Sample records for polar frontal zone

  1. Polar Frontal Zone of the Barents Sea Western Trough Based on the Direct Measurements in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Morozov


    Full Text Available The results of measurements carried out in summer, 2007 in the north-western part of the Barents Sea are discussed. The ship weather station and the vessel mounted Acoustic Doppler current profiler VMADCP150 are used to carry out measurements in the vessel motion. CTD/LADCP-sensing is performed at the drift stations. The minimum horizontal scale of a temperature front is 0.5 km, whereas the maximum horizontal gradient of water temperature is 4 °C/km. The width of the North Cape Current Northern branch is ~8 km that is three times larger than the Rossby radius of deformation. Position of the temperature front coincides with that of the jet stream core. The characteristics of small-scale vertical structure of water dynamics and density stratification in the polar frontal zone are discussed. The averaged annual variability of temperature and salinity vertical structure in the area of the Spitsbergen Bank and the Hopen Deep are represented. The intra-annual variability of water salinity in the Hopen Deep calculated based on the historical database of hydrological data, revealed the presence of variations with a period of four months. Based on satellite observations, position of the temperature front in the area of research is defined.

  2. Oceanography of the subantarctic and Polar Frontal Zones south of Australia during summer: Setting for the SAZ-Sense study (United States)

    Bowie, Andrew R.; Brian Griffiths, F.; Dehairs, Frank; Trull, Thomas W.


    This paper provides a description of the physical and chemical properties (temperature, salinity, macro-nutrient, and oxygen concentrations) and bulk biomass indicators (chlorophyll and beam attenuation) prevailing in the subantarctic zone and polar front zones south of Tasmania (Australia) during the 'Sensitivity of the subantarctic zone to environmental change' (SAZ-Sense) expedition carried out in the austral summer of 2007. Phytoplankton biomass showed a characteristic north-south gradient of decreasing chlorophyll from the subantarctic zone to Polar Frontal Zone, as well as a zonal gradient in the northern subantarctic zone, with an increase in chlorophyll from southwest to southeast of Tasmania. The representativeness of the observations was assessed by comparison to previous studies including satellite observation of chlorophyll biomass over a 10-year period. We consider the possible role of spatial differences in: (i) ocean water masses and frontal systems, (ii) upper mixed layer stratification at three process stations, and (iii) nutrient availability, in controlling the observed variations in phytoplankton biomass in the region. Zonal gradients of the basic oceanographic physical and chemical conditions in the subantarctic zone were relatively small and therefore unlikely to control the three-fold west-to-east differences observed in the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass. The zonal variation in subantarctic zone chlorophyll biomass appears to be driven at least partly by greater micro-nutrient (iron) supply to the waters east of Tasmania, as reported also by others ( Bowie et al., 2009; Mongin et al., 2011a). Despite this condition, the region of higher phytoplankton biomass to the southeast of Tasmania was only marginally more productive than the region of lower biomass west of Tasmania and south of the polar front, and exported less particulate carbon than the lower biomass waters ( Jacquet et al., 2011).

  3. The influence of iron and light on net community production in the Subantarctic and Polar Frontal Zones (United States)

    Cassar, N.; Difiore, P. J.; Barnett, B. A.; Bender, M. L.; Bowie, A. R.; Tilbrook, B.; Petrou, K.; Westwood, K. J.; Wright, S. W.; Lefevre, D.


    The roles of iron and light in controlling biomass and primary productivity are clearly established in the Southern Ocean. However, their influence on net community production (NCP) and carbon export remains to be quantified. To improve our understanding of NCP and carbon export production in the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) and the northern reaches of the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ), we conducted continuous onboard determinations of NCP as part of the Sub-Antarctic Sensitivity to Environmental Change (SAZ-Sense) study, which occurred in January-February 2007. Biological O2 supersaturation was derived from measuring O2/Ar ratios by equilibrator inlet mass spectrometry. Based on these continuous measurements, NCP during the austral summer 2007 in the Australian SAZ was approximately 43 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. NCP showed significant spatial variability, with larger values near the Subtropical front, and a general southward decrease. For shallower mixed layers (export from the Southern Ocean mixed layer.

  4. Seasonal nutrient depletion and carbon export in the Subantarctic and Polar Frontal Zones of the Southern Ocean south of Australia (United States)

    Lourey, Martin J.; Trull, Thomas W.


    Seasonal surface water nitrate and phosphate depletions were calculated for the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) and Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) of the Southern Ocean along the World Ocean Circulation Experiment SR3 repeat section south of Tasmania, Australia, and three other transects slightly to the west. The depletions were calculated between a single winter (July) section and eight other sections from October to March in the years 1991-1998 and corrected for frontal movements and changes in water masses between the cruises using observed quasi-linear nutrient-salinity relationships. Arranged in a seasonal progression, depletion began in approximately October and continued through March, in good agreement with satellite biomass-based estimates of production. Nitrate depletion in the SAZ (510 mmol N m-2) was approximately twice that of the PFZ (250 mmol N m-2), but phosphate depletions were similar (29 and 24 mmol P m-2 for the SAZ and PFZ, respectively). The SAZ exhibited a Redfield N/P depletion ratio (15.1±2.3), but the PFZ ratio was much lower (8.3±5.4). While the SAZ exhibits greater seasonal nutrient depletion, the relative magnitudes of export in the two zones remain uncertain because supply of nutrients from south of the Polar Front may lower the observed nutrient depletions in the PFZ. However, comparisons with sediment trap and production measurements for the region south of Australia suggest the SAZ and PFZ differences derive from differences in production. Assuming a Redfield C/N ratio (6.6), carbon export for the longest period examined (July-March) averaged 3400±430 mmol C m-2 in the SAZ, with a range between 2700 and 3900 mmol C m-2 depending on latitude. In the PFZ, carbon export averaged 1600±350 mmol C m-2, with a range of 1100 to 2000 mmol C m-2. These averages represent minimum annual export production estimates because neither resupply nor export outside the July-March observational period is included.

  5. The influence of iron and light on net community production in the Subantarctic and Polar Frontal Zones

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    N. Cassar


    Full Text Available The roles of iron and light in controlling biomass and primary productivity are clearly established in the Southern Ocean. However, their influence on net community production (NCP and carbon export remains to be quantified. To improve our understanding of NCP and carbon export production in the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ and the northern reaches of the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ, we conducted continuous onboard determinations of NCP as part of the Sub-Antarctic Sensitivity to Environmental Change (SAZ-Sense study, which occurred in January–February 2007. Biological O2 supersaturation was derived from measuring O2/Ar ratios by equilibrator inlet mass spectrometry. Based on these continuous measurements, NCP during the austral summer 2007 in the Australian SAZ was approximately 43 mmol O2 m−2 d−1. NCP showed significant spatial variability, with larger values near the Subtropical front, and a general southward decrease. For shallower mixed layers (<50 m, dissolved Fe concentrations and Fe sufficiency, estimated from variable fluorescence, correlated strongly with NCP. The strong correlation between NCP and dissolved Fe may be difficult to interpret because of the correlation of dissolved Fe to MLD and because the concentration of iron may not be a good indicator of its availability. At stations with deeper mixed layers, NCP was consistently low, regardless of iron sufficiency, consistent with light availability also being an important control of NCP. Our new observations provide independent evidence for the critical roles of iron and light in mediating carbon export from the Southern Ocean mixed layer.

  6. Phytoplankton and pigment patterns across frontal zones in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Kattner, Gerhard; van Oijen, Tim; de Jong, Jeroen T. M.; de Baar, Hein J.W.


    Phytoplankton distribution and concentrations of macronutrients and iron were studied in the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) and the eastern Weddell Gyre of the Southern Ocean, during austral autumn. HPLC analysis of algal pigments was combined with microscopy observations to assess algal distribution.

  7. Dissolved Ba in the complex frontal system of the Crozet - Kerguelen Basin and comparison with other Southern Ocean frontal zones (United States)

    Jacquet, S.; Cattaldo, T.; Cardinal, D.; Navez, J.; Dehairs, F.


    Dissolved Ba profiles in the Southern Ocean have been documented during the GEOSECS (Chan et al., 1979) and INDIGO programs (Jeandel et al., 1996), but zonal coverage of these data sets is still limited. Especially the major frontal systems, through which strong concentration gradients can be expected, are still poorly documented today. During the ANTARES-4 expedition (Jan. 1999) we have analyzed dissolved Ba over the whole water column in the Crozet-Kerguelen basin (43°-46°S and 62°-65°E). This Subantarctic region is characterized by the confluence (about 200km wide) of 3 major fronts which induce strong latitudinal gradients in physico-chemical and biogeochemical conditions. The fronts present are, from north to south: the Agulhas Return Current Front (AF), the Subtropical Front (STF) and the Subantarctic Front (SAF). In surface and subsurface waters a positive gradient of Ba concentrations appears from north to south, while for deep waters, below 2000m, latitudinal differences tend to fade away. Surface water is most depleted in Ba in the Subtropical zone north of the AF (38nmol/l) and is most enriched in the Polar Front Zone (subantarctic waters) south of the SAF (61nmol/l). In deep and bottom waters Ba concentrations reach up to 100nmol/l. Northward exchange of surface waters (upper 100m) through the SAF and the STF was clearly reflected by the latitudinal distributions of dissolved oxygen and Ba. The Polar Front Zone, south of the SAF, is characterized by the occurrence of slight depletions of dissolved Ba in the mesopelagic waters between 100m and 400m, with in general, a minimum at 300m. This same depth zone is characterized by interleaving processes resulting from the diapycnal mixing between warm, salty, O2-poor Subtropical water and cold, fresh, O2-rich Subantarctic water. The possible controls by mixing and/or biogeochemical processing are discussed in comparison with other physico-chemical data. Furthermore, results will be discussed in comparison

  8. Thermal frontal zone along the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (United States)

    Kok, Poh Heng; Akhir, Mohd F.; Tangang, Fredolin T.


    Monthly satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) climatology was used to investigate the thermal frontal zone along the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (ECPM) during both northeast and southwest monsoons. In addition, in situ hydrographic observations were conducted to investigate the vertical structure of thermohaline fronts during the southwest monsoon and inter-monsoon period. During the northeast monsoon, the locations of the front is determined by the speed of the southward flowing western boundary current, located near South Vietnam, which causes the tongue of cooler water, flooding into the ECPM. As the speed of southward flowing western boundary current increases, the cooler water tongue moves closer to the ECPM. On the other hand, as current speed decreases, the distinctive cooler water tongue recedes from the ECPM. During the southwest monsoon, the presence of a cooler water patch is observed in the SST climatology data and limited field data exhibit upwelling features (i.e. the presence of isotherm and isohaline shoaling towards the coast and surface). Analysis of European Centre for Medium-range Forecast (ECMWF) wind data show the presence of positive wind stress curl in the region, indicating a driving mechanism for upwelling. Additionally, analyses of onshore and offshore SST differences suggest that significant atmospheric forcing during different monsoon periods are responsible for the seasonal evolution of SST patterns.

  9. Auditory aura in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a red flag to suspect an extra-frontal epileptogenic zone. (United States)

    Ferri, Lorenzo; Bisulli, Francesca; Nobili, Lino; Tassi, Laura; Licchetta, Laura; Mostacci, Barbara; Stipa, Carlotta; Mainieri, Greta; Bernabè, Giorgia; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo


    To describe the anatomo-electro-clinical findings of patients with nocturnal hypermotor seizures (NHS) preceded by auditory symptoms, to evaluate the localizing value of auditory aura. Our database of 165 patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) diagnosis confirmed by videopolysomnography (VPSG) was reviewed, selecting those who reported an auditory aura as the initial ictal symptom in at least two NHS during their lifetime. Eleven patients were selected (seven males, four females). According to the anatomo-electro-clinical data, three groups were identified. Group 1 [defined epileptogenic zone (EZ)]: three subjects were studied with stereo-EEG. The EZ lay in the left superior temporal gyrus in two cases, whereas in the third case seizures arose from a dysplastic lesion located in the left temporal lobe. One of these three patients underwent left Heschl's gyrus resection, and is currently seizure-free. Group 2 (presumed EZ): three cases in which a presumed EZ was identified; in the left temporal lobe in two cases and in the left temporal lobe extending to the insula in one subject. Group 3 (uncertain EZ): five cases had anatomo-electro-clinical correlations discordant. This work suggests that auditory aura may be a helpful anamnestic feature suggesting an extra-frontal seizure origin. This finding could guide secondary investigations to improve diagnostic definition and selection of candidates for surgical treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Similarity and Difference between the South Atlantic Convergence Zone and the Baiu Frontal Zone Simulated by an AGCM


    Kozo, NINOMIYA; Frontier Research Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology


    Features of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and the Baiu frontal zone (BFZ) simulated by an AGCM (T106L56: a primitive equation spectral model which has 56 σ-levels and triangular spectral truncation at wave-number 106) are studied. The 24-year integration, from 1979 to 2002, by the model constrained by observed sea-surface temperature and sea-ice distribution, is used for this study. The detailed analysis is made for the typical case of SACZ and BFZ selected from data in 1985-1996...

  11. On the identification of magnetostratigraphic polarity zones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Otakar


    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2008), s. 173-186 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1365 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : paleomagnetism * geomagnetic polarity reversals * magnetic polarity stratigraphy Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.770, year: 2008

  12. Bacterioplankton carbon cycling along the Subtropical Frontal Zone off New Zealand (United States)

    Baltar, Federico; Stuck, Esther; Morales, Sergio; Currie, Kim


    Marine heterotrophic bacterioplankton (Bacteria and Archaea) play a central role in ocean carbon cycling. As such, identifying the factors controlling these microbial populations is crucial to fully understanding carbon fluxes. We studied bacterioplankton activities along a transect crossing three water masses (i.e., Subtropical waters [STW], Sub-Antarctic waters [SAW] and neritic waters [NW]) with contrasting nutrient regimes across the Subtropical Frontal Zone. In contrast to bacterioplankton production and community respiration, bacterioplankton respiration increased in the offshore SAW, causing a seaward increase in the contribution of bacteria to community respiration (from 7% to 100%). Cell-specific bacterioplankton respiration also increased in SAW, but cell-specific production did not, suggesting that prokaryotic cells in SAW were investing more energy towards respiration than growth. This was reflected in a 5-fold decline in bacterioplankton growth efficiency (BGE) towards SAW. One way to explain this decrease in BGE could be due to the observed reduction in phytoplankton biomass (and presumably organic matter concentration) towards SAW. However, this would not explain why bacterioplankton respiration was highest in SAW, where phytoplankton biomass was lowest. Another factor affecting BGE could be the iron limitation characteristic of high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions like SAW. Our field-study based evidences would agree with previous laboratory experiments in which iron stress provoked a decrease in BGE of marine bacterial isolates. Our results suggest that there is a strong gradient in bacterioplankton carbon cycling rates along the Subtropical Frontal Zone, mainly due to the HNLC conditions of SAW. We suggest that Fe-induced reduction of BGE in HNLC regions like SAW could be relevant in marine carbon cycling, inducing bacterioplankton to act as a link or a sink of organic carbon by impacting on the quantity of organic carbon they incorporate

  13. Double diffusion in the frontal zones of the Yellow and East China Seas in winter (United States)

    Oh, K.; Lee, S.


    Where the cold, fresh water of the Yellow Sea (YS) and the warm, salty water of the East China Sea (ECS) meet, northern and southern fronts are formed in the southeastern YS and the northwestern ECS, respectively. Strong thermohaline fronts are formed on the northern front, and a strong thermocline and a temperature reversal phenomenon are represented in this front. To understand the water structure of this thermohaline zone, we examined double diffusion in the frontal zones in February 2003 using hydrographic data. In the northern front, the warm, salty Cheju Warm Current Water (CWCW) moved northwards along the bottom layer and the cold, fresh Yellow Sea Cold Water (YSCW) flowed southward in the upper layer. As a result, strong thermohaline fronts forms in the area where the two water masses met, and the slope was developed downward across the front. In this area, a strong thermocline and temperature reversal structures were present. The cold, fresh Korean Coastal Water (KCW) was also found in the upper layer near the thermocline, and has a low-temperature, low-salinity more than surrounding water. When cold, fresh water is located over warm, salty water, heat diffuses through the interface between the two water masses, and then the diffusive-convection can be expected to occur. On the other hand, when warm, salty water overlays cold, fresh water, heat in the upper layer is preferentially transferred downward, and the salt-fingering occurs. The diffusive-convection occurs predominantly in the northern thermohaline front, where the cold, fresh YSCW is situated above the warm, salty CWCW and has the effect of strengthening stratification, so that the water column maintains a physically stable structure. In addition, this phenomenon seems to play a role in maintaining the reversal structure. The salt-fingering occurs in upper layers of the northern front where the cold, fresh YSCW is located over the most cold, fresh KCW. Near the northern thermo-halocline zone, the

  14. On the distribution of silicic acid as a frontal zone tracer in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean

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    R. Prego


    Full Text Available The subantarctic frontal zone surveyed during the April-May 1991 SUZIL cruise in the Crozet-Kerguelen-Amsterdam area shows a strong horizontal (north to south gradient of dissolved silicate, increasing with depth, from 5 to 10 µmolSi kg-1 at 100 m, and 10 to 70 µmolSi kg-1 at 600 m. The northern limit of this frontal zone, which is formed by the confluence of the Subtropical and Subantarctic Fronts, is delimited at the surface by the 2 µmolSi kg-1 silicate isoline. Silicate-salinity diagrams also allow different water regimes to be positioned relative to the frontal zone. This sloping interface is between two water bodies, one to the north with more saline subtropical waters of less concentrated silicate than the southern one, corresponding to subantarctic waters which are less saline and richer in silicate. It is concluded that dissolved silicate can be used as a useful tracer of frontal zone water masses in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, providing a sound complement to other hydrographic data.

  15. Fish larvae at fronts: Horizontal and vertical distributions of gadoid fish larvae across a frontal zone at the Norwegian Trench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter


    horizontal and vertical variability in hydrography and abundances of potential copepod prey The investigation was carried out at a frontal zone along the Norwegian Trench in the northern North Sea, and was based on a series of cross-bathymetric sampling transects. Tows with a large ring net and an opening...

  16. The seizure semiology consistent with frontal lobe symptomatogenic zone in children. (United States)

    Öztoprak, Ülkühan; Yalnızoğlu, Dilek; Oğuz, Kader Karlı; Ergun, Eser Lay; Söylemezoğlu, Figen; Bilginer, Burçak; Akalan, Nejat; Topçu, Meral; Turanlı, Güzide


    The aim of this study is to analyze the seizure semiology consistent with frontal lobe symptomatogenic zone in childhood. We analyzed 549 videotaped seizures from 79 patients (mean age 9.9 ± 3.8 years). Magnetic resonance imaging was normal in 30 patients. The seizures in the time interval of 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. were considered as nocturnal. The mean number of seizures per patient was 6.8 ± 7.3. The mean seizure duration was 25.7 ± 26.9 sec; postictal confusion was 27 ± 16.1 sec (7-92 seconds). The seizures were observed in sleep with a rate of 56.8%; 43.1% of them were during wakefulness. Overall 50.4% of the seizures occured during night-time sleep. Tonic seizure (77.2%) was the most frequent simple motor seizure. Versive seizures were the second most frequent type of simple motor seizure (26.7%). Clonic seizures were 17.7%, complex motor seizures were 20.5%, and dialeptic seizures were 3% of all the seizures. Epileptic spasm, myoclonic seizures, aphasia, and akinetic semiologies were not observed. Vocalization was observed in 16% of the seizures. Frontal lobe seizures in childhood have a short duration, occur frequently, especially during night time sleep, and have a brief postictal period. Tonic semiology, versive semiology are the most frequent seizure semiologies; hypermotor and secondary generalized tonic clonic seizures and vocalizations are observed less in children compared to adults.

  17. Active faults and related Late Quaternary deformation along the Northwestern Himalayan Frontal Zone, India

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    T. Nakata


    Full Text Available Numerous newly-identified traces of active faults in the Himalayan foothill zone along the HFF around Chandigarh, in Pinjore Dun, along the piedmont zone of the Lower Siwalik hill front and within the Lower Tertiary hill range reveal the pattern of thrust and strike-slip faulting, striking parallel to the principal structural trend (NNW-SSE of the orogenic belt. The active Chandigarh Fault, Pinjore Garden Fault and Barsar thrust have vertically dislocated, warped and backtilted fluvial and alluvial-fan surfaces made up of Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediments. West- and southwest-facing fault scarplets with heights ranging from 12 to 50 m along these faults suggest continued tectonic movement through Late Pleistocene to recent times. Gentle warping and backtilting of the terraces on the hanging wall sides of the faults indicate fault-bend folding. These active faults are the manifestation of north-dipping imbricated thrust faults branching out from the major fault systems like the Main Boundary Fault (MBF and Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFF, probably merging down northward into a décollement. The Taksal Fault, striking NNW-SSE, shows prominent right-lateral movement marked by lateral offset of streams and younger Quaternary terraces and occupies a narrow deep linear valley along the fault trace. Right stepping along this fault has resulted in formation of a small pull-apart basin. Fault scarplets facing ENE and WSW are the manifestation of dip-slip movement. This fault is an example of slip-partitioning between the strike-slip and thrust faults, suggesting ongoing oblique convergence of the Indian plate and northward migration of a tectonic sliver. Slip rate along the Taksal Fault has been calculated as 2.8 mm/yr. Preliminary trench investigation at the base of the Chandigarh Fault Scarp has revealed total displacement of 3.5 m along a low angle thrust fault with variable dip of 20° to 46° due northeast, possibly the result of one

  18. Variability in frontal zone formation and distribution of gadoid fish larvae at the shelf break in the northeastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Larsson, P.O.; Danielssen, D.S.


    Hydrography and larval fish distribution in the northeastern North Sea were studied during a research programme carried out during the period from 1991 to 1994. The aim was to examine the connection between frontal zone formation and nursery characteristics of gadoid larvae at the shelf break....... Emphasis was placed on the year-to-year variation in frontal characteristics and distributional patterns of larvae. An area of about 67000 km2 covering the northeastern North Sea, the Skagerrak and the Kattegat was surveyed by grid or transect sampling. At each sampling station the hydrography was studied...

  19. Decadal change of the south Atlantic ocean Angola-Benguela frontal zone since 1980 (United States)

    Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.; Sun, Xiaoming


    High-resolution simulations with a regional atmospheric model coupled to an intermediate-level mixed layer ocean model along with multiple atmospheric and oceanic reanalyses are analyzed to understand how and why the Angola-Benguela frontal Zone (ABFZ) has changed since 1980. A southward shift of 0.05°-0.55° latitude decade-1 in the annual mean ABFZ position accompanied by an intensification of + 0.05 to + 0.13 K/100-km decade-1 has occurred as ocean mixed layer temperatures have warmed (cooled) equatorward (poleward) of the front over the 1980-2014 period. These changes are captured in a 35-year model integration. The oceanic warming north of the ABFZ is associated with a weakening of vertical entrainment, reduced cooling associated with vertical diffusion, and a deepening of the mixed layer along the Angola coast. These changes coincide with a steady weakening of the onshore atmospheric flow as the zonal pressure gradient between the eastern equatorial Atlantic and the Congo Basin weakens. Oceanic cooling poleward of the ABFZ is primarily due to enhanced advection of cooler water from the south and east, increased cooling by vertical diffusion, and shoaling of the mixed layer depth. In the atmosphere, these changes are related to an intensification and poleward shift of the South Atlantic sub-tropical anticyclone as surface winds, hence the westward mixed layer ocean currents, intensify in the Benguela upwelling region along the Namibian coast. With a few caveats, these findings demonstrate that air/sea interactions play a prominent role in influencing the observed decadal variability of the ABFZ over the southeastern Atlantic since 1980.

  20. Polar Frontal Migration in the Warm Late Pliocene: Diatom Evidence from The Wilkes Land Margin, East Antarctic (United States)

    Riesselman, C. R.; Taylor-Silva, B.; Patterson, M. O.


