomographic imaging, respectively (ns). For inferior myocardial infarction the rates were 7 and 93% respectively (p <0.001). Identical results were found using a novel three-dimensional method of displaying wall motion abnormalities. Tomography is therefore superior to planar imaging for the detection of inferior myocardial infarction but similar to planar imaging for the detection of anterior myocardial infarction. (Author)

  7. The World Spatiotemporal Analytics and Mapping Project (WSTAMP): Discovering, Exploring, and Mapping Spatiotemporal Patterns Across Heterogenous Space-Time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, A.; Stewart, R.; Held, E.; Piburn, J.; Allen, M. R.; McManamay, R.; Sanyal, J.; Sorokine, A.; Bhaduri, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Spatiotemporal (ST) analytics applied to major spatio-temporal data sources from major vendors such as USGS, NOAA, World Bank and World Health Organization have tremendous value in shedding light on the evolution of physical, cultural, and geopolitical landscapes on a local and global level. Especially powerful is the integration of these physical and cultural datasets across multiple and disparate formats, facilitating new interdisciplinary analytics and insights. Realizing this potential first requires an ST data model that addresses challenges in properly merging data from multiple authors, with evolving ontological perspectives, semantical differences, changing attributes, and content that is textual, numeric, categorical, and hierarchical. Equally challenging is the development of analytical and visualization approaches that provide a serious exploration of this integrated data while remaining accessible to practitioners with varied backgrounds. The WSTAMP project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has yielded two major results in addressing these challenges: 1) development of the WSTAMP database, a significant advance in ST data modeling that integrates 16000+ attributes covering 200+ countries for over 50 years from over 30 major sources and 2) a novel online ST exploratory and analysis tool providing an array of modern statistical and visualization techniques for analyzing these data temporally, spatially, and spatiotemporally under a standard analytic workflow. We report on these advances, provide an illustrative case study, and inform how others may freely access the tool.

  8. Ellipsoidal terrain correction based on multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection of the reference ellipsoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A. A.; Safari, A.

    2004-09-01

    An operational algorithm for computation of terrain correction (or local gravity field modeling) based on application of closed-form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates in multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection of the reference ellipsoid is presented. Multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection of the reference ellipsoid has been derived and is described in detail for the first time. Ellipsoidal mass elements with various sizes on the surface of the reference ellipsoid are selected and the gravitational potential and vector of gravitational intensity (i.e. gravitational acceleration) of the mass elements are computed via numerical solution of the Newton integral in terms of geodetic coordinates {λ,ϕ,h}. Four base- edge points of the ellipsoidal mass elements are transformed into a multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection surface to build Cartesian mass elements by associating the height of the corresponding ellipsoidal mass elements to the transformed area elements. Using the closed-form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates, the gravitational potential and vector of gravitational intensity of the transformed Cartesian mass elements are computed and compared with those of the numerical solution of the Newton integral for the ellipsoidal mass elements in terms of geodetic coordinates. Numerical tests indicate that the difference between the two computations, i.e. numerical solution of the Newton integral for ellipsoidal mass elements in terms of geodetic coordinates and closed-form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates, in a multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection, is less than 1.6×10-8 m2/s2 for a mass element with a cross section area of 10×10 m and a height of 10,000 m. For a mass element with a cross section area of 1×1 km and a height of 10,000 m the difference is less than 1.5×10-4m2/s2. Since 1.5× 10-4 m2/s2 is equivalent to 1.5×10-5m in the vertical

  9. Automated georeference of the 1: 20,000 Romanian maps under Lambert-Cholesky (1916-1959) projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, I.; Balint, C.; Craciunescu, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Ovejanu, I.; Bartos-Elekes, Zs.

    2009-04-01

    Before the 1918 Union, the Romanian territories were subject of several dominations, for which reason the cartographic data base for each Romanian province was different from an area to another. Starting from the second half of the 19th century, Valachia, Moldavia and Dobrogea (Dacia Pontica or Scitia Minor) field mapping was made, implicitly cartographic representations, different as structure. The projection systems used, the chosen geoid, the nomenclature and the distribution of the map pages were not uniform. For an example, the Bessel ellipsoid and the Cassini cross cylindrical projection were used especially to the eastern side of the Zimnicea central meridian (23 degree east from Paris), while to its western side the Bonne conic equivalent projection was used, as defined on the Clarke ellipsoid (Năstase, 1975, pages 86-87). In the other Romanian provinces, such as Transylvania, Romanian Banat, Bessarabia (Moldavia Republic) and Southern Bucovina, the major part of the cartographic products (surface contour maps) were made as polyhedral projections. During the World War I, when artillery was a redoubtable weapon a necessary idea was born to articulate an unitary cartographic projection concerning the entire Romanian territory, which should respond to the principle of conformity. Between 1916-1917, pursuant to the above argumented measure, a new datum/location surface, a new projection system and a new nomenclature were introduced. The Lambert projection system was used as modified by the French land surveyor, the mathematician and officer Andre Louis Cholensky. He was born in 1875 in Mont Guyon and passed away on the battle field in Northern France in the month of August 1918. During September 1916 up to February 1918, following the Franco-Romanian military convention, he was a Commander of the Geographic Department of the Romanian Army (Brezinsky-Gross-Cholensky, 1996). The calculations for passing from the various projections (as previously mentioned

  10. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project WA1406: OLYMPIA, WA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  11. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project WA1405: STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA, WA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  12. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project OR1210: CAPE PERPETUA TO CLATSOP SPIT, OR.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  13. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project FL1421: ST JOHNS RIVER, FL.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  14. Tube Map Interface for a Coupled Scheduling and Diagnostics System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the concept of a tube map display as a means to effectively integrate schedule timeline information and fault diagnosis data into a single high value...

  15. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project FL1414: VENICE INLET - ICW, FL.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  16. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project FL1415: APALACHICOLA RIVER (MOUTH) TO SAUL CREEK, FL.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  17. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: Coral Reef Habitat Mapping Projects in 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps are a critical cornerstone of coral reef management, research and planning, with direct links to management needs in a number of forms. To accurately...

  18. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project WA1002: PUDGET SOUND - WHIDBEY ISLAND, WA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  19. Spectral induced polarization as a tool to map subsurface biogeochemical hot spots: a first laboratory evaluation in the Fe-S system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordsiek, Sven; Gilfedder, Ben; Frei, Sven

    2017-04-01

    Zones of intense biogeochemical reactivity (hot spots) arise in the saturated subsurface at the interface between regions with oxidizing and reducing conditions. Hot spots are both sinks and sources of different chemical compounds, thus they are of particular importance for element cycling in the subsurface. However, the investigation of hot spot structures is difficult, because they are not directly identifiable from the surface and can only be investigated by invasive methods in the subsurface. Additionally, they often form in sensitive wetland ecosystems where only non-destructive measurements are applicable to avoid significant degradation of these sensitive environments. Under these circumstances, geophysical methods may provide useful tools to identify biogeochemically active regions. One of the most important biogeochemical reactions in wetlands is the reduction of sulphate and formation and accumulation of FexSy minerals (where x and y delineate mineral stoichiometry). These reactions only occur in specific hot spots where specific chemical and microbial conditions are met. Within a research project concerning biogeochemical transformations and turnover in wetlands, we investigate the applicability of the geoelectrical method of spectral induced polarization (SIP) to locate and monitor regions containing polarizing FexSy particles as indicator for biogeochemical hot spots. After developing and testing a sample holder and a set of non-polarizing electrodes for laboratory SIP measurements, we performed experiments on natural soil samples taken from the hyporheic zone of a local river channel. The collected material originates from a location known for biogeochemical activity. The sample contains a high percentage of dark grayish/black sediment interpreted as FexSy, and possibly pyrite (FeS2). The material was homogenized and split into four samples. The FexSy concentration was adjusted to three different levels by oxidation using H2O2. For all samples we

  20. Construction of Rational Maps on the Projective Line with Given Dynamical Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    Gröbner Basis of the Ideal 35 B Proof of Corollary without Transformation 36 3 C SageMath Construction Function for a Quadratic Rational Map 39 D...f2q3 − f3q3 − pq3 + q4)−1 = p Thus p, q form a two-cycle for f(x). 39 C. SageMath Construction Function for a Quadratic Rational Map def

  1. All equal-area map projections are created equal, but some are more equal than others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usery, E.L.; Seong, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution regional and global raster databases are currently being generated for a variety of environmental and scientific modeling applications. The projection of these data from geographic coordinates to a plane coordinate system is subject to significant areal error. Sources of error include users selecting an inappropriate projection or incorrect parameters for a given projection, algorithmic errors in commercial geographic information system (GIS) software, and errors resulting from the projection of data in the raster format. To assess the latter type of errors, the accuracy of raster projection was analyzed by two methods. First, a set of 12 one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals placed at various latitudes was projected at several raster resolutions and compared to the projection of a vector representation of the same quadrilaterals. Second, several different raster resolutions of land cover data for Asia were projected and the total areas of 21 land cover categories were tabulated and compared. While equal-area projections are designed to specifically preserve area, the comparison of the results of the one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals with the common equal area projections (e.g., the Mollweide) indicates a considerable variance in the one-degree area after projection. Similarly, the empirical comparison of land cover areas for Asia among various projections shows that total areas of land cover vary with projection type, raster resolution, and latitude. No single projection is best for all resolutions and all latitudes. While any of the equal-area projections tested are reasonably accurate for most applications with resolutions of eight-kilometer pixels or smaller, significant variances in accuracies appear at larger pixel sizes.

  2. A regional land use survey based on remote sensing and other data: A report on a LANDSAT and computer mapping project, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nez, G. (Principal Investigator); Mutter, D.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The project mapped land use/cover classifications from LANDSAT computer compatible tape data and combined those results with other multisource data via computer mapping/compositing techniques to analyze various land use planning/natural resource management problems. Data were analyzed on 1:24,000 scale maps at 1.1 acre resolution. LANDSAT analysis software and linkages with other computer mapping software were developed. Significant results were also achieved in training, communication, and identification of needs for developing the LANDSAT/computer mapping technologies into operational tools for use by decision makers.

  3. Implementation of forest cover and carbon mapping in the Greater Mekong subregion and Malaysia project - A case study of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pungkul, S.; Suraswasdi, C.; Phonekeo, V.

    2014-02-01

    The Great Mekong Subregion (GMS) contains one of the world's largest tropical forests and plays a vital role in sustainable development and provides a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, the forest in this Subregion is experiencing deforestation rates at high level due to human activities. The reduction of the forest area has negative influence to the environmental and natural resources issues, particularly, more severe disasters have occurred due to global warming and the release of the greenhouse gases. Therefore, in order to conduct forest management in the Subregion efficiently, the Forest Cover and Carbon Mapping in Greater Mekong Subregion and Malaysia project was initialized by the Asia-Pacific Network for Sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation (APFNet) with the collaboration of various research institutions including Institute of Forest Resource Information Technique (IFRIT), Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF) and the countries in Sub region and Malaysia comprises of Cambodia, the People's Republic of China (Yunnan province and Guangxi province), Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The main target of the project is to apply the intensive use of recent satellite remote sensing technology, establishing regional forest cover maps, documenting forest change processes and estimating carbon storage in the GMS and Malaysia. In this paper, the authors present the implementation of the project in Thailand and demonstrate the result of forest cover mapping in the whole country in 2005 and 2010. The result of the project will contribute towards developing efficient tools to support decision makers to clearly understand the dynamic change of the forest cover which could benefit sustainable forest resource management in Thailand and the whole Subregion.

  4. What's a billion cubic meters among friends: The impacts of quantile mapping bias correction on climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsugli, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Consider two views of climate change, the percent change in precipitation from the GCMs and the percent change from the same GCMs as bias-corrected using quantile mapping. There is emerging evidence that quantile mapping, a commonly used bias correction method, can alter the projections of future precipitation in a way that leads to a systematicaly wetter future for the Colorado River than is indicated by the percent-changes in the GCMs. The difference, about 3% in precipitation, when put through hydrology models, amounts to roughly a 6% shift in the average flows at Lees Ferry, or a little over a billion cubic meters (a million acre feet). On the one hand, the quantile mapping does not add any new physics to the GCM water budget, so the shifts in the mean from could be viewed as an unintended statistical artifact. On the other, what is sacrosanct about the percent change in the (biased) GCM water budget as an indicator of the future climate? We investigate the reasons that this shift arises by taking a closer look at quantile mapping in theory and for idealized (Gamma and Weibull) probability distributions. Heuristics are developed to understand when the shift is likely to arise for more realistic distributions, and to connect the idealized statistical examples to hypothetical water budgets.

  5. A semester-long soil mapping project for an undergraduate pedology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David J.

    2015-04-01

    Most students taking a pedology course will never work as soil mappers. But many will use soil maps at some point in their careers. At Montana State University, students spent 3 "lab" hours a week, complementing two lectures a week, in the field learning how to study soils literally from the ground up. The only prerequisites for enrollment were completion of an introductory soil science class and 3rd year standing at the university. The area to be mapped, just a km from campus, included a steep mountain backslope, and a complex footslope-toeslope area with diverse soils. Students were divided into teams of 3-4, with approximately 40 students altogether split over two sections that overlapped in the field by one hour. In the first lab session, groups completed a very basic description of just one soil profile. In subsequent weeks, they rotated through multiple pits excavated in a small area, and expanded their soil profile descriptions and interpretations. As students developed proficiency, they were assigned more dispersed locations to study, working for the most part independently as I hiked between pits. Throughout this process, every pit was geolocated using a GPS unit, and every profile description was copied and retained in a designated class file. Student groups delineated map units using stereo air photography, then used these delineations to guide the selection of their final locations to describe. At the end of the course, groups used all of the combined and georeferenced profile descriptions to construct a soil map of the study area complete with map unit descriptions. Most students struggled to make sense of the substantial variability within their map units, but through this struggle -- and their semester of field work -- they gained an appreciation for the value and limitations of a soil map that could not be obtained from even the most entertaining lecture. Both the class and particularly the field sessions received consistently high student reviews

  6. A Project to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forests in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Sader, Steven; Smoot, James

    2012-01-01

    Cypress swamp forests of Louisiana offer many important ecological and economic benefits: wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, water quality, and recreation. Such forests are also threatened by multiple factors: subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, hurricanes, insect and nutria damage, timber harvesting, and land use conversion. Unfortunately, there are many information gaps regarding the type, location, extent, and condition of these forests. Better more up to date swamp forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest conservation and restoration work (e.g., through the Coastal Forest Conservation Initiative or CFCI). In response, a collaborative project was initiated to develop, test and demonstrate cypress swamp forest mapping products, using NASA supported Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data. Research Objectives are: Develop, test, and demonstrate use of Landsat and ASTER data for computing new cypress forest classification products and Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data for detecting and monitoring swamp forest change

  7. Consumers' perceptions toward 3 different fermented dairy products: Insights from focus groups, word association, and projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmerino, Erick A; Ferraz, Juliana P; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Pinto, Letícia P F; Freitas, Mônica Q; Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2017-11-01

    Yogurts, fermented milk beverages, and fermented milks have great similarity and are widely accepted by Brazilian population, but the factors that influence their choice and consumption are unknown. In this sense, the present study aimed to identify the main aspects involved in consumers' perception of 3 different products, comparing the findings by using the 2 fast qualitative methods, word association and projective mapping, and a standard method, focus group. The tasks were performed by different participants through graphic stimuli (word association and projective mapping) and focus interviews (focus group). Results showed that all the 3 methodologies identified numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the consumer choices regarding fermented dairy products. Major dimensions were closely related to the sensory aspects, emotional factors, perception of benefits, and composition, among others. It is noteworthy that the stimuli related to fermented milk beverages evoked rejecting responses, possibly due to the dissociation between information and consumers' expectation. Although minor differences were observed between the number and type of dimensions that were obtained, similar conclusions can be drawn from all 3 sensory methods, which shows the relevance of qualitative and projective methods for investigation of consumers' perception. These findings can help dairy companies to provide subsidies and guidelines for the reformulation of their products, marketing strategies, and improvement in the communication between producers and consumers from different fermented dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting and Mapping Potential Whooping Crane Stopover Habitat to Guide Site Selection for Wind Energy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migration is one of the most poorly understood components of a bird’s life cycle. For that reason, migratory stopover habitats are often not part of conservation planning and may be overlooked when planning new development projects. This project highlights and addresses an overl...

  9. Creating a Road Map for 21st Century Geography Education: Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Daniel C.; Wertheim, Jill A.; Schell, Emily M.; Shavelson, Richard; Bednarz, Sarah; Heffron, Susan; Roth, Kathy; Dobson, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The National Geographic Society, the Association of American Geographers, the American Geographical Society, and the National Council for Geographic Education partnered to outline a "road map" for long-term strategies to improve K-12 geography education. The partner organizations assembled three committees to create synthesis reports, each of…

  10. The SAURON project - VI. Line strength maps of 48 elliptical and lenticular galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Emsellem, Eric; Bacon, R.; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc

    2006-01-01

    We present absorption line strength maps of 48 representative elliptical and lenticular galaxies obtained as part of a survey of nearby galaxies using our custom-built integral-field spectrograph, SAURON, operating on the William Herschel Telescope. Using high-quality spectra, spatially binned to a

  11. Thinking Maps in Writing Project in English for Taiwanese Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu Shu

    2016-01-01

    Thinking Maps is a language of eight visual patterns, each based on a fundamental thought process, designed by Dr. David N. Hyerle. The visual patterns are based on cognitive skills and applied in all content areas. Not only are they used in different combinations for depth and complexity, but are also used by all members in the school community.…

  12. Descending projections arising from the parafascicular nucleus in rats: trajectory of fibers, projection pattern and mapping of terminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, G; Pianca, L; Tredici, G

    1999-01-01

    The organization of the descending projections from the intralaminar parafascicular nucleus was studied using biocytin as an anterograde tracer in rats. After biocytin injection into the lateral parafascicular nucleus, three bundles of fibers descending throughout the brainstem were seen. Terminal fields were found in several structures, for example the lateral geniculate nucleus, nucleus reticularis thalami, subthalamus, zona incerta, substantia nigra, red nucleus, periaqueductal gray, superior colliculus, reticular formation, raphe nuclei, pontine nuclei, trigeminal complex, and ventral horn of the spinal cord. Different types of labeled terminals (small terminal boutons, en passant varicosities, large claw-like terminals) were observed, particularly in the substantia nigra and reticular formation where the density of terminals was highest. The organization of these extensive descending connections to both motor and sensory structures does not allow functions to be conclusively attributed to the parafascicular nucleus neurons. Further investigations are required to resolve this question.

  13. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Hα and Hβ Reverberation Measurements from First-year Spectroscopy and Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, C. J.; Trump, J. R.; Shen, Yue; Horne, Keith; Kinemuchi, Karen; McGreer, Ian D.; Starkey, D. A.; Brandt, W. N.; Hall, P. B.; Kochanek, C. S.; Chen, Yuguang; Denney, K. D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Ho, L. C.; Homayouni, Y.; I-Hsiu Li, Jennifer; Pei, Liuyi; Peterson, B. M.; Petitjean, P.; Schneider, D. P.; Sun, Mouyuan; AlSayyad, Yusura; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Dawson, K. S.; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Gao, Yang; Hutchinson, Timothy A.; Jia, Siyao; Jiang, Linhua; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Paris, Isabelle; Ponder, Kara A.; Peters, Christina; Rogerson, Jesse; Simmons, Audrey; Smith, Robyn; Wang, Ran

    2017-12-01

    We present reverberation mapping results from the first year of combined spectroscopic and photometric observations of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project. We successfully recover reverberation time delays between the g+i band emission and the broad Hβ emission line for a total of 44 quasars, and for the broad Hα emission line in 18 quasars. Time delays are computed using the JAVELIN and CREAM software and the traditional interpolated cross-correlation function (ICCF): using well-defined criteria, we report measurements of 32 Hβ and 13 Hα lags with JAVELIN, 42 Hβ and 17 Hα lags with CREAM, and 16 Hβ and eight Hα lags with the ICCF. Lag values are generally consistent among the three methods, though we typically measure smaller uncertainties with JAVELIN and CREAM than with the ICCF, given the more physically motivated light curve interpolation and more robust statistical modeling of the former two methods. The median redshift of our Hβ-detected sample of quasars is 0.53, significantly higher than that of the previous reverberation mapping sample. We find that in most objects, the time delay of the Hα emission is consistent with or slightly longer than that of Hβ. We measure black hole masses using our measured time delays and line widths for these quasars. These black hole mass measurements are mostly consistent with expectations based on the local {M}{BH}-{σ }* relationship, and are also consistent with single-epoch black hole mass measurements. This work increases the current sample size of reverberation-mapped active galaxies by about two-thirds and represents the first large sample of reverberation mapping observations beyond the local universe (z < 0.3).

