WorldWideScience

Sample records for polar processes land

  1. SeaWinds - Oceans, Land, Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikScat satellite makes global radar measurements -- day and night, in clear sky and through clouds. The radar data over the oceans provide scientists and weather forecasters with information on surface wind speed and direction. Scientists also use the radar measurements directly to learn about changes in vegetation and ice extent over land and polar regions.This false-color image is based entirely on SeaWinds measurements obtained over oceans, land, and polar regions. Over the ocean, colors indicate wind speed with orange as the fastest wind speeds and blue as the slowest. White streamlines indicate the wind direction. The ocean winds in this image were measured by SeaWinds on September 20, 1999. The large storm in the Atlantic off the coast of Florida is Hurricane Gert. Tropical storm Harvey is evident as a high wind region in the Gulf of Mexico, while farther west in the Pacific is tropical storm Hilary. An extensive storm is also present in the South Atlantic Ocean near Antarctica.The land image was made from four days of SeaWinds data with the aid of a resolution enhancement algorithm developed by Dr. David Long at Brigham Young University. The lightest green areas correspond to the highest radar backscatter. Note the bright Amazon and Congo rainforests compared to the dark Sahara desert. The Amazon River is visible as a dark line running horizontally though the bright South American rain forest. Cities appear as bright spots on the images, especially in the U.S. and Europe.The image of Greenland and the north polar ice cap was generated from data acquired by SeaWinds on a single day. In the polar region portion of the image, white corresponds to the largest radar return, while purple is the lowest. The variations in color in Greenland and the polar ice cap reveal information about the ice and snow conditions present.NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth

  2. Polarized process algebra with reactive composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Bethke, I.

    2005-01-01

    Polarized processes are introduced to model the asymmetric interaction of systems. The asymmetry stems from the distinction between service and request. The scheduled concurrent composition of two polarized processes is called client–server composition or reactive composition, placing one process in

  3. Atomic processes relevant to polarization plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, T.; Koike, F.; Sakimoto, K.; Okasaka, R.; Kawasaki, K.; Takiyama, K.; Oda, T.; Kato, T.

    1992-04-01

    When atoms (ions) are excited anisotropically, polarized excited atoms are produced and the radiation emitted by these atoms is polarized. From the standpoint of plasma spectroscopy research, we review the existing data for various atomic processes that are related to the polarization phenomena. These processes are: electron impact excitation, excitation by atomic and ionic collisions, photoexcitation, radiative recombination and bremsstrahlung. Collisional and radiative relaxation processes of atomic polarization follow. Other topics included are: electric-field measurement, self alignment, Lyman doublet intensity ratio, and magnetic-field measurement of the solar prominence. (author)

  4. Physical processes in spin polarized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Valeo, E.J.; Cowley, S.

    1984-05-01

    If the plasma in a nuclear fusion reactor is polarized, the nuclear reactions are modified in such a way as to enhance the reactor performance. We calculate in detail the modification of these nuclear reactions by different modes of polarization of the nuclear fuel. We also consider in detail the various physical processes that can lead to depolarization and show that they are by and large slow enough that a high degree of polarization can be maintained

  5. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D; Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; St Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David C; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  6. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn D Rode

    Full Text Available Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013 when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia, highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  7. Phytoremediation of disturbed lands in Polar Regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsutdinova, Evgeniya

    2017-04-01

    In the Northern regions the problem of restoration of disturbed lands as a result of anthropogenic activities is particularly acut. A large role for the success of native plants to take hold and re-establish themselves is to allow the natural process to work without human intervention. However observation shows that low reserves of available moisture, poor soil nutrients, exposure to wind and water erosion make impossible of a complete restoration of lands due to natural revegetation. One of the methods used to minimize the effect of these factors is the phytoremediation. Research on the Pelyatinskom gas condensate field in the Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal district revealed the efficacy of biological remediation of awnless brome, wildrye siberian, red fescue and kentucky bluegrass. Geobotanical studies of the tailings fields in Yakutia showed that for the phytoremediation of tailings of alluvial deposits of diamonds slough grass can be successfully used, and on the dumps of coal deposits with a high degree of survival of the willow, poplar, larch, alder stand and pine. Development of technology for remediation of placer gold deposits of the Komsomol mine and Bilibino in Chukotka has shown the effectiveness of sowing common oat, wildrye and larch. The study of the experience of recultivation on objects of the "Transneft-Baltic" in the North-Western Federal district allowed us to select as the recommended mixtures of species: meadow fescue, cocksfoot, timothy grass, white and alsike clover and alfalfa. The multicomponent mixture of red fescue, awnless brome, meadow fescue, timothy grass, couch grass, kentucky bluegrass, beckman's grass were successfully used at the mine of the Bovanenkovo oil and gas condensate field. On the technological grounds of the complex pumping station in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous area willows were planted. Pine and willow trees were planted on quarry workings in the Northern taiga of Western Siberia land .Planting of pines has shown

  8. Advancements on Radar Polarization Information Acquisition and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Dahai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study on radar polarization information acquisition and processing has currently been one important part of radar techniques. The development of the polarization theory is simply reviewed firstly. Subsequently, some key techniques which include polarization measurement, polarization anti-jamming, polarization recognition, imaging and parameters inversion using radar polarimetry are emphatically analyzed in this paper. The basic theories, the present states and the development trends of these key techniques are presented and some meaningful conclusions are derived.

  9. Soil physical land degradation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    According to the European Soil Framework Directive (2006) soil compaction is besides water and wind erosion one of the main physical reasons and threats of soil degradation. It is estimated, that 32% of the subsoils in Europe are highly degraded and 18% moderately vulnerable to compaction. The problem is not limited to crop land or forest areas (especially because of non-site adjusted harvesting machines) but is also prevalent in rangelands and grassland, and even in so called natural non-disturbed systems. The main reasons for an intense increase in compacted agricultural or forested regions are the still increasing masses of the machines as well the increased frequency of wheeling under non favorable site conditions. Shear and vibration induced soil deformation enhances the deterioration of soil properties especially if the soil water content is very high and the internal soil strength very low. The same is true for animal trampling in combination with overgrazing of moist to wet pastures which subsequently causes a denser (i.e. reduced proportion of coarse pores with smaller continuity) but still structured soil horizons and will finally end in a compacted platy structure. In combination with high water content and shearing due to trampling therefore results in a complete muddy homogeneous soil with no structure at all. (Krümmelbein et al. 2013) Site managements of arable, forestry or horticulture soils requires a sufficiently rigid pore system which guarantees water, gas and heat exchange, nutrient transport and adsorption as well as an optimal rootability in order to avoid subsoil compaction. Such pore system also guarantees a sufficient microbial activity and composition in order to also decompose the plant etc. debris. It is therefore essential that well structured horizons dominate in soils with at best subangular blocky structure or in the top A- horizons a crumbly structure due to biological activity. In contrast defines the formation of a platy

  10. Serach for polarization effects in the antiproton production process

    CERN Multimedia

    It is proposed to study polarization effects in the production of antiprotons at the PS test beam line T11 at 3.5 GeV/c momentum. A polarization in the production process has never been studied but if existing it would allow for a rather simple and cheap way to generate a polarized antiproton beam with the existing facilities at CERN.

  11. Global Precipitation Responses to Land Hydrological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Several studies have established that soil moisture increases after adding a groundwater component in land surface models due to the additional supply of subsurface water. However, impacts of groundwater on the spatial-temporal variability of precipitation have received little attention. Through the coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model (NCAR Community Atmosphere Model + Community Land Model) simulations, this study explores how groundwater representation in the model alters the precipitation spatiotemporal distributions. Results indicate that the effect of groundwater on the amount of precipitation is not globally homogeneous. Lower tropospheric water vapor increases due to the presence of groundwater in the model. The increased water vapor destabilizes the atmosphere and enhances the vertical upward velocity and precipitation in tropical convective regions. Precipitation, therefore, is inhibited in the descending branch of convection. As a result, an asymmetric dipole is produced over tropical land regions along the equator during the summer. This is analogous to the "rich-get-richer" mechanism proposed by previous studies. Moreover, groundwater also increased short-term (seasonal) and long-term (interannual) memory of precipitation for some regions with suitable groundwater table depth and found to be a function of water table depth. Based on the spatial distributions of the one-month-lag autocorrelation coefficients as well as Hurst coefficients, air-land interaction can occur from short (several months) to long (several years) time scales. This study indicates the importance of land hydrological processes in the climate system and the necessity of including the subsurface processes in the global climate models.

  12. Multi-temporal and Dual-polarization Interferometric SAR for Land Cover Type Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xinshuang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study SAR land cover classification method, this paper uses the multi-dimensional combination of temporal,polarization and InSAR data. The area covered by space borne data of ALOS PALSAR in Xunke County,Heilongjiang Province was chosen as test site. A land cover classification technique of SVM based on multi-temporal, multi-polarization and InSAR data had been proposed, using the sensitivity to land cover type of multi-temporal, multi-polarization SAR data and InSAR measurements, and combing time series characteristic of backscatter coefficient and correlation coefficient to identify ground objects. The results showed the problem of confusion between forest land and urban construction land can be nicely solved, using the correlation coefficient between HH and HV, and also combing the selected temporal, polarization and InSAR characteristics. The land cover classification result with higher accuracy is gotten using the classification algorithm proposed in this paper.

  13. Navigating through the Crown land process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, M. [Samsung Renewable Energy Inc., ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Samsung Communications and Technology (Samsung C and T) and the Korea Electric Power Corporation are planning to invest approximately $7 billion to generate 2500 MW of wind and solar energy in Ontario. The plan was centred around the green energy investment agreement signed in January 2010. To date, only 1 project in Ontario has been permitted for development on Crown land, and there have been 3 different versions of the Crown land policy and procedure for the development of wind power projects. The Crown land process is challenged by issues related to grandfathering, timing, competing processes, and the Endangered Species Act. Guidance is needed to identify requirements for studies and evaluation processes. Additional studies are often required by government agencies when new documents and results are reviewed. Projects are also delayed when new species are added to the endangered species list. Wind power developers must keep abreast of proposed regulations and guidelines to ensure that work programs are not delayed. An overview of the current Crown land development process was included. tabs., figs.

  14. Effects of Groups’ Spatial Segregation on Processes of Opinion Polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feliciani, Thomas; Flache, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We contribute to the literature about processes of opinion formation, investigating theoretically how the spatial segregation of two groups affects opinion polarization as a possible outcome of opinion formation. We focus on two processes of opinion polarization (negative influence and persuasive

  15. Microtubule dynamics of the centrosome-like polar organizers from the basal land plant Marchantia polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Henrik; Holtmannspötter, Michael; Borchers, Agnes; O'Donoghue, Martin-Timothy; Zachgo, Sabine

    2016-02-01

    The liverwort Marchantia employs both modern and ancestral devices during cell division: it forms preprophase bands and in addition it shows centrosome-like polar organizers. We investigated whether polar organizers and preprophase bands cooperate to set up the division plane. To this end, two novel green fluorescent protein-based microtubule markers for dividing cells of Marchantia were developed. Cells of the apical notch formed polar organizers first and subsequently assembled preprophase bands. Polar organizers were formed de novo from multiple mobile microtubule foci localizing to the nuclear envelope. The foci then became concentrated by bipolar aggregation. We determined the comet production rate of polar organizers and show that microtubule plus ends of astral microtubules polymerize faster than those found on cortical microtubules. Importantly, it was observed that conditions increasing polar organizer numbers interfere with preprophase band formation. The data show that polar organizers have much in common with centrosomes, but that they also have specialized features. The results suggest that polar organizers contribute to preprophase band formation and in this way are involved in controlling the division plane. Our analyses of the basal land plant Marchantia shed new light on the evolution of plant cell division. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Demography and behavior of polar bears summering on land in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Lily

    2014-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea population (SB) are spending increased time on the coastal North Slope of Alaska between July and October (Gleason and Rode 2010). The duration spent on land by polar bears, satellite collared on the sea-ice in the spring, during the summer and fall has also increased (USGS, unpublished data; Figure 1). This change in polar bear ecology has relevance for human-bear interactions, subsistence harvest, prevalence of defense kills, and disturbance associated with existing land-based development [e.g., National Petroleum Reserve of Alaska (NPRA), Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)], Native Alaskan communities, recreation (ANWR) and tourism (e.g., bear viewing in Kaktovik, AK). These activities have the potential to impact, in new ways, the status of the entire SB population. Concomitantly, the change in polar bear ecology will impact these human activities, and a base-line characterization of this phenomenon can better inform mitigation (e.g., industry permitting under the Endangered Species Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act). In this study we aim to characterize the demography, habitat-use, and aspects of foraging ecology and health of polar bears spending fall on land. The SB population is characterized by a divergent-sea ice ecology, where polar bears typically spend most of the year on the sea-ice, even as the pack ice retreats northward, away from the coast, to its minimal extent in September (Amstrup et al. 2008; Durner et al. 2009). From 2000 – 2005, using coastal aerial surveys, Schliebe et al. (2008) observed between 3.7 and 8% of polar bears from SB (~ 60 – 120 of 1526, Regher et al. 2006) on land during the autumn. Sighting probability was not estimated in these surveys, and therefore the numbers represent minimum numbers of bears on land. Our analysis of USGS data suggest an annual average of 15% (± 3%, SE) of polar bears satellite-tagged on the spring-time sea ice (total n = 18 of 124

  17. Persistence of the Polarization in a Fusion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutsch C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose an experiment to test the persistence of the polarization in a fusion process, using a petawatt laser hitting a polarized HD target. The polarized protons and deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser have a significant probability to fuse producing a 3He and a γ ray or a neutron in the final state. The angular distribution of the radiated γ rays and the change in the correponding total cross section are related to the polarization persistence, but the resulting signal turns out to be weak. By comparison, the neutrons are produced hadronically with a larger cross section and are much easier to detect experimentally. A significant reduction of the cross section by parallel polarization of the deuterons is reliably predicted by the theory. Therefore, it is expected that the corresponding signal on the neutron counting rate could be seen experimentally.

  18. Atomic processes in strong bichromatic elliptically polarized laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odžak, S., E-mail: senad.odzak@gmail.com; Hasović, E.; Gazibegović-Busuladžić, A.; Čerkić, A., E-mail: anercerkic@yahoo.com; Fetić, B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Kramo, A. [BHANSA, Aeronautical Meteorology Department, Kurta Schorka 36, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Busuladžić, M. [Medical Faculty, University of Sarajevo, Čekaluša 90, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Milošević, D. B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bistrik 7, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-03-25

    Nonlinear quantum-mechanical phenomena in strong laser fields, such as high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI) are significantly modified if the applied laser field is bichromatic and/or elliptically polarized. Numerical results obtained within the strong-field approximation are presented for two special cases. We show results for HHG by plasma ablation in a bichromatic linearly polarized laser field. We also consider the ATI process in bicircular field which consists of two coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized fields.

  19. Polarization preserving ultra fast optical shutter for quantum information processing

    OpenAIRE

    Spagnolo, Nicolo'; Vitelli, Chiara; Giacomini, Sandro; Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We present the realization of a ultra fast shutter for optical fields, which allows to preserve a generic polarization state, based on a self-stabilized interferometer. It exhibits high (or low) transmittivity when turned on (or inactive), while the fidelity of the polarization state is high. The shutter is realized through two beam displacing prisms and a longitudinal Pockels cell. This can represent a useful tool for controlling light-atom interfaces in quantum information processing.

  20. Temporal complexity of southern Beaufort Sea polar bear diets during a period of increasing land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd C.; Iverson, Sara J.; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    From 2000 to 2013, use of land as a seasonal habitat by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea (SB) subpopulation substantially increased. This onshore use has been linked to reduced spatial and temporal availability of sea ice, as well as to the availability of subsistence‐harvested bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) bone piles. Here, we evaluated the role of climate conditions on consumption of traditional ice‐associated prey relative to onshore bowhead whale bone piles. We determined seasonal and interannual trends in the diets of SB polar bears using fatty acid‐based analysis during this period of increasing land use. Diet estimates of 569 SB polar bears from 2004 to 2012 showed high seasonal fluctuations in the proportions of prey consumed. Higher proportions of bowhead whale, as well as ringed seal (Pusa hispida) and beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), were estimated to occur in the winter–spring diet, while higher proportions of bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) were estimated for summer–fall diets. Trends in the annual mean proportions of individual prey items were not found in either period, except for significant declines in the proportion of beluga in spring‐sampled bears. Nonetheless, in years following a high winter Arctic oscillation index, proportions of ice‐associated ringed seal were lower in the winter–spring diets of adult females and juveniles. Proportions of bowhead increased in the winter–spring diets of adult males with the number of ice‐free days over the continental shelf. In one or both seasons, polar bears that were in better condition were estimated to have consumed less ringed seal and/or more bowhead whale than those in worse condition. Therefore, climate variation over this recent period appeared to influence the extent of onshore vs. on‐ice food use, which in turn, appeared to be linked to fluctuating condition of SB polar bears.

  1. ENVISAT Land Surface Processes. Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    vandenHurk, B. J. J. M.; Su, Z.; Verhoef, W.; Menenti, M.; Li, Z.-L.; Wan, Z.; Moene, A. F.; Roerink, G.; Jia, I.

    2002-01-01

    This is a progress report of the 2nd phase of the project ENVISAT- Land Surface Processes, which has a 3-year scope. In this project, preparative research is carried out aiming at the retrieval of land surface characteristics from the ENVISAT sensors MERIS and AATSR, for assimilation into a system for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). Where in the 1st phase a number of first shot experiments were carried out (aiming at gaining experience with the retrievals and data assimilation procedures), the current 2nd phase has put more emphasis on the assessment and improvement of the quality of the retrieved products. The forthcoming phase will be devoted mainly to the data assimilation experiments and the assessment of the added value of the future ENVISAT products for NWP forecast skill. Referring to the retrieval of albedo, leaf area index and atmospheric corrections, preliminary radiative transfer calculations have been carried out that should enable the retrieval of these parameters once AATSR and MERIS data become available. However, much of this work is still to be carried out. An essential part of work in this area is the design and implementation of software that enables an efficient use of MODTRAN(sub 4) radiative transfer code, and during the current project phase familiarization with these new components has been achieved. Significant progress has been made with the retrieval of component temperatures from directional ATSR-images, and the calculation of surface turbulent heat fluxes from these data. The impact of vegetation cover on the retrieved component temperatures appears manageable, and preliminary comparison of foliage temperature to air temperatures were encouraging. The calculation of surface fluxes using the SEBI concept,which includes a detailed model of the surface roughness ratio, appeared to give results that were in reasonable agreement with local measurements with scintillometer devices. The specification of the atmospheric boundary conditions

  2. The magnetic domain structures of Fe thin films on rectangular land-and-groove substrates studied by spin-polarized secondary electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, S. [Photodynamics Research Center, RIKEN, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan)]. E-mail: uedas@postman.riken.go.jp; Iwasaki, Y. [Photodynamics Research Center, RIKEN, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan); Micro Systems Network Company, Sony Corporation, Tagajo, Miyagi 985-0842 (Japan); Ushioda, S. [Photodynamics Research Center, RIKEN, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan); Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    The magnetic domain structures of Fe thin films on rectangular land-and-groove structures have been studied by spin-polarized secondary electron microscopy (SP-SEM) under an applied dc field. The coercive force on the land area was found to be higher than that on the groove area in the magnetization reversal due to the difference in surface roughness between land and groove areas. The magnetic domain structure and domain wall pinning behavior during the reversal process depended on the direction of the magnetic field relative to the rectangles. These results show that the anisotropy induced by film geometry also contributes to the magnetization reversal process of thin magnetic films on land{sub a}nd{sub g}roove substrates.

  3. Neutron depolarization studies on magnetization process using pulsed polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuda, Setsuo; Endoh, Yasuo

    1985-01-01

    Neutron depolarization experiments investigating the magnetization processes have been performed by using pulsed polarized neutrons for the first time. Results on both quenched and annealed ferromagnets of Fe 85 Cr 15 alloy indicate the significant difference in the wavelength dependence of depolarization between them. It also constitutes the experimental demonstration of the theoretical prediction of Halpern and Holstein. (author)

  4. Theoretical concepts "land management process", "land management procedure" and their relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretiak A.M.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The state significance of land management activities is manifested in those legal consequences that arise after the issuance of land management documentation and are conditioned by the need to secure unsupported land rights and the use and protection of land in a state-guaranteed manner. The procedural activity of land surveyors and other persons authorized by the state to commit land management operations must be carried out in a certain order established by the state and obey the rights and obligations of the persons specified by the legislation at each stage of the development of such relations.The main goal of applying to land management organizations and land surveyors is landuse documentation, which is made in accordance with the requirements of the law and with which the relevant legal properties of the land management procedure are associated. First of all, let's dwell on such basic concepts as "land management process" and "land management procedure". Consideration of the term "land management process" implies a preliminary analysis of the category "process". At the same time, it must be admitted that the development of the procedural form of this category has not been paid attention. Considering the concept of "land management process", its place and role in the system of social relations, emphasis will be placed on the concept of a broad understanding of the legal process, the problem of which exists for decades.Thus, the legal process is a regulated by the procedural rules procedure for the activities of competent state bodies, consisting of the preparation, adoption and documentary consolidation of legal decisions of a general and individual nature. In the land law, the category "process" is specific and serves to designate relationships that provide regulatory and security land-property relationships. Particularly difficult today is the question of the delimitation of the concepts of "process" and "procedure" in general. Regarding

  5. Dietary composition and spatial patterns of polar bear foraging on land in western Hudson Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2013-12-21

    Flexible foraging strategies, such as prey switching, omnivory and food mixing, are key to surviving in a labile and changing environment. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in western Hudson Bay are versatile predators that use all of these strategies as they seasonally exploit resources across trophic levels. Climate warming is reducing availability of their ice habitat, especially in spring when polar bears gain most of their annual fat reserves by consuming seal pups before coming ashore in summer. How polar bears combine these flexible foraging strategies to obtain and utilize terrestrial food will become increasingly important in compensating for energy deficits from lost seal hunting opportunities. We evaluated patterns in the composition of foods in scat to characterize the foraging behaviors that underpin the diet mixing and omnivory observed in polar bears on land in western Hudson Bay. Specifically, we measured diet richness, proportions of plant and animal foods, patterns in co-occurrence of foods, spatial composition and an index of temporal composition. Scats contained between 1 and 6 foods, with an average of 2.11 (SE = 0.04). Most scats (84.9%) contained at least one type of plant, but animals (35.4% of scats) and both plants and animals occurring together (34.4% of scats) were also common. Certain foods, such as Lyme grass seed heads (Leymus arenarius), berries and marine algae, were consumed in relatively higher proportions, sometimes to the exclusion of others, both where and when they occurred most abundantly. The predominance of localized vegetation in scats suggests little movement among habitat types between feeding sessions. Unlike the case for plants, no spatial patterns were found for animal remains, likely due the animals' more vagile and ubiquitous distribution. Our results suggest that polar bears are foraging opportunistically in a manner consistent with maximizing intake while minimizing energy expenditure associated with movement. The

  6. Linking trajectories of land change, land degradation processes and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smiraglia, D.; Ceccarelli, T.; Bajocco, S.; Salvati, L.; Perini, L.

    2016-01-01

    Land Degradation (LD) is a complex phenomenon resulting in a progressive reduction in the capacity of providing ecosystem services (ES). Landscape transformations promoting an unsustainable use of land often reveal latent processes of LD. An evaluation carried out in respect to the different

  7. High voltage processing of the SLC polarized electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, P.; Clendenin, J.; Garden, C.; Hoyt, E.; Klaisner, L.; Prescott, C.; Schultz, D.; Tang, H.

    1993-04-01

    The SLC polarized electron gun operates at 120 kV with very low dark current to maintain the ultra high vacuum (UHV). This strict requirement protects the extremely sensitive photocathode from contaminants caused by high voltage (HV) activity. Thorough HV processing is thus required x-ray sensitive photographic film, a nanoammeter in series with gun power supply, a radiation meter, a sensitive residual gas analyzer and surface x-ray spectrometry were used to study areas in the gun where HV activity occurred. By reducing the electric field gradients, carefully preparing the HV surfaces and adhering to very strict clean assembly procedures, we found it possible to process the gun so as to reduce both the dark current at operating voltage and the probability of HV discharge. These HV preparation and processing techniques are described

  8. Linking trajectories of land change, land degradation processes and ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiraglia, D; Ceccarelli, T; Bajocco, S; Salvati, L; Perini, L

    2016-05-01

    Land Degradation (LD) is a complex phenomenon resulting in a progressive reduction in the capacity of providing ecosystem services (ES). Landscape transformations promoting an unsustainable use of land often reveal latent processes of LD. An evaluation carried out in respect to the different ecosystem services is nowadays regarded as the most appropriate approach for assessing the effects of LD. The aim of this study is to develop an evaluation framework for identifying the linkages between land changes, LD processes and ES and suggesting Sustainable Land Management (SLM) options suited to reverse (or mitigate) LD impact. A SWOT analysis was carried out with the aim to identify internal and external factors that are favorable (or unfavorable) to achieve the proposed SLM actions. The study areas are the Fortore valley and the Valpadana, in Italy. The main trajectory identified for the Fortore valley is related to land abandonment due to population aging and the progressive emigration started in the 1950s. The most relevant LD processes are soil erosion and geomorphological instability, affecting regulating services such as natural hazard and erosion control. SLM options should consider interventions to contrast geomorphological instability, the promotion of climate smart agriculture and of typical products, and an efficient water resources management. The main trajectories identified for Valpadana are related to urban expansion and farmland abandonment and, as a consequence, land take due to anthropogenic pressure and woodland expansion as the main LD process. The reduction of food production was identified as the most relevant provisioning service affected. SLM should envisage best practices finalized to water saving and soil consumption reduction: efficient irrigation solutions, climate smart agriculture and zero sealing practices. This study highlights the diagnostic value of the suggested approach where LD processes are elicited from land change trajectories

  9. The variable polarity plasma arc welding process: Characteristics and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Zhu, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advantages of the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process include faster welding, fewer repairs, less joint preparation, reduced weldment distortion, and absence of porosity. The power distribution was analyzed for an argon plasma gas flow constituting the fluid in the VPPA Welding Process. The major heat loss at the torch nozzle is convective heat transfer; in the space between the outlet of the nozzle and the workpiece; radiative heat transfer; and in the keyhole in the workpiece, convective heat transfer. The power absorbed at the workpiece produces the molten puddle that solidifies into the weld bead. Crown and root widths, and crown and root heights of the weld bead are predicted. The basis is provided for an algorithm for automatic control of VPPA welding machine parameters to obtain desired weld bead dimensions.

  10. Spectral induced polarization for monitoring electrokinetic remediation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Losito, Gabriella

    2015-12-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an emerging technology for extracting heavy metals from contaminated soils and sediments. This method uses a direct or alternating electric field to induce the transport of contaminants toward the electrodes. The electric field also produces pH variations, sorption/desorption and precipitation/dissolution of species in the porous medium during remediation. Since heavy metal mobility is pH-dependent, the accurate control of pH inside the material is required in order to enhance the removal efficiency. The common approach for monitoring the remediation process both in laboratory and in the field is the chemical analysis of samples collected from discrete locations. The purpose of this study is the evaluation of Spectral Induced Polarization as an alternative method for monitoring geochemical changes in the contaminated mass during remediation. The advantage of this technique applied to field-scale is to offer higher resolution mapping of the remediation site and lower cost compared to the conventional sampling procedure. We carried out laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments on fine-grained marine sediments contaminated by heavy metal and we made Spectral Induced Polarization measurements before and after each treatment. Measurements were done in the frequency range 10- 3-103 Hz. By the deconvolution of the spectra using the Debye Decomposition method we obtained the mean relaxation time and total chargeability. The main finding of this work is that a linear relationship exists between the local total chargeability and pH, with good agreement. The observed behaviour of chargeability is interpreted as a direct consequence of the alteration of the zeta potential of the sediment particles due to pH changes. Such relationship has a significant value for the interpretation of induced polarization data, allowing the use of this technique for monitoring electrokinetic remediation at field-scale.

  11. Estimation of land-atmosphere energy transfer over the Tibetan Plateau by a combination use of geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L.; Ma, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Land-atmosphere energy transfer is of great importance in land-atmosphere interactions and atmospheric boundary layer processes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The energy fluxes have high temporal variability, especially in their diurnal cycle, which cannot be acquired by polar-orbiting satellites alone because of their low temporal resolution. Therefore, it's of great practical significance to retrieve land surface heat fluxes by a combination use of geostationary and polar orbiting satellites. In this study, a time series of the hourly LST was estimated from thermal infrared data acquired by the Chinese geostationary satellite FengYun 2C (FY-2C) over the TP. The split window algorithm (SWA) was optimized using a regression method based on the observations from the Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) of the Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP) on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet) and Tibetan observation and research platform (TORP), the land surface emissivity (LSE) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the water vapor content from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) project. The 10-day composite hourly LST data were generated via the maximum value composite (MVC) method to reduce the cloud effects. The derived LST was validated by the field observations of CAMP/Tibet and TORP. The results show that the retrieved LST and in situ data have a very good correlation (with root mean square error (RMSE), mean bias (MB), mean absolute error (MAE) and correlation coefficient (R) values of 1.99 K, 0.83 K, 1.71 K, and 0.991, respectively). Together with other characteristic parameters derived from polar-orbiting satellites and meteorological forcing data, the energy balance budgets have been retrieved finally. The validation results showed there was a good consistency between estimation results and in-situ measurements over the TP, which prove the robustness of the proposed estimation

  12. A Study of Polarization in Hyperon Production Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, David McDill [Minnesota U.

    1995-01-01

    The polarization of $\\Xi^-$ and $\\Omega^-$ hyperons produced from both polarized and unpolarized neutral particle beams has been studied. The unpolarized neutral beam production studies are the first measurements made using this production technique. The neutral beam consisted of neutrons, $\\Lambda^0$s, $\\Xi^0$s, $K^0$s, and photons. No polarization was observed in the sample of 1.4 x $10^7 \\Xi^-$s produced by an unpolarized neutral beam. For n-s produced by an unpolarized neutral beam, a sample of 1.7 x $10^5$ events with an average momentum of 394. GeV/c had a polarization of +0.044 $\\pm$ 0.008 and a sample of 5 x 104 events with an average momentum of 304. GeV /c had a polarization of +0.036 $\\pm$ 0.015. The polarization of 7.1 x $10^5 \\Xi^- s$ produced by a polarized neutral beam was -0.118±0.004 at an average momentum of 393. GeV/c. 1.8 x $10^4 \\Omega^- s$ produced by the polarized neutral beam had a polarization of -0.069 $\\pm$ 0.023 at an average momentum of 394. GeV /c. The measurements for production from a polarized neutral beam are in agreement with a previous measurement.

  13. Towards Polarization Diversity on the SOI Platform With Simple Fabrication Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Liu, Liu; Peucheret, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    We present a polarization diversity circuit built on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform, which can be fabricated by a simple process. The polarization diversity is based on two identical air-clad asymmetrical directional couplers, which simultaneously play the roles of polarization splitter...... and rotator. A silicon polarization diversity circuit with a single microring resonator is fabricated on the SOI platform. Only ${1-dB polarization-dependent loss is demonstrated. A significant improvement of the polarization dependence is obtained for 20-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-shift keying...

  14. Land Surface Temperature- Comparing Data from Polar Orbiting and Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyn-Platt, E.; Remedios, J. J.; Good, E. J.; Ghent, D.; Saunders, R.

    2012-04-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a vital parameter in Earth climate science, driving long-wave radiation exchanges that control the surface energy budget and carbon fluxes, which are important factors in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and the monitoring of climate change. Satellites offer a convenient way to observe LST consistently and regularly over large areas. A comparison between LST retrieved from a Geostationary Instrument, the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI), and a Polar Orbiting Instrument, the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) is presented. Both sensors offer differing benefits. AATSR offers superior precision and spatial resolution with global coverage but given its sun-synchronous platform only observes at two local times, ~10am and ~10pm. SEVIRI provides the high-temporal resolution (every 15 minutes) required for observing diurnal variability of surface temperatures but given its geostationary platform has a poorer resolution, 3km at nadir, which declines at higher latitudes. A number of retrieval methods are applied to the raw satellite data: First order coefficient based algorithms provided on an operational basis by the LandSAF (for SEVIRI) and the University of Leicester (for AATSR); Second order coefficient based algorithms put forward by the University of Valencia; and an optimal estimation method using the 1DVar software provided by the NWP SAF. Optimal estimation is an iterative technique based upon inverse theory, thus is very useful for expanding into data assimilation systems. The retrievals are assessed and compared on both a fine scale using in-situ data from recognised validation sites and on a broad scale using two 100x100 regions such that biases can be better understood. Overall, the importance of LST lies in monitoring daily temperature extremes, e.g. for estimating permafrost thawing depth or risk of crop damage due to frost, hence the ideal dataset would use a combination of observations

  15. Agricultural land for urban development : The process of land conversion in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuc, Nguyen Quang; Westen, A. C M van; Zoomers, Annelies

    Since the 1990s, Vietnam's progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted

  16. Agricultural land for urban development: The process of land conversion in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, C.P.; Westen, A.C.M. van; Zoomers, A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Vietnam’s progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted

  17. One photon exchange processes and the calibration of polarization of high energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolis, B.; Thomas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Polarization phenomena in small momentum transfer high energy one-photon exchange processes in the reaction p + A → X + A where A is a complex nucleus and X is anything are examined. It is shown that these polarizations can be related directly to photoproduction polarization effects in the reaction γ + p → X at low energies. Explicit formulae are written for polarization effects in the case where X → π 0 + p

  18. Production of spin-polarized unstable nuclei by using polarized electron capture process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, S.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of emitted radiation from spin polarized nuclei are used to get information on electromagnetic moment of ground state unstable nuclei together with spin or parity state of excited states of their decayed (daughter) nuclei. These data are known to be useful for experimental investigation into the structure of unstable nuclei far from the stability line. The present study aims to establish a general method applicable to 11 Be and 16 N nuclei. To produce spin polarization, a new method in which the electron spin polarization of Rb is firstly produced by laser pumping, then the electron is transferred to the unstable nuclear beam (RNB) when they passes through the Rb vapor is proposed. Finally the polarized RNB will be implanted into superfluid helium to remain with a long spin-relaxation time. Future experimental set up for the above measurement adopted in the available radioactive nuclear beam facilities is briefly described. (Ohno, S.)

  19. Global land-atmosphere coupling associated with cold climate processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutra, Emanuel, 1983-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Ciências Geofísicas e da Geoinformação (Meteorologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 This dissertation constitutes an assessment of the role of cold processes, associated with snow cover, in controlling the land-atmosphere coupling. The work was based on model simulations, including offline simulations with the land surface model HTESSEL, and coupled atmosphere simulations with the EC-EARTH climate model. A revised snow scheme was developed and t...

  20. Polarization information processing and software system design for simultaneously imaging polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yahui; Liu, Jing; Jin, Weiqi; Wen, Renjie

    2015-08-01

    Simultaneous imaging polarimetry can realize real-time polarization imaging of the dynamic scene, which has wide application prospect. This paper first briefly illustrates the design of the double separate Wollaston Prism simultaneous imaging polarimetry, and then emphases are put on the polarization information processing methods and software system design for the designed polarimetry. Polarization information processing methods consist of adaptive image segmentation, high-accuracy image registration, instrument matrix calibration. Morphological image processing was used for image segmentation by taking dilation of an image; The accuracy of image registration can reach 0.1 pixel based on the spatial and frequency domain cross-correlation; Instrument matrix calibration adopted four-point calibration method. The software system was implemented under Windows environment based on C++ programming language, which realized synchronous polarization images acquisition and preservation, image processing and polarization information extraction and display. Polarization data obtained with the designed polarimetry shows that: the polarization information processing methods and its software system effectively performs live realize polarization measurement of the four Stokes parameters of a scene. The polarization information processing methods effectively improved the polarization detection accuracy.

  1. Land use/land cover mapping using multi-scale texture processing of high resolution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S. N.; Sarker, M. L. R.

    2014-02-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) maps are useful for many purposes, and for a long time remote sensing techniques have been used for LULC mapping using different types of data and image processing techniques. In this research, high resolution satellite data from IKONOS was used to perform land use/land cover mapping in Johor Bahru city and adjacent areas (Malaysia). Spatial image processing was carried out using the six texture algorithms (mean, variance, contrast, homogeneity, entropy, and GLDV angular second moment) with five difference window sizes (from 3×3 to 11×11). Three different classifiers i.e. Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Supported Vector Machine (SVM) were used to classify the texture parameters of different spectral bands individually and all bands together using the same training and validation samples. Results indicated that texture parameters of all bands together generally showed a better performance (overall accuracy = 90.10%) for land LULC mapping, however, single spectral band could only achieve an overall accuracy of 72.67%. This research also found an improvement of the overall accuracy (OA) using single-texture multi-scales approach (OA = 89.10%) and single-scale multi-textures approach (OA = 90.10%) compared with all original bands (OA = 84.02%) because of the complementary information from different bands and different texture algorithms. On the other hand, all of the three different classifiers have showed high accuracy when using different texture approaches, but SVM generally showed higher accuracy (90.10%) compared to MLC (89.10%) and ANN (89.67%) especially for the complex classes such as urban and road.

  2. Land use/land cover mapping using multi-scale texture processing of high resolution data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S N; Sarker, M L R

    2014-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) maps are useful for many purposes, and for a long time remote sensing techniques have been used for LULC mapping using different types of data and image processing techniques. In this research, high resolution satellite data from IKONOS was used to perform land use/land cover mapping in Johor Bahru city and adjacent areas (Malaysia). Spatial image processing was carried out using the six texture algorithms (mean, variance, contrast, homogeneity, entropy, and GLDV angular second moment) with five difference window sizes (from 3×3 to 11×11). Three different classifiers i.e. Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Supported Vector Machine (SVM) were used to classify the texture parameters of different spectral bands individually and all bands together using the same training and validation samples. Results indicated that texture parameters of all bands together generally showed a better performance (overall accuracy = 90.10%) for land LULC mapping, however, single spectral band could only achieve an overall accuracy of 72.67%. This research also found an improvement of the overall accuracy (OA) using single-texture multi-scales approach (OA = 89.10%) and single-scale multi-textures approach (OA = 90.10%) compared with all original bands (OA = 84.02%) because of the complementary information from different bands and different texture algorithms. On the other hand, all of the three different classifiers have showed high accuracy when using different texture approaches, but SVM generally showed higher accuracy (90.10%) compared to MLC (89.10%) and ANN (89.67%) especially for the complex classes such as urban and road

  3. Operational digital image processing within the Bureau of Land Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work, E.A.; Story, M.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the use of operational digital image processing at the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is presented. The BLM digital image analysis facility for the processing and analysis of aerial photography and satellite data is described, and its role within the Bureau's operational structure is explained. Attention is given to examples of BLM digital data analysis projects that have utilized Landsat (MSS and TM), NOAA-AVHRR, or SPOT data. These projects include: landcover mapping to assist land use planning or special projects; monitoring of wilderness units to detect unauthorized activities; stratification aid for detailed field inventories; identification/quantification of unauthorized use (agricultural and mineral trespass); and fire fuels mapping and updates. 3 refs

  4. Simulation of land mine detection processes using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.

    2005-01-01

    A computer models were designed to study the processes of land mine detection using nuclear technique. Parameters that affect the detection were analyzed . Mines of different masses at different depths in the soil are considered using two types of sources , 252 C f and 14 MeV neutron source. The capability to differentiate between mines and other objects such as concrete , iron , wood , Aluminum ,water and polyethylene were analyzed and studied

  5. Measurement of the linear polarization of the photons in the elementary processes of bremsstrahlung production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleier, W.

    1983-01-01

    The polarization of the photons in the elementary processes of the electron-nucleus and electron-electron bremsstrahlung was measured. Electrons with an energy of 300 keV were scattered by copper, gold and carbon target. The polarization in the different processes was measured by using different coincidence methods. (BEF)

  6. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Gormezano

    Full Text Available Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28-48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1 prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet.

  7. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28-48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou) that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1) prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet.

  8. Urbanization Process and Variation of Energy Budget of Land Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Gardi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are increasing at a rate much higher than human population growth in many part of the world; actually more than 73 towns in the world are larger than 1000 km2. The European Environmental Agency indicates an urban area average growth rate, over the last 20 years, of 20%. The urbanization process, and the consequent soil sealing, determines not only the losses of the ecological functions of the soil, but also a variation of the energy budget of land surfaces, that affect the microclimatic conditions (heat islands. The alteration of the energy budget are determined by the variations of albedo and roughness of surfaces, but especially by the net losses of evapotranspirating areas. In the present research we have assessed the variation of Parma territory energy budget, induced by the change in land use over the last 122 years. The urban area increase between 1881 and 2003 was 535%.

  9. Realization of beam polarization at the linear collider and its application to EW processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco-Sollova, F.

    2006-07-15

    The use of beam polarization at the future ILC e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider will benefit the physics program significantly. This thesis explores three aspects of beam polarization: the application of beam polarization to the study of electroweak processes, the precise measurement of the beam polarization, and finally, the production of polarized positrons at a test beam experiment. In the first part of the thesis the importance of beam polarization at the future ILC is exhibited: the benefits of employing transverse beam polarization (in both beams) for the measurement of triple gauge boson couplings (TGCs) in the W-pair production process are studied. The sensitivity to anomalous TGC values is compared for the cases of transverse and longitudinal beam polarization at a center of mass energy of 500 GeV. Due to the suppressed contribution of the t-channel {nu} exchange, the sensitivity is higher for longitudinal polarization. For some physics analyses the usual polarimetry techniques do not provide the required accuracy for the measurement of the beam polarization (around 0.25% with Compton polarimetry). The second part of the thesis deals with a complementary method to measure the beam polarization employing physics data acquired with two polarization modes. The process of single-W production is chosen due to its high cross section. The expected precision for 500 fb{sup -1} and W{yields}{mu}{nu} decays only, is {delta}P{sub e{sup -}}/P{sub e{sup -}}=0.26% and {delta}P{sub e{sup +}}/P{sub e{sup +}}=0.33%, which can be further improved by employing additional W-decay channels. The first results of an attempt to produce polarized positrons at the E-166 experiment are shown in the last part of the thesis. The E-166 experiment, located at the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC's LINAC employs a helical undulator to induce the emission of circularly polarized gamma rays by the beam electrons. These gamma rays are converted into longitudinally polarized electron

  10. Land use and surface process domains on alpine hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Caviezel, Chatrina; Hunziker, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Shrubs and trees are generally considered to protect hillslopes from erosion. As a consequence, shrub encroachment on mountain pastures after abandoning grazing is not considered a threat to soils. However, the abandonment of mown or grazed grasslands causes a shift in vegetation composition and thus a change in landscape ecology and geomorphology. On many alpine slopes, current changes in land use and vegetation cover are accompanied by climate change, potentially generating a new geomorphic regime. Most of the debate focuses on the effect of land abandonment on water erosion rates. Generally, an established perennial vegetation cover improves the mechanical anchoring of the soil and the regulation of the soil water budget, including runoff generation and erosion. However, changing vegetation composition affects many other above- and below-ground properties like root density, -diversity and -geometry, soil structure, pore volume and acidity. Each combination of these properties can lead to a distinct scenario of dominating surface processes, often not reflected by common erosion risk assessment procedures. The study of soil properties along a chronosequence of green alder (alnusviridis) encroachment on the Unteralptal in central Switzerland reveals that shrub encroachment changes soil and vegetation properties towards an increase of resistance to run-off related erosion processes, but a decrease of slope stability against shallow landslides. The latter are a particular threat because of the currently increasing frequency of slide-triggering high magnitude rainfalls. The potential change of process domain on alpine pastures highlights the need for a careful use of erosion models when assessing future land use and climate scenarios. In mountains, but also other intensively managed agricultural landscapes, risk assessment without the appropriate reflection on the shifting relevance of surface processes carries the risk of missing future threats to environmental

  11. Regulatory systems for the control of land remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, J.; Vijgen, J.; Summersgill, M.

    2003-07-01

    One of the recurring themes in looking at land remediation over the last decade has been identifying and overcoming barriers to the use of innovative, sustainable technologies, whilst still ensuring that there are no adverse environmental impacts from their use. In parallel with this, the regeneration of brownfield sites has increasingly needed effective and economic solutions that leave the site without the stigma of being associated with contamination and waste disposal. Regulatory controls are often identified as one of the main barriers to both of these objectives. Previously, the focus of attention in the study of regulatory controls relating to land contamination has largely been on regimes that trigger the need for clean-up. These may be pollution control legislation or land-use planning controls. However, the focus of this paper will be on the controls on the selection and implementation of the remediation technologies and processes themselves. It will look in particular at the European-wide controls on waste management, pollution prevention and environmental impact assessment. The UK work is being carried out by a working group involving: landowners; developers; public sector regeneration agencies; house-builders; industry; insurers; technology providers; professional advisers; local government authorities; and national government regulators and policy-makers. This multi-stakeholder approach has facilitated the identification of practical, legal, financial and administrative issues to assist in developing new solutions. (orig.)

  12. Physical processes in azobenzene polymers on irradiation with polarized light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, N.C.R.; Nikolova, L.; Norris, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    Azobenzenes can serve as model compounds for the study of trans-cis isomerization in more complex molecules. We have performed time-resolved spectroscopy in solutions containing free azobenzene chromophores and diols with a view to obtaining the energy levels and lifetimes of the excited states....... A transition route based on experimental results for the theoretically calculated energy level scheme is proposed. Physical observations of surface relief in thin films of azobenzene polymers when irradiated with polarized light are reported. These include two beam polarization holographic observations...... and single beam transmission measurements through a mask, followed by atomic force microscope and profiler investigations. It is concluded that none of the prevalent theories can explain all the observed facts....

  13. Stimulated polarization wave process in spin 3/2 chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G. B.

    2007-01-01

    Stimulated wave of polarization, triggered by a flip of a single spin, presents a simple model of quantum amplification. Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in an idealized one-dimensional Ising spin 1/2 chain with nearest-neighbor interactions and realistic spin 1/2 chain including the natural dipole-dipole interactions, irradiated by a weak resonant transverse field, a wave of flipped spins can be triggered by a single spin flip. Here we focuse on control of polarization wave in chain of spin 3/2, where the nuclear quadrupole interaction is dominant. Results of simulations for 1D spin chains and rings with up to five spins are presented.

  14. Status of the analysis for the search of polarization in the antiproton production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfs, D.; Asaturyan, A.; Carmignotto, M.; Diermaier, M.; Eyrich, W.; Głowacz, B.; Grzonka, D.; Hauenstein, F.; Horn, T.; Kilian, K.; Malbrunot-Ettenauer, S.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Moskal, P.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Oelert, W.; Ritman, J.; Sefzick, T.; Tadevosyan, V.; Widmann, E.; Wolke, M.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zieliński, M.; Zink, A.; Zmeskal, J.

    2016-01-01

    The P-349 experiment aims to test whether for antiprotons the production process itself can be a source of polarization in view of the preparation of a polarized antiproton beam. In this article we present the details of performed measurements and report on the status of the ongoing analysis.

  15. The esa earth explorer land surface processes and interactions mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandibar, Jean-Yves; Jubineau, Franck; Silvestrin, Pierluigi; Del Bello, Umberto

    2017-11-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is defining candidate missions for Earth Observation. In the class of the Earth Explorer missions, dedicated to research and pre-operational demonstration, the Land Surface Processes and Interactions Mission (LSPIM) will acquire the accurate quantitative measurements needed to improve our understanding of the nature and evolution of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and to contribute significantly to a solution of the scaling problems for energy, water and carbon fluxes at the Earth's surface. The mission is intended to provide detailed observations of the surface of the Earth and to collect data related to ecosystem processes and radiation balance. It is also intended to address a range of issues important for environmental monitoring, renewable resources assessment and climate models. The mission involves a dedicated maneuvering satellite which provides multi-directional observations for systematic measurement of Land Surface BRDF (BiDirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) of selected sites on Earth. The satellite carries an optical payload : PRISM (Processes Research by an Imaging Space Mission), a multispectral imager providing reasonably high spatial resolution images (50 m over 50 km swath) in the whole optical spectral domain (from 450 nm to 2.35 μm with a resolution close to 10 nm, and two thermal bands from 8.1 to 9.1 μm). This paper presents the results of the Phase A study awarded by ESA, led by ALCATEL Space Industries and concerning the design of LSPIM.

  16. Interdependencies of Arctic land surface processes: A uniquely sensitive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    The circumpolar arctic drainage basin is composed of several distinct ecoregions including steppe grassland and cropland, boreal forest and tundra. Land surface hydrology throughout this diverse region shares several unique features such as dramatic seasonal runoff differences controlled by snowmelt and ice break-up; the storage of significant portions of annual precipitation as snow and in lakes and wetlands; and the effects of ephemeral and permanently frozen soils. These arctic land processes are delicately balanced with the climate and are therefore important indicators of change. The litany of recently-detected changes in the Arctic includes changes in snow precipitation, trends and seasonal shifts in river discharge, increases and decreases in the extent of surface water, and warming soil temperatures. Although not unique to the arctic, increasing anthropogenic pressures represent an additional element of change in the form of resource extraction, fire threat and reservoir construction. The interdependence of the physical, biological and social systems mean that changes in primary indicators have large implications for land cover, animal populations and the regional carbon balance, all of which have the potential to feed back and induce further change. In fact, the complex relationships between the hydrological processes that make the Artic unique also render observed historical change difficult to interpret and predict, leading to conflicting explanations. For example, a decrease in snow accumulation may provide less insulation to the underlying soil resulting in greater frost development and increased spring runoff. Similarly, melting permafrost and ground ice may lead to ground subsidence and increased surface saturation and methane production, while more complete thaw may enhance drainage and result in drier soil conditions. The threshold nature of phase change around the freezing point makes the system especially sensitive to change. In addition, spatial

  17. Risk-maps informing land-use planning processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basta, Claudia [DIRC Sustainable Urban Areas, Section of Material Science and Sustainable Construction, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2600 GA, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: c.basta@citg.tudelft.nl; Neuvel, Jeroen M.M. [Land Use Planning, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, Postbus 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jeroen.neuvel@wur.nl; Zlatanova, Sisi [Section GISt, OTB Research Institute for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 9, P.O. Box 5030, 2600 GA, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: s.zlatanova@otb.tudelft.nl; Ale, Ben [Safety Science Group, TBM Faculty, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, 2600 GA, Delft (Netherlands)

    2007-06-25

    The definition of safety distances as required by Art 12 of the Seveso II Directive on dangerous substances (96/82/EC) is necessary to minimize the consequences of potential major accidents. As they affect the land-use destinations of involved areas, safety distances can be considered as risk tolerability criteria with a territorial reflection. Recent studies explored the suitability of using Geographical Information System technologies to support their elaboration and visual rendering. In particular, the elaboration of GIS 'risk-maps' has been recognized as functional to two objectives: connecting spatial planners and safety experts during decision making processes and communicating risk to non-experts audiences. In order to elaborate on these findings and to verify their reflection on European practices, the article presents the result of a comparative study between the United Kingdom and the Netherlands recent developments. Their land-use planning practices for areas falling under Seveso II requirements are explored. The role of GIS risk-maps within decisional processes is analyzed and the reflection on the transparency and accessibility of risk-information is commented. Recommendations for further developments are given.

  18. Risk-maps informing land-use planning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, Claudia; Neuvel, Jeroen M.M.; Zlatanova, Sisi; Ale, Ben

    2007-01-01

    The definition of safety distances as required by Art 12 of the Seveso II Directive on dangerous substances (96/82/EC) is necessary to minimize the consequences of potential major accidents. As they affect the land-use destinations of involved areas, safety distances can be considered as risk tolerability criteria with a territorial reflection. Recent studies explored the suitability of using Geographical Information System technologies to support their elaboration and visual rendering. In particular, the elaboration of GIS 'risk-maps' has been recognized as functional to two objectives: connecting spatial planners and safety experts during decision making processes and communicating risk to non-experts audiences. In order to elaborate on these findings and to verify their reflection on European practices, the article presents the result of a comparative study between the United Kingdom and the Netherlands recent developments. Their land-use planning practices for areas falling under Seveso II requirements are explored. The role of GIS risk-maps within decisional processes is analyzed and the reflection on the transparency and accessibility of risk-information is commented. Recommendations for further developments are given

  19. Impact polarization and alignment creation parameters via stepwise excitation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csanak, G.; Cartwright, D.C.; Kazantsev, S.A.; Bray, I.

    1998-01-01

    W report here results from first order many body theory, distorted wave approximation, and converged close coupling calculations for polarization fractions and alignment creation parameters in the case of 2 1 S → n 1 P(n 3 - 5), 2 3 S → n 1 P(n = 2 - 5), 2 1 S → n 1 D(n = 3 - 5), 2 3 S → n 1 D(n = 3 - 5), 2 3 S → n 3 D(n = 3 - 5), and 2 1 S → n 3 D(n = 3 - 5) excitations in helium for electron impact energies from threshold to several hundred eV. (author)

  20. Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Hunsberger (Carol); Tom P. Evans

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPressure on land resources has increased during recent years despite international goals to improve their management. The fourth Global Environment Outlook (UNEP 2007) highlighted the unprecedented land-use changes created by a burgeoning population, economic development and

  1. Azimuthal asymmetry in processes of nonlinear QED for linearly polarized photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajer, V.N.; Mil'shtejn, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    Cross sections of nonlinear QED processes (photon-photon scattering, photon splitting in a Coulomb field, and Delbrueck scattering) are considered for linearly polarized initial photon. The cross sections have sizeable azimuthal asymmetry. 15 refs.; 3 figs

  2. Linking process and pattern of land use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, Koen Pieter

    2006-01-01

    Land use change results from the interaction between the human and the natural system and therefore various scientific disciplines have developed paradigms and methods to study land use change. However, these disciplinary approaches can only cover part of the complex system of land use change. The

  3. Fractal structure of hadrons in processes with polarized protons at SPD NICA (proposal for experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarev, M.V.; Aparin, A.A.; Zborovsky, I.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of z-scaling previously developed for analysis of inclusive reactions in proton-proton collisions is applied for description of processes with polarized protons at the planned Spin Physics Detector NICA in Dubna. A hypothesis of self-similarity and fractality of the proton spin structure is discussed. The possibilities to extract information on spin-dependent fractal dimensions of hadrons and fragmentation process from asymmetries and coefficients of polarization transfer are justified. The double longitudinal spin asymmetry A LL of π 0 -meson production and the coefficient of the polarization transfer D LL of Λ hyperon production in proton-proton collisions measured at RHIC are analyzed in the framework of z-scaling. The spin-dependent fractal dimensions of proton and fragmentation process with polarized Λ hyperon are estimated. A study of the spin-dependent constituent energy loss as a function of transverse momentum of the inclusive hadron and collision energy is suggested.