    The Late Pliocene is the most recent interval in Earth's history to sustain global temperatures within the range of warming predicted for the 21st century. Published global reconstructions and climate models find an average +2° C summer SST anomaly relative to modern during the 3.3-3.0 Ma PRISM interval, when atmospheric CO2 concentrations last reached 400 ppm. Here, we present a new diatom-based reconstruction of Pliocene interglacial sea surface conditions from IODP Site U1361, on the East Antarctic continental rise. U1361 biogenic silica concentrations document the alternation of diatom-rich and diatom-poor lithologies; we interpret 8 diatom-rich mudstones within this sequence to record interglacial periods between 3.8 and 2.8 Ma. We find that open-ocean conditions in the mid-Pliocene became increasingly influenced by sea ice from 3.6-3.2 Ma, prior to the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. This cooling trend was interrupted by a temporary southward migration of the Antarctic Polar Front, bathing U1361 in warmer subantarctic waters during a single interglacial, marine isotope stage KM3 (3.17-3.15 Ma), that corresponds to a maximum in summer insolation at 65°S. Following this interval of transient warmth, interglacial periods became progressively cooler starting at 3 Ma, coinciding with a transition from obliquity to precession as the dominant orbital driver of Antarctic ice sheet fluctuations. Building on the identification of a single outlier interglacial within the PRISM interval, we have revisited older reconstructions to explore the response of the Southern Ocean/cryosphere system to peak late Pliocene warmth. By applying a modern chronostratigraphic framework to those low-resolution "mean interglacial" records, we identify the same frontal migration in 4 other cores in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean, documenting a major migration of the polar front during a key interval of warm climate. These new results suggest that increased summer

  1. Community composition, biomass and photosynthetic competency of phytoplankton associated with microscale features and frontal zones of the Gulf Stream (United States)

    Jenkins, C. A.; Goes, J. I.; Gomes, H. R.; Chekalyuk, A. M.; Arnone, R.; Tufillaro, N. B.


    Frontal zones and microscale oceanographic features are easily observable from satellite measurements of SST and Chl a. Enhancing the utility of these space borne measurements for biological productivity, biogeochemical cycling and fisheries studies, will require novel bio-optical methods capable of providing information on the community structure, biomass and photo-physiology of phytoplankton, especially in regions where these smaller but prominent oceanographic features exist. During a recent NOAA sponsored research cruise in Nov. 2014 planned to validate products from the ocean color satellite VIIRS, we were able to obtain high-resolution in-situ measurements of sea water hydrography (SeaBird CTD®), CDOM (WetLabs ALF®), phytoplankton functional types (PFTs, FlowCam®), biomass (bbe Moldaenke AlgaeOnlineAnalyzer® and WetLabs ALF®) and phytoplankton photosynthetic competency (Satlantic FIRe®) across these microscale features. When mapped against binned daily, Level 2 satellite images of Chl a, Kd490 and SST over the cruise period, these in-situ data showed great correspondence with the satellite data, but more importantly allowed for identification of PFTs and water types associated with microscale features. Large assemblages of phytoplankton communities comprising of diatoms and diatom-diazotroph associations (DDAs), were found in mesohaline frontal zones. Despite their high biomass, these populations were characterized by low photosynthetic competency, indicative of a bloom at the end of its active growth possibly due to nitrogen depletion in the water. Other prominent PFTs such as Trichodesmium spp., Synechococcus spp. and Cryptophytes, were also associated with specific water masses offering the potential that ocean remote sensing reflectance bands when examined in the context of water types also measurable from space, could greatly enhance the potential of satellite measurements for ecological, productivity, biogeochemical cycling and fisheries studies.

  2. Actinobacterial community structure in the Polar Frontal waters of the Southern Ocean of the Antarctica using Geographic Information System (GIS: A novel approach to study Ocean Microbiome

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    P. Sivasankar


    Full Text Available Integration of microbiological data and geographical locations is necessary to understand the spatiotemporal patterns of the microbial diversity of an ecosystem. The Geographic Information System (GIS to map and catalogue the data on the actinobacterial diversity of the Southern Ocean waters was completed through sampling and analysis. Water samples collected at two sampling stations viz. Polar Front 1 (Station 1 and Polar Front 2 (Station 2 during 7th Indian Scientific Expedition to the Indian Ocean Sector of the Southern Ocean (SOE-2012-13 were used for analysis. At the outset, two different genera of Actinobacteria were recorded at both sampling stations. Streptomyces was the dominanted with the high score (> 60%, followed by Nocardiopsis (< 30% at both the sampling stations-Polar Front 1 and Polar Front 2-along with other invasive genera such as Agrococcus, Arthrobacter, Cryobacterium, Curtobacterium, Microbacterium, Marisediminicola, Rhodococcus and Kocuria. This data will help to discriminate the diversity and distribution pattern of the Actinobacteria in the Polar Frontal Region of the Southern Ocean waters. It is a novel approach useful for geospatial cataloguing of microbial diversity from extreme niches and in various environmental gradations. Furthermore, this research work will act as the milestone for bioprospecting of microbial communities and their products having potential applications in healthcare, agriculture and beneficial to mankind. Hence, this research work would have significance in creating a database on microbial communities of the Antarctic ecosystem. Keywords: Antarctica, Marine actinobacteria, Southern ocean, GIS, Polar Frontal waters, Microbiome

  3. Brain F-18 FDG PET for localization of epileptogenic zones in frontal lobe epilepsy: visual assessment and statistical parametric mapping analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sang Kun; Chung, Chun Kee; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul


    We evaluated the sensitivity of the F-18 FDG PET by visual assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis for the localization of the epileptogenic zones in frontal lobe epilepsy. Twenty-four patients with frontal lobe epilepsy were examined. All patients exhibited improvements after surgical resection (Engel class I or II). Upon pathological examination, 18 patients revealed cortical dysplasia, 4 patients revealed tumor, and 2 patients revealed cortical scar. The hypometabolic lesions were found in F-18 FDG PET by visual assessment and SPM analysis. On SPM analysis, cutoff threshold was changed. MRI showed structural lesions in 12 patients and normal results in the remaining 12. F-18 FDG PET correctly localized epileptogenic zones in 13 patients (54%) by visual assessment. Sensitivity of F-18 FDG PET in MR-negative patients (50%) was similar to that in MR-positive patients (67%). On SPM analysis, sensitivity deceased according to the decrease of p value. Using uncorrected p value of 0.05 as threshold, sensitivity of SPM analysis was 63%, which was not statistically different from that of visual assessment. F-18 FDG PET was sensitive in finding epileptogenic zones by revealing hypometabolic areas even in MR-negative patients with frontal lobe epilepsy as well as in MR-positive patients. SPM analysis showed comparable sensitivity to visual assessment and could be used as an aid in the diagnosis of epileptogenic zones in frontal lobe epilepsy

  4. Comparison of acoustical and optical zooplankton measurements using an acoustic scattering model: A case study from the Arctic frontal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczucka Joanna


    Full Text Available High-frequency acoustic measurements supplemented by a modern optical method, Laser Optical Plankton Counter (LOPC, allowed us to perform a comparative analysis through the application of a mathematical model. We have studied the correspondence between measured and modelled echoes from zooplankton aggregations consisted mainly of two Calanus species. Data were collected from the upper 50 m water layer within the hydrographical frontal zone on the West Spitsbergen Shelf. The application of a “high-pass” model of sound scattering by fluid-like particles to the distribution of zooplankton sizes measured by LOPC resulted mostly in very good agreement between the measured (420 kHz BioSonics and modelled values, except for cases with very low zooplankton abundance or with occurrence of stronger scatterers (e.g. macrozooplankton, fish. An acoustic model validated for the elastic parameters of zooplankton confirmed that particles smaller than 1mmin diameter, although highly abundant, did not contribute significantly to the sound scattering process at a frequency of 420 kHz. The implementation of diverse complementary methods has great potential to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution in zooplankton distribution studies; however, their compatibility has to be tested first.

  5. Subclinical abnormal gyration pattern, a potential anatomic marker of epileptogenic zone in patients with magnetic resonance imaging negative frontal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regis, J.; Tamura, M.; Park, M.C.; McGonigal, A.; Riviere, D.; Coulon, O.; Bartolomei, F.; Girard, N.; Figarella-Branger, D.; Chauvel, P.; Mangin, J.F.


    Background: Epilepsy surgery for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative patients has a less favorable outcome. Objective: Detection of subclinical abnormal gyration (SAG) patterns and their potential contribution to assessment of the topography of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is addressed in MRI-negative patients with frontal lobe epilepsy. Methods: Between September 1998 and July 2005, 12 MRI-negative frontal lobe epilepsy patients underwent stereo-electro-encephalography with postcorticectomy follow-up of longer than 1 year (average, 3.3 years). Original software (BrainVISA/Anatomist, trained on a database of normal volunteers was used to determine which sulci had morphology out of the normal range (SAG). Topography of the EZ, SAG pattern, corticectomy, postoperative seizure control, and histopathology were analyzed. Results: At last follow-up, 8 of 12 patients (66.7%) were Engel class I (7 IA and 1 IB), 2 class II, and 2 class IV. Small focal cortical dysplasia was histologically diagnosed in 9 of the 12 patients (75%), including 7 of 8 seizure-free patients (87.5%). A SAG pattern was found to be in the EZ area in 9 patients (75%), in the ipsilateral frontal lobe out of the EZ in 2, and limited to the contralateral hemisphere in 1. Conclusion: SAG patterns appear to be associated with the topography of the EZ in MRI-negative frontal lobe epilepsy and may have a useful role in preoperative assessment. Small focal cortical dysplasia not detected with MRI is often found on histopathological examination, particularly in the depth of the posterior part of the superior frontal sulcus and intermediate frontal sulcus, suggesting a specific developmental critical zone in these locations. (authors)

  6. The southern Sierra Nevada Frontal Fault Zone: what longitudinal stream profiles tell us about fault evolution and the presence of relay zone structures (United States)

    Koehler, K.; Krugh, W. C.


    The mechanical linkage of normal faults can result in spatial variations in fault displacement. In this study we use ArcGIS®, Matlab®, and software from to perform stream profile analysis along the southern Sierra Nevada Frontal Fault Zone (SNFFZ). This work aims to constrain the pattern of rock uplift and identify potential relay zone structures associated with fault evolution. Stream profile analysis is suitable for this investigation since the fluvial network upholds a continuous connection to the driving forces of tectonics. For this study we expect to find higher channel steepness indices and rates of rock uplift where the processes of mechanical fault linkage have occurred most recently. Using a 10m digital elevation model from the USGS, watershed boundaries and longitudinal stream profiles were extracted for divide reaching, and select non-divide reaching, drainages along the footwall of the southern SNFFZ. The relationship between channel slope and contributing drainage area for each watershed was then used to determine an average channel concavity, and to specify a regional reference concavity of θref = 0.695. This information was used to calculate the normalized steepness index for each watershed. Preliminary findings, using an initial θref = 0.45, indicated that the max channel steepness occurs at Cottonwood Creek, which drains much of the relay zone, with ksn values decreasing in both directions along strike. With further analyses using θref = 0.695, it is evident that anomalous values of ksn are present around the Cottonwood Creek drainage, and near Sawmill Creek to the north. Knickpoint examination shows that a prominent trend exists within the southern catchments, while north of Cottonwood Creek knickpoint elevations are highly erratic. Interpretation of this suggests that the southern knickpoints hold greater value for tectonic analyses. The findings of this study provide evidence that relay zone structures are potentially

  7. Causes of the large warm bias in the Angola-Benguela Frontal Zone in the Norwegian Earth System Model (United States)

    Koseki, Shunya; Keenlyside, Noel; Demissie, Teferi; Toniazzo, Thomas; Counillon, Francois; Bethke, Ingo; Ilicak, Mehmet; Shen, Mao-Lin


    We have investigated the causes of the sea surface temperature (SST) bias in the Angola-Benguela Frontal Zone (ABFZ) of the southeastern Atlantic Ocean simulated by the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). Similar to other coupled-models, NorESM has a warm SST bias in the ABFZ of up to 8 °C in the annual mean. Our analysis of NorESM reveals that a cyclonic surface wind bias over the ABFZ drives a locally excessively strong southward (0.05 m/s (relative to observation)) Angola Current displacing the ABFZ southward. A series of uncoupled stand-alone atmosphere and ocean model simulations are performed to investigate the cause of the coupled model bias. The stand-alone atmosphere model driven with observed SST exhibits a similar cyclonic surface circulation bias; while the stand-alone ocean model forced with the reanalysis data produces a warm SST in the ABFZ with a magnitude approximately half of that in the coupled NorESM simulation. An additional uncoupled sensitivity experiment shows that the atmospheric model's local negative surface wind curl generates anomalously strong Angola Current at the ocean surface. Consequently, this contributes to the warm SST bias in the ABFZ by 2 °C (compared to the reanalysis forced simulation). There is no evidence that local air-sea feedbacks among wind stress curl, SST, and sea level pressure (SLP) affect the ABFZ SST bias. Turbulent surface heat flux differences between coupled and uncoupled experiments explain the remaining 2 °C warm SST bias in NorESM. Ocean circulation, upwelling and turbulent heat flux errors all modulate the intensity and the seasonality of the ABFZ errors.

  8. Airborne & SAR Synergy Reveals the 3D Structure of Air Bubble Entrainment in Internal Waves and Frontal Zones (United States)

    da Silva, J. C. B.; Magalhaes, J. M.; Batista, M.; Gostiaux, L.; Gerkema, T.; New, A. L.


    spectral range 8-12 μm. With a nominal ground resolution of approximately 1.5 meters (at an altitude of 500 meters) it is capable to detect fine structure associated to turbulence. The LiDAR system that has been used is the Leica ALS50-II (1064nm) with a hit rate greater than 1 hit per square meter and a vertical resolution of approximately 15 cm. Both systems were available simultaneously, together with the hyperspectral system and the RCD105 39Mpx digital camera, integrated with the LiDAR navigation system. We analyse the airborne data together with a comprehensive dataset of satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that includes ENVISAT and TerraSAR-X images. In addition, in situ observations in the near-shore zone were obtained in a previous experiment (Project SPOTIWAVE-II POCI/MAR/57836/2004 funded by the Portuguese FCT) during the summer period in 2006. These included thermistor chain measurements along the water column that captured the vertical structure of shoaling internal (tidal) waves and ISWs close to the breaking point. The SAR and airborne images were obtained in light wind conditions, in the near-shore zone, and in the presence of ISWs. The LiDAR images revealed sub-surface structures (some 1-2 m below the sea surface) that were co-located with surface films. These film slicks were induced by the convergent fields of internal waves and upwelling fronts. Some of the sub-surface features were located over the front slopes of the internal waves, which coincides with the internal wave slick band visible in the aerial photos and hyperspectral systems. Our flight measurements revealed thermal features similar to “boils” of cold water within the wake of (admittedly breaking) internal waves. These features are consistent with the previous in situ measurements of breaking ISWs. In this paper we will show coincident multi-sensor airborne and satellite SAR observations that reveal the 3D structure of air bubble entrainment in the internal wave field and frontal

  9. The potential influence of subduction zone polarity on overriding plate deformation, trench migration and slab dip angle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.


    A geodynamic model exists, the westward lithospheric drift model, in which the variety of overriding plate deformation, trench migration and slab dip angles is explained by the polarity of subduction zones. The model predicts overriding plate extension, a fixed trench and a steep slab dip for

  10. A dead-zone free ⁴He atomic magnetometer with intensity-modulated linearly polarized light and a liquid crystal polarization rotator. (United States)

    Wu, T; Peng, X; Lin, Z; Guo, H


    We demonstrate an all-optical (4)He atomic magnetometer experimental scheme based on an original Bell-Bloom configuration. A single intensity-modulated linearly polarized laser beam is used both for generating spin polarization within a single (4)He vapor and probing the spin precessing under a static magnetic field. The transmitted light signal from the vapor is then phase-sensitively detected at the modulation frequency and its harmonics, which lead to the atomic magnetic resonance signals. Based on this structure, a liquid crystal is added in our magnetometer system and constitutes a polarization rotator. By controlling the voltage applied on the liquid crystal, the light linear polarization vector can be kept perpendicular with the ambient magnetic field direction, which in turn provides the maximum resonance signal amplitude. Moreover, the system exhibits a magnetic-field noise floor of about 2pT/√Hz, which is not degraded due to the presence of the liquid crystal and varying magnetic field direction. The experiment results prove that our method can eliminate the dead-zone effect, improve the system spatial isotropy, and thus be suitable in mobile applications.

  11. Assessing Zones of Low Radar Reflectivity Across the South Polar Cap of Mars (United States)

    Putzig, N. E.; Smith, I. B.; Whitten, J. L.; Campbell, B. A.


    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Shallow Radar (SHARAD) revealed near-surface zones of low radar reflectivity (reflection-free zones, RFZs) in many areas of Planum Australe (Phillips et al., 2011, Science 332). The most poleward, RFZ3, corresponds geographically to geologic unit AA3 (Tanaka et al., 2007, 7th Int'l Mars Conf. abs. 3276) that exhibits sublimation features. Geometric considerations demonstrated that RFZ3 consists of three distinct layers of CO2 ice, preserved from earlier periods of atmospheric collapse (Bierson et al., 2016, GRL 43). However, the nature of other RFZs at lower latitudes remains undetermined, with none of the SHARAD observations examined to date providing definitive geometric constraints on their composition. While CO2-ice composition has not been ruled out, these RFZs differ in important ways from RFZ3. Surface imagery in the vicinity of the outlying RFZs does not generally exhibit sublimation features similar to those seen in AA3, SHARAD reflectivity exhibits a lower contrast with surrounding materials relative to RFZ3, and there are no indications of distinct layering within the outlying RFZs as there are in RFZ3. In addition, climate modeling of atmospheric collapse episodes (Wood et al., 2016, LPSC abs. 3074) suggests that CO2 accumulation is highly concentrated at the highest latitudes. An alternative explanation for the outlying RFZs is that they consist of nearly pure water ice deposited during times when atmospheric dust was nearly absent. Such conditions may occur coeval with eras of CO2 accumulation at the higher latitudes. To test these possibilities, we are working to constrain the composition of the outlying RFZs, using the recently produced 3-D SHARAD data volume that encompasses the entire Martian south polar ice cap (Foss et al., 2017, The Leading Edge, 36). Work is ongoing, but we expect that the geometric corrections and improvements to the overall signal-to-noise ratio provided by the 3-D radar imaging processing may

  12. Preliminary Results on Earthquake Recurrence Intervals, Rupture Segmentation, and Potential Earthquake Moment Magnitudes along the Tahoe-Sierra Frontal Fault Zone, Lake Tahoe, California (United States)

    Howle, J.; Bawden, G. W.; Schweickert, R. A.; Hunter, L. E.; Rose, R.


    Utilizing high-resolution bare-earth LiDAR topography, field observations, and earlier results of Howle et al. (2012), we estimate latest Pleistocene/Holocene earthquake-recurrence intervals, propose scenarios for earthquake-rupture segmentation, and estimate potential earthquake moment magnitudes for the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone (TSFFZ), west of Lake Tahoe, California. We have developed a new technique to estimate the vertical separation for the most recent and the previous ground-rupturing earthquakes at five sites along the Echo Peak and Mt. Tallac segments of the TSFFZ. At these sites are fault scarps with two bevels separated by an inflection point (compound fault scarps), indicating that the cumulative vertical separation (VS) across the scarp resulted from two events. This technique, modified from the modeling methods of Howle et al. (2012), uses the far-field plunge of the best-fit footwall vector and the fault-scarp morphology from high-resolution LiDAR profiles to estimate the per-event VS. From this data, we conclude that the adjacent and overlapping Echo Peak and Mt. Tallac segments have ruptured coseismically twice during the Holocene. The right-stepping, en echelon range-front segments of the TSFFZ show progressively greater VS rates and shorter earthquake-recurrence intervals from southeast to northwest. Our preliminary estimates suggest latest Pleistocene/ Holocene earthquake-recurrence intervals of 4.8±0.9x103 years for a coseismic rupture of the Echo Peak and Mt. Tallac segments, located at the southeastern end of the TSFFZ. For the Rubicon Peak segment, northwest of the Echo Peak and Mt. Tallac segments, our preliminary estimate of the maximum earthquake-recurrence interval is 2.8±1.0x103 years, based on data from two sites. The correspondence between high VS rates and short recurrence intervals suggests that earthquake sequences along the TSFFZ may initiate in the northwest part of the zone and then occur to the southeast with a lower

  13. Euphausiid population structure and grazing in the Antarctic Polar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The daily ration estimates of autotrophic carbon for the euphausiids suggest that phytoplankton represent a minor component in their diets, with only the sub-adult E. vallentini consuming sufficient phytoplankton to meet their daily carbon requirements. Keywords: euphausiid; ingestion; Polar Frontal Zone; population ...

  14. Recovery of coastal ecosystems after large tsunamis in various climatic zones - review of cases from tropical, temperate and polar zones (Invited) (United States)

    Szczucinski, W.


    Large tsunamis cause significant changes in coastal ecosystems. They include modifications in shoreline position, sediment erosion and deposition, new initial soil formation, salination of soils and waters, removal of vegetation, as well as direct impact on humans and infrastructure. The processes and rate of coastal zone recovery from large tsunamis has been little studied but during the last decade a noteworthy progress has been made. This study focus on comparison of recovery processes in various climatic zones, namely in monsoonal-tropical, temperate and polar zone. It is based on own observation and monitoring in areas affected by 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in Japan and 2000 Paatuut landslide-generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (west Greenland), as well as on review of published studies from those areas. The particular focus is on physical and biological recoveries of beaches, recovery of coastal vegetation, new soil formation in eroded areas and those covered by tsunami deposits, marine salt removal from soils, surface- and groundwater, as well as landscape adjustment after the tsunamis. The beach zone - typically the most tsunami-eroded zone, has been recovered already within weeks to months and has been observed to be in the pre-tsunami equilibrium stage within one year in all the climate zones, except for sediment-starved environments. The existing data on beach ecosystems point also to relatively fast recovery of meio- and macrofauna (within weeks to several months). The recovery of coastal vegetation depends on the rate of salt removal from soils or on the rate of soil formation in case of its erosion or burial by tsunami deposits. The salt removal have been observed to depend mainly on precipitation and effective water drainage. In tropical climate with seasonal rainfall of more 3000 mm the salt removal was fast, however, in temperate climate with lower precipitation and flat topography the salinities still exceeded

  15. Tight focusing of a higher-order radially polarized beam transmitting through multi-zone binary phase pupil filters. (United States)

    Guo, Hanming; Weng, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Man; Zhao, Yanhui; Sui, Guorong; Hu, Qi; Wang, Yang; Zhuang, Songlin


    When the pupil filters are used to improve the performance of the imaging system, the conversion efficiency is a critical characteristic for real applications. Here, in order to take full advantage of the subwavelength focusing property of the radially polarized higher-order Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam, we introduce the multi-zone binary phase pupil filters into the imaging system to deal with the problem that the focal spot is split along the z axis for the small size parameter of the incident LG beam. We provide an easy-to-perform procedure for the design of multi-zone binary phase pupil filters, where the zone numbers of π phase are uncertain when the optimizing procedure starts. Based on this optimizing procedure, we successfully find the set of optimum structures of a seventeen-belt binary phase pupil filters and generate the excellent focal spot, where the depth of focus, the focal spot transverse size, the Strehl ratio, and the sidelobe intensity are 9.53λ, 0.41λ, 41.75% and 16.35% in vacuum, respectively. Most importantly, even allowing the power loss of the incident LG beam truncated by the pupil of the imaging system, the conversion efficiency is still as high as 37.3%. Theoretical calculations show that we succeed to have sufficient conversion efficiency while utilizing the pupil filters to decrease the focal spot and extend the depth of focus.

  16. Spectral Induced Polarization Response of Biofilm Formation in Hanford Vadose Zone Sediment (United States)

    Garcia, A.; Katsenovich, Y.; Lee, B.; Whitman, D.


    As a result of the U.S. Nuclear weapons program during the second world war and the cold war, there now exists a significant amount of uranium contamination at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site located in Washington state. In-situ immobilization of mobile uranium via injections of a soluble sodium tripolyphosphate amendment may prove effective in the formation of insoluble uranyl phosphate mineral, autunite. However, the injected polyphosphate undergoes hydrolysis in aqueous solutions to form orthophosphate, which serves as a readily available nutrient for the various microorganisms in the sediment. Sediment-filled column experiments conducted under saturated oxygen restricted conditions using geophysical Spectral Induced Polarization technique have shown the impact of microbes on the dissolution of autunite, a calcium uranyl phosphate mineral. Spectral Induced Polarization may be an effective way to track changes indicative of bacterial activities on the surrounding environment. This method can be a cost-effective alternative to the drilling of boreholes at a field scale.

  17. The Case for Tetrahedral Oxy-subhydride (TOSH Structures in the Exclusion Zones of Anchored Polar Solvents Including Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Oehr


    Full Text Available We hypothesize a mechanistic model of how negatively-charged exclusion zones (EZs are created. While the growth of EZs is known to be associated with the absorption of ambient photonic energy, the molecular dynamics giving rise to this process need greater elucidation. We believe they arise due to the formation of oxy-subhydride structures (OH−(H2O4 with a tetrahedral (sp3 (OH−(H2O3 core. Five experimental data sets derived by previous researchers were assessed in this regard: (1 water-derived EZ light absorbance at specific infrared wavelengths, (2 EZ negative potential in water and ethanol, (3 maximum EZ light absorbance at 270 nm ultraviolet wavelength, (4 ability of dimethyl sulphoxide but not ether to form an EZ, and (5 transitory nature of melting ice derived EZs. The proposed tetrahedral oxy-subhydride structures (TOSH appear to adequately account for all of the experimental evidence derived from water or other polar solvents.