  14. Map of projects of energy efficiency and of renewable energies by the AFD and FFEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, Claude; Ries, Alain

    2008-04-01

    The AFD (the French Agency for Development) and the FFEM (French Fund for World Environment) are involved in cooperation and partnership projects for the development of energy efficiency, notably, but not only, in developing and emerging countries. This report proposes a review and an analysis of these projects in terms of concerned sectors, interveners, type of financing, and geographical area. It also comments and discusses the evolutions of financial commitments. In a second part, and based on these experiences, the report highlights the starting conditions for projects in energy efficiency. These conditions are distinguished in terms of national context, of economic conditions, of financing, of technical capacities, and of environmental and social factors

  15. Developing Dual Polarization Applications For 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) New Weather Radar: A Cooperative Project With The National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, W.P.; Peterson, W.A.; Carey, L.D.; Deierling, W.; McNamara, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar includes dual polarization capability, which has not been available to 45 WS previously. The 45 WS has teamed with NSSTC with funding from NASA Marshall Spaceflight Flight Center to improve their use of this new dual polarization capability when it is implemented operationally. The project goals include developing a temperature profile adaptive scan strategy, developing training materials, and developing forecast techniques and tools using dual polarization products. The temperature profile adaptive scan strategy will provide the scan angles that provide the optimal compromise between volume scan rate, vertical resolution, phenomena detection, data quality, and reduced cone-of-silence for the 45 WS mission. The mission requirements include outstanding detection of low level boundaries for thunderstorm prediction, excellent vertical resolution in the atmosphere electrification layer between 0 C and -20 C for lightning forecasting and Lightning Launch Commit Criteria evaluation, good detection of anvil clouds for Lightning Launch Commit Criteria evaluation, reduced cone-of-silence, fast volume scans, and many samples per pulse for good data quality. The training materials will emphasize the appropriate applications most important to the 45 WS mission. These include forecasting the onset and cessation of lightning, forecasting convective winds, and hopefully the inference of electrical fields in clouds. The training materials will focus on annotated radar imagery based on products available to the 45 WS. Other examples will include time sequenced radar products without annotation to simulate radar operations. This will reinforce the forecast concepts and also allow testing of the forecasters. The new dual polarization techniques and tools will focus on

  16. Region 9 Tribal Grant Program - Project Officer and Tribal Contact Information Map Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    This compilation of geospatial data is for the purpose of managing and communicating information about current EPA project officers, tribal contacts, and tribal grants, both internally and with external stakeholders.

  17. Outcome mapping as methodology to monitor and evaluate community informatics projects: A case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available , mission, objectives, action plans and guiding principles in a multi-faceted implementation environment. The vision formulated for the project from an executive perspective started with the concept of providing broadband connectivity for all people... in terms of what will happen at the end (Love to see). This progress can then be placed in the context of the remaining rungs of the ladder involving the outcome challenges for project partners, the mission statements and the vision at the top...

  18. Preliminary mapping of surficial geology of Midway Valley Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Swan, F.H.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M.; Gibson, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    The tectonics program for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada must evaluate the potential for surface faulting beneath the prospective surface facilities. To help meet this goal, Quaternary surficial mapping studies and photolineament analyses were conducted to provide data for evaluating the location, recency, and style of faulting with Midway Valley at the eastern base of Yucca Mountain, the preferred location of these surface facilities. This interim report presents the preliminary results of this work

  19. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for Teachers Genomic ... genetic mapping? Among the main goals of the Human Genome Project (HGP) was to develop new, better and cheaper ...

  20. 3D geological modelling and geothermal mapping - the first results of the transboundary Polish - Saxon project "TransGeoTherm"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozdrój, Wiesław; Kłonowski, Maciej; Mydłowski, Adam; Ziółkowska-Kozdrój, Małgorzata; Badura, Janusz; Przybylski, Bogusław; Russ, Dorota; Zawistowski, Karol; Domańska, Urszula; Karamański, Paweł; Krentz, Ottomar; Hofmann, Karina; Riedel, Peter; Reinhardt, Silke; Bretschneider, Mario

    2014-05-01

    of maps showing the geothermal conditions for the selected depths of 40, 70, 100 and 130 metres below the terrain will be elaborated and made available via the Internet. The prospective final users of the project results will be the local and regional authorities, inhabitants, engineers, etc. The project will provide information and data which are important for local and regional planning and development - on the one hand the maps will provide information on possibilities using locations for low temperature geothermal heating and cooling, while on the other hand they are needed to setup and dimension the geothermal installations in detail.

  1. Youth Engaged in Leadership & Learning Project, Redwood City. Report on Findings and Recommendations from the Pilot Project Formerly Known as the "Youth Mapping Project," November 2000-June 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities.

    This report summarizes preliminary findings from the Youth Engaged in Leadership and Learning project in Redwood City, California, which prepared and supported youth in becoming knowledgeable and active decision-makers in their schools and communities, and played a key role in developing youths' leadership skills and encouraging civic engagement…

  2. Dependence of black fragment azimuthal and projected angular distributions on polar angle in silicon-emulsion collisions at 4.5A GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fuhu; Abd Allah, Nabil N.; Singh, B.K.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental results of dependence of black fragment azimuth (φ) and projected angle (ψ) distributions on polar angle θ in silicon-emulsion collisions at 4.5A GeV/c (the Dubna momentum) are reported. There are two regions of enhancement around φ=±90 deg. for different θ ranges. These enhancements are due to directed (v 1 ) and elliptic (v 2 ) flows. The v 1 and v 2 dependence of values on θ shows that the directed flow is weak and the elliptic flow is strong in these collisions. A multisource ideal gas model is used to describe the experimental results of dependence. The Monte Carlo calculated results are approximately in agreement with the experimental data

  3. Using Intervention Mapping for a Needs Assessment on Preconception Care in Suriname: The Perisur Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.E.; Korfker, D.G.; Detmar, S.B.; Hindori, M.P.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Vondeling, H.; Hindori-Mohangoo, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Every year approximately 10,000 babies are born in Suriname of which an estimated 400 die in the perinatal period. The main purpose of the Perisur project is to improve perinatal outcomes and improve under-five and maternal health. This study focused on introducing preconception care in

  4. Probabilistic TSUnami Hazard MAPS for the NEAM Region: The TSUMAPS-NEAM Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Roberto; Babeyko, Andrey Y.; Hoechner, Andreas; Baptista, Maria Ana; Ben Abdallah, Samir; Canals, Miquel; El Mouraouah, Azelarab; Bonnevie Harbitz, Carl; Ibenbrahim, Aomar; Lastras, Galderic; Lorito, Stefano; Løvholt, Finn; Matias, Luis Manuel; Omira, Rachid; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Pekcan, Onur; Nmiri, Abdelwaheb; Selva, Jacopo; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Thio, Hong K.

    2017-04-01

    As global awareness of tsunami hazard and risk grows, the North-East Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and connected Seas (NEAM) region still lacks a thorough probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment. The TSUMAPS-NEAM project aims to fill this gap in the NEAM region by 1) producing the first region-wide long-term homogenous Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) from earthquake sources, and by 2) triggering a common tsunami risk management strategy. The specific objectives of the project are tackled by the following four consecutive actions: 1) Conduct a state-of-the-art, standardized, and updatable PTHA with full uncertainty treatment; 2) Review the entire process with international experts; 3) Produce the PTHA database, with documentation of the entire hazard assessment process; and 4) Publicize the results through an awareness raising and education phase, and a capacity building phase. This presentation will illustrate the project layout, summarize its current status of advancement including the firs preliminary release of the assessment, and outline its connections with similar initiatives in the international context. The TSUMAPS-NEAM Project (http://www.tsumaps-neam.eu/) is co-financed by the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism, Agreement Number: ECHO/SUB/2015/718568/PREV26.

  5. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Woodward National Topographic Map, Oklahoma, West Texas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Woodward National Topographic Map NJ14-11 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  6. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Winchester National topographic map, Kentucky. Southeast US project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Winchester National Topographic Map NJ16-9 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  7. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey, San Angelo National Topographic Map: Texas, West Texas Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Angelo National Topographic Map NH14-1 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included.

  8. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Evansville National Topographic Map, Indiana and Kentucky, southeast US Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Evansville National Topographic Map NJ16-8 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  9. Polarization of Hazes and Aurorae on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; McLean, Will; PACA_Jupiter

    2017-10-01

    Our solar system planets show a large variety of atmospheric polarization properties, from the thick, highly polarizing haze on Titan and the poles of Jupiter, Rayleigh scattering by molecules on Uranus and Neptune, to clouds in the equatorial region of Jupiter or on Venus. Changes in the clouds/thermal filed can be brought about by endogenic dynamical processes such merger of vortices; global, planetary scale upheavals, and external factors such as celestial collisions (such as D/Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact with Jupiter in 1994, etc.). Although the range of phase angles available from Earth for outer planets is restricted to a narrow range, limb polarization measurements provide constraints on the polarimetric properties. For example, at the equator, much of the observed reflected radiation is due to the presence of clouds and therefore, low polarization. Polar asymmetry exists between the two poles, while the planetary disk is unpolarized. Jupiter is known to exhibit a strong polar limb polarization and a low equatorial limb polarization due to the presence of haze particles and Rayleigh scattering at the poles. In contrast, at the equator, the concentration of particulates in the high atmosphere might change, changing the polarimetric signature and aurorae at both poles. The polarimetric maps, in conjunction with thermal maps and albedo maps, can provide constraints on modeling efforts to understand the nature of the aerosols/hazes in Jovian atmosphere. With Jupiter experiencing morphological changes at many latitudes, we have initiated a polarimetric observing campaign of Jupiter, in conjunction with The PACA Project. With NASA/Juno mission in a 53-day orbit around Jupiter, and recent outbreaks in the atmosphere, changes in the polarimetric signature will provide insight to the changes occurring in the atmosphere. Some of our observations are acquired by a team of professional/amateur planetary imagers astronomers based in the U.K., Australia and Europe. France

  10. ACCURATE POLARIZATION CALIBRATION AT 800 MHz WITH THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Kuo, Cheng-Yu [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astro-Math Building, AS/NTU, 1 Roosevelt Road Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Masui, Kiyoshi Wesley [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Oppermann, Niels; Pen, Ue-Li [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada); Peterson, Jeffrey B., E-mail: ywliao@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Physics, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh PA 15213 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Polarization leakage of foreground synchrotron emission is a critical issue in H i intensity mapping experiments. While the sought-after H i emission is unpolarized, polarized foregrounds such as Galactic and extragalactic synchrotron radiation, if coupled with instrumental impurity, can mimic or overwhelm the H i signals. In this paper, we present the methodology for polarization calibration at 700–900 MHz, applied on data obtained from the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We use astrophysical sources, both polarized and unpolarized sources including quasars and pulsars, as calibrators to characterize the polarization leakage and control systematic effects in our GBT H i intensity mapping project. The resulting fractional errors on polarization measurements on boresight are well controlled to within 0.6%–0.8% of their total intensity. The polarized beam patterns are measured by performing spider scans across both polarized quasars and pulsars. A dominant Stokes I to V leakage feature and secondary features of Stokes I to Q and I to U leakages in the 700–900 MHz frequency range are identified. These characterizations are important for separating foreground polarization leakage from the H i 21 cm signal.

  11. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  12. Contribution of Earth Observation data to flood risk mapping in the framework of the NATO SFP 'TIGRU' Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancalie, Gheorghe; Alecu, Corina; Craciunescul, Vasile; Diamandi, Andrei; Oancea, Simona; Brakenridge, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    An important contribution of Earth Observation (EO) derived information in the topic of managing flooding connected phenomena could, be envisaged at the level of mapping aspects. EO satellites can provide necessary information for flood hazard and vulnerability assessment and mapping, which are directly used in the decision-making process. The EO data-derived information of the land cover/land use is important because it makes possible periodical updating and comparisons, and thus contribute to characterize the human presence and to provide elements on the vulnerability aspects, as well as the evaluation of the impact of the flooding. In order to obtain high-level thematic products the data extracted from the EO images must be integrated with other non-space ancillary data (topographical, penological, meteorological data) and hydrologic/hydraulic models outputs. This approach may be used in different phases of establishing the sensitive areas such as: the management of the database-built up from the ensemble of the spatially geo-referenced information; the elaboration of the risk indices from morpho-hydro graphical, meteorological and hydrological data; the interfacing with the models in order to improve their compatibility with input data; recovery of results and the possibility to work out scenarios; presentation of results as synthesis maps easy to access and interpret, additionally adequate to be combined with other information layouts resulted from the GIS database. The paper presents the specific methods, developed in the framework of the NATO SfP 'TIGRU' project 'Monitoring of extreme flood events in Romania and Hungary using EO data' for deriving satellite-based applications and products for flood risk mapping. The study area is situated in the Crisul Alb - Crisul Negru - K6r6s transboundary basin, crossing the Romanian - Hungarian border. Using the optical and microwave data supplied by the new satellite sensors (U.S. DMSP/Quikscat, LANDSAT-7/TM, EOS

  13. ARM Radiosondes for National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project Validation Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, Lori [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tobin, David [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Reale, Anthony [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Knuteson, Robert [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Feltz, Michelle [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Liu, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This IOP has been a coordinated effort involving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) Climate Research Facility, the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison, and the JPSS project to validate SNPP NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture sounding products from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). In this arrangement, funding for radiosondes was provided by the JPSS project to ARM. These radiosondes were launched coincident with the SNPP satellite overpasses (OP) at four of the ARM field sites beginning in July 2012 and running through September 2017. Combined with other ARM data, an assessment of the radiosonde data quality was performed and post-processing corrections applied producing an ARM site Best Estimate (BE) product. The SNPP targeted radiosondes were integrated into the NOAA Products Validation System (NPROVS+) system, which collocated the radiosondes with satellite products (NOAA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA], European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites [EUMETSAT], Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite [GOES], Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate [COSMIC]) and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP forecasts for use in product assessment and algorithm development. This work was a fundamental, integral, and cost-effective part of the SNPP validation effort and provided critical accuracy assessments of the SNPP temperature and water vapor soundings.

  14. Mapping project on energy and the social sciences. Progress report for period October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.A.; Gould, L.C.

    1977-06-01

    The purpose of this Energy Research and Development Administration supported project is to improve the effectiveness and accessibility of policy-oriented, academic social science research relevant to energy problems. Progress has been made toward identifying the useful existing research and specifying needed new research in several areas, including energy and social organization, energy boomtowns, the diffusion of innovations, public participation, regulatory systems, and energy-survey data. A national clearinghouse for research information on selected energy topics is being established. Workshops are being conducted and other interactions established with ERDA and other policy-making organizations. The process of mapping, the systematic identification of a research agenda, is being studied with the objective of developing guidelines for future efforts.

  15. The use of collaborative digital platforms in the perspective of shared administration. The MiraMap project in Turin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Coscia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to illustrate an innovative approach to urban planning and shared Administration based on the use of collaborative digital platforms involving the Public Administration / citizen. This perspective is expressed in the MiraMap pilot project in Turin, in the District of Mirafiori Sud, which has been drawn up by a research group of the Politecnico di Torino. The project implements and develops a previous experience carried out in 2013 (Crowdmapping Mirafiori Sud, the main purpose of which was to determine whether the use of ICT could generate and support processes of social inclusion. Through the reading of the MiraMap process, of its objectives, of the methodology adopted, of its phases and lines of action, are highlighted the interdisciplinary and technical reasoning relative to: the structuring of relations with the institutions, in particular with the Public Administration, in the processes of planning and management of public space; the triggering of the processes of inclusion, participation and civic engagement; the identification of contributions that these trials can generate in the construction of a renewed urban governance. Lastly, this contribution outlines a possible methodology for monitoring and evaluation of ex-post impact, based on Community Impact Assessment/Evaluation (CIA/CIE, that evaluates in a descriptive manner the impacts - monetary and non-monetary - that have derived from the project in relation to the various actors involved. The use of ICT can foster the process of transparency and strengthen the accountability of the Public Administration, provided that the technology is an enabling factor and one of exclusion. The detailed analysis of the case provides ideas for reflection on this innovative approach: the citizen/PA relationship can contribute in the medium-long term to conveying positive socio-economic impacts on the territory, making the citizen more informed and involved and the Administration more

  16. Mapping Africa's advanced public health education capacity: the AfriHealth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C B; Nchinda, T C; Duale, S; Tumwesigye, N M; Serwadda, D

    2007-12-01

    Literature on human resources for health in Africa has focused on personal health services. Little is known about graduate public health education. This paper maps "advanced" public health education in Africa. Public health includes all professionals needed to manage and optimize health systems and the public's health. Data were collected through questionnaires and personal visits to departments, institutes and schools of community medicine or public health. Simple descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. For more than 900 million people, there are fewer than 500 full-time staff, around two-thirds of whom are male. More men (89%) than women (72%) hold senior degrees. Over half (55%) of countries do not have any postgraduate public health programme. This shortage is most severe in lusophone and francophone Africa. The units offering public health programmes are small: 81% have less than 20 staff, and 62% less than 10. On the other hand, over 80% of Africans live in countries where at least one programme is available, and there are six larger schools with over 25 staff. Programmes are often narrowly focused on medical professionals, but "open" programmes are increasing in number. Public health education and research are not linked. Africa urgently needs a plan for developing its public health education capacity. Lack of critical mass seems a key gap to be addressed by strengthening subregional centres, each of which should provide programmes to surrounding countries. Research linked to public health education and to educational institutions needs to increase.

  17. The ESTMAP Project (Energy storage Mapping and Planning): focus on the subsurface data collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaelle Bader, Anne; Beccaletto, Laurent; Bialkowski, Anne; Jaudin, Florence; Hladík, Vit; Holeček, Jan; Van Gessel, Serge; Meinke-Hubeny, Frank; Wiersma, Frank

    2016-04-01

    There is a strong link between energy security and the "2030 climate and energy framework" of European Commission. Reaching the goals of the "2030 framework" both efficiently and at the lowest possible costs for all is seen as a key step to address the energy security challenge in the long run. This requires elaboration of the framework for investments in renewables and energy efficiency. This planning has to be based on a robust and integrated set of data. As most data relevant to energy storage exists in a fragmented form, the major work in the ESTMAP project consists of compiling existing data in a unified database and exploiting it to optimise energy systems planning. Geologists, engineers and system modellers joined forces to define the format and the content of a database of both subsurface and above surface storage sites (existing, planned and potential). The idea is to ensure that the newly compiled dataset will fit the needs for robust modelling, planning and designing on a coherent basis and comparable among Member States and other European neighbouring countries. One of the project output consists of a geographical database providing information on distribution and expected capacity of existing and future energy storage sites in Europe, including costs and accessibility. Both subsurface storage options (hydrogen, compressed air, natural gas, underground pumped hydro, etc.) and above ground storages (pumped hydro, LNG, liquid air, etc.) are taken into account. In this project, BRGM, assisted by TNO, CGS and VITO, is in charge of data collection of subsurface energy storage. The objective of this task is to gather readily available and public data on existing and future potential storage sites. These data incorporate (1) the geographic location, description, characterization, subsurface properties and feasibility and capacity assessments of the subsurface reservoirs, as well as (2) the identification of known subsurface storage facilities attached to these

  18. USGS Historical, Current, and Projected Future Land Cover Mapping for the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, T. L.; Gallant, A.; Sayler, K. L.