  4. Global land-atmosphere coupling associated with cold climate processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Emanuel

    This dissertation constitutes an assessment of the role of cold processes, associated with snow cover, in controlling the land-atmosphere coupling. The work was based on model simulations, including offline simulations with the land surface model HTESSEL, and coupled atmosphere simulations with the EC-EARTH climate model. A revised snow scheme was developed and tested in HTESSEL and EC-EARTH. The snow scheme is currently operational at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts integrated forecast system, and in the default configuration of EC-EARTH. The improved representation of the snowpack dynamics in HTESSEL resulted in improvements in the near surface temperature simulations of EC-EARTH. The new snow scheme development was complemented with the option of multi-layer version that showed its potential in modeling thick snowpacks. A key process was the snow thermal insulation that led to significant improvements of the surface water and energy balance components. Similar findings were observed when coupling the snow scheme to lake ice, where lake ice duration was significantly improved. An assessment on the snow cover sensitivity to horizontal resolution, parameterizations and atmospheric forcing within HTESSEL highlighted the role of the atmospheric forcing accuracy and snowpack parameterizations in detriment of horizontal resolution over flat regions. A set of experiments with and without free snow evolution was carried out with EC-EARTH to assess the impact of the interannual variability of snow cover on near surface and soil temperatures. It was found that snow cover interannual variability explained up to 60% of the total interannual variability of near surface temperature over snow covered regions. Although these findings are model dependent, the results showed consistency with previously published work. Furthermore, the detailed validation of the snow dynamics simulations in HTESSEL and EC-EARTH guarantees consistency of the results.

  5. Study of proton polarization in charge exchange process on optically oriented sodium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenskij, A.N.; Kokhanovskij, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Using high-power adjustable dye lasers for electron spin orientation in a charge-exchange target enables to significantly increase the proton polarization efficiency. A device is described that permits to avoid growth of the polarized proton beam emittance in a charge-exchange process in a strong magnetic field. The devise main feature is the use of an intensive source of neutral hydrogen atoms and the presence of a helium additional charge-exchange target which actualy is a proton ''source''. The helium charge-exchange cell is placed in the same magnetic field of a solenoid where a cell with oriented sodium is placed, a polarized electron being captured by a proton in the latter cell. In this case the beam at the solenoid inlet and outlet is in a neutral state; emittance growth related to the effect of end magnetic fields is not observed. The device after all prouduces polarized protons, their polarization degree is measured and the effect of various factors on polarization degree is studied. The description of the laser source and laser system is given. Measurement results have shown the beam intensity of neutral 7 keV atoms which passed through a polarizer to be 2 mA. The proton current doesn't depend. On the beeld fin the region of chrge exchange for the 8 kGs magnetic field. The degree of sodium polarization was 80% and polarized proton current approximately 70 μA at a temperature of the polarized sodium cell corresponding to the density of sodium vapar approximately 3x10 13 at/cm 2

  6. Your Family Land: Legacy or Memory? An Introduction to the Family Land Protection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry

    2008-01-01

    If you have this perspective, protecting your land from development is a task you certainly can accomplish. Virtually every situation is workable and every problem can be solved. It does require some planning and decisionmaking; however, so the sooner you start the better. Experience has shown that the number one obstacle to the protection of family land...

  7. lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. O'Geen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pumping chronically exceeds natural recharge in many agricultural regions in California. A common method of recharging groundwater — when surface water is available — is to deliberately flood an open area, allowing water to percolate into an aquifer. However, open land suitable for this type of recharge is scarce. Flooding agricultural land during fallow or dormant periods has the potential to increase groundwater recharge substantially, but this approach has not been well studied. Using data on soils, topography and crop type, we developed a spatially explicit index of the suitability for groundwater recharge of land in all agricultural regions in California. We identified 3.6 million acres of agricultural land statewide as having Excellent or Good potential for groundwater recharge. The index provides preliminary guidance about the locations where groundwater recharge on agricultural land is likely to be feasible. A variety of institutional, infrastructure and other issues must also be addressed before this practice can be implemented widely.

  8. Globalisation and the foreignisation of space: The seven processes driving the current global land grab.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.

    2010-01-01

    The current global land grab is causing radical changes in the use and ownership of land. The main process driving the land grab, or ‘foreignisation of space’, as highlighted in the media and the emerging literature is the production of food and biofuel for export in the aftermath of recent food

  9. Formalization of processes in the land relations of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.О. Meteshkin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The work listed a number of problematic tasks in the sphere of land relations of Ukraine, among which: weak communications between laws, inconsistency interpretations laws and insufficient use of modern information technologies. The relevance of the work is the need to solve problem tasks land relations in Ukraine and absence, proposed in the work, mathematical apparatus for solving these tasks. Analyzed work of scientists, who work in the sphere of land relations and who work in the sphere of formalize of rights. The proposed decision of actual tasks with help create mathematical ensuring for develop decision support system in land relations. The basis of this mathematical ensuring constitute methods of category theory, which provide the formalization of complex tasks. Based on methods of category theory models of land relations are constructed using data Land code of Ukraine. They will become an element of ontology land relations, which will be the structural parts of the knowledge base decision support system in the land management of Ukraine. It should also be noted, what similar models can be used in other subject areas.

  10. Processing Polarity: How the Ungrammatical Intrudes on the Grammatical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasishth, Shravan; Brussow, Sven; Lewis, Richard L.; Drenhaus, Heiner

    2008-01-01

    A central question in online human sentence comprehension is, "How are linguistic relations established between different parts of a sentence?" Previous work has shown that this dependency resolution process can be computationally expensive, but the underlying reasons for this are still unclear. This article argues that dependency…

  11. Some comments about polarization in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    One can fit baryon production in deep inelastic processes in terms of baryon fragmentation functions. It appears that for z > 0.3, the individual quark materializes into a baryon by picking up the appropriate diquark. The spin and isospin properties of the diquark will give definite asymmetry in baryon production in terms of only three unknown parameters. 4 references, 1 table

  12. Sustainable development - Liberalization of land markets and new processes of land grabbing : report of the academic panel organized by IDS on 7 July 2009, Utrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westen, G. van; Zoomers, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that opportunities to buy land through the market and the use of internet have resulted in new processes of land grabbing, and an upward trend in the ownership of land by foreign and other non-local buyers. In addition to ‘traditional’ large land holders, new actors are

  13. Estimation and Validation of Land Surface Temperatures from Chinese Second-Generation Polar-Orbit FY-3A VIRR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Hui Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work estimated and validated the land surface temperature (LST from thermal-infrared Channels 4 (10.8 µm and 5 (12.0 µm of the Visible and Infrared Radiometer (VIRR onboard the second-generation Chinese polar-orbiting FengYun-3A (FY-3A meteorological satellite. The LST, mean emissivity and atmospheric water vapor content (WVC were divided into several tractable sub-ranges with little overlap to improve the fitting accuracy. The experimental results showed that the root mean square errors (RMSEs were proportional to the viewing zenith angles (VZAs and WVC. The RMSEs were below 1.0 K for VZA sub-ranges less than 30° or for VZA sub-ranges less than 60° and WVC less than 3.5 g/cm2, provided that the land surface emissivities were known. A preliminary validation using independently simulated data showed that the estimated LSTs were quite consistent with the actual inputs, with a maximum RMSE below 1 K for all VZAs. An inter-comparison using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-derived LST product MOD11_L2 showed that the minimum RMSE was 1.68 K for grass, and the maximum RMSE was 3.59 K for barren or sparsely vegetated surfaces. In situ measurements at the Hailar field site in northeastern China from October, 2013, to September, 2014, were used to validate the proposed method. The result showed that the RMSE between the LSTs calculated from the ground measurements and derived from the VIRR data was 1.82 K.

  14. Exploring Options for Standardisation of Processes and Transactions in Land Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.H.J.; Unger, E.M.; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Kalantari, M.

    2018-01-01

    Processes and transactions in Land Administration are outside the scope of the Land Administration Domain Model Edition I published in 2012. Reason is that processes were considered to be country specific. Generic processes would be too difficult to model. This view needs reconsideration – given

  15. Assessment of the Global and Regional Land Hydrosphere and Its Impact on the Balance of the Geophysical Excitation Function of Polar Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wińska, Małgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta; Kołaczek, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The impact of continental hydrological loading from land water, snow and ice on polar motion excitation, calculated as hydrological angular momentum (HAM), is difficult to estimate, and not as much is known about it as about atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) and oceanic angular momentum (OAM). In this paper, regional hydrological excitations to polar motion are investigated using monthly terrestrial water storage data derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission and from the five models of land hydrology. The results show that the areas where the variance shows large variability are similar for the different models of land hydrology and for the GRACE data. Areas which have a small amplitude on the maps make an important contribution to the global hydrological excitation function of polar motion. The comparison of geodetic residuals and global hydrological excitation functions of polar motion shows that none of the hydrological excitation has enough energy to significantly improve the agreement between the observed geodetic excitation and geophysical ones.

  16. Induced polarization for characterizing and monitoring soil stabilization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneiyan, S.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Werkema, D. D., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Soil stabilization is critical in addressing engineering problems related to building foundation support, road construction and soil erosion among others. To increase soil strength, the stiffness of the soil is enhanced through injection/precipitation of a chemical agents or minerals. Methods such as cement injection and microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) are commonly applied. Verification of a successful soil stabilization project is often challenging as treatment areas are spatially extensive and invasive sampling is expensive, time consuming and limited to sporadic points at discrete times. The geophysical method, complex conductivity (CC), is sensitive to mineral surface properties, hence a promising method to monitor soil stabilization projects. Previous laboratory work has established the sensitivity of CC on MICP processes. We performed a MICP soil stabilization projects and collected CC data for the duration of the treatment (15 days). Subsurface images show small, but very clear changes, in the area of MICP treatment; the changes observed fully agree with the bio-geochemical monitoring, and previous laboratory experiments. Our results strongly suggest that CC is sensitive to field MICP treatments. Finally, our results show that good quality data alone are not adequate for the correct interpretation of field CC data, at least when the signals are low. Informed data processing routines and the inverse modeling parameters are required to produce optimal results.

  17. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Land-Water-Ecosystem Quality in Polar and Mountainous Regions: A New Interregional Project (INT5153)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dercon, Gerd [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, IAEA, Seibersdorf (Austria); Gerardo-Abaya, Jane [Division for Asia and the Pacific Section 2, Department of Technical Cooperation, IAEA, Vienna (Austria); Mavlyudov, Bulat [Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2014-07-15

    The INT5153 project aims to improve the understanding of the impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems on both a local and global scale for their better management and conservation. Seven core and five related benchmark sites have been selected from different global regions for specific assessments of the impact of climate change with the following expected outcomes and outputs: Outcomes: • Improved understanding of the impact of climate change on the cryosphere in polar and mountainous ecosystems and its effects on landwater- ecosystem quality at both local and global scales. • Recommendations for improvement of regional policies for soil and agricultural water management, conservation, and environmental protection in polar and mountainous regions. Outputs: • Specific strategies to minimize the adverse effects of, and adapt to, reduced seasonal snow and glacier covered areas on land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountain regions across the world. • Enhanced interregional network of laboratories and institutions competent in the assessment of climate change impacts on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality, using isotopic and nuclear techniques. • Increased number of young scientists trained in the use of isotope and nuclear techniques to assess the impact of climate change on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountainous ecosystems. • Platform/database with global access for continuing work and monitoring of impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems at local and global scales, as well as for communicating findings to policy makers and communities. • Improved understanding of the effects of climate change disseminated through appropriate publications, policy briefs, and through a dedicated internet platform. • Methodologies and protocols for investigations in specific ecosystems and conservation/adaptation measures for agriculture areas.

  18. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Land-Water-Ecosystem Quality in Polar and Mountainous Regions: A New Interregional Project (INT5153)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercon, Gerd; Gerardo-Abaya, Jane; Mavlyudov, Bulat

    2014-01-01

    The INT5153 project aims to improve the understanding of the impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems on both a local and global scale for their better management and conservation. Seven core and five related benchmark sites have been selected from different global regions for specific assessments of the impact of climate change with the following expected outcomes and outputs: Outcomes: • Improved understanding of the impact of climate change on the cryosphere in polar and mountainous ecosystems and its effects on landwater- ecosystem quality at both local and global scales. • Recommendations for improvement of regional policies for soil and agricultural water management, conservation, and environmental protection in polar and mountainous regions. Outputs: • Specific strategies to minimize the adverse effects of, and adapt to, reduced seasonal snow and glacier covered areas on land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountain regions across the world. • Enhanced interregional network of laboratories and institutions competent in the assessment of climate change impacts on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality, using isotopic and nuclear techniques. • Increased number of young scientists trained in the use of isotope and nuclear techniques to assess the impact of climate change on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountainous ecosystems. • Platform/database with global access for continuing work and monitoring of impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems at local and global scales, as well as for communicating findings to policy makers and communities. • Improved understanding of the effects of climate change disseminated through appropriate publications, policy briefs, and through a dedicated internet platform. • Methodologies and protocols for investigations in specific ecosystems and conservation/adaptation measures for agriculture areas

  19. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available the factors contributing to desertification and practical measures necessary to combat desertification and mitigate the effect of drought. The priority issues reported on in this chapter are soil and veld degradation, and the loss of land for agricultural use....

  20. The Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welding Process: Its Application to the Space Shuttle External Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Bayless, E. O., Jr.; Wilson, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes progress in the implementation of the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welding (VPPAW) process at the External Tank (ET) assembly facility. Design allowable data has been developed for thicknesses up to 1.00 in. More than 24,000 in. of welding on liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen cylinders has been made without an internal defect.

  1. Modelling interactions and feedback mechanisms between land use change and landscape processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.; Schoorl, J.M.; Verburg, P.H.; Geraedts, L.; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-01-01

    Land use changes and landscape processes are interrelated and influenced by multiple bio-physical and socio-economic driving factors, resulting in a complex, multi-scale system. Consequently in landscapes with active landscape processes such as erosion, land use changes should not be analysed in

  2. System and process for polarity swing assisted regeneration of gas selective capture liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Tegrotenhuis, Ward E.; Freeman, Charles J.; Elliott, Michael L.; Koech, Phillip K.; Humble, Paul H.; Zheng, Feng; Zhang, Jian

    2017-07-18

    A polarity swing-assisted regeneration (PSAR) process is disclosed for improving the efficiency of releasing gases chemically bound to switchable ionic liquids. Regeneration of the SWIL involves addition of a quantity of non-polar organic compound as an anti-solvent to destabilize the SWIL, which aids in release of the chemically bound gas. The PSAR decreases gas loading of a SWIL at a given temperature and increases the rate of gas release compared to heating in the absence of anti-solvent.

  3. Polarization dependent dispersion and its impact on optical parametric process in high nonlinear microstructure fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Li; Zhang Wei; Huang Yidong; Peng Jiangde

    2008-01-01

    High nonlinear microstructure fibre (HNMF) is preferred in nonlinear fibre optics, especially in the applications of optical parametric effects, due to its high optical nonlinear coefficient. However, polarization dependent dispersion will impact the nonlinear optical parametric process in HNMFs. In this paper, modulation instability (MI) method is used to measure the polarization dependent dispersion of a piece of commercial HNMF, including the group velocity dispersion, the dispersion slope, the fourth-order dispersion and group birefringence. It also experimentally demonstrates the impact of the polarization dependent dispersion on the continuous wave supercontinuum (SC) generation. On one axis MI sidebands with symmetric frequency detunings are generated, while on the other axis with larger MI frequency detuning, SC is generated by soliton self-frequency shift

  4. Multiphoton processes in the field of two-frequency circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, An

    1997-01-01

    The authors solve Dirac's equation for an electron in the field of a two-frequency plane electromagnetic wave, deriving general formulae for the probabilities of radiation of a photon by the electron, and for the probabilities for pair production by a photon when the two-frequency wave is circularly polarized. In contrast to the case of a monochromatic-plane electromagnetic wave, when an electron is in the field of a two-frequency circularly polarized wave, besides the absorption of multiphotons and emission of simple harmonics of the individual waves, stimulated multiphoton emission processes and various composite harmonic-photon emission processes are occurred: when a high-energy photon is in a such a field, multiphoton processes also follow the pair production processes

  5. Real time polarization sensor image processing on an embedded FPGA/multi-core DSP system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednara, Marcus; Chuchacz-Kowalczyk, Katarzyna

    2015-05-01

    Most embedded image processing SoCs available on the market are highly optimized for typical consumer applications like video encoding/decoding, motion estimation or several image enhancement processes as used in DSLR or digital video cameras. For non-consumer applications, on the other hand, optimized embedded hardware is rarely available, so often PC based image processing systems are used. We show how a real time capable image processing system for a non-consumer application - namely polarization image data processing - can be efficiently implemented on an FPGA and multi-core DSP based embedded hardware platform.

  6. Land processes lead to surprising patterns in atmospheric residence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, R.; Tuinenburg, O.

    2017-12-01

    Our research using atmospheric moisture tracking methods shows that the global average atmospheric residence time of evaporation is 8-10 days. This residence time appears to be Gamma distributed with a higher probability of shorter than average residence times and a long tail. As a consequence the median of this residence time is around 5 days. In some places in the world the first few hours/days after evaporation there seems to be a little chance for a moisture particle to precipitate again, which is reflected by a Gamma distribution having a shape parameter below 1. In this study we present global maps of this parameter using different datasets (GLDAS and ERA-Interim). The shape parameter is as such also a measure for the land-atmospheric coupling strength along the path of the atmospheric water particle. We also find that different evaporation components: canopy interception, soil evaporation and transpiration appear to have different residence time distributions. We find a daily cycle in the residence time distribution over land, which is not present over the oceans. In this paper we will show which of the evaporation components is mainly responsible for this daily pattern and thus exhibits the largest daily cycle of land-atmosphere coupling strength.

  7. The swimming polarity of multicellular magnetotactic prokaryotes can change during an isolation process employing magnets: evidence of a relation between swimming polarity and magnetic moment intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Roger Duarte; Acosta-Avalos, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Magnetotactic microorganisms are characterized by swimming in the direction of an applied magnetic field. In nature, two types of swimming polarity have been observed: north-seeking microorganisms that swim in the same direction as the magnetic field, and south-seeking microorganisms that swim in the opposite direction. The present work studies the reversal in the swimming polarity of the multicellular magnetotactic prokaryote Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis following an isolation process using high magnetic fields from magnets. The proportion of north- and south-seeking organisms was counted as a function of the magnetic field intensity used during the isolation of the organisms from sediment. It was observed that the proportion of north-seeking organisms increased when the magnetic field was increased. The magnetic moment for north- and south-seeking populations was estimated using the U-turn method. The average magnetic moment was higher for north- than south-seeking organisms. The results suggest that the reversal of swimming polarity must occur during the isolation process in the presence of high magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients. It is shown for the first time that the swimming polarity reversal depends on the magnetic moment intensity of multicellular magnetotactic prokaryotes, and new studies must be undertaken to understand the role of magnetic moment polarity and oxygen gradients in determination of swimming polarity.

  8. Exploring National Environmental Policy Act processes across federal land management agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc J. Stern; Michael J. Mortimer

    2009-01-01

    Broad discretion is granted at all levels throughout federal land management agencies regarding compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). We explored the diversity of procedures employed in NEPA processes across four agencies, the USDA Forest Service, The USDI National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  9. Polar Processes in a 50-year Simulation of Stratospheric Chemistry and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S.R.; Douglass, A. R.; Patrick, L. C.; Allen, D. R.; Randall, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    The unique chemical, dynamical, and microphysical processes that occur in the winter polar lower stratosphere are expected to interact strongly with changing climate and trace gas abundances. Significant changes in ozone have been observed and prediction of future ozone and climate interactions depends on modeling these processes successfully. We have conducted an off-line model simulation of the stratosphere for trace gas conditions representative of 1975-2025 using meteorology from the NASA finite-volume general circulation model. The objective of this simulation is to examine the sensitivity of stratospheric ozone and chemical change to varying meteorology and trace gas inputs. This presentation will examine the dependence of ozone and related processes in polar regions on the climatological and trace gas changes in the model. The model past performance is base-lined against available observations, and a future ozone recovery scenario is forecast. Overall the model ozone simulation is quite realistic, but initial analysis of the detailed evolution of some observable processes suggests systematic shortcomings in our description of the polar chemical rates and/or mechanisms. Model sensitivities, strengths, and weaknesses will be discussed with implications for uncertainty and confidence in coupled climate chemistry predictions.

  10. Land Cover and Land Use Classification with TWOPAC: towards Automated Processing for Pixel- and Object-Based Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dech

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel and innovative automated processing environment for the derivation of land cover (LC and land use (LU information. This processing framework named TWOPAC (TWinned Object and Pixel based Automated classification Chain enables the standardized, independent, user-friendly, and comparable derivation of LC and LU information, with minimized manual classification labor. TWOPAC allows classification of multi-spectral and multi-temporal remote sensing imagery from different sensor types. TWOPAC enables not only pixel-based classification, but also allows classification based on object-based characteristics. Classification is based on a Decision Tree approach (DT for which the well-known C5.0 code has been implemented, which builds decision trees based on the concept of information entropy. TWOPAC enables automatic generation of the decision tree classifier based on a C5.0-retrieved ascii-file, as well as fully automatic validation of the classification output via sample based accuracy assessment.Envisaging the automated generation of standardized land cover products, as well as area-wide classification of large amounts of data in preferably a short processing time, standardized interfaces for process control, Web Processing Services (WPS, as introduced by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC, are utilized. TWOPAC’s functionality to process geospatial raster or vector data via web resources (server, network enables TWOPAC’s usability independent of any commercial client or desktop software and allows for large scale data processing on servers. Furthermore, the components of TWOPAC were built-up using open source code components and are implemented as a plug-in for Quantum GIS software for easy handling of the classification process from the user’s perspective.

  11. Some key techniques of SPOT-5 image processing in new national land and resources investigation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Changsheng; Li, Qingquan; Li, Deren

    2004-02-01

    In 1988, the detail information on land resource was investigated in China. Fourteen years later, it has changed a lot. It is necessary that the second land resource detailed investigation should be implemented. On this condition, the New National Land and Resources Investigation Project in China, which will last 12 years, has been started since 1999. The project is directly under the administration of the Ministry of Land and Resource (MLR). It was organized and implemented By China Geological, China Land Surveying and Planning Institute (CLSPI) and Information Center of MLR. It is a grand and cross century project supported by the Central Finance, based on State and public interests and strategic characteristics. Up to now, "Land Use Dynamic Monitoring By Remote Sensing," "Arable Land Resource Investigation," "Rural Collective Land Property Right Investgiation," "Establishment of Public Consulting Standardization of Cadastral Information," "Land Resource Fundamental Maps and Data Updating," "Urban Land Price Investigation and Intensive Utilization Potential Capacity Evaluation," "Farmland Classification, Gradation, and Evaluation," "Land Use Database Construction at City or County Level" 8 subprojects have had the preliminary achievements. In this project, SPOT-1/2/4 and Landsat-7 TM data were always applied to monitor land use dynamic change as the main data resource. Certainly, IRS, CBERS-2, and IKONOS data also were tested in small areas. In 2002, the SPOT-5 data, whose spatial resolution of the panchromatic image is 2.5 meters and the spectral one is 10 meters, were applied into update the land use base map at the 1:10000 scale in 26 Chinese cities. The purpose in this paper is to communicate the experience of SPOT-5 image processing with the colleagues.

  12. Factorization properties and their probabilistic interpretation in polarized electroproduction and annihilation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Kounnas, C.

    1981-01-01

    We describe the factorization properties of polarized deep-inelastic and semi-inclusive annihilation structure functions in the Bjorken limit. We present a simple physical interpretation of the factorization results that relates the factorized quantities to the terms appearing in a decomposition of an effective spin-density matrix of a virtual quark. We give, through one-loop level, all the calculable quantities needed to parametrize the scaling violation of the structure functions in both spacelike and timelike processes

  13. AVIRIS and TIMS data processing and distribution at the land processes distributed active archive center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, G. R.; Myers, J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Government has initiated the Global Change Research program, a systematic study of the Earth as a complete system. NASA's contribution of the Global Change Research Program is the Earth Observing System (EOS), a series of orbital sensor platforms and an associated data processing and distribution system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the archiving, production, and distribution system for data collected by the EOS space segment and uses a multilayer architecture for processing, archiving, and distributing EOS data. The first layer consists of the spacecraft ground stations and processing facilities that receive the raw data from the orbiting platforms and then separate the data by individual sensors. The second layer consists of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC) that process, distribute, and archive the sensor data. The third layer consists of a user science processing network. The EOSDIS is being developed in a phased implementation. The initial phase, Version 0, is a prototype of the operational system. Version 0 activities are based upon existing systems and are designed to provide an EOSDIS-like capability for information management and distribution. An important science support task is the creation of simulated data sets for EOS instruments from precursor aircraft or satellite data. The Land Processes DAAC, at the EROS Data Center (EDC), is responsible for archiving and processing EOS precursor data from airborne instruments such as the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS), and Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS, TIMS, and TMS are flown by the NASA-Ames Research Center ARC) on an ER-2. The ER-2 flies at 65000 feet and can carry up to three sensors simultaneously. Most jointly collected data sets are somewhat boresighted and roughly registered. The instrument data are being used to construct data sets that simulate the spectral and spatial

  14. Common and uncommon sense about erosional processes in mountain lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice

    1981-01-01

    Current knowledge of erosional processes in mountainous watersheds is reviewed with emphasis on the west coast of the United States. Appreciation of the relative magnitude of erosional processes may be distorted by the tendency for researchers to study ""problems"" and by the relatively short time span of their records

  15. Transfection efficiency and uptake process of polyplexes in human lung endothelial cells: a comparative study in non-polarized and polarized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennesson, Eric; Erbacher, Patrick; Piller, Véronique; Kieda, Claudine; Midoux, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal

    2005-06-01

    Following systemic administration, polyplexes must cross the endothelium barrier to deliver genes to the target cells underneath. To design an efficient gene delivery system into lung epithelium, we evaluated capture and transfection efficiencies of DNA complexed with either Jet-PEI (PEI-polyplexes) or histidylated polylysine (His-polyplexes) in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMEC) and tracheal epithelial cells. After optimizing growth conditions to obtain a tight HLMEC monolayer, we characterized uptake of polyplexes by flow cytometry and evaluated their transfection efficiency. Polyplexes were formulated as small particles. YOYO-labelled plasmid fluorescence intensity and luciferase activity were used as readouts for uptake and gene expression, respectively. PEI-polyplexes were more efficiently taken up than His-polyplexes by both non-polarized (2-fold) and polarized HLMEC (10-fold). They were mainly internalized by a clathrin-dependent pathway whatever the cell state. In non-polarized cells, His-polyplexes entered also mainly via a clathrin-dependent pathway but with an involvement of cholesterol. The cell polarization decreased this way and a clathrin-independent pathway became predominant. PEI-polyplexes transfected more efficiently HLMEC than His-polyplexes (10(7) vs. 10(5) relative light units (RLU)/mg of proteins) with a more pronounced difference in polarized cells. In contrast, no negative effect of the cell polarization was observed with tracheal epithelial cells in which both polyplexes had comparable efficiency. We show that the efficiency of polyplex uptake by HLMEC and their internalization mechanism are polymer-dependent. By contrast with His-polyplexes, the HLMEC polarization has little influence on the uptake process and on the transfection efficiency of PEI-polyplexes. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Integrating image processing and classification technology into automated polarizing film defect inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Lai, Chun-Yu; Kao, Chih-Hsiang; Chiu, Chin-Hsun

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the current manual inspection and classification process for polarizing film on production lines, this study proposes a high precision automated inspection and classification system for polarizing film, which is used for recognition and classification of four common defects: dent, foreign material, bright spot, and scratch. First, the median filter is used to remove the impulse noise in the defect image of polarizing film. The random noise in the background is smoothed by the improved anisotropic diffusion, while the edge detail of the defect region is sharpened. Next, the defect image is transformed by Fourier transform to the frequency domain, combined with a Butterworth high pass filter to sharpen the edge detail of the defect region, and brought back by inverse Fourier transform to the spatial domain to complete the image enhancement process. For image segmentation, the edge of the defect region is found by Canny edge detector, and then the complete defect region is obtained by two-stage morphology processing. For defect classification, the feature values, including maximum gray level, eccentricity, the contrast, and homogeneity of gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) extracted from the images, are used as the input of the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) classifier, 96 defect images are then used as training samples, and 84 defect images are used as testing samples to validate the classification effect. The result shows that the classification accuracy by using RBFNN is 98.9%. Thus, our proposed system can be used by manufacturing companies for a higher yield rate and lower cost. The processing time of one single image is 2.57 seconds, thus meeting the practical application requirement of an industrial production line.

  17. NONLINEAR REFLECTION PROCESS OF LINEARLY POLARIZED, BROADBAND ALFVÉN WAVES IN THE FAST SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoda, M.; Yokoyama, T., E-mail: shoda@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    Using one-dimensional numerical simulations, we study the elementary process of Alfvén wave reflection in a uniform medium, including nonlinear effects. In the linear regime, Alfvén wave reflection is triggered only by the inhomogeneity of the medium, whereas in the nonlinear regime, it can occur via nonlinear wave–wave interactions. Such nonlinear reflection (backscattering) is typified by decay instability. In most studies of decay instabilities, the initial condition has been a circularly polarized Alfvén wave. In this study we consider a linearly polarized Alfvén wave, which drives density fluctuations by its magnetic pressure force. For generality, we also assume a broadband wave with a red-noise spectrum. In the data analysis, we decompose the fluctuations into characteristic variables using local eigenvectors, thus revealing the behaviors of the individual modes. Different from the circular-polarization case, we find that the wave steepening produces a new energy channel from the parent Alfvén wave to the backscattered one. Such nonlinear reflection explains the observed increasing energy ratio of the sunward to the anti-sunward Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind with distance against the dynamical alignment effect.

  18. Quality assurance in processing radioactive waste for land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    To provide the appropriate assurances as to the quality of processed radioactive waste it is necessary to consider the complete range of activities involved in the formation and operation of a radioactive waste processing facility. To this end, an outline has been given to the individual elements which should be addressed in quality assurance proposals to the authorising Departments. In general terms, the quality checks on product material should be aimed at demonstrating that the radioactive waste product is what was agreed at the time of process approval. In addition, at the discretion of the authorising Departments, the waste processor will be required to confirm that the product meets any specific acceptance criteria such as the capability to retain the immobilised radionuclides when in contact with water. (author)

  19. Information processing requirements for on-board monitoring of automatic landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Karmarkar, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic procedure is presented for determining the information processing requirements for on-board monitoring of automatic landing systems. The monitoring system detects landing anomalies through use of appropriate statistical tests. The time-to-correct aircraft perturbations is determined from covariance analyses using a sequence of suitable aircraft/autoland/pilot models. The covariance results are used to establish landing safety and a fault recovery operating envelope via an event outcome tree. This procedure is demonstrated with examples using the NASA Terminal Configured Vehicle (B-737 aircraft). The procedure can also be used to define decision height, assess monitoring implementation requirements, and evaluate alternate autoland configurations.

  20. Land Surface Process and Air Quality Research and Applications at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale; Khan, Maudood

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of land surface process and air quality research at MSFC including atmospheric modeling and ongoing research whose objective is to undertake a comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis of the effects of accurate land surface characterization on atmospheric modeling results, and public health applications. Land use maps as well as 10 meter air temperature, surface wind, PBL mean difference heights, NOx, ozone, and O3+NO2 plots as well as spatial growth model outputs are included. Emissions and general air quality modeling are also discussed.

  1. Image Processing in Optical Guidance for Autonomous Landing of Lunar Probe

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Ding; Yun-feng, Cao; Qing-xian, Wu; Zhen, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Because of the communication delay between earth and moon, the GNC technology of lunar probe is becoming more important than ever. Current navigation technology is not able to provide precise motion estimation for probe landing control system Computer vision offers a new approach to solve this problem. In this paper, author introduces an image process algorithm of computer vision navigation for autonomous landing of lunar probe. The purpose of the algorithm is to detect and track feature poin...

  2. Polarized triple-collinear splitting functions at NLO for processes with photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sborlini, Germán F.R.; Florian, Daniel de; Rodrigo, Germán

    2015-01-01

    We compute the polarized splitting functions in the triple collinear limit at next-to-leading order accuracy (NLO) in the strong coupling α_S, for the splitting processes γ→qq-barγ, γ→qq-barg and g→qq-barγ. The divergent structure of each splitting function was compared to the predicted behaviour according to Catani’s formula. The results obtained in this paper are compatible with the unpolarized splitting functions computed in a previous article. Explicit results for NLO corrections are presented in the context of conventional dimensional regularization (CDR).

  3. Polarized triple-collinear splitting functions at NLO for processes with photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sborlini, Germán F.R. [Departamento de Física and IFIBA, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (1428) Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, Capital Federal (Argentina); Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Universitat de València,Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Florian, Daniel de [Departamento de Física and IFIBA, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (1428) Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, Capital Federal (Argentina); Rodrigo, Germán [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Universitat de València,Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2015-03-04

    We compute the polarized splitting functions in the triple collinear limit at next-to-leading order accuracy (NLO) in the strong coupling α{sub S}, for the splitting processes γ→qq-barγ, γ→qq-barg and g→qq-barγ. The divergent structure of each splitting function was compared to the predicted behaviour according to Catani’s formula. The results obtained in this paper are compatible with the unpolarized splitting functions computed in a previous article. Explicit results for NLO corrections are presented in the context of conventional dimensional regularization (CDR).

  4. Status report on the land processes aircraft science management operations working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, James G.; Mann, Lisa J.

    1991-01-01

    Since its inception three years ago, the Land Processes Aircraft Science Management Operations Working Group (MOWG) provided recommendations on the optimal use of the Agency's aircraft in support of the Land Processes Science Program. Recommendations covered topics such as aircraft and sensor usage, development of long-range plans, Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MAC), program balance, aircraft sensor databases, new technology and sensor development, and increased University scientist participation in the program. Impacts of these recommendations improved the efficiency of various procedures including the flight request process, tracking of flight hours, and aircraft usage. The group also created a bibliography focused on publications produced by Land Processes scientists from the use of the aircraft program, surveyed NASA funded PI's on their participation in the aircraft program, and developed a planning template for multi-sensor airborne campaigns. Benefits from these activities are summarized.

  5. Process for preparing organoclays for aqueous and polar-organic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiko, David J.

    2001-01-01

    A process for preparing organoclays as thixotropic agents to control the rheology of water-based paints and other aqueous and polar-organic systems. The process relates to treating low-grade clay ores to achieve highly purified organoclays and/or to incorporate surface modifying agents onto the clay by adsorption and/or to produce highly dispersed organoclays without excessive grinding or high shear dispersion. The process involves the treatment of impure, or run-of-mine, clay using an aqueous biphasic extraction system to produce a highly dispersed clay, free of mineral impurities and with modified surface properties brought about by adsorption of the water-soluble polymers used in generating the aqueous biphasic extraction system. This invention purifies the clay to greater than 95%.

  6. [Process of land use transition and its impact on regional ecological quality in the Middle Reaches of Heihe River, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu Hong; Zhao, Rui Feng; Zhang, Li Hua; Li, Hong Wei

    2017-12-01

    Land use transition is one of the main drivers of regional ecosystem change in arid area, which directly affects human well-being. Based on the satellite images of 1987, 2001 and 2016, the change detection assessment model and ecological response model were used to analyze the process of land use transition and response of ecological quality during 1987-2016 in the ecologically fragile middle reaches of the Heihe River. The results showed that the land use change was significant during 1987-2016 and the total change increased significantly, as well as the continuous increase of the cultivated land and construction land. There was a strong tendency of transform from grassland to cultivated land, while the tendency of transforming unused land to other land classes was not strong under a random process of gain or loss. During 1987-2016, the ecological quality of the study area displayed a decreasing trend as a whole and the ecological land decreased by 2.8%. The land use transition with the greatest impact on the ecological environment degradation was the transition of the grassland to the cultivated land and unused land. Therefore, in order to promote the sustainable use of regional land resources and to improve the regional ecological quality, it is necessary to allocate the proportion of production land and ecological land according to the regional water resources.

  7. Analysing the Advantages of High Temporal Resolution Geostationary MSG SEVIRI Data Compared to Polar Operational Environmental Satellite Data for Land Surface Monitoring in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensholt, R.; Anyamba, A.; Huber, S.; Proud, S. R.; Tucker, C. J.; Small, J.; Pak, E.; Rasmussen, M. O.; Sandholt, I.; Shisanya, C.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing of the environment has been dominated by polar-orbiting sensors providing useful data for monitoring the earth s natural resources. However their observation and monitoring capacity are inhibited by daily to monthly looks for any given ground surface which often is obscured by frequent and persistent cloud cover creating large gaps in time series measurements. The launch of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite into geostationary orbit has opened new opportunities for land surface monitoring. The Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument on-board MSG with an imaging capability every 15 minutes which is substantially greater than any temporal resolution that can be obtained from existing polar operational environmental satellites (POES) systems currently in use for environmental monitoring. Different areas of the African continent were affected by droughts and floods in 2008 caused by periods of abnormally low and high rainfall, respectively. Based on the effectiveness of monitoring these events from Earth Observation (EO) data the current analyses show that the new generation of geostationary remote sensing data can provide higher temporal resolution cloud-free (less than 5 days) measurements of the environment as compared to existing POES systems. SEVIRI MSG 5-day continental scale composites will enable rapid assessment of environmental conditions and improved early warning of disasters for the African continent such as flooding or droughts. The high temporal resolution geostationary data will complement existing higher spatial resolution polar-orbiting satellite data for various dynamic environmental and natural resource applications of terrestrial ecosystems.

  8. Polarized phase shift mask: concept, design, and potential advantages to photolithography process and physical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoping; Grobman, Warren D.; Reich, Alfred J.; Thompson, Matthew A.

    2002-03-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept and design of a novel phase shift mask technology, Polarized Phase Shift Mask (P:PSM). The P:PSM technology utilizes non-interference between orthogonally polarized light sources to avoid undesired destructive interference seen in conventional two-phase shift mask technology. Hence P:PSM solves the well-known 'phase edge' or 'phase conflict' problem. By obviating the 2nd exposure and 2nd mask in current Complementary Phase Shift Mask (C:PSM) technology, this single mask/single exposure technology offers significant advantages towards photolithography process as well as pattern design. We use examples of typical design and process difficulties associated with the C:PSM technology to illustrate the advantages of the P:PSM technology. We present preliminary aerial image simulation results that support the potential of this new reticle technology for enhanced design flexibility. We also propose possible mask structures and manufacturing methods for building a P:PSM.

  9. Polarization control of intermediate state absorption in resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shuwu; Yao, Yunhua; Jia, Tianqing; Ding, Jingxin; Zhang, Shian; Sun, Zhenrong; Huang, Yunxia

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the control of the intermediate state absorption in an (n + m) resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process by the polarization-modulated femtosecond laser pulse. An analytical solution of the intermediate state absorption in a resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process is obtained based on the time-dependent perturbation theory. Our theoretical results show that the control efficiency of the intermediate state absorption by the polarization modulation is independent of the laser intensity when the transition from the intermediate state to the final state is coupled by the single-photon absorption, but will be affected by the laser intensity when this transition is coupled by the non-resonant multi-photon absorption. These theoretical results are experimentally confirmed via a two-photon fluorescence control in (2 + 1) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of Coumarin 480 dye and a single-photon fluorescence control in (1 + 2) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of IR 125 dye. (paper)

  10. In flight image processing on multi-rotor aircraft for autonomous landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Richard, Jr.

    An estimated $6.4 billion was spent during the year 2013 on developing drone technology around the world and is expected to double in the next decade. However, drone applications typically require strong pilot skills, safety, responsibilities and adherence to regulations during flight. If the flight control process could be safer and more reliable in terms of landing, it would be possible to further develop a wider range of applications. The objective of this research effort is to describe the design and evaluation of a fully autonomous Unmanned Aerial system (UAS), specifically a four rotor aircraft, commonly known as quad copter for precise landing applications. The full landing autonomy is achieved by image processing capabilities during flight for target recognition by employing the open source library OpenCV. In addition, all imaging data is processed by a single embedded computer that estimates a relative position with respect to the target landing pad. Results shows a reduction on the average offset error by 67.88% in comparison to the current return to lunch (RTL) method which only relies on GPS positioning. The present work validates the need for relying on image processing for precise landing applications instead of the inexact method of a commercial low cost GPS dependency.

  11. Soil erosion processes on sloping land using REE tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zhenzhou; Liu Puling; Yang Mingyi; Lian Zhenlong; Ju Tongjun; Yao Wenyi; Li Mian

    2007-01-01

    Sheet erosion is the main performance in the slope soil erosion process at the primary stage of natural rainfall. For three times of rainfall during experiment, the ratios of sheet erosion to total erosion account for 71%, 48% and 49% respectively, which showed that the sloping erosion was still at the primary stage from sheet erosion to rill erosion. With the rainfall going, the rill erosion amount increase. It showed that soil erosion was changing from sheet erosion to rill erosion. The sources of sediment from different sections of the plot were analyzed, and the results indicated that whatever the sheet erosion changed, the ratio erosion of upper part of surface soil was always lower than 10%. Sheet erosion came mainly from the lower section of surface soil. With the ratios to the amount of total rill erosion changes, the rill erosion amount of each section regularly changes too. The general conclusion is that when the rainfall ends, relative erosion of different slope element to the foot of slope is: 1 meter away accounts for 16%, 2-4 meters away is 6% and 5-9 meters away is 3%. The ratio of rill erosion amount of these three slope element is 5:2:1, which shows the rill erosion amount are mainly from the slope element of 4 meters from the foot of slope. (authors)

  12. Impact of Climate Change on Soil and Groundwater Chemistry Subject to Process Waste Land Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, W. W.

    2013-12-01

    Nonhazardous aqueous process waste streams from food and beverage industry operations are often discharged via managed land application in a manner designed to minimize impacts to underlying groundwater. Process waste streams are typically characterized by elevated concentrations of solutes such as ammonium, organic nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and organic acids. Land application involves the mixing of process waste streams with irrigation water which is subsequently applied to crops. The combination of evapotranspiration and crop salt uptake reduces the downward mass fluxes of percolation water and salts. By carefully managing application schedules in the context of annual climatological cycles, growing seasons, and process requirements, potential adverse environmental impacts to groundwater can be mitigated. However, climate change poses challenges to future process waste land application efforts because the key factors that determine loading rates - temperature, evapotranspiration, seasonal changes in the quality and quantity of applied water, and various crop factors - are all likely to deviate from current averages. To assess the potential impact of future climate change on the practice of land application, coupled process modeling entailing transient unsaturated fluid flow, evapotranspiration, crop salt uptake, and multispecies reactive chemical transport was used to predict changes in salt loading if current practices are maintained in a warmer, drier setting. As a first step, a coupled process model (Hydrus-1D, combined with PHREEQC) was calibrated to existing data sets which summarize land application loading rates, soil water chemistry, and crop salt uptake for land disposal of process wastes from a food industry facility in the northern San Joaquin Valley of California. Model results quantify, for example, the impacts of evapotranspiration on both fluid flow and soil water chemistry at shallow depths, with secondary effects including carbonate mineral

  13. Enhanced biological processes associated with alopecia in polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Stott, Jeffrey L.; Waters, Shannon C.; Atwood, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of wildlife species worldwide experience incidents of mass morbidity and mortality. Primary or secondary drivers of these events may escape classical detection methods for identifying microbial insults, toxin exposure, or additional stressors. In 2012, 28% of polar bears sampled in a study in the southern Beaufort Sea region of Alaska had varying degrees of alopecia that was concomitant with reduced body condition. Concurrently, elevated numbers of sick or dead ringed seals were detected in the southern Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas in 2012, resulting in the declaration of an unusual mortality event (UME) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The primary and possible ancillary causative stressors of these events are unknown, and related physiological changes within individual animals have been undetectable using classical diagnostic methods. Here we present an emerging technology as a potentially guiding investigative approach aimed at elucidating the circumstances responsible for the susceptibility of certain polar bears to observed conditions. Using transcriptomic analysis we identified enhanced biological processes including immune response, viral defense, and response to stress in polar bears with alopecia. Our results support an alternative mechanism of investigation into the causative agents that, when used proactively, could serve as an early indicator for populations and species at risk. We suggest that current or classical methods for investigation into events of unusual morbidity and mortality can be costly, sometimes unfocused, and often inconclusive. Advances in technology allow for implementation of a holistic system of surveillance and investigation that could provide early warning of health concerns in wildlife species important to humans.

  14. Enhanced biological processes associated with alopecia in polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A Keith; Stott, Jeffrey; Waters, Shannon; Atwood, Todd

    2015-10-01

    Populations of wildlife species worldwide experience incidents of mass morbidity and mortality. Primary or secondary drivers of these events may escape classical detection methods for identifying microbial insults, toxin exposure, or additional stressors. In 2012, 28% of polar bears sampled in a study in the southern Beaufort Sea region of Alaska had varying degrees of alopecia that was concomitant with reduced body condition. Concurrently, elevated numbers of sick or dead ringed seals were detected in the southern Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas in 2012, resulting in the declaration of an unusual mortality event (UME) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The primary and possible ancillary causative stressors of these events are unknown, and related physiological changes within individual animals have been undetectable using classical diagnostic methods. Here we present an emerging technology as a potentially guiding investigative approach aimed at elucidating the circumstances responsible for the susceptibility of certain polar bears to observed conditions. Using transcriptomic analysis we identified enhanced biological processes including immune response, viral defense, and response to stress in polar bears with alopecia. Our results support an alternative mechanism of investigation into the causative agents that, when used proactively, could serve as an early indicator for populations and species at risk. We suggest that current or classical methods for investigation into events of unusual morbidity and mortality can be costly, sometimes unfocused, and often inconclusive. Advances in technology allow for implementation of a holistic system of surveillance and investigation that could provide early warning of health concerns in wildlife species important to humans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. An analysis of metropolitan land-use by machine processing of earth resources technology satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausel, P. W.; Todd, W. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    A successful application of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology in classifying an urban area into its broad land use classes is reported. This research proves that numerous urban features are amenable to classification using ERTS multispectral data automatically processed by computer. Furthermore, such automatic data processing (ADP) techniques permit areal analysis on an unprecedented scale with a minimum expenditure of time. Also, classification results obtained using ADP procedures are consistent, comparable, and replicable. The results of classification are compared with the proposed U. S. G. S. land use classification system in order to determine the level of classification that is feasible to obtain through ERTS analysis of metropolitan areas.

  16. Soil mapping and processes modelling for sustainable land management: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Bradley; Smetanova, Anna; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Novara, Agata; Cerda, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil maps and models are fundamental for a correct and sustainable land management (Pereira et al., 2017). They are an important in the assessment of the territory and implementation of sustainable measures in urban areas, agriculture, forests, ecosystem services, among others. Soil maps represent an important basis for the evaluation and restoration of degraded areas, an important issue for our society, as consequence of climate change and the increasing pressure of humans on the ecosystems (Brevik et al. 2016; Depellegrin et al., 2016). The understanding of soil spatial variability and the phenomena that influence this dynamic is crucial to the implementation of sustainable practices that prevent degradation, and decrease the economic costs of soil restoration. In this context, soil maps and models are important to identify areas affected by degradation and optimize the resources available to restore them. Overall, soil data alone or integrated with data from other sciences, is an important part of sustainable land management. This information is extremely important land managers and decision maker's implements sustainable land management policies. The objective of this work is to present a review about the advantages of soil mapping and process modeling for sustainable land management. References Brevik, E., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Baumgarten, A., Jordán, A. (2016) Historical perspectives and future needs in soil mapping, classification and pedological modelling, Geoderma, 264, Part B, 256-274. Depellegrin, D.A., Pereira, P., Misiune, I., Egarter-Vigl, L. (2016) Mapping Ecosystem Services in Lithuania. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 23, 441-455. Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Munoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B., Smetanova, A., Depellegrin, D., Misiune, I., Novara, A., Cerda, A. (2017) Soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land management. In: Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Munoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B

  17. Identification of soil erosion land surfaces by Landsat data analysis and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Curzio, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we outline the typical relationship between the spectral reflectance of aileron's on newly-formed land surfaces and the geo morphological features of the land surfaces at issue. These latter represent the products of superficial erosional processes due to the action of the gravity and/or water; thus, such land surfaces are highly representative of the strong soil degradation occurring in a wide area located on the boundary between Molise and Puglia regions (Southern Italy). The results of this study have been reported on thematic maps; on such maps, the detected erosional land surfaces have been mapped on the basis of their typical spectral signature. The study has been performed using Landsat satellite imagery data which have been then validated by means of field survey data. The satellite data have been processed using remote sensing techniques, such as: false colour composite, contrast stretching, principal component analysis and decorrelation stretching. The study has permitted to produce, in a relatively short time and at low expense, a map of the eroded land surfaces. Such a result represents a first and fundamental step in evaluating and monitoring the erosional processes in the study area [it

  18. Real-Time Observation of Carbon Nanotube Etching Process Using Polarized Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiuchen; Yao, Fengrui; Wang, Zequn; Deng, Shibin; Tong, Lianming; Liu, Kaihui; Zhang, Jin

    2017-08-01

    Controllable synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is of great importance in its further application, which attracts broad attention. As growth and etching are the two sides in the process of material crystallography and the control of the competition between them forms the foundation for modern technology of materials design and manufacture, the understanding on etching process of carbon nanotubes is still very unclear because technically it is of great challenge to characterize the dynamics in such small one-dimensional (1D) scale. Here the real-time investigation on the etching process of CNTs is reported, by the hot-wall chemical reactor equipped with a polarized optical microscope. It is discovered that the CNT etching behavior in air is totally of random, including the etching sites, termination sites, and structure dependence. Combining with the dynamic simulation, it is revealed that the random behavior reflects the unique "self-termination" phenomenon. A structure-independent etching propagation barrier of 2.4 eV is also obtained, which indicates that the etching propagation process still follows the conventional Kinetic Wulff construction theory. The results represent the new knowledge on the etching process in carbon nanotube and can contribute to its selective enrichment. Furthermore, the "self-termination" phenomenon may be a universal behavior in 1D process. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Lipase mediated synthesis of rutin fatty ester: Study of its process parameters and solvent polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisali, C; Belur, Prasanna D; Regupathi, Iyyaswami

    2017-10-01

    Lipophilization of antioxidants is recognized as an effective strategy to enhance solubility and thus effectiveness in lipid based food. In this study, an effort was made to optimize rutin fatty ester synthesis in two different solvent systems to understand the influence of reaction system hydrophobicity on the optimum conditions using immobilised Candida antartica lipase. Under unoptimized conditions, 52.14% and 13.02% conversion was achieved in acetone and tert-butanol solvent systems, respectively. Among all the process parameters, water activity of the system was found to show highest influence on the conversion in each reaction system. In the presence of molecular sieves, the ester production increased to 62.9% in tert-butanol system, unlike acetone system. Under optimal conditions, conversion increased to 60.74% and 65.73% in acetone and tert-butanol system, respectively. This study shows, maintaining optimal water activity is crucial in reaction systems having polar solvents compared to more non-polar solvents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Land suitability assessment on a watershed of Loess Plateau using the analytic hierarchy process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Yi

    Full Text Available In order to reduce soil erosion and desertification, the Sloping Land Conversion Program has been conducted in China for more than 15 years, and large areas of farmland have been converted to forest and grassland. However, this large-scale vegetation-restoration project has faced some key problems (e.g. soil drying that have limited the successful development of the current ecological-recovery policy. Therefore, it is necessary to know about the land use, vegetation, and soil, and their inter-relationships in order to identify the suitability of vegetation restoration. This study was conducted at the watershed level in the ecologically vulnerable region of the Loess Plateau, to evaluate the land suitability using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The results showed that (1 the area unsuitable for crops accounted for 73.3% of the watershed, and the main factors restricting cropland development were soil physical properties and soil nutrients; (2 the area suitable for grassland was about 86.7% of the watershed, with the remaining 13.3% being unsuitable; (3 an area of 3.95 km(2, accounting for 66.7% of the watershed, was unsuitable for forest. Overall, the grassland was found to be the most suitable land-use to support the aims of the Sloping Land Conversion Program in the Liudaogou watershed. Under the constraints of soil water shortage and nutrient deficits, crops and forests were considered to be inappropriate land uses in the study area, especially on sloping land. When selecting species for re-vegetation, non-native grass species with high water requirements should be avoided so as to guarantee the sustainable development of grassland and effective ecological functioning. Our study provides local land managers and farmers with valuable information about the inappropriateness of growing trees in the study area along with some information on species selection for planting in the semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau.

  1. Land suitability assessment on a watershed of Loess Plateau using the analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaobo; Wang, Li

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce soil erosion and desertification, the Sloping Land Conversion Program has been conducted in China for more than 15 years, and large areas of farmland have been converted to forest and grassland. However, this large-scale vegetation-restoration project has faced some key problems (e.g. soil drying) that have limited the successful development of the current ecological-recovery policy. Therefore, it is necessary to know about the land use, vegetation, and soil, and their inter-relationships in order to identify the suitability of vegetation restoration. This study was conducted at the watershed level in the ecologically vulnerable region of the Loess Plateau, to evaluate the land suitability using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed that (1) the area unsuitable for crops accounted for 73.3% of the watershed, and the main factors restricting cropland development were soil physical properties and soil nutrients; (2) the area suitable for grassland was about 86.7% of the watershed, with the remaining 13.3% being unsuitable; (3) an area of 3.95 km(2), accounting for 66.7% of the watershed, was unsuitable for forest. Overall, the grassland was found to be the most suitable land-use to support the aims of the Sloping Land Conversion Program in the Liudaogou watershed. Under the constraints of soil water shortage and nutrient deficits, crops and forests were considered to be inappropriate land uses in the study area, especially on sloping land. When selecting species for re-vegetation, non-native grass species with high water requirements should be avoided so as to guarantee the sustainable development of grassland and effective ecological functioning. Our study provides local land managers and farmers with valuable information about the inappropriateness of growing trees in the study area along with some information on species selection for planting in the semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau.

  2. Multi-criteria approach with linear combination technique and analytical hierarchy process in land evaluation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Dengiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Land evaluation analysis is a prerequisite to achieving optimum utilization of the available land resources. Lack of knowledge on best combination of factors that suit production of yields has contributed to the low production. The aim of this study was to determine the most suitable areas for agricultural uses. For that reasons, in order to determine land suitability classes of the study area, multi-criteria approach was used with linear combination technique and analytical hierarchy process by taking into consideration of some land and soil physico-chemical characteristic such as slope, texture, depth, derange, stoniness, erosion, pH, EC, CaCO3 and organic matter. These data and land mapping unites were taken from digital detailed soil map scaled as 1:5.000. In addition, in order to was produce land suitability map GIS was program used for the study area. This study was carried out at Mahmudiye, Karaamca, Yazılı, Çiçeközü, Orhaniye and Akbıyık villages in Yenişehir district of Bursa province. Total study area is 7059 ha. 6890 ha of total study area has been used as irrigated agriculture, dry farming agriculture, pasture while, 169 ha has been used for non-agricultural activities such as settlement, road water body etc. Average annual temperature and precipitation of the study area are 16.1oC and 1039.5 mm, respectively. Finally after determination of land suitability distribution classes for the study area, it was found that 15.0% of the study area has highly (S1 and moderately (S2 while, 85% of the study area has marginally suitable and unsuitable coded as S3 and N. It was also determined some relation as compared results of linear combination technique with other hierarchy approaches such as Land Use Capability Classification and Suitability Class for Agricultural Use methods.