  18. Characterization of textural and hydric heterogeneities in argillaceous geo-materials using induced polarization method: application to the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) of the Tournemire experimental station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okay, Gonca


    This Ph-D thesis investigates the potential of clay rocks for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. Underground excavations are responsible in their vicinity a region, where the clay-rock is damaged or disturbed. This region must to be characterized to ensure the safety of repositories. The extension of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) and its evolution over time have been investigated thought electrical resistivity and induced polarization methods from three galleries belonging to the French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN)'s experimental underground research laboratory of Tournemire (Aveyron, France). Time domain induced polarisation indicates the presence of mineralization (e.g., especially pyrite) located in the structural discontinuities such as tectonic fractures (mm-cm), tectonic fault (m) and calcareous nodules (cm). Combined electrical resistivity and Induced Polarization methods show the possibility to delineate textural changes associated to desaturation of the clay-rock induced by the ventilation of galleries. The impact of the desaturation is particularly observed on the gallery's walls. In addition, Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) tomography results can be used to discriminate the responses of the de-saturated zones from the fractured zones. We have performed laboratory experiments (in the range 1.4 mHz - 12 kHz) using saturated unconsolidated sand-clay mixtures. The results illustrate that the amplitude of polarization is strongly affected by the surface properties of these mixtures (e.g., cation exchange capacity, specific surface area) and by the volumetric clay content. However, the amplitude of polarization is independent of the concentration of electrolyte. The SIP response is also strongly sensitive to the mineralogy of the clays. (author)

  19. Polar orientation of renal grafts within the proximal seal zone affects risk of early type IA endoleaks after chimney endovascular aneurysm repair. (United States)

    Tran, Kenneth; Ullery, Brant W; Itoga, Nathan; Lee, Jason T


    The objective of this study was to describe the polar orientation of renal chimney grafts within the proximal seal zone and to determine whether graft orientation is associated with early type IA endoleak or renal graft compression after chimney endovascular aneurysm repair (ch-EVAR). Patients who underwent ch-EVAR with at least one renal chimney graft from 2009 to 2015 were included in this analysis. Centerline three-dimensional reconstructions were used to analyze postoperative computed tomography scans. The 12-o'clock polar position was set at the takeoff of the superior mesenteric artery. Relative polar positions of chimney grafts were recorded at the level of the renal artery ostium, at the mid-seal zone, and at the proximal edge of the graft fabric. Early type IA endoleaks were defined as evidence of a perigraft flow channel within the proximal seal zone. There were 62 consecutive patients who underwent ch-EVAR (35 double renal, 27 single renal) for juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms with a mean follow-up of 31.2 months; 18 (29%) early type IA "gutter" endoleaks were identified. During follow-up, the majority of these (n = 13; 72%) resolved without intervention, whereas two patients required reintervention (3.3%). Estimated renal graft patency was 88.9% at 60 months. Left renal chimney grafts were most commonly at the 3-o'clock position (51.1%) at the ostium, traversing posteriorly to the 5- to 7-o'clock positions (55.5%) at the fabric edge. Right renal chimney grafts started most commonly at the 9-o'clock position (n = 17; 33.3%) and tended to traverse both anteriorly (11 to 1 o'clock; 39.2%) and posteriorly (5 to 7 o'clock; 29.4%) at the fabric edge. In the polar plane, the majority of renal chimney grafts (n = 83; 85.6%) traversed 90 degrees were independently associated with early type IA endoleaks (odds ratio, 11.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-64.8) even after controlling for other device and anatomic variables. Polar orientation of the chimney

  20. Study of frontal weather system using satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, J.; Ershad, S.


    Pakistan which is situated in the south Asian sub continent, has a peculiar climatological position. It is one of the few countries in the world, which undergo a complete transformation from summer to winter season. However this project only pertains to the winter weather conditions in Pakistan. During winter, the land masses cool off rapidly as compared to the seas and so high pressure cells are developed over land causing, weak anti-cyclonic circulation over the country. In between these cells of anti-cyclonic flow of wind, there are zones of convergence, which offer a good breeding place for low-pressure waves. The low-pressure waves are similar to the extra tropical depressions and approach and approach Pakistan from west. From the same reason these are locally called the western Disturbances. Consequently the focus of study is on the extra tropical cyclones which originate along the boundary between polar continental and tropical or polar maritime and tropical maritime air masses. The extra tropical cyclones (also called western disturbances and westerly waves.) which are embedded in westerly flow of air move across north of Pakistan are usually originate from the Mediterranean sea. These systems consist of two types of fronts i.e. warm and cold fronts. In fact these systems can be traced right from the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. The location of frontal weather is generally associated with the surrounding synoptic situation, geographical position of the westerly wave, location of subtropical jet stream, steering wind level etc. although the satellite imageries are quite helpful for forecasting the frontal weather over our region however the weather charts (both surface and upper air ) and jet maps are also very helpful for this purpose

  1. Toward establishing a definitive Late-Mid Jurassic (M-series) Geomagnetic Polarity Reversal Time Scale through unraveling the nature of Jurassic Quiet Zone. (United States)

    Tominaga, M.; Tivey, M.; Sager, W.


    Two major difficulties have hindered improving the accuracy of the Late-Mid Jurassic geomagnetic polarity time scale: a dearth of reliable high-resolution radiometric dates and the lack of a continuous Jurassic geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) record. We present the latest effort towards establishing a definitive Mid Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (M-series) GPTS model using three high-resolution, multi-level (sea surface [0 km], mid-water [3 km], and near-source [5.2 km]) marine magnetic profiles from a seamount-free corridor adjacent to the Waghenaer Fracture Zone in the western Pacific Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ). The profiles show a global coherency in magnetic anomaly correlations between two mid ocean ridge systems (i.e., Japanese and Hawaiian lineations). Their unprecedented high data resolution documents a detailed anomaly character (i.e., amplitudes and wavelengths). We confirm that this magnetic anomaly record shows a coherent anomaly sequence from M29 back in time to M42 with previously suggested from the Japanese lineation in the Pigafetta Basin. Especially noticeable is the M39-M41 Low Amplitude Zone defined in the Pigafetta Bsin, which potentially defines the bounds of JQZ seafloor. We assessed the anomaly source with regard to the crustal architecture, including the effects of Cretaceous volcanism on crustal magnetization and conclude that the anomaly character faithfully represents changes in geomagnetic field intensity and polarity over time and is mostly free of any overprint of the original Jurassic magnetic remanence by later Cretaceous volcanism. We have constructed polarity block models (RMS <5 nT [normalized] between observed and calculated profiles) for each of the survey lines, yielding three potential GPTS candidate models with different source-to-sensor resolutions, from M19-M38, which can be compared to currently available magnetostratigraphic records. The overall polarity reversal rates calculated from each of the models are

  2. The correlation between ictal semiology and magnetoencephalographic localization in frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Wu, Xintong; Rampp, Stefan; Weigel, Daniel; Kasper, Burkhard; Zhou, Dong; Stefan, Hermann


    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of ictal semiology with localization and/or lateralization by magnetoencephalography (MEG). Seven patients from the Neurology Department of the University Hospital Erlangen who underwent resective surgery for frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) with an Engel 1a outcome were investigated retrospectively. MEG localizations were classified according to five compartments (separate or combined) of the frontal lobe: frontal basal (FB), frontal lateral (FL), frontal polar (FP), frontal mesial (FM), and frontal precentral (FPr). On the basis of previous studies that investigated the value of ictal semiology in localization and lateralization, we compared the experiential localization and/or lateralization of the epileptogenic region deduced from ictal semiology, that is, both seizure history and ictal video/EEG monitoring, with MEG localization. It is easier to determine lateralization than localization from ictal semiology because of the variety of signs and fast propagation in FLE. All of the patients had specific MEG localizations according to favorable postoperative outcome. Three patients had MEG foci associated with ictal semiology; in another four, the MEG localization was adjacent to the estimated area suggested by ictal semiology. Head version signs could be observed in all compartments of the frontal lobe: clonic in FB and FP areas; postural in FPr, FL, and FM areas; hypermotor in FB, FP, FPr, and FM areas; sensation aura in FB, FL, and FM areas; and automatisms in FP, FPr, and FL areas. All patients had concordant lateralizing and limited valuable locating information from ictal semiology, but no complete correlation with MEG foci. Ictal semiology may indicate the involvement of a symptomatogenic brain region during a seizure, but extent of seizure onset in central motor or sensorimotor area is not reliable enough to indicate the seizure onset zone and favorable postoperative outcome in FLE. MEG provided specific

  3. Mesial frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Unnwongse, Kanjana; Wehner, Tim; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy


    Mesial frontal lobe epilepsies can be divided into epilepsies arising from the anterior cingulate gyrus and those of the supplementary sensorimotor area. They provide diagnostic challenges because they often lack lateralizing or localizing features on clinical semiology and interictal and ictal scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. A number of unique semiologic features have been described over the last decade in patients with mesial frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). There are few reports of applying advanced neurophysiologic techniques such as electrical source imaging, magnetoencephalography, EEG/functional magnetic resonance imaging, or analysis of high-frequency oscillations in patients with mesial FLE. Despite these diagnostic challenges, it seems that patients with mesial FLE benefit from epilepsy surgery to the same extent or even better than patients with FLE do, as a whole.

  4. Posttraumatic frontal bone osteomyelitis. (United States)

    Jung, S Heredero; Aniceto, G Sánchez; Rodríguez, I Zubillaga; Diaz, R Gutiérrez; Recuero, I I García


    We present the clinical case of a patient with open bilateral frontal sinus fractures who developed a frontal osteomyelitis. A review of the problem and management ascending to the different alternatives for central anterior skull base defects and fronto-orbital reconstruction is also presented. After extensive radical debridement of the necrotic bone, final reconstruction of the skull base was performed by using a rectus abdominis free flap. A custom-made hard tissue replacement implant was used for the fronto-orbital reconstruction. Extensive debridement is required for the treatment of frontal osteomyelitis. An appropriate isolation of the skull base from the upper aerodigestive system must be obtained to prevent continuous infectious complications. Free flaps are especially useful for skull base reconstruction when traditional methods are not available or have failed because of the lack of available tissue for vascularized reconstruction. Custom-made alloplastic implants are a good reconstructive option for large fronto-orbital defects once the infection is gone and vascularized tissue has been transferred.

  5. Dorsolateral frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Lee, Ricky W; Worrell, Greg A


    Dorsolateral frontal lobe seizures often present as a diagnostic challenge. The diverse semiologies may not produce lateralizing or localizing signs and can appear bizarre and suggest psychogenic events. Unfortunately, scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are often unsatisfactory. It is not uncommon that these traditional diagnostic studies are either unhelpful or even misleading. In some cases, SPECT and positron emission tomography imaging can be an effective tool to identify the origin of seizures. However, these techniques and other emerging techniques all have limitations, and new approaches are needed to improve source localization.

  6. Frontal Integration and Coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben


    and risk minimizing Rationalists dominated by dlPFC • R correlates both with your own level of education and that of your parents 3 Conclusion: Empirical verification of the first derivative of NeM uncovers four different coping patterns within the range of normal behaviors with an obvious analogue...... to the classical tempers. In prospect, differentiating the Frontal integration pattern by temper (General risk attitude) opens an evidence-based pathway for individually tailored neural training towards advanced social objectives as multidisciplinary collaboration and healthy living. References 1. Larsen T...... et al. Gender difference in neural response to psychological stress. SCAN 2 2007, 227–233...

  7. Frontal mucocele with intracranial extension causing frontal lobe syndrome. (United States)

    Weidmayer, Sara


    Mucoceles are mucus-containing cysts that form in paranasal sinuses; although mucoceles themselves are benign, this case report highlights the extensive damage they can cause as their expansion may lead to bony erosion and extension of the mucocele into the orbit and cranium; it also presents a rarely reported instance of frontal sinus mucocele leading to frontal lobe syndrome. A thorough discussion and review of mucoceles is included. A 68-year-old white man presented with intermittent diplopia and a pressure sensation in the right eye. He had a history of chronic sinusitis and had had endoscopic sinus surgery 5 years prior. A maxillofacial computed tomography scan revealed a large right frontal sinus mucocele, which had caused erosion along the medial wall of the right orbit and the outer and inner tables of the right frontal sinus. The mucocele had protruded both into the right orbit and intracranially, causing mass effect on the frontal lobe, which led to frontal lobe syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with endoscopic right ethmoidectomy, radial frontal sinusotomy, marsupialization of the mucocele, and transcutaneous irrigation. Paranasal sinus mucoceles may expand and lead to bony erosion and can become very invasive in surrounding structures such as the orbit and cranium. This case not only exhibits a very rare presentation of frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial extension and frontal lobe mass effect causing a frontal lobe syndrome but also demonstrates many of the ocular and visual complications commonly associated with paranasal sinus mucoceles. Early identification and surgical intervention is vital for preventing and reducing morbidity associated with invasive mucoceles, and the patient must be followed regularly to monitor for recurrence.

  8. Crustal Structure of the Caribbean-South American Diffuse Plate Boundary: Subduction Zone Migration and Polarity Reversal Along BOLIVAR Profile 64W (United States)

    Clark, S. A.; Levander, A.; Magnani, M.; Zelt, C. A.; Sawyer, D. S.; Ave Lallemant, H. G.


    The BOLIVAR (Broadband Ocean-Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) project is an NSF funded, collaborative seismic experiment in the southeast Caribbean region. The purpose of the project is to understand the diffuse plate boundary created by the oblique collision between the Caribbean and South American plates. Profile 64W of the BOLIVAR experiment, a 450 km-long, N-S transect onshore and offshore Venezuela located at ~64°W longitude, images the deep crustal structures formed by this collision. The active source components of profile 64W include 300 km of MCS reflection data, 33 coincident OBSs, and 344 land seismic stations which recorded 7500 offshore airgun shots and 2 explosive land shots. Results from the reflection and refraction seismic data along 64W show complex crustal structure across the entire span of the diffuse plate boundary. The onshore portion of 64W crosses the fold and thrust belt of the Serrania del Interior, which formed at ~16 Ma by collision of the Caribbean forearc with the northern South American passive margin. Underlying the Serrania del Interior is a south-vergent, remnant Lesser Antillean subduction zone. As this Lesser Antilles subduction impinged on continental crust, it caused a polarity reversal and jump offshore to the north. Convergence was initially localized in the closure and inversion of the Grenada Basin. However, subduction could not develop because of the ~20-km-thick crust of the Aves Ridge; instead, north-vergent subduction initiated further to the north, where ~12-km-thick Caribbean oceanic crust of the Venezuela Basin began to subduct beneath the Aves Ridge in the Pliocene (~4 Ma) and appears to continue subducting today. Between the remnant subduction zone and the modern one, the El Pilar and Coche dextral strike-slip faults accommodate most of the transform motion of the plate boundary. From the Serrania del Interior to the Aves Ridge, ~260 km of accreted orogenic float comprises the diffuse

  9. Origami by frontal photopolymerization. (United States)

    Zhao, Zeang; Wu, Jiangtao; Mu, Xiaoming; Chen, Haosen; Qi, H Jerry; Fang, Daining


    Origami structures are of great interest in microelectronics, soft actuators, mechanical metamaterials, and biomedical devices. Current methods of fabricating origami structures still have several limitations, such as complex material systems or tedious processing steps. We present a simple approach for creating three-dimensional (3D) origami structures by the frontal photopolymerization method, which can be easily implemented by using a commercial projector. The concept of our method is based on the volume shrinkage during photopolymerization. By adding photoabsorbers into the polymer resin, an attenuated light field is created and leads to a nonuniform curing along the thickness direction. The layer directly exposed to light cures faster than the next layer; this nonuniform curing degree leads to nonuniform curing-induced volume shrinkage. This further introduces a nonuniform stress field, which drives the film to bend toward the newly formed side. The degree of bending can be controlled by adjusting the gray scale and the irradiation time, an easy approach for creating origami structures. The behavior is examined both experimentally and theoretically. Two methods are also proposed to create different types of 3D origami structures.

  10. Temporary Frontal Paralysis Secondary to Blunt Trauma Frontal Sinus Fracture (United States)

    Hamilton, Stefan; Hearn, Matthew; Kherani, Safeena; Macdonald, Kristian I.


    Frontal sinus fractures (FSF) are relatively uncommon and can be challenging for trauma surgeons to manage. Patients with FSF typically present with facial swelling, pain, and nasofrontal ecchymosis. Here we present a rare case of a patient with FSF and anterior table fracture where the main presenting symptom was bilateral frontal paralysis. We outline our management strategy and review the current literature in regard to management of FSF. PMID:28573060

  11. Frontal assessment battery and frontal atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis


    Terada, Tatsuhiro; Miyata, Jun; Obi, Tomokazu; Kubota, Manabu; Yoshizumi, Miho; Yamazaki, Kinya; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Murai, Toshiya


    Abstract Objectives To determine the potential utility of the frontal assessment battery (FAB) in assessing cognitive impairments in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we investigated the association between the FAB score and regional gray matter volume, and ascertained whether the regional brain alterations related to cognitive impairments occur in relatively mild stage of ALS. Materials and Methods Twenty?four ALS patients with a Mini?Mental State Examination score of >23, a normal score ...

  12. Ventricular Zone Disruption in Human Neonates With Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McAllister, James P.; Guerra, Maria Montserrat; Ruiz, Leandro Castaneyra; Jimenez, Antonio J.; Dominguez-Pinos, Dolores; Sival, Deborah; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Morales, Diego M.; Schmidt, Robert E.; Rodriguez, Esteban M.; Limbrick, David D.


    To determine if ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) alterations are associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, we compared postmortem frontal and subcortical brain samples from 12 infants with IVH and 3 nonneurological disease controls

  13. Numerical analysis of residual stresses in preforms of stress applying part for PANDA-type polarization maintaining optical fibers in view of technological imperfections of the doped zone geometry (United States)

    Trufanov, Aleksandr N.; Trufanov, Nikolay A.; Semenov, Nikita V.


    The experimental data analysis of the stress applying rod section geometry for the PANDA-type polarization maintaining optical fiber has been performed. The dependencies of the change in the radial dimensions of the preform and the doping boundary on the angular coordinate have been obtained. The original algorithm of experimental data statistic analysis, which enables determination of the specimens' characteristic form of section, has been described. The influence of actual doped zone geometry on the residual stress fields formed during the stress rod preform fabrication has been investigated. It has been established that the deviation of the boundary between pure silica and the doped zone from the circular shape results in dissymmetry and local concentrations of the residual stress fields along the section, which can cause preforms destruction at high degrees of doping. The observed geometry deviations of up to 10% lead to the increase of the maximum stress intensity value by over 20%.

  14. The IMM Frontal Face Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille


    This note describes a data set consisting of 120 annotated monocular images of 12 different frontal human faces. Points of correspondence are placed on each image so the data set can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Format specifications and terms of use are also given in...... in this note. The data set is available in two versions: i) low resolution, given in the zip-file electronic version, ii) high, given in the publication link....

  15. Historical Evolution of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krudop, W.A.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.


    The function of the frontal lobes and the related frontal lobe syndrome have not been described in detail until relatively late in history. Slowly, the combination of knowledge from animal models, the detailed examination of symptoms after traumatic frontal lobe injuries, and the rise and fall of

  16. Polarization Optics


    Fressengeas, Nicolas


    The physics of polarization optics *Polarized light propagation *Partially polarized light; DEA; After a brief introduction to polarization optics, this lecture reviews the basic formalisms for dealing with it: Jones Calculus for totally polarized light and Stokes parameters associated to Mueller Calculus for partially polarized light.

  17. Maintenance mechanisms of plankton populations in frontal zones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preface provides the background to, and synthesis of research findings from, a set of environmental research-driven cruises off southern Angola, Namibia and South Africa during February–March 2002, under the auspices the BENguela Environment Fisheries Interaction and Training (BENEFIT) Programme.

  18. Frontal destabilization of Stonebreen, Edgeøya, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Strozzi


    and synthetic aperture radar (SAR satellite data, a number of zones of velocity increases have been observed at formerly slow-flowing calving fronts on Svalbard. Here we present the dynamic evolution of the southern lobe of Stonebreen on Edgeøya. We observe a slowly steady retreat of the glacier front from 1971 until 2011, followed by a strong increase in ice surface velocity along with a decrease of volume and frontal extension since 2012. The considerable losses in ice thickness could have made the tide-water calving glacier, which is grounded below sea level some 6 km inland from the 2014 front, more sensitive to surface meltwater reaching its bed and/or warm ocean water increasing frontal ablation with subsequent strong multi-annual ice-flow acceleration.

  19. Intact polar lipids of Thaumarchaeota and anammox bacteria as indicators of N cycling in the eastern tropical North Pacific oxygen-deficient zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sollai, M.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.; Keil, R.G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.


    In the last decade our understanding of the marine nitrogen cycle has improved considerably thanks to the discovery of two novel groups of microorganisms: ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Both groups are important in oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs),

  20. Intact polar lipids of Thaumarchaeota and anammox bacteria as indicators of N cycling in the eastern tropical North Pacific oxygen-deficient zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sollai, M.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Schouten, Stefan; Keil, R.G.; Sinninghe Damste, J.S.


    . In the last decade our understanding of the marine nitrogen cycle has improved considerably thanks to the discovery of two novel groups of microorganisms: ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Both groups are important in oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs),

  1. Body frontal area in passerine birds


    Hedenström, Anders; Rosén, Mikael


    Projected body frontal area is used when estimating the parasite drag of bird flight. We investigated the relationship between projected frontal area and body mass among passerine birds, and compared it with an equation based on waterfowl and raptors, which is used as default procedure in a widespread software package for flight performance calculations. The allometric equation based on waterfowl/raptors underestimates the frontal area compared to the passerine equation presented here. Conseq...

  2. A model of frontal polymerization using complex initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Goldfeder


    Full Text Available Frontal polymerization is a process in which a spatially localized reaction zone propagates into a monomer, converting it into a polymer. In the simplest case of free-radical polymerization, a mixture of monomer and initiator is placed in a test tube. A reaction is then initiated at one end of the tube. Over time, a self-sustained thermal wave, in which chemical conversion occurs, is produced. This phenomenon is possible because of the highly exothermic nature of the polymerization reactions.

  3. Frontal anatomy and reaction time in Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan


    Widespread frontal lobe abnormalities, encompassing anatomy and function, are known to be implicated in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The correlation between neurobiology and behaviour, however, is poorly understood in ASD. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal lobe anatomy and

  4. Mucocele formation after frontal sinus obliteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, F. S.; van der Poel, N. A.; Freling, N. J. M.; Fokkens, W. J.


    A possible complication of frontal sinus obliteration with fat is the formation of mucoceles. We studied the prevalence of mucoceles as well as and the need for revision surgery. Retrospective case review of forty consecutive patients undergoing frontal sinus obliteration from September 1995 to

  5. Asymmetric Frontal Brain Activity and Parental Rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffmeijer, R.; Alink, L.R.A.; Tops, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.