    2008-12-01

    Land cover in the Northern Great Plains has changed considerably in the last several decades. While a significant proportion of the landscape has been cultivated for over one hundred years, the intensity of cultivation, crop type, and management practices have changed in response to shifts in government policy, commodity prices, access to water, and technological advances. Changes in land cover impact a wide variety of ecosystem processes and services, including carbon balances, climate, hydrology and water quality, and biodiversity. A consistent record of historical land cover is required to understand relations between land- cover change and these ecological processes, while projections of future land cover are needed for planning and potential mitigation efforts. Several U.S. Geological Survey efforts have been completed or are ongoing in the Northern Great Plains, resulting in the compilation of an unmatched record of historical, current, and future land-cover information for the region. The USGS Land Cover Trends project is using the historical record of Landsat imagery and a robust sampling approach to examine the rates, causes, and consequences of contemporary (1973-2000) land-cover change on an ecoregional basis for the conterminous United States. Results from completed Trends analyses for Great Plains ecoregions revealed changes in the proportion and distribution of grassland/shrubland and agricultural uses during the study period; Some areas exhibited considerable loss in cultivated land after initiation of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in the mid 1980s. In recent years (post-2000), agricultural commodity prices have skyrocketed as food and energy compete for use of agricultural products, which in conjunction with the expiration of many CRP contracts, has led to expansion of cultivated land. In the coming decades, calls for U.S. energy independence and the development of biofuels from cellulosic stock could result in a transformation of the Great

  19. The MELANIE project: from a biopsy to automatic protein map interpretation by computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, R D; Hochstrasser, D F; Funk, M; Vargas, J R; Pellegrini, C; Muller, A F; Scherrer, J R

    1991-10-01

    The goals of the MELANIE project are to determine if disease-associated patterns can be detected in high resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (HR 2D-PAGE) images and if a diagnosis can be established automatically by computer. The ELSIE/MELANIE system is a set of computer programs which automatically detect, quantify, and compare protein spots shown on HR 2D-PAGE images. Classification programs help the physician to find disease-associated patterns from a given set of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis images and to form diagnostic rules. Prototype expert systems that use these rules to establish a diagnosis from new HR 2D-PAGE images have been developed. They successfully diagnosed cirrhosis of the liver and were able to distinguish a variety of cancer types from biopsies known to be cancerous.

  20. The Megamaser Cosmology Project. X. High-resolution Maps and Mass Constraints for SMBHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Braatz, J. A.; Condon, J. J.; Lo, K. Y.; Reid, M. J.; Henkel, C.; Pesce, D. W.; Greene, J. E.; Gao, F.; Kuo, C. Y.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.

    2018-02-01

    We present high-resolution (submas) Very Long Baseline Interferometry maps of nuclear H2O megamasers for seven galaxies. In UGC 6093, the well-aligned systemic masers and high-velocity masers originate in an edge-on, flat disk and we determine the mass of the central supermassive black holes (SMBH) to be M SMBH = 2.58 × 107 M ⊙ (±7%). For J1346+5228, the distribution of masers is consistent with a disk, but the faint high-velocity masers are only marginally detected, and we constrain the mass of the SMBH to be in the range (1.5–2.0) × 107 M ⊙. The origin of the masers in Mrk 1210 is less clear, as the systemic and high-velocity masers are misaligned and show a disorganized velocity structure. We present one possible model in which the masers originate in a tilted, warped disk, but we do not rule out the possibility of other explanations including outflow masers. In NGC 6926, we detect a set of redshifted masers, clustered within a parsec of each other, and a single blueshifted maser about 4.4 pc away, an offset that would be unusually large for a maser disk system. Nevertheless, if it is a disk system, we estimate the enclosed mass to be M SMBH < 4.8 × 107 M ⊙. For NGC 5793, we detect redshifted masers spaced about 1.4 pc from a clustered set of blueshifted features. The orientation of the structure supports a disk scenario as suggested by Hagiwara et al. We estimate the enclosed mass to be M SMBH < 1.3 × 107 M ⊙. For NGC 2824 and J0350‑0127, the masers may be associated with parsec- or subparsec-scale jets or outflows.

  1. Metodologias de calibração de projetores para aplicações robóticas de projection mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Ventura e Costa

    2016-01-01

    O objetivo inerente a esta dissertação consiste no desenvolvimento de técnicas de integração de projetor num sistema de projection mapping baseado em manipulador industrial (projector in hand). O sistema em que este trabalho se insere deve ser capaz de projetar imagens a três dimensões em vigas de construção metálicas, utilizando um projetor laser ou DLP, e aplicando técnicas de projection mapping, para uma projeção correta da informação do ponto de vista do operador. Para obter essa finalida...

  2. Genetic mapping of semi-polar metabolites in pepper fruits (Capsicum sp.): towards unravelling the molecular regulation of flavonoid quantitative trait loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.; Stahl-Hermes, V.; Ballester, A.R.; Vos, de C.H.; Voorrips, R.E.; Maharijaya, A.; Molthoff, J.W.; Víquez Zamora, A.M.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Arisi, A.C.M.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Untargeted LCMS profiling of semi-polar metabolites followed by metabolite quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis was performed in ripe pepper fruits of 113 F2 plants derived from a cross between Capsicum annuum AC1979 (no. 19) and Capsicum chinense No. 4661 Selection (no. 18). The parental

  3. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT 2011: REVERBERATION MAPPING OF MARKARIAN 50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Thorman, Shawn J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Pancoast, Anna; Bennert, Vardha N.; Sand, David J.; Treu, Tommaso; Brewer, Brendon J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Canalizo, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Gates, Elinor L. [Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Malkan, Matthew A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hyun-Jin [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Buehler, Tabitha, E-mail: barth@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, N283 ESC, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602-4360 (United States); and others

    2011-12-10

    The Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2011 observing campaign was carried out over the course of 11 weeks in spring 2011. Here we present the first results from this program, a measurement of the broad-line reverberation lag in the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 50. Combining our data with supplemental observations obtained prior to the start of the main observing campaign, our data set covers a total duration of 4.5 months. During this time, Mrk 50 was highly variable, exhibiting a maximum variability amplitude of a factor of {approx}4 in the U-band continuum and a factor of {approx}2 in the H{beta} line. Using standard cross-correlation techniques, we find that H{beta} and H{gamma} lag the V-band continuum by {tau}{sub cen} = 10.64{sup +0.82}{sub -0.93} and 8.43{sup +1.30}{sub -1.28} days, respectively, while the lag of He II {lambda}4686 is unresolved. The H{beta} line exhibits a symmetric velocity-resolved reverberation signature with shorter lags in the high-velocity wings than in the line core, consistent with an origin in a broad-line region (BLR) dominated by orbital motion rather than infall or outflow. Assuming a virial normalization factor of f = 5.25, the virial estimate of the black hole mass is (3.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }. These observations demonstrate that Mrk 50 is among the most promising nearby active galaxies for detailed investigations of BLR structure and dynamics.

  4. Radon measurements in air in waterworks and indoor swimming pools - a primary mapping project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinko, J.; Mjoenes, L.; Soederman, A.-L.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 the Swedish Work Environment Authority asked five regional offices around the country; Falun, Malmoe, Vaexjoe, Umeaa and Oerebro, to measure radon in air in workplaces where water was likely to enhance radon levels indoors. Track etch detectors were used and placed in workplaces according to the SSI measurement protocol for determining the annual average radon concentration in homes. Rooms that are frequently used by employees were measured. The detectors were exposed between 1 to 3 months. 225 detectors were used in the project and analysed at the same laboratory. The results showed that the radon concentration in waterworks often is high. Measurements were made in 60 waterworks. Levels exceeding 1000 Bq/m 3 were found in 49 of them and levels exceeding 4000 Bq/m 3 were found in 21 waterworks. The variation between waterworks may be a result of the radon concentration in the raw water, the amount of radon gas escaping to the air when water is treated, the air exchange rate in the building and where the detectors were deployed. Measurements were made in 28 indoor swimming baths. The maximum level was 290 Bq/m 3 , but most concentrations were between 30 to 70 Bq/m 3 . The conclusion is that high radon levels do not seem to be a problem in indoor swimming baths. Maybe this is due to good ventilation or the fact that water often has been treated for radon before it is used in swimming pools. The results from measurement in food industries such as breweries showed no extreme radon levels except for a fish farm where levels over 1000 Bq/m 3 were measured in the farming room and 790 Bq/m 3 in the office. The radon concentrations in laundries were relatively low, between 30 and 170 Bq/m 3

  5. STOOKE SMALL BODIES MAPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Stooke Small Bodies Map collection contains maps of small solar system bodies in various projections, with and without latitude/longiude grids. The maps are...

  6. 3D mapping of existing observing capabilities in the frame of GAIA-CLIM H2020 project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Tramutola; Madonna, Fabio; Marco, Rosoldi; Francesco, Amato

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the Gap Analysis for Integrated Atmospheric ECV CLImate Monitoring (GAIA-CLIM) project is to improve our ability to use ground-based and sub-orbital observations to characterise satellite observations for a number of atmospheric Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The key outcomes will be a "Virtual Observatory" (VO) facility of co-locations and their uncertainties and a report on gaps in capabilities or understanding, which shall be used to inform subsequent Horizon 2020 activities. In particular, Work Package 1 (WP1) of the GAIA-CLIM project is devoted to the geographical mapping of existing non-satellite measurement capabilities for a number of ECVs in the atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial domains. The work carried out within WP1 has allowed to provide the users with an up-to-date geographical identification, at the European and global scales, of current surface-based, balloon-based and oceanic (floats) observing capabilities on an ECV by ECV basis for several parameters which can be obtained using space-based observations from past, present and planned satellite missions. Having alighted on a set of metadata schema to follow, a consistent collection of discovery metadata has been provided into a common structure and will be made available to users through the GAIA-CLIM VO in 2018. Metadata can be interactively visualized through a 3D Graphical User Interface. The metadataset includes 54 plausible networks and 2 aircraft permanent infrastructures for EO Characterisation in the context of GAIA-CLIM currently operating on different spatial domains and measuring different ECVs using one or more measurement techniques. Each classified network has in addition been assessed for suitability against metrological criteria to identifyy those with a level of maturity which enables closure on a comparison with satellite measurements. The metadata GUI is based on Cesium, a virtual globe freeware and open source written in Javascript. It allows users to apply

  7. The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP): a Geoportal for Visualizing Project-level Information About U.S. Funded Research in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, A.; Cody, R. P.; Barba, M.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Score, R.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP; http://armap.org/) is a suite of online applications and data services that support Arctic science by providing project tracking information (who's doing what, when and where in the region) for United States Government funded projects. In collaboration with 17 research agencies, project locations are displayed in a visually enhanced web mapping application. Key information about each project is presented along with links to web pages that provide additional information, including links to data where possible. The latest ARMAP iteration has i) reworked the search user interface (UI) to enable multiple filters to be applied in user-driven queries and ii) implemented ArcGIS Javascript API 4.0 to allow for deployment of 3D maps directly into a users web-browser and enhanced customization of popups. Module additions include i) a dashboard UI powered by a back-end Apache SOLR engine to visualize data in intuitive and interactive charts; and ii) a printing module that allows users to customize maps and export these to different formats (pdf, ppt, gif and jpg). New reference layers and an updated ship tracks layer have also been added. These improvements have been made to improve discoverability, enhance logistics coordination, identify geographic gaps in research/observation effort, and foster enhanced collaboration among the research community. Additionally, ARMAP can be used to demonstrate past, present, and future research effort supported by the U.S. Government.

  8. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  9. URBAN TREE CROWN PROJECTION AREA MAPPING WITH OBJECT BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR URBAN ECOSYSTEM SERVICE INDICATOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAKÁCS ÁGNES

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The continuous expansion of built-up areas in the urban environment at the expense of green spaces brings up numerous environmental problems, for which accurate and efficient solutions should be found. The assessment of ecosystem services developed within the field of landscape ecology is playing an ever more important role in environmental sciences and thus may offer suitable answers. Such assessments can be carried out by developing indicators. Accordingly, in the case of urban trees, an accurate quantitative characterization of their services (such as e.g. carbon sequestration, pollutant removal and microclimate regulation is also needed. The aim of this study is to establish a generally applicable method based on indicator development, using widely available data. In the case of urban green spaces there are several services for which the development of proper indicators and evaluation methods requires a delineation of tree crowns, or at least the crown projection area. Accordingly, in our work, we map the crown projection area of a large and popular urban park of Szeged, Széchenyi square, using object-based image analysis on UltraCamD digital orthophotos. Following a multiresolution segmentation the classification of the resulting objects was carried out, using the eCognition image analysis software. Besides fulfilling the policy objectives related to the evaluation of urban ecosystem services, the produced crown base can also be used in several other types of urban ecological and urban climatological studies (e.g. urban climate modelling, human-comfort assessment. In this paper the first results are presented.

  10. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Geomorphology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, and shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with geomorphic map units interpreted from, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2007. Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Geomorphology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to...

  11. SAT-WIND project. Final report[Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Astrup, P.; Nielsen, M. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)

  12. Mapping Application for Penguin Populations and Projected Dynamics (MAPPPD): Data and Tools for Dynamic Management and Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, G. R. W.; Naveen, R.; Schwaller, M.; Che-Castaldo, C.; McDowall, P.; Schrimpf, M.; Schrimpf, Michael; Lynch, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    The Mapping Application for Penguin Populations and Projected Dynamics (MAPPPD) is a web-based, open access, decision-support tool designed to assist scientists, non-governmental organizations and policy-makers working to meet the management objectives as set forth by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and other components of the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) (that is, Consultative Meetings and the ATS Committee on Environmental Protection). MAPPPD was designed specifically to complement existing efforts such as the CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program (CEMP) and the ATS site guidelines for visitors. The database underlying MAPPPD includes all publicly available (published and unpublished) count data on emperor, gentoo, Adelie) and chinstrap penguins in Antarctica. Penguin population models are used to assimilate available data into estimates of abundance for each site and year.Results are easily aggregated across multiple sites to obtain abundance estimates over any user-defined area of interest. A front end web interface located at www.penguinmap.com provides free and ready access to the most recent count and modelled data, and can act as a facilitator for data transfer between scientists and Antarctic stakeholders to help inform management decisions for the continent.

  13. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. VII. Understanding the Ultraviolet Anomaly in NGC 5548 with X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, S.; Pogge, R. W.; Adams, S. M.; Beatty, T. G.; Bisogni, S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Gupta, A. [Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Page, K.; Goad, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Krongold, Y. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuidad de Mexico (Mexico); Anderson, M. D.; Bazhaw, C.; Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Suite 605, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Arévalo, P. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretana N 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso (Chile); Barth, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Bigley, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny, Crimea 298409 (Russian Federation); Boroson, T. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Bottorff, M. C. [Fountainwood Observatory, Department of Physics FJS 149, Southwestern University, 1011 East University Avenue, Georgetown, TX 78626 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Eberly College of Science, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Breeveld, A. A. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-09-01

    During the Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project observations of NGC 5548, the continuum and emission-line variability became decorrelated during the second half of the six-month-long observing campaign. Here we present Swift and Chandra X-ray spectra of NGC 5548 obtained as part of the campaign. The Swift spectra show that excess flux (relative to a power-law continuum) in the soft X-ray band appears before the start of the anomalous emission-line behavior, peaks during the period of the anomaly, and then declines. This is a model-independent result suggesting that the soft excess is related to the anomaly. We divide the Swift data into on- and off-anomaly spectra to characterize the soft excess via spectral fitting. The cause of the spectral differences is likely due to a change in the intrinsic spectrum rather than to variable obscuration or partial covering. The Chandra spectra have lower signal-to-noise ratios, but are consistent with the Swift data. Our preferred model of the soft excess is emission from an optically thick, warm Comptonizing corona, the effective optical depth of which increases during the anomaly. This model simultaneously explains all three observations: the UV emission-line flux decrease, the soft-excess increase, and the emission-line anomaly.

  14. Do it yourself remote sensing: Generating an inexpensive, high tech, real science lake mapping project for the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Stephen M.

    1993-01-01

    The utilization of modest equipment and software revealed bottom contours and water column conditions of a dynamic water body. Classroom discussions of field techniques and equipment capabilities followed by exercises with the data sets in cause-and-effect analysis all contributed to participatory education in the process of science. This project is presented as a case study of the value of engaging secondary and collegiate level students in planning, executing and appraising a real world investigation which they can directly relate to. A 1 km wide bay, experiencing marsh inflow, along an 8 km long lake situated 120 km north of Ottawa, Canada, on the glaciated Canadian Precambrian Shield was mapped in midsummer for submerged topography, bottom composition, temperature profile, turbudity, dissolved oxygen and biota distribution. Low level aerial photographs scanned into image processing software are permitting spatial classification of bottom variations in biology and geology. Instrumentation consisted of a portable sport fishing SONAR depth finder, an electronic lead line multiprobe with photocell, thermistor and dissolved oxygen sensors, a selective depth water sampler, portable pH meter, an underwater camera mounted on a home-made platform with a bottom-contact trigger and a disposable underwater camera for shallow survey work. Sampling transects were referenced using a Brunton hand transit triangulating several shore markers.

  15. Clinical usefulness of myocardial iodine-123-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid distribution abnormality in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy based on normal data file in bull's-eye polar map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Mitani, Isao; Sumita, Shinichi

    1998-01-01

    Visual interpretation of iodine-123-beta-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid ( 123 I-BMIPP) myocardial images cannot easily detect mild reduction in tracer uptake. Objective assessment of myocardial 123 I-BMIPP maldistributions at rest was attempted using a bull's-eye map and its normal data file for detecting myocardial damage in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Six patients, two with Kearns-Sayre syndrome and four with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS), and 10 normal subjects were studied. Fractional myocardial uptake of 1 23 I-BMIPP was also measured by dynamic static imaging to assess the global myocardial free fatty acid. These data were compared with the cardiothoracic ratio measured by chest radiography and left ventricular ejection fraction assessed by echocardiography. Abnormal cardiothoracic ratio and lower ejection fraction were detected in only one patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Abnormal fractional myocardial uptake was detected in two patients (1.61%, 1.91%), whereas abnormal regional 123 I-BMIPP uptake assessed by the bull's-eye map was detected in five patients (83%). All patients showed abnormal uptake in the anterior portion, and one showed progressive atrioventricular conduction abnormality and systolic dysfunction with extended 123 I-BMIPP abnormal uptake. The results suggest that assessment based on the normal data file in a bull's-eye polar map is clinically useful for detection of myocardial damage in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. (author)

  16. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2015-01-01

    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass

  17. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  18. Maps into projective spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha N Bhosle. Acknowledgements. This work was initiated during the author's visit to the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge,. UK as a visiting fellow to participate in the programme Moduli Spaces (MOS) during. June 2011. She would like to thank the Institute for hospitality and excellent working environment. References.

  19. Maps into projective spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We compute the cohomology of the Picard bundle on the desingulariza- tion ˜Jd(Y) of the compactified Jacobian of an irreducible nodal curve Y. We use it to compute the cohomology classes of the Brill–Noether loci in ˜Jd(Y). We show that the moduli space M of morphisms of a fixed degree from Y to a pro-.

  20. Planck intermediate results: XLVI. Reduction of large-scale systematic effects in HFI polarization maps and estimation of the reionization optical depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2016-01-01

    a small remaining systematic contamination. These all give fully consistent results. A further consistency test is performed using cross-correlations derived from the Low Frequency Instrument maps of the Planck 2015 data release and the new HFI data. For this purpose, end-to-end analyses of systematic...

  1. The structure of polarization maps of skin histological sections in the Fourier domain for the tasks of benign and malignant formations differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, V. A.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Savich, V. O.; Novakovskaya, O. Y.; Olar, O. V.; Marchuk, Y. F.

    2015-02-01

    The optical model of birefringent networks of biological tissues is presented. The technique of Fourier polarimetry for selection of manifestations of linear and circular birefringence of protein fibrils is suggested. The results of investigations of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th orders), correlation (dispersion and excess of autocorrelation functions) and scalar-self-similar (logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) structure of Fourier spectra of polarization azimuths distribution of laser images of skin samples are presented. The criteria of differentiation of postoperative biopsy of benign (keratoma) and malignant (adenocarcinoma) skin tumors are determined.

  2. Discrete tomographic reconstruction of 2D polycrystal orientation maps from X-ray diffraction projections using Gibbs priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodek, L.; Knudsen, E.; Poulsen, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    The determination of crystalline structures is a demanding and fundamental task of crystallography. This paper offers a new approach for rendering a 2D grain map of a polycrystal based on an orientation map reconstructed from X-ray diffraction patterns. The orientation map is produced by a Bayesian...... discrete tomographic algorithm, applying image-modelling Gibbs priors and a homogeneity condition. The optimization of the objective function is accomplished via the Gibbs Sampler in conjunction with simulated annealing. In order to express the structure of the orientation map, the similarity...... of orientations is defined by means of quaternions....