  3. The Significance of Land-Atmosphere Processes in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suni, T.; Kulmala, M. T.; Guenther, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    The land-atmosphere interface is where humans primarily operate. Humans modify the land surface in many ways that influence the fluxes of energy and trace gases between land and atmosphere. Their emissions change the chemical composition of the atmosphere and anthropogenic aerosols change the radiative balance of the globe directly by scattering sunlight back to space and indirectly by changing the properties of clouds. Feedback loops among all these processes, land, the atmosphere, and biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace gases extend the human influence even further. Over the last decade, the importance of land-atmosphere processes and feedbacks in the Earth System has been shown on many levels and with multiple approaches, and a number of publications have shown the crucial role of the terrestrial ecosystems as regulators of climate [1-6]. Modellers have clearly shown the effect of missing land cover changes and other feedback processes and regional characteristics in current climate models and recommended actions to improve them [7-11]. Unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation have also been provided [12-14]. Land-cover change has been emphasized with model intercomparison projects that showed that realistic land-use representation was essential in land surface modelling [11, 15]. Crucially important tools in this research have been the networks of long-term flux stations and large-scale land-atmosphere observation platforms that are also beginning to combine remote sensing techniques with ground observations [16-20]. Human influence has always been an important part of land-atmosphere science but in order to respond to the new challenges of global sustainability, closer ties with social science and economics groups will be necessary to produce realistic estimates of land use and anthropogenic emissions by analysing future population increase, migration patterns, food production allocation, land

  4. Infrared processing and sensor fusion for anti-personnel land-mine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Cremer, F.; Schutte, K.; Breejen, E. den

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of infrared processing and sensor fusion obtained within the European research project GEODE (Ground Explosive Ordnance DEtection) that strives for the realization of a vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor anti-personnel land-mine detection system for humanitarian

  5. 77 FR 77005 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ...-R7-SM-2012-N248;FXFR13350700640-134-FF07J00000] Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process AGENCIES: Forest Service, Agriculture; Fish and Wildlife Service... the Interior initiated a review of the Federal Subsistence Management Program. An ensuing directive...

  6. Investigating tunneling process of atom exposed in circularly polarized strong-laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, MingHu; Xin, PeiPei; Chu, TianShu; Liu, HongPing

    2017-03-01

    We propose a method for studying the tunneling process by analyzing the instantaneous ionization rate of a circularly polarized laser. A numerical calculation shows that, for an atom exposed to a long laser pulse, if its initial electronic state wave function is non-spherical symmetric, the delayed phase shift of the ionization rate vs the laser cycle period in real time in the region close to the peak intensity of the laser pulse can be used to probe the tunneling time. In this region, an obvious time delay phase shift of more than 190 attoseconds is observed. Further study shows that the atom has a longer tunneling time in the ionization under a shorter wavelength laser pulse. In our method, a Wigner rotation technique is employed to numerically solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of a single-active electron in a three-dimensional spherical coordinate system.

  7. Investigating tunneling process of atom exposed in circularly polarized strong-laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, MingHu; Xin, PeiPei; Liu, HongPing; Chu, TianShu

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for studying the tunneling process by analyzing the instantaneous ionization rate of a circularly polarized laser. A numerical calculation shows that, for an atom exposed to a long laser pulse, if its initial electronic state wave function is non-spherical symmetric, the delayed phase shift of the ionization rate vs the laser cycle period in real time in the region close to the peak intensity of the laser pulse can be used to probe the tunneling time. In this region, an obvious time delay phase shift of more than 190 attoseconds is observed. Further study shows that the atom has a longer tunneling time in the ionization under a shorter wavelength laser pulse. In our method, a Wigner rotation technique is employed to numerically solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of a single-active electron in a three-dimensional spherical coordinate system. (paper)

  8. Natural Language Processing (NLP), Machine Learning (ML), and Semantics in Polar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Ramdeen, S.

    2017-12-01

    One of the interesting features of Polar Science is that it historically has been extremely interdisciplinary, encompassing all of the physical and social sciences. Given the ubiquity of specialized terminology in each field, enabling researchers to find, understand, and use all of the heterogeneous data needed for polar research continues to be a bottleneck. Within the informatics community, semantics has broadly accepted as a solution to these problems, yet progress in developing reusable semantic resources has been slow. The NSF-funded ClearEarth project has been adapting the methods and tools from other communities such as Biomedicine to the Earth sciences with the goal of enhancing progress and the rate at which the needed semantic resources can be created. One of the outcomes of the project has been a better understanding of the differences in the way linguists and physical scientists understand disciplinary text. One example of these differences is the tendency for each discipline and often disciplinary subfields to expend effort in creating discipline specific glossaries where individual terms often are comprised of more than one word (e.g., first-year sea ice). Often each term in a glossary is imbued with substantial contextual or physical meaning - meanings which are rarely explicitly called out within disciplinary texts; meaning which are therefore not immediately accessible to those outside that discipline or subfield; meanings which can often be represented semantically. Here we show how recognition of these difference and the use of glossaries can be used to speed up the annotation processes endemic to NLP, enable inter-community recognition and possible reconciliation of terminology differences. A number of processes and tools will be described, as will progress towards semi-automated generation of ontology structures.

  9. Analysing the advantages of high temporal resolution geostationary MSG SEVIRI data compared to Polar operational environmental satellite data for land surface monitoring in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fensholt, Rasmus; Anyamba, Assaf; Huber Gharib, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing of the environment has been dominated by polar-orbiting sensors providing useful data for monitoring the earth’s natural resources. However their observation and monitoring capacity are inhibited by daily to monthly looks for any given ground surface which often...... is obscured by frequent and persistent cloud cover creating large gaps in time series measurements. The launch of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite into geostationary orbit has opened new opportunities for land surface monitoring. The Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI...... affected by droughts and floods in 2008 caused by periods of abnormally low and high rainfall, respectively. Based on the effectiveness of monitoring these events from Earth Observation (EO) data the current analyses show that the new generation of geostationary remote sensing data can provide higher...

  10. LOTUS— Preparing Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land SAR Altimetry Processing for Copernicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Jain, Maulik

    2014-01-01

    for commercial activities. The main objectives of the LOTUS project is to prepare the take-up of data from Sentinels 3. In the initial phase, LOTUS will develop processing scheme for extracting high-resolution sea surface heights, wave heights and wind speeds from SAR mode data. Over land, the LOTUS will develop...... potential of the new data source, new methods and processing chains need to be developed. Also, new potential Copernicus products should be developed that utilize the improved along-track resolution over both the oceans and over land. Then new operational processing, validation and delivery mechanisms need...... processing scheme for extracting high-resolution river and lake heights, soil moisture, and snow water equivalents. This presentation show some preliminary results based on analyses using CRYOSAT data. Furthermore, new DEMO data sets are presented. These data sets facilitate the development of marine...

  11. Interactive Computing and Processing of NASA Land Surface Observations Using Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Burks, Jason; Bell, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Google's Earth Engine offers a "big data" approach to processing large volumes of NASA and other remote sensing products. h\\ps://earthengine.google.com/ Interfaces include a Javascript or Python-based API, useful for accessing and processing over large periods of record for Landsat and MODIS observations. Other data sets are frequently added, including weather and climate model data sets, etc. Demonstrations here focus on exploratory efforts to perform land surface change detection related to severe weather, and other disaster events.

  12. Current State and Development of Land Degradation Processes Based on Soil Monitoring in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobza Jozef

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Current state and development of land degradation processes based on soil monitoring system in Slovakia is evaluated in this contribution. Soil monitoring system in Slovakia is consistently running since 1993 year in 5-years repetitions. Soil monitoring network in Slovakia is constructed using ecological principle, taking into account all main soil types and subtypes, soil organic matter, climatic regions, emission regions, polluted and non-polluted regions as well as various land use. The result of soil monitoring network is 318 sites on agricultural land in Slovakia. Soil properties are evaluated according to the main threats to soil relating to European Commission recommendation for European soil monitoring performance as follows: soil erosion and compaction, soil acidification, decline in soil organic matter and soil contamination. The most significant change has been determined in physical degradation of soils. The physical degradation was especially manifested in compacted and the eroded soils. It was determined that about 39% of agricultural land is potentially affected by soil erosion in Slovakia. In addition, slight decline in soil organic matter indicates the serious facts on evaluation and extension of soil degradation processes during the last period in Slovakia. Soil contamination is without significant change for the time being. It means the soils contaminated before soil monitoring process this unfavourable state lasts also at present.

  13. Polar Frontal Migration in the Warm Late Pliocene: Diatom Evidence from The Wilkes Land Margin, East Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesselman, C. R.; Taylor-Silva, B.; Patterson, M. O.

    2017-12-01

    The Late Pliocene is the most recent interval in Earth's history to sustain global temperatures within the range of warming predicted for the 21st century. Published global reconstructions and climate models find an average +2° C summer SST anomaly relative to modern during the 3.3-3.0 Ma PRISM interval, when atmospheric CO2 concentrations last reached 400 ppm. Here, we present a new diatom-based reconstruction of Pliocene interglacial sea surface conditions from IODP Site U1361, on the East Antarctic continental rise. U1361 biogenic silica concentrations document the alternation of diatom-rich and diatom-poor lithologies; we interpret 8 diatom-rich mudstones within this sequence to record interglacial periods between 3.8 and 2.8 Ma. We find that open-ocean conditions in the mid-Pliocene became increasingly influenced by sea ice from 3.6-3.2 Ma, prior to the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. This cooling trend was interrupted by a temporary southward migration of the Antarctic Polar Front, bathing U1361 in warmer subantarctic waters during a single interglacial, marine isotope stage KM3 (3.17-3.15 Ma), that corresponds to a maximum in summer insolation at 65°S. Following this interval of transient warmth, interglacial periods became progressively cooler starting at 3 Ma, coinciding with a transition from obliquity to precession as the dominant orbital driver of Antarctic ice sheet fluctuations. Building on the identification of a single outlier interglacial within the PRISM interval, we have revisited older reconstructions to explore the response of the Southern Ocean/cryosphere system to peak late Pliocene warmth. By applying a modern chronostratigraphic framework to those low-resolution "mean interglacial" records, we identify the same frontal migration in 4 other cores in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean, documenting a major migration of the polar front during a key interval of warm climate. These new results suggest that increased summer

  14. Deuteron tensor polarization in the e-+d →e-+p+n process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalo, M.P.; Gakh, G.I.; Rekalo, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The polarization phenomena in the d-vector(e, ep)n reaction caused by the deuteron tensor polarization have been investigated in the relativistic impulse approximation (IA) framework. It is shown that in general case the tensor polarization leads to 16 Asymmetries. Sensitivity of these observables to the choice of the deuteron wave function parametrization has been investigated. The calculated asymmetry in the d-vector(e, pn)e' reation caused by the tensor polarization of the target is in good agreement with experimental data obtained in Novosibirsk. The calculated asymmetry in the nonrelativistic and relativistic IA are significantly different

  15. LOTUS— Preparing Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Processing for Ocean and Land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Karina

    2016-01-01

    methods and processing chains need to be developed. Subsequently, new potential Copernicus products should be developed that utilize the improved alongtrack resolution over both the oceans and over land. The main objective of the LOTUS project is to prepare the scientific and operational use of data from......The Sentinel-3 satellite mission with its SRAL instrumentation contains new features compared to the conventional radar altimeter mission that form the basis for new innovative scientific analyses of both ocean and inland water levels. To utilize the full potential of the new data source, new...... that they will be used for commercial activities. LOTUS will develop processing scheme for extracting high-resolution sea surface heights, wave heights and wind speeds from SAR mode data. Over land, the LOTUS will develop processing scheme for extracting high-resolution river and lake heights, soil moisture, and snow...

  16. Design process for applying the nonlocal thermal transport iSNB model to a Polar-Drive ICF simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques; Collins, Timothy

    2014-10-01

    A design process is presented for the nonlocal thermal transport iSNB (implicit Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet) model to provide reliable nonlocal thermal transport in polar-drive ICF simulations. Results from the iSNB model are known to be sensitive to changes in the SNB ``mean free path'' formula, and the latter's original form required modification to obtain realistic preheat levels. In the presented design process, SNB mean free paths are first modified until the model can match temperatures from Goncharov's thermal transport model in 1D temperature relaxation simulations. Afterwards the same mean free paths are tested in a 1D polar-drive surrogate simulation to match adiabats from Goncharov's model. After passing the two previous steps, the model can then be run in a full 2D polar-drive simulation. This research is supported by the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  17. Evaluation of climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes in the Salt River Basin, Missouri, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes at the watershed scale is needed by land managers and policy makers to properly assess potential adaptation strategies. While numerous studies have been conducted on hydrologic processes in the Midwest, only a few have analyzed the l...

  18. Retinal processing and opponent mechanisms mediating ultraviolet polarization sensitivity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsden, Samuel D.; Anderson, Leslie; Mussi, Martina; Kamermans, Maarten; Hawryshyn, Craig W.

    2008-01-01

    A number of teleost fishes have photoreceptor mechanisms to detect linearly polarized light. We studied the neuronal mechanism underlying this ability. It was found that a polarized signal could be detected in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) both in the electroretinogram (ERG) and in the

  19. A Webgis Framework for Disseminating Processed Remotely Sensed on Land Cover Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradonna, Grazia; Novelli, Antonio; Tarantino, Eufemia; Cefalo, Raffaela; Fratino, Umberto

    2016-06-01

    Mediterranean regions have experienced significant soil degradation over the past decades. In this context, careful land observation using satellite data is crucial for understanding the long-term usage patterns of natural resources and facilitating their sustainable management to monitor and evaluate the potential degradation. Given the environmental and political interest on this problem, there is urgent need for a centralized repository and mechanism to share geospatial data, information and maps of land change. Geospatial data collecting is one of the most important task for many users because there are significant barriers in accessing and using data. This limit could be overcome by implementing a WebGIS through a combination of existing free and open source software for geographic information systems (FOSS4G). In this paper we preliminary discuss methods for collecting raster data in a geodatabase by processing open multi-temporal and multi-scale satellite data aimed at retrieving indicators for land degradation phenomenon (i.e. land cover/land use analysis, vegetation indices, trend analysis, etc.). Then we describe a methodology for designing a WebGIS framework in order to disseminate information through maps for territory monitoring. Basic WebGIS functions were extended with the help of POSTGIS database and OpenLayers libraries. Geoserver was customized to set up and enhance the website functions developing various advanced queries using PostgreSQL and innovative tools to carry out efficiently multi-layer overlay analysis. The end-product is a simple system that provides the opportunity not only to consult interactively but also download processed remote sensing data.

  20. Solution-processed organic thermoelectric materials exhibiting doping-concentration-dependent polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sunbin; Potscavage, William J; Yang, Yu Seok; Park, In Seob; Matsushima, Toshinori; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-10-26

    Recent progress in conducting polymer-based organic thermoelectric generators (OTEGs) has resulted in high performance due to high Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity (σ), and low thermal conductivity obtained by chemically controlling the materials's redox levels. In addition to improving the properties of individual OTEGs to obtain high performance, the development of solution processes for the fabrication of OTEG modules is necessary to realize large thermoelectric voltage and low-cost mass production. However, the scarcity of good candidates for soluble organic n-type materials limits the use of π-leg module structures consisting of complementary elements of p- and n-type materials because of unbalanced transport coefficients that lead to power losses. In particular, the extremely low σ of n-type materials compared with that of p-type materials is a serious challenge. In this study, poly(pyridinium phenylene) (P(PymPh)) was tested as an n-type semiconductor in solution-processed OTEGs, and the carrier density was controlled by a solution-based chemical doping process using the dopant sodium naphthalenide, a well-known reductant. The electronic structures and doping mechanism of P(PymPh) were explored based on the changes in UV-Vis-IR absorption, ultraviolet photoelectron, and X-ray photoelectron spectra. By controlling the dopant concentration, we demonstrate a maximum n-type power factor of 0.81 μW m -1 K -2 with high σ, and at higher doping concentrations, a switch from n-type to p-type TE operation. This is one of the first cases of a switch in polarity just by increasing the concentration of the reductant and may open a new route for simplified fabrication of complementary organic layers.

  1. Risk-based design of process plants with regard to domino effects and land use planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Reniers, Genserik

    2015-12-15

    Land use planning (LUP) as an effective and crucial safety measure has widely been employed by safety experts and decision makers to mitigate off-site risks posed by major accidents. Accordingly, the concept of LUP in chemical plants has traditionally been considered from two perspectives: (i) land developments around existing chemical plants considering potential off-site risks posed by major accidents and (ii) development of existing chemical plants considering nearby land developments and the level of additional off-site risks the land developments would be exposed to. However, the attempts made to design chemical plants with regard to LUP requirements have been few, most of which have neglected the role of domino effects in risk analysis of major accidents. To overcome the limitations of previous work, first, we developed a Bayesian network methodology to calculate both on-site and off-site risks of major accidents while taking domino effects into account. Second, we combined the results of risk analysis with Analytic Hierarchical Process to design an optimal layout for which the levels of on-site and off-site risks would be minimum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  3. Snow Grain Size Retrieval over the Polar Ice Sheets with the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuekui; Marshak, Alexander; Han, Mei; Palm, Stephen P.; Harding, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Snow grain size is an important parameter for cryosphere studies. As a proof of concept, this paper presents an approach to retrieve this parameter over Greenland, East and West Antarctica ice sheets from surface reflectances observed with the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) at 1064 nanometers. Spaceborne lidar observations overcome many of the disadvantages in passive remote sensing, including difficulties in cloud screening and low sun angle limitations; hence tend to provide more accurate and stable retrievals. Results from the GLAS L2A campaign, which began on 25 September and lasted until 19 November, 2003, show that the mode of the grain size distribution over Greenland is the largest (approximately 300 microns) among the three, West Antarctica is the second (220 microns) and East Antarctica is the smallest (190 microns). Snow grain sizes are larger over the coastal regions compared to inland the ice sheets. These results are consistent with previous studies. Applying the broadband snow surface albedo parameterization scheme developed by Garder and Sharp (2010) to the retrieved snow grain size, ice sheet surface albedo is also derived. In the future, more accurate retrievals can be achieved with multiple wavelengths lidar observations.

  4. Climate Extremes and Land-Use Change: Effects on Ecosystem Processes and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Michael; Erb, Karlheinz; Hasibeder, Roland; Mayr, Stefan; Niedertscheider, Maria; Oberhuber, Walter; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Tasser, Erich; Viovy, Nicolas; Wieser, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Extreme climatic events, in particular droughts and heatwaves, have significant impacts on ecosystem carbon and water cycles and a range of related ecosystem services. It is expected that in the coming decades the return intervals and severities of extreme droughts will increase substantially and may result in the passing of thresholds of ecosystem functioning, potentially causing legacy effects, which are so far poorly understood. Observational evidence suggests that different land cover types (forest, grassland) are differently influenced by extreme drought, but there is a lack of knowledge whether and how future, increasingly severe climate extremes will affect their concurrent and lagged responses, as well as land-use decisions determining future shifts in land cover. The ClimLUC project aims to understand how extreme summer drought affects carbon and water dynamics of mountain ecosystems under different land uses, and to analyse implications for ecosystem service provisioning. Overall, we hypothesize that land-use change alters the effects of extreme summer drought on ecosystem processes and the related services, grassland responding more rapidly and strongly but being more resilient to extreme drought than forest. To address the aims and hypotheses, we will 1) test experimentally how (a) a managed, (b) an abandoned mountain grassland and (c) an adjacent subalpine forest respond to a progressive extreme drought and will analyse threshold responses of carbon and water dynamics and their implications for ecosystem services (timber and fodder production, carbon sequestration, water provisioning); 2) quantify carry-over effects of the extreme event on ecosystem processes and services; 3) project and attribute future carbon and water cycle responses to extreme drought and related socio-economic changes, based on a process-based dynamic general vegetation model; 4) analyse the interrelation between land-use changes and the occurrence and severity of past and future

  5. Participatory processes for public lands: Do provinces practice what they preach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren F. Miller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we analyze the current spaces for public participation in Crown (public land management through a comparative study that focuses on the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. We define spaces for public participation as opportunities for meaningful public involvement in the decision-making arena of forest management. We examine the experiences of public participation in these provinces in an exploratory study comparing perceptions of participatory processes and outcomes of the processes in these two provinces based on 15 years (1999-2014 of informant experience. The objective is to understand more fully the barriers and bridges to meaningful public participation and relate these perceptions to on-the-ground implementation. A primary goal is to understand how, over time, processes with unsatisfying outcomes shape the perceptions of the participants. Rather than focusing on one particular participatory process, this comparative study assesses participation over time to identify the limitations in the participatory environments of these two provinces. We take a qualitative research approach using semistructured interviews with 42 forestry stakeholders, combined with participant observation and document analysis. This research reveals: (1 the importance of historical and cultural context as ongoing power imbalances shape the current dialogue and spaces for participation; (2 periods of robust and sound attempts at public participation in both provinces, with disappointments in implementation giving rise to a sense of futility, a closed system, and mistrust of government and industry over time; (3 a system of privileged access in opposition to the ideals of deliberative democracy and an equitable decision-making process; (4 in New Brunswick, public land policy implementation that is not reflective of participatory processes or of interests outside government and industry; (5 in Nova Scotia, recent efforts to incorporate values

  6. Simulations of the general circulation of the Martian atmosphere. I - Polar processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Haberle, Robert M.; Schaeffer, James; Lee, Hilda

    1990-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the Martian atmosphere general circulation are carried out for 50 simulated days, using a three-dimensional model, based on the primitive equations of meteorology, which incorporated the radiative effects of atmospheric dust on solar and thermal radiation. A large number of numerical experiments were conducted for alternative choices of seasonal date and dust optical depth. It was found that, as the dust content of the winter polar region increased, the rate of atmospheric CO2 condensation increased sharply. It is shown that the strong seasonal variation in the atmospheric dust content observed might cause a number of hemispheric asymmetries. These asymmetries include the greater prevalence of polar hoods in the northern polar region during winter, the lower albedo of the northern polar cap during spring, and the total dissipation of the northern CO2 ice cap during the warmer seasons.

  7. Evidence for the TICT mediated nonradiative deexcitation process for the excited coumarin-1 dye in high polarity protic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, Atanu [Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kumbhakar, Manoj [Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Nath, Sukhendu [Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Pal, Haridas [Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2005-08-29

    Photophysical properties of coumarin-1 (C1) dye in different protic solvents have been investigated using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Correlation of the Stokes' shifts ({delta}{nu}-bar ) with the solvent polarity ({delta}f) suggests the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character for the dye fluorescent state. Fluorescence quantum yields ({phi}{sub f}) and lifetimes ({tau}{sub f}) of the dye show an abrupt reduction in high polarity solvents having {delta}f >{approx}0.28. In these solvents {tau}{sub f} is seen to be strongly temperature dependent, though it is temperature independent in solvents with {delta}f <{approx}0.28. It is inferred that in high polarity protic solvents there is a participation of an additional nonradiative decay process via the involvement of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state. Unlike present results, no involvement of TICT state was observed even in strongly polar aprotic solvent like acetonitrile. It is indicated that the intermolecular hydrogen bonding of the dye with protic solvents in addition with the solvent polarity helps in the stabilization of the TICT state for C1 dye. Unlike most TICT molecules, the activation barrier ({delta}E{sub a}) for the TICT mediated nonradiative process for C1 dye is seen to increase with solvent polarity. This is rationalized on the basis of the assumption that the TICT to ground state conversion is the activation-controlled rate-determining step for the present system than the usual ICT to TICT conversion as encountered for most other TICT molecules.

  8. Upscaling Empirically Based Conceptualisations to Model Tropical Dominant Hydrological Processes for Historical Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, R.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E.; Jones, J.

    2009-12-01

    Surface runoff and percolation to ground water are two hydrological processes of concern to the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica because of their impacts on flooding and drinking water contamination. As per legislation, the Costa Rican Government funds land use management from the farm to the regional scale to improve or conserve hydrological ecosystem services. In this study, we examined how land use (e.g., forest, coffee, sugar cane, and pasture) affects hydrological response at the point, plot (1 m2), and the field scale (1-6ha) to empirically conceptualize the dominant hydrological processes in each land use. Using our field data, we upscaled these conceptual processes into a physically-based distributed hydrological model at the field, watershed (130 km2), and regional (1500 km2) scales. At the point and plot scales, the presence of macropores and large roots promoted greater vertical percolation and subsurface connectivity in the forest and coffee field sites. The lack of macropores and large roots, plus the addition of management artifacts (e.g., surface compaction and a plough layer), altered the dominant hydrological processes by increasing lateral flow and surface runoff in the pasture and sugar cane field sites. Macropores and topography were major influences on runoff generation at the field scale. Also at the field scale, antecedent moisture conditions suggest a threshold behavior as a temporal control on surface runoff generation. However, in this tropical climate with very intense rainstorms, annual surface runoff was less than 10% of annual precipitation at the field scale. Significant differences in soil and hydrological characteristics observed at the point and plot scales appear to have less significance when upscaled to the field scale. At the point and plot scales, percolation acted as the dominant hydrological process in this tropical environment. However, at the field scale for sugar cane and pasture sites, saturation-excess runoff increased as

  9. Mimicry of the Legal: Translating de jure Land Formalization Processes Into de facto Local Action in Jambi Province, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Kunz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, as in many other countries of the global South, processes to formalize rights over land have been implemented with the intention to reduce deforestation, decrease poverty and increase tenure security. Literature on de jure processes of land formalization is widely available. There is a gap, however, on the discrepancy of de jure land titling procedures and de facto strategies to legitimize land claims. Led by the theoretical concepts of “law as process” and “politics of scale”, this study closes this gap by analyzing the impact of national tenure formalization processes on de facto local patterns of land titling. Using empirical material from 16 villages in Jambi province, we show that the outcomes of the state-led land reforms and land tenure formalization processes are imitated and translated into locally feasible actions. We refer to these translation processes as “mimicry of the legal”. The land formalization endeavors fostering mimicry of the legal allow for resource exploitation and rent-seeking behavior.

  10. Mass movement processes triggered by land subsidence in Iztapalapa, the eastern part of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. González-Hernández

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Geological and structural conditions in the Basin of Mexico coupled with natural and anthropogenic factors, such as groundwater exploitation, provokes land subsidence and differential deformation. The study area is located in to the north of Iztapalapa, a municipality within Mexico City, in a site called "El Eden" with irregular topography. Where volcanic sequences overlie the lacustrine deposits of clays and silts and show displacements by the action of gravity. The displacement zone was delimited at the top of the slope by the formation of circular tensile fractures with stair -shaped geometries. At the base of the slope, compressive processes damaged housing, sidewalks and inclined light poles and trees. A NW-SE system of fractures was identified in which displacement velocities vary from a few millimeters to several centimeters per year. Which affects urban facilities. In this work a conceptual model of deformation is presented that integrates the geological and mechanical factors leading to landslide and land subsidence. A geophysical survey leads to evidence of how land subsidence processes increase the sliding slope.

  11. Land-Use Change, Soil Process and Trace Gas Fluxes in the Brazilian Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Steudler, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    We measured changes in key soil processes and the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with the conversion of tropical rainforest to pasture in Rondonia, a state in the southwest Amazon that has experienced rapid deforestation, primarily for cattle ranching, since the late 1970s. These measurements provide a comprehensive quantitative picture of the nature of surface soil element stocks, C and nutrient dynamics, and trace gas fluxes between soils and the atmosphere during the entire sequence of land-use change from the initial cutting and burning of native forest, through planting and establishment of pasture grass and ending with very old continuously-pastured land. All of our work is done in cooperation with Brazilian scientists at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) through an extant official bi-lateral agreement between the Marine Biological Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo, CENA's parent institution.

  12. A structured multi-stakeholder learning process for Sustainable Land Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwilch, Gudrun; Bachmann, Felicitas; Valente, Sandra; Coelho, Celeste; Moreira, Jorge; Laouina, Abdellah; Chaker, Miloud; Aderghal, Mohamed; Santos, Patricia; Reed, Mark S

    2012-09-30

    There are many, often competing, options for Sustainable Land Management (SLM). Each must be assessed - and sometimes negotiated - prior to implementation. Participatory, multi-stakeholder approaches to identification and selection of SLM options are increasingly popular, often motivated by social learning and empowerment goals. Yet there are few practical tools for facilitating processes in which land managers may share, select, and decide on the most appropriate SLM options. The research presented here aims to close the gap between the theory and the practice of stakeholder participation/learning in SLM decision-making processes. The paper describes a three-part participatory methodology for selecting SLM options that was tested in 14 desertification-prone study sites within the EU-DESIRE project. Cross-site analysis and in-depth evaluation of the Moroccan and Portuguese sites were used to evaluate how well the proposed process facilitated stakeholder learning and selection of appropriate SLM options for local implementation. The structured nature of the process - starting with SLM goal setting - was found to facilitate mutual understanding and collaboration between stakeholders. The deliberation process led to a high degree of consensus over the outcome and, though not an initial aim, it fostered social learning in many cases. This solution-oriented methodology is applicable in a wide range of contexts and may be implemented with limited time and resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spring precipitation in inland Iberia: land-atmosphere interactions and recycling and amplification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Entenza, A.; Miguez-Macho, G.

    2012-04-01

    Inland Iberia, the highest peak of rainfall occurs in May, being critical for agriculture in large water-limited areas. We investigate here the role of the soil moisture - precipitation feedback in the intensification of the water cycle in spring and in the aforementioned maximum of precipitation in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula. We conducted paired, high-resolution simulations with the WRF-ARW model, using a nested grid that covers the Iberian Peninsula at 5km resolution. Eleven months of May (from May 2000 to May 2010) and eleven months of January (from January 2000 to January 2010) were selected. For each month, we performed two simulations: a control one, where all land-atmosphere fluxes are normally set up, and the corresponding experiment, where evapotranspired water over land in the nested domain is not incorporated into the atmosphere, although the corresponding latent heat flux is considered in the surface energy budget. As expected, precipitation is higher in the control runs with respect to the experiments and, furthermore, this fraction of extra rainfall substantially exceeds the value of the analytical recycling ratio. This suggests that amplification processes, and not only direct recycling, may play an important role in the maximum of precipitation observed in the Iberian spring. We estimated the amplification effect to be as large as the recycling with calculations using analytical methods of separation of both contributions. We also develop here a procedure to quantify the amplification impact using the no-ET experiment and results confirm those obtained analytically. These results suggest that in the Iberian spring, under favourable synoptic conditions and given a small supply of external moisture that triggers large-scale convection, land-atmosphere interactions can intensify and sustain convective processes in time. Thus there is a large impact of local land-surface fluxes on precipitation and that alterations of anthropogenic nature can

  14. What scope for integrating land management policies, land administration processes and data infrastructures for housing production in Nigeria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agunbiade, M.E.; Rajabifard, A.; Bennett, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Existing knowledge reveals that land as a resource is not currently managed efficiently and effectively in most countries of the world. One of the factors considered important in understanding the inefficiencies and ineffectiveness is the level of integration between agencies. The objective of this

  15. Probing the positron moderation process using high-intensity, highly polarized slow-positron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van House, J.; Zitzewitz, P. W.

    1984-01-01

    A highly polarized (P = 0.48 + or - 0.02) intense (500,000/sec) beam of 'slow' (Delta E = about 2 eV) positrons (e+) is generated, and it is shown that it is possible to achieve polarization as high as P = 0.69 + or - 0.04 with reduced intensity. The measured polarization of the slow e+ emitted by five different positron moderators showed no dependence on the moderator atomic number (Z). It is concluded that only source positrons with final kinetic energy below 17 keV contribute to the slow-e+ beam, in disagreement with recent yield functions derived from low-energy measurements. Measurements of polarization and yield with absorbers of different Z between the source and moderator show the effects of the energy and angular distributions of the source positrons on P. The depolarization of fast e+ transmitted through high-Z absorbers has been measured. Applications of polarized slow-e+ beams are discussed.

  16. Risk-based design of process plants with regard to domino effects and land use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakzad, Nima, E-mail: nkhakzad@gmail.com [Safety and Security Science Group (S3G), Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, TU Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Reniers, Genserik [Safety and Security Science Group (S3G), Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, TU Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Antwerp Research Group on Safety and Security (ARGoSS), Faculty of Applied Economics, Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium); Research Group CEDON, Campus Brussels, KULeuven, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A Bayesian network methodology has been developed to estimate the total probability of major accidents in chemical plants. • Total probability of accidents includes the probability of individual accidents and potential domino effects. • The methodology has been extended to calculate on-site and off-site risks. • The results of the risk analysis have been used in a multi-criteria decision analysis technique to risk-based design of chemical plants. - Abstract: Land use planning (LUP) as an effective and crucial safety measure has widely been employed by safety experts and decision makers to mitigate off-site risks posed by major accidents. Accordingly, the concept of LUP in chemical plants has traditionally been considered from two perspectives: (i) land developments around existing chemical plants considering potential off-site risks posed by major accidents and (ii) development of existing chemical plants considering nearby land developments and the level of additional off-site risks the land developments would be exposed to. However, the attempts made to design chemical plants with regard to LUP requirements have been few, most of which have neglected the role of domino effects in risk analysis of major accidents. To overcome the limitations of previous work, first, we developed a Bayesian network methodology to calculate both on-site and off-site risks of major accidents while taking domino effects into account. Second, we combined the results of risk analysis with Analytic Hierarchical Process to design an optimal layout for which the levels of on-site and off-site risks would be minimum.

  17. Estimating California ecosystem carbon change using process model and land cover disturbance data: 1951-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxun; Vogelmann, James E.; Zhu, Zhiliang; Key, Carl H.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Price, D.T.; Chen, Jing M.; Cochrane, Mark A.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Howard, Stephen M.; Bliss, Norman B.; Jiang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Land use change, natural disturbance, and climate change directly alter ecosystem productivity and carbon stock level. The estimation of ecosystem carbon dynamics depends on the quality of land cover change data and the effectiveness of the ecosystem models that represent the vegetation growth processes and disturbance effects. We used the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and a set of 30- to 60-m resolution fire and land cover change data to examine the carbon changes of California's forests, shrublands, and grasslands. Simulation results indicate that during 1951–2000, the net primary productivity (NPP) increased by 7%, from 72.2 to 77.1 Tg C yr−1 (1 teragram = 1012 g), mainly due to CO2 fertilization, since the climate hardly changed during this period. Similarly, heterotrophic respiration increased by 5%, from 69.4 to 73.1 Tg C yr−1, mainly due to increased forest soil carbon and temperature. Net ecosystem production (NEP) was highly variable in the 50-year period but on average equalled 3.0 Tg C yr−1 (total of 149 Tg C). As with NEP, the net biome production (NBP) was also highly variable but averaged −0.55 Tg C yr−1 (total of –27.3 Tg C) because NBP in the 1980s was very low (–5.34 Tg C yr−1). During the study period, a total of 126 Tg carbon were removed by logging and land use change, and 50 Tg carbon were directly removed by wildland fires. For carbon pools, the estimated total living upper canopy (tree) biomass decreased from 928 to 834 Tg C, and the understory (including shrub and grass) biomass increased from 59 to 63 Tg C. Soil carbon and dead biomass carbon increased from 1136 to 1197 Tg C.Our analyses suggest that both natural and human processes have significant influence on the carbon change in California. During 1951–2000, climate interannual variability was the key driving force for the large interannual changes of ecosystem carbon source and sink at the state level, while logging and fire

  18. An Octave/MATLAB® Interface for Rapid Processing of SMOS L1C Full Polarization Brightness Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Saavedra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A tool to process the SMOS microwave radiometer level 1C polarized brightness temperatures data product has been developed. The SMOS L1C science product contains the dual and full (Stokes vector polarization brightness temperatures at L-band for multiple incidence angles. In order to use the L1C product, the measurements are processed by a number of procedures including radio frequency interference (RFI filters, conversion of the polarization plane from the antenna (X- & Y-pol to the Earth’s surface frame (H- & V-pol, and averaging to fixed classes of incidence angles. The software allows for the processing of data for the entire daily half-orbit product, or for specific regions of interest, and can be adapted as a bash-job to process a large number of data files e.g. for time series analysis. This paper describes the tool which was developed in GNU C++ with the capability to be compiled as MEX function to work with Octave or MATLAB® without any source code adjustment. Funding statement: 'Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft' DFG under grant number SI 606/24-1.

  19. Numerical calculations of the absorption and oscillation processes in the nonlinear polarized crystal Cr4+:YAG pumped by Nd-glass laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Ghani, B.; Hammadi, M.

    2007-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the dynamic emission of intracavity isotropic Cr 4+ : YAG polarized solid-state saturable absorber as a tool of dual Q-switching and lasing processes 1.06 μm and 1.4 μm by double pumping pulse has been developed. This model describes the time evolution of interaction between the pumping laser pulse with a changed polarization state and the polarized absorber. (author)

  20. Actors and processes behind urban fringe development: Mechanism to guide urban land management. Study on Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Masum, Fahria

    2009-01-01

    This thesis has attempted to analyze and resolve urban fringe problems in Dhaka by incorporating different roles and interests of actors in land development processes. The research has revealed that these different actors have different interests, norms and ideologies which are playing an active role in guiding or regulating urban land development process. This situation is deploying existing rules and regulations in form of politics and affecting urban fringe management negatively. The resea...

  1. Fractal structure of hadrons in processes with polarized protons at SPD NICA (Proposal for experiment)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokarev, M. V.; Zborovský, Imrich; Aparin, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2015), s. 48-58 ISSN 1547-4771 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : asymmetry * high energy * polarization * proton-proton collisions * Self-similarity Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  2. Soil mapping and process modeling for sustainable land use management: a brief historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Pereira, Paulo; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Bradley A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2017-04-01

    Basic soil management goes back to the earliest days of agricultural practices, approximately 9,000 BCE. Through time humans developed soil management techniques of ever increasing complexity, including plows, contour tillage, terracing, and irrigation. Spatial soil patterns were being recognized as early as 3,000 BCE, but the first soil maps didn't appear until the 1700s and the first soil models finally arrived in the 1880s (Brevik et al., in press). The beginning of the 20th century saw an increase in standardization in many soil science methods and wide-spread soil mapping in many parts of the world, particularly in developed countries. However, the classification systems used, mapping scale, and national coverage varied considerably from country to country. Major advances were made in pedologic modeling starting in the 1940s, and in erosion modeling starting in the 1950s. In the 1970s and 1980s advances in computing power, remote and proximal sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), and statistics and spatial statistics among other numerical techniques significantly enhanced our ability to map and model soils (Brevik et al., 2016). These types of advances positioned soil science to make meaningful contributions to sustainable land use management as we moved into the 21st century. References Brevik, E., Pereira, P., Muñoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B., Cerda, A., Parras-Alcantara, L., Lozano-Garcia, B. Historical perspectives on soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land use management. In: Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Muñoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B. (eds) Soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land use management (In press). Brevik, E., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Baumgarten, A., Jordán, A. 2016. Historical perspectives and future needs in soil mapping, classification and pedological modelling, Geoderma, 264, Part B, 256-274.

  3. Relationship between landslide processes and land use-land cover changes in mountain regions: footprint identification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitta, Marcello; Pregnolato, Marco; Pedoth, Lydia; Schneiderbauer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation aims to better understand the relationship between landslide events and land use-land cover (LULC) changes. Starting from the approach presented last year at national level ("In search of a footprint: an investigation about the potentiality of large datasets and territorial analysis in disaster and resilience research", Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-11253, 2014) we focused our study at regional scale considering South Tyrol, a mountain region in Italy near the Austrian border. Based on the concept exploited in the previous work, in which a disaster footprint was shown using land features and changes maps, in this study we start from the hypothesis that LULC can have a role in activation of landslides events. In this study, we used LULC data from CORINE and from a regional map called REAKART and we used the Italian national database IFFI (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia, Italian inventory of landslides) from which it is possible to select the landslides present in the national inventory together with other vector layers (the urban areas - Corine Land Cover 2000, the roads and railways, the administrative boundaries, the drainage system) and raster layers (the digital terrain model, digital orthophoto TerraItaly it2000, Landsat satellite images and IGM topographic map). Moreover it's possible to obtain information on the most important parameters of landslides, view documents, photos and videos. For South Tyrol, the IFFI database is updated in real time. In our investigation we analyzed: 1) LULC from CORINE and from REAKART, 2) landslides occurred nearby a border of two different LULC classes, 3) landslides occurred in a location in which a change in LULC classification in observed in time, 4) landslides occurred nearby road and railroad. Using classification methods and statistical approaches we investigated relationship between the LULC and the landslides events. The results confirm that specific LULC classes are

  4. Quantitative evaluation of the risk induced by dominant geomorphological processes on different land uses, based on GIS spatial analysis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ştefan, Bilaşco; Sanda, Roşca; Ioan, Fodorean; Iuliu, Vescan; Sorin, Filip; Dănuţ, Petrea

    2017-12-01

    Maramureş Land is mostly characterized by agricultural and forestry land use due to its specific configuration of topography and its specific pedoclimatic conditions. Taking into consideration the trend of the last century from the perspective of land management, a decrease in the surface of agricultural lands to the advantage of built-up and grass lands, as well as an accelerated decrease in the forest cover due to uncontrolled and irrational forest exploitation, has become obvious. The field analysis performed on the territory of Maramureş Land has highlighted a high frequency of two geomorphologic processes — landslides and soil erosion — which have a major negative impact on land use due to their rate of occurrence. The main aim of the present study is the GIS modeling of the two geomorphologic processes, determining a state of vulnerability (the USLE model for soil erosion and a quantitative model based on the morphometric characteristics of the territory, derived from the HG. 447/2003) and their integration in a complex model of cumulated vulnerability identification. The modeling of the risk exposure was performed using a quantitative approach based on models and equations of spatial analysis, which were developed with modeled raster data structures and primary vector data, through a matrix highlighting the correspondence between vulnerability and land use classes. The quantitative analysis of the risk was performed by taking into consideration the exposure classes as modeled databases and the land price as a primary alphanumeric database using spatial analysis techniques for each class by means of the attribute table. The spatial results highlight the territories with a high risk to present geomorphologic processes that have a high degree of occurrence and represent a useful tool in the process of spatial planning.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of the risk induced by dominant geomorphological processes on different land uses, based on GIS spatial analysis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ştefan, Bilaşco; Sanda, Roşca; Ioan, Fodorean; Iuliu, Vescan; Sorin, Filip; Dănuţ, Petrea

    2018-06-01

    Maramureş Land is mostly characterized by agricultural and forestry land use due to its specific configuration of topography and its specific pedoclimatic conditions. Taking into consideration the trend of the last century from the perspective of land management, a decrease in the surface of agricultural lands to the advantage of built-up and grass lands, as well as an accelerated decrease in the forest cover due to uncontrolled and irrational forest exploitation, has become obvious. The field analysis performed on the territory of Maramureş Land has highlighted a high frequency of two geomorphologic processes — landslides and soil erosion — which have a major negative impact on land use due to their rate of occurrence. The main aim of the present study is the GIS modeling of the two geomorphologic processes, determining a state of vulnerability (the USLE model for soil erosion and a quantitative model based on the morphometric characteristics of the territory, derived from the HG. 447/2003) and their integration in a complex model of cumulated vulnerability identification. The modeling of the risk exposure was performed using a quantitative approach based on models and equations of spatial analysis, which were developed with modeled raster data structures and primary vector data, through a matrix highlighting the correspondence between vulnerability and land use classes. The quantitative analysis of the risk was performed by taking into consideration the exposure classes as modeled databases and the land price as a primary alphanumeric database using spatial analysis techniques for each class by means of the attribute table. The spatial results highlight the territories with a high risk to present geomorphologic processes that have a high degree of occurrence and represent a useful tool in the process of spatial planning.

  6. Analysis of land stability and land-use change processes in the 19–20th centuries: a case study in Gödöllő Hillside, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demény Krisztina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript presents land-use change processes based on former military map analyses. Military maps were derived from the 1770s until the 1890s and later from the CORINE Land Cover map. I observed the transition direction of areal distribution of various land uses. Digitalized maps showed 19-20th century land-use conditions; besides them, we created a grouping system which is based on the intensity of land use. We distinguished six land-use types, ranking them according to the anthropogenic influence (1. built-up areas; 2. arable fields; 3. orchards and vineyards; 4. meadows and pastures; 5. forests; 6. wetlands.

  7. Properties of asymmetry of the electro disintegration process with vector-polarized deuterons

    CERN Document Server

    Rekalo, M P; Rekalo, O P

    2002-01-01

    The properties of the asymmetry A sub y (theta) in the exclusive electro disintegration of vector-polarized deuteron d-vector (e, e' p)n have been investigated (the vector of the target polarization is directed perpendicularly to the plane of the reaction gamma sup * + d-vector -> n + p). All calculations have been done in the framework of relativistic impulse approximation with the unitarized multipole gamma sup * + d-vector -> n + p amplitudes in order to account the final-state NN interaction in the reaction d-vector (e, e' p)n. The significance of various mechanisms in the formation of the angular dependence of the asymmetry A sub y (theta) has been discussed for the complanar kinematical conditions.

  8. The role of the State in land reform processes: the case of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Botella Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es estudiar el proceso de reforma agrarian en Latinoamérica y caracterizar el caso de Brasil, por esta razón voy a exponer una visión general del proceso y el rol de los gobiernos durante el siglo XX acorde al punto de vista de organizaciones internacionales como el Banco Mundial o el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. Como punto a añadir al objetivo de mi investigación está el explicar en términos generales y únicamente con un análisis teórico el proceso de reforma agraria y, por esta razón, me gustaría mostrar las mejores normas a fin de poner en práctica esta clase de política de acuerdo a la difícil situación del punto de salida. Finalmente, la presencia de Brasil será tomada para demostrar las importantes implicaciones de los movimientos sociales para llevar a cabo los procesos de reforma agraria.____________________ABSTRACT:The purpose of my article is to study land reform processes in Latin America and characterise the case of Brazil, for this reason I am going to expound a general vision of the process and the role of Governments during the 20th century according to the point of view of International Organizations like The World Bank or The Inter-American Development Bank. In addition the objective of my research is explaining in general terms and only with a theoretical analysis land reform processes and, for this reason, I would like to show the best norms in order to put in practise this kind of policy according to the difficult situation of the starting point. Finally the instance of Brazil will be undertaken to demonstrate the main implications of social movements in order to make land reform processes.

  9. Transverse momentum dependent quark distributions and polarized Drell-Yan processes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jian; Yuan, Feng; Liang, Zuo-Tang

    2009-01-01

    We study the spin-dependent quark distributions at large transverse momentum. We derive their transverse momentum behaviors in the collinear factorization approach in this region. We further calculate the angular distribution of the Drell-Yan lepton pair production with polarized beams and present the results in terms of the collinear twist-three quark-gluon correlation functions. In the intermediate transverse momentum region, we find that the two pproaches: the collinear factorization and t...

  10. Mapping of the atomic hydrogen density in combustion processes at atmospheric pressure by two-photon polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiger, A.; Gruetzmacher, K.; Steiger, M.; Gonzalo, A.B.; Rosa, M.I. de la

    2001-01-01

    With laser spectroscopic techniques used so far, quantitative measurements of atomic number densities in flames and other combustion processes at atmospheric pressure yield no satisfying results because high quenching rates remarkably reduce the signal size and the results suffer from large uncertainties. Whereas, two-photon polarization spectroscopy is not limited by quenching, as the polarization signal is a direct measure of the two-photon absorption. This sensitive laser technique with high spatial and temporal resolution has been applied to determine absolute number densities and the kinetic temperatures of atomic hydrogen in flames for the first time. The great potential of this method of measurement comes into its own only in conjunction with laser radiation of highest possible spectral quality, i.e. single-frequency ns-pulses with peak irradiance of up to 1 GW/cm 2 tunable around 243 nm for 1S-2S two-photon transition of atomic hydrogen

  11. Antarctic Temperature Extremes from MODIS Land Surface Temperatures: New Processing Methods Reveal Data Quality Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, G.; Gallaher, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    New methods for processing massive remotely sensed datasets are used to evaluate Antarctic land surface temperature (LST) extremes. Data from the MODIS/Terra sensor (Collection 6) provides a twice-daily look at Antarctic LSTs over a 17 year period, at a higher spatiotemporal resolution than past studies. Using a data condensation process that creates databases of anomalous values, our processes create statistical images of Antarctic LSTs. In general, the results find few significant trends in extremes; however, they do reveal a puzzling picture of inconsistent cloud detection and possible systemic errors, perhaps due to viewing geometry. Cloud discrimination shows a distinct jump in clear-sky detections starting in 2011, and LSTs around the South Pole exhibit a circular cooling pattern, which may also be related to cloud contamination. Possible root causes are discussed. Ongoing investigations seek to determine whether the results are a natural phenomenon or, as seems likely, the results of sensor degradation or processing artefacts. If the unusual LST patterns or cloud detection discontinuities are natural, they point to new, interesting processes on the Antarctic continent. If the data artefacts are artificial, MODIS LST users should be alerted to the potential issues.

  12. Land cover variation and West Nile virus prevalence: Patterns, processes, and implications for disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Milheim, L.E.; Coffey, M.F.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    Identifying links between environmental variables and infectious disease risk is essential to understanding how human-induced environmental changes will effect the dynamics of human and wildlife diseases. Although land cover change has often been tied to spatial variation in disease occurrence, the underlying factors driving the correlations are often unknown, limiting the applicability of these results for disease prevention and control. In this study, we described associations between land cover composition and West Nile virus (WNV) infection prevalence, and investigated three potential processes accounting for observed patterns: (1) variation in vector density; (2) variation in amplification host abundance; and (3) variation in host community composition. Interestingly, we found that WNV infection rates among Culex mosquitoes declined with increasing wetland cover, but wetland area was not significantly associated with either vector density or amplification host abundance. By contrast, wetland area was strongly correlated with host community composition, and model comparisons suggested that this factor accounted, at least partially, for the observed effect of wetland area on WNV infection risk. Our results suggest that preserving large wetland areas, and by extension, intact wetland bird communities, may represent a valuable ecosystem-based approach for controlling WNV outbreaks. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  13. Benchmarking sensitivity of biophysical processes to leaf area changes in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Duveiller, Gregory; Georgievski, Goran; Li, Wei; Robestson, Eddy; Kautz, Markus; Lawrence, Peter; Ciais, Philippe; Pongratz, Julia; Sitch, Stephen; Wiltshire, Andy; Arneth, Almut; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Land surface models (LSM) are widely applied as supporting tools for policy-relevant assessment of climate change and its impact on terrestrial ecosystems, yet knowledge of their performance skills in representing the sensitivity of biophysical processes to changes in vegetation density is still limited. This is particularly relevant in light of the substantial impacts on regional climate associated with the changes in leaf area index (LAI) following the observed global greening. Benchmarking LSMs on the sensitivity of the simulated processes to vegetation density is essential to reduce their uncertainty and improve the representation of these effects. Here we present a novel benchmark system to assess model capacity in reproducing land surface-atmosphere energy exchanges modulated by vegetation density. Through a collaborative effort of different modeling groups, a consistent set of land surface energy fluxes and LAI dynamics has been generated from multiple LSMs, including JSBACH, JULES, ORCHIDEE, CLM4.5 and LPJ-GUESS. Relationships of interannual variations of modeled surface fluxes to LAI changes have been analyzed at global scale across different climatological gradients and compared with satellite-based products. A set of scoring metrics has been used to assess the overall model performances and a detailed analysis in the climate space has been provided to diagnose possible model errors associated to background conditions. Results have enabled us to identify model-specific strengths and deficiencies. An overall best performing model does not emerge from the analyses. However, the comparison with other models that work better under certain metrics and conditions indicates that improvements are expected to be potentially achievable. A general amplification of the biophysical processes mediated by vegetation is found across the different land surface schemes. Grasslands are characterized by an underestimated year-to-year variability of LAI in cold climates

  14. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  15. Produced Water Treatment Using the Switchable Polarity Solvent Forward Osmosis (SPS FO) Desalination Process: Preliminary Engineering Design Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel; Adhikari, Birendra; Orme, Christopher; Wilson, Aaron

    2016-05-01

    Switchable Polarity Solvent Forward Osmosis (SPS FO) is a semi-permeable membrane-based water treatment technology. INL is currently advancing SPS FO technology such that a prototype unit can be designed and demonstrated for the purification of produced water from oil and gas production operations. The SPS FO prototype unit will used the thermal energy in the produced water as a source of process heat, thereby reducing the external process energy demands. Treatment of the produced water stream will reduce the volume of saline wastewater requiring disposal via injection, an activity that is correlated with undesirable seismic events, as well as generate a purified product water stream with potential beneficial uses. This paper summarizes experimental data that has been collected in support of the SPS FO scale-up effort, and describes how this data will be used in the sizing of SPS FO process equipment. An estimate of produced water treatment costs using the SPS FO process is also provided.

  16. Data Synthesis and Data Assimilation at Global Change Experiments and Fluxnet Toward Improving Land Process Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yiqi [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Plant Biology

    2017-09-12

    The project was conducted during the period from 7/1/2012 to 6/30/2017 with three major tasks: (1) data synthesis and development of data assimilation (DA) techniques to constrain modeled ecosystem feedback to climate change; (2) applications of DA techniques to improve process models at different scales from ecosystem to regions and the globe; and 3) improvements of modeling soil carbon (C) dynamics by land surface models. During this period, we have synthesized published data from soil incubation experiments (e.g., Chen et al., 2016; Xu et al., 2016; Feng et al., 2016), global change experiments (e.g., Li et al., 2013; Shi et al., 2015, 2016; Liang et al., 2016) and fluxnet (e.g., Niu et al., 2012., Xia et al., 2015; Li et al., 2016). These data have been organized into multiple data products and have been used to identify general mechanisms and estimate parameters for model improvement. We used the data sets that we collected and the DA techniques to improve model performance of both ecosystem models and global land models. The objectives are: 1) to improve model simulations of litter and soil carbon storage (e.g., Schädel et al., 2013; Hararuk and Luo, 2014; Hararuk et al., 2014; Liang et al., 2015); 2) to explore the effects of CO2, warming and precipitation on ecosystem processes (e.g., van Groenigen et al., 2014; Shi et al., 2015, 2016; Feng et al., 2017); and 3) to estimate parameters variability in different ecosystems (e.g., Li et al., 2016). We developed a traceability framework, which was based on matrix approaches and decomposed the modeled steady-state terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage capacity into four can trace the difference in ecosystem carbon storage capacity among different biomes to four traceable components: net primary productivity (NPP), baseline C residence times, environmental scalars and climate forcing (Xia et al., 2013). With this framework, we can diagnose the differences in modeled carbon storage across ecosystems

  17. Demonstration tools for the facility/land use planning process at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    The new mission for the Rocky Flats Site states, open-quotes Manage waste and materials, clean up and convert the Rocky Flats Site to beneficial use in a manner that is safe, environmentally and socially responsible, physical secure, and cost-effective.close quotes. In addition, community recognition and support is encouraged and expected. To accomplish this ambitious mission of converting to another use and incorporating stakeholder input, many tools must be developed. These tools must be clearly understandable and readily available, with the hope and plan that similar outcomes will be much more apparent if the same or similar tools are applied by all decision markers, both internal and external. Since the task is monumental and extremely complex, establishing and understanding these available tools early in the planning process is important. All decision makers must be identified and the availability of the tools should be shared to eliminate redundancy and expedite the planning process. Most documents utilized for decision making are very technical in nature. Since numerous and varied stakeholders will be involved, these documents must be socialized or open-quotes detechnicalized.close quotes This paper discusses developing internal and universally acceptable demonstration tools for explaining how facilities and land will be analyzed for constraints and opportunities during the planning process

  18. The influence of firn air transport processes and radiocarbon production on gas records from polar firn and ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buizert, Christo

    Air bubbles found in polar ice cores preserve a record of past atmospheric composition up to 800 kyr back in time. The composition of the bubbles is not identical to the ancient atmosphere, as it is influenced by processes prior to trapping, within the ice sheet itself, and during sampling...... does not vanish completely in the lock-in zone, as is commonly assumed. Six state-of-the-art firn air transport models are tuned to the NEEM site; all models successfully reproduce the data within a 1 Gaussian distribution. We present the first intercomparison study of firn air models, where we...