    Asymmetric frontal brain activity has been widely implicated in reactions to emotional stimuli and is thought to reflect individual differences in approach-withdrawal motivation. Here, we investigate whether asymmetric frontal activity, as a measure of approach-withdrawal motivation, also predicts

  6. Frontal lobe seizures: from clinical semiology to localization. (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; McGonigal, Aileen; Trébuchon, Agnès; Gavaret, Martine; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Giusiano, Bernard; Chauvel, Patrick


    Frontal lobe seizures are difficult to characterize according to semiologic and electrical features. We wished to establish whether different semiologic subgroups can be identified and whether these relate to anatomic organization. We assessed all seizures from 54 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy that were explored with stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) during presurgical evaluation. Semiologic features and concomitant intracerebral EEG changes were documented and quantified. These variables were examined using Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, and semiologic features correlated with anatomic localization. Four main groups of patients were identified according to semiologic features, and correlated with specific patterns of anatomic seizure localization. Group 1 was characterized clinically by elementary motor signs and involved precentral and premotor regions. Group 2 was characterized by a combination of elementary motor signs and nonintegrated gestural motor behavior, and involved both premotor and prefrontal regions. Group 3 was characterized by integrated gestural motor behavior with distal stereotypies and involved anterior lateral and medial prefrontal regions. Group 4 was characterized by seizures with fearful behavior and involved the paralimbic system (ventromedial prefrontal cortex ± anterior temporal structures). The groups were organized along a rostrocaudal axis, representing bands within a spectrum rather than rigid categories. The more anterior the seizure organization, the more likely was the occurrence of integrated behavior during seizures. Distal stereotypies were associated with the most anterior prefrontal localizations, whereas proximal stereotypies occurred in more posterior prefrontal regions. Meaningful categorization of frontal seizures in terms of semiology is possible and correlates with anatomic organization along a rostrocaudal axis, in keeping with current hypotheses of frontal lobe hierarchical organization

  7. Effect of the flow profile on separation efficiency in pressure-assisted reversed-polarity capillary zone electrophoresis of anions: Simulation and experimental evaluation. (United States)

    Jarvas, Gabor; Szigeti, Marton; Guttman, Andras


    Capillary electrophoresis connected to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is a promising combination to analyze complex biological samples. The use of sheathless electrospray ionization interfaces, such as a porous nanoelectrospray capillary emitter, requires the application of forward flow (either by pressure or electroosmosis) to maintain the electrospray process. The analysis of solute molecules with strong negative charges (e.g., aminopyrenetrisulfonate labeled glycans) necessitates a reversed-polarity capillary electrophoresis separation mode, in which case the electroosmotic flow is counter current, thus pressure assistance is necessary. In this study, we compared the effect of forced convection with and without counter electroosmotic flow on the resulting separation efficiency in capillary electrophoresis based on flow profile simulations by computational fluid dynamics technique and by actual experiments. The efficiencies of the detected peaks were calculated from the resulting electropherograms and found approximately 790 000 plates/m for electrophoresis with counter electroosmotic flow, 16 000 plates/m with pressure only (such as would be in open tubular liquid chromatography) and 400 000 plates/m for electrophoresis with simultaneous counter electroosmotic flow and forward pressure assistance, which validates the simulation data. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic frontal sinusitis presenting with complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Sunu Ali


    Full Text Available A frontocutaneous fistula secondary to chronic frontal sinusitis can present with a fistulous opening in the forehead or in the eyelid. It may or may not be associated with Pott′s puffy tumor. In this article, we present 2 cases. A case of frontocutaenous fistula with opening in the upper eyelid at the lateral portion of floor of frontal sinus and another case of chronic frontal sinusitis with sub-periosteal abscess in the forehead on the right side near the eyebrow. Relevant literature has also been reviewed.

  9. Cranialization of the frontal sinus for secondary mucocele prevention following open surgery for benign frontal lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Horowitz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare frontal sinus cranialization to obliteration for future prevention of secondary mucocele formation following open surgery for benign lesions of the frontal sinus. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Sixty-nine patients operated for benign frontal sinus pathology between 1994 and 2011. INTERVENTIONS: Open excision of benign frontal sinus pathology followed by either frontal obliteration (n = 41, 59% or frontal cranialization (n = 28, 41%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of post-surgical complications and secondary mucocele formation were compiled. RESULTS: Pathologies included osteoma (n = 34, 49%, mucocele (n = 27, 39%, fibrous dysplasia (n = 6, 9%, and encephalocele (n = 2, 3%. Complications included skin infections (n = 6, postoperative cutaneous fistula (n = 1, telecanthus (n = 4, diplopia (n = 3, nasal deformity (n = 2 and epiphora (n = 1. None of the patients suffered from postoperative CSF leak, meningitis or pneumocephalus. Six patients, all of whom had previously undergone frontal sinus obliteration, required revision surgery due to secondary mucocele formation. Statistical analysis using non-inferiority test reveal that cranialization of the frontal sinus is non-inferior to obliteration for preventing secondary mucocele formation (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Cranialization of the frontal sinus appears to be a good option for prevention of secondary mucocele development after open excision of benign frontal sinus lesions.

  10. Use of induced polarization to characterize the hydrogeologic framework of the zone of surface‐water/groundwater exchange at the Hanford 300 Area, WA (United States)

    Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Lane, John W.; Ward, Andy; Versteeg, Roelof J.


    An extensive continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI) survey was conducted along the Columbia River corridor adjacent to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford 300 Area, WA, in order to improve the conceptual model for exchange between surface water and U‐contaminated groundwater. The primary objective was to determine spatial variability in the depth to the Hanford‐Ringold (H‐R) contact, an important lithologic boundary that limits vertical transport of groundwater along the river corridor. Resistivity and induced polarization (IP) measurements were performed along six survey lines parallel to the shore (each greater than 2.5 km in length), with a measurement recorded every 0.5–3.0 m depending on survey speed, resulting in approximately 65,000 measurements. The H‐R contact was clearly resolved in images of the normalized chargeability along the river corridor due to the large contrast in surface area (hence polarizability) of the granular material between the two lithologic units. Cross sections of the lithologic structure along the river corridor reveal a large variation in the thickness of the overlying Hanford unit (the aquifer through which contaminated groundwater discharges to the river) and clearly identify locations along the river corridor where the underlying Ringold unit is exposed to the riverbed. Knowing the distribution of the Hanford and Ringold units along the river corridor substantially improves the conceptual model for the hydrogeologic framework regulating U exchange between groundwater and Columbia River water relative to current models based on projections of data from boreholes on land into the river.

  11. The frontal weapon of the termite Armitermes euamignathus Silvestri (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Costa-Leonardo


    Full Text Available Frontal weapon is the term used to designate the apparatus consisting of frontal gland and associated structures that participate in the chemical defense of termite soldiers. The ultra structure of the frontal gland and the scanning microscopy of the soldier head was investigated in the termite Amiitermes euamignathus Silvestri, 1901.Campaniform sensilla was not observed but there were 80 to100 sensory bristles around the frontal pore. The glandular epithelium shows only class 1 cells according 10 the classification of NOIROT & QUENNEDEY (1974, 1991. The glandular cells are characterized by apical microvilli, a basal labyrinth and a large quantity of smooth endoplasmic reticulum which forms dense zones throughout the cytoplasm. The secretion is concentrated mainly in the basal pole of the cell and consists of large lipid droplets. The secretory epithelium is covered by a thick apical cuticle composed of a thin outer epicuticle, a layer of epicuticular filaments and a dense procuticle. The cytological results concerning the frontal pore showed a reduced cuticle and the presence of a subcuticular space where the lipid droplets are accumulated. The lack of class 3 cells and the presence of an intrinsic musculature are two anatomical features of the A. euamignathus frontal gland that will be important in the phylogenetic relationships of the Nasutitermitinae.

  12. Evolution of an Intense Warm Frontal Precipitation Band During the GPM Cold-Season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) (United States)

    Colle, Brian A.; Naeger, Aaron R.; Molthan, Andrew


    The band developed with low-level deformation and frontogenesis along the sloping warm frontal zone, and the vertical motions became large enough to produce graupel on the south side of the band. Embedded convective cells developed earlier in our GCPEx event, but the frontogenesis was weak then and banding was limited. As the deformation increased the stability also increased near the banding location (MPV* 0), which favored the development of single band. Through sensitivity studies (not shown) we found that latent heating helps increase the frontal circulations and resulting band development. Latent cooling also helps increase the frontogenesis given the evaporative and sublimation cooling within the frontal precipitation.

  13. synthesis of microporous polymers by frontal polymerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    EGDM) copolymers of varying compositions were synthesized by free-radically triggered thermal frontal polymerization (FP) as well as by suspension polymerization (SP) using azobisisobutyronitrile [AIBN] as initiator. The two sets of copolymers.

  14. Human Frontal Lobes and AI Planning Systems (United States)

    Levinson, Richard; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)


    Human frontal lobes are essential for maintaining a self-regulating balance between predictive and reactive behavior. This paper describes a system that integrates prediction and reaction based on neuropsychological theories of frontal lobe function. In addition to enhancing our understanding of deliberate action in humans' the model is being used to develop and evaluate the same properties in machines. First, the paper presents some background neuropsychology in order to set a general context. The role of frontal lobes is then presented by summarizing three theories which formed the basis for this work. The components of an artificial frontal lobe are then discussed from both neuropsychological and AI perspectives. The paper concludes by discussing issues and methods for evaluating systems that integrate planning and reaction.

  15. Frontal lobe alterations in schizophrenia: a review. (United States)

    Mubarik, Ateeq; Tohid, Hassaan


    To highlight the changes in the frontal lobe of the human brain in people with schizophrenia. This was a qualitative review of the literature. Many schizophrenic patients exhibit functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities in the frontal lobe. Some patients have few or no alterations, while some have more functional and structural changes than others. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows structural and functional changes in volume, gray matter, white matter, and functional activity in the frontal lobe, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not yet fully understood. When schizophrenia is studied as an essential topic in the field of neuropsychiatry, neuroscientists find that the frontal lobe is the most commonly involved area of the human brain. A clear picture of how this lobe is affected in schizophrenia is still lacking. We therefore recommend that further research be conducted to improve understanding of the pathophysiology of this psychiatric dilemma.

  16. Corpus callosum lipoma with frontal encephalocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa Rao, A.; Rao, V.R.K.; Ravi Mandalam, K.; Gupta, A.K.; Kumar, S.; Joseph, S.; Unni, M.


    Computed tomographic and plain X-ray observations in a patient with corpus callosum lipoma associated with frontal encephalocele are reported. The rarity of the lesion and the specific diagnostic criteria on CT are emphasised. (orig.)

  17. New Perspectives on Southern Ocean Frontal Variability (United States)

    Chapman, Christopher


    The frontal structure of the Southern Ocean is investigated using a the Wavelet/Higher Order Statistics Enhancement (WHOSE) frontal detection method, introduced in Chapman (2014). This methodology is applied to 21 years of daily gridded sea-surface height (SSH) data to obtain daily maps of the locations of the fronts. By forming frontal occurrence frequency maps and then approximating these occurrence-maps by a superposition of simple functions, the time-mean locations of the fronts, as well as a measure of their capacity to meander, are obtained and related to the frontal locations found by previous studies. The spatial and temporal variability of the frontal structure is then considered. The number of fronts is found to be highly variable throughout the Southern Ocean, increasing (`splitting') downstream of large bathymetric features and decreasing (`merging') in regions where the fronts are tightly controlled by the underlying topography. In contrast, frontal meandering remains relatively constant. Contrary to many previous studies, little no southward migration of the fronts over the 1993-2014 time period is found, and there is only weak sensitivity to atmospheric forcing related to SAM or ENSO. Finally, the implications of splitting and merging for the flux of tracers will be discussed.

  18. Mind the movement: Frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral motivation, bilateral frontal activation for behavior. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Johannes; Müller, Mathias; Mühlberger, Andreas; Hewig, Johannes


    Frontal asymmetry has been investigated over the past 30 years, and several theories have been developed about its meaning. The original theory of Davidson and its diversification by Harmon-Jones & Allen allocated approach motivation to relative left frontal brain activity and withdrawal motivation to relative right frontal brain activity. Hewig and colleagues extended this theory by adding bilateral frontal activation representing a biological correlate of the behavioral activation system if actual behavior is shown. Wacker and colleagues formulated a theory related to the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory by Gray & McNaughton. Here, relative left frontal brain activation represents the revised behavioral activation system and behavior, while relative right frontal brain activation represents the revised behavioral inhibition system, representing the experience of conflict. These theories were investigated with a newly developed paradigm where participants were able to move around freely in a virtual T maze via joystick while having their EEG recorded. Analyzing the influence of frontal brain activation during this virtual reality task on observable behavior for 30 participants, we found more relative left frontal brain activation during approach behavior and more relative right brain activation for withdrawal behavior of any kind. Additionally, there was more bilateral frontal brain activation when participants were engaged in behavior compared to doing nothing. Hence, this study provides evidence for the idea that frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral approach or avoidance motivation, and bilateral frontal activation stands for behavior. Additionally, observable behavior is not only determined by frontal asymmetry, but also by relevant traits. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe. (United States)

    Ranta, Marin E; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E; Mostofsky, Stewart H


    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here, we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. [2009]: Psychiatry Res 172:147-154 in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field, and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC] and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions]. (United States)

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe


    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging.

  1. Frontal cephalometrics: practical applications, part 2. (United States)

    Grummons, Duane; Ricketts, Robert M


    To (1) demonstrate the needs and benefits of three-dimensional diagnostic and treatment applications; (2) illustrate practical clinical applications of anteroposterior images and frontal analysis; and (3) enhance utilization of the Ricketts and Grummons frontal analyses. Frontal analysis methods and applications are specified and integrated into facial, smile, jaw, and occlusal therapies. Asymmetry conditions must be differentially diagnosed and effectively treated. Frontal and related image analysis and tracing steps are detailed. Asymmetry of facial parts is the rule, rather than the exception. Dental and facial midlines, occlusal plane, chin location, and smile esthetics are primarily emphasized. Beautiful facial proportions and smile harmony can be developed despite initial facial dysmorphosis and disproportions. Patients view themselves from the frontal perspective, so this carries priority when assessing problems. It is important to know the etiology of asymmetry to assist others with genetic counseling. Facial harmony and smile beauty are optimal when facial and maxillary dental midlines are aligned. The maxillary dentition width should be sufficiently wide to be in harmony with the individual patient facial morphology. The occlusal plane should be level and the chin centered as much as possible. Best facial development and proportionality exist when the skeletal and dental components are optimized transversely and are symmetric.

  2. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.


    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  3. Tratamiento y complicaciones de las fracturas de seno frontal Frontal sinus fracture treatment and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heredero Jung


    Full Text Available Introducción. Las fracturas de seno frontal se producen como resultado de impactos de alta energía. Un tratamiento inadecuado puede conducir a complicaciones serias incluso muchos años después del traumatismo. Objetivos. Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos y revisar las complicaciones asociadas. Estandarizar el protocolo de tratamiento. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron 95 pacientes diagnosticados de fracturas de seno frontal pertenecientes al servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre de Madrid, entre enero de 1990 y diciembre de 2004. Resultados. La edad media de los pacientes revisados es de 34 años. La mayoría son hombres (78% y la causa más frecuente del traumatismo, los accidentes de tráfico. El patrón de fractura más común es el que afecta únicamente a la pared anterior del seno frontal. Las complicaciones descritas son: deformidad estética frontal, sinusitis frontal, mucocele frontal, celulitis fronto-orbitaria, intolerancia al material de osteosíntesis, complicaciones infecciosas del SNC y persistencia de fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Conclusiones. El objetivo ha de estar encaminado a prevenir las complicaciones asociadas a los pacientes con fracturas de seno frontal. Hay que individualizar el protocolo de tratamiento en cada caso. Es recomendable un seguimiento a largo plazo para identificar precozmente las posibles complicaciones.Introduction. Frontal sinus fractures are caused by high velocity impacts. Inappropriate treatment can lead to serious complications, even many years after the trauma. Objectives. To evaluate epidemiological data and associated complications. To standardize the treatment protocol. Materials and methods. the clinical records of 95 patients with frontal sinus fractures treated between January 1990 and December 2004 at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, "12 de Octubre" Hospital (Madrid, Spain, were reviewed. Results. The average age of

  4. Cephalic aura after frontal lobe resection. (United States)

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jehi, Lara; Alkawadri, Rafeed; Wang, Zhong I; Enatsu, Rei; Mosher, John C; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Burgess, Richard C


    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate a cephalic aura extensive cortical areas need to be excited. We report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed in the right frontal region, and the latter involved much more widespread areas than the former on MEG sensors. The peculiar seizure onset pattern may indicate that surgical modification of the epileptic network was related to the appearance of cephalic aura. We hypothesize that generation of cephalic aura may be associated with more extensive cortical involvement of epileptic activity than that of interictal activity, in at least a subset of cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The frontal method in hydrodynamics simulations (United States)

    Walters, R.A.


    The frontal solution method has proven to be an effective means of solving the matrix equations resulting from the application of the finite element method to a variety of problems. In this study, several versions of the frontal method were compared in efficiency for several hydrodynamics problems. Three basic modifications were shown to be of value: 1. Elimination of equations with boundary conditions beforehand, 2. Modification of the pivoting procedures to allow dynamic management of the equation size, and 3. Storage of the eliminated equations in a vector. These modifications are sufficiently general to be applied to other classes of problems. ?? 1980.

  6. An algorithm for the automatic recognition of oceanic features in frontal maps (United States)

    Davidovich, V.; Gangopadhyay, A.


    Satellite imagery provides a unique opportunity for oceanic fronts' identification and the observation of the synoptic variability of the fronts. Top quality interpretative frontal maps are compiled by expert oceanographers from satellite and in situ data aided by numerical models of the ocean's circulation. To be used for the initialization and data assimilation in numerical models, these frontal maps have to be digitized and vectorized. Here, we present an algorithm that automatically recognizes oceanic structures (fronts, eddies, filaments) in frontal maps formatted as raster images. The algorithm is based on a formalized description of the structure of the frontal zone, the image vectorization, and the detection of significant structural elements based on the classification of these elements. The classification of the structural elements was first developed by analyzing once-a-week satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) images for the western North Atlantic from 2010. The structural elements are then recognized based on their invariant spatial characteristics and their positions relative to one another in any new SST image. The algorithm outputs a set of digital arrays that are vector descriptors of all the significant structural elements of the frontal map.

  7. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.


    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass

  8. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  9. Performance on the Frontal Assessment Battery is sensitive to frontal lobe damage in stroke patients. (United States)

    Kopp, Bruno; Rösser, Nina; Tabeling, Sandra; Stürenburg, Hans Jörg; de Haan, Bianca; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Wessel, Karl


    The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) is a brief battery of six neuropsychological tasks designed to assess frontal lobe function at bedside [Neurology 55:1621-1626, 2000]. The six FAB tasks explore cognitive and behavioral domains that are thought to be under the control of the frontal lobes, most notably conceptualization and abstract reasoning, lexical verbal fluency and mental flexibility, motor programming and executive control of action, self-regulation and resistance to interference, inhibitory control, and environmental autonomy. We examined the sensitivity of performance on the FAB to frontal lobe damage in right-hemisphere-damaged first-ever stroke patients based on voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping. Voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping of FAB performance revealed that the integrity of the right anterior insula (BA13) is crucial for the FAB global composite score, for the FAB conceptualization score, as well as for the FAB inhibitory control score. Furthermore, the FAB conceptualization and mental flexibility scores were sensitive to damage of the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG; BA9). Finally, the FAB inhibitory control score was sensitive to damage of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA44/45). These findings indicate that several FAB scores (including composite and item scores) provide valid measures of right hemispheric lateral frontal lobe dysfunction, specifically of focal lesions near the anterior insula, in the MFG and in the IFG.

  10. Frontal lobe connectivity and cognitive impairment in pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Braakman, Hilde M H; Vaessen, Maarten J; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Debeij-van Hall, Mariette H J A; de Louw, Anton; Hofman, Paul A M; Vles, Johan S H; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Backes, Walter H


    Cognitive impairment is frequent in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), but its etiology is unknown. With functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we have explored the relationship between brain activation, functional connectivity, and cognitive functioning in a cohort of pediatric patients with FLE and healthy controls. Thirty-two children aged 8-13 years with FLE of unknown cause and 41 healthy age-matched controls underwent neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional brain MRI. We investigated to which extent brain regions activated in response to a working memory task and assessed functional connectivity between distant brain regions. Data of patients were compared to controls, and patients were grouped as cognitively impaired or unimpaired. Children with FLE showed a global decrease in functional brain connectivity compared to healthy controls, whereas brain activation patterns in children with FLE remained relatively intact. Children with FLE complicated by cognitive impairment typically showed a decrease in frontal lobe connectivity. This decreased frontal lobe connectivity comprised both connections within the frontal lobe as well as connections from the frontal lobe to the parietal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Decreased functional frontal lobe connectivity is associated with cognitive impairment in pediatric FLE. The importance of impairment of functional integrity within the frontal lobe network, as well as its connections to distant areas, provides new insights in the etiology of the broad-range cognitive impairments in children with FLE. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Characterization of textural and hydric heterogeneities in argillaceous geo-materials using induced polarization method: application to the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) of the Tournemire experimental station; Caracterisation des heterogeneites texturales et hydriques des geomateriaux argileux par la methode de Polarisation Provoquee: Application a l'EDZ de la station experimentale de Tournemire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okay, Gonca


    This Ph-D thesis investigates the potential of clay rocks for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. Underground excavations are responsible in their vicinity a region, where the clay-rock is damaged or disturbed. This region must to be characterized to ensure the safety of repositories. The extension of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) and its evolution over time have been investigated thought electrical resistivity and induced polarization methods from three galleries belonging to the French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN)'s experimental underground research laboratory of Tournemire (Aveyron, France). Time domain induced polarisation indicates the presence of mineralization (e.g., especially pyrite) located in the structural discontinuities such as tectonic fractures (mm-cm), tectonic fault (m) and calcareous nodules (cm). Combined electrical resistivity and Induced Polarization methods show the possibility to delineate textural changes associated to desaturation of the clay-rock induced by the ventilation of galleries. The impact of the desaturation is particularly observed on the gallery's walls. In addition, Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) tomography results can be used to discriminate the responses of the de-saturated zones from the fractured zones. We have performed laboratory experiments (in the range 1.4 mHz - 12 kHz) using saturated unconsolidated sand-clay mixtures. The results illustrate that the amplitude of polarization is strongly affected by the surface properties of these mixtures (e.g., cation exchange capacity, specific surface area) and by the volumetric clay content. However, the amplitude of polarization is independent of the concentration of electrolyte. The SIP response is also strongly sensitive to the mineralogy of the clays. (author)

  12. Fibrous dysplasia of the frontal sinus: an uncommon cause of frontal lobe abscess. (United States)

    Aygun, D; Sahin, H


    Fibrous dysplasia of the cranial air sinuses is rarely reported in the literature. This is the first report of frontal lobe abscess (FLA) associated with fibrous dysplasia of the frontal sinus (FDFS). A 29-year-old female presented with seizures and acute confusion. Cranial computed tomography (CT) revealed fibrous dysplasia of the left frontal sinus and associated FLA. She was referred to the neurosurgical service and the abscess and dysplastic tissue were removed. Histological examination confirmed fibrous dysplasia. We review the radiological appearance of FDFS with FLA. Clinicians should be aware of the association between these two conditions.

  13. Prospective memory and frontal lobe function. (United States)

    Neulinger, Kerryn; Oram, Joanne; Tinson, Helen; O'Gorman, John; Shum, David H K


    The study sought to examine the role of frontal lobe functioning in focal prospective memory (PM) performance and its relation to PM deficit in older adults. PM and working memory (WM) differences were studied in younger aged (n = 21), older aged (n = 20), and frontal injury (n = 14) groups. An event-based focal PM task was employed and three measures of WM were administered. The younger aged group differed from the other two groups in showing significantly higher scores on PM and on one of the WM measures, but there were no differences at a statistically significant level between the older aged group and the frontal injury groups on any of the memory measures. There were, however, some differences in correlations with a WM measure between groups. It is concluded that there are similarities and differences in the deficits in PM between older adults and patients with frontal lobe injury on focal as well as nonfocal PM tasks.

  14. Right Frontal White Matter and Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available An MRI volumetric analysis of frontal and nonfrontal gray and white matter was performed in 11 boys with Tourette syndrome (TS only, 14 with TS + ADHD, 12 with ADHD only, and 26 healthy boys, at the Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD.

  15. Infant Frontal Asymmetry Predicts Child Emotional Availability (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Paulus, Markus; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jorg; Sodian, Beate


    While factors influencing maternal emotional availability (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about the development of child EA. The present longitudinal study investigated the role of frontal brain asymmetry in young children with regard to child EA (child responsiveness and involvement) in mother-child interaction in a sample of 28…

  16. Polar Bears (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.


    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  17. Medial frontal cortex and response conflict: Evidence from human intracranial EEG and medial frontal cortex lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, M.X.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Haupt, S.; Elger, C.E.; Fell, J.


    The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has been implicated in the monitoring and selection of actions in the face of competing alternatives, but much remains unknown about its functional properties, including electrophysiological oscillations, during response conflict tasks. Here, we recorded intracranial

  18. The additional lateralizing and localizing value of the postictal EEG in frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Whitehead, Kimberley; Gollwitzer, Stephanie; Millward, Helen; Wehner, Tim; Scott, Catherine; Diehl, Beate


    The aim of this study was to describe the additional lateralizing and localizing value of the postictal EEG in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). The ictal EEG in FLE is frequently challenging to localize. We identified patients investigated for epilepsy surgery with unilateral FLE based on consistent semiology, a clear lesion and/or with frontal onset on intracranial EEG. A one hour section of postictal EEG was analyzed by two raters for new or activated EEG features and it was assessed whether these features offered additional information when compared to the ictal EEG. Postictal features assessed included asymmetrical return of the posterior dominant rhythm and potentiated lateralized or regional frontal slowing, spikes or sharp waves. Thirty-eight patients were included who had a combined total of ninety-six seizures. 47/96 (49%) postictal periods contained correctly lateralizing or localizing information. The sensitivity for asymmetrical return of the posterior dominant rhythm was 24%. The sensitivity for regional frontal slow and frontal spikes was 23% and 20% respectively. Further analysis showed that in 14/38 (39%) patients, at least one seizure with an unhelpful ictal EEG was followed by postictal EEG features that added new localizing or lateralizing information. A subgroup of 11 patients who were ⩾1 year seizure-free (ILAE class 1) and thus classified as having a 'gold-standard' FLE diagnosis were analyzed separately and it was found that 14/30 of their seizures (47%) had extra postictal information. The new postictal information was always concordant with the ultimate diagnosis, except for asymmetric postictal return of background activity ipsilateral to the epileptogenic zone in three patients. This study shows that a close examination of the postictal EEG can offer additional information which can contribute to the identification of a potentially resectable epileptogenic zone. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology

  19. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (United States)

    ... Health Conditions ADNFLE Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... collapse boxes. Description Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy ( ADNFLE ) is an uncommon form of epilepsy that ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Mík


    Full Text Available The article considers a possible improvement of road vehicle safety by using eCall – a system which initiates an emergency call in case of traffic accident. A possible way of better description of a frontal impact accident of a vehicle is examined and enriched by the information from the onboard e-call unit. In this article, we analyze results of frontal crash tests with different types of barriers and overlapping area and look for the correlation between the individual vehicle and collision parameters in order to provide a better description of the severity of the accident by the eCall system. The relation among the selected parameters is described using the correlation analysis.