  3. Mapping water availability, cost and projected consumptive use in the eastern United States with comparisons to the west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Moreland, Barbie D.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.; Kobos, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The availability of freshwater supplies to meet future demand is a growing concern. Water availability metrics are needed to inform future water development decisions. With the help of water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1300 watersheds throughout the 31 contiguous states in the eastern US complimenting a prior study of the west. The compiled set of water availability data is unique in that it considers multiple sources of water (fresh surface and groundwater, wastewater and brackish groundwater); accommodates institutional controls placed on water use; is accompanied by cost estimates to access, treat and convey each unique source of water; and is compared to projected future growth in consumptive water use to 2030. Although few administrative limits have been set on water availability in the east, water managers have identified 315 fresh surface water and 398 fresh groundwater basins (with 151 overlapping basins) as areas of concern (AOCs) where water supply challenges exist due to drought related concerns, environmental flows, groundwater overdraft, or salt water intrusion. This highlights a difference in management where AOCs are identified in the east which simply require additional permitting, while in the west strict administrative limits are established. Although the east is generally considered ‘water rich’ roughly a quarter of the basins were identified as AOCs; however, this is still in strong contrast to the west where 78% of the surface water basins are operating at or near their administrative limit. Little effort was noted on the part of eastern or western water managers to quantify non-fresh water resources.

  4. Effect of background dielectric on TE-polarized photonic bandgap of metallodielectric photonic crystals using Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Aliasghar; Rezaei, Behrooz

    2016-11-20

    Using the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method, we have calculated the photonic band structure of two-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals having the square and triangular lattices of circular metal rods in a dielectric background. We have selected the transverse electric mode of electromagnetic waves, and the resulting band structures showed the existence of photonic bandgap in these structures. We theoretically study the effect of background dielectric on the photonic bandgap.

  5. Graphics of polar figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  6. The SAURON project : XVII. Stellar population analysis of the absorption line strength maps of 48 early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Emsellem, Eric; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Shapiro, Kristen L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn; Krajnović, Davor

    2010-01-01

    We present a stellar population analysis of the absorption line strength maps for 48 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample. Using the line strength index maps of H beta, Fe5015 and Mgb, measured in the Lick/IDS system and spatially binned to a constant signal-to-noise ratio, together with

  7. The SAURON project - XVII. Stellar population analysis of the absorption line strength maps of 48 early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Emsellem, Eric; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Krajnović, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Shapiro, Kristen L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    We present a stellar population analysis of the absorption line strength maps for 48 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample. Using the line strength index maps of Hβ, Fe5015 and Mgb, measured in the Lick/IDS system and spatially binned to a constant signal-to-noise ratio, together with

  8. Introduction of digital soil mapping techniques for the nationwide regionalization of soil condition in Hungary; the first results of the DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Laborczi, Annamária; Szatmári, Gábor; Takács, Katalin; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Szabó, József; Dobos, Endre

    2014-05-01

    Due to the former soil surveys and mapping activities significant amount of soil information has accumulated in Hungary. Present soil data requirements are mainly fulfilled with these available datasets either by their direct usage or after certain specific and generally fortuitous, thematic and/or spatial inference. Due to the more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data, there might be notable imperfection as for the accuracy and reliability of the delivered products. With a recently started project (DOSoReMI.hu; Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) we would like to significantly extend the potential, how countrywide soil information requirements could be satisfied in Hungary. We started to compile digital soil related maps which fulfil optimally the national and international demands from points of view of thematic, spatial and temporal accuracy. The spatial resolution of the targeted countrywide, digital, thematic maps is at least 1:50.000 (approx. 50-100 meter raster resolution). DOSoReMI.hu results are also planned to contribute to the European part of GSM.net products. In addition to the auxiliary, spatial data themes related to soil forming factors and/or to indicative environmental elements we heavily lean on the various national soil databases. The set of the applied digital soil mapping techniques is gradually broadened incorporating and eventually integrating geostatistical, data mining and GIS tools. In our paper we will present the first results. - Regression kriging (RK) has been used for the spatial inference of certain quantitative data, like particle size distribution components, rootable depth and organic matter content. In the course of RK-based mapping spatially segmented categorical information provided by the SMUs of Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS) has been also used in the form of indicator variables. - Classification and regression trees (CART) were

  9. Configuration Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S. Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W. W.; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Svirida, D.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present our design to accelerate and store polarized protons in RHIC, with the level of polarization, luminosity, and control of systematic errors required by the approved RHIC spin physics program. We provide an overview of the physics to be studied using RHIC with polarized proton beams, and a brief description of the accelerator systems required for the project.

  10. CONFIGURATION MANUAL POLARIZED PROTON COLLIDER AT RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROSER,T.; MACKAY,W.W.; ALEKSEEV,I.; BAI,M.; BROWN,K.; BUNCE,G.; CAMERON,P.; COURANT,E.; ET AL.

    2001-03-01

    In this report, the authors present their design to accelerate and store polarized protons in RHIC, with the level of polarization, luminosity, and control of systematic errors required by the approved RHIC spin physics program. They provide an overview of the physics to be studied using RHIC with polarized proton beams, and a brief description of the accelerator systems required for the project.

  11. Research on generating various polarization-modes in polarized illumination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinping; Lin, Wumei; Fan, Zhenjie

    2013-08-01

    With the increase of the numerical aperture (NA), the polarization of light affects the imaging quality of projection lens more significantly. On the contrary, according to the mask pattern, the resolution of projection lens can be improved by using the polarized illumination. That is to say, using the corresponding polarized beam (or polarization-mode) along with the off-axis illumination will improve the resolution and the imaging quality of the of projection lens. Therefore, the research on the generation of various polarization modes and its conversion methods become more and more important. In order to realize various polarization modes in polarized illumination system, after read a lot of references, we provide a way that fitting for the illumination system with the wavelength of 193nm.Six polarization-modes and a depolarized mode are probably considered. Wave-plate stack is used to generate linearly polarization-mode, which have a higher degree polarization. In order to generate X-Y and Y-X polarization mode, the equipment consisting of four sectors of λ/2 wave plate was used. We combined 16 sectors of λ/2 wave plate which have different orientations of the "slow" axis to generate radial and azimuthal polarization. Finally, a multi-polarization control device was designed. Using the kind of multi-polarization control device which applying this method could help to choose the polarization modes conveniently and flexibility for the illumination system.

  12. HAWC+/SOFIA Instrumental Polarization Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Joseph M.; Chuss, David; Dowell, Charles D.; Santos, Fabio; Siah, Javad; Vaillancourt, John; HAWC+ Instrument Team

    2018-01-01

    HAWC+ is a new far-infrared polarimeter for the NASA/DLR SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) telescope. HAWC+ has the capability to measure the polarization of astronomical sources with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution in four bands from 50-250 microns. Using data obtained during commissioning flights, we implemented a calibration strategy that separates the astronomical polarization signal from the induced instrumental polarization. The result of this analysis is a map of the instrumental polarization as a function of position in the instrument's focal plane in each band. The results show consistency between bands, as well as with other methods used to determine preliminary instrumental polarization values.

  13. Predicting 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, G.M.; Douglas, D.C.; Nielson, R.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, T.L.; Stirling, I.; Mauritzen, Mette; Born, E.W.; Wiig, O.; Deweaver, E.; Serreze, Mark C.; Belikov, Stanislav; Holland, M.M.; Maslanik, J.; Aars, Jon; Bailey, D.A.; Derocher, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Projections of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) sea ice habitat distribution in the polar basin during the 21st century were developed to understand the consequences of anticipated sea ice reductions on polar bear populations. We used location data from satellitecollared polar bears and environmental data (e.g., bathymetry, distance to coastlines, and sea ice) collected from 1985 to 1995 to build resource selection functions (RSFs). RSFs described habitats that polar bears preferred in summer, autumn, winter, and spring. When applied to independent data from 1996 to 2006, the RSFs consistently identified habitats most frequently used by polar bears. We applied the RSFs to monthly maps of 21st-century sea ice concentration projected by 10 general circulation models (GCMs) used in the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, under the A1B greenhouse gas forcing scenario. Despite variation in their projections, all GCMs indicated habitat losses in the polar basin during the 21st century. Losses in the highest-valued RSF habitat (optimal habitat) were greatest in the southern seas of the polar basin, especially the Chukchi and Barents seas, and least along the Arctic Ocean shores of Banks Island to northern Greenland. Mean loss of optimal polar bear habitat was greatest during summer; from an observed 1.0 million km2 in 1985-1995 (baseline) to a projected multi-model mean of 0.32 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-68% change). Projected winter losses of polar bear habitat were less: from 1.7 million km2 in 1985-1995 to 1.4 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-17% change). Habitat losses based on GCM multi-model means may be conservative; simulated rates of habitat loss during 1985-2006 from many GCMs were less than the actual observed rates of loss. Although a reduction in the total amount of optimal habitat will likely reduce polar bear populations, exact relationships between habitat losses and population demographics remain unknown. Density and energetic

  14. Combined DC resistivity and induced polarization (DC-IP) for mapping the internal composition of a mine waste rock pile in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Christopher; Tsourlos, Panagiotis; Ramasamy, Murugan; Nivorlis, Aristeidis; Mkandawire, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Mine waste rock piles (WRPs) can contain sulfidic minerals whose interaction with oxygen and water can generate acid mine drainage (AMD). Thus, WRPs can be a long-term source of environmental pollution. Since the generation of AMD and its release into the environment is dependent on the net volume and bulk composition of waste rock, effective characterization of WRPs is necessary for successful remedial design and monitoring. In this study, a combined DC resistivity and induced polarization (DC-IP) approach was employed to characterize an AMD-generating WRP in the Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada. Two-dimensional (2D) DC-IP imaging with 6 survey lines was performed to capture the full WRP landform. 2D DC results indicated a highly heterogeneous and moderately conductive waste rock underlain by a resistive bedrock containing numerous fractures. 2D IP (chargeability) results identified several highly-chargeable regions within the waste, with normalized chargeability delineating regions specific to waste mineralogy only. Three-dimensional (3D) DC-IP imaging, using 17 parallel lines on the plateau of the pile, was then used to focus on the composition of the waste rock. The full 3D inverted DC-IP distributions were used to identify coincident and continuous zones (isosurfaces) of low resistivity (0.4 mS/m) that were inferred as generated AMD (leachate) and stored AMD (sulfides), respectively. Integrated geological, hydrogeological and geochemical data increased confidence in the geoelectrical interpretations. Knowledge on the location of potentially more reactive waste material is extremely valuable for improved long-term AMD monitoring at the WRP.

  15. Polar low monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, Leonid; Zabolotskikh, Elizaveta; Mitnik, Leonid

    2010-05-01

    passive microwave data make it possible to retrieve several important atmospheric and oceanic parameters inside the polar lows, such as sea surface wind speed, water vapour content in the atmosphere, total liquid water content in the clouds and others, providing not only qualitative image of a vortex, but also quantitative information about these severe events, constituting a promising tool for their study and monitoring. An approach for detection and tracking of polar lows is developed utilizing the data from two sensors: SSM/I onboard DMSP and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) onboard Aqua satellite. This approach consists of two stages. At the first stage total atmospheric water vapor fields are retrieved from SSM/I and AMSRE-E measurement data using precise Arctic polar algorithms, developed at NIERSC. These algorithms are applicable over open water. They have high retrieval accuracies under a wide range of environmental conditions. Algorithms are based on numerical simulation of brightness temperatures and their inversion by means of Neural Networks. At the second stage the vortex structures are detected in these fields, polar lows are identified and tracked and some of their parameters are calculated. A few case studies are comprehensively conducted based on SSM/I and AMSRE-E measurements and using other satellite data including visible, infrared and SAR images, QuickScat Scatterometer wind fields, surface analysis maps and re-analysis data, which demonstrated the advantages of satellite passive microwave data usage in the polar low studies.

  16. Implementation of forest cover and carbon mapping in the Greater Mekong subregion and Malaysia project – A case study of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pungkul, S; Suraswasdi, C; Phonekeo, V

    2014-01-01

    The Great Mekong Subregion (GMS) contains one of the world's largest tropical forests and plays a vital role in sustainable development and provides a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, the forest in this Subregion is experiencing deforestation rates at high level due to human activities. The reduction of the forest area has negative influence to the environmental and natural resources issues, particularly, more severe disasters have occurred due to global warming and the release of the greenhouse gases. Therefore, in order to conduct forest management in the Subregion efficiently, the Forest Cover and Carbon Mapping in Greater Mekong Subregion and Malaysia project was initialized by the Asia-Pacific Network for Sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation (APFNet) with the collaboration of various research institutions including Institute of Forest Resource Information Technique (IFRIT), Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF) and the countries in Sub region and Malaysia comprises of Cambodia, the People's Republic of China (Yunnan province and Guangxi province), Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The main target of the project is to apply the intensive use of recent satellite remote sensing technology, establishing regional forest cover maps, documenting forest change processes and estimating carbon storage in the GMS and Malaysia. In this paper, the authors present the implementation of the project in Thailand and demonstrate the result of forest cover mapping in the whole country in 2005 and 2010. The result of the project will contribute towards developing efficient tools to support decision makers to clearly understand the dynamic change of the forest cover which could benefit sustainable forest resource management in Thailand and the whole Subregion

  17. Mapping the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  18. Political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.

    2007-01-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  19. Political polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2007-05-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  20. Ignitable liquid identification using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data by projected difference resolution mapping and fuzzy rule-building expert system classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weiying; Rankin, J Graham; Bondra, Alexandria; Trader, Carolyn; Heeren, Amanda; Harrington, Peter de B

    2012-07-10

    The gasoline and kerosene collected from different locations in the United States were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) followed by chemometric analysis. Classifications based on two-way profiles and target component ratios were compared. The projected difference resolution (PDR) mapping was applied to measure the differences among the ignitable liquid (IL) samples by their GC/MS profiles quantitatively. Fuzzy rule-building expert systems (FuRESs) were applied to classify individual ILs. The FuRES models yielded correct classification rates greater than 90% for discriminating between samples. PDR mapping, a new method for characterizing complex data sets was consistent with the FuRES classification result. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mapping cellular processes in the mesenchyme during palatal development in the absence of Tbx1 reveals complex proliferation changes and perturbed cell packing and polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Lara J; Economou, Andrew D; Cobourne, Martyn T; Green, Jeremy B A

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11 deletion syndromes represent a spectrum of overlapping conditions including cardiac defects and craniofacial malformations. Amongst the craniofacial anomalies that are seen, cleft of the secondary palate is a common feature. Haploinsufficiency of TBX1 is believed to be a major contributor toward many of the developmental structural anomalies that occur in these syndromes, and targeted deletion of Tbx1 in the mouse reproduces many of these malformations, including cleft palate. However, the cellular basis of this defect is only poorly understood. Here, palatal development in the absence of Tbx1 has been analysed, focusing on cellular properties within the whole mesenchymal volume of the palatal shelves. Novel image analyses and data presentation tools were applied to quantify cell proliferation rates, including regions of elevated as well as reduced proliferation, and cell packing in the mesenchyme. Also, cell orientations (nucleus-Golgi axis) were mapped as a potential marker of directional cell movement. Proliferation differed only subtly between wild-type and mutant until embryonic day (E)15.5 when proliferation in the mutant was significantly lower. Tbx1(-/-) palatal shelves had slightly different cell packing than wild-type, somewhat lower before elevation and higher at E15.5 when the wild-type palate has elevated and fused. Cell orientation is biased towards the shelf distal edge in the mid-palate of wild-type embryos but is essentially random in the Tbx1(-/-) mutant shelves, suggesting that polarised processes such as directed cell rearrangement might be causal for the cleft phenotype. The implications of these findings in the context of further understanding Tbx1 function during palatogenesis and of these methods for the more general analysis of genotype-phenotype functional relationships are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  2. Map of the portfolio of projects of energy efficiency and of renewable energies by the AFD group and the FFEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumie, Koulm; Briand, Claude; Ries, Alain

    2007-09-01

    The AFD (the French Agency for Development) and the FFEM (French Fund for World Environment) are involved in cooperation and partnership projects for the development of energy efficiency, notably, but not only, in developing and emerging countries. This report first proposes a classification of these projects according to a typology which comprises the concerned sectors (urban planning and housing, fuels, hydroelectricity and wind energy, electricity distribution, industries and services, transports and mobility, capacity building, multi-sector), the intervener (AFD, FFEM, and Proparco, an AFD's subsidy), the project evolution in time (number of projects, evolution of funding), the funding type (loan types, subsidy, credit line), and the geographical area. The second part discusses the conditions to start projects in energy management: legal framework, economic conditions, funding, social and environmental factors, and technical factors. Appendices propose a set of ten technical sheets which indicate and discuss conditions of success as well as obstacles for different types of projects: big dams, mini hydroelectric projects, wind energy, biomass/biogas co-generation, bio-fuels, decentralised rural electrification based on renewable energy projects, collective transports and energy efficiency in transports, development of partnerships and institutional support, multi-sector tools of investment, and carbon market

  3. The SAURON project - XI. Stellar populations from absorption-line strength maps of 24 early-type spirals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Ganda, Katia; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; van de Ven, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    We present absorption-line strength maps of a sample of 24 representative early-type spiral galaxies, mostly of type Sa, obtained as part of the SAURON (Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae) survey of nearby galaxies using our custom-built integral-field spectrograph. Using

  4. WORLD SPATIOTEMPORAL ANALYTICS AND MAPPING PROJECT (WSTAMP: DISCOVERING, EXPLORING, AND MAPPING SPATIOTEMPORAL PATTERNS ACROSS THE WORLD’S LARGEST OPEN SORUCE DATA SETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Stewart

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of spatiotemporal (ST analytics to integrated data from major sources such as the World Bank, United Nations, and dozens of others holds tremendous potential for shedding new light on the evolution of cultural, health, economic, and geopolitical landscapes on a global level. Realizing this potential first requires an ST data model that addresses challenges in properly merging data from multiple authors, with evolving ontological perspectives, semantical differences, and changing attributes, as well as content that is textual, numeric, categorical, and hierarchical. Equally challenging is the development of analytical and visualization approaches that provide a serious exploration of this integrated data while remaining accessible to practitioners with varied backgrounds. The WSTAMP project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has yielded two major results in addressing these challenges: 1 development of the WSTAMP database, a significant advance in ST data modeling that integrates 10,000+ attributes covering over 200 nation states spanning over 50 years from over 30 major sources and 2 a novel online ST exploratory and analysis tool providing an array of modern statistical and visualization techniques for analyzing these data temporally, spatially, and spatiotemporally under a standard analytic workflow. We discuss the status of this work and report on major findings.

  5. World Spatiotemporal Analytics and Mapping Project (wstamp): Discovering, Exploring, and Mapping Spatiotemporal Patterns across the World's Largest Open Soruce Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R.; Piburn, J.; Sorokine, A.; Myers, A.; Moehl, J.; White, D.

    2015-07-01

    The application of spatiotemporal (ST) analytics to integrated data from major sources such as the World Bank, United Nations, and dozens of others holds tremendous potential for shedding new light on the evolution of cultural, health, economic, and geopolitical landscapes on a global level. Realizing this potential first requires an ST data model that addresses challenges in properly merging data from multiple authors, with evolving ontological perspectives, semantical differences, and changing attributes, as well as content that is textual, numeric, categorical, and hierarchical. Equally challenging is the development of analytical and visualization approaches that provide a serious exploration of this integrated data while remaining accessible to practitioners with varied backgrounds. The WSTAMP project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has yielded two major results in addressing these challenges: 1) development of the WSTAMP database, a significant advance in ST data modeling that integrates 10,000+ attributes covering over 200 nation states spanning over 50 years from over 30 major sources and 2) a novel online ST exploratory and analysis tool providing an array of modern statistical and visualization techniques for analyzing these data temporally, spatially, and spatiotemporally under a standard analytic workflow. We discuss the status of this work and report on major findings.

  6. Landscape Measures of Rangeland Condition in the BLM Owyhee Pilot Project: Shrub Canopy Mapping, Vegetation Classification, and Detection of Anomalous Land Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2007-12-28

    In 2006, the BLM tasked PNNL to collaborate in research being conducted under the Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project to assess rangeland condition. The objective of this effort was to provide Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project with a sophisticated suite of data and tools to assist in evaluating the health and condition of the Owyhee Uplands study area. We focused on three technical areas. The first involved enhancing existing algorithms to estimate shrub canopy cover in the Lower Reynolds Creek Watershed. The second task involved developing and applying a strategy to assess and compare three vegetation map products for the Idaho portion of the Owyhee study area. The third task developed techniques and data that can be used to identify areas exhibiting anomalous rangeland conditions (for example exotic plants or excessive bare soil exposure). This report documents the methods used, results obtained, and conclusions drawn.