  19. The importance of Soil Science to understand and remediate Land Degradation and Desertification processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Documentation is abundantly available to demonstrate the devastating effect of Land degradation and desertification on sustainable development in many countries. This present a major barrier to achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals by 2030, as agreed upon at the General Assembly of the UN in September 2015. Research has certainly been successful in reversing these two processes in many case studies but persistant problems remain not only in developing countries but also in developed countries where, for example, soil compaction and loss of soil organic matter due to the industrialization of agriculture, result in a structural decline of agricultural productivity and environmental quality. The problems are quite complex because not only technical matters play a role but also, and often quite prominantly, socio-economic factors. What turn out to be successful remediation procedures at a given location or region, based on the characterization of underlying soil processes, will most likely not work in other regions inhibiting the extrapolation of local research results to areas elsewhere. One important reason for location specificity of research is the variation of soil properties in combination with the location of soils in a given landscape which governs its water, energy and nutrient dynamics, also considering the climate. Different soils are characterized by different natural riks for degradation and , in arid regions, deserticification and their particular remediation potential differs widely as well. Such risks can sometimes be overcome by innovative soil management and knowing the soil type, the climate and landscape processes, extrapolation of such types of innovative management to comparable soils and landscapes elsewhere may be feasible and effective , provided that socio-economic conditions allow the required risk-reducing measures to be realized in practice. More cooperation between soil scientists and physical geographers, familiar with landscape

  20. Quantification of soil erosion and transport processes in the in the Myjava Hill Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavcová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Velisková, Yvetta; Studvová, Zuzana; Socuvka, Valentin; Németová, Zuzana; Duregová, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study is a complex analysis of soil erosion processes and proposals for erosion control in the region of the Myjava Hill Land located in western Slovakia. The Myjava Hill Land is characteristic of quick runoff response, intensive soil erosion by water and related muddy floods, which are determined by both natural and socio-economic conditions. In this paper a case study in the Svacenický Creek catchment, with a focus on the quantification of soil loss from the agriculturally arable lands and sediment transport to the dry water reservoir (polder) of the Svacenický Creek is presented. Erosion, sediment transport, and the deposition of sediments in the water reservoir represent a significant impact on its operation, mainly with regard to reducing its accumulation volume. For the analysis of the soil loss and sediment transport from the Svacenický Creek catchment, the Universal Soil Loss Equation, the USLE 2D, and the Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR) models were applied. Because the resulting values of the soil loss exceeded the values of the tolerated soil loss, erosion control measures by strip cropping were designed. Strip cropping is based on altering crop strips with protective (infiltration) strips. The effectiveness of the protective (infiltration) strips for reducing runoff from the basin by the SCS-CN method was estimated. Monitoring the morphological parameters of bottom sediments and their changes over time is crucial information in the field of water reservoir operations. In September 2015, the AUV EcoMapper was used to gather the data information on the Svacenický Creek reservoir. The data includes information about the sediment depths and parameters of the water quality. The results of the surveying are GIS datasets and maps, which provide a higher resolution of the bathymetric data and contours of the bottom reservoir. To display the relief of the bottom, the ArcMap 10.1. software was used. Based on the current status of the bottom

  1. Topographic changes detection through Structure-from-Motion in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Pradetto Sordo, Nicoletta; Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Terol Esparza, Enric; Tarolli, Paolo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the world, soil erosion by water is a serious problem, especially in semi-arid and semi-humid areas (Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdan et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010). Although soil erosion by water consists of physical processes that vary significantly in severity and frequency according to when and where they occur, they are also strongly influenced by anthropic factors such as land-use changes on large scales and unsustainable farming practices (Boardman et al., 1990; Cerdà 1994; Montgomery, 2007). Tillage operations, combined with weather conditions, are recognized to primarily influence soil erosion rates. If, on one hand, tillage operations cause uniform changes based on the tool used, on the other, weather conditions, such as rainfalls, produce more random changes, less easily traceable (Snapir et al., 2014). Within this context, remote-sensing technologies can facilitate the detection and quantification of these topographic changes. In particular, a real opportunity and challenge is offered by the low-cost and flexible photogrammetric technique, called 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM), combined with the use of smartphones (Micheletti et al., 2014; Prosdocimi et al., 2015). This represents a significant advance compared with more expensive technologies and applications (e.g. Terrestrial Laser Scanner - TLS) (Tarolli, 2014). This work wants to test the Structure from Motion to obtain high-resolution topography for the detection of topographic changes in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes. Two case studies were selected: i) a tilled plot characterized by bare soil and affected by rill erosion located in the hilly countryside of Marche region (central Italy), and ii) a Mediterranean vineyard located within the province of Valencia (south eastern Spain) where rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Extensive photosets were obtained by using one standalone reflex digital camera and one smartphone built-in digital camera. Digital

  2. Calibration of an integrated land surface process and radiobrightness (LSP/R) model during summertime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Jasmeet; England, Anthony W.; Metcalfe, John R.; McNichol, David; Goodison, Barry E.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a soil vegetation and atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model was linked with a microwave emission model to simulate microwave signatures for different terrain during summertime, when the energy and moisture fluxes at the land surface are strong. The integrated model, land surface process/radiobrightness (LSP/R), was forced with weather and initial conditions observed during a field experiment. It simulated the fluxes and brightness temperatures for bare soil and brome grass in the Northern Great Plains. The model estimates of soil temperature and moisture profiles and terrain brightness temperatures were compared with the observed values. Overall, the LSP model provides realistic estimates of soil moisture and temperature profiles to be used with a microwave model. The maximum mean differences and standard deviations between the modeled and the observed temperatures (canopy and soil) were 2.6 K and 6.8 K, respectively; those for the volumetric soil moisture were 0.9% and 1.5%, respectively. Brightness temperatures at 19 GHz matched well with the observations for bare soil, when a rough surface model was incorporated indicating reduced dielectric sensitivity to soil moisture by surface roughness. The brightness temperatures of the brome grass matched well with the observations indicating that a simple emission model was sufficient to simulate accurate brightness temperatures for grass typical of that region and surface roughness was not a significant issue for grass-covered soil at 19 GHz. Such integrated SVAT-microwave models allow for direct assimilation of microwave observations and can also be used to understand sensitivity of microwave signatures to changes in weather forcings and soil conditions for different terrain types.

  3. Adsorption process analysis at the solid-gas interface by the polarization phenomenon study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouton-Chazel, V.

    1994-01-01

    In order to improve the safety of anti-gas filters users, the Cogema (Nuclear Materials General Company) has developed a gaseous pollutants saturation detection technology for respiratory protection masks. As a matter of fact, the problem consists in studying the surface properties of a solid. In this study the adsorption has been considered as a phenomenon which can be followed by a relatively simple electrical measure technology. A microscopic description of the adsorption phenomenon has been given at first and explained by the thermodynamics laws. Then a theoretical model has been elaborated. The developments which have been brought to this model in this work have allowed to give a satisfactory interpretation of the phenomena observed during the adsorption of a polar gas on a zeolite. (O.M.)

  4. Climate, atmosphere, and volatile inventory evolution: polar processes, climate records, volatile inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Climate change on Mars was driven by long term changes in the solar luminosity, variations in the partitioning of volatiles between the atmosphere and near-surface reservoirs, and astronomical variations in axial and orbital properties. There are important parallels between these drives for Mars and comparable ones for Earth. In the early history of the solar system, the Sun's luminosity was 25 to 30 percent lower than its current value. It is suggested that an early benign climate on Earth was due to the presence of much more carbon dioxide in its atmosphere at these early times than currently resides there. Such a partitioning of carbon dioxide, at the expense of the carbonate rock reservoir, may have resulted from a more vigorous tectonic and volcanic style at early times. Such a line of reasoning may imply that much more carbon dioxide was present in the Martian atmosphere during the planet's early history than resides there today. It is now widely recognized that astronomical variations of the Earth's axial and orbital characteristics have played a dominant role in causing the succession of glacial and interglacial periods characterizing the last several million years. The magnitude of the axial and eccentricity variations are much larger for Mars than for Earth. Such changes on Mars could result in sizeable variations in atmospheric pressure, dust storm activity, and the stability of perennial carbon dioxide and water ice polar caps. These quasi-periodic climate changes occur on periods of 100,000 to 1,000,000 years and may be recorded in the sedimentary layers of the polar layered terrain

  5. The Importance of Representing Certain Key Vegetation Canopy Processes Explicitly in a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoly, A.; Boone, A. A.; Martin, E.; Samuelsson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface models are moving to more detailed vegetation canopy descriptions in order to better represent certain key processes, such as Carbon dynamics and snowpack evolution. Since such models are usually applied within coupled numerical weather prediction or spatially distributed hydrological models, these improvements must strike a balance between computational cost and complexity. The consequences of simplified or composite canopy approaches can be manifested in terms of increased errors with respect to soil temperatures, estimates of the diurnal cycle of the turbulent fluxes or snow canopy interception and melt. Vegetated areas and particularly forests are modeled in a quite simplified manner in the ISBA land surface model. However, continuous developments of surface processes now require a more accurate description of the canopy. A new version of the the model now includes a multi energy balance (MEB) option to explicitly represent the canopy and the forest floor. It will be shown that certain newly included processes such as the shading effect of the vegetation, the explicit heat capacity of the canopy, and the insulating effect of the forest floor turn out to be essential. A detailed study has been done for four French forested sites. It was found that the MEB option significantly improves the ground heat flux (RMSE decrease from 50W/m2 to 10W/m2 on average) and soil temperatures when compared against measurements. Also the sensible heat flux calculation was improved primarily owing to a better phasing with the solar insulation owing to a lower vegetation heat capacity. However, the total latent heat flux is less modified compared to the classical ISBA simulation since it is more related to water uptake and the formulation of the stomatal resistance (which are unchanged). Next, a benchmark over 40 Fluxnet sites (116 cumulated years) was performed and compared with results from the default composite soil-vegetation version of ISBA. The results show

  6. Polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The book on 'polarized neutrons' is intended to inform researchers in condensed matter physics and chemistry of the diversity of scientific problems that can be investigated using polarized neutron beams. The contents include chapters on:- neutron polarizers and instrumentation, polarized neutron scattering, neutron polarization analysis experiments and precessing neutron polarization. (U.K.)

  7. 78 FR 33705 - Postdecisional Administrative Review Process for Occupancy or Use of National Forest System Lands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... a significant administrative burden and should balance that burden against the interests of special.... Comment: One respondent organization noted that it attempts to work collaboratively where possible to... land use fee determinations and land use fee determinations under any future fee system for recreation...

  8. Structural change, land use and the state in China : Making sense of three divergent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat); A. Dasgupta (Anirban)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractRapid economic growth involves significant changes in land use patterns. The paper uses the recent history of Chinese economic growth to highlight and interrogate the implication of such changes within the context of structural transformation. It argues that though land use change is an

  9. A process of demographic and economic polarization in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madzevic Mirjanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic and economic development in the Republic of Macedonia is characterized by high dynamics, and imbalance in development. The unequal social and economic development is one of the main negative features of development, especially during the transition period in which the regional development has been marginalized on the expense of market development and stabilization and restructuring of the economy. Equally important component of the development is the problem of concentration and dispersion of population and economic activities in the area causing the appearance of demographic and economic polarization in the country. Today, the degree of the population and economic development in the Republic of Macedonia shows certain differences on a regional level, according to distribution of the population, investments, GDP and etc. From the available social and economic indicators can be concluded that the Republic of Macedonia has the characteristics of a country with a monocentric model of development where the Skopje region stands out as the core of development, while other regions stagnate or grow with less intensity compared to the previous one. Therefore, this current problem requires finding solutions for reducing the disparities in the regional development and harmonization of the same.

  10. Estimating the effects of potential climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes of a large agriculture dominated watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Ram P.; Kumar, Sandeep

    2015-10-01

    Land use and climate are two major components that directly influence catchment hydrologic processes, and therefore better understanding of their effects is crucial for future land use planning and water resources management. We applied Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess the effects of potential land use change and climate variability on hydrologic processes of large agriculture dominated Big Sioux River (BSR) watershed located in North Central region of USA. Future climate change scenarios were simulated using average output of temperature and precipitation data derived from Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) (B1, A1B, and A2) for end-21st century. Land use change was modeled spatially based on historic long-term pattern of agricultural transformation in the basin, and included the expansion of corn (Zea mays L.) cultivation by 2, 5, and 10%. We estimated higher surface runoff in all land use scenarios with maximum increase of 4% while expanding 10% corn cultivation in the basin. Annual stream discharge was estimated higher with maximum increase of 72% in SRES-B1 attributed from higher groundwater contribution of 152% in the same scenario. We assessed increased precipitation during spring season but the summer precipitation decreased substantially in all climate change scenarios. Similar to decreased summer precipitation, discharge of the BSR also decreased potentially affecting agricultural production due to reduced future water availability during crop growing season in the basin. However, combined effects of potential land use change with climate variability enhanced for higher annual discharge of the BSR. Therefore, these estimations can be crucial for implications of future land use planning and water resources management of the basin.

  11. Simulation of future land use change and climate change impacts on hydrological processes in a tropical catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhaento, H.; Booij, M. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Future hydrological processes in the Samin catchment (278 km2) in Java, Indonesia have been simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model using inputs from predicted land use distributions in the period 2030 - 2050, bias corrected Regional Climate Model (RCM) output and output of six Global Climate Models (GCMs) to include climate model uncertainty. Two land use change scenarios namely a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, where no measures are taken to control land use change, and a controlled (CON) scenario, where the future land use follows the land use planning, were used in the simulations together with two climate change scenarios namely Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. It was predicted that in 2050 settlement and agriculture area of the study catchment will increase by 33.9% and 3.5%, respectively under the BAU scenario, whereas agriculture area and evergreen forest will increase by 15.2% and 10.2%, respectively under the CON scenario. In comparison to the baseline conditions (1983 - 2005), the predicted mean annual maximum and minimum temperature in 2030 - 2050 will increase by an average of +10C, while changes in the mean annual rainfall range from -20% to +19% under RCP 4.5 and from -25% to +15% under RCP 8.5. The results show that land use change and climate change individually will cause changes in the water balance components, but that more pronounced changes are expected if the drivers are combined, in particular for changes in annual stream flow and surface runoff. It was observed that combination of the RCP 4.5 climate scenario and BAU land use scenario resulted in an increase of the mean annual stream flow from -7% to +64% and surface runoff from +21% to +102%, which is 40% and 60% more than when land use change is acting alone. Furthermore, under the CON scenario the annual stream flow and surface runoff could be potentially reduced by up to 10% and 30%, respectively indicating the effectiveness of applied

  12. Semi Automated Land Cover Layer Updating Process Utilizing Spectral Analysis and GIS Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L.; Keinan, E.; Yaniv, M.; Tal, Y.; Felus, A.; Regev, R.

    2018-04-01

    Technological improvements made in recent years of mass data gathering and analyzing, influenced the traditional methods of updating and forming of the national topographic database. It has brought a significant increase in the number of use cases and detailed geo information demands. Processes which its purpose is to alternate traditional data collection methods developed in many National Mapping and Cadaster Agencies. There has been significant progress in semi-automated methodologies aiming to facilitate updating of a topographic national geodatabase. Implementation of those is expected to allow a considerable reduction of updating costs and operation times. Our previous activity has focused on building automatic extraction (Keinan, Zilberstein et al, 2015). Before semiautomatic updating method, it was common that interpreter identification has to be as detailed as possible to hold most reliable database eventually. When using semi-automatic updating methodologies, the ability to insert human insights based knowledge is limited. Therefore, our motivations were to reduce the created gap by allowing end-users to add their data inputs to the basic geometric database. In this article, we will present a simple Land cover database updating method which combines insights extracted from the analyzed image, and a given spatial data of vector layers. The main stages of the advanced practice are multispectral image segmentation and supervised classification together with given vector data geometric fusion while maintaining the principle of low shape editorial work to be done. All coding was done utilizing open source software components.

  13. NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX 2002/03): Field measurements of snowpack properties and soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Elder; Don Cline; Glen E. Liston; Richard Armstrong

    2009-01-01

    A field measurement program was undertaken as part NASA's Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX). Extensive snowpack and soil measurements were taken at field sites in Colorado over four study periods during the two study years (2002 and 2003). Measurements included snow depth, density, temperature, grain type and size, surface wetness, surface roughness, and...

  14. Modelling monthly runoff generation processes following land use changes: groundwater–surface runoff interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bari

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual water balance model is presented to represent changes in monthly water balance following land use changes. Monthly rainfall–runoff, groundwater and soil moisture data from four experimental catchments in Western Australia have been analysed. Two of these catchments, 'Ernies' (control, fully forested and 'Lemon' (54% cleared are in a zone of mean annual rainfall of 725 mm, while 'Salmon' (control, fully forested and 'Wights' (100% cleared are in a zone with mean annual rainfall of 1125 mm. At the Salmon forested control catchment, streamflow comprises surface runoff, base flow and interflow components. In the Wights catchment, cleared of native forest for pasture development, all three components increased, groundwater levels rose significantly and stream zone saturated area increased from 1% to 15% of the catchment area. It took seven years after clearing for the rainfall–runoff generation process to stabilise in 1984. At the Ernies forested control catchment, the permanent groundwater system is 20 m below the stream bed and so does not contribute to streamflow. Following partial clearing of forest in the Lemon catchment, groundwater rose steadily and reached the stream bed by 1987. The streamflow increased in two phases: (i immediately after clearing due to reduced evapotranspiration, and (ii through an increase in the groundwater-induced stream zone saturated area after 1987. After analysing all the data available, a conceptual monthly model was created, comprising four inter-connecting stores: (i an upper zone unsaturated store, (ii a transient stream zone store, (ii a lower zone unsaturated store and (iv a saturated groundwater store. Data such as rooting depth, Leaf Area Index, soil porosity, profile thickness, depth to groundwater, stream length and surface slope were incorporated into the model as a priori defined attributes. The catchment average values for different stores were determined through matching observed and

  15. Land use changes in Europe: Processes of change, environmental transformations, and future patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, F.M.; Thomas, A.J.; Chadwick, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    As the pressures to control costs and resources expended on cleaning up hazardous waste sites increase, there is a growing notion that consideration of ultimate land use or end states should aid in focusing remediation efforts, and thus, controlling costs. Resources would not be expended on all sites equally, rather knowledge that a particular site is most likely to be used for industrial rather than residential purposes, for example, would influence the type of clean-up invoked at a site and the clean-up goals themselves. Thus, land use has become a hot topic among environmental risk assessors and risk managers. This milieu makes the contents of Volume 18 in Kluwer's GeoJournal Library of particular interest. The book is a collection of papers, with contributors from across Europe. The paper generally fall into three categories: analyses of historical land use patterns in particular countries, forecasts of changing land use trends for the EC countries, and analyses of particular factors affecting land use decisions (atmospheric contamination, hydrologic regimes, land use decision methodologies). Although very little of the text deals explicitly with hazardous waste clean up, the perspective provided by a view of the European struggles with land use allocations provides helpful context to those in the historically unlimited spaces of the United States just beginning to come to terms with the concept

  16. A spatial dynamic model to assess piospheric land degradation processes of SW Iberian rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herguido Sevillano, Estela; Ibáñez, Javier; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Pulido-Fernández, Manuel; Schnabel, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    Iberian open wooded rangelands (known as dehesas or montados) constitute valuable agro-silvo-pastoral systems traditionally considered as highly sustainable. Nevertheless, in the recent decades, those systems are undergoing changes of land use and management practices that compromise its sustainability. Some of those changes, as the rising construction of watering points and the high spatial fragmentation and livestock movement restriction associated to fencing, show an aggregated effect with livestock, producing an impact gradient over soil and vegetation. Soil compaction related to livestock pressure is higher around watering points, with bare soil halos and patches of scarce vegetation or nude soil developing with higher frequency in areas close to them. Using the freeware Dinamica EGO as environmental modeling platform, we have developed a theoretic spatial dynamic model that represents some of the processes of land degradation associated to livestock grazing in dehesa fenced enclosures. Spatial resolution is high since every cell in the model is a square unit area of 1 m2. We paid particular attention to the relationships between soil degradation by compaction (porosity), livestock pressure, rainfall, pasture growth and shrub cover and bare soil generation. The model considers pasture growth as related to soil compaction, measured by the pore space in the top 10 cm soil layer. Annual precipitation is randomly generated following a normal distribution. When annual precipitation and pore space increase, also does pasture growth. Besides, there is a feedback between pasture growth and pore space, given that pasture roots increases soil porosity. The cell utility for livestock function has been defined as an exponential function of the distance of a cell to watering points and the amount of pasture present in it. The closer the cell to a pond and the higher the amount of pasture, the higher is cell utility. The latter is modulated by a normal random variable to

  17. Dynamic simulation of charging processes in polar dielectrics irradiated by the electron bunches of middle level energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslovskaya, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays the scanning electron microscopy techniques are widely used practically in condenser matter physics to study properties and structure of solids. The electron probe of scanning electron microscope is not merely a passive indicator of the geometrical or potential profile of the sample surface, but also the source producing ionizing, electric and thermal action on the sample. The application of raster electron methods to polar materials, responding to electric and heat exposures of the electron bunches allows us to get a response and create new modes of image formation. Let assume, that a sample surface of dielectric is irradiated by thin focused electron bunches of middle level energy (with order 1÷50 keV). When electrons bombard the dielectric sample the accumulation of absorbed electrons occurs. As a result generated charged areas can irregular drift the initial bunches. Charging effect occurs at any magnifications and any actual probe current. This work considers the results of dynamic simulation of charging process in polar dielectrics under the investigation with the scanning electron microscope. The purpose of present study is design and model implementation of three-dimensional dynamic model of charge relaxation in polar materials irradiated by electron bunches of middle level energy. The mathematical problem definition is given by the system of the continuity equation and Poisson equation. Final system of equations was modified in terms of intrinsic radiation-induced conductivity in sample as well as cylindrical symmetry of the problem. The simulation is based on numerical method solving of boundary problem for partial derivative equation system. In addition the initial electron distribution is determined by Monte-Carlo method using the programming implementation. To solve this problem we used the computational methods of solution of nonstationary mathematical physics problem such as finite difference method and finite element method realized with

  18. Land cover mapping and GIS processing for the Savannah River Site Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christel, L.M.; Guber, A.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Located in Barnwell, Aiken, and Allendale counties in South Carolina, SRS covers an area of approximately 77,700 hectares. Land cover information for SRS was interpreted from color and color infrared aerial photography acquired between 1980 and 1989. The data were then used as the source of the land cover data layer for the SRS sitewide Geographic Information System database. This database provides SRS managers with recent land use information and has been successfully used to support cost-effective site characterization and reclamation

  19. Measurement of Double-Polarization Asymmetries in the Quasielastic He3→(e → ,e'd ) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihovilovič, M.; Jin, G.; Long, E.; Zhang, Y.-W.; Allada, K.; Anderson, B.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; Boeglin, W.; Bradshaw, P.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, C.; Chen, J. P.; Chudakov, E.; De Leo, R.; Deng, X.; Deltuva, A.; Deur, A.; Dutta, C.; El Fassi, L.; Flay, D.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gao, H.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Golak, J.; Golge, S.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, J.; Ibrahim, H.; de Jager, C. W.; Jensen, E.; Jiang, X.; Jones, M.; Kang, H.; Katich, J.; Khanal, H. P.; Kievsky, A.; King, P.; Korsch, W.; LeRose, J.; Lindgren, R.; Lu, H.-J.; Luo, W.; Marcucci, L. E.; Markowitz, P.; Meziane, M.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Monaghan, P.; Muangma, N.; Nanda, S.; Norum, B. E.; Pan, K.; Parno, D.; Piasetzky, E.; Posik, M.; Punjabi, V.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Qui, X.; Riordan, S.; Saha, A.; Sauer, P. U.; Sawatzky, B.; Schiavilla, R.; Schoenrock, B.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Širca, S.; Skibiński, R.; John, J. St.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Tobias, W. A.; Tireman, W.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Viviani, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, K.; Wang, Y.; Watson, J.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Witała, H.; Ye, Z.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhao, B.; Zhu, L.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    We present a precise measurement of double-polarization asymmetries in the He3→(e → ,e'd ) reaction. This particular process is a uniquely sensitive probe of hadron dynamics in 3He and the structure of the underlying electromagnetic currents. The measurements have been performed in and around quasielastic kinematics at Q2=0.25 (GeV /c )2 for missing momenta up to 270 MeV /c . The asymmetries are in fair agreement with the state-of-the-art calculations in terms of their functional dependencies on pm and ω , but are systematically offset. Beyond the region of the quasielastic peak, the discrepancies become even more pronounced. Thus, our measurements have been able to reveal deficiencies in the most sophisticated calculations of the three-body nuclear system, and indicate that further refinement in the treatment of their two-and/or three-body dynamics is required.

  20. Web Services Implementations at Land Process and Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M.; Bambacus, M.; Lynnes, C.; Sauer, B.; Falke, S.; Yang, W.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's vast array of scientific data within its Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) is especially valuable to both traditional research scientists as well as the emerging market of Earth Science Information Partners. For example, the air quality science and management communities are increasingly using satellite derived observations in their analyses and decision making. The Air Quality Cluster in the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) uses web infrastructures of interoperability, or Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), to extend data exploration, use, and analysis and provides a user environment for DAAC products. In an effort to continually offer these NASA data to the broadest research community audience, and reusing emerging technologies, both NASA's Goddard Earth Science (GES) and Land Process (LP) DAACs have engaged in a web services pilot project. Through these projects both GES and LP have exposed data through the Open Geospatial Consortiums (OGC) Web Services standards. Reusing several different existing applications and implementation techniques, GES and LP successfully exposed a variety data, through distributed systems to be ingested into multiple end-user systems. The results of this project will enable researchers world wide to access some of NASA's GES & LP DAAC data through OGC protocols. This functionality encourages inter-disciplinary research while increasing data use through advanced technologies. This paper will concentrate on the implementation and use of OGC Web Services, specifically Web Map and Web Coverage Services (WMS, WCS) at GES and LP DAACs, and the value of these services within scientific applications, including integration with the DataFed air quality web infrastructure and in the development of data analysis web applications.

  1. Terrestrial N Cycling And C Storage: Some Insights From A Process-based Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehle, S.; Friend, A. D.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2008-12-01

    We present results of a new land surface model, O-CN, which includes a process-based coupling between the terrestrial cycling of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen. The model represents the controls of the terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling on carbon (C) pools and fluxes through photosynthesis, respiration, changes in allocation, and soil organic matter decomposition, and explicitly accounts for N leaching and gaseous losses. O-CN has been shown to give realistic results in comparison to observations at a wide range of scales, including in situ flux measurements, productivity databases, and atmospheric CO2 concentration data. O-CN is run for three free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) sites (Duke, Oak Ridge, Aspen), and reproduces observed magnitudes of changes in net primary productivity, foliage area and foliage N content. Several alternative hypotheses concerning the control of N on vegetation growth and decomposition, including effects of diluting foliage N concentrations, down-regulation of photosynthesis and respiration, acclimation of C allocation patterns and biological N fixation, are tested with respect to their effect on long- term C sequestration estimate. Differences in initial N availability, small transient changes in N inputs and the assumed plasticity of C:N stoichiometry can lead to substantial differences in the simulated long-term changes in productivity and C sequestration. We discuss the capacity of observations obtained at FACE sites to evaluate these alternative hypotheses, and investigate implications of a transient versus instantaneous increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide for the magnitude of the simulated limiting effect of N on C cycling. Finally, we re-examine earlier model-based assessments of the terrestrial C sequestration potential using a global transient O-CN simulation driven by increases in atmospheric CO2, N deposition and climatic changes over the 21st century.

  2. Emotion Words, Regardless of Polarity, Have a Processing Advantage over Neutral Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in the interface between emotion and cognition, the role of emotion in cognitive tasks is unclear. According to one hypothesis, negative valence is more relevant for survival and is associated with a general slowdown of the processing of stimuli, due to a defense mechanism that freezes activity in the face of threat.…

  3. A Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE): Documentation and Testing of a Detailed Process Model of the Partly Cloudy Boundary Layer over Heterogeneous Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Peter J.; Boone, Aaron

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents a general description of, and demonstrates the capabilities of, the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE). The PLACE model is a detailed process model of the partly cloudy atmospheric boundary layer and underlying heterogeneous land surfaces. In its development, particular attention has been given to three of the model's subprocesses: the prediction of boundary layer cloud amount, the treatment of surface and soil subgrid heterogeneity, and the liquid water budget. The model includes a three-parameter nonprecipitating cumulus model that feeds back to the surface and boundary layer through radiative effects. Surface heterogeneity in the PLACE model is treated both statistically and by resolving explicit subgrid patches. The model maintains a vertical column of liquid water that is divided into seven reservoirs, from the surface interception store down to bedrock.Five single-day demonstration cases are presented, in which the PLACE model was initialized, run, and compared to field observations from four diverse sites. The model is shown to predict cloud amount well in these while predicting the surface fluxes with similar accuracy. A slight tendency to underpredict boundary layer depth is noted in all cases.Sensitivity tests were also run using anemometer-level forcing provided by the Project for Inter-comparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS). The purpose is to demonstrate the relative impact of heterogeneity of surface parameters on the predicted annual mean surface fluxes. Significant sensitivity to subgrid variability of certain parameters is demonstrated, particularly to parameters related to soil moisture. A major result is that the PLACE-computed impact of total (homogeneous) deforestation of a rain forest is comparable in magnitude to the effect of imposing heterogeneity of certain surface variables, and is similarly comparable to the overall variance among the other PILPS participant models. Were

  4. Influence of Neutral Currents on Electron and Gamma Polarizations in the Process e+N→e′+N+γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ousmane Manga, Adamou; Moussa, Aboubacar; Aboubacar, Almoustapha; Samsonenko, N. V.

    2014-01-01

    The differential cross section of electron inelastic scattering by nuclei followed by γ radiation is calculated using the multipole decomposition of the hadronic currents and by taking into account the longitudinal polarization of the initial electron and the circular polarization of the γ radiation. We performed the analysis of the angular and energy dependence of the degree of electron and photon polarization which can yield information on values of weak neutral currents parameters

  5. Quantum theory of nonadiabatic heavy-particle transfer processes in polar media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    For the probability of nonadiabatic transfer of heavy particles, a calculating procedure is proposed which in the case of certain processes allows the interaction between motion of the particle undergoing transfer and motion along other degrees of freedom to be exactly accounted for. In the case of symmetric systems, explicit expressions are obtained for the free energy of activation of the transition and for the tunneling factor which allow for nonadiabaticity of motion of the particle undergoing transfer, both in the region beneath the barrier and in the region that is classically accessible

  6. Considerations and techniques for incorporating remotely sensed imagery into the land resource management process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooner, W. G.; Nichols, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of a scheme for utilizing remote sensing technology in an operational program for regional land use planning and land resource management program applications. The scheme utilizes remote sensing imagery as one of several potential inputs to derive desired and necessary data, and considers several alternative approaches to the expansion and/or reduction and analysis of data, using automated data handling techniques. Within this scheme is a five-stage program development which includes: (1) preliminary coordination, (2) interpretation and encoding, (3) creation of data base files, (4) data analysis and generation of desired products, and (5) applications.

  7. Modelling monthly runoff generation processes following land use changes: groundwater-surface runoff interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, M.; Smettem, K. R. J.

    A conceptual water balance model is presented to represent changes in monthly water balance following land use changes. Monthly rainfall-runoff, groundwater and soil moisture data from four experimental catchments in Western Australia have been analysed. Two of these catchments, "Ernies" (control, fully forested) and "Lemon" (54% cleared) are in a zone of mean annual rainfall of 725 mm, while "Salmon" (control, fully forested) and "Wights" (100% cleared) are in a zone with mean annual rainfall of 1125 mm. At the Salmon forested control catchment, streamflow comprises surface runoff, base flow and interflow components. In the Wights catchment, cleared of native forest for pasture development, all three components increased, groundwater levels rose significantly and stream zone saturated area increased from 1% to 15% of the catchment area. It took seven years after clearing for the rainfall-runoff generation process to stabilise in 1984. At the Ernies forested control catchment, the permanent groundwater system is 20 m below the stream bed and so does not contribute to streamflow. Following partial clearing of forest in the Lemon catchment, groundwater rose steadily and reached the stream bed by 1987. The streamflow increased in two phases: (i) immediately after clearing due to reduced evapotranspiration, and (ii) through an increase in the groundwater-induced stream zone saturated area after 1987. After analysing all the data available, a conceptual monthly model was created, comprising four inter-connecting stores: (i) an upper zone unsaturated store, (ii) a transient stream zone store, (ii) a lower zone unsaturated store and (iv) a saturated groundwater store. Data such as rooting depth, Leaf Area Index, soil porosity, profile thickness, depth to groundwater, stream length and surface slope were incorporated into the model as a priori defined attributes. The catchment average values for different stores were determined through matching observed and predicted

  8. Supporting the risk management process with land information : a case study of Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potts, Katie Elizabeth; Rajabifard, Abbas; Bennett, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    It is frequently argued that, at the parcel level, stakeholders are capable of and well supported in managing their land-related risks. Yet, evidence from the contemporary Australian context suggests otherwise: numerous large-scale disaster events have revealed that citizens are ill-prepared to

  9. Characteristics and performance of the variable polarity plasma arc welding process used in the Space Shuttle external tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Liu, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    Significant advantages of the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process include faster welding, fewer repairs, less joint preparation, reduced weldment distortion, and absence of porosity. Flow profiles and power distribution of argon plasma gas as a working fluid to produce plasma arc jet in the VPPA welding process was analyzed. Major loss of heat transfer for flow through the nozzle is convective heat transfer; for the plasma jet flow between the outlet of the nozzle and workpiece is radiative heat transfer; and for the flow through the keyhole of the workpiece is convective heat transfer. The majority of the power absorbed by the keyhole of the workpiece is used for melting the solid metal workpiece into a molten metallic puddle. The crown and root widths and the crown and root heights can be predicted. An algorithm for promoting automatic control of flow parameters and the dimensions of the final product of the welding specification to be used for the VPPA Welding System operated at MSFC are provided.

  10. Asynchronous Processing of a Constellation of Geostationary and Polar-Orbiting Satellites for Fire Detection and Smoke Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, E. J.; Peterson, D. A.; Curtis, C. A.; Schmidt, C. C.; Hoffman, J.; Prins, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) system converts satellite observations of thermally anomalous pixels into spatially and temporally continuous estimates of smoke release from open biomass burning. This system currently processes data from a constellation of 5 geostationary and 2 polar-orbiting sensors. Additional sensors, including NPP VIIRS and the imager on the Korea COMS-1 geostationary satellite, will soon be added. This constellation experiences schedule changes and outages of various durations, making the set of available scenes for fire detection highly variable on an hourly and daily basis. Adding to the complexity, the latency of the satellite data is variable between and within sensors. FLAMBE shares with many fire detection systems the goal of detecting as many fires as possible as early as possible, but the FLAMBE system must also produce a consistent estimate of smoke production with minimal artifacts from the changing constellation. To achieve this, NRL has developed a system of asynchronous processing and cross-calibration that permits satellite data to be used as it arrives, while preserving the consistency of the smoke emission estimates. This talk describes the asynchronous data ingest methodology, including latency statistics for the constellation. We also provide an overview and show results from the system we have developed to normalize multi-sensor fire detection for consistency.

  11. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  12. Possibilities of the determination of neutral, weak current contribution in experiments on study of the e+e- → μ-μ+ process in longitudinally polarized coliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guliev, N.A.; Dzhafarov, I.G.; Sultanov, S.F.; Khallil-zade, F.T.

    1978-01-01

    The e + e - → μ - μ + process is considered for the case of longitudinal initial and final particle polarizations on the basis of a number of models: the Weinberg-Salam, Lee-Prentky-Zumino, vector, and X-model and under the assumption of the V-A structure of neutral weak currents. Polarization effects in the dufferential and integral cross sections of the process are analyzed in detail, and various possibilities of determining the contribution of neutral weak currents are revealed. The calculations show that neutral weak currents may, in case of attainable energies, cause considerable polarization effects which are highly sensitive to the selection of a model Experimental investigation of these effects may yield valuable data on the neutral weak current structure and, what is even more important, on the sign of the weak interaction constant

  13. Dissolution Dominating Calcification Process in Polar Pteropods Close to the Point of Aragonite Undersaturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednaršek, Nina; Tarling, Geraint A.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Fielding, Sophie; Feely, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Thecosome pteropods are abundant upper-ocean zooplankton that build aragonite shells. Ocean acidification results in the lowering of aragonite saturation levels in the surface layers, and several incubation studies have shown that rates of calcification in these organisms decrease as a result. This study provides a weight-specific net calcification rate function for thecosome pteropods that includes both rates of dissolution and calcification over a range of plausible future aragonite saturation states (Ωar). We measured gross dissolution in the pteropod Limacina helicina antarctica in the Scotia Sea (Southern Ocean) by incubating living specimens across a range of aragonite saturation states for a maximum of 14 days. Specimens started dissolving almost immediately upon exposure to undersaturated conditions (Ωar∼0.8), losing 1.4% of shell mass per day. The observed rate of gross dissolution was different from that predicted by rate law kinetics of aragonite dissolution, in being higher at Ωar levels slightly above 1 and lower at Ωar levels of between 1 and 0.8. This indicates that shell mass is affected by even transitional levels of saturation, but there is, nevertheless, some partial means of protection for shells when in undersaturated conditions. A function for gross dissolution against Ωar derived from the present observations was compared to a function for gross calcification derived by a different study, and showed that dissolution became the dominating process even at Ωar levels close to 1, with net shell growth ceasing at an Ωar of 1.03. Gross dissolution increasingly dominated net change in shell mass as saturation levels decreased below 1. As well as influencing their viability, such dissolution of pteropod shells in the surface layers will result in slower sinking velocities and decreased carbon and carbonate fluxes to the deep ocean. PMID:25285916

  14. Large 3D resistivity and induced polarization acquisition using the Fullwaver system: towards an adapted processing methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truffert, Catherine; Leite, Orlando; Gance, Julien; Texier, Benoît; Bernard, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Driven by needs in the mineral exploration market for ever faster and ever easier set-up of large 3D resistivity and induced polarization, autonomous and cableless recorded systems come to the forefront. Opposite to the traditional centralized acquisition, this new system permits a complete random distribution of receivers on the survey area allowing to obtain a real 3D imaging. This work presents the results of a 3 km2 large experiment up to 600m of depth performed with a new type of autonomous distributed receivers: the I&V-Fullwaver. With such system, all usual drawbacks induced by long cable set up over large 3D areas - time consuming, lack of accessibility, heavy weight, electromagnetic induction, etc. - disappear. The V-Fullwavers record the entire time series of voltage on two perpendicular axes, for a good determination of the data quality although I-Fullwaver records injected current simultaneously. For this survey, despite good assessment of each individual signal quality, on each channel of the set of Fullwaver systems, a significant number of negative apparent resistivity and chargeability remains present in the dataset (around 15%). These values are commonly not taken into account in the inversion software although they may be due to complex geological structure of interest (e.g. linked to the presence of sulfides in the earth). Taking into account that such distributed recording system aims to restitute the best 3D resistivity and IP tomography, how can 3D inversion be improved? In this work, we present the dataset, the processing chain and quality control of a large 3D survey. We show that the quality of the data selected is good enough to include it into the inversion processing. We propose a second way of processing based on the modulus of the apparent resistivity that stabilizes the inversion. We then discuss the results of both processing. We conclude that an effort could be made on the inclusion of negative apparent resistivity in the inversion

  15. Mitigating climate change through the understanding of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) consumption processes in peat lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, N.; Barker, X. Z.; Horwath, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrous Oxide (N2O) with global warming potential of 298 over a 100-year horizon is one of the most potent green house gases. In the United States, agriculture share to N2O emissions is over 70%. Peat lands, however, are being considered as both sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. N2O emissions are a product of both production and consumption processes. However, there is still a lack of understanding of N2O consumption processes in soils. In this work, the potential of re-wetted peat lands planted to rice in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, to act as a potential sink for N2O is being evaluated. Four peat land soils with 1%, 5%, 11% and 23% of organic carbon have been anaerobically incubated with different water contents (15%, 30%, 50%, 75% and 100% of their water holding capacity). 15N-N2O gas has been injected to the headspace of experiment jars and the production and consumption rate of 15N-N2O, 15N-N2 and production rate of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Methane (CH4) along with dissolved Nitrate (NO3-), Nitrite (NO2-), Ammonium (NH4+), Iron (II) and Iron (III) concentration has been quantified. Our results show promising N2O consumption rates under high carbon content and relatively high water content treatments. This research introduces organic carbon and water content as two major criteria in N2O consumption processes in peat lands that make it a potential hotspot for climate changes mitigation through adopting effective management practices to decrease greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Reusing Joint Polar Satellite System (jpss) Ground System Components to Process AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (omi) Science Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. F.; Jain, P.; Johnson, J.; Doiron, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    New Earth observation instruments are planned to enable advancements in Earth science research over the next decade. Diversity of Earth observing instruments and their observing platforms will continue to increase as new instrument technologies emerge and are deployed as part of National programs such as Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES), Landsat as well as the potential for many CubeSat and aircraft missions. The practical use and value of these observational data often extends well beyond their original purpose. The practicing community needs intuitive and standardized tools to enable quick unfettered development of tailored products for specific applications and decision support systems. However, the associated data processing system can take years to develop and requires inherent knowledge and the ability to integrate increasingly diverse data types from multiple sources. This paper describes the adaptation of a large-scale data processing system built for supporting JPSS algorithm calibration and validation (Cal/Val) node to a simplified science data system for rapid application. The new configurable data system reuses scalable JAVA technologies built for the JPSS Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) system to run within a laptop environment and support product generation and data processing of AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) science products. Of particular interest are the root requirements necessary for integrating experimental algorithms and Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) data access libraries into a science data production system. This study demonstrates the ability to reuse existing Ground System technologies to support future missions with minimal changes.

  17. Polarized particles in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Kondratenko, A.M.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Skrinskij, A.N.; Tumajkin, G.M.; Shatunov, Yu.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams on the VEPP-2M and SPEAK storage rings are described. Possible methods of producing polarized particle beams in storage rings as well as method of polarization monitoring are counted. Considered are the processes of radiation polarization of electrons and positrons. It is shown, that to preserve radiation polarization the introduction of regions with a strong sign-variable magnetic field is recommended. Methods of polarization measurement are counted. It is suggested for high energies to use dependence of synchrotron radiation power on transverse polarization of electrons and positrons. Examples of using polarizability of colliding beams in storage rings are presented

  18. Application of computer processed multispectral data to the discrimination of land collapse (sinkhole) prone areas in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, A. E.; Marshall, R.; Thomson, N. S.

    1977-01-01

    Data were collected near Bartow, Florida, for the purpose of studying land collapse phenomena using remote sensing techniques. Data obtained using the multispectral scanner system consisted of various combinations of 18 spectral bands ranging from 0.4-14.0 microns and several types of photography. The multispectral data were processed on a special-purpose analog computer in order to detect moisture-stressed vegetation and to enhance terrain surface temperatures. The processed results were printed on film to show the patterns of distribution of the proposed hydrogeologic indicators.

  19. Implementation of a Self-Consistent Stereo Processing Chain for 3D Stereo Reconstruction of the Lunar Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdelen, E.; Willner, K.; Unbekannt, H.; Glaeser, P.; Oberst, J.

    2014-04-01

    The department for Planetary Geodesy at Technical University Berlin is developing routines for photogrammetric processing of planetary image data to derive 3D representations of planetary surfaces. The Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) software (Anderson et al., 2004), developed by USGS, Flagstaff, is readily available, open source, and very well documented. Hence, ISIS was chosen as a prime processing platform and tool kit. However, ISIS does not provide a full photogrammetric stereo processing chain. Several components like image matching, bundle block adjustment (until recently) or digital terrain model (DTM) interpolation from 3D object points are missing. Our group aims to complete this photogrammetric stereo processing chain by implementing the missing components, taking advantage of already existing ISIS classes and functionality. We report here on the current status of the development of our stereo processing chain and its first application on the Lunar Apollo landing sites.

  20. A salt water battery with high stability and charging rates made from solution processed conjugated polymers with polar side chains

    KAUST Repository

    Moia, Davide

    2017-11-28

    We report a neutral salt water based battery which uses p-type and n-type solution processed polymer films as the cathode and the anode of the cell. The specific capacity of the electrodes (approximately 30 mAh cm-3) is achieved via formation of bipolarons in both the p-type and n-type polymers. By engineering ethylene glycol and zwitterion based side chains attached to the polymer backbone we facilitate rapid ion transport through the non-porous polymer films. This, combined with efficient transport of electronic charge via the conjugated polymer backbones, allowed the films to maintain constant capacity at high charge and discharge rates (>1000 C-rate). The electrodes also show good stability during electrochemical cycling (less than 30% decrease in capacity over >1000 cycles) and an output voltage up to 1.4 V. The performance of these semiconducting polymers with polar side-chains demonstrates the potential of this material class for fast-charging, water based electrochemical energy storage devices.

  1. Metagenomic Analysis of Subtidal Sediments from Polar and Subpolar Coastal Environments Highlights the Relevance of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinola, Fernando J.; Dionisi, Hebe M.; Borglin, Sharon; Brislawn, Colin J.; Jansson, Janet K.; Mac Cormack, Walter P.; Carroll, Jolynn; Sjoling, Sara; Lozada , Mariana

    2018-01-02

    In this work, we analyzed the community structure and metabolic potential of sediment microbial communities in high-latitude coastal environments subjected to low to moderate levels of chronic pollution. Subtidal sediments from four low-energy inlets located in polar and subpolar regions from both Hemispheres were analyzed using large-scale 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing. Communities showed high diversity (Shannon’s index 6.8 to 10.2), with distinct phylogenetic structures (<40% shared taxa at the Phylum level among regions) but similar metabolic potential in terms of sequences assigned to KOs. Environmental factors (mainly salinity, temperature, and in less extent organic pollution) were drivers of both phylogenetic and functional traits. Bacterial taxa correlating with hydrocarbon pollution included families of anaerobic or facultative anaerobic lifestyle, such as Desulfuromonadaceae, Geobacteraceae, and Rhodocyclaceae. In accordance, biomarker genes for anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation (bamA, ebdA, bcrA, and bssA) were prevalent, only outnumbered by alkB, and their sequences were taxonomically binned to the same bacterial groups. BssA-assigned metagenomic sequences showed an extremely wide diversity distributed all along the phylogeny known for this gene, including bssA sensu stricto, nmsA, assA, and other clusters from poorly or not yet described variants. This work increases our understanding of microbial community patterns in cold coastal sediments, and highlights the relevance of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in subtidal environments.

  2. Incorporating consideration of health impacts into land use development approval processes: Development of a Health Background Study Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloughney, Brent W; Bursey, Gayle E; Neumann, Jana; Leeming, Daniel H; Gutmann, Christine E; Sivanand, Bhavna; Mowat, David L

    2014-09-12

    This project involved development of a Health Background Study (HBS) Framework to support consideration of health impacts within municipalities' approval process for land use development. Peel Public Health and Toronto Public Health led the project with the participation of planners, urban designers, engineers, public health staff and development industry representatives. Historical growth in the Region of Peel and suburban Toronto has resulted in extensive low-density development, creating car-dependent communities with disconnected streets and segregated land uses. The inclusion of an HBS in developers' applications to municipalities is one approach by which health-related expectations for the built environment can be established within the approval process. Development of the HBS Framework used the six core elements of the built environment with the strongest evidence for impact on health and was informed by analysis of the provincial and local policy contexts, practices of other municipalities and stakeholder interviews. The Framework's contents were refined according to feedback from multidisciplinary stakeholder workshops. The HBS Framework identifies minimum standards for built environment core elements that developers need to address in their applications. The Framework was created to be simple and instructive with applicability to a range of development locations and scales, and to various stages of the development approval process. Peel Public Health is leading several initiatives to support the use of the HBS as a part of the development application process. The HBS Framework is a tool that public health and planning can use to support the consideration of health impacts within municipalities' land use development processes.

  3. Polarization: A Must for Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidal M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent realistic simulations confirm that the polarization of the fuel would improve significantly the DT fusion efficiency. We have proposed an experiment to test the persistence of the polarization in a fusion process, using a terawatt laser hitting a polarized HD target. The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse producing a 3He and a neutron in the final state. The angular distribution of the neutrons and the change in the corresponding total cross section are related to the polarization persistence. The experimental polarization of DT fuel is a technological challenge. Possible paths for Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF and for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF are reviewed. For MCF, polarized gas can be used. For ICF, cryogenic targets are required. We consider both, the polarization of gas and the polarization of solid DT, emphasizing the Dynamic Nuclear polarization (DNP of HD and DT molecules.

  4. The method of covariant calculation of the amplitudes of processes with polarized spin 1/2 particles and its application to calculation of interference terms in cross sections of these processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarev, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    The method of covariant calculation of the amplitudes of processes with polarized spin 1/2 particles is suggested. It can be used for calculation of interference terms in cross sections of these processes. As an illustration the expressions for the lowest order amplitudes of electron-electron scattering and for electron current with radiation of two bremsstrahlung photons in ultrarelativistic limit are presented

  5. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter V. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Cold blooded, backboned, animals which have adapted to live in water and on land. Animal Unit Month (AUM) The amount of forage necessary for the...Nevada. Techn. Rep. Serv. H-W. Hydrol. and Water Resources. Publ. No. 17. DRI, IJniv. Nevada, Reno. Beale, Dl. M., and A. D. Smith, 1970. Forage Use...Impact of Feral Cats and Dogs on Populations of the West Indian Rock Iguana , Cyclura carinata. Biol. Conserv. 14:63-73. Jense, G. K., and J. S. Burruss

  6. The correlation of sedimentation processes and land use through remote sensing: The case study of the Jequia Lagoon, Alagoas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Gomes, Heliene

    This study is focused on mapping the correlation between the land-cover change, sedimentation processes and the spectral radiance patterns along the Jequia estuary using field observations and reference information, laboratory spectral reflectance measurements and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data. The Jequia estuary comprises the lagoon and its surrounding and a tidal channel to the Atlantic Ocean. It is inserted in Tertiary and Quaternary deposits covered mainly by sugar-cane crops and rare remains of the moist tropical forest. Bottom sediments along the lagoon were sampled and used to analyze their grain size distribution and mineral content by X-ray diffraction. Those samples were also used in an experiment where several sediment concentrations were simulated and their spectra's reflectance was determined. Silt is the predominating grain size within the lagoon. Quartz and kaolinite are the main minerals present within the silt and clay grain size fractions. Aerial photographs, satellite quick-look recorded in 1989 and a LANDSAT TM digital image recorded in 1990, were analyzed. The satellite data were analyzed through the photo-interpretation and quantitative approaches. Eight land-use units were mapped based on the aerial photographs and six land-use units were defined from the quick-look image. Despite the different scales within the data, we recognized that the most significant change in land-cover from 1968 to 1990 was the clearing of almost 100% of the moist tropical forest and its replacement by sugarcane crops. Overall, the digital results (0,48 to 0,82 mum) using standard classifiers indicate three water classes for the lagoon and ten land-use classes for the land surrounding the lagoon. The laboratory reflectance experimentation for suspended sediments demonstrates an overall increase of reflectance with increasing wavelength range for low and high concentrations. The reflectance for high sediment concentration shows a distinctive increase close to the

  7. TRANSVERSELY POLARIZED Λ PRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BORER, D.

    2000-01-01

    Transversely polarized Λ production in hard scattering processes is discussed in terms of a leading twist T-odd fragmentation function which describes the fragmentation of an unpolarized quark into a transversely polarized Λ. We focus on the properties of this function and its relevance for the RHIC and HERMES experiments

  8. Predicting Summer Dryness Under a Warmer Climate: Modeling Land Surface Processes in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J. M.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    One of the most significant impacts of climate change is the potential alteration of local hydrologic cycles over agriculturally productive areas. As the world’s food supply continues to be taxed by its burgeoning population, a greater percentage of arable land will need to be utilized and land currently producing food must become more efficient. This study seeks to quantify the effects of climate change on soil moisture in the American Midwest. A series of 24-year numerical experiments were conducted to assess the ability of Regional Climate Model Version 3 coupled to Integrated Biosphere Simulator (RegCM3-IBIS) and Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme 1e (RegCM3-BATS1e) to simulate the observed hydroclimatology of the midwestern United States. Model results were evaluated using NASA Surface Radiation Budget, NASA Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, Illinois State Water Survey, Climate Research Unit Time Series 2.1, Global Soil Moisture Data Bank, and regional-scale estimations of evapotranspiration. The response of RegCM3-IBIS and RegCM3-BATS1e to a surrogate climate change scenario, a warming of 3oC at the boundaries and doubling of CO2, was explored. Precipitation increased significantly during the spring and summer in both RegCM3-IBIS and RegCM3-BATS1e, leading to additional runoff. In contrast, enhancement of evapotranspiration and shortwave radiation were modest. Soil moisture remained relatively unchanged in RegCM3-IBIS, while RegCM3-BATS1e exhibited some fall and winter wetting.

  9. Coordinated polar spacecraft, geosynchronous spacecraft, and ground-based observations of magnetopause processes and their coupling to the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Le

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present in-situ observations of processes occurring at the magnetopause and vicinity, including surface waves, oscillatory magnetospheric field lines, and flux transfer events, and coordinated observations at geosynchronous orbit by the GOES spacecraft, and on the ground by CANOPUS and 210° Magnetic Meridian (210MM magnetometer arrays. On 7 February 2002, during a high-speed solar wind stream, the Polar spacecraft was skimming the magnetopause in a post-noon meridian plane for ~3h. During this interval, it made two short excursions and a few partial crossings into the magnetosheath and observed quasi-periodic cold ion bursts in the region adjacent to the magnetopause current layer. The multiple magnetopause crossings, as well as the velocity of the cold ion bursts, indicate that the magnetopause was oscillating with an ~6-min period. Simultaneous observations of Pc5 waves at geosynchronous orbit by the GOES spacecraft and on the ground by the CANOPUS magnetometer array reveal that these magnetospheric pulsations were forced oscillations of magnetic field lines directly driven by the magnetopause oscillations. The magnetospheric pulsations occurred only in a limited longitudinal region in the post-noon dayside sector, and were not a global phenomenon, as one would expect for global field line resonance. Thus, the magnetopause oscillations at the source were also limited to a localized region spanning ~4h in local time. These observations suggest that it is unlikely that the Kelvin-Helmholz instability and/or fluctuations in the solar wind dynamic pressure were the direct driving mechanisms for the observed boundary oscillations. Instead, the likely mechanism for the localized boundary oscillations was pulsed reconnection at the magnetopause occurring along the X-line extending over the same 4-h region. The Pc5 band pressure fluctuations commonly seen in high-speed solar wind streams may modulate the reconnection rate as an

  10. [Emissions of greenhouse gas and ammonia from the full process of sewage sludge composting and land application of compost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuan-Song; Zhao, Zhen-Feng; Ying, Mei-Juan; Zhou, Guo-Sheng; Xiong, Jian-Jun; Liu, Pei-Cai; Ge, Zhen; Ding, Gang-Qiang

    2013-11-01

    There is a great uncertainty of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and nitrogen conservation from the full process of sludge composting and land application of compost in China due to the lack of emission data of GHG such as N2O and CH4 and ammonia (NH3). The purpose of this study is to get emission characteristics of GHGs and NH3 from the full process with on-site observation. Results showed that the total GHG emission factor from full process of the turning windrow (TW) system (eCO2/dry sludge, 196.21 kg x t(-1)) was 1.61 times higher of that from the ATP system. Among the full process, N2O was mostly from the land application of compost, whereas CH4 mainly resulted from the sludge composting. In the sludge composting of ATP, the GHG emission equivalence of the ATP (eCO2/dry sludge, 12.47 kg x t(-1) was much lower than that of the TW (eCO2/dry sludge, 86.84 kg x t(-1)). The total NH3 emission factor of the TW (NH3/dry sludge, 6.86 kg x t(-1)) was slightly higher than that of the ATP (NH3/dry sludge, 6.63 kg x t(-1)). NH3 was the major contributor of nitrogen loss in the full process. During the composting, the nitrogen loss as NH3 from both TW and ATP was nearly the same as 30% of TN loss from raw materials, and the N and C loss caused by N2O and CH4 were negligible. These results clearly showed that the ATP was a kind of environmentally friendly composting technology.