  1. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in mucopolysaccharidosis. (United States)

    Bonanni, Paolo; Volzone, Anna; Randazzo, Giovanna; Antoniazzi, Lisa; Rampazzo, Angelica; Scarpa, Maurizio; Nobili, Lino


    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is an epileptic syndrome that is primarily characterized by seizures with motor signs occurring almost exclusively during sleep. We describe 2 children with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) who were referred for significant sleep disturbance. Long term video-EEG monitoring (LT-VEEGM) demonstrated sleep-related hypermotor seizures consistent with NFLE. No case of sleep-related hypermotor seizures has ever been reported to date in MPS. However, differential diagnosis with parasomnias has been previously discussed. The high frequency of frontal lobe seizures causes sleep fragmentation, which may result in sleep disturbances observed in at least a small percentage of MPS patients. We suggest monitoring individuals with MPS using periodic LT-VEEGM, particularly when sleep disorder is present. Moreover, our cases confirm that NFLE in lysosomal storage diseases may occur, and this finding extends the etiologic spectrum of NFLE. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Frontal lobe epilepsy and EEG: Neurophysiological approach


    García López, Beatriz


    La epilepsia del lóbulo frontal es la segunda más frecuente en la mayoría de las series publicadas, después de la epilepsia temporal. Sus características clínicas y electroencefalográficas son muy variadas, lo que hace de su diagnóstico y tratamiento un reto en la práctica clínica. Las crisis frontales suelen aparecen en "clusters", con frecuencia generalizan y el aspecto electroencefalográfico de la actividad intercrítica y crítica suele ser difícil de interpretar por la gran difusión que su...

  3. Intraparenchymal schwannoma of the frontal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogaonkar M


    Full Text Available A 45 year old woman with bifrontal headaches and progressive diminution in vision over 6 months was found to have bilateral papilloedema. CT scan showed large right frontal lesion with surrounding oedema. Right basal frontotemporal craniotomy was performed to excise the multinodular, intraparenchymatous tumor. Hispathology confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Post-operative course was uneventful with disappearance of pre-operative signs and symptoms.

  4. Frontal lobe function in temporal lobe epilepsy (United States)

    Stretton, J.; Thompson, P.J.


    Summary Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is typically associated with long-term memory dysfunction. The frontal lobes support high-level cognition comprising executive skills and working memory that is vital for daily life functioning. Deficits in these functions have been increasingly reported in TLE. Evidence from both the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature suggests both executive function and working memory are compromised in the presence of TLE. In relation to executive impairment, particular focus has been paid to set shifting as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Other discrete executive functions such as decision-making and theory of mind also appear vulnerable but have received little attention. With regard to working memory, the medial temporal lobe structures appear have a more critical role, but with emerging evidence of hippocampal dependent and independent processes. The relative role of underlying pathology and seizure spread is likely to have considerable bearing upon the cognitive phenotype and trajectory in TLE. The identification of the nature of frontal lobe dysfunction in TLE thus has important clinical implications for prognosis and surgical management. Longitudinal neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies assessing frontal lobe function in TLE patients pre- and postoperatively will improve our understanding further. PMID:22100147

  5. Role of Frontal Alpha Oscillations in Creativity (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R.; Foulser, A. Alban; Mellin, Juliann M.; Fröhlich, Flavio


    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent EEG data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8 – 12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a fundamental role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40Hz-tACS was used in instead of 10Hz-tACS to rule out a general “electrical stimulation” effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal gamma stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. PMID:25913062

  6. Polar low monitoring (United States)

    Bobylev, Leonid; Zabolotskikh, Elizaveta; Mitnik, Leonid


    Polar lows are intense mesoscale atmospheric low pressure weather systems, developing poleward of the main baroclinic zone and associated with high surface wind speeds. Small size and short lifetime, sparse in-situ observations in the regions of their development complicate polar low study. Our knowledge of polar lows and mesocyclones has come almost entirely during the period of satellite remote sensing since, by virtue of their small horizontal scale, it was rarely possible to analyse these lows on conventional weather charts using only the data from the synoptic observing network. However, the effects of intense polar lows have been felt by coastal communities and seafarers since the earliest times. These weather systems are thought to be responsible for the loss of many small vessels over the centuries, although the nature of the storms was not understood and their arrival could not be predicted. The actuality of the polar low research is stipulated by their high destructive power: they are a threat to such businesses as oil and gas exploration, fisheries and shipping. They could worsen because of global warming: a shrinking of sea ice around the North Pole, which thawed to its record minimum in the summer of 2007, is likely to give rise to more powerful storms that form only over open water and can cause hurricane-strength winds. Therefore, study of polar lows, their timely detection, tracking and forecasting represents a challenge for today meteorology. Satellite passive microwave data, starting from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) onboard Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite, remain invaluable source of regularly available remotely sensed data to study polar lows. The sounding in this spectral range has several advantages in comparison with observations in visible and infrared ranges and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data: independence on day time and clouds, regularity and high temporal resolution in Polar Regions. Satellite

  7. Localised mixing and heterogeneity in the plankton food web in a frontal region of the Sargasso Sea:implications for eel early life history?


    Richardson, Katherine; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Christensen, Jens Tang; Adjou, Mohamed; Lyngsgaard, Maren Moltke; Hilligsøe, Karen Marie; Pedersen, Jens Brøgger; Vang, Torben; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard


    Previous studies have demonstrated that patches of eel larvae are found in the frontal region of the Subtropical Convergence Zone (STCZ), but to date no clear evidence of why this region might confer advantage to the larvae has been presented. This study demonstrates that there may be localized patches within a frontal region in the STCZ in the Sargasso Sea that experience elevated vertical mixing and an associated vertical flux of nutrients. This localized vertical mixing was suggested by a ...

  8. Alopecia frontal fibrosante: relato de seis casos Frontal fibrosing alopecia: report of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Mulinari-Brenner


    Full Text Available Alopecia frontal fibrosante é forma progressiva de alopecia cicatricial. Os casos iniciais foram relatados a partir 1994, na Austrália, em pacientes do sexo feminino pós-menopausa. Desde então inúmeros casos foram descritos na literatura sugerindo que ela é mais prevalente do que inicialmente se supunha. Seu curso progressivo se assemelha ao da alopecia androgenética; histologicamente, entretanto, o infiltrado liquenóide é evidente. O artigo relata seis casos brasileiros e discute a alopecia frontal fibrosante dentro do grupo das alopecias cicatriciais, como variante do líquen plano pilar.Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a progressive cicatricial alopecia. The first cases were described in Australia in postmenopausal women, in 1994. Since then, numerous cases were reported, suggesting that frontal fibrosing alopecia is more prevalent than initially thought. Its progressive course in postmenopausal women, clinically resembles androgenetic alopecia; however, histologically, lichenoid infiltrate is evident. This article report six brazilian cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia and discusses them in the context of cicatricial alopecias, as a variant of lichen planopilaris.

  9. Unilateral spatial neglect due to right frontal lobe haematoma.


    Maeshima, S; Funahashi, K; Ogura, M; Itakura, T; Komai, N


    Two patients with unilateral spatial neglect caused by right frontal lobe lesions underwent cerebral blood flow studies. A 54-year-old, right-handed woman developed left hemiplegia and frontal lobe neglect associated with cerebral haemorrhage after surgical excision of a frontal tumour. A 66-year-old, right-handed woman developed a haemorrhage in the right frontal lobe caused by rupture of an aneurysm. This was followed by left hemiplegia and frontal lobe neglect. In both cases, 123I-iodoamph...

  10. Ventajas del colgajo frontal expandido para la reconstrucción nasal Advantages of the expanded frontal flap for nasal reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Gálvez Chávez


    reconstruction. The objective of present paper was to characterize the usefulness of expanded frontal flap to repair distal nasal defects of full thickness in patients presenting a short forehead. METHODS. A descriptive and prospective study was conducted in patients presenting with nasal defects secondary to oncology surgery, traumata and other causes who underwent a nasal reconstruction using expanded frontal flap performed in the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology and in the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Surgical Hospital between June,1999 and May, 2007. RESULTS. It was possible an average gain of 1,0 cm length of the expanded frontal flap regarding the oblique design without expansion, as well as the reconstruction of the cutaneous coverage in all the cases even in the more distal defects like those of the alae nasi. The closure of donor zone always as in a direct way. CONCLUSIONS. It could be possible to characterize the usefulness of expanded frontal flap in the study sample and major advantages included length increase regarding the vertical distance of forehead. There is a consensus among authors as regards its usefulness when it is prescribed and be available and that it is a alternative resource when there are not much tissue available to reconstruction of nasal defects.

  11. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions☆ (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa


    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal “executive” dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

  12. Political polarization


    Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.


    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  13. Political polarization. (United States)

    Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W


    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  14. Cranialization of the frontal sinus-the final remedy for refractory chronic frontal sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Wagemakers, Michiel; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Buiter, C. T. Kees; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Mooij, Jan Jakob A.

    Object. Chronic sinusitis can be a debilitating disease with significant impact on quality of life. Frontal sinusitis has a relatively low prevalence, but complications can be severe due to its anatomical location. After failure of conservative measures, typically endoscopic procedures are performed

  15. Biomechanic study of the human liver during a frontal deceleration. (United States)

    Cheynel, Nicolas; Serre, Thierry; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Baque, Patrick; Benoit, Laurent; Berdah, Stephane-Victor; Brunet, Christian


    Mechanisms of hepatic injury remain poorly understood. Surgical literature reports some speculative theories that have never been proved. The aim of this study was to examine the behavior of the liver during brutal frontal deceleration. Six trunks, removed from human cadavers, underwent free falls at 4, 6, and 8 meters per second (mps). Accelerometers were positioned in the two lobes of the liver, in front of the vertebra L2, and in the retro hepatic inferior vena cava. Relative motions of the lobes of the liver and of the two other anatomic marks were observed. In parallel, numerical simulations of this experiment have been performed using a finite element model. In the direction of impact, the vertebra L2 had no considerable displacement with the inferior vena cava. There was a noteworthy displacement between the two hepatic lobes. The left hepatic lobe had a large relative displacement with the vertebra L2 and the inferior vena cava. The right hepatic lobe was more stable with the vertebra L2 and the inferior vena cava. Numerical simulation of the same protocol underlined a rotation effect of the liver to the left around the axis of the inferior vena cava. These results support the surgical data. They highlight a crucial zone and explain how dramatic lacerations between the two lobes of the liver can occur.

  16. Postobductional extension along and within the Frontal Range of the Eastern Oman Mountains (United States)

    Mattern, Frank; Scharf, Andreas


    extensionally reactivated by a branch fault of the Frontal Range Fault. Extension may be ductile (limestone mylonites), ductile and brittle (ooid deformation, boudinaged belemnite rostra, shear bands) or brittle. Extension is heterogeneously distributed within the Frontal Range. Extension is mainly related to orogenic/gravitational collapse of the Oman Mountains. Collapse may have been associated with isostatic rebound and rise of the two domes. In the western part of the study area, the Frontal Range Fault has a listric morphology. It is probably horizontal at a depth of 15 km below the Batinah coastal area. The fault seems to use the clay- and tuff-bearing Aruma Group as shear horizon. The depth of 15 km may coincide with the brittle-ductile transition of quartz- and feldspar-rich rocks. Close to this depth, the listric Batinah Coast Fault curves into the Frontal Range Fault. Extension along the Frontal Range and Batinah Coast faults probably reactivated preexisting late Cretaceous thrust faults during post-late Eocene time. The latter fault is likely mechanically related to the Wadi Kabir Fault via the Fanja Graben Fault and the Sunub fault segment. Listwaenite and serpentinite cluster preferably around the extensional faults. The Semail Gap probably functioned as a sinistral transform fault or fault zone during the Permian.

  17. Regulatory behavior and frontal activity: Considering the role of revised-BIS in relative right frontal asymmetry. (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Neal, Lauren B; Threadgill, A Hunter


    Essential to human behavior are three core personality systems: approach, avoidance, and a regulatory system governing the two motivational systems. Decades of research has linked approach motivation with greater relative left frontal-cortical asymmetry. Other research has linked avoidance motivation with greater relative right frontal-cortical asymmetry. However, past work linking withdrawal motivation with greater relative right frontal asymmetry has been mixed. The current article reviews evidence suggesting that activation of the regulatory system (revised Behavioral Inhibition System [r-BIS]) may be more strongly related to greater relative right frontal asymmetry than withdrawal motivation. Specifically, research suggests that greater activation of the r-BIS is associated with greater relative right frontal activity, and reduced r-BIS activation is associated with reduced right frontal activity (greater relative left frontal activity). We review evidence examining trait and state frontal activity using EEG, source localization, lesion studies, neuronal stimulation, and fMRI supporting the idea that r-BIS may be the core personality system related to greater relative right frontal activity. In addition, the current review seeks to disentangle avoidance motivation and r-BIS as substrates of relative right frontal asymmetry. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. Association of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) with thermo-biological frontal systems of the eastern tropical Pacific. (United States)

    Ryan, John P; Green, Jonathan R; Espinoza, Eduardo; Hearn, Alex R


    Satellite tracking of 27 whale sharks in the eastern tropical Pacific, examined in relation to environmental data, indicates preferential occupancy of thermo-biological frontal systems. In these systems, thermal gradients are caused by wind-forced circulation and mixing, and biological gradients are caused by associated nutrient enrichment and enhanced primary productivity. Two of the frontal systems result from upwelling, driven by divergence in the current systems along the equator and the west coast of South America; the third results from wind jet dynamics off Central America. All whale sharks were tagged near Darwin Island, Galápagos, within the equatorial Pacific upwelling system. Occupancy of frontal habitat is pronounced in synoptic patterns of shark locations in relation to serpentine, temporally varying thermal fronts across a zonal expanse > 4000 km. 80% of shark positions in northern equatorial upwelling habitat and 100% of positions in eastern boundary upwelling habitat were located within the upwelling front. Analysis of equatorial shark locations relative to thermal gradients reveals occupancy of a transition point in environmental stability. Equatorial subsurface tag data show residence in shallow, warm (>22°C) water 94% of the time. Surface zonal current speeds for all equatorial tracking explain only 16% of the variance in shark zonal movement speeds, indicating that passive drifting is not a primary determinant of movement patterns. Movement from equatorial to eastern boundary frontal zones occurred during boreal winter, when equatorial upwelling weakens seasonally. Off Peru sharks tracked upwelling frontal positions within ~100-350 km from the coast. Off Central America, the largest tagged shark (12.8 m TL) occupied an oceanic front along the periphery of the Panama wind jet. Seasonal movement from waning equatorial upwelling to productive eastern boundary habitat is consistent with underlying trophic dynamics. Persistent shallow residence in

  19. Auditory aura in frontal opercular epilepsy: sounds from afar. (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen A; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Bingaman, William; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Bulacio, Juan; Nair, Dileep; So, Norman K


    Auditory auras are typically considered to localize to the temporal neocortex. Herein, we present two cases of frontal operculum/perisylvian epilepsy with auditory auras. Following a non-invasive evaluation, including ictal SPECT and magnetoencephalography, implicating the frontal operculum, these cases were evaluated with invasive monitoring, using stereoelectroencephalography and subdural (plus depth) electrodes, respectively. Spontaneous and electrically-induced seizures showed an ictal onset involving the frontal operculum in both cases. A typical auditory aura was triggered by stimulation of the frontal operculum in one. Resection of the frontal operculum and subjacent insula rendered one case seizure- (and aura-) free. From a hodological (network) perspective, we discuss these findings with consideration of the perisylvian and insular network(s) interconnecting the frontal and temporal lobes, and revisit the non-invasive data, specifically that of ictal SPECT.

  20. Oceanic fronts: transition zones for bacterioplankton community composition. (United States)

    Baltar, Federico; Currie, Kim; Stuck, Esther; Roosa, Stéphanie; Morales, Sergio E


    Oceanic fronts are widespread mesoscale features that exist in the boundary between different water masses. Despite the recognized importance of bacterioplankton (including bacteria and archaea) on the marine biogeochemical cycles and the ubiquitousness of fronts, the effect of frontal zones on the distribution of bacterioplankton community remains unknown. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing coupled with a high spatial resolution analysis of the physical properties of the water masses, we demonstrate strong shifts in bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) across the subtropical frontal zone off New Zealand. The transition between water masses resulted in a clear modification of the dominant taxa and a significant increase in community dissimilarity. Our results, linking physical oceanography and marine molecular ecology, support the strong role of oceanic frontal zones in delimiting the distribution of bacterioplankton in the ocean. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Pott's Puffy Tumor Arising from Frontal Sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Kang, Hyun Koo [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Pott's puffy tumor is an extremely rare and potentially life-threatening complication of frontal sinusitis. We report a case of a 64-year-old man who presented at our emergency department with mild tenderness on the glabellar area and diplopia. Computed Tomography (CT) revealed frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. Following sinus trephination and long-term antibiotic therapy, the patient achieved a complete recovery.

  2. Trans-falcine and contralateral sub-frontal electrode placement in pediatric epilepsy surgery: technical note. (United States)

    Pindrik, Jonathan; Hoang, Nguyen; Tubbs, R Shane; Rocque, Brandon J; Rozzelle, Curtis J


    Phase II monitoring with intracranial electroencephalography (ICEEG) occasionally requires bilateral placement of subdural (SD) strips, grids, and/or depth electrodes. While phase I monitoring often demonstrates a preponderance of unilateral findings, individual studies (video EEG, single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT], and positron emission tomography [PET]) can suggest or fail to exclude a contralateral epileptogenic onset zone. This study describes previously unreported techniques of trans-falcine and sub-frontal insertion of contralateral SD grids and depth electrodes for phase II monitoring in pediatric epilepsy surgery patients when concern about bilateral abnormalities has been elicited during phase I monitoring. Pediatric patients with medically refractory epilepsy undergoing stage I surgery for phase II monitoring involving sub-frontal and/or trans-falcine insertion of SD grids and/or depth electrodes at the senior author's institution were retrospectively reviewed. Intra-operative technical details of sub-frontal and trans-falcine approaches were studied, while intra-operative complications or events were noted. Operative techniques included gentle subfrontal retraction and elevation of the olfactory tracts (while preserving the relationship between the olfactory bulb and cribriform plate) to insert SD grids across the midline for coverage of the contralateral orbito-frontal regions. Trans-falcine approaches involved accessing the inter-hemispheric space, bipolar cauterization of the anterior falx cerebri below the superior sagittal sinus, and sharp dissection using a blunt elevator and small blade scalpel. The falcine window allowed contralateral SD strip, grid, and depth electrodes to be inserted for coverage of the contralateral frontal regions. The study cohort included seven patients undergoing sub-frontal and/or trans-falcine insertion of contralateral SD strip, grid, and/or depth electrodes from February 2012 through June 2015. Five

  3. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati


    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  4. Strategic Polarization. (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud


    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. The Human Frontal Lobes and Frontal Network Systems: An Evolutionary, Clinical, and Treatment Perspective (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael


    Frontal lobe syndromes, better termed as frontal network systems, are relatively unique in that they may manifest from almost any brain region, due to their widespread connectivity. The understandings of the manifold expressions seen clinically are helped by considering evolutionary origins, the contribution of the state-dependent ascending monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems, and cerebral connectivity. Hence, the so-called networktopathies may be a better term for the syndromes encountered clinically. An increasing array of metric tests are becoming available that complement that long standing history of qualitative bedside assessments pioneered by Alexander Luria, for example. An understanding of the vast panoply of frontal systems' syndromes has been pivotal in understanding and diagnosing the most common dementia syndrome under the age of 60, for example, frontotemporal lobe degeneration. New treatment options are also progressively becoming available, with recent evidence of dopaminergic augmentation, for example, being helpful in traumatic brain injury. The latter include not only psychopharmacological options but also device-based therapies including mirror visual feedback therapy. PMID:23577266

  6. An orbital fistula complicating anaerobic frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); H.J.F. Peeters; G.M. Bleeker


    textabstractA patient is described with an orbital fistula complicating frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. The fistula was excised, but a fortnight later an acute exacerbation occurred. From the discharging pus a Staphylococcus aureus was cultured and from mucosa obtained

  7. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and ventromedial frontal lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irle, E; Exner, C; Thielen, K


    on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Subjects with lesions of the dorsolateral frontal convexity also showed memory problems, attentional slowing, and lower performance IQ. CONCLUSIONS: Restricted ventromedial frontal leukotomy should be discussed as a last-resort treatment for severe and refractory OCD...

  8. Case Report: Frontal lobe tuberculoma: A clinical and imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pediatric nervous system tuberculomas are usually infra-tentorial and multiple. A frontal lobe location is rare. Case Details: We report a 10 year-old boy who presented with a chronic headache and episodes of loss of consciousness. He had no signs of primary pulmonary tuberculosis and a diagnosis of frontal ...

  9. Post-Traumatic Pneumocele of the Frontal Sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadag, Demet; Calisir, Cuneyt; Adapinar, Baki [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan)


    A pneumocele is an abnormal dilatation of a paranasal sinus, most commonly affecting the frontal sinus. Although the etiology of pneumocele is not entirely known, several causative factors have been suggested including trauma, surgery, tumor and infection. We report here a case of post-traumatic pneumocele of the frontal sinus following a head trauma.

  10. Minimally invasive approach for lesions involving the frontal sinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional open surgery for frontal sinus pathology and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks is complex and involves a craniotomy. Minimally invasive options offer an alternate solution. We describe and assess the outcome of a minimally invasive approach for lesions and defects involving the frontal sinus.

  11. Non-frontal Model Based Approach to Forensic Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan


    In this paper, we propose a non-frontal model based approach which ensures that a face recognition system always gets to compare images having similar view (or pose). This requires a virtual suspect reference set that consists of non-frontal suspect images having pose similar to the surveillance

  12. Structural characteristics around the frontal thrust along the Nankai Trough revealed by bathymetric and seismic reflection survey (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Nakanishi, A.; Moore, G. F.; Kodaira, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Miura, S.; Kaneda, Y.