  7. CMB polarization at large angular scales: Data analysis of the POLAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, Christopher W.; Keating, Brian G.; Oliveira-Costa, Angelica de; Tegmark, Max; Timbie, Peter T.

    2003-01-01

    The coming flood of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments, spurred by the recent detection of CMB polarization by the DASI and WMAP instruments, will be confronted by many new analysis tasks specific to polarization. For the analysis of CMB polarization data sets, the devil is truly in the details. With this in mind, we present details of the data analysis for the POLAR experiment, which recently led to the tightest upper limits on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation at large angular scales. We discuss the data selection process, map-making algorithms, offset removal, and likelihood analysis which were used to find upper limits on the polarization. Stated using the modern convention for reporting CMB Stokes parameters, these limits are 5.0 μK on both E- and B-type polarization at 95% confidence. Finally, we discuss simulations used to test our analysis techniques and to probe the fundamental limitations of the experiment

  8. Mapping filmmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus ...

  9. World Spatiotemporal Analytics and Mapping Project (WSTAMP): Discovering, Exploring, and Mapping Spatiotemporal Patterns across the World s Largest Open Source Geographic Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Robert N [ORNL; Piburn, Jesse O [ORNL; Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL; Myers, Aaron T [ORNL; White, Devin A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The application of spatiotemporal (ST) analytics to integrated data from major sources such as the World Bank, United Nations, and dozens of others holds tremendous potential for shedding new light on the evolution of cultural, health, economic, and geopolitical landscapes on a global level. Realizing this potential first requires an ST data model that addresses challenges in properly merging data from multiple authors, with evolving ontological perspectives, semantical differences, and changing attributes, as well as content that is textual, numeric, categorical, and hierarchical. Equally challenging is the development of analytical and visualization approaches that provide a serious exploration of this integrated data while remaining accessible to practitioners with varied backgrounds. The WSTAMP project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has yielded two major results in addressing these challenges: 1) development of the WSTAMP database, a significant advance in ST data modeling that integrates 10,000+ attributes covering over 200 nation states spanning over 50 years from over 30 major sources and 2) a novel online ST exploratory and analysis tool providing an array of modern statistical and visualization techniques for analyzing these data temporally, spatially, and spatiotemporally under a standard analytic workflow. We discuss the status of this work and report on major findings. Acknowledgment Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6285, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U. S. Department of Energy under contract no. DEAC05-00OR22725. Copyright This manuscript has been authored by employees of UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Accordingly, the United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or

  10. DMSP SSM/I Daily and Monthly Polar Gridded Bootstrap Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DMSP SSM/I Daily and Monthly Polar Gridded Bootstrap Sea Ice Concentrations in polar stereographic projection currently include Defense Meteorological Satellite...

  11. Mapping moderate-scale land-cover over very large geographic areas within a collaborative framework: A case study of the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, J.; Ramsey, R.D.; Thomas, K.; Schrupp, D.; Sajwaj, T.; Kirby, J.; Waller, E.; Schrader, S.; Falzarano, S.; Langs, L.; Manis, G.; Wallace, C.; Schulz, K.; Comer, P.; Pohs, K.; Rieth, W.; Velasquez, C.; Wolk, B.; Kepner, W.; Boykin, K.; O'Brien, L.; Bradford, D.; Thompson, B.; Prior-Magee, J.

    2007-01-01

    Land-cover mapping efforts within the USGS Gap Analysis Program have traditionally been state-centered; each state having the responsibility of implementing a project design for the geographic area within their state boundaries. The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) was the first formal GAP project designed at a regional, multi-state scale. The project area comprises the southwestern states of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The land-cover map/dataset was generated using regionally consistent geospatial data (Landsat ETM+ imagery (1999-2001) and DEM derivatives), similar field data collection protocols, a standardized land-cover legend, and a common modeling approach (decision tree classifier). Partitioning of mapping responsibilities amongst the five collaborating states was organized around ecoregion-based "mapping zones". Over the course of 21/2 field seasons approximately 93,000 reference samples were collected directly, or obtained from other contemporary projects, for the land-cover modeling effort. The final map was made public in 2004 and contains 125 land-cover classes. An internal validation of 85 of the classes, representing 91% of the land area was performed. Agreement between withheld samples and the validated dataset was 61% (KHAT = .60, n = 17,030). This paper presents an overview of the methodologies used to create the regional land-cover dataset and highlights issues associated with large-area mapping within a coordinated, multi-institutional management framework. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Polarization Characterization of a Multi-Moded Feed Structure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Polarization Characterization of a Multi-Moded Feed Structure projects characterize the polarization response of a multi-moded feed horn as an innovative...

  14. Multi-decadal changes in tundra environments and ecosystems: Synthesis of the International Polar Year-Back to the Future Project (IPY-BTF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callaghan, Terry V.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Åkerman, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    opportunity for such research through the Back to the Future (BTF) project (IPY project #512). This article synthesizes the results from 13 papers within this Ambio Special Issue. Abiotic changes include glacial recession in the Altai Mountains, Russia; increased snow depth and hardness, permafrost warming......, and increased growing season length in sub-arctic Sweden; drying of ponds in Greenland; increased nutrient availability in Alaskan tundra ponds, and warming at most locations studied. Biotic changes ranged from relatively minor plant community change at two sites in Greenland to moderate change in the Yukon...

  15. Geometric invariant theory for polarized curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Gilberto; Melo, Margarida; Viviani, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate GIT quotients of polarized curves. More specifically, we study the GIT problem for the Hilbert and Chow schemes of curves of degree d and genus g in a projective space of dimension d-g, as d decreases with respect to g. We prove that the first three values of d at which the GIT quotients change are given by d=a(2g-2) where a=2, 3.5, 4. We show that, for a>4, L. Caporaso's results hold true for both Hilbert and Chow semistability. If 3.5maps to the moduli stack of weakly-pseudo-stable curves. If 2map to the moduli stack of pseudo-stable curves. We also analyze in detail the critical values a=3.5 and a=4, where the Hilbert semistable locus is strictly smaller than the Chow semistable locus. As an application, we obtain three compactications of the universal Jacobian over the moduli space of stable curves, weakly-pseudo-stable curves and pseu...

  16. Precessing deuteron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.; Volkov, V.I.; Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M.; Plis, Yu.A.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the acceleration in the Nuclotron of deuterons polarized in the horizontal plane is considered. This horizontal polarization is named precessing polarization. The effects of the main magnetic field and synchrotron oscillations are included. The precessing polarization is supposed to be used in studying the polarization parameters of the elastic dp back-scattering and other experiments

  17. On the identification of magnetostratigraphic polarity zones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Otakar

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2008), s. 173-186 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1365 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : paleomagnetism * geomagnetic polarity reversals * magnetic polarity stratigraphy Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.770, year: 2008

  18. Superconducting polarizing magnet for a movable polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchenko, N.G.; Bartenev, V.D.; Blinov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    The superconducting polarizing magnet was constructed for the JINR (Dubna) movable polarized target (MPT) with working volume 200 mm long and 30 mm in diameter. The magnet provides a polarizing magnetic field up to 6 T in the centre with the uniformity of 4.5 x 10 -4 in the working volume of the target. The magnet contains a main solenoidal winding 558 mm long and 206/144 mm in diameters, and compensating and correcting winding placed at its ends. The windings are made of a NbTi wire, impregnated with the epoxy resin and placed in the horizontal cryostat. The diameter of the 'warm' aperture of the magnet cryostat is 96 mm. The design and technology of the magnet winding are described. Results of the magnetic field map measurements, using a NMR-magnetometer are given. A similar magnet constructed at DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay (France), represented a model for the present development. The MPT array is installed in the beam line of polarized neutrons produced by break-up of polarized deuterons extracted from the synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies (LHE), JINR (Dubna)

  19. Polare maskuliniteter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Anne Hauan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper my aim is to read and understand the journal of Gerrit de Veer from the last journey of William Barents to the Arctic Regions in 1596 and the journal of captain Junge on his hunting trip from Tromsø to Svalbard in 1834.It is nearly 240 years between this to voyages. The first journal is known as the earliest report from the arctic era. Gerrit de Veer adds instructive copper engravings to his text and give us insight in the crews meeting with this new land. Captain Junges journal is found together with his dead crew in a house in a fjord nearby Ny-Ålesund and has no drawings, but word. Both of these journals may be read as sources of the knowledge and understanding of the polar region. They might also unveil the ideas of how to deal with and survive under the challenges that is given. In addition one can ask if the sources can tell us more about how men describe their challenges. Can the way they expressed themselves in the journals give us an understanding of masculinity? And not least help us to create good questions of the change in the ideas of masculinities which is said to follow the change in understanding of the wilderness.

  20. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Surficial Geology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with surficial geology interpreted from LI, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2007. Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Surficial Geology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to...

  1. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, and shallow aquifers and confining units; Excel spread sheet with core names, coordinates, and data co, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize...

  2. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. V. Optical Spectroscopic Campaign and Emission-line Analysis for NGC 5548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, L.; Fausnaugh, M. M.; Barth, A. J.; Peterson, B. M.; Bentz, M. C.; De Rosa, G.; Denney, K. D.; Goad, M. R.; Kochanek, C. S.; Korista, K. T.; Kriss, G. A.; Pogge, R. W.; Bennert, V. N.; Brotherton, M.; Clubb, K. I.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Filippenko, A. V.; Greene, J. E.; Grier, C. J.; Vestergaard, M.; Zheng, W.; Adams, Scott M.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Bigley, A.; Brown, Jacob E.; Brown, Jonathan S.; Canalizo, G.; Comerford, J. M.; Coker, Carl T.; Corsini, E. M.; Croft, S.; Croxall, K. V.; Deason, A. J.; Eracleous, Michael; Fox, O. D.; Gates, E. L.; Henderson, C. B.; Holmbeck, E.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Jensen, J. J.; Johnson, C. A.; Kelly, P. L.; Kim, S.; King, A.; Lau, M. W.; Li, Miao; Lochhaas, Cassandra; Ma, Zhiyuan; Manne-Nicholas, E. R.; Mauerhan, J. C.; Malkan, M. A.; McGurk, R.; Morelli, L.; Mosquera, Ana; Mudd, Dale; Muller Sanchez, F.; Nguyen, M. L.; Ochner, P.; Ou-Yang, B.; Pancoast, A.; Penny, Matthew T.; Pizzella, A.; Poleski, Radosław; Runnoe, Jessie; Scott, B.; Schimoia, Jaderson S.; Shappee, B. J.; Shivvers, I.; Simonian, Gregory V.; Siviero, A.; Somers, Garrett; Stevens, Daniel J.; Strauss, M. A.; Tayar, Jamie; Tejos, N.; Treu, T.; Van Saders, J.; Vican, L.; Villanueva, S., Jr.; Yuk, H.; Zakamska, N. L.; Zhu, W.; Anderson, M. D.; Arévalo, P.; Bazhaw, C.; Bisogni, S.; Borman, G. A.; Bottorff, M. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Breeveld, A. A.; Cackett, E. M.; Carini, M. T.; Crenshaw, D. M.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Dietrich, M.; Edelson, R.; Efimova, N. V.; Ely, J.; Evans, P. A.; Ferland, G. J.; Flatland, K.; Gehrels, N.; Geier, S.; Gelbord, J. M.; Grupe, D.; Gupta, A.; Hall, P. B.; Hicks, S.; Horenstein, D.; Horne, Keith; Hutchison, T.; Im, M.; Joner, M. D.; Jones, J.; Kaastra, J.; Kaspi, S.; Kelly, B. C.; Kennea, J. A.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. C.; Klimanov, S. A.; Lee, J. C.; Leonard, D. C.; Lira, P.; MacInnis, F.; Mathur, S.; McHardy, I. M.; Montouri, C.; Musso, R.; Nazarov, S. V.; Netzer, H.; Norris, R. P.; Nousek, J. A.; Okhmat, D. N.; Papadakis, I.; Parks, J. R.; Pott, J.-U.; Rafter, S. E.; Rix, H.-W.; Saylor, D. A.; Schnülle, K.; Sergeev, S. G.; Siegel, M.; Skielboe, A.; Spencer, M.; Starkey, D.; Sung, H.-I.; Teems, K. G.; Turner, C. S.; Uttley, P.; Villforth, C.; Weiss, Y.; Woo, J.-H.; Yan, H.; Young, S.; Zu, Y.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic monitoring program targeting NGC 5548 as part of a larger multiwavelength reverberation mapping campaign. The campaign spanned 6 months and achieved an almost daily cadence with observations from five ground-based telescopes. The Hβ and He II λ4686 broad emission-line light curves lag that of the 5100 Å optical continuum by {4.17}-0.36+0.36 {days} and {0.79}-0.34+0.35 {days}, respectively. The Hβ lag relative to the 1158 Å ultraviolet continuum light curve measured by the Hubble Space Telescope is ˜50% longer than that measured against the optical continuum, and the lag difference is consistent with the observed lag between the optical and ultraviolet continua. This suggests that the characteristic radius of the broad-line region is ˜50% larger than the value inferred from optical data alone. We also measured velocity-resolved emission-line lags for Hβ and found a complex velocity-lag structure with shorter lags in the line wings, indicative of a broad-line region dominated by Keplerian motion. The responses of both the Hβ and He II emission lines to the driving continuum changed significantly halfway through the campaign, a phenomenon also observed for C IV, Lyα, He II(+O III]), and Si IV(+O IV]) during the same monitoring period. Finally, given the optical luminosity of NGC 5548 during our campaign, the measured Hβ lag is a factor of five shorter than the expected value implied by the R BLR-L AGN relation based on the past behavior of NGC 5548.

  3. PolarHub: A Global Hub for Polar Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a NSF project in developing a large-scale web crawler PolarHub to discover automatically the distributed polar dataset in the format of OGC web services (OWS) in the cyberspace. PolarHub is a machine robot; its goal is to visit as many webpages as possible to find those containing information about polar OWS, extract this information and store it into the backend data repository. This is a very challenging task given huge data volume of webpages on the Web. Three unique features was introduced in PolarHub to make it distinctive from earlier crawler solutions: (1) a multi-task, multi-user, multi-thread support to the crawling tasks; (2) an extensive use of thread pool and Data Access Object (DAO) design patterns to separate persistent data storage and business logic to achieve high extendibility of the crawler tool; (3) a pattern-matching based customizable crawling algorithm to support discovery of multi-type geospatial web services; and (4) a universal and portable client-server communication mechanism combining a server-push and client pull strategies for enhanced asynchronous processing. A series of experiments were conducted to identify the impact of crawling parameters to the overall system performance. The geographical distribution pattern of all PolarHub identified services is also demonstrated. We expect this work to make a major contribution to the field of geospatial information retrieval and geospatial interoperability, to bridge the gap between data provider and data consumer, and to accelerate polar science by enhancing the accessibility and reusability of adequate polar data.

  4. Modeling optical and UV polarization of AGNs. IV. Polarization timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Lobos, P. A.; Goosmann, R. W.; Marin, F.; Savić, D.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Optical observations cannot resolve the structure of active galactic nuclei (AGN), and a unified model for AGN was inferred mostly from indirect methods, such as spectroscopy and variability studies. Optical reverberation mapping allowed us to constrain the spatial dimension of the broad emission line region and thereby to measure the mass of supermassive black holes. Recently, reverberation was also applied to the polarized signal emerging from different AGN components. In principle, this should allow us to measure the spatial dimensions of the sub-parsec reprocessing media. Aim. We conduct numerical modeling of polarization reverberation and provide theoretical predictions for the polarization time lag induced by different AGN components. The model parameters are adjusted to the observational appearance of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. Methods: We modeled scattering-induced polarization and tested different geometries for the circumnuclear dust component. Our tests included the effects of clumpiness and different dust prescriptions. To further extend the model, we also explored the effects of additional ionized winds stretched along the polar direction, and of an equatorial scattering ring that is responsible for the polarization angle observed in pole-on AGN. The simulations were run using a time-dependent version of the STOKES code. Results: Our modeling confirms the previously found polarization characteristics as a function of the observer`s viewing angle. When the dust adopts a flared-disk geometry, the lags reveal a clear difference between type 1 and type 2 AGN. This distinction is less clear for a torus geometry where the time lag is more sensitive to the geometry and optical depth of the inner surface layers of the funnel. The presence of a scattering equatorial ring and ionized outflows increased the recorded polarization time lags, and the polar outflows smooths out dependence on viewing angle, especially for the higher optical depth of the

  5. Graphics of polar figure; Graficado de figura polar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R

    1991-11-15

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  6. We Must Invest in Applied Knowledge of Computational Neurosciences and Neuroinformatics as an Important Future in Malaysia: The Malaysian Brain Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumari, Putra; Idris, Zamzuri; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2017-01-01

    The Academy of Sciences Malaysia and the Malaysian Industry-Government group for High Technology has been working hard to project the future of big data and neurotechnology usage up to the year 2050. On the 19 September 2016, the International Brain Initiative was announced by US Under Secretary of State Thomas Shannon at a meeting that accompanied the United Nations’ General Assembly in New York City. This initiative was seen as an important effort but deemed costly for developing countries. At a concurrent meeting hosted by the US National Science Foundation at Rockefeller University, numerous countries discussed this massive project, which would require genuine collaboration between investigators in the realms of neuroethics. Malaysia’s readiness to embark on using big data in the field of brain, mind and neurosciences is to prepare for the 4th Industrial Revolution which is an important investment for the country’s future. The development of new strategies has also been encouraged by the involvement of the Society of Brain Mapping and Therapeutics, USA and the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility. PMID:28381924

  7. We Must Invest in Applied Knowledge of Computational Neurosciences and Neuroinformatics as an Important Future in Malaysia: The Malaysian Brain Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumari, Putra; Idris, Zamzuri; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2017-03-01

    The Academy of Sciences Malaysia and the Malaysian Industry-Government group for High Technology has been working hard to project the future of big data and neurotechnology usage up to the year 2050. On the 19 September 2016, the International Brain Initiative was announced by US Under Secretary of State Thomas Shannon at a meeting that accompanied the United Nations' General Assembly in New York City. This initiative was seen as an important effort but deemed costly for developing countries. At a concurrent meeting hosted by the US National Science Foundation at Rockefeller University, numerous countries discussed this massive project, which would require genuine collaboration between investigators in the realms of neuroethics. Malaysia's readiness to embark on using big data in the field of brain, mind and neurosciences is to prepare for the 4th Industrial Revolution which is an important investment for the country's future. The development of new strategies has also been encouraged by the involvement of the Society of Brain Mapping and Therapeutics, USA and the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility.

  8. A spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection map for patient dose evaluation: A new first line patient quality assurance tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Weigang; Graff, Pierre; Boettger, Thomas; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); and others

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To develop a spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection (DD-MIP) as an online patient dose evaluation tool for visualizing the dose differences between the planning dose and dose on the treatment day. Methods: Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT) images acquired on the treatment day are used for generating the dose difference index. Each index is represented by different colors for underdose, acceptable, and overdose regions. A maximal intensity projection (MIP) algorithm is developed to compress all the information of an arbitrary 3D dose difference index into a 2D DD-MIP image. In such an algorithm, a distance transformation is generated based on the planning CT. Then, two new volumes representing the overdose and underdose regions of the dose difference index are encoded with the distance transformation map. The distance-encoded indices of each volume are normalized using the skin distance obtained on the planning CT. After that, two MIPs are generated based on the underdose and overdose volumes with green-to-blue and green-to-red lookup tables, respectively. Finally, the two MIPs are merged with an appropriate transparency level and rendered in planning CT images. Results: The spatially encoded DD-MIP was implemented in a dose-guided radiotherapy prototype and tested on 33 MVCBCT images from six patients. The user can easily establish the threshold for the overdose and underdose. A 3% difference between the treatment and planning dose was used as the threshold in the study; hence, the DD-MIP shows red or blue color for the dose difference >3% or {<=}3%, respectively. With such a method, the overdose and underdose regions can be visualized and distinguished without being overshadowed by superficial dose differences. Conclusions: A DD-MIP algorithm was developed that compresses information from 3D into a single or two orthogonal projections while hinting the user whether the dose difference is on the skin surface or deeper.