  11. Phenomenological theory of current-producing processes at the solid oxide electrolyte/gas electrode interface: steady-state polarization of fuel-cell electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murygin, I.V.; Chebotin, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    The polarization of fuel-cell electrodes (mixtures CO + CO 2 and H 2 + H 2 O) in systems with solid oxide electrolytes is discussed. The theory is based upon a process model where the electrode reaction zone can spread along the line of three-phase contact by diffusion of reaction partners and products across the electrolyte/electrode and electrolyte/gas interface

  12. Modeling mesoscale diffusion and transport processes for releases within coastal zones during land/sea breezes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, W.A.; Keen, C.S.; Schuh, J.A.

    1983-12-01

    This document discusses the impacts of coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) upon the transport and diffusion of potential accidental radionuclide releases from a shoreline nuclear power plant. CMRs exhibit significant spatial (horizontal and vertical) and temporal variability. Case studies illustrate land breezes, sea/lake breeze inflows and return flows, thermal internal boundary layers, fumigation, plume trapping, coastal convergence zones, thunderstorms and snow squalls. The direct application of a conventional Gaussian straight-line dose assessment model, initialized only by on-site tower data, can potentially produce highly misleading guidance as to plume impact locations. Since much is known concerning CMRs, there are many potential improvements to modularized dose assessment codes, such as by proper parameterization of TIBLs, forecasting the inland penetration of convergence zones, etc. A three-dimensional primitive equation prognostic model showed excellent agreement with detailed lake breeze field measurements, giving indications that such codes can be used in both diagnostic and prognostic studies. The use of relatively inexpensive supplemental meteorological data especially from remote sensing systems (Doppler sodar, radar, lightning strike tracking) and computerized data bases should save significantly on software development costs. Better quality assurance of emergency response codes could include systems of flags providing personnel with confidence levels as to the applicability of a code being used during any given CMR

  13. Life cycle modelling of environmental impacts from application of processed organic municipal solid waste on agricultural land (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    and use of commercial fertilizers. The model is part of a larger model, Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technology (EASEWASTE), developed as a decisionsupport model, focusing on assessment of alternative waste management options. The environmental impacts of the land application......A model capable of quantifying the potential environmental impacts of agricultural application of composted or anaerobically digested source-separated organic municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. In addition to the direct impacts, the model accounts for savings by avoiding the production...... of processed organic waste are quantified by emission coefficients referring to the composition of the processed waste and related to specific crop rotation as well as soil type. The model contains several default parameters based on literature data, field experiments and modelling by the agro-ecosystem model...

  14. Responses of seabirds, in particular prions (Pachyptila sp.), to small-scale processes in the Antarctic Polar Front

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.; Brink, van den N.W.; Bathmann, U.V.; Pollard, R.T.; Baar, de H.J.W.; Wolff, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Small-scale distribution patterns of seabirds in the Antarctic Polar Front (APF) were investigated in relation to other biological, physical, and chemical features during the ANT-XIII/2 research cruise of R.V. Polarstern from December 1995 to January 1996. The APF is characterized by steep gradients

  15. Hydrological excitation of polar motion by different variables from the GLDAS models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winska, Malgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta; Salstein, David

    2017-12-01

    Continental hydrological loading by land water, snow and ice is a process that is important for the full understanding of the excitation of polar motion. In this study, we compute different estimations of hydrological excitation functions of polar motion (as hydrological angular momentum, HAM) using various variables from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) models of the land-based hydrosphere. The main aim of this study is to show the influence of variables from different hydrological processes including evapotranspiration, runoff, snowmelt and soil moisture, on polar motion excitations at annual and short-term timescales. Hydrological excitation functions of polar motion are determined using selected variables of these GLDAS realizations. Furthermore, we use time-variable gravity field solutions from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to determine the hydrological mass effects on polar motion excitation. We first conduct an intercomparison of the maps of variations of regional hydrological excitation functions, timing and phase diagrams of different regional and global HAMs. Next, we estimate the hydrological signal in geodetically observed polar motion excitation as a residual by subtracting the contributions of atmospheric angular momentum and oceanic angular momentum. Finally, the hydrological excitations are compared with those hydrological signals determined from residuals of the observed polar motion excitation series. The results will help us understand the relative importance of polar motion excitation within the individual hydrological processes, based on hydrological modeling. This method will allow us to estimate how well the polar motion excitation budget in the seasonal and inter-annual spectral ranges can be closed.

  16. An Alternative Approach to Overcome the Limitation of HRUs in Analyzing Hydrological Processes Based on Land Use/Cover Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanhao Meng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the concept of hydrological response units (HRUs is used widely in hydrological modeling, the land use change scenarios analysis based on HRU may have direct influence on hydrological processes due to its simplified flow routing and HRU spatial distribution. This paper intends to overcome this issue based on a new analysis approach to explain what impacts for the impact of land use/cover change on hydrological processes (LUCCIHP, and compare whether differences exist between the conventional approach and the improved approach. Therefore, we proposed a sub-basin segmentation approach to obtain more reasonable impact assessment of LUCC scenario by re-discretizing the HRUs and prolonging the flow path in which the LUCC occurs. As a scenario study, the SWAT model is used in the Aksu River Basin, China, to simulate the response of hydrological processes to LUCC over ten years. Moreover, the impacts of LUCC on hydrological processes before and after model modification are compared and analyzed at three levels (catchment scale, sub-basin scale and HRU scale. Comparative analysis of Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE, RSR and Pbias, model simulations before and after model improvement shows that NSE increased by up to 2%, RSR decreased from 0.73 to 0.72, and Pbias decreased from 0.13 to 0.05. The major LUCCs affecting hydrological elements in this basin are related to the degradation of grassland and snow/ice and expansion of farmland and bare land. Model simulations before and after model improvement show that the average variation of flow components in typical sub-basins (surface runoff, lateral flow and groundwater flow are changed by +11.09%, −4.51%, and −6.58%, and +10.53%, −1.55%, and −8.98% from the base period model scenario, respectively. Moreover, the spatial response of surface runoff at the HRU level reveals clear spatial differences between before and after model improvement. This alternative approach illustrates the potential

  17. A Methodology for the Selection of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Methods in Real Estate and Land Management Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria Guarini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Real estate and land management are characterised by a complex, elaborate combination of technical, regulatory and governmental factors. In Europe, Public Administrators must address the complex decision-making problems that need to be resolved, while also acting in consideration of the expectations of the different stakeholders involved in settlement transformation. In complex situations (e.g., with different aspects to be considered and multilevel actors involved, decision-making processes are often used to solve multidisciplinary and multidimensional analyses, which support the choices of those who are making the decision. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA methods are included among the examination and evaluation techniques considered useful by the European Community. Such analyses and techniques are performed using methods, which aim to reach a synthesis of the various forms of input data needed to define decision-making problems of a similar complexity. Thus, one or more of the conclusions reached allow for informed, well thought-out, strategic decisions. According to the technical literature on MCDA, numerous methods are applicable in different decision-making situations, however, advice for selecting the most appropriate for the specific field of application and problem have not been thoroughly investigated. In land and real estate management, numerous queries regarding evaluations often arise. In brief, the objective of this paper is to outline a procedure with which to select the method best suited to the specific queries of evaluation, which commonly arise while addressing decision-making problems. In particular issues of land and real estate management, representing the so-called “settlement sector”. The procedure will follow a theoretical-methodological approach by formulating a taxonomy of the endogenous and exogenous variables of the multi-criteria analysis methods.

  18. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  19. Polar bears at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, S.; Rosentrater, L.; Eid, P.M. [WWF International Arctic Programme, Oslo (Norway)

    2002-05-01

    Polar bears, the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, spend much of their lives on the arctic sea ice. This is where they hunt and move between feeding, denning, and resting areas. The world population, estimated at 22,000 bears, is made up of 20 relatively distinct populations varying in size from a few hundred to a few thousand animals. About 60 per cent of all polar bears are found in Canada. In general, the status of this species is stable, although there are pronounced differences between populations. Reductions in the extent and thickness of sea ice has lead the IUCN Polar Bear Specialist Group to describe climate change as one of the major threats facing polar bears today. Though the long-term effects of climate change will vary in different areas of the Arctic, impacts on the condition and reproductive success of polar bears and their prey are likely to be negative. Longer ice-free periods resulting from earlier break-up of sea ice in the spring and later formation in the fall is already impacting polar bears in the southern portions of their range. In Canada's Hudson Bay, for example, bears hunt on the ice through the winter and into early summer, after which the ice melts completely, forcing bears ashore to fast on stored fat until freeze-up in the fall. The time bears have on the ice to hunt and build up their body condition is cut short when the ice melts early. Studies from Hudson Bay show that for every week earlier that ice break-up occurs, bears will come ashore 10 kg lighter and in poorer condition. It is likely that populations of polar bears dividing their time between land and sea will be severely reduced and local extinctions may occur as greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise and sea ice melts. Expected changes in regional weather patterns will also impact polar bears. Rain in the late winter can cause maternity dens to collapse before females and cubs have departed, thus exposing occupants to the elements and to predators. Such

  20. Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets: The role of land processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, S. I.; Donat, M.; Pitman, A.; Knutti, R.; Wilby, R.; Vogel, M.; Orth, R.

    2016-12-01

    Global temperature targets, such as the widely accepted "2° and 1.5° targets", may fail to communicate the urgency of reducing CO2 emissions because they are disconnected from their implications. The translation of CO2 emissions into regional- and impact-related climate targets is more powerful because such targets are more directly aligned with individual national interests. A recent publication (Seneviratne et al. 2016, Nature) reveals that regional changes in extreme temperatures and precipitation scale robustly with global temperature across scenarios, and thus with cumulative CO2 emissions. They thus allow a better communication of implied regional impacts associated with global targets for CO2 emissions. However, the regional responses are very varied and display strong differences in regional temperature and hydrological sensitivity. Process-based based analyses explain these divergences and highlight avenues for reducing uncertainties in regional projections of extremes, in particular related to the role of land-atmosphere feedbacks. These results have important implications for the design of regional mitigation and climate adaptation policies, for instance related to land use changes. Reference: Seneviratne, S.I., M.G. Donat, A.J. Pitman, R. Knutti, and R. Wilby, 2016, Nature, 529, 477-483, doi:10.1038/nature16542

  1. Improved representations of coupled soil-canopy processes in the CABLE land surface model (Subversion revision 3432)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverd, Vanessa; Cuntz, Matthias; Nieradzik, Lars P.; Harman, Ian N.

    2016-09-01

    CABLE is a global land surface model, which has been used extensively in offline and coupled simulations. While CABLE performs well in comparison with other land surface models, results are impacted by decoupling of transpiration and photosynthesis fluxes under drying soil conditions, often leading to implausibly high water use efficiencies. Here, we present a solution to this problem, ensuring that modelled transpiration is always consistent with modelled photosynthesis, while introducing a parsimonious single-parameter drought response function which is coupled to root water uptake. We further improve CABLE's simulation of coupled soil-canopy processes by introducing an alternative hydrology model with a physically accurate representation of coupled energy and water fluxes at the soil-air interface, including a more realistic formulation of transfer under atmospherically stable conditions within the canopy and in the presence of leaf litter. The effects of these model developments are assessed using data from 18 stations from the global eddy covariance FLUXNET database, selected to span a large climatic range. Marked improvements are demonstrated, with root mean squared errors for monthly latent heat fluxes and water use efficiencies being reduced by 40 %. Results highlight the important roles of deep soil moisture in mediating drought response and litter in dampening soil evaporation.

  2. Sensory properties of marinated herring (Clupea harengus) processed from raw material from commercial landings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Durita; Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Jette

    2005-01-01

    Sensory properties of marinated herring processed from raw material from Danish commercial catches were described and related to fishing season and biological, chemical and functional properties. Herring was caught on five cruises and stored on board in tanks or ice. The sensory profile of marina......Sensory properties of marinated herring processed from raw material from Danish commercial catches were described and related to fishing season and biological, chemical and functional properties. Herring was caught on five cruises and stored on board in tanks or ice. The sensory profile...

  3. Use of AMSR-E microwave satellite data for land surface characteristics and snow cover variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Singh Boori

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains data related to the research article entitled “Global land cover classification based on microwave polarization and gradient ratio (MPGR” [1] and “Microwave polarization and gradient ratio (MPGR for global land surface phenology” [2]. This data article presents land surface characteristics and snow cover variation information from sensors like EOS Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E. This data article use the HDF Explorer, Matlab, and ArcGIS software to process the pixel latitude, longitude, snow water equivalent (SWE, digital elevation model (DEM and Brightness Temperature (BT information from AMSR-E satellite data to provide land surface characteristics and snow cover variation data in all-weather condition at any time. This data information is useful to discriminate different land surface cover types and snow cover variation, which is turn, will help to improve monitoring of weather, climate and natural disasters.

  4. A simple kinematic model for the Lagrangian description of relevant nonlinear processes in the stratospheric polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. García-Garrido

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we study the Lagrangian footprint of the planetary waves present in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere during the exceptional sudden Stratospheric warming event that took place during September 2002. Our focus is on constructing a simple kinematic model that retains the fundamental mechanisms responsible for complex fluid parcel evolution, during the polar vortex breakdown and its previous stages. The construction of the kinematic model is guided by the Fourier decomposition of the geopotential field. The study of Lagrangian transport phenomena in the ERA-Interim reanalysis data highlights hyperbolic trajectories, and these trajectories are Lagrangian objects that are the kinematic mechanism for the observed filamentation phenomena. Our analysis shows that the breaking and splitting of the polar vortex is justified in our model by the sudden growth of a planetary wave and the decay of the axisymmetric flow.

  5. Due Process in the Internet Jurisdiction: Landing Softly on the Other Side of the Looking Glass

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kolb, Natalie A

    2001-01-01

    .... However, even if a U.S. state court exercises improper jurisdiction over a non-resident defendant in an Internet case, due process protection can be revived at the choice-of-law and enforcement stages of the judicial proceeding...

  6. 78 FR 66885 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ..., Federal Subsistence Board, c/o U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Attention: Gene Peltola, Office of... harvest seasons and limits. In administering the program, the Secretaries divided Alaska into 10... public on the rural determination process and regulations, and ways to improve them for the benefit of...

  7. A salt water battery with high stability and charging rates made from solution processed conjugated polymers with polar side chains

    KAUST Repository

    Moia, Davide; Giovannitti, Alexander; Szumska, Anna A.; Schnurr, Martin; Rezasoltani, Elham; Maria, Iuliana P.; Barnes, Piers R. F.; McCulloch, Iain; Nelson, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    conjugated polymer backbones, allowed the films to maintain constant capacity at high charge and discharge rates (>1000 C-rate). The electrodes also show good stability during electrochemical cycling (less than 30% decrease in capacity over >1000 cycles) and an output voltage up to 1.4 V. The performance of these semiconducting polymers with polar side-chains demonstrates the potential of this material class for fast-charging, water based electrochemical energy storage devices.

  8. Neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firk, F.W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Some recent experiments involving polarized neutrons are discussed; they demonstrate how polarization studies provide information on fundamental aspects of nuclear structure that cannot be obtained from more traditional neutron studies. Until recently, neutron polarization studies tended to be limited either to very low energies or to restricted regions at higher energies, determined by the kinematics of favorable (p, vector n) and (d, vector n) reactions. With the advent of high intensity pulsed electron and proton accelerators and of beams of vector polarized deuterons, this is no longer the case. One has entered an era in which neutron polarization experiments are now being carried out, in a routine way, throughout the entire range from thermal energies to tens-of-MeV. The significance of neutron polarization studies is illustrated in discussions of a wide variety of experiments that include the measurement of T-invariance in the β-decay of polarized neutrons, a search for the effects of meson exchange currents in the photo-disintegration of the deuteron, the determination of quantum numbers of states in the fission of aligned 235 U and 237 Np induced by polarized neutrons, and the double- and triple-scattering of fast neutrons by light nuclei

  9. Photodegradation processes in arid ecosystems: controlling factors and potential application in land restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Luna-Ramos, Lourdes; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Sole Benet, Albert

    2017-04-01

    Water availability plays a fundamental part in controlling biotic processes in arid ecosystems. However, recent evidence suggests that other decisive drivers take part in these processes. Despite low annual rainfall and microbial activity, unexplained high rates of litter decomposition, net nitrogen mineralization, soil enzymatic activity and carbon turnover have been observed in arid ecosystems. These observations have been partly explained by photodegradation, a process that consists of the breakdown of organic matter via solar radiation (UV) and that can increase decomposition rates and lead to changes in the balance of carbon and nutrients between plants, soil and atmosphere. A complete understanding of these mechanisms and its drivers in arid ecosystems remains a critical challenge for the scientific community at the global level. In this research, we conducted a multi-site field experiment to test the effects of photodegradation on decomposition of organic amendments used in ecosystem restoration. The study was carried out during 12 months in two study areas: the Pilbara region in Western Australia (Southern Hemisphere) and the Cabo de Gata Nijar Natural Park, South Spain (Northern Hemisphere). In both sites, four treatments were applied in replicated plots (1x1 m, n=4) that included a control (C) with no soil amendment; organic amendment covering the soil surface (AS); organic amendment incorporated into the soil (AI); and a combination of both techniques, both covering the surface and incorporated into the soil (AS-AI). Different organic amendments (native mulch versus compost) and soil substrates were used at each site according to local practices, but in both sites these were applied to increase soil organic matter up to 2%. At the two locations, a radiometer and a logger with a soil temperature and soil moisture probe were installed to monitor UV radiation and soil conditions for the duration of the trial. Soil microbial activity, soil CO2 efflux, and

  10. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...

  11. Polarization observables in the process d + p → d+ X and electromagnetic form factors of N → N* transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalo, M.P.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the properties of the inclusive d + p-reactions, with particular interest in the domain of nucleonic resonances excitation. The calculated cross section and polarization observables show that it is possible to disentangle the different reaction mechanisms (ω-,σ-, n- exchange) and bring new information about the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron as well as of the nucleonic resonances excitation. Existing data on the tensor analyzing power are in agreement with the predictions based on the ω-exchange model. (authors)

  12. Off-diagonal helicity density matrix elements for vector mesons produced in polarized e+e- processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Murgia, F.; Quintairos, P.

    1999-04-01

    Final state q q-bar interactions give origin to non zero values of the off-diagonal element ρ 1,-1 of the helicity density matrix of vector mesons produced in e + e - annihilations, as confirmed by recent OPAL data on φ, D * and K * 's. New predictions are given for ρ 1,-1 of several mesons produced at large x E and small p T - i.e. collinear with the parent jet - in the annihilation of polarized 3 + and 3 - , the results depend strongly on the elementary dynamics and allow further non trivial tests of the standard model. (author)

  13. Post-Processing Approach for Refining Raw Land Cover Change Detection of Very High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Lv

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, land cover change detection (LCCD using very high-spatial resolution (VHR remote sensing images has been a major research topic. However, VHR remote sensing images usually lead to a large amount of noises in spectra, thereby reducing the reliability of the detected results. To solve this problem, this study proposes an object-based expectation maximization (OBEM post-processing approach for enhancing raw LCCD results. OBEM defines a refinement of the labeling in a detected map to enhance its raw detection accuracies. Current mainstream change detection (preprocessing techniques concentrate on proposing a change magnitude measurement or considering image spatial features to obtain a change detection map. The proposed OBEM approach is a new solution to enhance change detection accuracy by refining the raw result. Post-processing approaches can achieve competitive accuracies to the preprocessing methods, but in a direct and succinct manner. The proposed OBEM post-processing method synthetically considers multi-scale segmentation and expectation maximum algorithms to refine the raw change detection result. Then, the influence of the scale of segmentation on the LCCD accuracy of the proposed OBEM is investigated. Four pairs of remote sensing images, one of two pairs (aerial image with 0.5 m/pixel resolution which depict two landslide sites on Landtau Island, Hong Kong, China, are used in the experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. In addition, the proposed approach is applied, and validated by two case studies, LCCD in Tianjin City China (SPOT-5 satellite image with 2.5 m/pixel resolution and Mexico forest fire case (Landsat TM images with 30 m/pixel resolution, respectively. Quantitative evaluations show that the proposed OBEM post-processing approach can achieve better performance and higher accuracies than several commonly used preprocessing methods. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this type

  14. Polarized electrons, trions, and nuclei in charged quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracker, A. S.; Tischler, J. G.; Korenev, V. L.; Gammon, D.

    2003-07-01

    We have investigated spin polarization in GaAs quantum dots. Excitons and trions are polarized directly by optical excitation and studied through polarization of photoluminescence. Electrons and nuclei are polarized indirectly through subsequent relaxation processes. Polarized electrons are identified by the Hanle effect for exciton and trion photoluminescence, while polarized nuclei are identified through the Overhauser effect in individual charged quantum dots.

  15. Effect of land cover on atmospheric processes and air quality over the continental United States – a NASA Unified WRF (NU-WRF model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The land surface plays a crucial role in regulating water and energy fluxes at the land–atmosphere (L–A interface and controls many processes and feedbacks in the climate system. Land cover and vegetation type remains one key determinant of soil moisture content that impacts air temperature, planetary boundary layer (PBL evolution, and precipitation through soil-moisture–evapotranspiration coupling. In turn, it will affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. This paper presents the results of a modeling study of the effect of land cover on some key L–A processes with a focus on air quality. The newly developed NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecast (NU-WRF modeling system couples NASA's Land Information System (LIS with the community WRF model and allows users to explore the L–A processes and feedbacks. Three commonly used satellite-derived land cover datasets – i.e., from the US Geological Survey (USGS and University of Maryland (UMD, which are based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR, and from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS – bear large differences in agriculture, forest, grassland, and urban spatial distributions in the continental United States, and thus provide an excellent case to investigate how land cover change would impact atmospheric processes and air quality. The weeklong simulations demonstrate the noticeable differences in soil moisture/temperature, latent/sensible heat flux, PBL height, wind, NO2/ozone, and PM2.5 air quality. These discrepancies can be traced to associate with the land cover properties, e.g., stomatal resistance, albedo and emissivity, and roughness characteristics. It also implies that the rapid urban growth may have complex air quality implications with reductions in peak ozone but more frequent high ozone events.

  16. Local Scale Radiobrightness Modeling During the Intensive Observing Period-4 of the Cold Land Processes Experiment-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Tedesco, M.; de Roo, R.; England, A. W.; Gu, H.; Pham, H.; Boprie, D.; Graf, T.; Koike, T.; Armstrong, R.; Brodzik, M.; Hardy, J.; Cline, D.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX-1) was designed to provide microwave remote sensing observations and ground truth for studies of snow and frozen ground remote sensing, particularly issues related to scaling. CLPX-1 was conducted in 2002 and 2003 in Colorado, USA. One of the goals of the experiment was to test the capabilities of microwave emission models at different scales. Initial forward model validation work has concentrated on the Local-Scale Observation Site (LSOS), a 0.8~ha study site consisting of open meadows separated by trees where the most detailed measurements were made of snow depth and temperature, density, and grain size profiles. Results obtained in the case of the 3rd Intensive Observing Period (IOP3) period (February, 2003, dry snow) suggest that a model based on Dense Medium Radiative Transfer (DMRT) theory is able to model the recorded brightness temperatures using snow parameters derived from field measurements. This paper focuses on the ability of forward DMRT modelling, combined with snowpack measurements, to reproduce the radiobrightness signatures observed by the University of Michigan's Truck-Mounted Radiometer System (TMRS) at 19 and 37~GHz during the 4th IOP (IOP4) in March, 2003. Unlike in IOP3, conditions during IOP4 include both wet and dry periods, providing a valuable test of DMRT model performance. In addition, a comparison will be made for the one day of coincident observations by the University of Tokyo's Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer-7 (GBMR-7) and the TMRS. The plot-scale study in this paper establishes a baseline of DMRT performance for later studies at successively larger scales. And these scaling studies will help guide the choice of future snow retrieval algorithms and the design of future Cold Lands observing systems.

  17. Forest succession and climate change: Coupling land-surface processes and ecological dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.

    1990-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that humans are in the process of inadvertently modifying the Earth's climate by increasing the atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active trace gas. The present man-induced climate change, often referred to as the greenhouse effect, is different from natural changes because of its unprecedented pace and the incomplete knowledge of its consequences. As some scientists put it, humanity is performing on itself a 'global experiment' which may entail a number of surprises. The potential changes in the behavior of atmosphere/biosphere interactions are of particular importance. Such changes could affect atmospheric dynamics, the local and regional hydrology, the global bio-geochemistry, and therefore, human societies. Five distinct aspects of climate/vegetation interactions are examined. First, the climatically and physiologically mediated impacts of increases in the concentration of carbon dioxide on the evaporation from agricultural crops, grassland, and forests are investigated using the Penman-Monteith combination equation. Second, the degree of coupling between the vegetation and the atmosphere, as defined by Jarvis and McNaughton, is reexamined taking radiative losses from the vegetation to the atmosphere into account. Third, the effects of changes in the mean vs. the variance of climatic variables are investigated using a modified version of the forest dynamics model developed by Pastor and Post, LINK-AGES. Fourth, using the same model, changes in the production of non-methane hydrocarbons are estimated as climate and/or vegetation change. Finally, the main focus is on the response of forests to climatic changes using a model treating the physics of energy and water exchange in detail

  18. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction.......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  19. Polarity in Mammalian Epithelial Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roignot, Julie; Peng, Xiao; Mostov, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarity is fundamental for the architecture and function of epithelial tissues. Epithelial polarization requires the intervention of several fundamental cell processes, whose integration in space and time is only starting to be elucidated. To understand what governs the building of epithelial tissues during development, it is essential to consider the polarization process in the context of the whole tissue. To this end, the development of three-dimensional organotypic cell culture model...

  20. Ionic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ferroelectricity occurs in many different kinds of materials. Many of the technologically important solids, which are ferroelectric, can be classified as ionic. Any microscopic theory of ferroelectricity must contain a description of local polarization forces. We have collaborated in the development of a theory of ionic polarization which is quite successful. Its basic assumption is that the polarization is derived from the properties of the individual ions. We have applied this theory successfully to diverse subjects as linear and nonlinear optical response, phonon dispersion, and piezoelectricity. We have developed numerical methods using the local Density approximation to calculate the multipole polarizabilities of ions when subject to various fields. We have also developed methods of calculating the nonlinear hyperpolarizability, and showed that it can be used to explain light scattering experiments. This paper elaborates on this polarization theory

  1. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  2. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  3. Polarization measurement for internal polarized gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhenyu; Ye Yunxiu; Lv Haijiang; Mao Yajun

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an introduction to internal polarized gaseous targets, polarization method, polarization measurement method and procedure. To get the total nuclear polarization of hydrogen atoms (including the polarization of the recombined hydrogen molecules) in the target cell, authors have measured the parameters relating to atomic polarization and polarized hydrogen atoms and molecules. The total polarization of the target during our measurement is P T =0.853 ± 0.036. (authors)

  4. Missing reversals in the geomagnetic polarity timescale: Their influence on the analysis and in constraining the process that generates geomagnetic reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, W.

    1997-03-01

    A major problem in defining the chronology of geomagnetic reversals is linked to the detection of short (short TIBR or to paleointensity fluctuations. Particular attention is paid to the influence of measurement errors estimated for the most recently published Cenozoic timescale. By following the minimalist philosophy of Occam's razor, which is particularly suitable for studying poorly known processes, the reliability of the simplest model, i.e., the Poisson process which is symmetric in polarity, can be checked. The results indicate the plausibility of a generalized renewal process; the only regularity is relative to the long-term trend, which is probably linked to core-mantle coupling. In detail, a uniform exponential trend in the last 80 Myr is found for the timescale; it is not presently possible to estimate the influence of the inclusion of tiny wiggles because they are well-resolved only in the last 30 Myr, a period in which both series are stationary. The sequences, with and without tiny wiggles, are symmetric in polarity, with no evidence of low-dimensional chaos and memory of past configurations. The empirical statistical distribution of the TIBR departs slightly from a theoretical exponential distribution, i.e., from a Poisson process, which can be explained by a lack of short anomalies, and/or by a generating process with wear-out properties (a more general renewal process). A real exponential distribution is sustainable only if the number of missing short TIBR in the last 30 Myr is larger than the number of tiny wiggles observed in the same period.

  5. Adaptation of Land-Use Demands to the Impact of Climate Change on the Hydrological Processes of an Urbanized Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chiang, Li-Chi; Liu, Yen-Lan; Chu, Hone-Jay

    2012-01-01

    The adaptation of land-use patterns is an essential aspect of minimizing the inevitable impact of climate change at regional and local scales; for example, adapting watershed land-use patterns to mitigate the impact of climate change on a region’s hydrology. The objective of this study is to simulate and assess a region’s ability to adapt to hydrological changes by modifying land-use patterns in the Wu-Du watershed in northern Taiwan. A hydrological GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Functions) model is used to simulate three hydrological components, namely, runoff, groundwater and streamflow, based on various land-use scenarios under six global climate models. The land-use allocations are simulated by the CLUE-s model for the various development scenarios. The simulation results show that runoff and streamflow are strongly related to the precipitation levels predicted by different global climate models for the wet and dry seasons, but groundwater cycles are more related to land-use. The effects of climate change on groundwater and runoff can be mitigated by modifying current land-use patterns; and slowing the rate of urbanization would also reduce the impact of climate change on hydrological components. Thus, land-use adaptation on a local/regional scale provides an alternative way to reduce the impacts of global climate change on local hydrology. PMID:23202833

  6. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Best management practices (BMPs) for... FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 412.4 Best management practices (BMPs) for land... implement best management practices. Each CAFO subject to this section that land applies manure, litter, or...

  7. 76 FR 58807 - An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ...: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information-- Release of Final... Protection Planning can Incorporate Climate Change Information, (EPA/600/R-09/142F). The document was... goal of this report is to evaluate where land protection planning can incorporate climate change...

  8. How to understand, evaluate and influence efficient progress in South Africa’s land reform process: A typology from historical lessons from selected sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhlanhla C. Mbatha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With reports of widespread failures in South Africa’s land reform programmes, the levels of policy uncertainty in the political rhetoric that influences land reform have been increasing. Since 1994 policy targets to transfer land to black farmers have not been met. Of the 2005 target to transfer about 25 million ha of commercial farmland to black farmers by 2014, less than 5 million ha. have been transferred for commercial use. Some studies report failure rates in resettlement projects of up to 90%. To account for the failures, revisions of policies and amendments to legislations have been proposed within a political environment that is becoming increasingly intolerant to slow progress in land transfers and to resettlement failures. Aim: Against this environment, this paper presents a typology for understanding and evaluating important elements of the land reform project in order to influence progress in the process. Setting: The study adopts a historical review of land reform processes in post-colonial Kenya and Zimbabwe in order to identify potential challenges and key lessons for South Africa. Methods: Hence, using institutional and historical analytical lenses in exploring different narratives, the paper reviews reported failures and successes in land reform policy cases from the selected countries. From an institutional framework, prevalent social institutions and key lessons from Kenya, Zimbabwe and South Africa, a typology for evaluating important elements of the land reform process in South Africa is developed and discussed. Additionally, a review of global data collected on average sizes of farms in different regions of the world is provided as evidence to support propositions of what would constitute efficient farmland size ranges for small to medium commercial farms in South Africa. Results and conclusion: A proposition is made on how to use the typology to guide policy and research interventions to reduce failures

  9. Characterization of process-induced damage in Cu/low-k interconnect structure by microscopic infrared spectroscopy with polarized infrared light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Hirofumi, E-mail: Hirofumi-Seki@trc.toray.co.jp; Hashimoto, Hideki [Toray Research Center, Inc., 3-3-7 Sonoyama, Otsu, Shiga 520-8567 (Japan); Ozaki, Yukihiro [Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1, Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)

    2016-09-07

    Microscopic Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra are measured for a Cu/low-k interconnect structure using polarized IR light for different widths of low-k spaces and Cu lines, and for different heights of Cu lines, on Si substrates. Although the widths of the Cu line and the low-k space are 70 nm each, considerably smaller than the wavelength of the IR light, the FT-IR spectra of the low-k film were obtained for the Cu/low-k interconnect structure. A suitable method was established for measuring the process-induced damage in a low-k film that was not detected by the TEM-EELS (Transmission Electron Microscope-Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy) using microscopic IR polarized light. Based on the IR results, it was presumed that the FT-IR spectra mainly reflect the structural changes in the sidewalls of the low-k films for Cu/low-k interconnect structures, and the mechanism of generating process-induced damage involves the generation of Si-OH groups in the low-k film when the Si-CH{sub 3} bonds break during the fabrication processes. The Si-OH groups attract moisture and the OH peak intensity increases. It was concluded that the increase in the OH groups in the low-k film is a sensitive indicator of low-k damage. We achieved the characterization of the process-induced damage that was not detected by the TEM-EELS and speculated that the proposed method is applicable to interconnects with line and space widths of 70 nm/70 nm and on shorter scales of leading edge devices. The location of process-induced damage and its mechanism for the Cu/low-k interconnect structure were revealed via the measurement method.

  10. Validation and sensitivity tests on improved parametrizations of a land surface process model (LSPM) in the Po Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassardo, C.; Carena, E.; Longhetto, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Land Surface Process Model (LSPM) has been improved with respect to the 1. version of 1994. The modifications have involved the parametrizations of the radiation terms and of turbulent heat fluxes. A parametrization of runoff has also been developed, in order to close the hydrologic balance. This 2. version of LSPM has been validated against experimental data gathered at Mottarone (Verbania, Northern Italy) during a field experiment. The results of this validation show that this new version is able to apportionate the energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes. LSPM has also been submitted to a series of sensitivity tests in order to investigate the hydrological part of the model. The physical quantities selected in these sensitivity experiments have been the initial soil moisture content and the rainfall intensity. In each experiment, the model has been forced by using the observations carried out at the synoptic stations of San Pietro Capofiume (Po Valley, Italy). The observed characteristics of soil and vegetation (not involved in the sensitivity tests) have been used as initial and boundary conditions. The results of the simulation show that LSPM can reproduce well the energy, heat and water budgets and their behaviours with varying the selected parameters. A careful analysis of the LSPM output shows also the importance to identify the effective soil type

  11. Desertification triggered by hydrological and geomorphological processes and palaeoclimatic changes in the Hunshandake Sandy Lands, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Scuderi, L. A.; Wang, X.; Zhang, D.; Li, H.; Forman, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Although Pleistocene and earlier aeolian sediments in the adjacent regions of deserts were used as indicators for the occurrence of the deserts in northern China, our multidisciplinary investigation in the Hunshandake Sandy Lands, Inner Mongolia, a typical landscape in the eastern portion of the Asian mid-latitude desert belt, demonstrates that this sandy desert is just ca. 4000 years old. Before the formation of the current sand dunes, Hunshandke was characterized with large and deep lakes and grasssland vegetation, as many sedimentary sections indicate. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) chronology shows that the three large former lakes where we have done detailed investigation, experienced high stands from early Holocene to ca. 5 ka. During the early and middle Holocene this desert was a temperate steppe environment, dominated by grasslands and trees near lakes and streams, as various palaeoenvironmental proxies suggest. While North Hemisphere's monsoonal regions experienced catastrophic precipitation decreases at ca. 4.2 ka, many parts of the presently arid and semi-arid zone in northern China were shifted from Green to Desert state. In the eastern portion of the Hunshandake, the desertification was, however, directly associated with groundwater capture by the Xilamulun River, as the palaeo-drainage remains show. The process of groundwater sapping initiated a sudden and irreversible region-wide hydrologic event that lowered the groundwater table and exacerbated the desertification of the Hunshandake, and further resulting in post-Humid period mass migration of northern China's Hongshan culture from that we think the modern Chinese civilization has been rooted.

  12. Precision measurement of the cross section of charged-current and neutral current processes at large Q2 at HERA with the polarized-electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Trong Hieu

    2010-03-01

    The inclusive cross sections for both charged and neutral current processes have been measured in interactions of longitudinally polarized electrons (positrons) with unpolarized protons using the full data samples collected by H1 at HERA-II. The data taken at a center-of-mass energy of 319 GeV correspond to an integrated luminosity of 149.1 pb -1 and 180.0 pb -1 for e - p and e + p collisions, representing an increase in statistics of a factor of 10 and 2, respectively, over the data from HERA-I. The measured double differential cross sections d 2 σ/dxdQ 2 cover more than two orders of magnitude in both Q 2 , the negative four-momentum transfer squared, up to 30000 GeV 2 , and Bjorken x, down to 0.003. The cross section data are compared to predictions of the Standard Model which is able to provide a good description of the data. The polarization asymmetry as a function of Q 2 is measured with improved precision, confirming the previous observation of P violation effect in neutral current ep scattering at distances down to 10 -18 m. The total cross sections of the charged current process, for Q 2 > 400 GeV 2 and inelasticity y ± beams and different polarization values. Together with the corresponding cross section obtained from the previously published unpolarized data, the polarization dependence of the charged current cross section is measured and found to be in agreement with the Standard Model prediction with the absence of right-handed charged current. The cross sections are combined with previously published data from H1 to obtain the most precise unpolarized measurements. These are used to extract the structure function xF 3 γZ which is sensitive to the valence quark distributions down to low x values. The new cross sections have also been used in a combined electroweak and QCD fit to significantly improve the light quark couplings to the Z-boson than those obtained based on the HERA-I data alone. (orig.)

  13. Sources of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.

    1983-01-01

    Various sources of polarized neutrons are reviewed. Monoenergetic source produced with unpolarized or polarized beams, white sources of polarized neutrons, production by transmissions through polarized hydrogen targets and polarized thermal neutronsare discussed, with appropriate applications included. (U.K.)

  14. Representing the root water uptake process in the Common Land Model for better simulating the energy and water vapour fluxes in a Central Asian desert ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Longhui; van der Tol, C.; Chen, Xuelong; Jing, C.; Su, Zhongbo; Luo, G.; Tian, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The ability of roots to take up water depends on both root distribution and root water uptake efficiency. The former can be experimentally measured, while the latter is extremely difficult to determine. Yet a correct representation of root water uptake process in land surface models (LSMs) is

  15. Combination of process-oriented and pattern-oriented models of land-use change in a mountain area of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castella, J.C.; Verburg, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The tools and methods developed by different scientific communities to simulate the dynamics of land use have emphasised either processes or patterns of changes. Agent-based models (ABM) belong to the former category while many spatially explicit simulation models belong to the latter. These two

  16. New ‘Legal’ Actors, Norms and Processes: Formal and Informal Indigenous Land Rights Norms in the Oyu Tolgoi Project, Mongolia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.I. Bhatt (Kinnari)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis paper draws attention to the role of new actors, norms and processes in global governance. Specifically, it examines the Oyu Tolgoi copper and gold mine in Mongolia and the role played by weak domestic laws on land and indigenous rights as crucial for understanding the entry of new

  17. Planning as a learning process : a strategy for planning land use programmes at local level with special reference to the uplands of Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van den A.

    1992-01-01

    Introduction

    The challenge for land use management in the nineties is to initiate a people- centered development process which creates opportunities for local people to make their own choices about which development strategy to follow. This

  18. Review of polarized ammonium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tatsuo

    1987-01-01

    Recently, ammonia (NH 3 ) and deutron ammonia (ND 3 ), instead of conventional alcohol substances, have been used more frequently as a polarized target substance for experiments of polarization at high energy regions. This article reviews major features of the polarized (deutron) ammonia targets. The dynamic nuclear polarization (DNT) method is widely used in high energy polarization experiments. While only a low polarization degree of hydrogen nucleus of 1.7 percent can be obtained by the Brute force method, DNP can produce polarization as high as ∼ 90 percent (2.5 T, ∼ 200 mK). In 1979, ammonia was irradiated with radiations to form NH 2 free radicals, resulting in the achievement of a high polarization degree of greater than 90 percent (hydrogen). Since then, ammonia and deutron ammonia have increasingly been replacing alcohols including butanol. Irradiation of a target substance with radiations destroys the structure of the substance, leading to a decrease in polarization degree. However, ammonia produces unpaired electrons as a result of irradiation, allowing it to be highly resistant to radiation. This report also present some study results, including observations on effects of radiation on the polarization degree of a target, effects of annealing, and polarization of 14 N. A process for producing an ammonia target is also described. (Nogami, K.)

  19. A Si nanocube array polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linghua; Jiang, Yingjie; Xing, Li; Yao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    We have proposed a full dielectric (silicon) nanocube array polarizer based on a silicon dioxide substrate. Each polarization unit column includes a plurality of equal spaced polarization units. By optimizing the length, the width, the height of the polarization units and the center distance of adjacent polarization unit (x direction and y direction), an extinction ratio (ER) of higher than 25dB was obtained theoretically when the incident light wavelength is 1550nm. while for applications of most polarization optical elements, ER above 10dB is enough. With this condition, the polarizer we designed can work in a wide wavelength range from 1509.31nm to 1611.51nm. Compared with the previous polarizer, we have introduced a polarizer which is a full dielectric device, which solves the problems of low efficiency caused by Ohmic loss and weak coupling. Furthermore, compared with the existing optical polarizers, our polarizer has the advantages of thin thickness, small size, light weight, and low processing difficulty, which is in line with the future development trend of optical elements.

  20. Polarization: A must for fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didelez J.-P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The complete polarization of DT fuel would increase the fusion reactivity by 50% in magnetic as well as in inertial confinements. The persistence of polarization in a fusion process could be tested, using a terawatt laser hitting a polarized HD target. The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse producing a 3He and a neutron in the final state. The angular distribution of the emitted neutrons and the change in the corresponding total Cross Section (CS can sign the polarization persistence. The polarization of solid H2, D2 or T2 Hydrogen isotopes is very difficult. However, it has been possible to polarize HD, a hetero-molecular form of Hydrogen, by static polarization, at very low temperature and very high field. The radioactivity of DT molecules forbids there high polarization by the static method, therefore one has to develop the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP by RF transitions. The DNP of HD has been investigated in the past. The magnetic properties of HD and DT molecules are very similar, it is therefore expected that any polarization result obtained with HD could be extrapolated to DT.

  1. Adaptation of Land-Use Demands to the Impact of Climate Change on the Hydrological Processes of an Urbanized Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chiang, Li-Chi; Liu, Yen-Lan; Chu, Hone-Jay

    2012-01-01

    The adaptation of land-use patterns is an essential aspect of minimizing the inevitable impact of climate change at regional and local scales; for example, adapting watershed land-use patterns to mitigate the impact of climate change on a region’s hydrology. The objective of this study is to simulate and assess a region’s ability to adapt to hydrological changes by modifying land-use patterns in the Wu-Du watershed in northern Taiwan. A hydrological GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Functio...

  2. Study of semileptonic and leptonic neutral-current processes and of $\\mu$-polarization using counter techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    .PP This experiment will study semileptonic neutral current neutrino interactions with nucleons, using principally the dichromatic neutrino beam N1 and will make measurements of the polarization of muons produced in the WA1 experiment by neutrino-nucleon interactions, using the horn-focused broad-band neutrino The main part of the apparatus is a fine-grained target calorimeter in which the energy and direction of the hadronic jet resulting from the neutrino scattering is measured by electronic techniques. It is supplemented by a muon detector and spectrometer. The fine-grained calorimeter is used as a polarimeter for muons produced in WA1. \\\\ \\\\ The calorimeter is composed of 13 modules, each 1.2 m long and 4~m x 4~m in cross section. A module consists of six 3 m x 3 m target plates made of 8 cm thick marble with 12 cm gaps for insertion of 20 scintillation counters of 15 cm width and 3 cm thickness, 128 proportional counters of 3~x~3~cm|2 cross-section and 4~m length, and 256 streamer tubes of 0.9~x~0.9~cm|2...

  3. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  4. Characteristics of the polar cap at ionospheric levels and present understanding of the physical processes that give rise to these characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekke, A.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses the relationship between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and various polar cap current systems, such as the DP2-system and the S /SUB q/ P-system. The disagreements concerning these systems are examined. Topics considered include the polar cap (a result of an open magnetosphere); studies of the polar cap magnetic field variations; the DP2-current system and its relation to the IMF; the polar cap current system during a northward IMF; the azimuthal component of IMF and its influence on the polar cap magnetic field variations; the electric potential distribution on the polar cap; rocket observations of the polar cap electric field; the auroral arcs as a visible trace of the ionospheric convection; neutral wind measurements in the polar cap F-region; and further studies of polar cap dynamics. The focus is on the polar region inside the auroral oval. It is suggested that more research is needed of the polar cap current system in order to understand the magnetosphereionosphere coupling, with the polar cap ionospheric conductivity distribution being the most crucial parameter

  5. Polarization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Brief review is presented of the high energy polarization study including experimental data and the theoretical descriptions. The mostimportant proposals at the biggest accelerators and the crucial technical developments are also listed which may become a main-line of spin physics. 35 refs.; 10 figs.; 4 tabs

  6. Polar Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These three images were taken on three different orbits over the north polar cap in April 1999. Each shows a different part of the same ice-free trough. The left and right images are separated by a distance of more than 100 kilometers (62 miles). Note the similar layers in each image.

  7. An Analysis of Land Use Change Dynamics and Its Impacts on Hydrological Processes in the Jialing River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use changes are important aspects of global change and affect regional water cycles, environmental quality, biodiversity and terrestrial ecosystems. To understand the temporal and spatial land use change in the Jialing River Basin and its impacts on the hydrological cycle, land use change models and the variable infiltration capacity (VIC model were applied separately to the Jialing River Basin. Real change and final change were analyzed to determine the consequences of land use changes and their hydrological consequences. Real change is defined as the total variation during a fixed period, including increases and decreases. Thus, real change is the sum of the absolute values of the decrease and the increase. Final change is defined as the difference between the beginning and end of a given period for a specific factor. Overall, the amounts of settlement and shrub land area changed significantly in the entire Jialing River (with final change rates of 20.77% and −16.07%, respectively, and real change rates of 34.2% and 30.1%, respectively, from 1985 to 1995, as well as final and real change rates of 29.37%, 12.40%, 39.9% and 32.8%, respectively, from 1995 to 2000. Compared with the final change, the real change highlighted the rate of change and the change in woodland area. The land use changes in the Lueyang (LY, Shehong (SH and Fengtan (FT subcatchments were more dynamic than in the other subcatchments. The economy, population and macro-policy were the main factors responsible for driving the land use changes. The decrease in woodland area in the LY subcatchment corresponded with an increase in evapotranspiration (ET and with decreases in the other hydrological elements. Overall, the final changes in the hydrological elements in the LY, SH and FT subcatchments were not significant due to the average and compensation effects. The LY subcatchment was mainly affected by the average effect, whereas the SH and FT subcatchments were affected

  8. A polarized alkali ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, R.; Tungate, G.; Bauer, B.; Egelhof, P.; Moebius, K.H.; Steffens, E.

    1978-01-01

    The beam foil technique has been applied to detect nuclear vector polarization of a 10 keV 23 Na + beam. The result was about 70% of the atomic beam polarization thus limiting the depolarization by the surface ionizer to at most 30%. In a Coulomb excitation experiment with a tensor polarized 42 MeV 23 Na 7+ beam an effect of 0.011 +- 0.003 was measured yielding a value of t 20 approx. 0.04 for the beam polarization. The depolarization during the acceleration process can be estimated to be about 0.8. (orig.) [de

  9. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  10. Low-Frequency Oscillations and Transport Processes Induced by Multiscale Transverse Structures in the Polar Wind Outflow: A Three-Dimensional Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Supriya B.; Gavrishchaka, Valeriy V.

    1999-01-01

    Multiscale transverse structures in the magnetic-field-aligned flows have been frequently observed in the auroral region by FAST and Freja satellites. A number of multiscale processes, such as broadband low-frequency oscillations and various cross-field transport effects are well correlated with these structures. To study these effects, we have used our three-dimensional multifluid model with multiscale transverse inhomogeneities in the initial velocity profile. Self-consistent-frequency mode driven by local transverse gradients in the generation of the low field-aligned ion flow and associated transport processes were simulated. Effects of particle interaction with the self-consistent time-dependent three-dimensional wave potential have been modeled using a distribution of test particles. For typical polar wind conditions it has been found that even large-scale (approximately 50 - 100 km) transverse inhomogeneities in the flow can generate low-frequency oscillations that lead to significant flow modifications, cross-field particle diffusion, and other transport effects. It has also been shown that even small-amplitude (approximately 10 - 20%) short-scale (approximately 10 km) modulations of the original large-scale flow profile significantly increases low-frequency mode generation and associated cross-field transport, not only at the local spatial scales imposed by the modulations but also on global scales. Note that this wave-induced cross-field transport is not included in any of the global numerical models of the ionosphere, ionosphere-thermosphere, or ionosphere-polar wind. The simulation results indicate that the wave-induced cross-field transport not only affects the ion outflow rates but also leads to a significant broadening of particle phase-space distribution and transverse particle diffusion.

  11. The polar mesosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Ray; Murphy, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The mesosphere region, which lies at the edge of space, contains the coldest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, with summer temperatures as low as minus 130 °C. In this extreme environment ice aerosol layers have appeared since the dawn of industrialization—whose existence may arguably be linked to human influence—on yet another layer of the Earth's fragile atmosphere. Ground-based and space-based experiments conducted in the Arctic and Antarctic during the International Polar Year (IPY) aim to address limitations in our knowledge and to advance our understanding of thermal and dynamical processes at play in the polar mesosphere

  12. Study by polarized muon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Experiments by using polarized muon beam are reported. The experiments were performed at Berkeley, U.S.A., and at Vancouver, Canada. The muon spin rotation is a useful method for the study of the spin polarization of conductive electrons in paramagnetic Pd metal. The muon Larmor frequency and the relaxation time can be obtained by measuring the time distribution of decay electrons of muon-electron process. The anomalous depolarization of negative muon spin rotation in the transitional metal was seen. The circular polarization of the negative muon X-ray was measured to make clear this phenomena. The experimental results show that the anomalous depolarization is caused at the 1-S-1/2 state. For the purpose to obtain the strong polarization of negative muon, a method of artificial polarization is proposed, and the test experiments are in progress. The study of the hyperfine structure of mu-mesic atoms is proposed. The muon capture rate was studied systematically. (Kato, T.)

  13. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  14. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  15. Ice at the Interface: Atmosphere-Ice-Ocean Boundary Layer Processes and Their Role in Polar Change---Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Elizabeth C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-23

    The atmosphere-ocean boundary layer in which sea ice resides includes many complex processes that require a more realistic treatment in GCMs, particularly as models move toward full earth system descriptions. The primary purpose of the workshop was to define and discuss such coupled processes from observational and modeling points of view, including insight from both the Arctic and Antarctic systems. The workshop met each of its overarching goals, including fostering collaboration among experimentalists, theorists and modelers, proposing modeling strategies, and ascertaining data availability and needs. Several scientific themes emerged from the workshop, such as the importance of episodic or extreme events, precipitation, stratification above and below the ice, and the marginal ice zone, whose seasonal Arctic migrations now traverse more territory than in the past.

  16. Remote Operated Vehicle geophysical surveys on land (underground), air and submarine archaeology: General peculiarities of processing and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2016-04-01

    the basis of multimodel (Eppelbaum and Yakubov, 2004), informational (Eppelbaum, 2014), or wavelet (Eppelbaum et al., 2011, 2014; Eppelbaum, 2015c) approaches. In Israel, a lot of positive results were derived from magnetic method employment with application of the abovementioned procedures at numerous archaeological sites (e.g., Eppelbaum, 2000; Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2001; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2003; 2003a; Eppelbaum et al., 2006, 2010; Eppelbaum, 2010a, 2011a, 2014, 2015a). Similar effective techniques were developed for the interpretation of microgravity anomalies (Eppelbaum, 2009b, 2011b, 2015b), temperature anomalies (Eppelbaum, 2009a, 2013a), self-potential anomalies (Eppelbaum et al., 2003b; 2004), induced polarization anomalies (Khesin et al., 1997; Eppelbaum, 2000), piezoelectric anomalies (Neishtadt and Eppelbaum, 2012), Very Low Frequency (VLF) anomalies (Eppelbaum, 2000; Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2012). The theoretical analysis indicates that for all aforementioned geophysical methods a common interpretation methodology may be applied . The main peculiarities of the developed non-conventional system for analysis of potential and quasi-potential geophysical fields are presented in Table 1. Table 1. Elements of the developed system of geophysical fields processing and interpretation under complicated environments (on the basis of Khesin et al., 1996, Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2001; Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2001, 2004; Eppelbaum and Yakubov, 2004; Eppelbaum et al., 2006; Eppelbaum, 2009a, 2009b; Eppelbaum, 2010a, 2010b; Eppelbaum et al., 2010, 2011; Eppelbaum and Mishne, 2011; Eppelbaum, 2011a, 2011b; Neishtadt and Eppelbaum, 2012; Eppelbaum, 2013a, 2013b, 2014; Eppelbaum and Kutasov, 2014; Eppelbaum et al., 2014; Eppelbaum, 2015a, 2015b, 2015c) Time Terrain Informational, Inverse problem solution Integrated variation correction multimodel and in conditions of: 3-D integrated FIELD correction using and wavelet ruggedarbitrary approximation modeling correlation

  17. The role of water tracks in altering biotic and abiotic soil properties and processes in a polar desert in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Becky A.; Levy, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater discharge via water tracks is a largely unexplored passageway routing salts and moisture from high elevations to valley floors in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica. Given the influence that water tracks have on the distribution of liquid water in seasonally thawed Antarctic soils, it is surprising how little is known about their role in structuring biotic and abiotic processes this cold desert ecosystem. Particularly, it is unclear how soil biota will respond to the activation of new water tracks resulting from enhanced active layer thickening or enhanced regional snowmelt. In the MDV, water tracks are both wetter and more saline than the surrounding soils, constituting a change in soil habitat suitability for soil biology and therefore the ecological processes they carry out. To investigate the net impact that water tracks have on Dry Valley soil biology, and therefore the ecosystem processes for which they are responsible, we analyzed microbial biomass and activity in soils inside and outside of three water tracks and relate this to the physical soil characteristics. Overall, our results suggest that water tracks can significantly influence soil properties, which can further impact biological biovolume and both biotic and abiotic fluxes of CO2. However, the nature of its impact differs with water track, further suggesting that not all water tracks can be regarded the same.