    Great earthquakes with tsunamis with recurrence intervals of 100-200 years have occurred along the Nankai Trough near central Japan where the Shikoku Basin is subducting with thick sediments on the Philippine Sea plate. To predict the exact height of the tsunami on the coast region generated by these large ruptures, it is important to estimate the vertical deformation that occurs on the seaward end of the rupture area. Recent drilling results have also yielded evidence not only of splay faults that generate tsunamigenic rupture, but also new evidence of tsunamigenic rupture along the frontal thrust at the trench axis in the Nankai Trough. In order to understand the deformation around the frontal thrust at the trench axis, we conducted a dense high-resolution seismic reflection survey with 10-20 km spacing over 1500 km of line length during 2013 and 2014. Clear seismic reflection images of frontal thrusts in the accretionary prism and subducting Shikoku Basin, image deformation along the trench axis between off Muroto Cape and off Ashizuri Cape. The cumulative displacement along the frontal thrust and second thrust are measured from picked distinct reflectors in depth-converted profiles. The average value of cumulative displacement of the frontal thrust is more than 100 m within 2 km depth beneath the seafloor. The location of highest displacement of 300 m displacement agree with the seaward end of slip distribution of the 1946 Nankai event calculated by numerical simulations. We also evaluate the seaward structure for understanding the future rupture distribution. The protothrust zone (PTZ) consisting of many incipient thrusts is identifiable in the portion of trough-fill sediments seaward of the frontal thrust. In order to emphasize the characteristics of frontal thrust and PTZ, we construct the detailed relief image for focusing on the lineated slope of the PTZ at the trough axis. Although our surveys covered a part of Nankai seismogenic zone, it is important to

  13. Neural network underlying ictal pouting ("chapeau de gendarme") in frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Souirti, Zouhayr; Landré, Elisabeth; Mellerio, Charles; Devaux, Bertrand; Chassoux, Francine


    In order to determine the anatomical neural network underlying ictal pouting (IP), with the mouth turned down like a "chapeau de gendarme", in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), we reviewed the video-EEG recordings of 36 patients with FLE who became seizure-free after surgery. We selected the cases presenting IP, defined as a symmetrical and sustained (>5s) lowering of labial commissures with contraction of chin, mimicking an expression of fear, disgust, or menace. Ictal pouting was identified in 11 patients (8 males; 16-48 years old). We analyzed the clinical semiology, imaging, and electrophysiological data associated with IP, including FDG-PET in 10 and SEEG in 9 cases. In 37 analyzed seizures (2-7/patient), IP was an early symptom, occurring during the first 10s in 9 cases. The main associated features consisted of fear, anguish, vegetative disturbances, behavioral disorders (sudden agitation, insults, and fighting), tonic posturing, and complex motor activities. The epileptogenic zone assessed by SEEG involved the mesial frontal areas, especially the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in 8 patients, whereas lateral frontal onset with an early spread to the ACC was seen in the other patient. Ictal pouting associated with emotional changes and hypermotor behavior had high localizing value for rostroventral "affective" ACC, whereas less intense facial expressions were related to the dorsal "cognitive" ACC. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography demonstrated the involvement of both the ACC and lateral cortex including the anterior insula in all cases. We propose that IP is sustained by reciprocal mesial and lateral frontal interactions involved in emotional and cognitive processes, in which the ACC plays a pivotal role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Statistical parametric mapping for analyzing interictal magnetoencephalography in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao; Zhu, Jinlong; Bao, Forrest Sheng; Liu, Hongyi; Zhu, Xuchuang; Wu, Ting; Yang, Lu; Zou, Yuanjie; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Gang


    Frontal lobe epilepsy is a common epileptic disorder and is characterized by recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes. The purpose of this study is to identify the epileptogenic regions and other abnormal regions in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy (LFLE) based on the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), and to understand the effects of clinical variables on brain activities in patients with LFLE. Fifteen patients with LFLE (23.20 ± 8.68 years, 6 female and 9 male) and 16 healthy controls (23.13 ± 7.66 years, 6 female and 10 male) were included in resting-stage MEG examinations. Epileptogenic regions of LFLE patients were confirmed by surgery. Regional brain activations were quantified using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The correlation between the activations of the abnormal brain regions and the clinical seizure parameters were computed for LFLE patients. Brain activations of LFLE patients were significantly elevated in left superior/middle/inferior frontal gyri, postcentral gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, insula, parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala, including the epileptogenic regions. Remarkable decreased activations were found mainly in the left parietal gyrus and precuneus. There is a positive correlation between the duration of the epilepsy (in month) and activations of the abnormal regions, while no relation was found between age of seizure onset (year), seizure frequency and the regions of the abnormal activity of the epileptic patients. Our findings suggest that the aberrant brain activities of LFLE patients were not restricted to the epileptogenic zones. Long duration of epilepsy might induce further functional damage in patients with LFLE. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trauma of the Frontal Region Is Influenced by the Volume of Frontal Sinuses. A Finite Element Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srbislav S. Pajic


    Full Text Available Anatomy of frontal sinuses varies individually, from differences in volume and shape to a rare case when the sinuses are absent. However, there are scarce data related to influence of these variations on impact generated fracture pattern. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of frontal sinus volume on the stress distribution and fracture pattern in the frontal region. The study included four representative Finite Element models of the skull. Reference model was built on the basis of computed tomography scans of a human head with normally developed frontal sinuses. By modifying the reference model, three additional models were generated: a model without sinuses, with hypoplasic, and with hyperplasic sinuses. A 7.7 kN force was applied perpendicularly to the forehead of each model, in order to simulate a frontal impact. The results demonstrated that the distribution of impact stress in frontal region depends on the frontal sinus volume. The anterior sinus wall showed the highest fragility in case with hyperplasic sinuses, whereas posterior wall/inner plate showed more fragility in cases with hypoplasic and undeveloped sinuses. Well-developed frontal sinuses might, through absorption of the impact energy by anterior wall, protect the posterior wall and intracranial contents.

  16. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Z. Ramsøy


    Full Text Available Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure—the prefrontal gamma asymmetry—was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  17. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay. (United States)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K; Stahlhut, Carsten


    Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation-the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex-would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure-the prefrontal gamma asymmetry-was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  18. Wheelchair caster loading during frontal impact. (United States)

    Bertocci, Gina E; van Roosmalen, Linda


    Many wheelchair users are required or choose to use their wheelchairs as a motor vehicle seat during transport. It is therefore key that the wheelchair components be designed to tolerate crash-level loading conditions. Casters are particularly prone to failure under crash loading conditions. Our study evaluated wheelchair caster loading during 20g/48 kph frontal sled impact testing using an 85-kg surrogate wheelchair base (SWCB) with casters positioned on a load-measuring platform. A Hybrid III 50th percentile male test dummy was seated in the SWCB, which simulated a power wheelchair and was secured using four-point tiedowns. Various rear securement point heights and wheelchair seating systems were used to study their effect on caster loading. Caster normal loading was found to vary from 769 to 7,209 N depending on rear securement location and integrity of the seating system. Dynamic sled impact test results showed that normal loading of the front wheelchair casters was influenced by wheelchair seating system integrity and rear wheelchair securement height. Shear loading varied from 781 to 1,589 N and did not appear to be dependent on seat integrity or rear securement height. The load/time histories measured during dynamic impact testing can be used to guide the development of transit-safe caster design.

  19. Precessing deuteron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.; Volkov, V.I.; Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M.; Plis, Yu.A.


    The feasibility of the acceleration in the Nuclotron of deuterons polarized in the horizontal plane is considered. This horizontal polarization is named precessing polarization. The effects of the main magnetic field and synchrotron oscillations are included. The precessing polarization is supposed to be used in studying the polarization parameters of the elastic dp back-scattering and other experiments

  20. Cirurgia de osteoma de seio frontal Surgery of frontal sinus osteoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Pessoa de Oliveira Fobe


    Full Text Available Os osteomas do seio frontal correspondem a 57% dos osteomas dos seios paranasais, com incidência variando de 0,01% a 3%. A remoção cirúrgica nos osteomas frontais é indicada nos pacientes sintomáticos. Nos pacientes assintomáticos pode-se adotar a conduta conservadora ou cirúrgica em todos os pacientes independente da sua localização ou extensão. Cinco pacientes com diagnóstico de osteoma de seio frontal foram operados entre 1995 e 1999. A idade média foi 38,4 anos (extremos de 12 a 55 anos, sendo 3 homens e 2 mulheres. O período de sintomatologia variou de 6 meses a 3 anos com média de 10,5 meses. Quatro pacientes apresentaram cefaléia. Um paciente apresentou epistaxe. Os exames complementares realizados foram: radiografia simples e tomografia computadorizada de seios paranasais com cortes axiais e coronais. Em dois pacientes o diâmetro do osteoma foi maior que 3 cm, e menor que 3 cm em três. A decisão da técnica cirúrgica entre coronal e supraciliar foi estética, reservando-se a abordagem supraciliar para um paciente com calvície, apesar do tumor ser volumoso com extensão para seio etmoidal. Nenhuma dificuldade técnica intra-operatória foi atribuída à escolha da abordagem. O óstio nasofrontal não foi obstruído no intra-operatório. O seguimento pós-operatório mínimo foi de dois anos. Em todos os casos a remoção foi total sem recidiva ou resíduos tumorais. Os sintomas clínicos, achados radiológicos e abordagens cirúrgicas são discutidos. Não ocorreram complicações pós-operatórias.Frontal sinus osteomas are 57% of all paranasal sinus osteomas, with an incidence of 00.1 to 3%. Surgical removal of the frontal sinus osteomas is done in symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients can be managed conservatively or submitted to surgery in spite of its location or extension. Five patients having the diagnosis of frontal sinus osteoma were operated on between 1995 and 1999. Medium age was 38.4 years (from 12

  1. Polare maskuliniteter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Anne Hauan


    Full Text Available In this paper my aim is to read and understand the journal of Gerrit de Veer from the last journey of William Barents to the Arctic Regions in 1596 and the journal of captain Junge on his hunting trip from Tromsø to Svalbard in 1834.It is nearly 240 years between this to voyages. The first journal is known as the earliest report from the arctic era. Gerrit de Veer adds instructive copper engravings to his text and give us insight in the crews meeting with this new land. Captain Junges journal is found together with his dead crew in a house in a fjord nearby Ny-Ålesund and has no drawings, but word. Both of these journals may be read as sources of the knowledge and understanding of the polar region. They might also unveil the ideas of how to deal with and survive under the challenges that is given. In addition one can ask if the sources can tell us more about how men describe their challenges. Can the way they expressed themselves in the journals give us an understanding of masculinity? And not least help us to create good questions of the change in the ideas of masculinities which is said to follow the change in understanding of the wilderness.

  2. Analisis Penyerapan Energi Crash Box Pola Origami pada Pengujian Frontal Impact Posisi Angular Frontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redi Bintarto


    Full Text Available In the car, the body structure is designed in such a way so as to transfer and absorb energy. This serves to minimize the result of this accident related to kinetic energy. This needs a system to absorb the kinetic energy maximally, so as a result of a frontal collision events that can be reduced optimally and kinetic energy can be absorbed by a front body structure. Devices used for absorbing kinetic energy in the car is usually called a crash box, which is located between the main structure and bumper. Crash Box generally tubular thin shaped. It has been a lot of research about the crash box. In this study using crash box origami patterns and using methods taguchi orthogonal array L9 (34. AA7003-T7 aluminum material modeled as bilinear isotropic hardening, the loading method is Frontal Impact Frontal Angular Position with impact angles of 5, 15 and 30 degree by using the finite element software simulation methods. The simulation results showed that the crash box in the lowest possible energy absorption were happened at crash box with 5 degree, with 683 153 Joule energy absorbsion. The highest result was happened to crash box number 5 with the results of 3,140.778 Joule. Lowest absorption on impact of 15 degree and 30 degree were happened to crash box number 1 and number 3 with a value of 245 685 Joule and 174 845 Joule, while the highest absorption at mumber 3 with each value 1,708.521 Joule and 1,750.872 Joule.

  3. Neural substrates of semantic relationships: common and distinct left-frontal activities for generation of synonyms vs. antonyms. (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeon-Ae; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Young-Bo; Cho, Zang-Hee


    Synonymous and antonymous relationships among words may reflect the organization and/or processing in the mental lexicon and its implementation in the brain. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is employed to compare brain activities during generation of synonyms (SYN) and antonyms (ANT) prompted by the same words. Both SYN and ANT, when compared with reading nonwords (NW), activated a region in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA 46). Neighboring this region, there was a dissociation observed in that the ANT activation extended more anteriorly and laterally to the SYN activation. The activations in the left middle frontal gyrus may be related to mental processes that are shared in the SYN and ANT generations, such as engaging semantically related parts of mental lexicon for the word search, whereas the distinct activations unique for either SYN or ANT generation may reflect the additional component of antonym retrieval, namely, reversing the polarity of semantic relationship in one crucial dimension. These findings suggest that specific components in the semantic processing, such as the polarity reversal for antonym generation and the similarity assessment for synonyms, are separately and systematically laid out in the left-frontal cortex.

  4. Frontal Dynamics of Powder Snow Avalanches (United States)

    Louge, M. Y.; Carroll, C. S.; Turnbull, B.


    We model the dynamics of the head of dilute powder snow avalanches sustained by a massive frontal blow-out, arising as a weakly cohesive snow cover is fluidized by the very pore pressure gradients that the avalanche induces within the snow pack. Such material eruption just behind the front acts as a source of denser fluid thrust into a uniform ambient air flow at high Reynolds number. In such "eruption current", fluidization depth is inversely proportional to a bulk Richardson number representing avalanche height. By excluding situations in which the snow cover is not fluidized up to its free surface, we derive a criterion combining snow pack friction and density indicating which avalanches can produce a sustainable powder cloud. A mass balance involving snow cover and powder cloud sets avalanche height and mean density. By determining which solution of the mass balance is stable, we find that avalanches reach constant growth and acceleration rates for fixed slope and avalanche width. Under these conditions, we calculate the fraction of the fluidized cover that is actually scoured and blown-out into the cloud, and deduce from a momentum balance on the head that the avalanche accelerates at a rate only 14% of the gravitational component along the flow. We also calculate how far a powder cloud travels until its mean density becomes constant. Finally, we show that the dynamics of powder snow avalanches are crucially affected by the rate of change of their width, for example by reaching an apparent steady speed as their channel widens. If such widening is rapid, or if slope inclination vanishes, we calculate where and how powder clouds collapse. Predictions agree well with observations of powder snow avalanches carried out at the Vallee de la Sionne (Switzerland).

  5. Alteraciones de memoria en daño cerebral frontal


    Vega Rodríguez, Irene de la; Noreña, David de


    El córtex frontal está implicado en importantes procesos de memoria, pero tiene un papel diferente al de las estructuras temporales y diencefálicas mediales. Mientras que el daño en estas estructuras produce una grave amnesia anterógrada, en el daño frontal se manifiestan una serie de problemas y distorsiones concretas como las fabulaciones, la amnesia de la fuente, el déficit de memoria prospectiva o las alteraciones en el recuerdo libre. El lóbulo frontal no está implicado en el almacenamie...

  6. Landforms along transverse faults parallel to axial zone of folded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 1. Landforms along transverse faults parallel to axial zone of folded mountain front, north-eastern Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, India. Khayingshing ... Keywords. Himalayan Frontal Thrust; outer Kumaun Himalaya; transverse structure; folded mountain front.

  7. [Effects of blokade of the dopaminergic D1/D2 receptors on the single and network neuronal activity in the frontal and visual cortices and behavior of cats]. (United States)

    Kuleshova, E P; Zaleshin, A V; Sidorina, V V; Merzhanova, G Kh


    The results obtained at the levels of single and network neuronal activity in the frontal and visual cortices of cats with different types of behavior revealed features of activity of these structures in normal conditions and after local introductions of antagonists of DI/D2 receptors (SCH23390 and raclopride) into the n. accumbens and frontal cortex. Under the influence of the antagonists, long-latency reactions were characterized by a significant increase in the average frequency of neuronal activity in the frontal cortex, whereas in the visual cortex the average frequency decreased as compared to norm. At the same time, the network activity of the same neurons in the frontal cortex did not change but weakened in the visual cortex, which was expressed in a reduction of the number of neuronal interactions within the visual cortex and between the neurons of the frontal and visual cortices. Normally, during the long-latency conditioned reactions, the average frequency of single neuronal activity and the rate of neuronal interactions in the structures under study were significantly higher as compared to the loss of conditioned reactions. Administration of the dopamine antagonists did not change these features. The results suggest different dopamine modulations of the network activity of the cortical zones under study during the conditioned performance, which is expressed in responsiveness of the cortical projection of a trigger signal (the visual cortex) and visual-frontal networks generated in the course of training.

  8. Frontal Lobe Decortication (Frontal Lobectomy with Ventricular Preservation) in Epilepsy-Part 1: Anatomic Landmarks and Surgical Technique. (United States)

    Wen, Hung Tzu; Da Róz, Leila Maria; Rhoton, Albert L; Castro, Luiz Henrique Martins; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen


    An extensive frontal resection is a frequently performed neurosurgical procedure, especially for treating brain tumor and refractory epilepsy. However, there is a paucity of reports available regarding its surgical anatomy and technique. We sought to present the anatomic landmarks and surgical technique of the frontal lobe decortication (FLD) in epilepsy. The goals were to maximize the gray matter removal, spare primary and supplementary motor areas, and preserve the frontal horn. The anatomic study was based on dissections performed in 15 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads. The clinical experience with 15 patients is summarized. FLD consists of 5 steps: 1) coagulation and section of arterial branches of lateral surface; 2) paramedian subpial resection 3 cm ahead of the precentral sulcus to reach the genu of corpus callosum; 3) resection of gray matter of lateral surface, preserving the frontal horn; 4) removal of gray matter of basal surface preserving olfactory tract; 5) removal of gray matter of the medial surface under the rostrum of corpus callosum. The frontal horn was preserved in all 15 patients; 12 patients (80%) had no complications; 2 patients presented temporary hemiparesis; and 1 Rasmussen syndrome patient developed postoperative fever. The best seizure control was in cases with focal magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities limited to the frontal lobe. FLD is an anatomy-based surgical technique for extensive frontal lobe resection. It presents reliable anatomic landmarks, selective gray matter removal, preservation of frontal horn, and low complication rate in our series. It can be an alternative option to the classical frontal lobectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mineralización de talco asociada a los cuerpos ultramáficos de la Faja del Río de Las Tunas, Cordillera Frontal de Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargiulo, María Florencia


    Full Text Available Talc mineralization related to the ultramafic bodies of the Río de Las Tunas belt, Frontal Cordillera of Mendoza province. This contribution shows the main characteristics of the talc mineralization related to the Río de Las Tunas ultramafic bodies in the Salamanca Mining District, Frontal Cordillera of Mendoza province. According to the parageneses defined on the studied samples, three generations of talc were established: 1º crystallized in metaperidotites and related to the prograde stage of the regional metamorphism; 2º crystallized inreaction zones (mostly in the talc zone developed at the boundary between metaperidotites and their country-rocks.These reaction zones evidence a metasomatic process due to geochemical gradient between the ultramafic body and their country-rocks. This process was developed during the retrogression of the regional metamorphic cycle. 3º Talc present in shear-zones that cut across the ultramafic bodies. The extreme serpentinization of the ultramaficbodies is concentrated in shear-zones where the serpentine is subsequently replaced by talc ± carbonates related with a hydrothermal stage. Aqueous fluids relatively enriched in CO2 flowed through these shear-zones causing the cease of serpentine formation favoring the talc and/or carbonates. Mined talc deposits are those in shear zones and reaction zones. They are mostly industrial-, asbestine- or talcschist-type. The talc related to the hydrothermal stage can locally reach first and extra qualities.

  10. Determination of frontal offset test conditions based on crash data (United States)


    This paper reports on the test procedure development : phase of the agencys Improved Frontal Protection : research program. It is anticipated that even after all cars : and light trucks have air bags for drivers and front seat : passengers there w...

  11. Right-frontal cortical asymmetry predicts increased proneness to nostalgia. (United States)

    Tullett, Alexa M; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Inzlicht, Michael


    Nostalgia is often triggered by feelings-such as sadness, loneliness, or meaninglessness-that are typically associated with withdrawal motivation. Here, we examined whether a trait tendency to experience withdrawal motivation is associated with nostalgia proneness. Past work indicates that baseline right-frontal cortical asymmetry is a neural correlate of withdrawal-related motivation. We therefore hypothesized that higher baseline levels of right-frontal asymmetry would predict increased proneness to nostalgia. We assessed participants' baseline levels of frontal cortical activity using EEG. Results supported the hypothesis and demonstrated that the association between relative right-frontal asymmetry and increased nostalgia remained significant when controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Overall, these findings indicate that individuals with a stronger dispositional tendency to experience withdrawal-related motivation are more prone to nostalgia. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. [Morphometric vectorial method of analysis of the frontal sinuses]. (United States)

    Iordan, A; Ulmeanu, D


    The frontal sinuses are pneumatic cavities located in the thickness of the squama frontalis, which communicate with the nasal cavity through the frontonasal duct. These cavities develop by the pneumatisation extent of some anterior ethmoidal cells. Morphologically, there is a large variability of the frontal sinus shape, size and extent, the position of the intersinusal septum, the existence and number of intrasinusal septa. There exist morphologically atypical frontal sinuses as: uni- or bilateral frontal sinuses aplasia, supernumerary sinuses, great extent of the cavities. Paranasal sinuses can be explored by different methods, but the most accessible and easy to perform is conventional radiological imaging. The radiographs can be morphometrically assessed in order to prove the individuality of these air cavities.

  13. Frontal parosteal lipoma with thickening of diploic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Morishita


    Full Text Available Parosteal lipoma is a rare benign tumor that is composed mainly of benign mature lipocytes, and it has an intimate association with the underlying affected bone. Parosteal lipoma involving the head and neck is very rare, and there are only two reported cases of parosteal lipoma of the skull in English literature. This paper reports a rare case of frontal parosteal lipoma in a young child with a hard enlargement of the forehead region after blunt trauma. Computed tomography revealed a large soft tissue mass and an osseous projection of the unilateral frontal bone. The pathology report identified lipoma and thickening of diploic space of the frontal bone. Here, we present a new case of parosteal lipoma in the frontal region.

  14. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Dirlikov


    Conclusions: These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD.

  15. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin


    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  16. Polar Biomedical Research: An Assessment. Appendix. Polar Medicine - A Literature Review. (United States)


    maneuvers rather than physiologic adaptation.8 5,150,151 m-- Pathologic Changes during Polar Life Life in the polar zones entails increased risks for diseases ...patient. Protein- calorie malnutrition (as in starvation,535 ,601 ,6 02 celiac sprue,6 03 or anorexia nervosa6 04 ) leads to decreased calorigenesis. In...determinations during hypothermia have not been establishedt thus the consequences of alterations of blood gases is unclear. There is same evidence, however

  17. Giant cell tumor of the frontal sinus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matushita, Joao Paulo, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas; Matushita, Julieta S.; Matushita Junior, Joao Paulo Kawaoka [Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem Dr. Matsushita, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Matushita, Cristina S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho; Simoes, Luiz Antonio Monteiro; Carvalho Neto, Lizando Franco de


    The authors report the case of a giant cell tumor of the frontal sinus in a 54-year-old male patient. This tumor location is rare, and this is the third case reported in the literature with radiographic documentation and histopathological confirmation. The patient underwent surgery, with curettage of frontal sinus and placement of a prosthesis. He died because a voluntary abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids. (author)

  18. Frontal Lobe Tuberculoma: A Clinical and Imaging Challenge


    Alemayehu, Tinsae; Ergete, Wondwossen; Abebe, Workeabeba


    Background Pediatric nervous system tuberculomas are usually infra-tentorial and multiple. A frontal lobe location is rare. Case Details We report a 10 year-old boy who presented with a chronic headache and episodes of loss of consciousness. He had no signs of primary pulmonary tuberculosis and a diagnosis of frontal tuberculoma was made upon a post-operative biopsy. He improved following treatment with anti-tubercular drugs. Conclusion Tuberculosis should be considered in children with a chr...

  19. Unfamiliar Face Matching With Frontal and Profile Views. (United States)

    Kramer, Robin S S; Reynolds, Michael G


    Research has systematically examined how laboratory participants and real-world practitioners decide whether two face photographs show the same person or not using frontal images. In contrast, research has not examined face matching using profile images. In Experiment 1, we ask whether matching unfamiliar faces is easier with frontal compared with profile views. Participants completed the original, frontal version of the Glasgow Face Matching Test, and also an adapted version where all face pairs were presented in profile. There was no difference in performance across the two tasks, suggesting that both views were similarly useful for face matching. Experiments 2 and 3 examined whether matching unfamiliar faces is improved when both frontal and profile views are provided. We compared face matching accuracy when both a frontal and a profile image of each face were presented, with accuracy using each view alone. Surprisingly, we found no benefit when both views were presented together in either experiment. Overall, these results suggest that either frontal or profile views provide substantially overlapping information regarding identity or participants are unable to utilise both sources of information when making decisions. Each of these conclusions has important implications for face matching research and real-world identification development.

  20. Athletes in a Slump: Neurophysiological Evidence from Frontal Theta Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingu Kim


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the neurophysiological differences in athletes who suffer from a slump and other athletes who do not. Eighteen high school student athletes participated in this experiment. A subjective questionnaire was conducted to identify athletes in a slump (i.e., the slump group and not in a slump (i.e., the no-slump group. EEG data was recorded at 4 regions (left prefrontal, right prefrontal, left frontal, and right frontal. A two-way (2 groups x 4 regions ANOVA was performed on the dependent variable (i.e., frontal theta power. The findings of this study demonstrated that participants in the no-slump group showed higher frontal theta activity than their counterparts in the slump group. From the findings of this study, it is suggested that mental fatigue may cause low frontal theta activity in athletes who experience a slump. The present study makes an important contribution to the current literature by being the first to report that EEG theta power over frontal regions can be used as a marker of athletes suffering from a slump.

  1. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  2. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  3. Frontal sinus fractures: report of one case and review of literature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The frontal sinus is a bilateral asymmetric and pyramidal structure located in the frontal bone. It is absent at birth. The frontal sinus is extremely resilient to injury. However, high velocity impacts such as motor vehicle accidents and assaults can result in frontal sinus fractures. Such high velocity impacts lead to aesthetic ...