  9. A spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection map for patient dose evaluation: a new first line patient quality assurance tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weigang; Graff, Pierre; Boettger, Thomas; Pouliot, Jean

    2011-04-01

    To develop a spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection (DD-MIP) as an online patient dose evaluation tool for visualizing the dose differences between the planning dose and dose on the treatment day. Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT) images acquired on the treatment day are used for generating the dose difference index. Each index is represented by different colors for underdose, acceptable, and overdose regions. A maximal intensity projection (MIP) algorithm is developed to compress all the information of an arbitrary 3D dose difference index into a 2D DD-MIP image. In such an algorithm, a distance transformation is generated based on the planning CT. Then, two new volumes representing the overdose and underdose regions of the dose difference index are encoded with the distance transformation map. The distance-encoded indices of each volume are normalized using the skin distance obtained on the planning CT. After that, two MIPs are generated based on the underdose and overdose volumes with green-to-blue and green-to-red lookup tables, respectively. Finally, the two MIPs are merged with an appropriate transparency level and rendered in planning CT images. The spatially encoded DD-MIP was implemented in a dose-guided radiotherapy prototype and tested on 33 MVCBCT images from six patients. The user can easily establish the threshold for the overdose and underdose. A 3% difference between the treatment and planning dose was used as the threshold in the study; hence, the DD-MIP shows red or blue color for the dose difference > 3% or < or = 3%, respectively. With such a method, the overdose and underdose regions can be visualized and distinguished without being overshadowed by superficial dose differences. A DD-MIP algorithm was developed that compresses information from 3D into a single or two orthogonal projections while hinting the user whether the dose difference is on the skin surface or deeper.

  10. Minimising street work disruption by mapping cavities derived from 3D GPR-data: a new sewerage project in Torrente (Valencia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Ana; Garcia, Francisco; Ramirez, Manuel; Benlloch, Javier

    2015-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar is usually employed for non-destructive detection of cavities in karst areas and road maintenance. This paper describes the inspection for cavity detection in a street located in Torrente (Valencia, Spain) where a new sewerage project was planned. Torrente population growth (more than 80,000 inhabitants last year) has caused urban development southwards from its downtown. According to municipality geologic configuration, new urbanized areas are located in mountains composed of limestone with presence of karst systems. During excavation work for a sewerage system installation, a 4 x 2 x 1.5 m shallow cave was found in one planned street. For this reason, digging activities were stopped and a GPR survey was carried out on the street. A 1x1 m grid was collected using a GSSI SIR-3000 equipment. A 400 MHz frequency antenna was used for reaching 2.5 m approx. depth, attending the characteristics of the discovered cave and the excavation project depth. GPR records were calibrated in situ, thanks to the unearthed cavity. The 3D GPR-data interpretation mapped several caves only on one side of the street. The detected cavities coincided with the sewerage system layout. These underground spaces were isolated from each other, as small individual karst caves. The outcomes of this study allowed the modification of the sewerage project. Therefore, the sewerage system layout was moved to the other side of the street where no cavities were detected with the GPR survey. GPR is proved to be an efficient tool to be taken into consideration by civil engineers and architects for designing new infrastructures (e.g. sewerage systems) in urban planning areas. We conclude GPR helps minimising cost, time and inconveniences to neighbourhood during excavation works, especially in cities.

  11. Modified Polar-Format Software for Processing SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Curtis

    2003-01-01

    HMPF is a computer program that implements a modified polar-format algorithm for processing data from spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) systems. Unlike prior polar-format processing algorithms, this algorithm is based on the assumption that the radar signal wavefronts are spherical rather than planar. The algorithm provides for resampling of SAR pulse data from slant range to radial distance from the center of a reference sphere that is nominally the local Earth surface. Then, invoking the projection-slice theorem, the resampled pulse data are Fourier-transformed over radial distance, arranged in the wavenumber domain according to the acquisition geometry, resampled to a Cartesian grid, and inverse-Fourier-transformed. The result of this process is the focused SAR image. HMPF, and perhaps other programs that implement variants of the algorithm, may give better accuracy than do prior algorithms for processing strip-map SAR data from high altitudes and may give better phase preservation relative to prior polar-format algorithms for processing spotlight-mode SAR data.

  12. Observations on Polar Coding with CRC-Aided List Decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    project “More Reliable Wireless Communications Through Polar Codes” to study polar codes, and determine if polar codes can outperform the forward...Redundancy Check - Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia.” Available online at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclic_redundancy_check. Accessed Septem- ber 30

  13. Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Hoogveld, Bert; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., Hoogveld, A. W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands; EU Forlic project.

  14. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  15. Project COLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  16. THE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Latyshev

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "Urals Industrial - Urals Polar" is the unique project and thus it will provide the economic security not only of the local territory but of the whole Russia in terms of several courses. This article is devoted to the main courses of these ones and their influence on the economy of the country.

  17. Mars geologic mapping program: Review and highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David H.

    1991-06-01

    The Mars Geologic Mapping (MGM) Program was introduced by NASA in 1987 as a new initiative in the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program. The overall purpose of the program is to support research on topical science problems that address specific questions. Among the objectives of the project are: (1) to produce highly detailed geologic maps that will greatly increase the knowledge of the materials and processes that have contributed to the evolutionary history of Mars; (2) to define areas of special interest for possible future investigation by planned missions (Mars Observer, Mars Sample Return); and (3) to maintain the interest of the planetary community in the development of new concepts and the re-evaluation of Martian geology as new data in usable form become available. Some interesting highlights of the geologic mapping indicate that multiple flood episodes occurred at different times during the Hesperian Period in both Kasei and Maja Valles. Studies of small channels in the Memnonia, Mangala, and Tharsis regions show that fluvial events appear to have occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters from Mangala Valles may have seeped into surficial materials with the subsequent development of numerous sapping channels and debris flows; this suggests that the ancient highland terrain consists of relatively unconsolidated materials. Multiple layers were observed for the first time in the ridged plains lava flows covering large areas of Lunae Planum; some wrinkle ridges in this area are associated with grabens and collapse volcanic units at Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae indicates that the units may have been emplaced by gravity-driven pyroclastic flows. Unlike the north polar layered deposits, those in the south polar region show no angular unconformities or evidence of faulting and folding. Water ice in the south polar layered deposits may be protected

  18. Representation of pheromones, interspecific signals, and plant odors in higher olfactory centers; mapping physiologically identified antennal-lobe projection neurons in the male heliothine moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Cheng eZhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the primary olfactory centre of the moth brain, for example, a few enlarged glomeruli situated dorsally, at the entrance of the antennal nerve, are devoted to information about female-produced substances whereas a set of more numerous ordinary glomeruli receives input about general odorants. Heliothine moths are particularly suitable for studying central chemosensory mechanisms not only because of their anatomically separated systems for plant odours and pheromones but also due to their use of female-produced substances in communication across the species. Thus, the male-specific system of heliothine moths includes two sub arrangements, one ensuring attraction and mating behavior by carrying information about pheromones released by conspecifics, and the other reproductive isolation via signal information emitted from heterospecifics. Based on previous tracing experiments, a general chemotopic organization of the male-specific glomeruli has been demonstrated in a number of heliothine species. As compared to the well explored organization of the moth antennal lobe, demonstrating a non-overlapping representation of the biologically relevant stimuli, less is known about the neural arrangement residing at the following synaptic level, i.e. the mushroom body calyces and the lateral horn. In the study presented here, we have labelled physiologically characterized antennal-lobe projection neurons in males of the two heliothine species, Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa assulta, for the purpose of mapping their target regions in the protocerebrum. In order to compare the representation of plant odours, pheromones, and interspecific signals in the higher brain regions of each species, we have created standard brain atlases and registered three-dimensional models of distinct uniglomerular projection neuron types into the relevant atlas.

  19. Radioelement mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Construction and Use of Calibration Facilities for Radiometric Field Equipment, Technical Reports Series No. 309 (1989). This report should be read in combination with other IAEA reports which describe the use of uranium exploration data and techniques applied to the preparation of radioelement maps and the establishment of guidelines for radioelement mapping using gamma ray spectrometry. It is also recommended that this report be read in combination with the UNESCO Final Report of the International Geological Correlation Programme Project 259. That report analysed methods and inconsistencies in geochemical mapping and specified the requirements for a global geochemical database. Specifically, the report recommended the establishment of a global geochemical database for environmental and resource management. In addition, gamma ray spectrometry was introduced as a fundamental method for radioelement mapping

  20. Consumer-based product characterization using Pivot Profile, Projective Mapping and Check-all-that-apply (CATA): A comparative case with Greek yogurt samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmerino, Erick A; Tavares Filho, Elson R; Thomas Carr, B; Ferraz, Juliana P; Silva, Hugo L A; Pinto, Letícia P F; Freitas, Mônica Q; Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2017-09-01

    Product characterization has been a primary concern for the food industry, and methodologies based on consumers' perceptions have become popular and widely used by industries to replace classical methods. Although there are several studies on other methods, the potential of reference-based one such as Pivot Profile is still little explored. Therefore, the aims of this study were to characterize Greek yogurt samples according to consumers' perceptions using three different methodologies: Pivot Profile (PP), Check-all-that-apply (CATA), and Projective Mapping (PM), and to assess which method is easier for consumers to describe products. The rapid methodologies assessed were equally effective in characterizing the different samples; however, some drawbacks evidenced in the study can help in targeting and choosing the best method to perform the sensory characterization. Pivot Profile showed some advantages, bypassing some limitations presented by the other methods. In addition, its experimental versatility also allows for broad applications evidencing the PP technique as a promising tool for routine use. Some implications of using it were also discussed. We suggest the supplemental use of Multidimensional Alignment (MDA) as it shows more accurately the correlations between attributes and samples, especially in the case of PP data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Scattering Polarization in Solar Flares

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpán, Jiří; Heinzel, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 778, č. 1 (2013), L6/1-L6/6 ISSN 2041-8205 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/1652; GA ČR GPP209/12/P741 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : line formation * polarization * radiative transfer Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.602, year: 2013

  2. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live......In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  3. Hydrogen Distribution in the Lunar Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Bakhtin, B. N.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Harshmann, K.; Fedosov, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a method of conversion of the lunar neutron counting rate measured by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument collimated neutron detectors, to water equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in the top approximately 1 m layer of lunar regolith. Polar maps of the Moon’s inferred hydrogen abundance are presented and discussed.

  4. Optical Modeling and Polarization Calibration for CMB Measurements with Actpol and Advanced Actpol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Brian; Austermann, Jason; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Coughlin, Kevin P.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) is a polarization sensitive upgrade to the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, located at an elevation of 5190 m on Cerro Toco in Chile. ACTPol uses transition edge sensor bolometers coupled to orthomode transducers to measure both the temperature and polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Calibration of the detector angles is a critical step in producing polarization maps of the CMB. Polarization angle offsets in the detector calibration can cause leakage in polarization from E to B modes and induce a spurious signal in the EB and TB cross correlations, which eliminates our ability to measure potential cosmological sources of EB and TB signals, such as cosmic birefringence. We calibrate the ACTPol detector angles by ray tracing the designed detector angle through the entire optical chain to determine the projection of each detector angle on the sky. The distribution of calibrated detector polarization angles are consistent with a global offset angle from zero when compared to the EB-nulling offset angle, the angle required to null the EB cross-correlation power spectrum. We present the optical modeling process. The detector angles can be cross checked through observations of known polarized sources, whether this be a galactic source or a laboratory reference standard. To cross check the ACTPol detector angles, we use a thin film polarization grid placed in front of the receiver of the telescope, between the receiver and the secondary reflector. Making use of a rapidly rotating half-wave plate (HWP) mount we spin the polarizing grid at a constant speed, polarizing and rotating the incoming atmospheric signal. The resulting sinusoidal signal is used to determine the detector angles. The optical modeling calibration was shown to be consistent with a global offset angle of zero when compared to EB nulling in the first ACTPol results and will continue to be a part of our calibration implementation. The first

  5. Preserving Geological Samples and Metadata from Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, A.; Sjunneskog, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Office of Polar Programs at the National Science Foundation (NSF-OPP) has long recognized the value of preserving earth science collections due to the inherent logistical challenges and financial costs of collecting geological samples from Polar Regions. NSF-OPP established two national facilities to make Antarctic geological samples and drill cores openly and freely available for research. The Antarctic Marine Geology Research Facility (AMGRF) at Florida State University was established in 1963 and archives Antarctic marine sediment cores, dredge samples and smear slides along with ship logs. The United States Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) at Ohio State University was established in 2003 and archives polar rock samples, marine dredges, unconsolidated materials and terrestrial cores, along with associated materials such as field notes, maps, raw analytical data, paleomagnetic cores, thin sections, microfossil mounts, microslides and residues. The existence of the AMGRF and USPRR helps to minimize redundant sample collecting, lessen the environmental impact of doing polar field work, facilitates field logistics planning and complies with the data sharing requirement of the Antarctic Treaty. USPRR acquires collections through donations from institutions and scientists and then makes these samples available as no-cost loans for research, education and museum exhibits. The AMGRF acquires sediment cores from US based and international collaboration drilling projects in Antarctica. Destructive research techniques are allowed on the loaned samples and loan requests are accepted from any accredited scientific institution in the world. Currently, the USPRR has more than 22,000 cataloged rock samples available to scientists from around the world. All cataloged samples are relabeled with a USPRR number, weighed, photographed and measured for magnetic susceptibility. Many aspects of the sample metadata are included in the database, e.g. geographical location, sample

  6. Picard-Fuchs uniformization and modularity of the mirror map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    Arithmetic properties of mirror symmetry (type IIA-IIB string duality) are studied. We give criteria for the mirror map q-series of certain families of Calabi-Yau manifolds to be automorphic functions. For families of elliptic curves and lattice polarized K3 surfaces with surjective period mappings, global Torelli theorems allow one to present these criteria in terms of the ramification behavior of natural algebraic invariants - the functional and generalized functional invariants respectively. In particular, when applied to one parameter families of rank 19 lattice polarized K3 surfaces, our criterion demystifies the mirror-Moonshine phenomenon of Lian and Yau and highlights its non-monstrous nature. The lack of global Torelli theorems and presence of instanton corrections makes Calabi-Yau threefold families more complicated. Via the constraints of special geometry, the Picard-Fuchs equations for one parameter families of Calabi-Yau threefolds imply a differential equation criterion for automorphicity of the mirror map in terms of the Yukawa coupling. In the absence of instanton corrections, the projective periods map to a twisted cubic space curve. A hierarchy of ''algebraic'' instanton corrections correlated with the differential Galois group of the Picard-Fuchs equation is proposed. (orig.)

  7. A single-shot T2mapping protocol based on echo-split gradient-spin-echo acquisition and parametric multiplexed sensitivity encoding based on projection onto convex sets reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Mei-Lan; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Oshio, Koichi; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2018-01-01

    To develop a high-speed T 2 mapping protocol that is capable of accurately measuring T 2 relaxation time constants from a single-shot acquisition. A new echo-split single-shot gradient-spin-echo (GRASE) pulse sequence is developed to acquire multicontrast data while suppressing signals from most nonprimary echo pathways in Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) echoes. Residual nonprimary pathway signals are taken into consideration when performing T 2 mapping using a parametric multiplexed sensitivity encoding based on projection onto convex sets (parametric-POCSMUSE) reconstruction method that incorporates extended phase graph modeling of GRASE signals. The single-shot echo-split GRASE-based T 2 mapping procedure was evaluated in human studies at 3 Tesla. The acquired data were compared with reference data obtained with a more time-consuming interleaved spin-echo echo planar imaging protocol. T 2 maps derived from conventional single-shot GRASE scans, in which nonprimary echo pathways were not appropriately addressed, were also evaluated. Using the developed single-shot T 2 mapping protocol, quantitatively accurate T 2 maps can be obtained with a short scan time (parametric-POCSMUSE reconstruction. Magn Reson Med 79:383-393, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  9. Star-Mapping Tools Enable Tracking of Endangered Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Software programmer Jason Holmberg of Portland, Oregon, partnered with a Goddard Space Flight Center astrophysicist to develop a method for tracking the elusive whale shark using the unique spot patterns on the fish s skin. Employing a star-mapping algorithm originally designed for the Hubble Space Telescope, Holmberg created the Shepherd Project, a photograph database and pattern-matching system that can identify whale sharks by their spots and match images contributed to the database by photographers from around the world. The system has been adapted for tracking other rare and endangered animals, including polar bears and ocean sunfish.

  10. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: BIASES IN z  > 1.46 REDSHIFTS DUE TO QUASAR DIVERSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denney, K. D.; Peterson, B. M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J.; Trump, J. R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ge, J., E-mail: denney@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Astronomy Department University of Florida 211 Bryant Space Science Center P.O. Box 112055 Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We use the coadded spectra of 32 epochs of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Reverberation Mapping Project observations of 482 quasars with z  > 1.46 to highlight systematic biases in the SDSS- and Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS)-pipeline redshifts due to the natural diversity of quasar properties. We investigate the characteristics of this bias by comparing the BOSS-pipeline redshifts to an estimate from the centroid of He ii λ 1640. He ii has a low equivalent width but is often well-defined in high-S/N spectra, does not suffer from self-absorption, and has a narrow component which, when present (the case for about half of our sources), produces a redshift estimate that, on average, is consistent with that determined from [O ii] to within the He ii and [O ii] centroid measurement uncertainties. The large redshift differences of ∼1000 km s{sup −1}, on average, between the BOSS-pipeline and He ii-centroid redshifts, suggest there are significant biases in a portion of BOSS quasar redshift measurements. Adopting the He ii-based redshifts shows that C iv does not exhibit a ubiquitous blueshift for all quasars, given the precision probed by our measurements. Instead, we find a distribution of C iv-centroid blueshifts across our sample, with a dynamic range that (i) is wider than that previously reported for this line, and (ii) spans C iv centroids from those consistent with the systemic redshift to those with significant blueshifts of thousands of kilometers per second. These results have significant implications for measurement and use of high-redshift quasar properties and redshifts, and studies based thereon.

  11. Proximity effect correction using multilevel area density maps for character projection based electron beam direct writing toward 14 nm node and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Kozo; Hoshino, Hiromi; Maruyama, Takashi; Machida, Yasuhide; Sugatani, Shinji

    2012-03-01

    We propose an advanced proximity effect correction method, in which all patterns of various sizes are written by character projection (CP) method, and the dose modulation and the auxiliary shot generation are performed using multiple area density maps with different mesh sizes according to the range of electron scatterings. We investigated the possibility that all patterns of various sizes could be written by using small number of CP characters of a single line with fixed width, which is called the "master-CP". We then estimated the range of the designed line width that can be supported by a master-CP and the number of master-CPs which are needed in order to support all patterns of various sizes. We found that only 5-7 master-CPs are required in terms of the dose margin, the rate of increase in the correction dose caused by using the master-CP of different width from the design pattern and the shot positioning error, and they have a low impact on the CP mask. Moreover, we estimated the effect of auxiliary shots on the throughput for 14 nm node technology. The percentage of auxiliary shots in the exposure time was less than 12.1%, even though a test pattern data was made by shrinking a 65 nm node logic LSI where the layout did not repeat very regularly. Therefore, as the layout becomes regularly-repeated to 14 nm node, the effect of the auxiliary shots would not be a dominant factor for the throughput.

  12. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: BIASES IN z  > 1.46 REDSHIFTS DUE TO QUASAR DIVERSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, K. D.; Peterson, B. M.; Horne, Keith; Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J.; Trump, J. R.; Ho, Luis C.; Ge, J.

    2016-01-01

    We use the coadded spectra of 32 epochs of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Reverberation Mapping Project observations of 482 quasars with z  > 1.46 to highlight systematic biases in the SDSS- and Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS)-pipeline redshifts due to the natural diversity of quasar properties. We investigate the characteristics of this bias by comparing the BOSS-pipeline redshifts to an estimate from the centroid of He ii λ 1640. He ii has a low equivalent width but is often well-defined in high-S/N spectra, does not suffer from self-absorption, and has a narrow component which, when present (the case for about half of our sources), produces a redshift estimate that, on average, is consistent with that determined from [O ii] to within the He ii and [O ii] centroid measurement uncertainties. The large redshift differences of ∼1000 km s −1 , on average, between the BOSS-pipeline and He ii-centroid redshifts, suggest there are significant biases in a portion of BOSS quasar redshift measurements. Adopting the He ii-based redshifts shows that C iv does not exhibit a ubiquitous blueshift for all quasars, given the precision probed by our measurements. Instead, we find a distribution of C iv-centroid blueshifts across our sample, with a dynamic range that (i) is wider than that previously reported for this line, and (ii) spans C iv centroids from those consistent with the systemic redshift to those with significant blueshifts of thousands of kilometers per second. These results have significant implications for measurement and use of high-redshift quasar properties and redshifts, and studies based thereon.