  18. Stand-alone polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy instrument optimized for the study of catalytic processes at elevated pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestell, John D.; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Ye, Xinyi; Nam, Chang-Yong; Stacchiola, Dario; Sadowski, Jerzy; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the design and construction of a compact, "user-friendly" polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) instrument at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) of Brookhaven National Laboratory, which allows studying surfaces at pressures ranging from ultra-high vacuum to 100 Torr. Surface infrared spectroscopy is ideally suited for studying these processes as the vibrational frequencies of the IR chromophores are sensitive to the nature of the bonding environment on the surface. Relying on the surface selection rules, by modulating the polarization of incident light, it is possible to separate the contributions from the isotropic gas or solution phase, from the surface bound species. A spectral frequency range between 1000 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1 can be acquired. While typical spectra with a good signal to noise ratio can be obtained at elevated pressures of gases in ˜2 min at 4 cm-1 resolution, we have also acquired higher resolution spectra at 0.25 cm-1 with longer acquisition times. By way of verification, CO uptake on a heavily oxidized Ru(0001) sample was studied. As part of this test study, the presence of CO adsorbed on Ru bridge sites was confirmed, in agreement with previous ambient pressure X ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. In terms of instrument performance, it was also determined that the gas phase contribution from CO could be completely removed even up to pressures close to 100 Torr. A second test study demonstrated the use of the technique for studying morphological properties of a spin coated polymer on a conductive surface. Note that this is a novel application of this technique. In this experiment, the polarization of incident light was modulated manually (vs. through a photoelastic modulator). It was demonstrated, in good agreement with the literature, that the polymer chains preferentially lie parallel with the surface. This PM-IRRAS system is small, modular, and easily

  19. Differentiating the relative importance of land cover change and geomorphic processes on fine sediment sequestration in a logged watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprak, Alan; Magilligan, Francis J.; Nislow, Keith H.; Renshaw, Carl E.; Snyder, Noah P.; Dade, W. Brian

    2013-03-01

    Timber harvest often results in accelerated soil erosion and subsequent elevated fine (winnowing these fines from the channel bed. These results further suggest that under contemporary land use conditions, the geomorphic and geologic setting represents a first-order control on channel substrate and habitat suitability for salmonid fishes, including federally endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), in coastal drainages of northeastern Maine.

  20. A salt water battery with high stability and charging rates made from solution processed conjugated polymers with polar side chains

    OpenAIRE

    Moia, Davide; Giovannitti, Alexander; Szumska, Anna A.; Schnurr, Martin; Rezasoltani, Elham; Maria, Iuliana P.; Barnes, Piers R. F.; McCulloch, Iain; Nelson, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    We report a neutral salt water based battery which uses p-type and n-type solution processed polymer films as the cathode and the anode of the cell. The specific capacity of the electrodes (approximately 30 mAh cm-3) is achieved via formation of bipolarons in both the p-type and n-type polymers. By engineering ethylene glycol and zwitterion based side chains attached to the polymer backbone we facilitate rapid ion transport through the non-porous polymer films. This, combined with efficient t...

  1. Climate change and the increasing impact of polar bears on bird populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouke eProp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is becoming warmer at a high rate, and contractions in the extent of sea ice are currently changing the habitats of marine top-predators dependent on ice. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus depend on sea ice for hunting seals. For these top-predators, longer ice-free seasons are hypothesized to force the bears to hunt for alternative terrestrial food, such as eggs from colonial breeding birds. We analyzed time-series of polar bear observations at four locations on Spitsbergen (Svalbard and one in east Greenland. Summer occurrence of polar bears, measured as the probability of encountering bears and the number of days with bear presence, has increased significantly from the 1970/80s to the present. The shifts in polar bear occurrence coincided with trends for shorter sea ice seasons and less sea ice during the spring in the study area. This resulted in a strong inverse relationship between the probability of bear encounters on land and the length of the sea ice season. Within ten years after their first appearance on land, polar bears had advanced their arrival dates by almost 30 days. Direct observations of nest predation showed that polar bears may severely affect reproductive success of the barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis, common eider (Somateria mollissima and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus. Nest predation was strongest in years when the polar bears arrived well before hatch, with more than 90% of all nests being predated. The results are similar to findings from Canada, and large-scale processes, such as climate and subsequent habitat changes, are pinpointed as the most likely drivers in various parts of the Arctic. We suggest that the increasing, earlier appearance of bears on land in summer reflects behavioral adaptations by a small segment of the population to cope with a reduced hunting range on sea ice. This exemplifies how behavioral adaptations may contribute to the cascading effects of climate change.

  2. Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    18 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-outlined polygons on a frost-covered surface in the south polar region of Mars. In summer, this surface would not be bright and the polygons would not have dark outlines--these are a product of the presence of seasonal frost. Location near: 77.2oS, 204.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  3. Climate-driven polar motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, Michael A.; Wahr, John M.; Bryan, Frank O.

    1999-06-01

    The output of a coupled climate system model provides a synthetic climate record with temporal and spatial coverage not attainable with observational data, allowing evaluation of climatic excitation of polar motion on timescales of months to decades. Analysis of the geodetically inferred Chandler excitation power shows that it has fluctuated by up to 90% since 1900 and that it has characteristics representative of a stationary Gaussian process. Our model-predicted climate excitation of the Chandler wobble also exhibits variable power comparable to the observed. Ocean currents and bottom pressure shifts acting together can alone drive the 14-month wobble. The same is true of the excitation generated by the combined effects of barometric pressure and winds. The oceanic and atmospheric contributions are this large because of a relatively high degree of constructive interference between seafloor pressure and currents and between atmospheric pressure and winds. In contrast, excitation by the redistribution of water on land appears largely insignificant. Not surprisingly, the full climate effect is even more capable of driving the wobble than the effects of the oceans or atmosphere alone are. Our match to the observed annual excitation is also improved, by about 17%, over previous estimates made with historical climate data. Efforts to explain the 30-year Markowitz wobble meet with less success. Even so, at periods ranging from months to decades, excitation generated by a model of a coupled climate system makes a close approximation to the amplitude of what is geodetically observed.

  4. Cloud-based opportunities in scientific computing: insights from processing Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Direct Broadcast data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S.

    2013-12-01

    The cloud is proving to be a uniquely promising platform for scientific computing. Our experience with processing satellite data using Amazon Web Services highlights several opportunities for enhanced performance, flexibility, and cost effectiveness in the cloud relative to traditional computing -- for example: - Direct readout from a polar-orbiting satellite such as the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) requires bursts of processing a few times a day, separated by quiet periods when the satellite is out of receiving range. In the cloud, by starting and stopping virtual machines in minutes, we can marshal significant computing resources quickly when needed, but not pay for them when not needed. To take advantage of this capability, we are automating a data-driven approach to the management of cloud computing resources, in which new data availability triggers the creation of new virtual machines (of variable size and processing power) which last only until the processing workflow is complete. - 'Spot instances' are virtual machines that run as long as one's asking price is higher than the provider's variable spot price. Spot instances can greatly reduce the cost of computing -- for software systems that are engineered to withstand unpredictable interruptions in service (as occurs when a spot price exceeds the asking price). We are implementing an approach to workflow management that allows data processing workflows to resume with minimal delays after temporary spot price spikes. This will allow systems to take full advantage of variably-priced 'utility computing.' - Thanks to virtual machine images, we can easily launch multiple, identical machines differentiated only by 'user data' containing individualized instructions (e.g., to fetch particular datasets or to perform certain workflows or algorithms) This is particularly useful when (as is the case with S-NPP data) we need to launch many very similar machines to process an unpredictable number of

  5. Quantifying the erosion processes and land-uses which dominate fine sediment supply to Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallbrink, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the contributions from the three major erosion sources in the catchments of Moreton Bay are quantified, specifically for the 137 Cs and 226 Ra were measured on the <10 μm fraction of eroding soils from these areas and then compared to concentrations on the same size fraction on deposited sediments within the rivers. A mixing model was then used to calculate the contributions from the different sources to the sediments. The contributions in the Brisbane and Logan catchments were found to be subsoil erosion (∼66±10%); sheet erosion from cultivated lands 33±10% and sheet erosion of uncultivated land 1±10%. Surface and subsoil erosion contributions from the coastal catchments were found to be variable

  6. Soil erosion risk as a measure of the effects of land pattern changes on runoff processes in the landscape – case studies from Lower Austria and Central Bohemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devátý, Jan; Strauss, Peter; Hoesl, Rosemarie; Dostal, Tomas; Krása, Josef

    2015-04-01

    Changes in land use, landscape structure and agricultural technologies affect number of soil characteristics as well as rainfall-runoff processes in the landscape. Soil erosion and sediment transport can be easily used for documentation and quantification of the impacts of land use development in time. Extent and structure of arable land within a landscape is driven by technological, social and political, factors and differs between countries. However land structure development is more or less natural process and is driven under normal conditions mainly by climatic and economic forces, the effects of political development is very well documented on different sides of the former iron curtain. There is unique chance to compare the trends in historical development during different historical periods given by both of economic and political forces and to search for optimum land structure, using rainfall-runoff processes as a measure. Land structure analysis and soil erosion risk assessment was carried out for two areas of interest and series of historical periods: • Lower Austrian municipality of Kleinweikersdorf (580 ha) - 1822, 1945, 1966, 1990, 2008 • part of Botic river watershed in Central Bohemia (810 ha) - 1841, 1953, 1971, 1989, 2003, 2013 Land use delimitation and field plots spatial definition was digitized from available data sources (Historical Cadastral maps and aerial photographs). Changes in crop properties and management practices were also taken into account based on historical information. Comparison between time periods shows that political actions can cause substantial impact on field plot sizes. At the Austrian area of interest the number of arable field plot continually decreases from 1203 (in 1822) to 371 (in 2008) whereas at the Czech area of interest the initial number of 469 parcels (in 1841) decreases to 32 (in 1989) and then rises again in the last two time periods. While the trend of rising average parcel size in Austria is continuous

  7. Experimental Watershed Study Designs: A Tool for Advancing Process Understanding and Management of Mixed-Land-Use Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbart, J. A.; Kellner, R. E.; Zeiger, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Advancements in watershed management are both a major challenge, and urgent need of this century. The experimental watershed study (EWS) approach provides critical baseline and long-term information that can improve decision-making, and reduce misallocation of mitigation investments. Historically, the EWS approach was used in wildland watersheds to quantitatively characterize basic landscape alterations (e.g. forest harvest, road building). However, in recent years, EWS is being repurposed in contemporary multiple-land-use watersheds comprising a mosaic of land use practices such as urbanizing centers, industry, agriculture, and rural development. The EWS method provides scalable and transferrable results that address the uncertainties of development, while providing a scientific basis for total maximum daily load (TMDL) targets in increasing numbers of Clean Water Act 303(d) listed waters. Collaborative adaptive management (CAM) programs, designed to consider the needs of many stakeholders, can also benefit from EWS-generated information, which can be used for best decision making, and serve as a guidance tool throughout the CAM program duration. Of similar importance, long-term EWS monitoring programs create a model system to show stakeholders how investing in rigorous scientific research initiatives improves decision-making, thereby increasing management efficiencies through more focused investments. The evolution from classic wildland EWS designs to contemporary EWS designs in multiple-land-use watersheds will be presented while illustrating how such an approach can encourage innovation, cooperation, and trust among watershed stakeholders working to reach the common goal of improving and sustaining hydrologic regimes and water quality.

  8. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. ORCHIDEE-CROP (v0), a new process based Agro-Land Surface Model: model description and evaluation over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Wang, X.; Magliulo, V.; Wattenbach, M.; Vitale, L.; Di Tommasi, P.; Moors, E. J.; Jans, W.; Elbers, J.; Ceschia, E.; Tallec, T.; Bernhofer, C.; Grünwald, T.; Moureaux, C.; Manise, T.; Ligne, A.; Cellier, P.; Loubet, B.; Larmanou, E.; Ripoche, D.

    2015-06-01

    The responses of crop functioning to changing climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) could have large effects on food production, and impact carbon, water and energy fluxes, causing feedbacks to climate. To simulate the responses of temperate crops to changing climate and [CO2], accounting for the specific phenology of crops mediated by management practice, we present here the development of a process-oriented terrestrial biogeochemical model named ORCHIDEE-CROP (v0), which integrates a generic crop phenology and harvest module and a very simple parameterization of nitrogen fertilization, into the land surface model (LSM) ORCHIDEEv196, in order to simulate biophysical and biochemical interactions in croplands, as well as plant productivity and harvested yield. The model is applicable for a range of temperate crops, but it is tested here for maize and winter wheat, with the phenological parameterizations of two European varieties originating from the STICS agronomical model. We evaluate the ORCHIDEE-CROP (v0) model against eddy covariance and biometric measurements at 7 winter wheat and maize sites in Europe. The specific ecosystem variables used in the evaluation are CO2 fluxes (NEE), latent heat and sensible heat fluxes. Additional measurements of leaf area index (LAI), aboveground biomass and yield are used as well. Evaluation results reveal that ORCHIDEE-CROP (v0) reproduces the observed timing of crop development stages and the amplitude of pertaining LAI changes in contrast to ORCHIDEEv196 in which by default crops have the same phenology than grass. A near-halving of the root mean square error of LAI from 2.38 ± 0.77 to 1.08 ± 0.34 m2 m-2 is obtained between ORCHIDEEv196 and ORCHIDEE-CROP (v0) across the 7 study sites. Improved crop phenology and carbon allocation lead to a general good match between modelled and observed aboveground biomass (with a normalized root mean squared error (NRMSE) of 11.0-54.2 %), crop yield, as well as of the daily

  10. Possibility of determining gluon polarization via polarized top pairs in gamma-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atag, S.; Billur, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the possibility for directly measuring the polarized gluon distribution in the process γp→t-bar t. It is shown that polarization asymmetry of the final top quarks is proportional to the gluon polarization. With available energy and luminosity, the collision of a polarized proton beam and a Compton backscattered photon beam can create polarized top quarks which carry the spin information of the process. Energy dependence and angular distributions of the polarization asymmetry of the top pairs has been discussed including statistical uncertainty.

  11. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  12. Do embryonic polar bodies commit suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Dušan; Čikoš, Štefan; Rehák, Pavol; Koppel, Juraj

    2014-02-01

    The extrusion and elimination of unnecessary gametic/embryonic material is one of the key events that determines the success of further development in all living organisms. Oocytes produce the first polar body to fulfill the maturation process just before ovulation, and release the second polar body immediately after fertilization. The aim of this study was to compile a physiological overview of elimination of polar bodies during early preimplantation development in mice. Our results show that three-quarters of the first polar bodies were lost even at the zygotic stage; the 4-cell stage embryos contained only one (second) polar body, and the elimination of second polar bodies proceeded continuously during later development. Both first and second polar bodies showed several typical features of apoptosis: phosphatidylserine redistribution (observed for the first time in the first polar body), specific DNA degradation, condensed nuclear morphology, and inability to exclude cationic dye from the nucleus during the terminal stage of the apoptotic process. Caspase-3 activity was recorded only in the second polar body. From the morphological point of view, mouse polar bodies acted very similarly to damaged embryonic cells which have lost contact with their neighboring blastomeres. In conclusion, polar bodies possess all the molecular equipment necessary for triggering and executing an active suicide process. Furthermore, similarly as in dying embryonic cells, stressing external conditions (culture in vitro) might accelerate and increase the incidence of apoptotic elimination of the polar bodies in embryos.

  13. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  14. The Polar Cusp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtet, J.A.; Egeland, A.

    1985-01-01

    The upper atmosphere at high latitudes is often called the ''earth's window to outer space.'' Through various electrodynamic coupling processes, as well as direct transfer of particles, many of the geophysical effects displayed are direct manifestations of phenomena occurring in deep space. The high latitude ionosphere also exerts a feedback on the regions of the magnetosphere and atmosphere to which it is coupled. Of particular interest are the sections of the near space known as the Polar Cusp. A vast portion of the Earth's magnetic field envelope is electrically connected to these regions. This geometry results in a spatial mapping of the magnetospheric processes and a focusing on the ionosphere. In the Polar Cusps, the solar wind plasma also has direct access to the upper atmosphere

  15. Mulighedernes land?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark.......Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark....

  16. Nations need national land administration infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, Rohan; Rajabifard, Abbas; Williamson, Ian; Wallace, Jude

    2012-01-01

    Many nations lack a coherent national approach to land administration. Instead, land information and processes are frequently disaggregated across states, provinces, cantons, counties, and municipalities. This is particularly the case in federated countries. The growing body of land administration

  17. Polar crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makosinski, S.

    1981-01-01

    In many applications polar cranes have to be repeatedly positioned with high accuracy. A guidance system is disclosed which has two pairs of guides. Each guide consists of two rollers carried by a sheave rotatable mounted on the crane bridge, the rollers being locatable one on each side of a guideway, e.g. the circular track on which the bridge runs. The pairs of guides are interconnected by respective rope loops which pass around and are locked to the respective pairs of sheaves in such a manner that movement of one guide results in equal movement of the other guide in a sense to maintain the repeatability of positioning of the centre of the bridge. A hydraulically-linked guide system is also described. (author)

  18. One of the great conundrums of the 20th century science - ionizing radiation: Radiation processing and applications in the Czech Lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janovsky, I.

    2007-01-01

    The article deals with the following topics: Milestones in the early history of radiation and radiation sources (1895-1954); Radiation effects - early observations and further development; Scope of radiation processing; Radiation processing in the Czech Lands (i.e. Bohemia + Moravia = the Czech part of Czechoslovakia or Austria-Hungary till 1918) (radiation sterilization of medical items; radiation processing of cable insulations; radiation preservation of objects of art and historical monuments; radiation modification of semiconductors; radiation synthesis of organic compounds; food irradiation; application of ionizing radiation in agriculture and gardening; radiation regeneration of water wells; radiation degradation of chlorinated biphenyls; radiation coloration of glass for decorative purposes; some other applications; and problems associated with practical radiation processing). An overview of 60 Co gamma irradiators and electron accelerators installed at Czech institutions is presented in the tabular form. (P.A.)

  19. Improving the Understanding and Model Representation of Processes that Couple Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, J. D.; Berg, L. K.; Schmid, B.; Alexander, M. L. L.; Bell, D.; D'Ambro, E.; Hubbe, J. M.; Liu, J.; Mei, F.; Pekour, M. S.; Pinterich, T.; Schobesberger, S.; Shilling, J.; Springston, S. R.; Thornton, J. A.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Wang, J.; Zelenyuk, A.

    2016-12-01

    Cumulus convection is an important component in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrologic cycle over the southern Great Plains and over many regions of the world, particularly during the summertime growing season when intense turbulence induced by surface radiation couples the land surface to clouds. Current convective cloud parameterizations, however, contain uncertainties resulting from insufficient coincident data that couples cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to inhomogeneity in surface layer, boundary layer, and aerosol properties. We describe the measurement strategy and preliminary findings from the recent Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) campaign conducted in May and September of 2016 in the vicinity of the DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site located in Oklahoma. The goal of the HI-SCALE campaign is to provide a detailed set of aircraft and surface measurements needed to obtain a more complete understanding and improved parameterizations of the lifecycle of shallow clouds. The sampling is done in two periods, one in the spring and the other in the late summer to take advantage of variations in the "greenness" for various types of vegetation, new particle formation, anthropogenic enhancement of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and other aerosol properties. The aircraft measurements will be coupled with extensive routine ARM SGP measurements as well as Large Eddy Simulation (LES), cloud resolving, and cloud-system resolving models. Through these integrated analyses and modeling studies, the affects of inhomogeneity in land use, vegetation, soil moisture, convective eddies, and aerosol properties on the evolution of shallow clouds will be determined, including the feedbacks of cloud radiative effects.

  20. Analyzing powers and interference between one- and multi-step processes in (polarized p, t) reactions on medium-mass vibrational nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, K.; Kunori, S.; Aoki, Y.; Nagano, K.; Tagishi, Y.

    1978-01-01

    A neutron-number (N) dependence of analyzing powers A (theta) has been observed for the first time in (polarized p, t) reactions leading to the quadrupole vibrational states (2 1 + ) in 98 Ru, sup(102,108)Pd, 114 Cd, 116 Sn, and sup(120,126)Te. Although analyzing powers for the ground-state transitions A(theta,0 sub(g)sup(+)) are very similar to each other, those for the 2 1 + transitions A(theta,2 1 + ) for the nuclei belonging to the beginning of the N = 50 - 82 shell are markedly different, having almost opposite signs, from A(theta,2 1 + ) for nuclei belonging to the latter half of the major shell. The difference is explained as a result of a sign change of the interference between one- and inelastic multi-step processes in two-neutron pickup reactions. Nuclear structure effects on such an interference are discussed on the basis of the microscopic description of collective quadrupole oscillation of nuclei. (author)

  1. The role of the surrounding polarity on the phototautomerization process in a diazaaromatic compound: An UV–vis and NMR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyman, Dolores, E-mail: dolores.reyman@uam.es [Departamento de Química Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 (Spain); Montoro, Teresa [EUIT Forestales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Viñas, Montserrat H. [Departamento de Sistemas Inteligentes Aplicados, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E-28031 Madrid (Spain); Díaz-Oliva, Cristina [Departamento de Química Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 (Spain); Tardajos, Gloria [Departamento de Química Física I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-04-15

    Fluorescence steady-state and decay measurements of the azaaromatic derivative norharmane were obtained in solvents with different polarities: dichloromethane (DCM) and acetonitrile (ACN), at different temperatures, in the absence and the presence of a donor/acceptor hydrogen bond such as acetic acid. 2D NOESY experiments confirmed that this compound forms a hydrogen-bonding cyclic complex with acetic acid in the ground state. This complex induced a phototautomeric equilibrium, which produced new emission bands at 400 and 500 nm. This tautomeric process was established only in the first excited state via a concerted proton–electron transfer. Indeed, the cyclic complex formed in the ground state evolved to a like-cation upon cooling from room temperature to 225 K, and a new emission band at 450 nm is observed. The fluorescence decay times confirmed these results. -- Highlights: • 2D NOESY experiments confirm that norharmane forms a hydrogen-bonding cyclic complex with acetic acid molecules • This complex induces a phototautomeric equilibrium via a concerted proton–electron transfer. • A monotonous transformation of the type OH···N→ O{sup δ−}···H···N{sup δ+}→ O{sup −}···HN{sup +} occurs when the temperature is lowered. • Resulting from this transformation, the four fluorescence bands observed at room temperature are converted into a single fluorescence band at 225 K.

  2. Gluon polarization measurements and the possible role of diffractive process in the transverse single spin asymmetry measurements in RHIC-PHENIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa Itaru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two selected topics from the latest RHIC spin results are discussed here. For the transversely polarized spin program, an unexpectedly large single spin asymmetry in the very forward neutron production observed in polarized proton + nucleus collisions at √s = 200 GeV is discussed in this document. For the longitudinal program, the latest highlights from the measurements on the gluon spin components of the proton spin is discussed. After a decade of continuous efforts to hunt for the gluon polarization, the RHIC collaboration is about to catch the tail of the experimental evidence that gluon carries substantially large portion of the proton spin.

  3. Flocculation of organic carbon from headwaters to estuary - the impact of soil erosion, water quality and land use on carbon transformation processes in eight streams draining Exmoor, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoalv, J.; Groeneveld, M.; Quine, T. A.; Tranvik, L.

    2017-12-01

    Flocculation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in streams and rivers is a process that contributes to the pool of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the aquatic system. In low-energy waters the increased sedimentation rates of this higher-density fraction of organic carbon (OC) makes POC important in allocating organic carbon into limnic storage, which subsequently influences emissions of greenhouse gases from the continental environment to the atmosphere. Allochthonous OC, derived from the terrestrial environment by soil erosion and litterfall, import both mineral aggregate-bound and free OC into freshwaters, which comprise carbon species of different quality and recalcitrance than autochthonous in-stream produced OC, such as from biofilms, aquatic plants and algae. Increased soil erosion due to land use change (e.g. agriculture, deforestation etc.) influences the input of allochthonous OC, which can lead to increased POC formation and sedimentation of terrestrial OC at flocculation boundaries in the landscape, i.e. where coagulation and flocculation processes are prone to occur in the water column. This study investigates the seasonal variation in POC content and flocculation capacity with respect to water quality (elemental composition) in eight river systems (four agricultural and four wooded streams) with headwaters in Exmoor, UK, that drain managed and non-managed land into Bristol Channel. Through flocculation experiments the samples were allowed to flocculate by treatments with added clay and salt standards that simulate the flocculation processes by 1) increased input of sediment into streams, and 2) saline mixing at the estuarine boundary, in order to quantify floc production and investigate POC quality by each process respectively. The results show how floc production, carbon quality and incorporation (e.g. complexation) of metals and rare earth elements (REE) in produced POC and remaining DOC in solution vary in water samples over the season and how

  4. An Integrated Modelling System to Predict Hydrological Processes under Climate and Land-Use/Cover Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Farjad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an integrated modeling system consisting of the physically-based MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 model, a cellular automata model, and general circulation models (GCMs scenarios to investigate the independent and combined effects of future climate and land-use/land-cover (LULC changes on the hydrology of a river system. The integrated modelling system is applied to the Elbow River watershed in southern Alberta, Canada in conjunction with extreme GCM scenarios and two LULC change scenarios in the 2020s and 2050s. Results reveal that LULC change substantially modifies the river flow regime in the east sub-catchment, where rapid urbanization is occurring. It is also shown that the change in LULC causes an increase in peak flows in both the 2020s and 2050s. The impacts of climate and LULC change on streamflow are positively correlated in winter and spring, which intensifies their influence and leads to a significant rise in streamflow, and, subsequently, increases the vulnerability of the watershed to spring floods. This study highlights the importance of using an integrated modeling approach to investigate both the independent and combined impacts of climate and LULC changes on the future of hydrology to improve our understanding of how watersheds will respond to climate and LULC changes.

  5. Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss (Polar SWIFT version 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Rex, Markus

    2017-07-01

    The Polar SWIFT model is a fast scheme for calculating the chemistry of stratospheric ozone depletion in polar winter. It is intended for use in global climate models (GCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs) to enable the simulation of mutual interactions between the ozone layer and climate. To date, climate models often use prescribed ozone fields, since a full stratospheric chemistry scheme is computationally very expensive. Polar SWIFT is based on a set of coupled differential equations, which simulate the polar vortex-averaged mixing ratios of the key species involved in polar ozone depletion on a given vertical level. These species are O3, chemically active chlorine (ClOx), HCl, ClONO2 and HNO3. The only external input parameters that drive the model are the fraction of the polar vortex in sunlight and the fraction of the polar vortex below the temperatures necessary for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Here, we present an update of the Polar SWIFT model introducing several improvements over the original model formulation. In particular, the model is now trained on vortex-averaged reaction rates of the ATLAS Chemistry and Transport Model, which enables a detailed look at individual processes and an independent validation of the different parameterizations contained in the differential equations. The training of the original Polar SWIFT model was based on fitting complete model runs to satellite observations and did not allow for this. A revised formulation of the system of differential equations is developed, which closely fits vortex-averaged reaction rates from ATLAS that represent the main chemical processes influencing ozone. In addition, a parameterization for the HNO3 change by denitrification is included. The rates of change of the concentrations of the chemical species of the Polar SWIFT model are purely chemical rates of change in the new version, whereas in the original Polar SWIFT model, they included a transport effect caused by the

  6. Characterizing Process-Based River and Floodplain Restoration Projects on Federal Lands in Oregon, and Assessing Catalysts and Barriers to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, S.; Jones, J. A.; Gosnell, H.

    2017-12-01

    Process-based restoration, a new approach to river and floodplain management, is being implemented on federal lands across Oregon. These management efforts are aimed at promoting key physical processes in order to improve river ecological function, create diverse habitat, and increase biological productivity for ESA-listed bull trout and spring Chinook salmon. Although the practice is being disseminated across the Pacific Northwest, it remains unclear what is driving aquatic and riparian ecosystem restoration towards this process-based approach and away from form-based methods such as Rosgen's Natural Channel Design. The technical aspects of process-based restoration have been described in the literature (ex. Beechie et al. 2010), but little is known about the practice from a social science perspective, and few case studies exist to assess the impact of these efforts. We combine semi-structured qualitative interviews with management experts and photogrammetric analysis to better understand how complex social processes and changing ideas about aquatic ecosystems are manifesting on the ground in federal land management. This study characterizes process-based river and floodplain restoration projects on federal lands in Oregon, and identifies catalysts and barriers to its implementation. The Deer Creek Floodplain Enhancement project serves as a case study for photogrammetric analysis. To characterize long-term changes at Deer Creek, geomorphic features were mapped and classified using orthoimage mosaics developed from a time series of historic aerial photographs dating back to 1954. 3D Digital Elevation Models (3D-DEMs) were created of portions of the modified sections of Deer Creek and its floodplain immediately before and after restoration using drone-captured aerial photography and a photogrammetric technique called Structure from Motion. These 3D-DEMs have enabled extraction of first-order geomorphic variables to compare pre- and post-project conditions. This

  7. Effects of frying oils' fatty acids profile on the formation of polar lipids components and their retention in French fries over deep-frying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodan; Li, Jinwei; Wang, Yong; Cao, Peirang; Liu, Yuanfa

    2017-12-15

    The effects of frying oils' fatty acids profile on the formation of polar components and their retention in French fries and corresponding deep-fried oils were investigated in the present study, using oils with different fatty acids composition. Our analysis showed that the total polar compounds (TPCs) content in French fries was only slightly lower than that in deep-fried oils, indicating that there was no significant difference considering the amounts of TPCs in French fries and deep-fried oils. Our further analysis showed that different polar components in TPCs distributed differently in deep-fried oils and oils extracted from French fries. Specifically, the level of oligomeric and dimeric triacylglycerols was higher in French fries while oxidized triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols content was higher in deep-fried oils. The different retention of TPCs components in French fries may be explained by their interactions with carbohydrates, which are shown to enhance with the increase of hydrophobic property. Chemometric analysis showed that no correlation between the polar compounds level and saturated fatty acids profile was observed. Meanwhile, the polar compounds content was highly correlated with the formation of trans-C18:1, and a highly positive association between polar compounds and C18:2 content was also observed in palm oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physics with polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    As a distinct field, elementary particle physics is now approximately forty years old. In all that time, only a few of the thousands of experiments that have been performed have made use of spin polarized particle beams (with apologies to those who have studied neutrino interactions, polarized beam are defined to refer to the case in which the experimenter has control over the polarization direction). If the discussion is restricted to spin polarized electron beams, the number of experiments becomes countable with the fingers of one hand (with several to spare). There are two reasons for this lack of interest. The first is that spin polarized beams are difficult to produce, accelerate, and transport. The second reason is that any physical process that can occur during the collision of a polarized particle with another (polarized or not) can also occur during the collision of unpolarized particles. One might ask then, why has any effort been expended on the subject. The answer, at least in the case of polarized electron beams, is that electron accelerators and storage rings have in recent years achieved sufficient energy to begin to probe the weak interaction directly. The weak interaction distinguishes between left- and right-handed fermionic currents. Left-handed particles interact in a fundamentally different way than their right-handed counterparts. If the experimenter wishes to explore or exploit this difference, he (or she) must either prepare the spin state of the incident particles or analyze the spin state of outgoing particles. For reasons of genearlity and improved statistical precision, the former is usually preferable to the latter. The first of these lectures will review some of the techniques necessary for the production, transport, and monitoring of polarized electron (or positron) beams. The second lecture will survey some of the physics possibilities of polarized electron-positron collisions

  9. The emerging land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    for comprehensive information about environmental conditions in combination with other land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction. Finally, the paper......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  10. Land Surface Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Information about land surface water, energy and carbon conditions is of critical importance to real-world applications such as agricultural production, water resource management, flood prediction, water supply, weather and climate forecasting, and environmental preservation. While ground-based observational networks are improving, the only practical way to observe these land surface states on continental to global scales is via satellites. Remote sensing can make spatially comprehensive measurements of various components of the terrestrial system, but it cannot provide information on the entire system (e.g. evaporation), and the observations represent only an instant in time. Land surface process models may be used to predict temporal and spatial terrestrial dynamics, but these predictions are often poor, due to model initialization, parameter and forcing, and physics errors. Therefore, an attractive prospect is to combine the strengths of land surface models and observations (and minimize the weaknesses) to provide a superior terrestrial state estimate. This is the goal of land surface data assimilation. Data Assimilation combines observations into a dynamical model, using the model's equations to provide time continuity and coupling between the estimated fields. Land surface data assimilation aims to utilize both our land surface process knowledge, as embodied in a land surface model, and information that can be gained from observations. Both model predictions and observations are imperfect and we wish to use both synergistically to obtain a more accurate result. Moreover, both contain different kinds of information, that when used together, provide an accuracy level that cannot be obtained individually. Model biases can be mitigated using a complementary calibration and parameterization process. Limited point measurements are often used to calibrate the model(s) and validate the assimilation results. This presentation will provide a brief background on land

  11. Nuclear polarization and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaettli, H.

    1985-01-01

    Different possibilities for the use of polarized nuclei in thermal neutron scattering on condensed matter are reviewed. Highly polarized nuclei are the starting point for studying dipolar magnetic order. Systematic measurement of spin-dependent scattering lengths is possible on samples with polarized nuclei. Highly polarized hydrogen should help to unravel complicated structures in chemistry and biology. The use of polarized proton targets as an energy-independent neutron polarizer in the thermal and epithermal region should be considered afresh. (author)

  12. Impact of vegetation dynamics on hydrological processes in a semi-arid basin by using a land surface-hydrology coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Yang; Lei, Huimin; Yang, Dawen; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Dengfeng; Yuan, Xing

    2017-08-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are widely used to understand the interactions between hydrological processes and vegetation dynamics, which is important for the attribution and prediction of regional hydrological variations. However, most LSMs have large uncertainties in their representations of ecohydrological processes due to deficiencies in hydrological parameterizations. In this study, the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) LSM was modified with an advanced runoff generation and flow routing scheme, resulting in a new land surface-hydrology coupled model, CLM-GBHM. Both models were implemented in the Wudinghe River Basin (WRB), which is a semi-arid basin located in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, China. Compared with CLM, CLM-GBHM increased the Nash Sutcliffe efficiency for daily river discharge simulation (1965–1969) from 0.03 to 0.23 and reduced the relative bias in water table depth simulations (2010–2012) from 32.4% to 13.4%. The CLM-GBHM simulations with static, remotely sensed and model-predicted vegetation conditions showed that the vegetation in the WRB began to recover in the 2000s due to the Grain for Green Program but had not reached the same level of vegetation cover as regions in natural eco-hydrological equilibrium. Compared with a simulation using remotely sensed vegetation cover, the simulation with a dynamic vegetation model that considers only climate-induced change showed a 10.3% increase in evapotranspiration, a 47.8% decrease in runoff, and a 62.7% and 71.3% deceleration in changing trend of the outlet river discharge before and after the year 2000, respectively. This result suggests that both natural and anthropogenic factors should be incorporated in dynamic vegetation models to better simulate the eco-hydrological cycle.

  13. Determining Polarities Of Distant Lightning Strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Brook, Marx

    1990-01-01

    Method for determining polarities of lightning strokes more than 400 km away. Two features of signal from each stroke correlated. New method based on fact each stroke observed thus far for which polarity determined unambiguously, initial polarity of tail same as polarity of initial deflection before initial-deflection signal altered by propagation effects. Receiving station equipped with electric-field-change antenna coupled to charge amplifier having time constant of order of 1 to 10 seconds. Output of amplifier fed to signal-processing circuitry, which determines initial polarity of tail.

  14. Nuclear physics with polarized particles

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen Schieck, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of spin-polarization observables in reactions of nuclei and particles is of great utility and advantage when the effects of single-spin sub-states are to be investigated. Indeed, the unpolarized differential cross-section encompasses the averaging over the spin states of the particles, and thus loses details of the interaction process. This introductory text combines, in a single volume, course-based lecture notes on spin physics and on polarized-ion sources with the aim of providing a concise yet self-contained starting point for newcomers to the field, as well as for lecturers in search of suitable material for their courses and seminars. A significant part of the book is devoted to introducing the formal theory-a description of polarization and of nuclear reactions with polarized particles. The remainder of the text describes the physical basis of methods and devices necessary to perform experiments with polarized particles and to measure polarization and polarization effects in nuclear rea...

  15. Polarization and Persuasion: Integrating the Elaboration Likelihood Model with Explanations of Group Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau, Paul A.

    Interest has recently focused on group polarization as a function of attitude processes. Several recent reviewers have challenged polarization researchers to integrate the explanations of polarization to existing theories of attitude change. This review suggests that there exists a clear similarity between the social comparison and persuasive…

  16. Neutron polarization in polarized 3He targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Payne, G.L.; Bernstein, A.M.; Chupp, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    Simple formulas for the neutron and proton polarizations in polarized 3 He targets are derived assuming (1) quasielastic final states; (2) no final-state interactions; (3) no meson-exchange currents; (4) large momentum transfers; (5) factorizability of 3 He SU(4) response-function components. Numerical results from a wide variety of bound-state solutions of the Faddeev equations are presented. It is found that this simple model predicts the polarization of neutrons in a fully polarized 3 He target to be 87%, while protons should have a slight residual polarization of -2.7%. Numerical studies show that this model works very well for quasielastic electron scattering

  17. Radiating on oceanic islands: patterns and processes of speciation in the land snail genus Theba (Risso 1826.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Greve

    Full Text Available Island radiations have played a major role in shaping our current understanding of allopatric, sympatric and parapatric speciation. However, the fact that species divergence correlates with island size emphasizes the importance of geographic isolation (allopatry in speciation. Based on molecular and morphological data, we investigated the diversification of the land snail genus Theba on the two Canary Islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. Due to the geological history of both islands, this study system provides ideal conditions to investigate the interplay of biogeography, dispersal ability and differentiation in generating species diversity. Our analyses demonstrated extensive cryptic diversification of Theba on these islands, probably driven mainly by non-adaptive allopatric differentiation and secondary gene flow. In a few cases, we observed a complete absence of gene flow among sympatrically distributed forms suggesting an advanced stage of speciation. On the Jandía peninsula genome scans suggested genotype-environment associations and potentially adaptive diversification of two closely related Theba species to different ecological environments. We found support for the idea that genetic differentiation was enhanced by divergent selection in different environments. The diversification of Theba on both islands is therefore best explained by a mixture of non-adaptive and adaptive speciation, promoted by ecological and geomorphological factors.

  18. Radiating on oceanic islands: patterns and processes of speciation in the land snail genus Theba (Risso 1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Carola; Gimnich, France; Hutterer, Rainer; Misof, Bernhard; Haase, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Island radiations have played a major role in shaping our current understanding of allopatric, sympatric and parapatric speciation. However, the fact that species divergence correlates with island size emphasizes the importance of geographic isolation (allopatry) in speciation. Based on molecular and morphological data, we investigated the diversification of the land snail genus Theba on the two Canary Islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. Due to the geological history of both islands, this study system provides ideal conditions to investigate the interplay of biogeography, dispersal ability and differentiation in generating species diversity. Our analyses demonstrated extensive cryptic diversification of Theba on these islands, probably driven mainly by non-adaptive allopatric differentiation and secondary gene flow. In a few cases, we observed a complete absence of gene flow among sympatrically distributed forms suggesting an advanced stage of speciation. On the Jandía peninsula genome scans suggested genotype-environment associations and potentially adaptive diversification of two closely related Theba species to different ecological environments. We found support for the idea that genetic differentiation was enhanced by divergent selection in different environments. The diversification of Theba on both islands is therefore best explained by a mixture of non-adaptive and adaptive speciation, promoted by ecological and geomorphological factors.

  19. Fine-Scale Layering of Mars Polar Deposits and Signatures of Ice Content in Nonpolar Material From Multiband SHARAD Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Morgan, Gareth A.

    2018-02-01

    The variation of Shallow Radar (SHARAD) echo strength with frequency reveals material dielectric losses and polar layer properties. Loss tangents for Elysium and Amazonis Planitiae deposits are consistent with volcanic flows and sediments, while the Medusae Fossae Formation, lineated valley fill, and lobate debris aprons have low losses consistent with a major component of water ice. Mantling materials in Arcadia and Utopia Planitiae have higher losses, suggesting they are not dominated by ice over large fractions of their thickness. In Gemina Lingula, there are frequent deviations from a simple dependence of loss on depth. Within reflector packets, the brightest reflectors are often different among the frequency subbands, and there are cases of reflectors that occur in only the high- or low-frequency echoes. Many polar radar reflections must arise from multiple thin interfaces, or single deposits of appropriate thickness, that display resonant scattering behaviors. Reflector properties may be linked to climate-controlled polar dust deposition.

  20. Using Polarization features of visible light for automatic landmine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, W. de; Schavemaker, J.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the usage of polarization features of visible light for automatic landmine detection. The first section gives an introduction to land-mine detection and the usage of camera systems. In section 2 detection concepts and methods that use polarization features are described.

  1. Analysis of land suitability for urban development in Ahwaz County in southwestern Iran using fuzzy logic and analytic network process (ANP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Maryam; Zarkesh, Mir Masoud Kheirkhah; Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Jozi, Seyed Ali; Sharifi, Esmail

    2016-08-01

    The ever-increasing development of cities due to population growth and migration has led to unplanned constructions and great changes in urban spatial structure, especially the physical development of cities in unsuitable places, which requires conscious guidance and fundamental organization. It is therefore necessary to identify suitable sites for future development of cities and prevent urban sprawl as one of the main concerns of urban managers and planners. In this study, to determine the suitable sites for urban development in the county of Ahwaz, the effective biophysical and socioeconomic criteria (including 27 sub-criteria) were initially determined based on literature review and interviews with certified experts. In the next step, a database of criteria and sub-criteria was prepared. Standardization of values and unification of scales in map layers were done using fuzzy logic. The criteria and sub-criteria were weighted by analytic network process (ANP) in the Super Decision software. Next, the map layers were overlaid using weighted linear combination (WLC) in the GIS software. According to the research findings, the final land suitability map was prepared with five suitability classes of very high (5.86 %), high (31.93 %), medium (38.61 %), low (17.65 %), and very low (5.95 %). Also, in terms of spatial distribution, suitable lands for urban development are mainly located in the central and southern parts of the Ahwaz County. It is expected that integration of fuzzy logic and ANP model will provide a better decision support tool compared with other models. The developed model can also be used in the land suitability analysis of other cities.

  2. 8 CFR 286.9 - Fee for processing applications and issuing documentation at land border Ports-of-Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.9 Fee for processing applications and issuing... Card, issued by the DOS, or a passport and combined B-1/B-2 visa and non-biometric BCC (or similar...

  3. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepost, R.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented

  4. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  5. Anisotropy and linear polarization of radiative processes in energetic ion-atom collisions; Untersuchung zur Anisotropie und linearen Polarisation radiativer Prozesse in energiereichen Ion-Atom-Stoessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Guenter

    2010-06-16

    In the present thesis the linear polarization of radiation emitted in energetic ion-atom collisions at the ESR storage ring was measured by applying a novel type of position, timing and energy sensitive X-ray detector as a Compton polarimeter. In contrast to previous measurements, that mainly concentrate on studies of the spectral and angular distribution, the new detectors allowed the first polarization study of the Ly-{alpha}{sub 1} radiation (2p{sub 3/2}{yields}1s{sub 1/2}) in U{sup 91+}. Owing to the high precision of the polarimeters applied here, the experimental results indicate a significant depolarization of the Ly-{alpha}{sub 1} radiation caused by the interference of the E1 and M2 transition branches. Moreover, the current investigation shows that measurements of the linear polarization in combination with angular distribution studies provide a model-independent probe for the ratio of the E1 and M2 transition amplitudes and, consequently, of the corresponding transition probabilities. In addition, a first measurement of the linear polarization as well as an angular distribution study of the electron-nucleus Bremsstrahlung arising from ion-atom collisions was performed. The experimental results obtained were compared to exact relativistic calculations and, in case of the Bremsstrahlung, to a semirelativistic treatment. In general, good agreement was found between theoretical predictions and experimental findings. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of recoil proton polarization in the process of. pi. /sup -/ photoproduction from neutrons in the energy range between 700 and 1200 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, H; Arai, I; Fujii, T; Ikeda, H; Iwasaki, H; Kajiura, N; Kamae, T; Kawabata, S; Ogawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1980-05-01

    The recoil proton polarization for ..gamma..n ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/p was measured around the third resonance region. Both momentum vectors of the proton and the pion were determined by the magnetic spectrometers. The proton polarization was measured by means of proton-carbon scattering in the polarization analyzer located behind the proton spectrometer. Below 900 MeV incident photon energy, our data are consistent with the other existing experimental data (THETA*sub..pi.. = 90/sup 0/) and the predictions of partial-wave analyses. Above 1000 MeV, however, a large discrepancy was observed between our data and the predictions of the partial-wave analyses. This discrepancy stands out as the pion c.m. angle increases. A new partial-wave analysis was made for ..gamma..n ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/p including our polarization data, and the accuracy of the experimentally determined electromagnetic coupling constants of the third resonances were greatly improved. In particular, a finite amount of the helicity 3/2 amplitude for the ..gamma..n ..-->.. F/sub 15/(1688) resonance was obtained against the predictions of the quark models, by Copley, Karl and Obryk and by Feynman, Kislinger and Ravendal but in agreement with the relativistic quark models of Sugimoto and Toya, and Kubota and Ohta.

  7. Analysis of land degradation processes on a tiger bush plateau in South West Niger using MODIS and LANDSAT TM/ETM+ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Edoardo; Maselli, Fabio; Tarchiani, Vieri; Vignaroli, Patrizio

    2017-10-01

    Remote sensing digital image analysis has been applied to monitor land clearing and degradation processes on a plateau covered by tiger bush near Niamey in South West Niger, where signs of severe landscape degradation due to fuelwood supply have been observed in the last decades. A MODIS NDVI dataset (2000-2015) and five LANDSAT images (1986-2012) were used to identify spatial and temporal dynamics and to emphasize areas of greater degradation. The study indicates that the land clearing found by previous investigations in the second part of the 20th century is still ongoing, with a decreasing trend of MODIS NDVI values recorded in the period 2000-2015. This trend appeared to be linked to an increase in bare soil areas that was demonstrated by analysis of LANDSAT SAVI images. The investigation also indicated that rates of degradation are stronger in more deteriorated areas like those located nearer Niamey; degradation patterns also tend to increase from the inner areas to the edges of the plateau. These results attest to the urgency to develop effective environmental preservation policies and find alternative solutions for domestic energy supply.

  8. Evaluation of global continental hydrology as simulated by the Land-surface Processes and eXchanges Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Murray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Global freshwater resources are sensitive to changes in climate, land cover and population density and distribution. The Land-surface Processes and eXchanges Dynamic Global Vegetation Model is a recent development of the Lund-Potsdam-Jena model with improved representation of fire-vegetation interactions. It allows simultaneous consideration of the effects of changes in climate, CO2 concentration, natural vegetation and fire regime shifts on the continental hydrological cycle. Here the model is assessed for its ability to simulate large-scale spatial and temporal runoff patterns, in order to test its suitability for modelling future global water resources. Comparisons are made against observations of streamflow and a composite dataset of modelled and observed runoff (1986–1995 and are also evaluated against soil moisture data and the Palmer Drought Severity Index. The model captures the main features of the geographical distribution of global runoff, but tends to overestimate runoff in much of the Northern Hemisphere (where this can be somewhat accounted for by freshwater consumption and the unrealistic accumulation of the simulated winter snowpack in permafrost regions and the southern tropics. Interannual variability is represented reasonably well at the large catchment scale, as are seasonal flow timings and monthly high and low flow events. Further improvements to the simulation of intra-annual runoff might be achieved via the addition of river flow routing. Overestimates of runoff in some basins could likely be corrected by the inclusion of transmission losses and direct-channel evaporation.

  9. Sustainable intensification of agricultural systems in combination with biorefinery processing can produce more biomass for bioenergy without imposing indirect land use change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Uffe; Larsen, S.; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    EERA Bioenergy Workshops. SP4: Land Use Aspects in Relation to Biomass Development. London, June 2nd, 2016.......EERA Bioenergy Workshops. SP4: Land Use Aspects in Relation to Biomass Development. London, June 2nd, 2016....

  10. Rehabilitation of disturbed land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, L.C. [Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    This chapter discusses the objectives of rehabilitation of lands in Australian disturbed by mining. It gives advice on rehabilitation planning and outlines the factors influencing post-mining land use and rehabilitation strategies, including climate, topography, hydrology, properties of soils, overburden and mineral processing wastes, flora and fauna and social considerations. Finally, the key elements of a rehabilitation plan are discussed, namely: landscape reconstruction; selective handling of overburden; and establishment and maintenance of a vegetative cover. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  11. PolarHub: A Global Hub for Polar Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a NSF project in developing a large-scale web crawler PolarHub to discover automatically the distributed polar dataset in the format of OGC web services (OWS) in the cyberspace. PolarHub is a machine robot; its goal is to visit as many webpages as possible to find those containing information about polar OWS, extract this information and store it into the backend data repository. This is a very challenging task given huge data volume of webpages on the Web. Three unique features was introduced in PolarHub to make it distinctive from earlier crawler solutions: (1) a multi-task, multi-user, multi-thread support to the crawling tasks; (2) an extensive use of thread pool and Data Access Object (DAO) design patterns to separate persistent data storage and business logic to achieve high extendibility of the crawler tool; (3) a pattern-matching based customizable crawling algorithm to support discovery of multi-type geospatial web services; and (4) a universal and portable client-server communication mechanism combining a server-push and client pull strategies for enhanced asynchronous processing. A series of experiments were conducted to identify the impact of crawling parameters to the overall system performance. The geographical distribution pattern of all PolarHub identified services is also demonstrated. We expect this work to make a major contribution to the field of geospatial information retrieval and geospatial interoperability, to bridge the gap between data provider and data consumer, and to accelerate polar science by enhancing the accessibility and reusability of adequate polar data.

  12. Land-atmosphere interaction and disaster-causing process of drought in northern China: observation and experiment (DroughtPEX_China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaohui

    2017-04-01

    Drought is one of the most common and frequent nature disasters in the world, particularly in China under the continental monsoonal climate with great variation. About thirty percent of economic loss caused by natural disasters is contributed by droughts in China, which is by far the most damaging weather disasters because of its long duration and extensive hazard areas. Droughts not only have a serious impact on the agriculture, water resources, ecology, natural environment, but also seriously affect the socio-economic such as human health, energy and transportation. Worsely, under the background of climate change, droughts in show increases in frequency, duration and scope in many places around the world, particularly northern China. Nowadays, droughts have aroused extensive concern of the scientists, governments and international community, and became one of the important scientific issues in geoscience research. However, most of researches on droughts in China so far were focused on the causes or regulars of one type of droughts (the atmosphere, agriculture or hydrological) from the perspective of the atmospheric circulation anomalies. Few of them considered a whole cycle of the drought-forming process from atmosphere-land interaction to agricultural/ecological one in terms of the land-atmosphere interaction; meanwhile, the feedback mechanism with the drought and land-atmosphere interaction is still unclear as well. All of them is because of lack of the relevant comprehensive observation experiment. "Land-atmosphere interaction and disaster-causing process of drought in northern China: observation and experiment" (DroughtPEX_China)is just launched in this requirement and background. DroughtPEX_China is supported by Special Scientific Research Fund of Public Welfare Industry (Meteorological) of China (Grant No.GYHY201506001)—"Drought Meteorology Scientific Research Project—the disaster-causing process and mechanism of drought in northern China". This project

  13. Polarized neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Novitskij, V.V.; Alfimenkov, V.P.; Galinskij, E.M.; Mareev, Yu.D.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason', L.; Tsulaya, V.M.; Tsulaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The polarized neutron spectrometer, intended for studying the interaction of polarized neutrons with nuclei and condensed media in the area of energies from thermal up to several electron-volt, is developed at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna). Diffraction on the Co(92%)-Fe(8%) magnetized monocrystals is used for the neutron polarization and polarization analysis. The neutron polarization within the whole energy range equals ∼ 95% [ru

  14. CMB polarization at large angular scales: Data analysis of the POLAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, Christopher W.; Keating, Brian G.; Oliveira-Costa, Angelica de; Tegmark, Max; Timbie, Peter T.

    2003-01-01

    The coming flood of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments, spurred by the recent detection of CMB polarization by the DASI and WMAP instruments, will be confronted by many new analysis tasks specific to polarization. For the analysis of CMB polarization data sets, the devil is truly in the details. With this in mind, we present details of the data analysis for the POLAR experiment, which recently led to the tightest upper limits on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation at large angular scales. We discuss the data selection process, map-making algorithms, offset removal, and likelihood analysis which were used to find upper limits on the polarization. Stated using the modern convention for reporting CMB Stokes parameters, these limits are 5.0 μK on both E- and B-type polarization at 95% confidence. Finally, we discuss simulations used to test our analysis techniques and to probe the fundamental limitations of the experiment

  15. Coupling Computer-Aided Process Simulation and Estimations of Emissions and Land Use for Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A methodology is described for developing a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a chemical manufacturing process to support the application of life cycle assessment in the design and regulation of sustainable chemicals. The inventories were derived by first applying proces...

  16. Forest landscape analysis and design: a process for developing and implementing land management objectives for landscape patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Diaz; Dean. Apostol

    1992-01-01

    This publication presents a Landscape Design and Analysis Process, along with some simple methods and tools for describing landscapes and their function. The information is qualitative in nature and highlights basic concepts, but does not address landscape ecology in great depth. Readers are encouraged to consult the list of selected references in Chapter 2 if they...

  17. Land Use and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  18. Polarization in free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadichev, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Polarization of electromagnetic radiation is required very often in numerous scientific and industrial applications: studying of crystals, molecules and intermolecular interaction high-temperature superconductivity, semiconductors and their transitions, polymers and liquid crystals. Using polarized radiation allows to obtain important data (otherwise inaccessible) in astrophysics, meteorology and oceanology. It is promising in chemistry and biology for selective influence on definite parts of molecules in chain synthesis reactions, precise control of various processes at cell and subcell levels, genetic engineering etc. Though polarization methods are well elaborated in optics, they can fail in far-infrared, vacuum-ultraviolet and X-ray regions because of lack of suitable non-absorbing materials and damaging of optical elements at high specific power levels. Therefore, it is of some interest to analyse polarization of untreated FEL radiation obtained with various types of undulators, with and without axial magnetic field. The polarization is studied using solutions for electron orbits in various cases: plane or helical undulator with or without axial magnetic field, two plane undulators, a combination of right- and left-handed helical undulators with equal periods, but different field amplitudes. Some examples of how a desired polarization (elliptical circular or linear) can be obtained or changed quickly, which is necessary in many experiments, are given.

  19. An evaluation of machine processing techniques of ERTS-1 data for user applications. [urban land use and soil association mapping in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, D.

    1974-01-01

    A broad study is described to evaluate a set of machine analysis and processing techniques applied to ERTS-1 data. Based on the analysis results in urban land use analysis and soil association mapping together with previously reported results in general earth surface feature identification and crop species classification, a profile of general applicability of this procedure is beginning to emerge. Put in the hands of a user who knows well the information needed from the data and also is familiar with the region to be analyzed it appears that significantly useful information can be generated by these methods. When supported by preprocessing techniques such as the geometric correction and temporal registration capabilities, final products readily useable by user agencies appear possible. In parallel with application, through further research, there is much potential for further development of these techniques both with regard to providing higher performance and in new situations not yet studied.

  20. From Takeoff to Landing: Looking at the Design Process for the Development of NASA Blast at Thanksgiving Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Ashton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss the process of design used to develop and design the NASA Blast exhibition at Thanksgiving Point, a museum complex in Lehi, Utah. This was a class project for the Advanced Instructional Design Class at Brigham Young University. In an attempt to create a new discourse (Krippendorff, 2006 for Thanksgiving Point visitors and staff members, the design class used a very fluid design approach by utilizing brainstorming, researching, class member personas, and prototyping to create ideas for the new exhibition. Because of the nature of the experience, the design class developed their own techniques to enhance the process of their design. The result of the design was a compelling narrative that brought all the elements of the exhibition together in a cohesive piece.