  4. Recurrent meningitis and frontal encephalocele as delayed complications of craniofacial trauma. (United States)

    Gumussoy, Murat; Ugur, Omer; Cukurova, Ibrahim; Uluyol, Sinan


    Frontal sinus back table fractures are seen rarely; also, typical presentation of frontal sinus encephalocele as a delayed complication of frontal sinus fracture is seen more rarely. We present a case of frontal encephalocele and recurrent meningitis as delayed complications of craniofacial trauma. Diagnosis, management, and treatment approaches of these complications are discussed.

  5. Frontal lobe atrophy of the brain in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Tomio


    Reported here are the CT findings on cerebral atrophic lesion chiefly developed in the frontal lobe in schizophrenics with unusual organic encephalopathy. Encephalopathy was recognized in 84 (73%) of 115 schizophrenics and 13 (33%) of 40 neurotics. In an attempt to exclude the effects of aging on encephalopathy, the ages at CT and at the development of disease, the number of morbid years, subtypical schizophrenia and relation between the clinical severity and the atrophic condition were comparatively studied. As a result, cerebral atrophy tended to increase along with aging, but the findings differed in that atrophia classified by age covered the entire brain in general, whereas atrophia in schizophrenics was found in the frontal lobe. In particular, because of the fact that clinical severity and atrophia in the frontal lobe are high correlated and that severe atrophia is recognized even in young people, schizophrenia and atrophia in the frontal lobe are considered to be closely related to each other. It is therefore suggested that the CT findings are useful to clinicians for finding appropriate methods to deal with the prognosis of schizophrenics in their daily diagnosis and for the therapeutic prevention of encephalatrophy by stimulating the frontal lobe, thereby delaying mental deterioration. (author)

  6. The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback. (United States)

    Quaedflieg, C W E M; Smulders, F T Y; Meyer, T; Peeters, F; Merckelbach, H; Smeets, T


    Frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillations is assumed to be associated with psychopathology and individual differences in emotional responding. Brain-activity-based feedback is a promising tool for the modulation of cortical activity. Here, we validated a neurofeedback protocol designed to change relative frontal asymmetry based on individual alpha peak frequencies, including real-time average referencing and eye-correction. Participants (N = 60) were randomly assigned to a right, left or placebo neurofeedback group. Results show a difference in trainability between groups, with a linear change in frontal alpha asymmetry over time for the right neurofeedback group during rest. Moreover, the asymmetry changes in the right group were frequency and location specific, even though trainability did not persist at 1 week and 1 month follow-ups. On the behavioral level, subjective stress on the second test day was reduced in the left and placebo neurofeedback groups, but not in the right neurofeedback group. We found individual differences in trainability that were dependent on training group, with participants in the right neurofeedback group being more likely to change their frontal asymmetry in the desired direction. Individual differences in trainability were also reflected in the ability to change frontal asymmetry during the feedback. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:

  7. Case Report: A Rare Case Report of Frontal Lobe Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Nouri- Khajavi


    Full Text Available The frontal lobe syndrome is a permanent personality change disorder with characteristic clinical pictures, which followed by frontal lobes damage. Clinical picture include: Affective instability, recurrent aggressive behavior, impaired social judgment, apathy and undifferentiating or suspiciousness and paranoid ideations. According DSM-IV classification frontal lobe syndrome named personality change due to head trauma on Axis I. Herein we report a case of 46 years-old man, who has developed behavioral disturbances following head trauma, about 10 years ago. Main clinical figures in this case are apathy, avolition and, undifferentiating. Clinical pictures are constant during these 10 years. The diagnostic approach has been based on patient’s problems history which, has taken from his family, mental status examination, Neurological examination, Brain imaging and Neuropsychological assessments which related to frontal lobes function. Because of rarity & neglection due to mysterious function of frontal lobes, and also considering that personality change from previous level is prominent figure of this syndrome and also brain imaging findings, which compatible with clinical findings, with this aim, we have reported this case.

  8. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live......In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  9. Rare giant frontal sinus osteoma mimicking fibrous dysplasia. (United States)

    Exley, R P; Markey, A; Rutherford, S; Bhalla, R K


    To present the first report of a giant frontal sinus osteoma treated by excision and single-stage reconstruction with custom-made titanium cranioplasty and left orbital roof prostheses. A 31-year-old man with a history of chronic frontal sinusitis presented with a deforming, painless, midline forehead swelling of 11 years' duration, which had been treated unsuccessfully in Nigeria. Differential diagnosis included both benign and malignant bony tumours. Computerised tomography revealed a giant bony frontal sinus tumour extending beyond the sinus roof and breaching the left orbit, consistent with fibrous dysplasia. Given the extent of the tumour, open craniectomy was performed for surgical extirpation. Histological analysis identified multiple osteomas. This surgical approach achieved excellent cosmesis, with no evidence of recurrence at 12-month follow up. Forehead swelling may pose diagnostic and management dilemmas for the ENT surgeon; however, effective management is facilitated by a multidisciplinary approach.

  10. Lower trait frontal theta activity in mindfulness meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guaraci Ken Tanaka


    Full Text Available Acute and long-term effects of mindfulness meditation on theta-band activity are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal theta differences between long- and short-term mindfulness practitioners before, during, and after mindfulness meditation. Twenty participants were recruited, of which 10 were experienced Buddhist meditators. Despite an acute increase in the theta activity during meditation in both the groups, the meditators showed lower trait frontal theta activity. Therefore, we suggested that this finding is a neural correlate of the expert practitioners’ ability to limit the processing of unnecessary information (e.g., discursive thought and increase the awareness of the essential content of the present experience. In conclusion, acute changes in the theta band throughout meditation did not appear to be a specific correlate of mindfulness but were rather related to the concentration properties of the meditation. Notwithstanding, lower frontal theta activity appeared to be a trait of mindfulness practices.

  11. Dynamic statistical parametric mapping for analyzing ictal magnetoencephalographic spikes in patients with intractable frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Tanaka, Naoaki; Cole, Andrew J; von Pechmann, Deidre; Wakeman, Daniel G; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Liu, Hesheng; Madsen, Joseph R; Bourgeois, Blaise F; Stufflebeam, Steven M


    The purpose of this study is to assess the clinical value of spatiotemporal source analysis for analyzing ictal magnetoencephalography (MEG). Ictal MEG and simultaneous scalp EEG was recorded in five patients with medically intractable frontal lobe epilepsy. Dynamic statistical parametric maps (dSPMs) were calculated at the peak of early ictal spikes for the purpose of estimating the spatiotemporal cortical source distribution. DSPM solutions were mapped onto a cortical surface, which was derived from each patient's MRI. Equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) were calculated using a single-dipole model for comparison with dSPMs. In all patients, dSPMs tended to have a localized activation, consistent with the clinically determined ictal onset zone, whereas most ECDs were considered to be inappropriate sources according to their goodness-of-fit values. Analyzing ictal MEG spikes by using dSPMs may provide useful information in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy.

  12. Conventional frontal radiographs compared with frontal radiographs obtained from cone beam computed tomography. (United States)

    Nur, Metin; Kayipmaz, Saadettin; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Kilkis, Dogan; Sezgin, Omer Said


    To test the hypothesis that there is no difference between measurements performed on conventional frontal radiographs (FRs) and those performed on FRs obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. This study consisted of conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs obtained from 30 young adult patients. Twenty-three landmarks were identified on both types of cephalometric radiographs. Twenty-one widely used cephalometric variables (14 linear distances, 4 angles, and 3 ratios) were calculated. Paired t-tests were performed to compare the means of corresponding measurements on two cephalometric radiographs of the same patient. Reproducibility of measurements ranged from 0.85 to 0.99 for CBCT-constructed FRs, and from 0.78 to 0.96 for conventional FRs. A statistically significant difference was observed between conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs for all linear measurements (eurR-eurL, loR-loL, moR-moL, zygR-zygL, lapR-lapL, mxR-mxL, maR-maL, umR-umL, lmR-lmL, agR-agL, me-ans) (P .05). However, no statistically significant differences were noted between conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs for ratios and angular measurements (P > .05). The hypothesis was rejected. A difference has been noted between measurements performed on conventional FRs and those performed on CBCT-constructed FRs, particularly in terms of linear measurements.

  13. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations. (United States)

    Davies, G. R.


    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  14. Circulation and seasonal evolution of polar waters south of Australia: implications for iron fertilization of the Southern Ocean (United States)

    Trull, Tom; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Hadfield, Mark; Abraham, Edward R.

    The Southern Ocean Iron Release Experiment (SOIREE) was carried out in late summer (February 1999) south of Australia (61°S, 140°E). This region of the southern Antarctic Zone (AZ-S), between the southern branch of the Polar Front (PF) and the southern front of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (SAACF), is characterized by weak currents and is remote from the influence of sea-ice or coastal waters. The SOIREE site exhibits high nutrient concentrations year-round (phosphate, nitrate and silicate remain above 10 μM), low chlorophyll accumulations (production is complete. No increase in carbon export occurred during the SOIREE 13-day observation period. The seasonal cycles of mixed-layer development and low biomass accumulation at the SOIREE site are representative of most of the region between the PF and the SACCF, i.e. between ˜54 and ˜62°S, and to a lesser extent the Polar Frontal Zone. However, north of ˜59°S surface waters are depleted in silica by mid-summer (as occurs year-round north of the Subantarctic Front). A different response to iron fertilization is likely under these conditions, possibly the promotion of lightly silicified diatoms and non-siliceous organisms, whose ability to export carbon is uncertain. The SOIREE fertilized waters are likely to have remained at the surface in the AZ-S throughout the winter. In general, carbon sequestration by subduction of iron-enhanced biomass accumulations is unlikely south of the SAF, except in very limited regions. Moreover, intermediate water masses formed in the Southern Ocean sink with little pre-formed silicate, so that the "silica pump" is already working at close to maximal capacity. Therefore, in the absence of significant changes in community structure or algal physiology, which increase the ratio of carbon export to silicate export, increased iron supply is unlikely to increase the magnitude of carbon sequestration.

  15. Contrasting the roles of the supplementary and frontal eye fields in ocular decision making. (United States)

    Yang, Shun-Nan; Heinen, Stephen


    Single-unit recording in monkeys and functional imaging of the human frontal lobe indicate that the supplementary eye field (SEF) and the frontal eye field (FEF) are involved in ocular decision making. To test whether these structures have distinct roles in decision making, single-neuron activity was recorded from each structure while monkeys executed an ocular go/nogo task. The task rule is to pursue a moving target if it intersects a visible square or "go zone." We found that most SEF neurons showed differential go/nogo activity during the delay period, before the target intersected the go zone (delay period), whereas most FEF neurons did so after target intersection, during the period in which the movement was executed (movement period). Choice probability (CP) for SEF neurons was high in the delay period but decreased in the movement period, whereas for FEF neurons it was low in the delay period and increased in the movement period. Directional selectivity of SEF neurons was low throughout the trial, whereas that of FEF neurons was highest in the delay period, decreasing later in the trial. Increasing task difficulty led to later discrimination between go and nogo in both structures and lower CP in the SEF, but it did not affect CP in the FEF. The results suggest that the SEF interprets the task rule early but is less involved in executing the motor decision than is the FEF and that these two areas collaborate dynamically to execute ocular decisions. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Gaint frontal sinus mucocoele with intracranial extension and Orbital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On avait opéré tout de suite un défaut surgissant à partir d'os frontal à l'aide d'un acier métallique d'une longueur de 0,5mm courbé et attaché en trios couches en traves l'os infecté, l'os frontal par-dessus lequel on avait traité les tissues mou du front à travers l'occlusion primaire sur la sonde d'os (sound bone).

  17. Modeling and simulation of cars in frontal collision (United States)

    Deac, S. C.; Perescu, A.; Simoiu, D.; Nyaguly, E.; Crâştiu, I.; Bereteu, L.


    Protection of cars, mainly drivers and passengers in a collision are very important issues worldwide. Statistics given by “World Health Organization” are alarming rate of increase in the number of road accidents, most claiming with serious injury, human and material loss. For these reasons has been a continuous development of protection systems, especially car causing three quarters of all accidents. Mathematical modeling and simulation of a car behavior during a frontal collision leads to new solutions in the development of protective systems. This paper presents several structural models of a vehicle during a frontal collision and its behavior is analyzed by numerical simulation using Simulink.

  18. Polarized Moessbauer transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.


    Theoretical aspects of the emission, absorption and scattering of polarized gamma rays are reviewed for a general case of combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions; various possibilities of obtaining polarized gamma sources are described and examples are given of the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with polarized gamma rays in solving problems of solid state physics. (A.K.)

  19. The frontal structure in Drake Passage based on the data of the section in January 2010 (United States)

    Tarakanov, Roman


    The frontal structure in the region of Drake Passage is investigated on the basis of data of Absolute Dynamic Topography (ADT) of French agency CLS (DT-Global-MADT-Upd product,, and CTD- and SADCP-measurements along the hydrophysical section carried out across the passage from Smith Isl. (just to the east of the Hero F.Z.) to the Cape Horn onboard R/V "Akademik Ioffe" in January 2010. The investigation was similar to the analysis performed on the basis of data of the section carried out two weeks earlier onboard the same vessel south of Africa. Fine-jet structure of the ACC was detected in Drake Passage as well as to the south of Africa where twelve ACC jets were found. Eleven jets of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) were revealed in Drake Passage. These were five jets of the Subantarctic Current (the band of Subantarctic Front), four jets of the South Polar Current (the band of Polar Front), and two jets of the South Antarctic Current (the band of Southern ACC Front). Two jets of the South Antarctic Current were joined in a single "super-jet" according to the velocity measurements in the section. The others were manifested by the local velocity maxima in the surface layer.

  20. Oceanic fronts: transition zones for bacterioplankton community composition (United States)

    Baltar, F.; Currie, K.; Stuck, E.; Roosa, S.; Morales, S.


    Oceanic fronts are widespread mesoscale features that exist in the boundary between different water masses. Bacterioplankton (including Bacteria and Archaea) drive oceanic biogeochemical cycles, regulating the composition of Earth's atmosphere and influencing climate. Despite the recognized importance of bacterioplankton on the marine biogeochemical cycles and the ubiquitousness of fronts, the effect of frontal zones on the distribution of bacterioplankton community remains unknown. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing coupled with a high spatial resolution analysis of the physical properties of the water masses, we demonstrate strong shifts in bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) across the Subtropical Frontal Zone off New Zealand. Transition between water masses resulted in a clear modification of the dominant taxa and a significant increase in community dissimilarity. Our results, linking physical oceanography and marine molecular ecology, support the strong role of oceanic frontal zones in delimiting the distribution of bacterioplankton in the ocean, where fronts serve as clear transition zones, indicating boundaries for bacterioplankton distribution in the ocean. Owing to the widespread abundance of fronts in the marine environment, future efforts should focus on confirming their roles in demarking bacterioplankton distribution and whether they act as indicators of ecosystem process changes. This would allow a better understanding of the forces that control energy flow in the ocean as well as the cycling of compounds that influence climate change, and concomitantly building more accurate models of global biogeochemical cycles.

  1. Cyclonic entrainment of preconditioned shelf waters into a frontal eddy (United States)

    Everett, J. D.; Macdonald, H.; Baird, M. E.; Humphries, J.; Roughan, M.; Suthers, I. M.


    The volume transport of nutrient-rich continental shelf water into a cyclonic frontal eddy (entrainment) was examined from satellite observations, a Slocum glider and numerical simulation outputs. Within the frontal eddy, parcels of water with temperature/salinity signatures of the continental shelf (18-19°C and >35.5, respectively) were recorded. The distribution of patches of shelf water observed within the eddy was consistent with the spiral pattern shown within the numerical simulations. A numerical dye tracer experiment showed that the surface waters (≤50 m depth) of the frontal eddy are almost entirely (≥95%) shelf waters. Particle tracking experiments showed that water was drawn into the eddy from over 4° of latitude (30-34.5°S). Consistent with the glider observations, the modeled particles entrained into the eddy sunk relative to their initial position. Particles released south of 33°S, where the waters are cooler and denser, sunk 34 m deeper than their release position. Distance to the shelf was a critical factor in determining the volume of shelf water entrained into the eddy. Entrainment reduced to 0.23 Sv when the eddy was furthest from the shelf, compared to 0.61 Sv when the eddy was within 10 km of the shelf. From a biological perspective, quantifying the entrainment of shelf water into frontal eddies is important, as it is thought to play a significant role in providing an offshore nursery habitat for coastally spawned larval fish.

  2. Relationship between ankle frontal plane kinematics during different functional tasks. (United States)

    Donovan, Luke; Feger, Mark A


    Increased inversion following lateral ankle sprain and in patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI) is thought to contribute to recurrent injury and feelings of instability, however, there are no biomechanic assessment tools readily available to evaluate for excessive inversion prior to or following lateral ankle sprains. Before establishing a clinically useful biomechanic assessment tool, it is important to understand whether there is a relationship in the extent of ankle frontal plane motion across various tasks to help determine if one task or a combination of tasks would be most appropriate when evaluating patients. The purpose of this preliminary study was to analyze the relationship between ankle frontal plane kinematics during walking, step-down, and jump-landing tasks. Fifty-six recreationally active adults (gender=M:26;F:30, age=21.2±3.2, height=171.3±8.0cm, mass=75.6±15.4) volunteered. Main outcome measures were ankle frontal plane motion at initial contact and peak inversion during aerial phases across 3 tasks (walking, step-down, and jump-landing). Relationships between ankle frontal plane kinematics were analyzed by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r). There were strong correlations in peak inversion during the aerial phase between the step-down and walking (r=0.68; pbiomechanics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Frontal EEG Asymmetry of Mood: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Palmiero


    Full Text Available The present mini-review was aimed at exploring the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood. With respect to emotion, interpreted as a discrete affective process, mood is more controllable, more nebulous, and more related to mind/cognition; in addition, causes are less well-defined than those eliciting emotion. Therefore, firstly, the rational for the distinction between emotion and mood was provided. Then, the main frontal EEG asymmetry models were presented, such as the motivational approach/withdrawal, valence/arousal, capability, and inhibition asymmetric models. Afterward, the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood was investigated following three research lines, that is considering studies involving different mood induction procedures, dispositional mood (positive and negative affect, and mood alterations in both healthy and clinical populations. In general, results were found to be contradictory, no model is unequivocally supported regardless the research line considered. Different methodological issues were raised, such as: the composition of samples used across studies, in particular, gender and age were found to be critical variables that should be better addressed in future studies; the importance of third variables that might mediate the relationship between frontal EEG asymmetries and mood, for example bodily states and hormonal responses; the role of cognition, namely the interplay between mood and executive functions. In light of these issues, future research directions were proposed. Amongst others, the need to explore the neural connectivity that underpins EEG asymmetries, and the need to include both positive and negative mood conditions in the experimental designs have been highlighted.

  4. Apolipoprotein E gene and sporadic frontal lobe dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Stevens (Martijn); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); P. de Knijff (Peter); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); J.C. van Swieten (John); P. Heutink (Peter); C. van Broeckhoven (Christine)


    textabstractThe apolipoprotein E gene has been associated with various types of dementia. We studied the connection between the APOE gene and the risk and onset of disease in 34 patients with clinically diagnosed frontal lobe dementia (FLD) derived from a population-based study in the Netherlands. A

  5. High density scalp EEG in frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Feyissa, Anteneh M; Britton, Jeffrey W; Van Gompel, Jamie; Lagerlund, Terrance L; So, Elson; Wong-Kisiel, Lilly C; Cascino, Gregory C; Brinkman, Benjamin H; Nelson, Cindy L; Watson, Robert; Worrell, Gregory A


    Localization of seizures in frontal lobe epilepsy using the 10-20 system scalp EEG is often challenging because neocortical seizure can spread rapidly, significant muscle artifact, and the suboptimal spatial resolution for seizure generators involving mesial frontal lobe cortex. Our aim in this study was to determine the value of visual interpretation of 76 channel high density EEG (hdEEG) monitoring (10-10 system) in patients with suspected frontal lobe epilepsy, and to evaluate concordance with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional EEG, and intracranial EEG (iEEG). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 14 consecutive patients who underwent hdEEG monitoring for suspected frontal lobe seizures. The gold standard for localization was considered to be iEEG. Concordance of hdEEG findings with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional 10-20 EEG, and iEEG as well as correlation of hdEEG localization with surgical outcome were examined. hdEEG localization was concordant with iEEG in 12/14 and was superior to conventional EEG 3/14 (pfrontal epilepsy requiring localization of epileptogenic brain. hdEEG may assist in developing a hypothesis for iEEG monitoring and could potentially augment EEG source localization. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Time Ordering in Frontal Lobe Patients: A Stochastic Model Approach (United States)

    Magherini, Anna; Saetti, Maria Cristina; Berta, Emilia; Botti, Claudio; Faglioni, Pietro


    Frontal lobe patients reproduced a sequence of capital letters or abstract shapes. Immediate and delayed reproduction trials allowed the analysis of short- and long-term memory for time order by means of suitable Markov chain stochastic models. Patients were as proficient as healthy subjects on the immediate reproduction trial, thus showing spared…

  7. Charting the Maturation of the Frontal Lobe: An Electrophysiological Strategy (United States)

    Segalowitz, S. J.; Davies, Patricia L.


    Tracking the functional development of specific regions of the prefrontal cortex in children using event-related potentials (ERPs) is challenging for both technical and conceptual reasons. In this paper we outline our strategy for studying frontal lobe development and present preliminary results from children aged 7-17 years and young adults using…

  8. Relationships between foot type and dynamic rearfoot frontal plane motion. (United States)

    Chuter, Vivienne H


    The Foot Posture Index (FPI) provides an easily applicable, validated method for quantifying static foot posture. However there is limited evidence relating to the ability of the FPI to predict dynamic foot function. This study aimed to assess the relationship between dynamic rearfoot motion and FPI scores in pronated and normal foot types. 40 participants were recruited with equal numbers of pronated and normal foot types as classified by their FPI score. Three dimensional rearfoot motion was collected for each of the participants. Dynamic maximum rearfoot eversion was correlated with the total FPI score across all participants and within the normal and pronated foot types. Linear correlations were performed between components of the total FPI scores measuring frontal plane rearfoot position and maximum rearfoot eversion. The capacity of the total FPI score to predict maximum frontal plane motion of the rearfoot was investigated using linear regression analysis. The correlation between the total FPI score and maximum rearfoot eversion was strongly positive (r = 0.92, p foot type (FPI = +6 to +9) and maximum rearfoot eversion angle were more strongly positively correlated (r = 0.81, p foot type (FPI = 0 to +5) and maximum rearfoot eversion (r = 0.76, p plane rearfoot FPI score and frontal plane motion during gait were strongly positive, (r = 0.79 p foot type. Positive correlations between frontal plane rearfoot measurements and maximum rearfoot eversion suggest the FPI may identify dominant planar components of dynamic rearfoot motion and warrants further investigation.

  9. Role of Frontal Cortex in Attentional Capture by Singleton Distractors (United States)

    de Fockert, Jan W.; Theeuwes, Jan


    The role of frontal cortex in selective attention to visual distractors was examined in an attentional capture task in which participants searched for a unique shape in the presence or absence of an additional colour singleton distractor. The presence of the additional singleton was associated with slower behavioural responses to the shape target,…

  10. Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Finite element models of the head and helmet were used to study contact forces during frontal impact of the head with a rigid surface. The finite element model of the head consists of skin, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The finite element model of the helmet consists of shell and foam.

  11. Management Of Fractures Involving Anterior Wall Of Frontal Sinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nondisplaced or minimally displaced (<1-2 mm) isolated anterior table fractures can be managed conservatively with local wound care and analgesics. Patients with mildly displaced anterior table fractures do extremely well after surgical repair. We discuss the relevant anatomy of frontal sinus and management of fractures ...

  12. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia


    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest that early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present…

  13. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and ventromedial frontal lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irle, E; Exner, C; Thielen, K


    subjects who had undergone ventromedial frontal leukotomy were evaluated clinically and neuropsychologically and compared to seven well comparison OCD subjects without leukotomy. The 16 leukotomized subjects were divided into three groups according to the main lesion sites as determined by current magnetic...

  14. Anthropometrical Profiles Of The Frontal Sinus In Population Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthropometrical profiles, function and variation of frontal sinus have been poorly understood. Understanding these are important in sinus operation and in paleontology, to understand the puzzle of the meaning of the supra orbital development. In the present study radiographs of 74 males and 46 females of south east ...

  15. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the frontal bone in a teenager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadom, Nadja; Rushing, Elisabeth J.; Yaun, Amanda; Santi, Mariarita


    We report a skull chondromyxoid fibroma with symptomatic intracranial extension causing initial misdiagnosis as a psychiatric disorder in a 14-year-old child. CT performed for work-up of the patient's ''stuffy nose'' revealed a large calcified frontal bone mass with extensive intracranial growth. We present this child with the diagnosis of intracranial chondromyxoid fibroma with detailed neuroimaging and neuropathology correlations. (orig.)