  13. Polarized Moessbauer transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the emission, absorption and scattering of polarized gamma rays are reviewed for a general case of combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions; various possibilities of obtaining polarized gamma sources are described and examples are given of the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with polarized gamma rays in solving problems of solid state physics. (A.K.)

  14. Effects of a Question Prompt-Based Concept Mapping Approach on Students' Learning Achievements, Attitudes and 5C Competences in Project-Based Computer Course Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Ying; Huang, Iwen; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Concept mapping has been widely used in various fields to facilitate students' organization of knowledge. Previous studies have, however, pointed out that it is difficult for students to construct concept maps from the abundant searched data without appropriate scaffolding. Thus, researchers have suggested that students could produce high quality…

  15. MAP OF NASCA GEOGLYPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanzalová

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Technical University in Prague in the cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences in Dresden (Germany work on the Nasca Project. The cooperation started in 2004 and much work has been done since then. All work is connected with Nasca lines in southern Peru. The Nasca project started in 1995 and its main target is documentation and conservation of the Nasca lines. Most of the project results are presented as WebGIS application via Internet. In the face of the impending destruction of the soil drawings, it is possible to preserve this world cultural heritage for the posterity at least in a digital form. Creating of Nasca lines map is very useful. The map is in a digital form and it is also available as a paper map. The map contains planimetric component of the map, map lettering and altimetry. Thematic folder in this map is a vector layer of the geoglyphs in Nasca/Peru. Basis for planimetry are georeferenced satellite images, altimetry is created from digital elevation model. This map was created in ArcGis software.

  16. Map of Nasca Geoglyphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzalová, K.; Pavelka, K.

    2013-07-01

    The Czech Technical University in Prague in the cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences in Dresden (Germany) work on the Nasca Project. The cooperation started in 2004 and much work has been done since then. All work is connected with Nasca lines in southern Peru. The Nasca project started in 1995 and its main target is documentation and conservation of the Nasca lines. Most of the project results are presented as WebGIS application via Internet. In the face of the impending destruction of the soil drawings, it is possible to preserve this world cultural heritage for the posterity at least in a digital form. Creating of Nasca lines map is very useful. The map is in a digital form and it is also available as a paper map. The map contains planimetric component of the map, map lettering and altimetry. Thematic folder in this map is a vector layer of the geoglyphs in Nasca/Peru. Basis for planimetry are georeferenced satellite images, altimetry is created from digital elevation model. This map was created in ArcGis software.

  17. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  18. Multi-Waveband Emission Maps of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    ray bright blazars designed to locate the emission regions of blazars from radio to -ray frequencies. The `maps' are anchored by sequences of images in both total and polarized intensity obtained with the VLBA at an angular ...

  19. Research on Polarization Cancellation of Nonstationary Ionosphere Clutter in HF Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingpeng Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oblique projection polarization filter (OPPF can be applied as an effective approach for interference cancellation in high-frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR and other systems. In order to suppress the nonstationary ionosphere clutter further, a novel OPPF based clutter suppressing scheme is proposed in this paper. The polarization and nonstationary characteristic of the clutter are taken into account in the algorithms referred to as range-Doppler domain polarization suppression (RDDPS and the range-time domain polarization suppression (RTDPS method, respectively. The RDDPS is designed for weak ionosphere clutter and implemented in the range-Doppler domain directly, whereas the RTDPS algorithm is designed to suppress the powerful ionosphere clutter with a multisegment estimation and suppression scheme. About 15–23 dB signal to interference ratio (SIR improvement can be excepted when using the proposed method, whereas the targets can be more easily detected in the range-Doppler map. Experimental results demonstrate that the scheme proposed is effective for nonstationary ionosphere clutter and is proven to be a practical interference cancellation technique for HFSWR.

  20. Exploring Science Through Polar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bell, R. E.; Zadoff, L.; Kelsey, R.

    2003-12-01

    Exploring the Poles is a First Year Seminar course taught at Barnard College, Columbia University. First Year Seminars are required of incoming students and are designed to encourage critical analysis in a small class setting with focused discussion. The class links historical polar exploration with current research in order to: introduce non-scientists to the value of environmental science through polar literature; discuss issues related to venturing into the unknown that are of relevance to any discipline: self-reliance, leadership, preparation, decisions under uncertainty; show students the human face of science; change attitudes about science and scientists; use data to engage students in exploring/understanding the environment and help them learn to draw conclusions from data; integrate research and education. These goals are met by bringing analysis of early exploration efforts together with a modern understanding of the polar environment. To date to class has followed the efforts of Nansen in the Fram, Scott and Amundsen in their race to the pole, and Shackleton's Endurance. As students read turn-of-the-century expedition journals, expedition progress is progressively revealed on an interactive map showing the environmental context. To bring the exploration process to life, students are assigned to expedition teams for specific years and the fates of the student "expeditions" are based on their own decisions. For example, in the Arctic, they navigate coastal sea ice and become frozen into the ice north of Siberia, re-creating Nansen's polar drift. Fates of the teams varied tremendously: some safely emerged at Fram Strait in 4 years, while others nearly became hopelessly lost in the Beaufort Gyre. Students thus learn about variability in the current polar environment through first hand experience, enabling them to appreciate the experiences, decisions, and, in some cases, the luck, of polar explorers. Evaluation by the Columbia Center for New Media, Teaching

  1. [Review] Polarization and Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, Sascha

    2014-02-01

    Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/γ wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astronomical masers, pulsars, galactic magnetic fields, gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and cosmic microwave background radiation.

  2. Polar bears and sea ice habitat change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.; Butterworth, Andy

    2017-01-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is an obligate apex predator of Arctic sea ice and as such can be affected by climate warming-induced changes in the extent and composition of pack ice and its impacts on their seal prey. Sea ice declines have negatively impacted some polar bear subpopulations through reduced energy input because of loss of hunting habitats, higher energy costs due to greater ice drift, ice fracturing and open water, and ultimately greater challenges to recruit young. Projections made from the output of global climate models suggest that polar bears in peripheral Arctic and sub-Arctic seas will be reduced in numbers or become extirpated by the end of the twenty-first century if the rate of climate warming continues on its present trajectory. The same projections also suggest that polar bears may persist in the high-latitude Arctic where heavy multiyear sea ice that has been typical in that region is being replaced by thinner annual ice. Underlying physical and biological oceanography provides clues as to why polar bear in some regions are negatively impacted, while bears in other regions have shown no apparent changes. However, continued declines in sea ice will eventually challenge the survival of polar bears and efforts to conserve them in all regions of the Arctic.

  3. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-09-28

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  4. Polarization in Sagittarius A*

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Geoffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    We summarize the current state of polarization observations of Sagittarius A*, the compact radio source and supermassive black hole candidate in the Galactic Center. These observations are providing new tools for understanding accretion disks, jets and their environments. Linear polarization observations have shown that Sgr A* is unpolarized at frequencies as high as 86 GHz. However, recent single-dish observations indicate that Sgr A* may have strong linear polarization at frequencies higher...

  5. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Telescope for Polarization - BLASTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Mark

    We are proposing a comprehensive program to study the link between Galactic magnetic fields and star formation. After decades of study, the physical processes regulating star formation still remain poorly understood. Large-scale observations of star forming regions provide counts of the number of dense clouds each of which will eventually evolve into tens to hundreds of stars. However, when simple models of gravitational collapse are applied to the clouds they yield a Galactic star formation rate (SFR) which is many times what is actually observed. Some process or combination of processes must be slowing the collapse of the clouds. The two prevailing theories involve turbulence which prevents the effective dissipation of energy and Galactic magnetic fields which are captured and squeezed by the collapsing cloud provide a mechanism for mechanical support. Understanding these effects fits very well the SMD 2010 Science Plan's Cosmic Origins program. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Telescope - BLAST was originally designed to conduct confusion-limited and wide-area extragalactic and Galactic surveys at submillimeter wavelengths from a long-duration balloon (LDB) platform. These wavelengths are impossible or very difficult to observe from even the best groundbased telescope sites. After a series of successful flights (Ft. Sumner 2003, Sweden 2005, and Antarctica 2006) resulting in over 25 publications, BLAST was converted to BLASTPol. The combination of a polarizing grid in front of each of the 266 feed horns at 250, 350 and 500 micron with a stepped Half Wave Plate (HWP) provided a quick and inexpensive way to make initial measurements of polarized dust emission in star forming regions. By mapping polarization from dust grains aligned with respect to their local magnetic field, the field orientation (projected on the sky) can be traced. The development of the Next Generation BLASTPol instrument is now complete. It has increased spatial resolution (22 arcseconds at

  6. Electrochemical regulation of budding yeast polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Haupt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cells are naturally surrounded by organized electrical signals in the form of local ion fluxes, membrane potential, and electric fields (EFs at their surface. Although the contribution of electrochemical elements to cell polarity and migration is beginning to be appreciated, underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we show that an exogenous EF can orient cell polarization in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, directing the growth of mating projections towards sites of hyperpolarized membrane potential, while directing bud emergence in the opposite direction, towards sites of depolarized potential. Using an optogenetic approach, we demonstrate that a local change in membrane potential triggered by light is sufficient to direct cell polarization. Screens for mutants with altered EF responses identify genes involved in transducing electrochemical signals to the polarity machinery. Membrane potential, which is regulated by the potassium transporter Trk1p, is required for polarity orientation during mating and EF response. Membrane potential may regulate membrane charges through negatively charged phosphatidylserines (PSs, which act to position the Cdc42p-based polarity machinery. These studies thus define an electrochemical pathway that directs the orientation of cell polarization.

  7. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  8. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  9. Polarized gas targets for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    It is widely recognized that polarized gas targets in electron storage rings represent a new opportunity for precision nuclear physics studies. New developments in polarized target technology specific to internal applications will be discussed. In particular, polarized gas targets have been used in the VEPP-3 electron ring in Novosibirsk. A simple storage cell was used to increase the total target thickness by a factor of 15 over the simple gas jet target from an atomic beam source. Results from the initial phase of this project will be reported. In addition, the plans for increasing the luminosity by an additional order or magnitude will be presented. The application of this work to polarized hydrogen and deuterium targets for the HERA ring will be noted. The influence of beam-induced depolarization, a phenomena encountered in short-pulse electron storage rings, will be discussed. Finally, the performance tests of laser-driven sources will be presented. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  10. Image mosaic and topographic map of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Trent M.; Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Blue, Jennifer S.; Archinal, Brent A.

    2015-01-01

    Sheet 1: This image mosaic is based on data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera (WAC; Robinson and others, 2010), an instrument on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft (Tooley and others, 2010). The equatorial WAC images were orthorectified onto the Global Lunar Digital Terrain Mosaic (GLD100, WAC-derived 100 m/pixel digital elevation model; Scholten and others, 2012) while the polar images were orthorectified onto the lunar LOLA polar digital elevation models (Neumann and others, 2010). The Mercator projection is used between latitudes ±57°, with a central meridian at 0° longitude and latitude equal to the nominal scale at 0°. The Polar Stereographic projection is used for the regions north of the +55° parallel and south of the –55° parallel, with a central meridian set for both at 0° and a latitude of true scale at +90° and -90°, respectively. All named features greater than 85 km in diameter or length were included unless they were not visible on the map. Some selected well-known features less than 85 km in size were also included. For listed references, please open the full PDF.

  11. Projective geometry and projective metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    The basic results and methods of projective and non-Euclidean geometry are indispensable for the geometer, and this book--different in content, methods, and point of view from traditional texts--attempts to emphasize that fact. Results of special theorems are discussed in detail only when they are needed to develop a feeling for the subject or when they illustrate a general method. On the other hand, an unusual amount of space is devoted to the discussion of the fundamental concepts of distance, motion, area, and perpendicularity.Topics include the projective plane, polarities and conic sectio

  12. Historical Topographic Map Collection bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The goal of this project, which began publishing the historical scanned maps in 2011, is to provide a digital repository of USGS topographic maps, available to the public at no cost. For more than 125 years, USGS topographic maps have accurately portrayed the complex geography of the Nation. The USGS is the Nation’s largest producer of printed topographic maps, and prior to 2006, USGS topographic maps were created using traditional cartographic methods and printed using a lithographic printing process. As the USGS continues the release of a new generation of topographic maps (US Topo) in electronic form, the topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, land management planning, and leisure.

  13. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP 4 . A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  14. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D' Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R,; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; J.; Severino, F.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP{sup 4}. A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  15. Activities of the Middle East Quartet and Its Participants To Achieve Israeli-Palestinian Settlement Within The Road Map Project (2003 - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A. Leshchenya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most active phase in the work of the Quartet of international intermediaries was connected with the attempts to implement the Road Map plan for the Israeli-Palestinian peace settlement. The significance of the Road Map lies in the fact that it is the plan on the Israeli-Palestinian peace settlement which was, for the first time ever, collectively drafted by the global actors and accepted by both conflicting parties To facilitate the implementation of the Road Map, a peculiar "division of labour" based on historical roles which each member of the Quartet had played in the Middle East settlement, emerged inside the Quartet. The work of the Quartet as a collective intermediary was complemented by individual actions of its members which influenced or were supposed to influence the Road Map implementation. The complex analysis of the examined problem conducted by the author in accordance with his own criteria revealed that all other activities of the international intermediaries were, in one way or another, connected to the Road Map. They were either implemented mainly within the framework of the aforementioned peace plan, or were connected with the efforts to create conditions to get the parties back to implementation of that plan, or were aimed at including alternative programmes into the framework of the Road Map. Quartet's activities to implement the settlement plan couldn't avoid the influence by the United States and a special character of the US-Israeli relations. The US leading role in the work of the Quartet led to a series of events which aggravated the Israeli-Palestinian peace process and became decisive for further development of the conflict which in the end led to the current stalemate. Nevertheless, the very fact of the Quartet creation, which evidenced that even the most influential global actor has no power to solve all aspects of the regional conflict on its own, became a sign of gradual transformation of a unipolar world

  16. Our Polar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2009-01-01

    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  17. Terahertz polarization imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Van der Marel, W.A.M.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method to measure the polarization state of a terahertz pulse by using a modified electrooptic sampling setup. To illustrate the power of this method, we show two examples in which the knowledge of the polarization of the terahertz pulse is essential for interpreting the results:

  18. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  19. Polar Science Is Cool!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Children are fascinated by the fact that polar scientists do research in extremely cold and dangerous places. In the Arctic they might be viewed as lunch by a polar bear. In the Antarctic, they could lose toes and fingers to frostbite and the wind is so fast it can rip skin off. They camp on ice in continuous daylight, weeks from any form of…

  20. Onomastic Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Yu. Gordova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mapping the onomastic material and creating linguistic atlases of each region remains a significant and urgent problem of Russian onomastics. The paper summarizes the experience of onomastic cartography, and explains the concept of onomastic map as well as linguistic and technical principles of mapping. The author considers traditional objects of mapping and main map topics and describes new opportunities which become possible due to the creation of modern means and techniques of mapping. The paper is illustrated with toponymic maps, compiled by different researchers between 1970 and 2000.

  1. Precision Polarization of Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elise; Barron-Palos, Libertad; Couture, Aaron; Crawford, Christopher; Chupp, Tim; Danagoulian, Areg; Estes, Mary; Hona, Binita; Jones, Gordon; Klein, Andi; Penttila, Seppo; Sharma, Monisha; Wilburn, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Determining polarization of a cold neutron beam to high precision is required for the next generation neutron decay correlation experiments at the SNS, such as the proposed abBA and PANDA experiments. Precision polarimetry measurements were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the goal of determining the beam polarization to the level of 10-3 or better. The cold neutrons from FP12 were polarized using optically polarized ^3He gas as a spin filter, which has a highly spin-dependent absorption cross section. A second ^ 3He spin filter was used to analyze the neutron polarization after passing through a resonant RF spin rotator. A discussion of the experiment and results will be given.

  2. Optically polarized 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements. PMID:29503479

  3. Optically polarized 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements.

  4. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  5. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Doshita, N.; Finger Jr., M.; Finger, M.; Gautheron, F.; Goertz, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hess, C.; Horikawa, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kisselev, Y.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kondo, K.; Le Goff, J.M.; Magnon, A.; Marchand, C.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.; Srnka, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. F (2006), F295-F305 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : COMPASS * polarized target * Dilution refrigerator Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  6. The UNH polarized 3He program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersman, F. W.; Carrier, R. H.; Pomeroy, V. R.

    1998-01-01

    The UNH Nuclear Physics Group is developing polarized 3 He cells for use in approved experiments with electron beams and neutron beams. We also have begun to apply our expertise to magnetic resonance imaging experiments I list our projects and review several areas where we have been focusing our efforts

  7. Plasmaspheric hiss properties: Observations from Polar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Falkowski, B. J.; Pickett, J. S.; Santolík, Ondřej; Lakhina, G. S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2015), s. 414-431 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : plasmasphere * hiss * Polar Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020518/abstract

  8. Optical polarization in the Serpens Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.J.; Scarrott, S.M. (Durham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics); Taylor, K.N.R. (New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). School of Physics)

    1983-03-01

    Optical polarization maps are presented that indicate that the object is a reflection nebula illuminated by a highly obscured star that is itself seen through magnetically aligned grains. It is proposed that the dust grains overlying the central region of the nebula including the illuminating star are aligned by the local galactic magnetic field that permeates the dark cloud in which the nebula is situated. The formation of the nebula is discussed.

  9. The REFUEL EU road map for biofuels in transport: Application of the project's tools to some short-term policy issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londo, H.M.; Lensink, S.; Wakker, A.; Fischer, G.; Prieler, S.; van Velthuizen, H.; de Wit, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310873754; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Berndes, G.; Hansson, J.; Egeskog, A.; Duer, H.; Lundbaek, J.; Wisniewski, G.; Könighofer, K.

    2009-01-01

    The current hot debate on biofuels calls for a balanced and realistic long-term strategy for biofuels. The REFUEL project provides several ingredients for such a strategy. Analyses in this project indicate that domestically produced biofuels can cover a significant share of EU fuel demand in the

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Web Map Mind Tool Environment with the Theory of Spatial Thinking and Project-Based Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huei-Tse; Yu, Tsai-Fang; Wu, Yi-Xuan; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2016-01-01

    The theory of spatial thinking is relevant to the learning and teaching of many academic domains. One promising method to facilitate learners' higher-order thinking is to utilize a web map mind tool to assist learners in applying spatial thinking to cooperative problem solving. In this study, an environment is designed based on the theory of…

  11. Gravitational lensing effect and polarization of the cosmic microwave background in the PLANCK Experiment and post-planckian projects; Effet de lentilles gravitationnelles et polarisation du fond diffus cosmologique dans le cadre de l'experience PLANCK et de projets post-planckiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perotto, Laurence [Universite Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, UFR de Physique, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2006-01-15

    This thesis is motivated by the upcoming high-resolution, high-sensitivity microwave background experiments, which should be sensitive to the CMB polarization and lensing. The first chapter provides a review of the CMB polarization with emphasis on future related experiments. The PLANCK experiment is described in a second chapter, where I develop a fast simulation code of PLANCK time-ordered data optimized to ease elaboration and test of data analysis methods. The two last chapters deal with gravitational lensing of the cosmic background radiation. First, I evaluate the capability of the upcoming experiments mentioned above to measure the power spectrum of Large Scale Structure by means of the extraction of weak lensing. Then I derive their sensitivity to the total neutrino mass, using the suppression of power due to free-streaming of massive neutrinos. Finally, I develop a method to estimate the foreground effects in the gravitational lensing extraction process. This method uses the best linear estimator available in the literature and is validated by numerical simulations that include non-Gaussian CMB lensed maps and extra-galactic radio sources maps. I find that sources emission reduces the sensitivity of future experiments to the weak lensing and leads to an overestimate of the convergence power spectrum. (author)

  12. Statistical methods in physical mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.O.

    1995-05-01

    One of the great success stories of modern molecular genetics has been the ability of biologists to isolate and characterize the genes responsible for serious inherited diseases like fragile X syndrome, cystic fibrosis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. This dissertation concentrates on constructing high-resolution physical maps. It demonstrates how probabilistic modeling and statistical analysis can aid molecular geneticists in the tasks of planning, execution, and evaluation of physical maps of chromosomes and large chromosomal regions. The dissertation is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the field of physical mapping, describing the role of physical mapping in gene isolation and ill past efforts at mapping chromosomal regions. The next two chapters review and extend known results on predicting progress in large mapping projects. Such predictions help project planners decide between various approaches and tactics for mapping large regions of the human genome. Chapter 2 shows how probability models have been used in the past to predict progress in mapping projects. Chapter 3 presents new results, based on stationary point process theory, for progress measures for mapping projects based on directed mapping strategies. Chapter 4 describes in detail the construction of all initial high-resolution physical map for human chromosome 19. This chapter introduces the probability and statistical models involved in map construction in the context of a large, ongoing physical mapping project. Chapter 5 concentrates on one such model, the trinomial model. This chapter contains new results on the large-sample behavior of this model, including distributional results, asymptotic moments, and detection error rates. In addition, it contains an optimality result concerning experimental procedures based on the trinomial model. The last chapter explores unsolved problems and describes future work

  13. Statistical methods in physical mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, David O. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    One of the great success stories of modern molecular genetics has been the ability of biologists to isolate and characterize the genes responsible for serious inherited diseases like fragile X syndrome, cystic fibrosis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. This dissertation concentrates on constructing high-resolution physical maps. It demonstrates how probabilistic modeling and statistical analysis can aid molecular geneticists in the tasks of planning, execution, and evaluation of physical maps of chromosomes and large chromosomal regions. The dissertation is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the field of physical mapping, describing the role of physical mapping in gene isolation and ill past efforts at mapping chromosomal regions. The next two chapters review and extend known results on predicting progress in large mapping projects. Such predictions help project planners decide between various approaches and tactics for mapping large regions of the human genome. Chapter 2 shows how probability models have been used in the past to predict progress in mapping projects. Chapter 3 presents new results, based on stationary point process theory, for progress measures for mapping projects based on directed mapping strategies. Chapter 4 describes in detail the construction of all initial high-resolution physical map for human chromosome 19. This chapter introduces the probability and statistical models involved in map construction in the context of a large, ongoing physical mapping project. Chapter 5 concentrates on one such model, the trinomial model. This chapter contains new results on the large-sample behavior of this model, including distributional results, asymptotic moments, and detection error rates. In addition, it contains an optimality result concerning experimental procedures based on the trinomial model. The last chapter explores unsolved problems and describes future work.