  1. Solar Spectral Lines with Special Polarization Properties for the Calibration of Instrument Polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Casini, R.; Alemán, T. del Pino; Judge, P. G. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research 1, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    We investigate atomic transitions that have previously been identified as having zero polarization from the Zeeman effect. Our goal is to identify spectral lines that can be used for the calibration of instrumental polarization of large astronomical and solar telescopes, such as the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope, which is currently under construction on Haleakala. We use a numerical model that takes into account the generation of scattering polarization and its modification by the presence of a magnetic field of arbitrary strength. We adopt values for the Landé factors from spectroscopic measurements or semi-empirical results, thus relaxing the common assumption of LS-coupling previously used in the literature. The mechanisms dominating the polarization of particular transitions are identified, and we summarize groups of various spectral lines useful for the calibration of spectropolarimetric instruments, classified according to their polarization properties.

  2. Polarization-sensitive color in butterfly scales: polarization conversion from ridges with reflecting elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Tang, Yiwen; Meng, Jinsong; Wang, Ge; Zhou, Han; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2014-11-03

    Polarization-sensitive color originates from polarization-dependent reflection or transmission, exhibiting abundant light information, including intensity, spectral distribution, and polarization. A wide range of butterflies are physiologically sensitive to polarized light, but the origins of polarized signal have not been fully understood. Here we systematically investigate the colorful scales of six species of butterfly to reveal the physical origins of polarization-sensitive color. Microscopic optical images under crossed polarizers exhibit their polarization-sensitive characteristic, and micro-structural characterizations clarify their structural commonality. In the case of the structural scales that have deep ridges, the polarization-sensitive color related with scale azimuth is remarkable. Periodic ridges lead to the anisotropic effective refractive indices in the parallel and perpendicular grating orientations, which achieves form-birefringence, resulting in the phase difference of two different component polarized lights. Simulated results show that ridge structures with reflecting elements reflect and rotate the incident p-polarized light into s-polarized light. The dimensional parameters and shapes of grating greatly affect the polarization conversion process, and the triangular deep grating extends the outstanding polarization conversion effect from the sub-wavelength period to the period comparable to visible light wavelength. The parameters of ridge structures in butterfly scales have been optimized to fulfill the polarization-dependent reflection for secret communication. The structural and physical origin of polarization conversion provides a more comprehensive perspective on the creation of polarization-sensitive color in butterfly wing scales. These findings show great potential in anti-counterfeiting technology and advanced optical material design.

  3. A global assessment of gross and net land change dynamics for current conditions and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Prestele, Reinhard; Verburg, Peter H.

    2018-05-01

    The consideration of gross land changes, meaning all area gains and losses within a pixel or administrative unit (e.g. country), plays an essential role in the estimation of total land changes. Gross land changes affect the magnitude of total land changes, which feeds back to the attribution of biogeochemical and biophysical processes related to climate change in Earth system models. Global empirical studies on gross land changes are currently lacking. Whilst the relevance of gross changes for global change has been indicated in the literature, it is not accounted for in future land change scenarios. In this study, we extract gross and net land change dynamics from large-scale and high-resolution (30-100 m) remote sensing products to create a new global gross and net change dataset. Subsequently, we developed an approach to integrate our empirically derived gross and net changes with the results of future simulation models by accounting for the gross and net change addressed by the land use model and the gross and net change that is below the resolution of modelling. Based on our empirical data, we found that gross land change within 0.5° grid cells was substantially larger than net changes in all parts of the world. As 0.5° grid cells are a standard resolution of Earth system models, this leads to an underestimation of the amount of change. This finding contradicts earlier studies, which assumed gross land changes to appear in shifting cultivation areas only. Applied in a future scenario, the consideration of gross land changes led to approximately 50 % more land changes globally compared to a net land change representation. Gross land changes were most important in heterogeneous land systems with multiple land uses (e.g. shifting cultivation, smallholder farming, and agro-forestry systems). Moreover, the importance of gross changes decreased over time due to further polarization and intensification of land use. Our results serve as an empirical database for

  4. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1985-01-01

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  5. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  6. Land Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is working to develop methods and guidance to manage and clean up contaminated land, groundwater and nutrient pollution as well as develop innovative approaches to managing materials and waste including energy recovery.

  7. Polarization Bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Korol, Andrey V

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces and reviews both theory and applications of polarizational bremsstrahlung, i.e. the electromagnetic radiation emitted during collisions of charged particles with structured, thus polarizable targets, such as atoms, molecules and clusters.   The subject, following the first experimental evidence a few decades ago, has gained importance through a number of modern applications.  Thus, the study of several radiative mechanisms is expected to lead to the design of novel light sources, operating in various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Conversely, the analysis of the spectral and angular distribution of the photon emission constitutes a new tool for extracting information on the interaction of the colliding particles, and on their internal structure and dynamical properties.   Last but not least, accurate quantitative descriptions of the photon emission processes determine the radiative energy losses of particles in various media, thereby providing essential  information required f...

  8. Salta’s elite during the state´s formation process, 1850-1880. Regional trade and land distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Quintián

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The following paper analyzes cadastres and provincial census taken between 1856 and 1875 to identify the salteño landowning elite. The study begins with the synthesis of the intraregional trade involving the landowning elite of Salta; the study describes the new tax structure created in 1855 to characterize wealthy families of the province. The analysis combines the detailed description of the sources used with the narrative of some facts that contribute to understand the complex relationship between the landowning elite and the state-formation process

  9. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, V.A.; von Winbush, S.

    1987-05-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500/degree/C, electrolysis at a voltage not more negative that about /minus/1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  10. Patterns and processes of nutrient transfers from land to water: a catchment approach to evaluate Good Agricultural Practice in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellander, P.-E.; Melland, A. R.; Shortle, G.; Wall, D.; Mechan, S.; Buckley, C.; Fealy, R.; Jordan, P.

    2009-04-01

    Eutrophication of fresh, transitional and coastal waters by excessive nutrient inputs is one of the most widespread water quality problems in developed countries. Sources of nutrient nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) can come from a multiplicity of sources and be dependent on numerous hydrological controls from catchments with both urban and agricultural landuses. Aquatic impacts are widely reported as a result of excessive nutrient transfers from land to water and include changes in ecological integrity and loss of amenity. In the European Union, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and associated Directives are the key structures with which member states must develop national and often trans-national polices to deal with issues of water resources management. The linked Nitrates Directive is particularly concerned with integrating sustainable agriculture and good water quality objectives and is written into national polices. In Ireland this policy is the Nitrates Directive National Action Programme (NAP), Statutory Instruction 378, Good Agricultural Practise regulation, and amongst other things, sets targets and limits on the use of organic and inorganic fertilisers, soil fertility and slurry/fertiliser spreading and cultivation times. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, Teagasc, the Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority, is undertaking a catchment scale audit on sources, sinks, and changes in nutrient use and export over several years. The Agricultural Catchments Programme is based on a science-stakeholder-management partnership to generate knowledge and specifically to protect water quality from nitrogen and phosphorus transfers within the constraints of the requirements of modern Irish agricultural practises. Eight catchments of 5-12 km2 have been selected for the programme to represent a range of agricultural intensities and vulnerabilities to nitrogen and phosphorus loss including catchments that are situated on permeable and impermeable

  11. Assessment on the rates and potentials of soil organic carbon sequestration in agricultural lands in Japan using a process-based model and spatially explicit land-use change inventories - Part 2: Future potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagasaki, Y.; Shirato, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Future potentials of the sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural lands in Japan were estimated using a simulation system we recently developed to simulate SOC stock change at country-scale under varying land-use change, climate, soil, and agricultural practices, in a spatially explicit manner. Simulation was run from 1970 to 2006 with historical inventories, and subsequently to 2020 with future scenarios of agricultural activity comprised of various agricultural policy targets advocated by the Japanese government. Furthermore, the simulation was run subsequently until 2100 while forcing no temporal changes in land-use and agricultural activity to investigate duration and course of SOC stock change at country scale. A scenario with an increased rate of organic carbon input to agricultural fields by intensified crop rotation in combination with the suppression of conversion of agricultural lands to other land-use types was found to have a greater reduction of CO2 emission by enhanced soil carbon sequestration, but only under a circumstance in which the converted agricultural lands will become settlements that were considered to have a relatively lower rate of organic carbon input. The size of relative reduction of CO2 emission in this scenario was comparable to that in another contrasting scenario (business-as-usual scenario of agricultural activity) in which a relatively lower rate of organic matter input to agricultural fields was assumed in combination with an increased rate of conversion of the agricultural fields to unmanaged grasslands through abandonment. Our simulation experiment clearly demonstrated that net-net-based accounting on SOC stock change, defined as the differences between the emissions and removals during the commitment period and the emissions and removals during a previous period (base year or base period of Kyoto Protocol), can be largely influenced by variations in future climate. Whereas baseline-based accounting, defined

  12. Specific microbial gene abundances and soil parameters contribute to C, N, and greenhouse gas process rates after land use change in Southern Amazonian Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Renato Lammel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecological processes regulating soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N cycles are still poorly understood, especially in the world’s largest agricultural frontier in Southern Amazonia. We analyzed soil parameters in samples from pristine rainforest and after land use change to pasture and crop fields, and correlated them with abundance of functional and phylogenetic marker genes (amoA, nirK, nirS, norB, nosZ, nifH, mcrA, pmoA, and 16S/18S rRNA. Additionally, we integrated these parameters using path analysis and multiple regressions. Following forest removal, concentrations of soil C and N declined, and pH and nutrient levels increased, which influenced microbial abundances and biogeochemical processes. A seasonal trend was observed, suggesting that abundances of microbial groups were restored to near native levels after the dry winter fallow. Integration of the marker gene abundances with soil parameters using path analysis and multiple regressions provided good predictions of biogeochemical processes, such as the fluxes of NO3, N2O, CO2, and CH4. In the wet season, agricultural soil showed the highest abundance of nitrifiers (amoA and Archaea, however forest soils showed the highest abundances of denitrifiers (nirK, nosZ and high N, which correlated with increased N2O emissions. Methanogens (mcrA and methanotrophs (pmoA were more abundant in forest soil, but methane flux was highest in pasture sites, which was related to soil compaction. Rather than analyzing direct correlations, the data integration using multivariate tools provided a better overview of biogeochemical processes. Overall, in the wet season, land use change from forest to agriculture reduced the abundance of different functional microbial groups related to the soil C and N cycles; integrating the gene abundance data and soil parameters provided a comprehensive overview of these interactions. Path analysis and multiple regressions addressed the need for more comprehensive approaches

  13. The RHIC polarized H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenski, A., E-mail: zelenski@bnl.gov; Atoian, G.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    A novel polarization technique had been successfully implemented for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) polarized H{sup −} ion source upgrade to higher intensity and polarization. In this technique, a proton beam inside the high magnetic field solenoid is produced by ionization of the atomic hydrogen beam (from external source) in the He-gaseous ionizer cell. Further proton polarization is produced in the process of polarized electron capture from the optically pumped Rb vapor. The use of high-brightness primary beam and large cross sections of charge-exchange cross sections resulted in production of high intensity H{sup −} ion beam of 85% polarization. The source very reliably delivered polarized beam in the RHIC Run-2013 and Run-2015. High beam current, brightness, and polarization resulted in 75% polarization at 23 GeV out of Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and 60%-65% beam polarization at 100-250 GeV colliding beams in RHIC.

  14. METHODOLOGICAL BASIS IMPOSING RESTRICTIONS IN LAND USE, BURDENED LAND RIGHTS DURING LAND TENURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosh J.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The question of balanced consolidation of social legislation in a reasonable ratio of land rights and the interests of society as a whole, as well as local communities, citizens and legal entities established by them are general in nature and require specificity it is. Proved that one way of solving this problem is the establishment of restoictions of land rights, restrictions in land use. However, the mechanism of regulation establishment, implementation and termination of restrictions on the rights to land are not very functional and needs improvement. Current legislation in Ukraine does not contain a balanced set of regulations that would determine the nature and objectives of the restrictions, including encumbrances of land rights, their types, the reasons establishing and implementing restrictions of ownership and other rights to land and so on. Based on our analysis, we provide scientifically grounded suggestions on improving the legal framework, particularly, in terms of restrictions on land use and registration in the land management process, as an important means of influence on those rights in order to ensure rational land use and protection it is. Proved that the efficiency of administrative decisions during setting restrictions on land use purpose and usage of land is possible on the basis of land zoning, thus, it is necessary to adopt the Law of Ukraine "On land zoning." In addition, the current classification of land use restrictions, which was proposed by prominent scientists in Ukraine AM Tretyak (classification of restrictions in land use by functional features, and D.S. Dobryak and D.I. Babmindra (classification of restrictions on land use based on their placement by owners and land users, is complemented by types, namely: legal, environmental, ecological, technological, sanitation, urban and special. In the result of scientific studies,we have proposed a model of methodological process of land management actions on formation

  15. Distributed simulation of long-term hydrological processes in a medium-sized periurban catchment under changing land use and rainwater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbas, Mériem; Braud, Isabelle; Branger, Flora; Kralisch, Sven

    2013-04-01

    Growing urbanization and related anthropogenic processes have a high potential to influence hydrological process dynamics. Typical consequences are an increase of surface imperviousness and modifications of water flow paths due to artificial channels and barriers (combined and separated system, sewer overflow device, roads, ditches, etc.). Periurban catchments, at the edge of large cities, are especially affected by fast anthropogenic modifications. They usually consist of a combination of natural areas, rural areas with dispersed settlements and urban areas mostly covered by built zones and spots of natural surfaces. In the context of the European Water Framework Directive (2000) and the Floods Directive (2007), integrated and sustainable solutions are needed to reduce flooding risks and river pollution at the scale of urban conglomerations or whole catchments. Their thorough management requires models able to assess the vulnerability of the territory and to compare the impact of different rainwater management options and planning issues. To address this question, we propose a methodology based on a multi-scale distributed hydrological modelling approach. It aims at quantifying the impact of ongoing urbanization and stormwater management on the long-term hydrological cycle in medium-sized periurban watershed. This method focuses on the understanding and formalization of dominant periurban hydrological processes from small scales (few ha to few km2) to larger scales (few hundred km2). The main objectives are to 1) simulate both urban and rural hydrological processes and 2) test the effects of different long-term land use and water management scenarios. The method relies on several tools and data: a distributed hydrological model adapted to the characteristics of periurban areas, land use and land cover maps from different dates (past, present, future) and information about rainwater management collected from local authorities. For the application of the method, the

  16. Non-technical factors impacting on the decision making processes in environmental remediation. Influences on the decision making process such as cost, planned land use and public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, including the legacy of past practices and accidents. In response to this, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation: factors important for formulating a strategy for environmental remediation; site characterisation techniques and strategies; assessment of remediation technologies; assessment of technical options for cleanup of contaminated media; post-restoration compliance monitoring; assessment of the costs of remediation measures; remediation of low-level disperse radioactive contaminations in the environment. While this project mainly focus on technological aspects, non-technical factors will be influencing the decision making process in remediation decisively. Often their influence is only tacitly accepted and not explicitly acknowledged by the responsible decision makers. This makes it difficult to trace the decision making process in the event that it has to be revisited. The present publication attempts to make these factors explicit and to present methods to include them consciously into the decision making process

  17. Operating the EOSDIS at the land processes DAAC managing expectations, requirements, and performance across agencies, missions, instruments, systems, and user communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvelage, T.A.; ,

    2002-01-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  18. Ukraine Agricultural Land Market Formation Preconditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgen Dankevych

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical land relations reforming principles were reviewed.Land relations in agriculture transformation process was studied. The land use features were detected and agricultural land use efficiency analysis was conducted.Ukraine land market formation research problems results have been shown. It was established that private land ownership institution ambiguous attitude, rent relations deformation, lack of the property rights ensure mechanism inhibit the land market development. Sociological research of Ukrainian Polesie region to determine the prerequisites for agricultural land marketformation preconditions has been conducted. 787 respondents from Zhytomyr, Rivne and Volyn regions were interviewed. Land shares owners age structure, their distribution by education level, their employment, land shares owners and agricultural enterprises executives to the agricultural land sale moratorium cancellation attitudes, land purchase financial resources, directions of Ukrainian Polissya region land shares use, shares owners land issues level of awareness have been determined during the research. Was substantiated that agricultural land market turnover includes not only land sale moratorium cancellation but also the adoption of the legislative framework and the appropriate infrastructure development, one of the key elements of which is land relations regulation specialized state agency – State Land Bank.

  19. Scattering with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the history of neutron scattering, it was shown very soon that the use of polarized neutron beams brings much more information than usual scattering with unpolarized neutrons. We shall develop here the different scattering methods that imply polarized neutrons: 1) polarized beams without polarization analysis, the flipping ratio method; 2) polarized beams with a uniaxial polarization analysis; 3) polarized beams with a spherical polarization analysis. For all these scattering methods, we shall give examples of the physical problems which can been solved by these methods, particularly in the field of magnetism: investigation of complex magnetic structures, investigation of spin or magnetization densities in metals, insulators and molecular compounds, separation of magnetic and nuclear scattering, investigation of magnetic properties of liquids and amorphous materials and even, for non magnetic material, separation between coherent and incoherent scattering. (author)

  20. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  1. Polarized Epithermal Neutron Studies of Magnetic Domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimenkov, V.P.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason, L.; Mareev, Yu. D.; Novitsky, V.V.; Pikelner, L.B.; Skoy, V.R.; Tsulaya, M.I.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.; Roberson, N.R.

    1997-01-01

    The average size and shape of magnetic domains in a material can be determined from the precession of polarized neutrons traversing the material. Epithermal neutrons (0.5eV< En<100eV), which process more slowly than thermals, effectively probe the internal structure of samples that are thick or have large domains or large internal fields. Such epithermal neutron measurements require a neutron polarizer and analyzer based on cryogenically polarized spin filters. We discuss the measurements at JINR, Dubna, of magnetic domains in a 2.0 cm. diam. crystal of holmium using 1.7 to 59eV neutrons polarized by a dynamically polarized proton target and analyzed with a statically polarized dysprosium target

  2. Linear polarizers based on oriented polymer blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, H.J.B.; Dirix, Y.J.L.; Hikmet, R.A.M.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    Linear sheet polarizers based on the anisotropic scattering of light by drawn polymer blends are introduced here. The proper selection of materials and processing conditions for the production of large-area, flexible films of phase-segregated polymer blends suitable for polarization applications are

  3. Application of polarized nuclei to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    It is shown that the d-t fusion reaction can be modified by polarizing nuclear spins. The ways in which this improves reactor performance are mentioned and the feasibility of the process of spin polarization for magnetic fusion is discussed. 18 refs

  4. Land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Justification for large land holdings at the Hanford Reservation has centered around a need for security and also as a buffer zone in the event of accidents. In recent years the importance of these large land holdings have become nationally recognized as highly desirable locations for ecological research concerning the function and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and as places to investigate the response of terrestrial ecosystems to long-term man-imposed environmental stresses. Carefully selected and protected land areas exist on the 110 square mile Arid Land Ecology Reserve (ALE) at Hanford. The projects described here provide supporting research for several applied projects that deal with environmental impact and land restoration. Information gained from this research has wide use and applicability to all kinds of energy technologies centered in the semi-arid shrub-steppe region of the northwestern United States. Ecological information reported includes: biotic characterization, including description of major habitats and endangered or threatened species; performances of native plant species, including determination of growth habits, nutrient requirements, and productivity; and, mineral cycling, including particularly the estimation of availability and behavior of airborne deposits to green plants

  5. Techniques in polarization physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausnitzer, G.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the current status of the technical tools necessary to perform different kinds of polarization experiments is presented, and the absolute and relative accuracy with which data can be obtained is discussed. A description of polarized targets and sources of polarized fast neutrons is included. Applications of polarization techniques to other fields is mentioned briefly. (14 figures, 3 tables, 110 references) (U.S.)

  6. XPS study of Li/Nb ratio in LiNbO{sub 3} crystals. Effect of polarity and mechanical processing on LiNbO{sub 3} surface chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skryleva, E.A., E-mail: easkryleva@gmail.com; Kubasov, I.V., E-mail: kubasov.ilya@gmail.com; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph.V., E-mail: kiruhancev-korneev@yandex.ru; Senatulin, B.R., E-mail: borisrs@yandex.ru; Zhukov, R.N., E-mail: rom_zhuk@mail.ru; Zakutailov, K.V., E-mail: zakkonst@gmail.com; Malinkovich, M.D., E-mail: malinkovich@yandex.ru; Parkhomenko, Yu.N., E-mail: parkh@rambler.ru

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • XPS Li/Nb ratio measurement uncertainty in LNbO3 specimens was obtained. • The effect of polarization on surface chemistry was observed only on cleaves. • Li/Nb ratio on positive cleave surface is higher than on negative one. • The positive cleave surface adsorbs fluorine more efficiently than negative one. • Mechanical processing of crystals reduces surface Li/Nb. - Abstract: Different sections of congruent lithium niobate (CLN) crystals have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We have developed a method for measuring the lithium-to-niobium atomic ratio Li/Nb from the ratio of the Li1s and Nb4s spectral integral intensities with an overall error of within 8 %. Polarity and mechanical processing affect the Li/Nb ratio on CLN crystal surfaces. The Li/Nb ratio is within the tolerance (0.946 ± 0.074) on the negative cleave surface Z, and there is excess lithium (Li/Nb = 1.25 ± 0.10) on the positive surface. The positive surfaces of the 128° Y cut plates after long exposure to air exhibit LiOH formation indications (obvious lithium excess, higher Li1s spectral binding energy and a wide additional peak in the O1s spectrum produced by nonstructural oxygen). XPS and glow discharge optical electron spectroscopy showed that mechanical processing of differently oriented crystals (X, Z and 128° Y) and different polarities dramatically reduces the Li/Nb ratio. In situ fluorine adsorption experiments revealed the following regularities: fluorine adsorption only occurred on crystal cleaves and was not observed for mechanically processed specimens. Positive cleave surfaces have substantially higher fluorine adsorption capacity compared to negative ones.

  7. Integrating terrestrial through aquatic processing of water, carbon and nitrogen over hot, cold and lukewarm moments in mixed land use catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, L. E.; Lin, L.; Duncan, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    A major challenge in understanding and managing freshwater volumes and quality in mixed land use catchments is the detailed heterogeneity of topography, soils, canopy, and inputs of water and biogeochemicals. The short space and time scale dynamics of sources, transport and processing of water, carbon and nitrogen in natural and built environments can have a strong influence on the timing and magnitude of watershed runoff and nutrient production, ecosystem cycling and export. Hydroclimate variability induces a functional interchange of terrestrial and aquatic environments across their transition zone with the temporal and spatial expansion and contraction of soil wetness, standing and flowing water over seasonal, diurnal and storm event time scales. Variation in sources and retention of nutrients at these scales need to be understood and represented to design optimal mitigation strategies. This paper discusses the conceptual framework used to design both simulation and measurement approaches, and explores these dynamics using an integrated terrestrial-aquatic watershed model of coupled water-carbon-nitrogen processes at resolutions necessary to resolve "hot spot/hot moment" phenomena in two well studied catchments in Long Term Ecological Research sites. The potential utility of this approach for design and assessment of urban green infrastructure and stream restoration strategies is illustrated.

  8. Physics with polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-06-01

    As a distinct field, elementary particle physics is now approximately forty years old. In all that time, only a few of the thousands of experiments that have been performed have made use of spin polarized particle beams. There are two reasons for this lack of interest. The first is that spin polarized beams are difficult to produce, accelerate, and transport. The second reason is that any physical process that can occur during the collision of a polarized particle with another (polarized or not) can also occur during the collision of unpolarized particles. One might ask then, why has any effort been expended on the subject? The answer, at least in the case of polarized electron beams, is that electron accelerators and storage rings have in recent years achieved sufficient energy to begin to probe the weak interaction directly. The weak interaction distinguishes between left- and right-handed fermionic currents. Left-handed particles interact in a fundamentally different way than their right-handed counterparts. If the experimenter wishes to explore or exploit this difference, he (or she) must either prepare the spin state of the incident particles or analyze the spin state of outgoing particles. For reasons, of generality and improved statistical precision, the former is usually preferable to the latter. The first of these lectures will review some of the techniques necessary for the production, transport, and monitoring of polarized electron (or positron) beams. The second lecture will survey some of the physics possibilities of polarized electron--positron collisions. 33 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs

  9. The polarization of NGC 1068

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Jeremy; Axon, D.J.; Hough, J.H.; Heathcote, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    Broad-band polarimetry of NGC 1068 over the wavelength range 0.36-4.8μm is presented, together with high-resolution spectropolarimetry of the Hβ, [O III] and Hα, [N II] regions of the spectrum. We recognize several different polarization components and conclude that they can all be accounted for by processes involving dust. Optical continuum polarization and broad features associated with the Balmer emission lines are due to scattering into the line of sight, of radiation from an obscured Seyfert I nucleus. We argue that the scattering is probably by dust in the narrow line region, but cannot exclude the possibility of electron scattering. (author)

  10. Polarized Moessbauer transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the emission, absorption and scattering of polarized gamma rays are reviewed for a general case of combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions; various possibilities of obtaining polarized gamma sources are described and examples are given of the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with polarized gamma rays in solving problems of solid state physics. (A.K.)

  11. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  12. Calculation of polarization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-09-01

    Basically there are two areas of accelerator applications that involve beam polarization. One is the acceleration of a polarized beam (most likely a proton beam) in a synchrotron. Another concerns polarized beams in an electron storage ring. In both areas, numerical techniques have been very useful

  13. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2015-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... to grow with the features of the land. Framed this way, ‘nature’ was regarded as part of the social world. I suggest that learning among Arctic hunters is social and twofold. First, we can learn how human-environment relations influence individual life trajectories. Secondly, ‘nature’ as part...

  14. Mass Loss Rates of Fasting Polar Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Hedman, Daryll; Stirling, Ian; Derocher, Andrew E; Lunn, Nicholas J; Richardson, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have adapted to an annual cyclic regime of feeding and fasting, which is extreme in seasonal sea ice regions of the Arctic. As a consequence of climate change, sea ice breakup has become earlier and the duration of the open-water period through which polar bears must rely on fat reserves has increased. To date, there is limited empirical data with which to evaluate the potential energetic capacity of polar bears to withstand longer fasts. We measured the incoming and outgoing mass of inactive polar bears (n = 142) that were temporarily detained by Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship during the open-water period near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, in 2009-2014. Polar bears were given access to water but not food and held for a median length of 17 d. Median mass loss rates were 1.0 kg/d, while median mass-specific loss rates were 0.5%/d, similar to other species with high adiposity and prolonged fasting capacities. Mass loss by unfed captive adult males was identical to that lost by free-ranging individuals, suggesting that terrestrial feeding contributes little to offset mass loss. The inferred metabolic rate was comparable to a basal mammalian rate, suggesting that while on land, polar bears can maintain a depressed metabolic rate to conserve energy. Finally, we estimated time to starvation for subadults and adult males for the on-land period. Results suggest that at 180 d of fasting, 56%-63% of subadults and 18%-24% of adult males in this study would die of starvation. Results corroborate previous assessments on the limits of polar bear capacity to withstand lengthening ice-free seasons and emphasize the greater sensitivity of subadults to changes in sea ice phenology.

  15. LANDSAFE: LANDING SITE RISK ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Ralph; Bostelmann, Jonas; Cornet, Yves; Heipke, Christian; Philippe, Christian; Poncelet, Nadia; de Rosa, Diego; Vandeloise, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is planning a Lunar Lander mission in the 2018 timeframe that will demonstrate precise soft landing at the polar regions of the Moon. To ensure a safe and successful landing a careful risk analysis has to be carried out. This is comprised of identifying favorable target areas and evaluating the surface conditions in these areas. Features like craters, boulders, steep slopes, rough surfaces and shadow areas have to be identified in order to assess the risk assoc...

  16. Acceleration of polarized particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1992-05-01

    The spin kinetics of polarized beams in circular accelerators is reviewed in the case of spin-1/2 particles (electrons and protons) with emphasis on the depolarization phenomena. The acceleration of polarized proton beams in synchrotrons is described together with the cures applied to reduce depolarization, including the use of 'Siberian Snakes'. The in-situ polarization of electrons in storage rings due to synchrotron radiation is studied as well as depolarization in presence of ring imperfections. The applications of electron polarization to accurately calibrate the rings in energy and to use polarized beams in colliding-beam experiments are reviewed. (author) 76 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  17. LANDSAFE: LANDING SITE RISK ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schmidt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Space Agency (ESA is planning a Lunar Lander mission in the 2018 timeframe that will demonstrate precise soft landing at the polar regions of the Moon. To ensure a safe and successful landing a careful risk analysis has to be carried out. This is comprised of identifying favorable target areas and evaluating the surface conditions in these areas. Features like craters, boulders, steep slopes, rough surfaces and shadow areas have to be identified in order to assess the risk associated to a landing site in terms of a successful touchdown and subsequent surface operation of the lander. In addition, global illumination conditions at the landing site have to be simulated and analyzed. The Landing Site Risk Analysis software framework (LandSAfe is a system for the analysis, selection and certification of safe landing sites on the lunar surface. LandSAfe generates several data products including high resolution digital terrain models (DTMs, hazard maps, illumination maps, temperature maps and surface reflectance maps which assist the user in evaluating potential landing site candidates. This paper presents the LandSAfe system and describes the methods and products of the different modules. For one candidate landing site on the rim of Shackleton crater at the south pole of the Moon a high resolution DTM is showcased.

  18. A review of global environmental mercury processes in response to human and natural perturbations: Changes of emissions, climate, and land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Kirk, Jane L; Zhang, Lei; Sunderland, Elsie M; Jiskra, Martin; Selin, Noelle E

    2018-03-01

    We review recent progress in our understanding of the global cycling of mercury (Hg), including best estimates of Hg concentrations and pool sizes in major environmental compartments and exchange processes within and between these reservoirs. Recent advances include the availability of new global datasets covering areas of the world where environmental Hg data were previously lacking; integration of these data into global and regional models is continually improving estimates of global Hg cycling. New analytical techniques, such as Hg stable isotope characterization, provide novel constraints of sources and transformation processes. The major global Hg reservoirs that are, and continue to be, affected by anthropogenic activities include the atmosphere (4.4-5.3 Gt), terrestrial environments (particularly soils: 250-1000 Gg), and aquatic ecosystems (e.g., oceans: 270-450 Gg). Declines in anthropogenic Hg emissions between 1990 and 2010 have led to declines in atmospheric Hg 0 concentrations and Hg II wet deposition in Europe and the US (- 1.5 to - 2.2% per year). Smaller atmospheric Hg 0 declines (- 0.2% per year) have been reported in high northern latitudes, but not in the southern hemisphere, while increasing atmospheric Hg loads are still reported in East Asia. New observations and updated models now suggest high concentrations of oxidized Hg II in the tropical and subtropical free troposphere where deep convection can scavenge these Hg II reservoirs. As a result, up to 50% of total global wet Hg II deposition has been predicted to occur to tropical oceans. Ocean Hg 0 evasion is a large source of present-day atmospheric Hg (approximately 2900 Mg/year; range 1900-4200 Mg/year). Enhanced seawater Hg 0 levels suggest enhanced Hg 0 ocean evasion in the intertropical convergence zone, which may be linked to high Hg II deposition. Estimates of gaseous Hg 0 emissions to the atmosphere over land, long considered a critical Hg source, have been revised downward, and

  19. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  20. Polar measurements on profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althaus, D.

    1985-03-01

    Wind tunnel models with a profile depth of t=0.5 m were measured in a laminar wind tunnel by the usual measuring processes. The profile resistance was determined by integration along the width of span. The smooth profiles were examined at Re=0.7/1.0 and 1.5 million. At Re=1.0 million, the position of the changeover points were determined with a stethoscope. Also at this Reynolds number measurements were taken with a trip wire of d=2 mm diameter, directly on the profile nose. The tables contain the co-ordinates of the profiles, the contours, the theoretical speed distributions for 4 different angles of attack, the csub(a)-csub(w) polar measurements and changeover points, and the torque coefficients around the t/4 point. (BR).

  1. Dynamic nuclear polarization of irradiated target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Polarized nucleon targets used in high energy physics experiments usually employ the method of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to polarize the protons or deuterons in an alcohol. DNP requires the presence of paramagnetic centers, which are customarily provided by a chemical dopant. These chemically doped targets have a relatively low polarizable nucleon content and suffer from loss of polarization when subjected to high doses of ionizing radiation. If the paramagnetic centers formed when the target is irradiated can be used in the DNP process, it becomes possible to produce targets using materials which have a relatively high polarizable nucleon content, but which are not easily doped by chemical means. Furthermore, the polarization of such targets may be much more radiation resistant. Dynamic nuclear polarization in ammonia, deuterated ammonia, ammonium hydroxide, methylamine, borane ammonia, butonal, ethane and lithium borohydride has been studied. These studies were conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center using the Yale-SLAC polarized target system. Results indicate that the use of ammonia and deuterated ammonia as polarized target materials would make significant increases in polarized target performance possible

  2. Evolution and current state of our understanding of the role played in the climate system by land surface processes in semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Sharon E.

    2015-10-01

    The role of the land surface in climate and weather has been a major research focus since the 1970s. Since that time our understanding of the issue has greatly changed and many new themes in several disciplines are being considered. This article summarizes the changes in our understanding that have taken place in research on this topic and reviews principally papers that have appeared in the last two decades. Several other papers provide comprehensive reviews of literature that appeared prior to that time. The major changes that have occurred include 1) more sophisticated and rigorous analysis of desertification, 2) increased emphasis on hydrological processes, including the role of groundwater, 3) use of multi-model ensembles and regional models, 4) the emergence of the domain of ecohydrology, with emphasis on detailed feedbacks between water availability and vegetation, 5) examination of the hypothesis that vegetation feedback can produce abrupt climate change, 6) emphasis on the impacts on convective or synoptic-scale systems, and 7) consideration of the impact of aerosols, including the Saharan Air Layer. With the exception of desertification, each of these topics is reviewed.

  3. Electron Beam Polarization Measurement Using Touschek Lifetime Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Changchun; /Duke U., DFELL; Li, Jingyi; /Duke U., DFELL; Mikhailov, Stepan; /Duke U., DFELL; Popov, Victor; /Duke U., DFELL; Wu, Wenzhong; /Duke U., DFELL; Wu, Ying; /Duke U., DFELL; Chao, Alex; /SLAC; Xu, Hong-liang; /Hefei, NSRL; Zhang, Jian-feng; /Hefei, NSRL

    2012-08-24

    Electron beam loss due to intra-beam scattering, the Touschek effect, in a storage ring depends on the electron beam polarization. The polarization of an electron beam can be determined from the difference in the Touschek lifetime compared with an unpolarized beam. In this paper, we report on a systematic experimental procedure recently developed at Duke FEL laboratory to study the radiative polarization of a stored electron beam. Using this technique, we have successfully observed the radiative polarization build-up of an electron beam in the Duke storage ring, and determined the equilibrium degree of polarization and the time constant of the polarization build-up process.

  4. $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ polarization at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Donghee

    2010-01-01

    At the COMPASS experiment $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ particles are produced with high statistics in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) processes of 160 GeV/c polarized muons. Since both, beam and target, are polarized, various studies on the $\\Lambda$ polarization are possible. We present results on the longitudinal polarization transfer from muons to $\\Lambda$ hyperons produced by scattering off an unpolarized isoscalar target and preliminary results on the transverse $\\Lambda$ polarization with a transversely polarized proton target. The $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ polarization can be studied by measuring the acceptance corrected angular distribution of its decay products. The longitudinal spin transfers to $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ produced in the current fragmentation region exhibit different behaviours as a function of $x_{Bj}$ and $x_{F}$. The $x_{Bj}$ and $x_{F}$ dependences of $\\Lambda$ polarization are compatible with zero, while $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ polarization tends to increase with $x_{F}$. Info...

  5. Atmospheric distribution and seasonality of airborne polyfluorinated compounds. Spatial and temporal concentration variations from ship- and land-based measurements in Northern Germany, the Atlantic Ocean, and Polar Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Annekatrin

    2010-07-01

    In order to assess the distribution of per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFC) in ambient air on temporal as well as spatial scales, air samples were taken during several sampling campaigns in 2007 and 2008. Permanent air monitoring stations close to Hamburg (Germany) as well as several research vessels operating in the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Baltic Sea were used as sampling platforms. Airborne PFC were sampled using glass fibre filters (particlebound PFC) and a sandwich polyurethane foam and the polymer resin XAD-2 (gaseous PFC). Samples were extracted by acetone: methyl-tert-butyl ether (1:1) or methanol and detected by GC-MS or HPLC-MS/MS. Airborne PFC were detected in all of the collected air samples, even in Antarctica, with southern hemispheric concentrations being lower than those of the northern hemisphere which provides further evidence that this emerging group of contaminants is subject to atmospheric long-range transport from mainly northern hemispheric source regions towards remote areas. While the persistent perfluorinated acids (PFCA, PFSA) were only determined at concentrations below 1 pg m{sup -3} in the particulate phase, their neutral volatile precursors (fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTA), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FASA), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido ethanols (FASE)) occurred predominantly in the gas phase at concentrations that were usually two orders of magnitude higher and ranged from 4.5 pg m{sup -3} in the Southern Ocean to 335 pg m{sup -3} in source regions in ship-based samples and from 17 to 972 pg m{sup -3} in land-based samples. Furthermore, PFC in ambient air varied strongly over time as observed during a 14 months lasting sampling campaign close to Hamburg. Emissions from nearby local sources as well as long-range transport of PFC emitted from diffuse sources west and southwest of the sampling sites were considered as explanation for the observed pattern. (orig.)

  6. Simulation of Cloud-aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP Attenuated Backscatter Profiles Using the Global Model of Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To permit the calculation of the radiative effects of atmospheric aerosols, we have linked our aerosol-chemical transport model (CTMGLOMAP to a new radiation module (UKCARADAER. In order to help assess and improve the accuracy of the radiation code, in particular the height dependence of the predicted scattering, we have developed a module that simulates attenuated backscatter (ABS profiles that would be measured by the satellite-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP if it were to sample an atmosphere with the same aerosol loading as predicted by the CTM. Initial results of our comparisons of the predicted ABS profiles with actual CALIOP data are encouraging but some differences are noted, particularly in marine boundary layers where the scattering is currently under-predicted and in dust layers where it is often over-predicted. The sources of these differences are being investigated.

  7. Addressing the multi-scale lapsus of landscape : multi-scale landscape process modelling to support sustainable land use : a case study for the Lower Guadalhorce valley South Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    "Addressing the Multi-scale Lapsus of Landscape" with the sub-title "Multi-scale landscape process modelling to support sustainable land use: A case study for the Lower Guadalhorce valley South Spain" focuses on the role of

  8. New Frontiers of Land Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee Peluso, Nancy; Lund, Christian

    2011-01-01

    rights, and territories created, extracted, produced, or protected on land. Primitive and on-going forms of accumulation, frontiers, enclosures, territories, grabs, and racializations have all been associated with mechanisms for land control. Agrarian environments have been transformed by processes of de...... analytic tools that had seemed to have timeless applicability with new frameworks, concepts, and theoretical tools. What difference does land control make? These contributions to the debates demonstrate that the answers have been shaped by conflicts, contexts, histories, and agency, as land has been...

  9. Dry calving processes at the ice cliff of an antarctic local glacier: the study case of Strandline Glacier (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiraglia, C.; Motta, M.; Vassena, G.; Diolaiuti, G.

    2003-04-01

    In Antartic coastal area, where the ice sheet and the large outlet glaciers do not reach the sea and where some rugged mountain chains are often present, many small glaciers can be found. They are the so called local or alpine type glaciers, which have their terminus ground-based such as the real alpine glaciers and rarely reach the main valley floors. They are practically isolated and independent from the supply flowing down from the plateau and their mass balance is mainly controlled by sublimation and aeolic erosion and accumulation. The glaciers closer to the coast are submitted to the melting as well, and when the terminus is cliff-shaped they are also affected by dry calving. The most known and studied Antarctic local glaciers are placed in the Dry Valleys region (Chinn, 1985), but this kind of glaciers is also diffused all along the Northern Victoria Land coastal region (Chinn and others, 1989). Since the first Italian Antarctic expedition (1985), many studies have been carried out on this type of glaciers, which can be usefull for detailed mass balance evaluations and for obtaining information about the effects of the present climatic dynamics on the Antarctic coastal environment (Baroni and Orombelli, 1987; Baroni and others, 1995; Meneghel, 1999; Vassena and others., 2001). The Strandline Glacier (74 41 S; 164 07 E), in particular is a small alpine glacier (0,79 kmq) on the coast of Terra Nova Bay, Northern Victoria Land; it is a cold glacier where accumulation and ablation basins are mainly controlled by wind processes. Its terminus forms in the central part a grounded ice cliff about 30 m high, about 130 m far from the sea. On that glacier mass balance, surface velocity and calving rate were measured. During the southern summer season 2000-2001 many topographycal profiles of the ice cliff were surveyed by using both classical topographical and glaciological methods (total station and stakes) and GPS technique. It was so possible to detect the short term

  10. The George V Land Continental Margin (East Antarctica): new Insights Into Bottom Water Production and Quaternary Glacial Processes from the WEGA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caburlotto, A.; de Santis, L.; Lucchi, R. G.; Giorgetti, G.; Damiani, D.; Macri', P.; Tolotti, R.; Presti, M.; Armand, L.; Harris, P.

    2004-12-01

    The George Vth Land represents the ending of one of the largest subglacial basin (Wilkes Basin) of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Furthermore, its coastal areas are zone of significant production of High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). Piston and gravity cores and high resolution echo-sounding (3.5 kHz) and Chirp profiles collected in the frame of the joint Australian and Italian WEGA (WilkEs Basin GlAcial History) project provide new insights into the Quaternary history of the EAIS and the HSSW across this margin: from the sediment record filling and draping valleys and banks along the continental shelf, to the continuous sedimentary section of the mound-channel system on the continental rise. The discovery of a current-lain sediment drift (Mertz Drift, MD) provides clues to understanding the age of the last glacial erosive events, as well as to infer flow-pathways of bottom-water masses changes. The MD shows disrupted, fluted reflectors due to glacial advance during the LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) in shallow water, while undisturbed sediment drift deposited at greater water depth, indicates that during the LGM the ice shelf was floating over the deep sector of the basin. The main sedimentary environment characterising the modern conditions of the continental rise is dominated by the turbiditic processes with a minor contribution of contour currents action. Nevertheless, some areas (WEGA Channel) are currently characterised by transport and settling of sediment through HSSW, originating in the shelf area. This particular environment likely persisted since pre-LGM times. It could indicate a continuous supply of sedimentary material from HSSW during the most recent both glacial and interglacial cycles. This would be consistent with the results obtained in the continental shelf suggesting that the Ice Sheet was not grounding over some parts of the continental shelf. Furthermore, the comparison of the studied area with other Antarctic margins indicate that, contrary

  11. CryoSat Mission over Polar Region: Data quality status and product evolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, J.; Parrinello, T.; Féménias, P.; Fornari, M.; Scagliola, M.; Baker, S.; Brockley, D.; Mannan, R.; Hall, A.; Webb, E.; Garcia-Mondéjar, A.; Roca, M.; Mantovani, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, satellite radar altimetry has shown its ability to revolutionize our understanding of the ocean and climate. These advances were mainly limited to ice-free regions, leaving aside large portions of Polar Regions. Launched in 2010, the polar-orbiting CryoSat Satellite was designed to measure the changes in the thickness of polar sea ice and the elevation of the ice sheets and mountain glaciers. To reach this goal, the CryoSat products have to meet the highest performance, through constant improvements of the associated Instrument Processing Facility. Since April 2015, the CryoSat ice products are generated with the Baseline C; which represents a major processor upgrade. Several improvements have been implemented belong this new Baseline, such as SAR retracker optimized for Freeboard retrieval and a coarse slant correction, which is applied directly on the stack data in conjunction with the window delay alignment. The resulting waveforms show more power and the trailing edge is modified, leading to improved L2 geophysical parameters. This paper provides an overview of the CryoSat data characteristics, assessment and exploitation over Polar Regions. In this respect, new science-oriented diagnostics have been implemented to thoroughly understand the signatures within the altimeter signals over sea-ice and land ice areas, to validate the data and therefore propose potential way of improvements for next CryoSat processing Baselines.

  12. Workshop on polarized neutron filters and polarized pulsed neutron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi

    2004-07-01

    The workshop was held in KEK by thirty-three participants on April 26, 2004. The polarized neutron filter method was only discussed. It consists of three parts; the first part was discussed on the polarized neutron methods, the second part on the polarized neutron experiments and the third on the pulse neutron spectrometer and polarized neutron experiments. The six papers were presented such as the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, neutron polarization by proton polarized filter, soft master and neutron scattering, polarized neutron in solid physics, polarization experiments by chopper spectroscope and neutron polarization system in superHRPD. (S.Y.)

  13. Instrumentation with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Muenzer, W.; Ostermann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering with polarization analysis is an indispensable tool for the investigation of novel materials exhibiting electronic, magnetic, and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition, polarized neutrons are necessary for neutron spin precession techniques that path the way to obtain extremely high resolution in space and time. Last but not least, polarized neutrons are being used for fundamental studies as well as very recently for neutron imaging. Many years ago, neutron beam lines were simply adapted for polarized beam applications by adding polarizing elements leading usually to unacceptable losses in neutron intensity. Recently, an increasing number of beam lines are designed such that an optimum use of polarized neutrons is facilitated. In addition, marked progress has been obtained in the technology of 3 He polarizers and the reflectivity of large-m supermirrors. Therefore, if properly designed, only factors of approximately 2-3 in neutron intensity are lost. It is shown that S-benders provide neutron beams with an almost wavelength independent polarization. Using twin cavities, polarized beams with a homogeneous phase space and P>0.99 can be produced without significantly sacrificing intensity. It is argued that elliptic guides, which are coated with large m polarizing supermirrors, provide the highest flux.

  14. Polar bear maternity denning in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Gardner, Craig L.

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) is circumpolar in the NOrthern Hemisphere, but known locations of maternal dens are concentrated in relatively few, widely scattered locations. Denning is either uncommon or unknown within gaps. To understand effects of industrial development and propose increases in hunting, the temporal and spatial distribution of denning in the Beaufort Sea must be known. We caputred and radiocollared polar bears between 1981 and 1991 and determined tht denning in the Beaufort Sea region was sufficient to account for the estimated population there. Of 90 dend, 48 were on drifting pack ice, 38 on land, and 4 on land-fast ice. The portions of dens on land was higher (P= 0.029) in later compared with earlier years of the study. Bears denning on pack ice drifting as far as 997 km (x=385km) while in dens. there was no difference in cun production by bears denning on land and pack ice (P =0.66). Mean entry and exit dates were 11 November and 5 April for land dens and 22 November and 26 March for pack-ice dens. Female polar bears captured in the Beaufort Sea appeared to be isolated from those caught eat of Cape Bathurst in Canada. Of 35 polar bears that denned along the mainland coast of Alaska and Canada 80% denned between 137 00'W snf 146 59'W. Bears followed to >1 den did not reuse sites and consecutive dens were 20-1,304 km apart. However radio-collared bears are largely faithful to substrate (pack-ice, land, and land-fast ice) and the general geographic area of previous dens. Bears denning on land may be vunerable to human activities such as hunting and industrial development. However, predictable denning chronology and alck of site fidelity indicate that many potential impacts on denning polar bears could be mitigated.

  15. Future land use plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ''Future Land Use'' initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities' interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory's view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts

  16. Energy and land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  17. Future land use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  18. Land Suitability Assessment for Pineapple Production in the A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    linking land resources assessment to any land use decision-making process. like elsewhere, land ... managers as decision-support tools, for instance, to outline the most suitable land areas for subsidy ...... increase rational decisions. In this ..... essentially dynamic. it is pertinent that land suitability analysis is framed within an ...

  19. Bulk electron spin polarization generated by the spin Hall current

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, V. L.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the spin Hall current generates a non-equilibrium spin polarization in the interior of crystals with reduced symmetry in a way that is drastically different from the previously well-known equilibrium polarization during the spin relaxation process. The steady state spin polarization value does not depend on the strength of spin-orbit interaction offering possibility to generate relatively high spin polarization even in the case of weak spin-orbit coupling.

  20. Bulk electron spin polarization generated by the spin Hall current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2006-07-01

    It is shown that the spin Hall current generates a nonequilibrium spin polarization in the interior of crystals with reduced symmetry in a way that is drastically different from the previously well-known “equilibrium” polarization during the spin relaxation process. The steady state spin polarization value does not depend on the strength of spin-orbit interaction offering possibility to generate relatively high spin polarization even in the case of weak spin-orbit coupling.

  1. Multiphoton polarization Bremsstrahlung effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovinskij, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    A general approach to induced polarization effects was formulated on the basis of theory of many particles in a strong periodic field. Correlation with the perturbation theory is shown and the types of effective polarization potentials both for isolated atoms and ions, and for ions in plasma, are provided. State of art in the theory of forced polarization Bremsstrahlung effect is analyzed and some outlooks for further experimental and theoretical studies are outlined [ru

  2. A global assessment of gross and net land change dynamics for current conditions and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuchs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The consideration of gross land changes, meaning all area gains and losses within a pixel or administrative unit (e.g. country, plays an essential role in the estimation of total land changes. Gross land changes affect the magnitude of total land changes, which feeds back to the attribution of biogeochemical and biophysical processes related to climate change in Earth system models. Global empirical studies on gross land changes are currently lacking. Whilst the relevance of gross changes for global change has been indicated in the literature, it is not accounted for in future land change scenarios. In this study, we extract gross and net land change dynamics from large-scale and high-resolution (30–100 m remote sensing products to create a new global gross and net change dataset. Subsequently, we developed an approach to integrate our empirically derived gross and net changes with the results of future simulation models by accounting for the gross and net change addressed by the land use model and the gross and net change that is below the resolution of modelling. Based on our empirical data, we found that gross land change within 0.5° grid cells was substantially larger than net changes in all parts of the world. As 0.5° grid cells are a standard resolution of Earth system models, this leads to an underestimation of the amount of change. This finding contradicts earlier studies, which assumed gross land changes to appear in shifting cultivation areas only. Applied in a future scenario, the consideration of gross land changes led to approximately 50 % more land changes globally compared to a net land change representation. Gross land changes were most important in heterogeneous land systems with multiple land uses (e.g. shifting cultivation, smallholder farming, and agro-forestry systems. Moreover, the importance of gross changes decreased over time due to further polarization and intensification of land use. Our results serve as

  3. Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss (Polar SWIFT version 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Wohltmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polar SWIFT model is a fast scheme for calculating the chemistry of stratospheric ozone depletion in polar winter. It is intended for use in global climate models (GCMs and Earth system models (ESMs to enable the simulation of mutual interactions between the ozone layer and climate. To date, climate models often use prescribed ozone fields, since a full stratospheric chemistry scheme is computationally very expensive. Polar SWIFT is based on a set of coupled differential equations, which simulate the polar vortex-averaged mixing ratios of the key species involved in polar ozone depletion on a given vertical level. These species are O3, chemically active chlorine (ClOx, HCl, ClONO2 and HNO3. The only external input parameters that drive the model are the fraction of the polar vortex in sunlight and the fraction of the polar vortex below the temperatures necessary for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Here, we present an update of the Polar SWIFT model introducing several improvements over the original model formulation. In particular, the model is now trained on vortex-averaged reaction rates of the ATLAS Chemistry and Transport Model, which enables a detailed look at individual processes and an independent validation of the different parameterizations contained in the differential equations. The training of the original Polar SWIFT model was based on fitting complete model runs to satellite observations and did not allow for this. A revised formulation of the system of differential equations is developed, which closely fits vortex-averaged reaction rates from ATLAS that represent the main chemical processes influencing ozone. In addition, a parameterization for the HNO3 change by denitrification is included. The rates of change of the concentrations of the chemical species of the Polar SWIFT model are purely chemical rates of change in the new version, whereas in the original Polar SWIFT model, they included a transport effect

  4. Optical pumping production of spin polarized hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knize, R.J.; Happer, W.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    There has been much interest recently in the production of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen in various fields including controlled fusion, quantum fluids, high energy, and nuclear physics. One promising method for the development of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen is the utilization of optical pumping with a laser. Optical pumping is a process where photon angular momentum is converted into electron and nuclear spin. The advent of tunable CW dye lasers (approx. 1 watt) allow the production of greater than 10 18 polarized atoms/sec. We have begun a program at Princeton to investigate the physics and technology of using optical pumping to produce large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen. Initial experiments have been done in small closed glass cells. Eventually, a flowing system, open target, or polarized ion source could be constructed

  5. Polarization of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    Linear polarization of starlight may be produced by electron scattering in the extended atmospheres of early type stars. Techniques are investigated for the measurement and interpretation of this polarization. Polarimetric observations were made of twelve visual double star systems in which at least one member was a B type star as a means of separating the intrinsic stellar polarization from the polarization produced in the interstellar medium. Four of the double stars contained a Be star. Evidence for intrinsic polarization was found in five systems including two of the Be systems, one double star with a short period eclipsing binary, and two systems containing only normal early type stars for which emission lines have not been previously reported. The interpretation of these observations in terms of individual stellar polarizations and their wavelength dependence is discussed. The theoretical basis for the intrinsic polarization of early type stars is explored with a model for the disk-like extended atmospheres of Be stars. Details of a polarimeter for the measurement of the linear polarization of astronomical point sources are also presented with narrow band (Δ lambda = 100A) measurements of the polarization of γ Cas from lambda 4000 to lambda 5800

  6. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  7. Participatory, Multi-Criteria Evaluation Methods as a Means to Increase the Legitimacy and Sustainability of Land Use Planning Processes. The Case of the Chaco Region in Salta, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghezzo, Lucas; Venencia, Cristian; Buliubasich, E. Catalina; Iribarnegaray, Martín A.; Volante, José N.

    2017-02-01

    Conflicts over land use and ownership are common in South America and generate frequent confrontations among indigenous peoples, small-scale farmers, and large-scale agricultural producers. We argue in this paper that an accurate identification of these conflicts, together with a participatory evaluation of their importance, will increase the social legitimacy of land use planning processes, rendering decision-making more sustainable in the long term. We describe here a participatory, multi-criteria conflict assessment model developed to identify, locate, and categorize land tenure and use conflicts. The model was applied to the case of the "Chaco" region of the province of Salta, in northwestern Argentina. Basic geographic, cadastral, and social information needed to apply the model was made spatially explicit on a Geographic Information System. Results illustrate the contrasting perceptions of different stakeholders (government officials, social and environmental non-governmental organizations, large-scale agricultural producers, and scholars) on the intensity of land use conflicts in the study area. These results can help better understand and address land tenure conflicts in areas with different cultures and conflicting social and enviornmental interests.