  14. Crowdsourcing The National Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elizabeth; Craun, Kari J.; Korris, Erin M.; Brostuen, David A.; Moore, Laurence R.

    2015-01-01

    Using crowdsourcing techniques, the US Geological Survey’s (USGS) Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) project known as “The National Map Corps (TNMCorps)” encourages citizen scientists to collect and edit data about man-made structures in an effort to provide accurate and authoritative map data for the USGS National Geospatial Program’s web-based The National Map. VGI is not new to the USGS, but past efforts have been hampered by available technologies. Building on lessons learned, TNMCorps volunteers are successfully editing 10 different structure types in all 50 states as well as Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands.

  15. Quadrupole magnetic mapping of the high resolution spectrometers of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, Hall A. (Q.M.M. project: Quadrupole Magnetic Measurement)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quemener, Gilles

    1997-01-01

    This thesis describes the magnetic measurements that have been performed on the superconducting quadrupoles of the High Resolution Spectrometers of TJNAF, Hall A (USA), which are designed to measure particle momentum up to 4 GeV.c -1 with a σp/p = 10 -4 resolution. The mapping method is based on rotating coil technique, the originality being a segmentation of the probe along the quad axis. Together with an accurate magnet modelling, the measurement of the flux variations through the set of rotating coils allows to determine the magnetic field at each point. We use the 3D field formalism, i.e., the Fourier-Bessel expansion of the field obtained by solving the Laplace equation. We describe the QMM method and then the apparatus consisting in two probes of length 1.6 m and 3.2 m built to map the three quadrupoles Q1, Q2, Q3. Data processing uses Fourier analysis. The mapping of the Electron Arm took place in situ in 1996. A first set of results concerns integral measurements including the properties of excitation cycle of the magnets (saturation and hysteresis). Second set of results in terms of local field yields the 3D field maps of the quadrupoles. After having applied corrections to the data we obtain a local field accuracy of 5 Gauss on each component, i.e. an uncertainty of 5.10 -4 relative to the quadrupole central field. We use SNAKE ray-tracing code with the implementation of QMM field maps and obtain preliminary results on HRS optics. (author)

  16. Polar patterns of driven filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Volker; Weber, Christoph; Semmrich, Christine; Frey, Erwin; Bausch, Andreas R

    2010-09-02

    The emergence of collective motion exhibited by systems ranging from flocks of animals to self-propelled microorganisms to the cytoskeleton is a ubiquitous and fascinating self-organization phenomenon. Similarities between these systems, such as the inherent polarity of the constituents, a density-dependent transition to ordered phases or the existence of very large density fluctuations, suggest universal principles underlying pattern formation. This idea is followed by theoretical models at all levels of description: micro- or mesoscopic models directly map local forces and interactions using only a few, preferably simple, interaction rules, and more macroscopic approaches in the hydrodynamic limit rely on the systems' generic symmetries. All these models characteristically have a broad parameter space with a manifold of possible patterns, most of which have not yet been experimentally verified. The complexity of interactions and the limited parameter control of existing experimental systems are major obstacles to our understanding of the underlying ordering principles. Here we demonstrate the emergence of collective motion in a high-density motility assay that consists of highly concentrated actin filaments propelled by immobilized molecular motors in a planar geometry. Above a critical density, the filaments self-organize to form coherently moving structures with persistent density modulations, such as clusters, swirls and interconnected bands. These polar nematic structures are long lived and can span length scales orders of magnitudes larger than their constituents. Our experimental approach, which offers control of all relevant system parameters, complemented by agent-based simulations, allows backtracking of the assembly and disassembly pathways to the underlying local interactions. We identify weak and local alignment interactions to be essential for the observed formation of patterns and their dynamics. The presented minimal polar-pattern-forming system

  17. The Polar Rock Repository: Rescuing Polar Collections for New Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, A.

    2016-12-01

    Geological field expeditions in polar regions are logistically difficult, financially expensive and can have a significant environmental impact on pristine regions. The scarcity of outcrop in Antarctica (98% ice-covered) makes previously collected rock samples very valuable to the science community. NSF recognized the need for preserving rock, dredge, and terrestrial core samples from polar areas and created the Polar Rock Repository (PRR). The PRR collection allows for full and open access to both samples and metadata via the PRR website. In addition to the physical samples and their basic metadata, the PRR archives supporting materials from the collector, field notebooks, images of the samples, field maps, air photos, thin sections and any associated bibliography/DOI's. Many of these supporting materials are unique. More than 40,000 samples are available from the PRR for scientific analysis to researchers around the globe. Most of the samples cataloged at the PRR were collected more than 30 years ago, some more than 100 years ago. The rock samples and metadata are made available online through an advanced search engine for the PRR website. This allows scientists to "drill down" into search results using categories and look-up object fields similar to websites like Amazon. Results can be viewed in a table, downloaded as a spreadsheet, or plotted on an interactive map that supports display of satellite imagery and bathymetry layers. Samples can be requested by placing them in the `shopping cart'. These old sample collections have been repeatedly used by scientists from around the world. One data request involved locating coal deposits in Antarctica for a global compilation and another for looking at the redox state of batholithic rocks from the Antarctic Peninsula using magnetic susceptibilities of PRR rocks. Sample usage has also included non-traditional geologic studies, such as a search for monopoles in Cenozoic volcanic samples, and remote sensing

  18. Polarization at the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Stanford Linear collider was designed to accommodate polarized electron beams. Longitudinally polarized electrons colliding with unpolarized positrons at a center of mass energy near the Z/sup 0/ mass can be used as novel and sensitive probes of the electroweak process. A gallium arsenide based photon emission source will provide a beam of longitudinally polarized electrons of about 45 percent polarization. A system of bend magnets and a superconducting solenoid will be used to rotate the spins so that the polarization is preserved while the 1.21 GeV electrons are stored in the damping ring. Another set of bend magnets and two superconducting solenoids orient the spin vectors so that longitudinal polarization of the electrons is achieved at the collision point with the unpolarized positrons. A system to monitor the polarization based on Moller and Compton scattering will be used. Nearly all major components have been fabricated and tested. Subsystems of the source and polarimeters have been installed, and studies are in progress. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  20. Polarized scintillator targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.

    2000-05-01

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as "live" polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  1. Polarized scintillator targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, B. van den E-mail: vandenbrandt@psi.ch; Bunyatova, E.I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S

    2000-05-21

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as 'live' polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  2. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  3. Polarization measurement in the COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, K; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Görtz, S; Hasegawa, T; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Le Goff, J M; Magnon, A; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Matsuda, T

    2004-01-01

    Continuous wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to determine the target polarization in the COMPASS experiment. The system is made of the so-called Liverpool Q-meters, Yale-cards, and VME modules for data taking and system controlling. In 2001 the NMR coils were embedded in the target material, while in 2002 and 2003 the coils were mounted on the outer surface of the target cells to increase the packing factor of the material. Though the error of the measurement became larger with the outer coils than with the inner coils, we have performed stable measurements throughout the COMPASS run time for 3 years. The maximum polarization was +57% and -53% as the average in the target cells.

  4. Advancing Environmental Prediction Capabilities for the Polar Regions and Beyond during The Year of Polar Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kirstin; Goessling, Helge; Hoke, Winfried; Kirchhoff, Katharina; Jung, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Environmental changes in polar regions open up new opportunities for economic and societal operations such as vessel traffic related to scientific, fishery and tourism activities, and in the case of the Arctic also enhanced resource development. The availability of current and accurate weather and environmental information and forecasts will therefore play an increasingly important role in aiding risk reduction and safety management around the poles. The Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP) has been established by the World Meteorological Organization's World Weather Research Programme as the key activity of the ten-year Polar Prediction Project (PPP; see more on www.polarprediction.net). YOPP is an internationally coordinated initiative to significantly advance our environmental prediction capabilities for the polar regions and beyond, supporting improved weather and climate services. Scheduled to take place from mid-2017 to mid-2019, the YOPP core phase covers an extended period of intensive observing, modelling, prediction, verification, user-engagement and education activities in the Arctic and Antarctic, on a wide range of time scales from hours to seasons. The Year of Polar Prediction will entail periods of enhanced observational and modelling campaigns in both polar regions. With the purpose to close the gaps in the conventional polar observing systems in regions where the observation network is sparse, routine observations will be enhanced during Special Observing Periods for an extended period of time (several weeks) during YOPP. This will allow carrying out subsequent forecasting system experiments aimed at optimizing observing systems in the polar regions and providing insight into the impact of better polar observations on forecast skills in lower latitudes. With various activities and the involvement of a wide range of stakeholders, YOPP will contribute to the knowledge base needed to managing the opportunities and risks that come with polar climate change.

  5. Extensions to polar formatting with spatially variant post-filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Wendy L.; Hawley, Robert W.

    2011-06-01

    The polar format algorithm (PFA) is computationally faster than back projection for producing spotlight mode synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This is very important in applications such as video SAR for persistent surveillance, as images may need to be produced in real time. PFA's speed is largely due to making a planar wavefront assumption and forming the image onto a regular grid of pixels lying in a plane. Unfortunately, both assumptions cause loss of focus in airborne persistent surveillance applications. The planar wavefront assumption causes a loss of focus in the scene for pixels that are far from scene center. The planar grid of image pixels causes loss of the depth of focus for conic flight geometries. In this paper, we present a method to compensate for the loss of depth of focus while warping the image onto a terrain map to produce orthorectified imagery. This technique applies a spatially variant post-filter and resampling to correct the defocus while dewarping the image. This work builds on spatially variant post-filtering techniques previously developed at Sandia National Laboratories in that it incorporates corrections for terrain height and circular flight paths. This approach produces high quality SAR images many times faster than back projection.

  6. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  7. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...

  8. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  9. The Global ASTER Geoscience and Mineralogical Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.

    2017-12-01

    In 2012, Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) released 17 Geoscience mineral maps for the continent of Australia We are producing the CSIRO Geoscience data products for the entire land surface of the Earth. These maps are created from Advanced Spacecraft Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data, acquired between 2000 and 2008. ASTER, onboard the United States' Terra satellite, is part of NASA's Earth Observing System. This multispectral satellite system has 14 spectral bands spanning: the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) @ 15 m pixel resolution; shortwave-infrared (SWIR) @ 30 m pixel resolution; and thermal infrared (TIR) @ 90 m pixel resolution. In a polar-orbit, ASTER acquires a 60 km swath of data.The CSIRO maps are the first continental-scale mineral maps generated from an imaging satellite designed to measure clays, quartz and other minerals. Besides their obvious use in resource exploration, the data have applicability to climatological studies. Over Australia, these satellite mineral maps improved our understanding of weathering, erosional and depositional processes in the context of changing weather, climate and tectonics. The clay composition map showed how kaolinite has developed over tectonically stable continental crust in response to deep weathering. The same clay composition map, in combination with one sensitive to water content, enabled the discrimination of illite from montmorillonite clays that typically develop in large depositional environments over thin (sinking) continental crust. This product was also used to measure temporal gains/losses of surface clay caused by periodic wind erosion (dust) and rainfall inundation (flood) events. The two-year project is undertaken by JPL with collaboration from CSIRO. JPL has in-house the entire ASTER global archive of Level 1B image data—more than 1,500,000 scenes. This cloud-screened and vegetation-masked data set will be the basis for creation

  10. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  11. Ultracold Polar Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0005 Ultracold Polar Molecules Jeremy Hutson UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM Final Report 04/01/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-Jan-2010 to 14-Jul-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Report on Grant FA8655-10-1-3033 on Ultracold Polar Molecules 5a...formation of ultracold 87RbCs molecules in their rovibrational ground state by magnetoassociation followed by STIRAP, resulting in 14 papers acknowledging

  12. Pre-LBA RADAMBRASIL Project Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RADAMBRASIL project extensively mapped the Amazon soils using a combination of soil pit information, aerial photography, and geologic maps. During the project,...

  13. The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (PIPER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandilo, Natalie; Ade, Peter; Benford, Dominic; Bennett, Charles; Chuss, David; Datta, Rahul; Dotson, Jessie; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fixsen, Dale; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary; Irwin, Kent; Jhabvala, Christine; Kimball, Mark; Kogut, Al; Lowe, Luke; McMahon, Jeff; Miller, Timothy; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, Samuel Harvey; Pawlyk, Samuel; Rodriguez, Samelys; Sharp, Elmer; Shirron, Peter; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Sullivan, Dan; Switzer, Eric; Taraschi, Peter; Tucker, Carole; Walts, Alexander; Wollack, Edward

    2018-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (PIPER) is a balloon-borne telescope designed to map the large scale polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background as well as the polarized emission from galactic dust at 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz, with 21, 15, 14, and 14 arcminutes of angular resolution respectively. PIPER uses twin telescopes with Variable-delay Polarization Modulators to simultaneously map Stokes I, Q, U and V. Cold optics and the lack of a warm window allow the instrument to achieve background limited sensitivity, with mapping speed approximately 10 times faster than a similar instrument with a single ambient-temperature mirror. Over the course of 8 conventional balloon flights from the Northern and Southern hemisphere, PIPER will map 85% of the sky, measuring the B-mode polarization spectrum from the reionization bump to l~300, and placing an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of rMexico, and the first science flight is planned for June 2018 from Palestine, Texas.

  14. Detectability of inflationary gravitational waves with microwave background polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamionkowski, M.; Kosowsky, A.

    1998-01-01

    Inflation predicts specific relations between the amplitudes and spectral indices of the primordial spectrum of density (scalar metric) perturbations and gravitational waves (tensor metric perturbations). Detection of a stochastic gravitational-wave background is essential for identifying this unmistakable signature. Polarization of the cosmic microwave background can isolate these tensor modes in a model-independent way and thereby circumvent the cosmic-variance limit to detecting a small tensor signal with only a temperature map. Here we assess the detectability of a gravity-wave background with a temperature and polarization map. For detector sensitivities better than 10 endash 20μK√ (sec) , the sensitivity to a tensor signal is always dominated by the polarization map. With a detector sensitivity of order 1μK√ (sec) , polarization could improve on a temperature-map sensitivity to tensor modes by two to three orders of magnitude. Even a small amount of reionization substantially enhances tensor-mode detectability. We also argue that the sensitivity of the Planck Surveyor to tensor modes is significantly improved with polarization, even taking into account the resulting degradation of the intensity determination in the high-frequency channels. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. Hsp Polarization Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bless, Robert

    1991-07-01

    This proposal defines the procedure for determining the instrumental polarization of the polarimetric IDT (IDT#1, POL) on the HSP. 1 of 2 unpolarized standard stars wil be observed using various filter-polarizer combinations. These observations will permit the instrumental polarization to be calibrated. The instrumental polarization must be determined to a high precision in order to vectoriallly remove it from HSP polarization observations to determine the actual astronomical polarization. Final run of proposal will look at one of 2 possible stars previously observed to get another look at the throughput. Revision History: Mark H. Slovak 8/30/88 Translated to V2 proposal instructions (RPSS V6.2) S. Laurent 1/20/89 Updated: Sally Laurent 2/24/89, 3/20/89, 4/13/89, 5/12/89 Modified: P. Stanley 1/15/90 - change to use CTA selected targets only; Fixes for aberration problem - SALM 7/30/90; Based on SV/HSP 1386. New submission changed targets and revised scheduling strategy. Revised: 26 Aug 92 J. Dolan, L. Walter, P. Reppert want to re-run the proposal (3985) one last time to bring down errors.

  16. An Integrated Imaging Detector of Polarization and Spectral Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, D. M.; Thompson, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of image detector has been designed to simultaneously analyze the polarization of light at all picture elements in a scene. The Integrated Dual Imaging Detector (IDID) consists of a polarizing beamsplitter bonded to a charge-coupled device (CCD), with signal-analysis circuitry and analog-to-digital converters, all integrated on a silicon chip. It should be capable of 1:10(exp 4) polarization discrimination. The IDID should simplify the design and operation of imaging polarimeters and spectroscopic imagers used, for example, in atmospheric and solar research. Innovations in the IDID include (1) two interleaved 512 x 1024-pixel imaging arrays (one for each polarization plane); (2) large dynamic range (well depth of 10(exp 6) electrons per pixel); (3) simultaneous readout of both images at 10 million pixels per second each; (4) on-chip analog signal processing to produce polarization maps in real time; (5) on-chip 10-bit A/D conversion. When used with a lithium-niobate Fabry-Perot etalon or other color filter that can encode spectral information as polarization, the IDID can collect and analyze simultaneous images at two wavelengths. Precise photometric analysis of molecular or atomic concentrations in the atmosphere is one suggested application. When used in a solar telescope, the IDID will charge the polarization, which can then be converted to maps of the vector magnetic fields on the solar surface.

  17. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  18. Designing Maps for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Barbara S.

    In 1964 World Book wanted to be able to say that more than 1,000 maps being made for the encyclopedia were designed to be appropriate and useful for children between the ages of nine and fourteen. However, there was virtually no research on which such a program could be based. This paper briefly reviews research projects in this area started in…

  19. Somatosensory maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding-Forrester, Samuel; Feldman, Daniel E

    2018-01-01

    Somatosensory areas containing topographic maps of the body surface are a major feature of parietal cortex. In primates, parietal cortex contains four somatosensory areas, each with its own map, with the primary cutaneous map in area 3b. Rodents have at least three parietal somatosensory areas. Maps are not isomorphic to the body surface, but magnify behaviorally important skin regions, which include the hands and face in primates, and the whiskers in rodents. Within each map, intracortical circuits process tactile information, mediate spatial integration, and support active sensation. Maps may also contain fine-scale representations of touch submodalities, or direction of tactile motion. Functional representations are more overlapping than suggested by textbook depictions of map topography. The whisker map in rodent somatosensory cortex is a canonic system for studying cortical microcircuits, sensory coding, and map plasticity. Somatosensory maps are plastic throughout life in response to altered use or injury. This chapter reviews basic principles and recent findings in primate, human, and rodent somatosensory maps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The evolution of tensor polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Lee, S.Y.; Ratner, L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the equation of motion for the vector polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization is derived. The evolution equation for the tensor polarization is studied in the presence of an isolate spin resonance and in the presence of a spin rotor, or snake