  8. Participatory, Multi-Criteria Evaluation Methods as a Means to Increase the Legitimacy and Sustainability of Land Use Planning Processes. The Case of the Chaco Region in Salta, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghezzo, Lucas; Venencia, Cristian; Buliubasich, E Catalina; Iribarnegaray, Martín A; Volante, José N

    2017-02-01

    Conflicts over land use and ownership are common in South America and generate frequent confrontations among indigenous peoples, small-scale farmers, and large-scale agricultural producers. We argue in this paper that an accurate identification of these conflicts, together with a participatory evaluation of their importance, will increase the social legitimacy of land use planning processes, rendering decision-making more sustainable in the long term. We describe here a participatory, multi-criteria conflict assessment model developed to identify, locate, and categorize land tenure and use conflicts. The model was applied to the case of the "Chaco" region of the province of Salta, in northwestern Argentina. Basic geographic, cadastral, and social information needed to apply the model was made spatially explicit on a Geographic Information System. Results illustrate the contrasting perceptions of different stakeholders (government officials, social and environmental non-governmental organizations, large-scale agricultural producers, and scholars) on the intensity of land use conflicts in the study area. These results can help better understand and address land tenure conflicts in areas with different cultures and conflicting social and enviornmental interests.

  9. Generating highly polarized nuclear spins in solution using dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolber, J.; Ellner, F.; Fridlund, B.

    2004-01-01

    A method to generate strongly polarized nuclear spins in solution has been developed, using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) at a temperature of 1.2K, and at a field of 3.354T, corresponding to an electron spin resonance frequency of 94GHz. Trityl radicals are used to directly polarize 13C...... and other low-γ nuclei. Subsequent to the DNP process, the solid sample is dissolved rapidly with a warm solvent to create a solution of molecules with highly polarized nuclear spins. Two main applications are proposed: high-resolution liquid state NMR with enhanced sensitivity, and the use...

  10. TRENDS OF LAND SYSTEM IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tretiak

    2017-02-01

    strategic development of land reforms and bringing them to a new level - the volume and long-term task that requires scientific substantiation of a rational state land policy. The study justified that the land order - a land system, i.e. a set of measures for the territorial organization of land and other natural resources of the country, land relations, that is determined by system of ownership and use of land, as well as by the principles of organization of territory. In the process of land reform the land system have been changed several times: from the system of administrative-territorial division and respective to it forms of land use and methods of land use (collective and state farms as of year 1990, to the system of the administrative-territorial division with the respective forms of land ownership (state, collective, private and the forms and methods of land use (collective and state farms, collective farms, peasant (farmer farms, subsidiary farms, collective gardens, agricultural research institutions, subsidiary agriculture enterprices, etc. as of 1991 - 2001. As of the 2002 - 2016 , the land order in Ukraine was defined: by the natural-resource-based division and natural-economic-based division (zoning; by the administrative-territorial division; by the forms of land ownership (state, municipal, property of foreign countries, co-ownership, private ownership of individuals and of legal entities; by the forms and methods of land use (for example, in agriculture there were the non-state agricultural enterprises such as collective, cooperative, corporate (agricultural holdings, companies, private-rental farms, subsidiary farms, private (family and individual, state and municipal scientific research and others. Today, due to the decentralization of power, the new model for land order is developed, which will be presented in subsequent studies.

  11. Removal Characteristics of Nitrogen and Phosphorus and Their Land Application Rates During a Multi-level Treatment Process for Manure and Waste Water:An Example from Intensive Swine Farm in Water Network Region of Southern Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Hong-mei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The actual removal rates of nitrogen and phosphorus in animal manure and waste water during multi-level treatment process remain vague for large-scale farms. This limits its land application in water network regions of China. The aims of this study were:(1 to verify the removal characteristics of total nitrogen(TN and phosphorus(TP during a multi-level treatment process for swine manure and waste water, and(2 to calculate its land carrying capacity. An intensive swine farm in Southern Jiangsu, which possessed a typical manure and waste water treatment plant with two anaerobic digesters, three natural sediment ponds, and one aquatic plant ponds, was chosen to monitor for the four seasons during a whole year. The results showed that total productions of manure and urine were 4 086.9 t and 10 995.8 t, respectively, in 2016. The collection rate of manure was around 90.5%. The available TN and TP were 183.12 t and 148.97 t, respectively, for land application. The removal rates of TN and TP were less than 25.3% and 57.2% respectively, after secondary anaerobic digestion. The residual TN and TP in the digestates could be removed more than 80% by oxygen ponds treatments. Then the effluent was processed by aquatic plants, and the removal rates for TN and TP were more than 95%, which guaranteed the effluent to be up to the discharge standard. The multi-level processing technology could improve the land carrying capacity and reduce the manure and waste water treatment costs for the intensive animal farms, which were suitable for very intensive, economically developed and land resource limited regions.

  12. Eddy intrusion of hot plasma into the polar cap and formation of polar-cap arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Gorney, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    We present plasma and electric field data obtained by the S3-3 satellite over the polar caps. We demonstrate that: (1) plasma signatures in the polar cap arc formation region near 5000 km altitude show clear intrusions of plasma sheet (approx.keV) and magneto sheath (approx.100 eV) plasma into a background of low-energy polar cap plasma; (2) the combined plasma and electric field signatures (electron inverted-V, ion beam and delxE<0) are exactly the same as in the evening discrete arc. We interpret this equivalence of polar cap and evening discrete arc signatures as indication that their formation processes are identical. The spatial structures of polar cap electric fields and the associated plasma signatures are consistent with the hypothesis that plasma intrusion into the polar cap takes the form of multiple cellular eddies. This hypothesis provides a unifying view of arc formation and arc configurations

  13. Tropical land-sea couplings: Role of watershed deforestation, mangrove estuary processing, and marine inputs on N fluxes in coastal Pacific Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiela, Ivan; Elmstrom, Elizabeth; Lloret, Javier; Stone, Thomas; Camilli, Luis

    2018-07-15

    We review data from coastal Pacific Panama and other tropical coasts with two aims. First, we defined inputs and losses of nitrogen (N) mediating connectivity of watersheds, mangrove estuaries, and coastal sea. N entering watersheds-mainly via N fixation (79-86%)-was largely intercepted; N discharges to mangrove estuaries (3-6%), small compared to N inputs to watersheds, nonetheless significantly supplied N to mangrove estuaries. Inputs to mangrove estuaries (including watershed discharges, and marine inputs during flood tides) were matched by losses (mainly denitrification and export during ebb tides). Mangrove estuary subsidies of coastal marine food webs take place by export of forms of N [DON (62.5%), PN (9.1%), and litter N (12.9%)] that provide dissimilative and assimilative subsidies. N fixation, denitrification, and tidal exchanges were major processes, and DON was major form of N involved in connecting fluxes in and out of mangrove estuaries. Second, we assessed effects of watershed forest cover on connectivity. Decreased watershed forest cover lowered N inputs, interception, and discharge into receiving mangrove estuaries. These imprints of forest cover were erased during transit of N through estuaries, owing to internal N cycle transformations, and differences in relative area of watersheds and estuaries. Largest losses of N consisted of water transport of energy-rich compounds, particularly DON. N losses were similar in magnitude to N inputs from sea, calculated without considering contribution by intermittent coastal upwelling, and hence likely under-estimated. Pacific Panama mangrove estuaries are exposed to major inputs of N from land and sea, which emphasizes the high degree of bi-directional connectivity in these coupled ecosystems. Pacific Panama is still lightly affected by human or global changes. Increased deforestation can be expected, as well as changes in ENSO, which will surely raise watershed-derived loads of N, as well as significantly

  14. Mars Exploration Rovers Landing Dispersion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knocke, Philip C.; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey G.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Desai, Prasun N.; Parker, TImothy J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Kass, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Landing dispersion estimates for the Mars Exploration Rover missions were key elements in the site targeting process and in the evaluation of landing risk. This paper addresses the process and results of the landing dispersion analyses performed for both Spirit and Opportunity. The several contributors to landing dispersions (navigation and atmospheric uncertainties, spacecraft modeling, winds, and margins) are discussed, as are the analysis tools used. JPL's MarsLS program, a MATLAB-based landing dispersion visualization and statistical analysis tool, was used to calculate the probability of landing within hazardous areas. By convolving this with the probability of landing within flight system limits (in-spec landing) for each hazard area, a single overall measure of landing risk was calculated for each landing ellipse. In-spec probability contours were also generated, allowing a more synoptic view of site risks, illustrating the sensitivity to changes in landing location, and quantifying the possible consequences of anomalies such as incomplete maneuvers. Data and products required to support these analyses are described, including the landing footprints calculated by NASA Langley's POST program and JPL's AEPL program, cartographically registered base maps and hazard maps, and flight system estimates of in-spec landing probabilities for each hazard terrain type. Various factors encountered during operations, including evolving navigation estimates and changing atmospheric models, are discussed and final landing points are compared with approach estimates.

  15. The land management paradigm for institutional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction.......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  16. Electron interactions with polar molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of a number of the features of discrete and continuous spectra of electrons interacting with polar molecules. Attention is focused on the extent to which theoretical predictions concerning cross sections, resonances, and bound states are strongly influenced by the various approximations that are so ubiquitous in the treatment of such problems. Similarly, threshold scattering and photodetachment processes are examined for the case of weakly bound dipole states whose higher members overlap the continuum

  17. Mars: Periglacial Morphology and Implications for Future Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Schurmeier, Lauren; McKay, Christopher; Davila, Alfonso; Stoker, Carol; Marinova, Margarita; Wilhelm, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    At the Mars Phoenix landing site and in much of the Martian northern plains, there is ice-cemented ground beneath a layer of dry permafrost. Unlike most permafrost on Earth, though, this ice is not liquid at any time of year. However, in past epochs at higher obliquity the surface conditions during summer may have resulted in warmer conditions and possible melting. This situation indicates that the ice-cemented ground in the north polar plains is likely to be a candidate for the most recently habitable place on Mars as near-surface ice likely provided adequate water activity approximately 5 Myr ago. The high elevation Dry Valleys of Antarctica provide the best analog on Earth of Martian ground ice. These locations are the only places on Earth where ice-cemented ground is found beneath dry permafrost. The Dry Valleys are a hyper-arid polar desert environment and in locations above 1500 m elevation, such as University Valley, air temperatures do not exceed 0 C. Thus, similarly to Mars, liquid water is largely absent here and instead the hydrologic cycle is dominated by frozen ice and vapor phase processes such as sublimation. These conditions make the high elevation Dry Valleys a key Mars analog location where periglacial processes and geomorphic features can be studied in situ. This talk will focus on studies of University Valley as a Mars analog for periglacial morphology and ice stability. We will review a landing site selection study encompassing this information gleaned from the Antarctic terrestrial analog studies plus Mars spacecraft data analysis to identify candidate landing sites for a future mission to search for life on Mars.

  18. Jatropha potential on marginal land in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

    narrative. But both the availability and suitability of “marginal” land for commercial level jatropha production is not well understood/examined, especially in Africa. Using a case study of large-scale jatropha plantation in Ethiopia, this paper examines the process of land identification for jatropha....... The increasing trend of land acquisition for biofuels has led to the widespread debate about food versus biofuel because of the perceived competition for land and water. To avoid the food versus fuel debate, the use of “marginal” land for biofuel feedstock production (jatropha) has emerged as a dominant...... investments, and the agronomic performance of large-scale jatropha plantation on so-called marginal land. Although it has been argued that jatropha can be grown well on marginal land without irrigation, and thus does not compete for land and water or displace food production from agricultural land, this study...

  19. Land use and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10 6 acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10 6 additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10 6 acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States

  20. Land use and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  1. Our Polar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2009-01-01

    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  2. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  3. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  4. High Resolution Urban Land Cover Mapping Using NAIP Aerial Photography and Image Processing for the USEPA National Atlas of Sustainability and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilant, A. N.; Baynes, J.; Dannenberg, M.

    2012-12-01

    The US EPA National Atlas for Sustainability is a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application that allows users to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services in a specific region. The Atlas provides users with a visual method for interpreting ecosystem services and understanding how they can be conserved and enhanced for a sustainable future. The Urban Atlas component of the National Atlas will provide fine-scale information linking human health and well-being to environmental conditions such as urban heat islands, near-road pollution, resource use, access to recreation, drinking water quality and other quality of life indicators. The National Land Cover Data (NLCD) derived from 30 m scale 2006 Landsat imagery provides the land cover base for the Atlas. However, urban features and phenomena occur at finer spatial scales, so higher spatial resolution and more current LC maps are required. We used 4 band USDA NAIP imagery (1 m pixel size) and various classification approaches to produce urban land cover maps with these classes: impervious surface, grass and herbaceous, trees and forest, soil and barren, and water. Here we present the remote sensing methods used and results from four pilot cities in this effort, highlighting the pros and cons of the approach, and the benefits to sustainability and ecosystem services analysis. Example of high resolution land cover map derived from USDA NAIP aerial photo. Compare 30 m and 1 m resolution land cover maps of downtown Durham, NC.

  5. Participatory Land Administration on Customary Lands: A Practical VGI Experiment in Nanton, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Asiama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Land information is one of the basic requirements for land management activities such as land consolidation. However, the dearth of land information on customary lands limits the development and application of land consolidation. This paper presents and discusses the results of an experiment carried out to test the potential of participatory land administration applied on customary lands in support of land consolidation. A brief overview of the evolution of crowdsourced, voluntary, and participatory approaches is provided alongside newly related insights into neogeography and neo-cadastre, and fit-for-purpose and pro-poor land administration. The concept of participatory land administration is then developed in this context. The area of the experiment is in Northern Ghana where the process was developed together with the local farming community. The study involved collecting land information relating to farms over a two-week period, using a mobile app and a satellite image, based on participatory land administration. The results show that Participatory Land Administration can potentially support land consolidation, though further investigation is needed on how it can be integrated into the formal land registration system, into an actual land consolidation project.

  6. Land Use Management for Solid Waste Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The author discusses the problems of solid waste disposal and examines various land use management techniques. These include the land use plan, zoning, regionalization, land utilities, and interim use. Information concerning solid waste processing site zoning and analysis is given. Bibliography included. (MA)

  7. LAND REFORM IN UKRAINE: HISTORIOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barantsov B.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern land reform, that continues in Ukraine since the beginning of the 90-th of ХХ century, is a logical result of the functioning of society and the state.. It’s prerequisites becames, especially full monopolization of state on ownership of land; absence of payment for land as one of the means of ensuring the rational use of lands; absence on workers motivation for intensive work on the land, etc.. These and other preconditions contributed to soil degradation, production of agricultural products with exceeding of maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants, development of diseases, undermine the gene pool of nature and man. Mentioned reasons determined the goal and objectives of modern land reform, which were originally set out in the preamble to the Resolution of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine from December 18, 1990 «On Land Reform» with following changes and additions, and in the implementation of the land-reformation measures gained more complete content. Conducted analysis shows that land reform in Ukraine leads to a change of ownership of land, contributes to solving problems of citizens by land plots, enactment of payment for land usecreation of conditions for the development of land market. Thus changing land relations, is formed legal and regulatory framework of land reform and land market. However, positive developments in the implementation of land reform to end of the 90-th years have not led to a radical and effective upgrade of agricultural production, recovery of investment processes in other branches of industry, improving of welfare of the population. Land reform measures didn’t receive adequate financial support. The ultimate goal - an economically-effective and environmentally safe use of land in Ukraine - has not been achieved. Further reforming of land relations contributed to the adoption in October 2001 of the Land Code of Ukraine in the new edition that created the legal principles of land reform. Since it

  8. Intramolecular, Exciplex-Mediated, Proton-Coupled, Charge-Transfer Processes in N,N-Dimethyl-3-(1-pyrenyl)propan-1-ammonium Cations: Influence of Anion, Solvent Polarity, and Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safko, Trevor M; Faleiros, Marcelo M; Atvars, Teresa D Z; Weiss, Richard G

    2016-06-16

    An intramolecular exciplex-mediated, proton-coupled, charge-transfer (PCCT) process has been investigated for a series of N,N-dimethyl-3-(1-pyrenyl)propan-1-ammonium cations with different anions (PyS) in solvents of low to intermediate polarity over a wide temperature range. Solvent mediates both the equilibrium between conformations of the cation that place the pyrenyl and ammonium groups in proximity (conformation C) or far from each other (conformation O) and the ability of the ammonium group to transfer a proton adiabatically in the PyS excited singlet state. Thus, exciplex emission, concurrent with the PCCT process, was observed only in hydrogen-bond accepting solvents of relatively low polarity (tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, and 1,4-dioxane) and not in dichloromethane. From the exciplex emission and other spectroscopic and thermodynamic data, the acidity of the ammonium group in conformation C of the excited singlet state of PyS (pKa*) has been estimated to be ca. -3.4 in tetrahydrofuran. The ratios between the intensities of emission from the exciplex and the locally excited state (IEx/ILE) appear to be much more dependent on the nature of the anion than are the rates of exciplex formation and decay, although the excited state data do not provide a quantitative measure of the anion effect on the C-O equilibrium. The activation energies associated with exciplex formation in THF are calculated to be 0.08 to 0.15 eV lower than for the neutral amine, N,N-dimethyl-3-(1-pyrenyl)propan-1-amine. Decay of the exciplexes formed from the deprotonation of PyS is hypothesized to occur through charge-recombination processes. To our knowledge, this is the first example in which photoacidity and intramolecular exciplex formation (i.e., a PCCT reaction) are coupled.

  9. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Damask, Jay N

    2005-01-01

    The strong investments into optical telecommunications in the late 1990s resulted in a wealth of new research, techniques, component designs, and understanding of polarization effects in fiber. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications brings together recent advances in the field to create a standard, practical reference for component designers and optical fiber communication engineers. Beginning with a sound foundation in electromagnetism, the author offers a dissertation of the spin-vector formalism of polarization and the interaction of light with media. Applications discussed include optical isolators, optical circulators, fiber collimators, and a variety of applied waveplate and prism combinations. Also included in an extended discussion of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent loss (PDL), their representation, behavior, statistical properties, and measurement. This book draws extensively from the technical and patent literature and is an up-to-date reference for researchers and c...

  10. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  11. Hybrid fluorescent layer emitting polarized light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadimasoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanorods have anisotropic absorption and emission properties. In this work a hybrid luminescent layer is produced based on a mixture of CdSe/CdS nanorods dispersed in a liquid crystal that is aligned by an electric field and polymerized by UV illumination. The film emits light with polarization ratio 0.6 (polarization contrast 4:1. Clusters of nanorods in liquid crystal can be avoided by applying an AC electric field with sufficient amplitude. This method can be made compatible with large-scale processing on flexible transparent substrates. Thin polarized light emitters can be used in LCD backlights or solar concentrators to increase the efficiency.

  12. Development of atmospheric polarization LIDAR System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalumyan, A.S.; Ghazaryan, V.R.

    2016-01-01

    LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system sensitive to the polarization of the backscattered signal is being developed in Yerevan Physics Institute. The system is designed primarily for remote sensing of the atmospheric electric fields. At present, the system is being tuned for measuring vertical atmospheric backscatter profiles of aerosols and hydrometeors, analyze the depolarization ratio of elastic backscattered laser beams and investigate the influence of external factors on the beam polarization. In this paper, we describe the complete LIDAR system – the laser transmitter, receiving telescope and the polarization separator. The data acquisition and processing techniques are also described. (author)

  13. Polarized proton target with horizontal spin orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyatova, Eh.I.; Kiselev, Yu.F.; Kozlenko, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Proton target, the polarization vector of which may be arbitrary oriented in horizontal plane relatively to the beam, is developed and tested. 70% value of polarization is obtained. 0.6 K temperature is acquired through 3 He pumping out continuous cycle. 1.2-propylene glycol - Cr(V) was used as working medium. Magnetic system is made in the form of Helmholtz sperconducting coils with working curren close to critical one. Target polarization is measured by NMR technique using original system of proton signal processing

  14. Geodiversity and land degradation in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Őrsi, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity represents a variety of natural values, but they are threatened by a series of anthropogenic activities and land degradation processes. Their effect depends on the intensity of the processes and the sensitivity of the area in question. As a consequence of land degradation processes not only biodiversity but also geodiversity can be damaged and deteriorated. The appearance of the natural landscape changes and natural processes may not have a decisive role in landscape development any more. Some of the damages are irreversible because fundamental changes happen in the landscape, or the processes having created the original forms are no longer in operation. Small scale land degradation processes may be reversible if nature is still capable of reproducing the original state. The most important land degradation processes are desertification and soil erosion. Mining, waste disposal, urbanisation and construction activities, agriculture, inaccurate forest and water management, tourism, unsuitable land use can also lead to severe land degradation problems. The objective of the paper is to show Hungarian examples to all land degradation processes that threaten geodiversity. The results will be shown on a series of maps showing land degradation processes endangering geodiversity in Hungary. A detailed analysis of smaller study sites will be provided to show the effects of certain land degradation processes on landform development and on the changes of geodiversity. This research is supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), project Nr. 10875.

  15. Photonic crystal based polarization insensitive flat lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turduev, M; Bor, E; Kurt, H

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a new design of an inhomogeneous artificially created photonic crystal lens structure consisting of annular dielectric rods to efficiently focus both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations of light into the same focal point. The locations of each individual cell that contains the annular dielectric rods are determined according to a nonlinear distribution function. The inner and outer radii of the annular photonic dielectric rods are optimized with respect to the polarization insensitive frequency response of the transmission spectrum of the lens structure. The physical background of the polarization insensitive focusing mechanism is investigated in both spatial and frequency domains. Moreover, polarization independent wavefront transformation/focusing has been explored in detail by investigating the dispersion relation of the structure. Corresponding phase index distribution of the lens is attained for polarization insensitive normalized frequency range of a / λ   =  0.280 and a / λ   =  0.300, where a denotes the lattice constant of the designed structure and λ denotes the wavelength of the incident light. We show the wave transformation performance and focal point movement dynamics for both polarizations of the lens structure by specially adjusting the length of the structure. The 3D finite-difference time domain numerical analysis is also performed to verifiy that the proposed design is able to focus the wave regardless of polarization into approximately the same focal point (difference between focal distances of both polarizations stays below 0.25 λ ) with an operating bandwidth of 4.30% between 1476 nm and 1541 nm at telecom wavelengths. The main superiorities of the proposed lens structure are being all dielectric and compact, and having flat front and back surfaces, rendering the proposed lens design more practical in the photonic integration process in various applications such as optical switch

  16. Climate change, land use and land surveyors

    OpenAIRE

    van der Molen, P.; Mitchell, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research reveals that the land sector is a major emitter of greenhouse gases. But the land sector has also potential to reduce emissions. Different from other emission sectors like energy and transport, the land sector (in particular the rural area including forests) has the potential to also remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere through sequestration and storage. This requires land use, land use change and forestry to be managed with respect to climate change goals. Carbon storage has ...

  17. Design and implementation of land reservation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurong; Gao, Qingqiang

    2009-10-01

    Land reservation is defined as a land management policy for insuring the government to control primary land market. It requires the government to obtain the land first, according to plan, by purchase, confiscation and exchanging, and then exploit and consolidate the land for reservation. Underlying this policy, it is possible for the government to satisfy and manipulate the needs of land for urban development. The author designs and develops "Land Reservation System for Eastern Lake Development District" (LRSELDD), which deals with the realistic land requirement problems in Wuhan Eastern Lake Development Districts. The LRSELDD utilizes modern technologies and solutions of computer science and GIS to process multiple source data related with land. Based on experiments on the system, this paper will first analyze workflow land reservation system and design the system structure based on its principles, then illustrate the approach of organization and management of spatial data, describe the system functions according to the characteristics of land reservation and consolidation finally. The system is running to serve for current work in Eastern Lake Development Districts. It is able to scientifically manage both current and planning land information, as well as the information about land supplying. We use the LRSELDD in our routine work, and with such information, decisions on land confiscation and allocation will be made wisely and scientifically.

  18. Recent Enhancements in NOAA's JPSS Land Product Suite and Key Operational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszar, I. A.; Yu, Y.; Zhan, X.; Vargas, M.; Ek, M. B.; Zheng, W.; Wu, Y.; Smirnova, T. G.; Benjamin, S.; Ahmadov, R.; James, E.; Grell, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    A suite of operational land products has been produced as part of NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) program to support a wide range of operational applications in environmental monitoring, prediction, disaster management and mitigation, and decision support. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) and the operational JPSS satellite series forms the basis of six fundamental and multiple additional added-value environmental data records (EDRs). A major recent improvement in the land-based VIIRS EDRs has been the development of global gridded products, providing a format and science content suitable for ingest into NOAA's operational land surface and coupled numerical weather prediction models. VIIRS near-real-time Green Vegetation Fraction is now in the process of testing for full operational use, while land surface temperature and albedo are under testing and evaluation. The operational 750m VIIRS active fire product, including fire radiative power, is used to support emission modeling and air quality applications. Testing the evaluation for operational NOAA implementation of the improved 375m VIIRS active fire product is also underway. Added-value and emerging VIIRS land products include vegetation health, phenology, near-real-time surface type and surface condition change, and other biogeophysical variables. As part of the JPSS program, a global soil moisture data product has also been generated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) sensor on the GCOM-W1 (Global Change Observation Mission - Water 1) satellite since July 2012. This product is included in the blended NESDIS Soil Moisture Operational Products System, providing soil moisture data as a critical input for land surface modeling.

  19. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  20. GUIDE FOR POLARIZED NEUTRONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, V.L.; Aichroth, R.W.

    1962-12-01

    The plane of polarization of a beam of polarized neutrons is changed by this invention, and the plane can be flipped back and forth quicitly in two directions in a trouble-free manner. The invention comprises a guide having a plurality of oppositely directed magnets forming a gap for the neutron beam and the gaps are spaced longitudinally in a spiral along the beam at small stepped angles. When it is desired to flip the plane of polarization the magnets are suitably rotated to change the direction of the spiral of the gaps. (AEC)

  1. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  2. The representation of neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron beam polarization representation is discussed under the headings; transfer matrices, coherent parity violation for neutrons, neutron spin rotation in helical magnetic fields, polarization and interference. (UK)

  3. The impact of land use/land cover changes on land degradation dynamics: a Mediterranean case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajocco, S; De Angelis, A; Perini, L; Ferrara, A; Salvati, L

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  4. The Impact of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Land Degradation Dynamics: A Mediterranean Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajocco, S.; De Angelis, A.; Perini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Salvati, L.

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  5. Can polar bears use terrestrial foods to offset lost ice-based hunting opportunities?

    OpenAIRE

    Rode, Karyn D.; Robbins, Charles T.; Nelson, Lynne; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased land use by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) due to climate‐change‐induced reduction of their sea‐ice habitat illustrates the impact of climate change on species distributions and the difficulty of conserving a large, highly specialized carnivore in the face of this global threat. Some authors have suggested that terrestrial food consumption by polar bears will help them withstand sea‐ice loss as they are forced to spend increasing amounts of time on land. Here, we evaluate the nutriti...

  6. Land Grabbing and the Commodification of Agricultural Land in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Rulli, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing global demand for farmland products is placing unprecedented pressure on the global agricultural system. The increasing demand can be met through either the intensification or the expansion of agricultural production at the expenses of other ecosystems. The ongoing escalation of large scale land acquisitions in the developing world may contribute to both of these two processes. Investments in agriculture have become a priority for a number of governments and corporations that are trying to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. It is unclear however to what extent these investments are driving the intensification or the expansion of agriculture. In the last decade large scale land acquisitions by external investors have increased at unprecedented rates. This global land rush was likely enhanced by recent food crises, when prices skyrocketed in response to crop failure, new bioenergy policies, and the increasing demand for agricultural products by a growing and increasingly affluent human population. Corporations recognized the potential for high return investments in agricultural land, while governments started to enhance their food security by purchasing large tracts of land in foreign countries. It has been estimated that, to date, about 35.6 million ha of cropland - more than twice the agricultural land of Germany - have been acquired by foreign investors worldwide. As an effect of these land deals the local communities lose legal access to the land and its products. Here we investigate the effect of large scale land acquisition on agricultural intensification or expansion in African countries. We discuss the extent to which these investments in agriculture may increase crop production and stress how this phenomenon can greatly affect the local communities, their food security, economic stability and the long term resilience of their livelihoods, regardless of whether the transfer of property rights is the result of an

  7. How It's Made - Polarized Proton Beam (444th Brookhaven Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenski, Anatoli

    2008-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams at RHIC will provide fundamental tests of QCD, and the electro-weak interaction reveal the spin structure of the proton. Polarization asymmetries and parity violation are the strong signatures for identification of the fundamental processes, which are otherwise inaccessible. Such experiments require the maximum available luminosity and therefore polarization must be obtained as an extra beam quality without sacrificing intensity. There are proposals to polarize the high-energy proton beam in the storage rings by the Stern-Gerlach effect or spin-filter techniques. But so far, the only practically available option is acceleration of the polarized beam produced in the source and taking care of polarization survival during acceleration and storage. Two major innovations -- the 'Siberian Snake' technique for polarization preservation during acceleration and high current polarized proton sources make spin physics with the high-energy polarized beams feasible. The RHIC is the first high-energy collider, where the 'Siberian Snake' technique allowed of polarized proton beam acceleration up-to 250 GeV energy. The RHIC unique Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source produces sufficient polarized beam intensity for complete saturation of the RHIC acceptance. This polarization technique is based on spin-transfer collisions between a proton or atomic hydrogen beam of a few keV beam energy and optically pumped alkali metal vapors. From the first proposal and feasibility studies to the operational source this development can be considered as example of successful unification of individual scientists ingenuity, international collaboration and modern technology application for creation of a new polarization technique, which allowed of two-to-three order of magnitude polarized beam intensity increase sufficient for loading the RHIC to its full capacity for polarization studies.

  8. Interferometric polarization control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Novak, Giles

    2006-01-01

    We develop the Jones and Mueller matrices for structures that allow control of the path length difference between two linear orthogonal polarizations and consider the effect of placing multiple devices in series. Specifically, we find that full polarization modulation (measurement of Stokes Q, U, and V) can be achieved by placing two such modulators in series if the relative angles of the beam-splitting grids with respect to the analyzer orientation are appropriately chosen. Such a device has several potential advantages over a spinning wave plate modulator for measuring astronomical polarization in the far infrared through millimeter: (i) The use of small, linear motions eliminates the need for cryogenic rotational bearings; (ii) the phase flexibility allows measurement of circular as well as linear polarization; and (iii) this architecture allows for both multiwavelength and broadband modulation. We also present initial laboratory results

  9. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H B [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  10. Land change monitoring, assessment, and projection (LCMAP) revolutionizes land cover and land change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven

    2017-05-02

    When nature and humanity change Earth’s landscapes - through flood or fire, public policy, natural resources management, or economic development - the results are often dramatic and lasting.Wildfires can reshape ecosystems. Hurricanes with names like Sandy or Katrina will howl for days while altering the landscape for years. One growing season in the evolution of drought-resistant genetics can transform semiarid landscapes into farm fields.In the past, valuable land cover maps created for understanding the effects of those events - whether changes in wildlife habitat, water-quality impacts, or the role land use and land cover play in affecting weather and climate - came out at best every 5 to 7 years. Those high quality, high resolution maps were good, but users always craved more: even higher quality data, additional land cover and land change variables, more detailed legends, and most importantly, more frequent land change information.Now a bold new initiative called Land Change Monitoring, Assessment, and Projection (LCMAP) promises to fulfill that demand.Developed at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, LCMAP provides definitive, timely information on how, why, and where the planet is changing. LCMAP’s continuous monitoring process can detect changes as they happen every day that Landsat satellites acquire clear observations. The result will be to place near real-time information in the hands of land and resource managers who need to understand the effects these changes have on landscapes.

  11. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  12. No More Polarization, Please!

    OpenAIRE

    Reinholt, Mia

    2006-01-01

    The organizational science literature on motivation has for long been polarized into two main positions; the organizational economic position focusing on extrinsic motivation and the organizational behavior position emphasizing intrinsic motivation. With the rise of the knowledge economy and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on mot...

  13. Inertial polarization of dielectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Zavodovsky, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    It was proved that accelerated motion of a linear dielectric causes its polarization. Accelerated translational motion of a dielectric's plate leads to the positive charge of the surface facing the direction of motion. Metal plates of a capacitor were used to register polarized charges on a dielectric's surface. Potential difference between the capacitor plates is proportional to acceleration, when acceleration is constant potential difference grows with the increase of a dielectric's area, o...

  14. Supporting institutional development in land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems are institutional......, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. The paper examines the capacity building concept and underpins the need for institutional development to facilitate the design...... and implementation of efficient Land Administration Models and to support good governance. The paper identifies the role of FIG in this regard. This includes support for professional, institutional and global development in surveying and land management, and aims to facilitate the creation of sustainable...

  15. Exploring Science Through Polar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bell, R. E.; Zadoff, L.; Kelsey, R.

    2003-12-01

    Exploring the Poles is a First Year Seminar course taught at Barnard College, Columbia University. First Year Seminars are required of incoming students and are designed to encourage critical analysis in a small class setting with focused discussion. The class links historical polar exploration with current research in order to: introduce non-scientists to the value of environmental science through polar literature; discuss issues related to venturing into the unknown that are of relevance to any discipline: self-reliance, leadership, preparation, decisions under uncertainty; show students the human face of science; change attitudes about science and scientists; use data to engage students in exploring/understanding the environment and help them learn to draw conclusions from data; integrate research and education. These goals are met by bringing analysis of early exploration efforts together with a modern understanding of the polar environment. To date to class has followed the efforts of Nansen in the Fram, Scott and Amundsen in their race to the pole, and Shackleton's Endurance. As students read turn-of-the-century expedition journals, expedition progress is progressively revealed on an interactive map showing the environmental context. To bring the exploration process to life, students are assigned to expedition teams for specific years and the fates of the student "expeditions" are based on their own decisions. For example, in the Arctic, they navigate coastal sea ice and become frozen into the ice north of Siberia, re-creating Nansen's polar drift. Fates of the teams varied tremendously: some safely emerged at Fram Strait in 4 years, while others nearly became hopelessly lost in the Beaufort Gyre. Students thus learn about variability in the current polar environment through first hand experience, enabling them to appreciate the experiences, decisions, and, in some cases, the luck, of polar explorers. Evaluation by the Columbia Center for New Media, Teaching

  16. The Polarization of Achernar

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, D.

    2005-11-01

    Recent near-infrared measurements of the angular diameter of Achernar (the bright Be star alpha Eridani) with the ESO VLT interferometer have been interpreted as the detection of an extremely oblate photosphere, with a ratio of equatorial to polar radius of at least 1.56 ± 0.05 and a minor axis orientation of 39° ± 1° (from North to East). The optical linear polarization of this star during an emission phase in 1995 September was 0.12 ± 0.02% at position angle 37° ± 8° (in equatorial coordinates), which is the direction of the projection of the rotation axis on the plane of the sky according to the theory of polarization by electron scattering in an equatorially flattened circumstellar disk. These two independent determinations of the orientation of the rotation axis are therefore in agreement. The observational history of correlations between Hα emission and polarization as found in the literature is that of a typical Be star, with the exception of an interesting question raised by the contrast between Schröder's measurement of a small polarization perpendicular to the projected rotation axis in 1969--70 and Tinbergen's measurement of zero polarization in 1974.5, both at times when emission was reportedly absent.

  17. HST observations of the limb polarization of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzon, A.; Schmid, H. M.; Buenzli, E.

    2014-12-01

    Context. Titan is an excellent test case for detailed studies of the scattering polarization from thick hazy atmospheres. Accurate scattering and polarization parameters have been provided by the in situ measurements of the Cassini-Huygens landing probe. For Earth-bound observations Titan can only be observed at a backscattering situation, where the disk-integrated polarization is close to zero. However, with resolved imaging polarimetry a second order polarization signal along the entire limb of Titan can be measured. Aims: We present the first limb polarization measurements of Titan, which are compared as a test to our limb polarization models. Methods: Previously unpublished imaging polarimetry from the HST archive is presented, which resolves the disk of Titan. We determine flux-weighted averages of the limb polarization and radial limb polarization profiles, and investigate the degradation and cancelation effects in the polarization signal due to the limited spatial resolution of our observations. Taking this into account we derive corrected values for the limb polarization in Titan. The results are compared with limb polarization models, using atmosphere and haze scattering parameters from the literature. Results: In the wavelength bands between 250 nm and 2 μm a strong limb polarization of about 2 - 7% is detected with a position angle perpendicular to the limb. The fractional polarization is highest around 1 μm. As a first approximation, the polarization seems to be equally strong along the entire limb. The comparison of our data with model calculations and the literature shows that the detected polarization is compatible with expectations from previous polarimetric observations taken with Voyager 2, Pioneer 11, and the Huygens probe. Conclusions: Our results indicate that ground-based monitoring measurements of the limb-polarization of Titan could be useful for investigating local haze properties and the impact of short-term and seasonal variations of

  18. Fusion of a polarized projectile with a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christley, J.A.; Johnson, R.C.; Thompson, I.J.

    1995-01-01

    The fusion cross sections for a polarized target with both unpolarized and polarized projectiles are studied. Expressions for the observables are given for the case when both nuclei are polarized. Calculations for fusion of an aligned 165 Ho target with 16 O and polarized 7 Li beams are presented

  19. Polarization Of Light In The Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Kinsell L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a characterization of the fields of light polarization with which the optical designer or user of optical devices in the natural environment must be concerned. After a brief historical outline of the principal developments in polarization theory and observations during the last two centuries, the main emphasis is on the two primary processes responsible for the polarization of light in nature--scattering of light by particles of the atmosphere and reflection from soils, vegetation, snow, and water at the earth's surface. Finally, a seven minute film on polarization effects which can be seen in everyday surroundings will be shown. Scattering by atmospheric particles is responsible for high values of polarization in various atmospheric conditions and at certain scattering geometries. Such scattering particles include molecules of the atmospheric gases, aerosols of dust, haze, and air pollution, water droplets of fog and clouds, and the ice crystals of cirrus. It is seen that development of the theory of scattering by such particles has outstripped the measurements necessary for validation of the theory, a fact which points up the importance of symposia such as the present one. The reverse is true, however, for the polarizing properties of natural surfaces. Only in the case of still water is the theory of reflection adequate to characterize in a quantitative fashion the polarizing effects produced by the reflection of light from such natural surfaces. Polarization of light by reflection from vegetation is of prime importance in a remote sensing context, but much further work is needed to characterize vegetative reflectance for the purpose. The short film on polarization effects provides a good visualization technique and training aid for students interested in the field.

  20. Detection of land degradation with polarimetric SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral radar polarimeter data were collected over the Manix Basin Area of the Mojave desert using an airborne SAR. An analysis of the data reveals unusual polarization responses which are attributed to the formation of wind ripples on the surfaces of fields that have been abandoned for more than 5 years. This hypothesis has been confirmed through field observations, and a second-order perturbation model is shown to effectively model the polarization responses. The results demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing techniques for the study of land degradation at synoptic scales.

  1. The near infrared polarization of NGC 7023

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellgren, K.

    1984-01-01

    NGC 7023 is a visual reflection nebula whose low optical depth at near infrared wavelengths suggests it may be well-suited to analysis of the near infrared scattering properties of dust. While processes other than scattered light dominate the near infrared emission of NGC 7023, a detectable scattered light component remains, as can be demonstrated by polarization measurements. Polarization at 2.2 μm has been detected at two positions in NGC 7023. The polarization angles at these two positions are perpendicular to the line between each nebular position and the star which illuminates the visual reflection nebulosity, indicating that the polarization mechanism is most likely the scattering of starlight from this star. (author)

  2. Polarization of submillimetre lines from interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heshou; Yan, Huirong

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic fields play important roles in many astrophysical processes. However, there is no universal diagnostic for the magnetic fields in the interstellar medium (ISM) and each magnetic tracer has its limitation. Any new detection method is thus valuable. Theoretical studies have shown that submillimetre fine-structure lines are polarized due to atomic alignment by ultraviolet photon-excitation, which opens up a new avenue to probe interstellar magnetic fields. We will, for the first time, perform synthetic observations on the simulated three-dimensional ISM to demonstrate the measurability of the polarization of submillimetre atomic lines. The maximum polarization for different absorption and emission lines expected from various sources, including star-forming regions are provided. Our results demonstrate that the polarization of submillimetre atomic lines is a powerful magnetic tracer and add great value to the observational studies of the submilimetre astronomy.

  3. The influence of the land use in the development of the erosion processes (gully erosion and landslides in Aiud and Stejeriş basins (Măhăceni Tableland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan ONAC

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Land use has got a great influence upon actual erosional slope processes development and evolution and the stability of slopes. Tree clearing and degradation of agroterraces in Aiud and Stejeriş catchments, led to destabilization of the slopes and the quick development of gullzprocesses and landslides. The present paper gives example of a present-day model, which shows that, changing landuse style, can be the setting point in the formation and rapid development of actual slope erosional processes.

  4. Clean thermal decomposition of tertiary-alkyl metal thiolates to metal sulfides: environmentally-benign, non-polar inks for solution-processed chalcopyrite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jungwoo; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Jeong, Jaeki; Yoon, Yung Jin; Seo, Jung Hwa; Walker, Bright; Kim, Jin Young

    2016-11-01

    We report the preparation of Cu2S, In2S3, CuInS2 and Cu(In,Ga)S2 semiconducting films via the spin coating and annealing of soluble tertiary-alkyl thiolate complexes. The thiolate compounds are readily prepared via the reaction of metal bases and tertiary-alkyl thiols. The thiolate complexes are soluble in common organic solvents and can be solution processed by spin coating to yield thin films. Upon thermal annealing in the range of 200-400 °C, the tertiary-alkyl thiolates decompose cleanly to yield volatile dialkyl sulfides and metal sulfide films which are free of organic residue. Analysis of the reaction byproducts strongly suggests that the decomposition proceeds via an SN1 mechanism. The composition of the films can be controlled by adjusting the amount of each metal thiolate used in the precursor solution yielding bandgaps in the range of 1.2 to 3.3 eV. The films form functioning p-n junctions when deposited in contact with CdS films prepared by the same method. Functioning solar cells are observed when such p-n junctions are prepared on transparent conducting substrates and finished by depositing electrodes with appropriate work functions. This method enables the fabrication of metal chalcogenide films on a large scale via a simple and chemically clear process.

  5. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  6. BEFORE THE SALE RIGHTS TO AGRICULTURAL LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSTOVSKA О.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems of the Ukrainian economy is the formation of a civilized land market. We have to admit that the process of formation of private ownership of land in Ukraine entered into a protracted and uncertain nature. Another introduction in Ukraine of the moratorium on sale of agricultural land due to the lack of resolution of many land issues and not sformovat market infrastructure. Because for the majority of producers of agricultural products the sale of lease rights is an innovation. On the sale of lease rights still they are almost not heard, and especially not used in practice, although the possibility of disposal of property rights, which is owned and leasehold, provided by norms of the Civil code of Ukraine. The issue of land bidding (auction is relevant, because the law of Ukraine set the priority of this method of trading in the sale or lease of land. The auction is open and transparent way the exclusion of land resources of the territorial community, that is, eliminates the influence of corruption and receipt of funds in local budgets adds the ability to invest in the economy of human settlements and agriculture. Among the economic benefits to the development industry is not only improving the investment climate, replenishment of budgets of all levels and approaching the level of EU countries in matters of land. Holding of auctions is very attractive from the point of view of filling the local budget, the sale of land has its advantages, namely a quick and significant revenue. The lease right may be alienated in accordance with the current legislation of Ukraine and some legislative solution is not needed. The procedure of land auctions includes the following steps: 1. The organizer of land sales (public authority or local authority determines the list of land plots of state or municipal property and rights thereto, which are exposed at the land auction as separate lots. 2. The decision of a public authority or

  7. Polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1994-03-01

    The author discusses a number of interrelated hadronic spin effects which test fundamental features of perturbative and non-perturbative QCD. For example, the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton and the axial coupling g A on the nucleon are shown to be related to each other for fixed proton radius, independent of the form of the underlying three-quark relativistic quark wavefunction. The renormalization scale and scheme ambiguities for the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule for the polarized structure functions can be eliminated by using commensurate scale relations with other observables. Other examples include (a) new constraints on the shape and normalization of the polarized quark and gluon structure functions of the proton at large and small x bj ; (b) consequences of the principle of hadron helicity retention in high x F inclusive reactions; (c) applications of hadron helicity conservation to high momentum transfer exclusive reactions; and (d) the dependence of nuclear structure functions and shadowing on virtual photon polarization. He also discusses the implications of a number of measurements which are in striking conflict with leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions, such as the extraordinarily large spin correlation A NN observed in large angle proton-proton scattering, the anomalously large ρπ branching ratio of the J/ψ, and the rapidly changing polarization dependence of both J/ψ and continuum lepton pair hadroproduction observed at large x F . The azimuthal angular dependence of the Drell-Yan process is shown to be highly sensitive to the projectile distribution amplitude, the fundamental valence light-cone wavefunction of the hadron

  8. Polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The author discusses a number of interrelated hadronic spin effects which test fundamental features of perturbative and nonperturbative QCD. For example, the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton and the axial coupling g{sub A} on the nucleon are shown to be related to each other for fixed proton radius, independent of the form of the underlying three-quark relativistic quark wavefunction. The renormalization scale and scheme ambiguities for the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule for the polarized structure functions can be eliminated by using commensurate scale relations with other observables. Other examples include (a) new constraints on the shape and normalization of the polarized quark and gluon structure functions of the proton at large and small x{sub bj}; (b) consequences of the principle of hadron retention in high x{sub F} inclusive reactions; (c) applications of hadron helicity conservation to high momentum transfer exclusive reactions; and (d) the dependence of nuclear structure functions and shadowing on virtual photon polarization. The author also discusses the implications of a number of measurements which are in striking conflict with leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions, such as the extraordinarily large spin correlation A{sub NN} observed in large angle proton-proton scattering, the anomalously large {rho}{pi} branching ratio of the J/{psi}, and the rapidly changing polarization dependence of both J/{psi} and continuum lepton pair hadroproduction observed at large x{sub F}. The azimuthal angular dependence of the Drell-Yan process is shown to be highly sensitive to the projectile distribution amplitude, the fundamental valence light-cone wavefunction of the hadron.

  9. Land disposal potential of tobacco processing residues Potencial de uso agrícola de dois resíduos de agroindústria fumageira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino José Tedesco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the leaders in the production and trading of tobacco leaves in the global market, which results in a large amount of residues that would be recycled and used as soil fertilizers in agriculture. This research aimed to study the land disposal potential and agricultural use of tobacco processing residues (TPRs, their mineralization and the nutrient supply to the plants. The study was carried out in an open area using pots with 32dm³ of a sandy soil (Paleudult, provided with water drainage collectors and tilled with three corn plants each. Eighteen treatments were tested with mineral fertilization, poultry manure (PM, earthworm compost (EC and increasing rates (0, 7.5, 15, 30 e 60t ha-1 of TPR D (dust and TPR S (stem fibers.Treatments with TPRs (15t ha-1 plus mineral supplementation two by two (NP, NK and PK were also tested, with four replications each. The experiment started in 01/15/2004 and conducted until 03/16/2004, when corn plants were harvested. The response curves showed that the residues application rates between 15 and 20t ha-1 are most adequate for the studied soil. The results indicated that both TPRs may be important sources of biomass and potash and have potential to be recycled in the soil, supplying part of the macronutrients required for proper plant growth.O Brasil é um dos maiores produtores e exportadores mundiais de tabaco em folha, resultando em grandes quantidaes de resíduos que poderiam ser utilizados como fertilizantes na agricultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de reciclagem agrícola de dois resíduos de agroindústria fumageira (RAF's, sua mineralização no solo e liberação de nutrientes às plantas. O experimento foi conduzido a céu aberto utilizando como unidades experimentais vasos com capacidade de 32 litros de solo, adaptados com tubo coletor de lixiviado e um argissolo (PVAd, cultivado com três plantas de milho. Foram feitos 18 tratamentos com adubo mineral, cama

  10. ORCHIDEE-CROP (v0), a new process-based agro-land surface model: model description and evaluation over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Wang, X.; Magliulo, V.; Wattenbach, M.; Vitale, L.; Di Tommasi, P.; Moors, E. J.; Jans, W.; Elbers, J.; Ceschia, E.; Tallec, T.; Bernhofer, C.; Grünwald, T.; Moureaux, C.; Manise, T.; Ligne, A.; Cellier, P.; Loubet, B.; Larmanou, E.; Ripoche, D.

    2016-03-01

    The response of crops to changing climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) could have large effects on food production, and impact carbon, water, and energy fluxes, causing feedbacks to the climate. To simulate the response of temperate crops to changing climate and [CO2], which accounts for the specific phenology of crops mediated by management practice, we describe here the development of a process-oriented terrestrial biogeochemical model named ORCHIDEE-CROP (v0), which integrates a generic crop phenology and harvest module, and a very simple parameterization of nitrogen fertilization, into the land surface model (LSM) ORCHIDEEv196, in order to simulate biophysical and biochemical interactions in croplands, as well as plant productivity and harvested yield. The model is applicable for a range of temperate crops, but is tested here using maize and winter wheat, with the phenological parameterizations of two European varieties originating from the STICS agronomical model. We evaluate the ORCHIDEE-CROP (v0) model against eddy covariance and biometric measurements at seven winter wheat and maize sites in Europe. The specific ecosystem variables used in the evaluation are CO2 fluxes (net ecosystem exchange, NEE), latent heat, and sensible heat fluxes. Additional measurements of leaf area index (LAI) and aboveground biomass and yield are used as well. Evaluation results revealed that ORCHIDEE-CROP (v0) reproduced the observed timing of crop development stages and the amplitude of the LAI changes. This is in contrast to ORCHIDEEv196 where, by default, crops have the same phenology as grass. A halving of the root mean square error for LAI from 2.38 ± 0.77 to 1.08 ± 0.34 m2 m-2 was obtained when ORCHIDEEv196 and ORCHIDEE-CROP (v0) were compared across the seven study sites. Improved crop phenology and carbon allocation led to a good match between modeled and observed aboveground biomass (with a normalized root mean squared error (NRMSE) of 11.0-54.2 %), crop

  11. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowben, P A; Wu Ning; Binek, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO 2 and Cr 2 O 3 illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values. (viewpoint)

  12. Up-scaling Strategies for Strengthening of Women's Land Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents proposals on strategies of up-scaling based on the concepts of gendered land tools, described in the ‘Gender Mechanism' document by the Global Land Tool Network (GLTN, 2006). The 23 priority land tools selected by GLTN are discusses, in view of how the existing land tools best ...... can be applied in a global quest for strengthening women's land tenure security and access to land. It is argued that the GLTN concept of gendering land tools is about building gender-sensitive processes of upgrading land tenure security....

  13. The evolution of tensor polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Lee, S.Y.; Ratner, L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the equation of motion for the vector polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization is derived. The evolution equation for the tensor polarization is studied in the presence of an isolate spin resonance and in the presence of a spin rotor, or snake

  14. The polarization of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The present work is the review of polarization of fast neutrons and methods of polarization analysis. This also includes information about polarization of fast neutrons from first papers, which described polarization in the D(d,n) 3 He, 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be, and T(p,n) 3 He reactions. (authors)

  15. Climate change, land use and land surveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, P.; Mitchell, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research reveals that the land sector is a major emitter of greenhouse gases. But the land sector has also potential to reduce emissions. Different from other emission sectors like energy and transport, the land sector (in particular the rural area including forests) has the potential to also remove

  16. Selecting reasonable future land use scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, W.E.; Smith, R.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines a process to help select the most reasonable future land use scenarios for hazardous waste and/or low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The process involves evaluating future land use scenarios by applying selected criteria currently used by commercial mortgage companies to determine the feasibility of obtaining a loan for purchasing such land. The basis for the process is that only land use activities for which a loan can be obtained will be considered. To examine the process, a low-level radioactive waste site, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is used as an example. The authors suggest that the process is a very precise, comprehensive, and systematic (common sense) approach for determining reasonable future use of land. Implementing such a process will help enhance the planning, decisionmaking, safe management, and cleanup of present and future disposal facilities.

  17. Selecting reasonable future land use scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, W.E.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines a process to help select the most reasonable future land use scenario for hazardous waste and/or low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The process involves evaluating future land use scenarios ab applying selected criteria currently used by commercial mortgage companies to determine the feasibility of obtaining a loan for purchasing such land. The basis for the process is that only land use activities for which a loan can be obtained well be considered. To examine the process, a low-level radioactive waste site, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is used as an example. The authors suggest that the process is a very precise, comprehensive, and systematic approach for determining reasonable future use of land. Implementing such a process will help enhance the planning, decisionmaking, safe management, and cleanup of present and future disposal facilities

  18. Selecting reasonable future land use scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, W.E.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines a process to help select the most reasonable future land use scenarios for hazardous waste and/or low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The process involves evaluating future land use scenarios by applying selected criteria currently used by commercial mortgage companies to determine the feasibility of obtaining a loan for purchasing such land. The basis for the process is that only land use activities for which a loan can be obtained will be considered. To examine the process, a low-level radioactive waste site, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is used as an example. The authors suggest that the process is a very precise, comprehensive, and systematic (common sense) approach for determining reasonable future use of land. Implementing such a process will help enhance the planning, decisionmaking, safe management, and cleanup of present and future disposal facilities

  19. Supporting the operational use of process based hydrological models and NASA Earth Observations for use in land management and post-fire remediation through a Rapid Response Erosion Database (RRED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. E.; Elliot, W.; Billmire, M.; Robichaud, P. R.; Banach, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    We have built a Rapid Response Erosion Database (RRED, http://rred.mtri.org/rred/) for the continental United States to allow land managers to access properly formatted spatial model inputs for the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP). Spatially-explicit process-based models like WEPP require spatial inputs that include digital elevation models (DEMs), soil, climate and land cover. The online database delivers either a 10m or 30m USGS DEM, land cover derived from the Landfire project, and soil data derived from SSURGO and STATSGO datasets. The spatial layers are projected into UTM coordinates and pre-registered for modeling. WEPP soil parameter files are also created along with linkage files to match both spatial land cover and soils data with the appropriate WEPP parameter files. Our goal is to make process-based models more accessible by preparing spatial inputs ahead of time allowing modelers to focus on addressing scenarios of concern. The database provides comprehensive support for post-fire hydrological modeling by allowing users to upload spatial soil burn severity maps, and within moments returns spatial model inputs. Rapid response is critical following natural disasters. After moderate and high severity wildfires, flooding, erosion, and debris flows are a major threat to life, property and municipal water supplies. Mitigation measures must be rapidly implemented if they are to be effective, but they are expensive and cannot be applied everywhere. Fire, runoff, and erosion risks also are highly heterogeneous in space, creating an urgent need for rapid, spatially-explicit assessment. The database has been used to help assess and plan remediation on over a dozen wildfires in the Western US. Future plans include expanding spatial coverage, improving model input data and supporting additional models. Our goal is to facilitate the use of the best possible datasets and models to support the conservation of soil and water.

  20. LandSense: A Citizen Observatory and Innovation Marketplace for Land Use and Land Cover Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Inian; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; McCallum, Ian

    2017-04-01

    numerous pathways of citizen empowerment via the LandSense Engagement Platform, i.e. tools for discussion, online voting collaborative mapping, as well as events linked to public consultation and cooperative planning. In addition to creating tools for data collection, quality assurance, and interaction with the public, the project aims to drive innovation through collaboration with the private sector. LandSense will build an innovation marketplace to attract a vast community of users across numerous disciplines and sectors and boost Europe's role in the business of ground-based monitoring. The anticipated outcomes of LandSense have considerable potential to lower expenditure costs on ground-based data collection and greatly extend the current sources of such data, thereby realizing citizen-powered innovations in the processing chain of LULC monitoring activities both within and beyond Europe.