  16. Video-assisted resection in benign frontal tumors. (United States)

    Guerrissi, Jorge Orlando


    Soft and osseous tumors that develop into the frontal are the most profitable with the use of video-assisted surgery, thus avoiding also a visible scar. In the Department of Plastic Surgery at Argerich Hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from 1999 to 2010, video-assisted operations were used in the treatment of 158 patients, 26 of them presented lipomas and osteomas into the frontal tissues. In all 26 patients, both local anesthesia and incisions behind the hairline were performed. Minor complications such as hematoma and transitory paresis of the frontal nerve were detected. Video-assisted technique offered both good illumination and excellent magnification that not only permits a safe anatomic dissection by means of surgical maneuvers in avascular planes but also avoids visible scars. The outcome achieved with endoscopic techniques has permitted to consider it like the first election in the surgical treatment in tumors developed into both soft and osseous tissues of the frontal area, offering more advantages than the classic approaches.

  17. Structures and morphotectonic evolution of the frontal fold–thrust ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The differential movement of the mountain front on both sides of the ramp is decipherable. 23. This is especially true ..... Further movement along the Frontal Fault deformed Siwalik sediments. Siwalik sediments ..... Poblet J and Lisle R J 2011 Kinematic evolution and structural styles of fold-and-thrust belts;. 391. Geol. Soc.

  18. The Physics of Polarization (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio


    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  19. Source reconstruction based on subdural EEG recordings adds to the presurgical evaluation in refractory frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Ramantani, Georgia; Cosandier-Rimélé, Delphine; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Maillard, Louis; Zentner, Josef; Dümpelmann, Matthias


    In presurgical investigations of refractory frontal lobe epilepsy, subdural EEG recordings offer extensive cortical coverage, but may overlook deep sources. Electrical Source Localization (ESL) from subdural recordings could overcome this sampling limitation. This study aims to assess the clinical relevance of this new method in refractory frontal lobe epilepsy associated with focal cortical dysplasia. In 14 consecutive patients, we retrospectively compared: (i) the ESL of interictal spikes to the conventional irritative and seizure onset zones; (ii) the surgical outcome of cases with congruent ESL and resection volume to cases with incongruent ESL and resection volume. Each spike type was averaged to serve as a template for ESL by the MUSIC and sLORETA algorithms. Results were superimposed on the corresponding pre and post-surgical MRI. Both ESL methods were congruent and consistent with conventional electroclinical analysis in all patients. In 7 cases, ESL identified a common deep source for spikes of different 2D localizations. The inclusion of ESL in the resection volume correlated with seizure freedom. ESL from subdural recordings provided clinically relevant results in patients with refractory frontal lobe epilepsy. ESL complements the conventional analysis of subdural recordings. Its potential in improving tailored resections and surgical outcomes should be prospectively assessed. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Emotional reactions in patients after frontal lobe stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zlatan


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Emotional reactions have been documented after tumor lesions and the other damages of the brain. The aim of this paper was to examine the correlation between frontal lobe lesions and emotional reactions in patients with stroke. Methods. The research included 118 patients after stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computed axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression (HRSA and HRSD were carried out 11-40 days after stroke. Statistic data were processed by simple linear/nonlinear regression, Cox's and the generalized linear model. Results. A higher frequency of emotional reactions, i.e. anxiety, was determined in women after stroke (p = 0.024. A negative correlation between the lesion size and the intensity of anxiety manifestations was determined (Spearman’s r = -0.297; p = 0.001. Anxiety was more frequent in patients with frontal lobe lesions in the dominant hemisphere (interaction: frontal lesion * hand dominant hemisphere, p = 0.017. Also, HRSD score values showed the tendency for lesser decline in case of greater frontal lobe lesions in relation to lesions of other regions of prosencephalon (interaction: frontal lesion * lesion area, p = 0.001. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the correlation between evolutionary younger structures of the central nervous system and emotional reactions of man. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake proper early psychopharmacotherapy in the vulnerable group of patients.

  1. Differences in the neural correlates of frontal lobe tests. (United States)

    Matsuoka, Teruyuki; Kato, Yuka; Imai, Ayu; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Keisuke; Nakamura, Kaeko; Yamada, Kei; Narumoto, Jin


    The Executive Interview (EXIT25), the executive clock-drawing task (CLOX1), and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) are used to assess executive function at the bedside. These tests assess distinct psychometric properties. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the neural correlates of the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based on magnetic resonance imaging. Fifty-eight subjects (30 with Alzheimer's disease, 10 with mild cognitive impairment, and 18 healthy controls) participated in this study. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the brain regions correlated with the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB scores. Age, gender, and years of education were included as covariates. Statistical thresholds were set to uncorrected P-values of 0.001 at the voxel level and 0.05 at the cluster level. The EXIT25 score correlated inversely with the regional grey matter volume in the left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann areas 6, 9, 44, and 45). The CLOX1 score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11) and the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40). The FAB score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6). The left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 9) and the right lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 46) were identified as common brain regions that showed association with EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based only a voxel-level threshold. The results of this study suggest that the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB may be associated with the distinct neural correlates of the frontal cortex. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  2. Polarized neutron radiography with a periscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Michael; Neubauer, Andreas; Muehlbauer, Martin; Schillinger, Burkhard; Pfleiderer, Christian; Boeni, Peter [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, E21, Garching (Germany); Calzada, Elbio, E-mail: michael.schulz@frm2.tum.d [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier Leibnitz (FRM II), Garching (Germany)


    The interaction of the magnetic moment of the neutron with magnetic fields provides a powerful probe for spatially resolved magnetisation measurements in magnetic materials. We have tested a periscope as a new type of polarizer providing neutron beams with a high polarization and a low divergence. The observed inhomogeneity of the beam caused by the waviness of the glass substrates was quantified by means of Monte-Carlo simulations using the software package McStas. The results show that beams of high homogeneity can be produced if the waviness is reduced to below 1.0{center_dot}10{sup -5} rad. Finally, it is shown that radiography with polarized neutrons is a powerful method for measuring the spatially resolved magnetisation in optically float-zoned samples of the weak itinerant ferromagnet Ni{sub 3}Al, thereby aiding the identification of the appropriate growth parameters.

  3. Polarized neutron radiography with a periscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Michael; Neubauer, Andreas; Muehlbauer, Martin; Schillinger, Burkhard; Pfleiderer, Christian; Boeni, Peter; Calzada, Elbio


    The interaction of the magnetic moment of the neutron with magnetic fields provides a powerful probe for spatially resolved magnetisation measurements in magnetic materials. We have tested a periscope as a new type of polarizer providing neutron beams with a high polarization and a low divergence. The observed inhomogeneity of the beam caused by the waviness of the glass substrates was quantified by means of Monte-Carlo simulations using the software package McStas. The results show that beams of high homogeneity can be produced if the waviness is reduced to below 1.0·10 -5 rad. Finally, it is shown that radiography with polarized neutrons is a powerful method for measuring the spatially resolved magnetisation in optically float-zoned samples of the weak itinerant ferromagnet Ni 3 Al, thereby aiding the identification of the appropriate growth parameters.

  4. Modified Cranialization and Secondary Cranioplasty for Frontal Sinus Infection after Craniotomy: Technical Note (United States)

    YOSHIOKA, Nobutaka


    Frontal sinus infection after incorrect treatment of an opened frontal sinus may require extended approaches. This article aims to introduce modified cranialization technique and secondary cranioplasty for frontal sinus infection involving the frontal sinus outflow tract after craniotomy. Eight patients with delayed onset frontal sinus infection involving frontal outflow tract after craniotomy were treated from 2008 to 2012. Debridement and cranialization involving the elimination of the frontal outflow tract was performed. Unilateral sinus cranialization combined with reduction of the non-affected contralateral sinus was carried out for the patients with unilateral sinusitis. A pericranial-frontalis muscle flap was used to separate the intracranial and extracranial spaces. Secondary cranioplasty with hydroxyapatite was performed approximately 3 months after the cranialization. The patients’ original conditions included brain tumors (n = 3), frontal sinus fractures (n = 2), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 3). The mean interval between the initial treatment and the onset of sinus infection was 23 years. The frontal sinus infection was bilateral in six cases and unilateral in two cases. Frontal sinus outflow tract was involved in sinus infection in every case. None of the patients suffered recurrent rhinogenic infections within the follow-up period (mean = 35 months) after the secondary cranioplasty. Aesthetic results were satisfactory in every case. Modified cranialization involving elimination of the frontal outflow tract is an alternative method for the patients with pathology in the frontal outflow tract after frontal craniotomy. Secondary cranioplasty provides an esthetically pleasing appearance in such cases. PMID:25169030

  5. The Frontal Lobe Score: part II: evaluation of its clinical validity. (United States)

    Wildgruber, D; Kischka, U; Fassbender, K; Ettlin, T M


    To evaluate the ability of the Frontal Lobe Score (FLS) to differentiate patients with frontal lobe lesions from those with nonfrontal lesions and normal controls. In a prospective, blind setup, the sensitivity and specificity of the Frontal Lobe Score was compared with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Stroop Test. A sample of 108 subjects (26 patients with cerebral lesions confined to the frontal lobes, 28 patients with cerebral lesions without involvement of the frontal lobes, 31 patients with mixed frontal/nonfrontal lesions, 23 controls without cerebral lesions) was examined. Frontal Lobe Score, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop Test. The Frontal Lobe Score detected pure frontal lesions with a sensitivity of 92.3%. It discriminated patients with frontal lesions from normal controls with a specificity of 100%; differentiation from patients with nonfrontal lesions was obtained with a specificity of 75.0%. For the WCST, sensitivity for detection of pure frontal lesions was 65.4%, while specificity was 60.9% compared with normal controls and 53.6% compared with nonfrontal lesions. The Stroop Test showed a sensitivity of 30.8%, a specificity compared with normal controls of 95.7% and compared with nonfrontal lesions of 92.9%. The Frontal Lobe Score has clinical usefulness for screening of effects of frontal lobe damage superior to that of the WCST and the Stroop Test.

  6. [Review] Polarization and Polarimetry (United States)

    Trippe, Sascha


    Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/γ wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astronomical masers, pulsars, galactic magnetic fields, gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and cosmic microwave background radiation.

  7. Polarization feedback laser stabilization (United States)

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.


    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  8. Polarization in Sagittarius A*


    Bower, Geoffrey C.


    We summarize the current state of polarization observations of Sagittarius A*, the compact radio source and supermassive black hole candidate in the Galactic Center. These observations are providing new tools for understanding accretion disks, jets and their environments. Linear polarization observations have shown that Sgr A* is unpolarized at frequencies as high as 86 GHz. However, recent single-dish observations indicate that Sgr A* may have strong linear polarization at frequencies higher...

  9. The role of frontal EEG asymmetry in post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, T.; Smeets, T.J.M.; Giesbrecht, T.; Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; Meijer, E.H.; Merckelbach, H.L.G.J.


    Frontal alpha asymmetry, a biomarker derived from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, has often been associated with psychological adjustment, with more left-sided frontal activity predicting approach motivation and lower levels of depression and anxiety. This suggests high relevance to

  10. Global NOAA CoastWatch Chlorophyll Frontal Product from MODIS/Aqua (NCEI Accession 0110333) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS/Aqua chlorophyll frontal products: the NOAA Okeanos operational production system produces near real-time chlorophyll frontal products (magnitude and...

  11. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip


    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  12. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.


    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  13. Erosion dynamics of powder snow avalanches - model of frontal entrainment (United States)

    Louge, Michel; Sovilla, Betty


    We analyze entrainment at the head of powder snow avalanches (PSA) behaving as an eruption current. Instead of invoking an erosion model or other fitted parameters, the analysis assumes that erosion is sustained by a massive blow-out arising as the snow cover is fluidized by the very pore pressure gradients that the avalanche induces within the snow pack. The stability of a mass balance involving snow cover and flow in the PSA's head region then sets frontal speed, height, mixed-mean density, snowpack fluidization depth, frontal impact pressure and static pressure. We show that acceleration of the front is insensitive to local slope, but effectively depends on the rate of change in cloud width. We compare predictions with data collected at the Vallee de la Sionne.

  14. Trauma in Facial Plastic Surgery: Frontal Sinus Fractures. (United States)

    Kim, Irene A; Boahene, Kofi D; Byrne, Patrick J


    The optimal management of frontal sinus fractures remains controversial. Fortunately, the severity of these injuries has diminished with more stringent auto-safety regulations, changing the treatment paradigms used to repair these injuries. Appropriate patient selection and close follow-up may allow for conservative management strategies when dealing with frontal sinus fractures, largely replacing the more morbid and invasive techniques that have been the mainstay for years. Because acute and delayed sequelae can arise after the initial injury, patients should be thoroughly counseled about the importance of follow-up and the need to seek medical care if they develop any concerning signs or symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ground-glass pattern fibrous dysplasia of frontal sinus. (United States)

    Chourmouzi, D; Psoma, E; Drevelegas, A


    The case of a 5-year-old boy with ground-glass pattern craniofacial fibrous dysplasia (FD) presenting with progressive swelling in the right frontal region is reported. The imaging findings with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are presented. The differential diagnosis with inspissated mucocele is discussed as well. Fibrous tissue could be hypo dense on CT. Post-contrast enhancement of the lesion on MRI is the key for diagnosis.

  16. [Fibrous dysplasia of the frontal sinus: a case report]. (United States)

    Keleş, Erol; Kaplama, Mehmet Erkan; Ozkara, Sule; Cobanoğlu, Bengü


    Fibrous dysplasia is a rare and indolent benign tumor of bone. Although it is a benign tumor, it has malignant transformation potential. Fibrous dysplasia can involve a single or multiple bones. The maxilla and mandible are the most common sites in the head and neck region. Paranasal sinus involvement is rare. Surgical excision is the preferred treatment of patients with symptomatic fibrous dysplasia. In this article, a 54-year-old male patient diagnosed with fibrous dysplasia of the frontal bone is presented.

  17. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, Mrc Aims; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M


    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate--predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms. Overall these

  18. Responses of primate frontal cortex neurons during natural vocal communication


    Miller, Cory T.; Thomas, A. Wren; Nummela, Samuel U.; de la Mothe, Lisa A.


    The role of primate frontal cortex in vocal communication and its significance in language evolution have a controversial history. While evidence indicates that vocalization processing occurs in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex neurons, vocal-motor activity has been conjectured to be primarily subcortical and suggestive of a distinctly different neural architecture from humans. Direct evidence of neural activity during natural vocal communication is limited, as previous studies were performed ...

  19. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD. (United States)

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Shiels Rosch, Keri; Crocetti, Deana; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H


    This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8-12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8-12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD.

  20. Analysis of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Hui


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To analyze the injuries of motorcyclists involved in fatal motorcycle frontal crashes. Methods: A survey group involving multi-discipline experts was built to randomly collect data on fatal motor-cycle frontal collision accidents that occurred in Chongqing during 2006-2010. The sampled information included medi-cal or autopsy reports, blood alcohol concentration (BAC level, helmet use, accident witness, field sketch as well as field photos. The motorcyclist injuries were scored accord-ing to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS 2005. The involved riders with a BAC level≥20 mg/ml were attributed to alco-hol use. Data were processed statistically with nonparamet-ric test via software SPSS 11.0. Results: A total of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes were sampled and further analyzed. The age of motorcy-clists enrolled in this investigation showed nominal distri-bution and the middle-aged (30-39 years occupied the high-est percentage of fatalities. There were only 14 motorcyclists (16.3% wearing helmets at the moment of collision. And 12.8% of these motorcyclist crashes were attributable to alcohol use. Impact injury was the main fatal cause, accounting for 72% of motorcyclist deaths, followed by tumbling injury (26% and run-over (2%. Respectively 84%, 22% and 19% of motorcyclists who sustained head, chest and abdominal trauma died. Extremity injury was the most frequently ob-served injury type. Conclusions: This investigation is helpful to build accident prevention programs and develop protection de-vices which may effectively mitigate injuries and prevent deaths following motorcycle frontal collision accidents. Further investigations on motorcycle collision accidents are still needed. Key words: Motorcycles; Mortality; Accidents, traffic; Wounds and injuries

  1. Semantic memory and frontal executive function during transient global amnesia.


    Hodges, J R


    To assess semantic memory and frontal executive function, two patients underwent neuropsychological testing during transient global amnesia (TGA) and after an interval of 6-8 weeks. In spite of a profound deficit in anterograde verbal and non-verbal memory, semantic memory was normal, as judged by category fluency measures, picture naming, and picture-word and picture-picture matching, and reading ability was normal. Similarly, there were no deficits on a number of tests known to be sensitive...

  2. Frontal midline theta oscillations during mental arithmetic: effects of stress


    Gärtner, Matti; Grimm, Simone; Bajbouj, Malek


    Complex cognitive tasks such as mental arithmetic heavily rely on intact, well-coordinated prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. Converging evidence suggests that frontal midline theta (FMT) oscillations play an important role during the execution of such PFC-dependent tasks. Additionally, it is well-established that acute stress impairs PFC function, and recent evidence suggests that FMT is decreased under stress. In this EEG study, we investigated FMT oscillations during a mental arithmetic tas...

  3. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the frontal bone in a teenager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Washington, DC (United States); Rushing, Elisabeth J. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Yaun, Amanda [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Washington, DC (United States); Santi, Mariarita [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Neuropathology, Washington, DC (United States)


    We report a skull chondromyxoid fibroma with symptomatic intracranial extension causing initial misdiagnosis as a psychiatric disorder in a 14-year-old child. CT performed for work-up of the patient's ''stuffy nose'' revealed a large calcified frontal bone mass with extensive intracranial growth. We present this child with the diagnosis of intracranial chondromyxoid fibroma with detailed neuroimaging and neuropathology correlations. (orig.)

  4. Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 26, 2016 ... Finite element models of the head and helmet were used to study contact forces during frontal impact of the head with a rigid surface. The finite element model of the head consists of skin, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The finite element model of the helmet consists of shell and ...

  5. Orbital Cystic Schwannoma Originating from the Frontal Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Hayashi


    Full Text Available Schwannomas of the orbit are very rare benign neoplasms. Intraorbital cystic schwannomas originating from the frontal nerve are even rarer, with only 1 case reported to date. This is most likely due to the fact that, in most cases, the origin of the orbital schwannoma cannot be identified intraoperatively. The nerve origin is usually speculated from histological examination of the specimen and the postoperative neurological deficits of the patient. Here, we present the case of a 65-year-old woman with a one-month history of exophthalmos, whose orbital cystic lesion was completely removed by microsurgical transcranial operation. Intraoperatively, the continuity between the tumor and frontal nerve was seen macroscopically, leading us to confirm the frontal nerve as an origin of the tumor, which was consistent with the postoperative neurological findings. The diagnosis of the tumor was established as schwannoma from the histological examination. As a differential diagnosis of the orbital cystic lesions, the possibility of schwannomas should be kept in mind.

  6. Relationships between foot type and dynamic rearfoot frontal plane motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuter Vivienne H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI provides an easily applicable, validated method for quantifying static foot posture. However there is limited evidence relating to the ability of the FPI to predict dynamic foot function. This study aimed to assess the relationship between dynamic rearfoot motion and FPI scores in pronated and normal foot types. Methods 40 participants were recruited with equal numbers of pronated and normal foot types as classified by their FPI score. Three dimensional rearfoot motion was collected for each of the participants. Dynamic maximum rearfoot eversion was correlated with the total FPI score across all participants and within the normal and pronated foot types. Linear correlations were performed between components of the total FPI scores measuring frontal plane rearfoot position and maximum rearfoot eversion. The capacity of the total FPI score to predict maximum frontal plane motion of the rearfoot was investigated using linear regression analysis. Results The correlation between the total FPI score and maximum rearfoot eversion was strongly positive (r = 0.92, p 2 = 0.85, p Conclusions The results of this study suggest the FPI has strong predictive ability for dynamic rearfoot function. This will assist in clinical screening and research by allowing easy classification by functional foot type. Positive correlations between frontal plane rearfoot measurements and maximum rearfoot eversion suggest the FPI may identify dominant planar components of dynamic rearfoot motion and warrants further investigation.

  7. Music increases frontal EEG coherence during verbal learning. (United States)

    Peterson, David A; Thaut, Michael H


    Anecdotal and some empirical evidence suggests that music can enhance learning and memory. However, the mechanisms by which music modulates the neural activity associated with learning and memory remain largely unexplored. We evaluated coherent frontal oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) while subjects were engaged in a modified version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Subjects heard either a spoken version of the AVLT or the conventional AVLT word list sung. Learning-related changes in coherence (LRCC) were measured by comparing the EEG during word encoding on correctly recalled trials to the immediately preceding trial on which the same word was not recalled. There were no significant changes in coherence associated with conventional verbal learning. However, musical verbal learning was associated with increased coherence within and between left and right frontal areas in theta, alpha, and gamma frequency bands. It is unlikely that the different patterns of LRCC reflect general performance differences; the groups exhibited similar learning performance. The results suggest that verbal learning with a musical template strengthens coherent oscillations in frontal cortical networks involved in verbal encoding.

  8. Frontal and striatal alterations associated with psychopathic traits in adolescents (United States)

    Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L.; Baker, Laura A.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Raine, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M.


    Neuroimaging research has demonstrated a range of structural deficits in adults with psychopathy, but little is known about structural correlates of psychopathic tendencies in adolescents. Here we examined structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data obtained from 14-year-old adolescents (n=108) using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to isolate global and localized differences in brain tissue volumes associated with psychopathic traits in this otherwise healthy developmental population. We found that greater levels of psychopathic traits were correlated with increased brain tissue volumes in the left putamen, left ansa peduncularis, right superiomedial prefrontal cortex, left inferior frontal cortex, right orbitofrontal cortex, and right medial temporal regions and reduced brain tissues volumes in the right middle frontal cortex, left superior parietal lobule, and left inferior parietal lobule. Post hoc analyses of parcellated regional volumes also showed putamen enlargements to correlate with increased psychopathic traits. Consistent with earlier studies, findings suggest poor decision-making and emotional dysregulation associated with psychopathy may be due, in part, to structural anomalies in frontal and temporal regions whereas striatal structural variations may contribute to sensation-seeking and reward-driven behavior in psychopathic individuals. Future studies will help clarify how disturbances in brain maturational processes might lead to the developmental trajectory from psychopathic tendencies in adolescents to adult psychopathy. PMID:25676553

  9. HD-tDCS in refractory lateral frontal lobe epilepsy patients. (United States)

    Karvigh, Sanaz Ahmadi; Motamedi, Mahmoud; Arzani, Mahsa; Roshan, Javad Hasan Nia


    To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of the novel high definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) method on patients with refractory lateral frontal lobe epilepsy. The effects of HD-tDCS on working memory were also examined. 10 adult patients with intractable lateral frontal lobe epilepsy were studied. A central cathode electrode was placed on the epileptogenic zone according to LTM, and 20-min sessions of 2mA HD-tDCS were applied for 10 consecutive days. The primary endpoint was to make changes in the epileptiform discharges (EDs) during a 1-h EEG. Moreover, the seizure frequency based on seizure diary and neuropsychiatric parameters was evaluated. All patients tolerated HD-tDCS stimulation course without any adverse reaction. The frequency of EDs increased immediately and one month after the stimulation course by an average of 6.4% and 1.2%, respectively. However, these changes in the EDs frequency were not statistically significant (p-value >0.05). The mean seizure frequency changes showed decrement by an average of 17.9% immediately, and increment by an average of 38.1% one month after the HD-tDCS. These changes were not significant statistically (p-value >0.05). One patient experienced exacerbation of seizures during the stimulations hence dropped out of the study. Attention and working memory improved significantly immediately and one month after the HD-tDCS in all patients. Changes of EDs and mean seizure frequency caused by HD-tDCS were not statistically significant for the whole group; however, this method could improve the patients' working memory scores. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.


    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP 4 . A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  11. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D' Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R,; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; J.; Severino, F.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.


    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP{sup 4}. A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  12. Our Polar Past (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James


    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  13. Terahertz polarization imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Van der Marel, W.A.M.; Planken, P.C.M.


    We present a new method to measure the polarization state of a terahertz pulse by using a modified electrooptic sampling setup. To illustrate the power of this method, we show two examples in which the knowledge of the polarization of the terahertz pulse is essential for interpreting the results:

  14. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.


    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  15. Polar Science Is Cool! (United States)

    Weeks, Sophie


    Children are fascinated by the fact that polar scientists do research in extremely cold and dangerous places. In the Arctic they might be viewed as lunch by a polar bear. In the Antarctic, they could lose toes and fingers to frostbite and the wind is so fast it can rip skin off. They camp on ice in continuous daylight, weeks from any form of…

  16. Case-study of the evolution of polar-cap currents and auroral electrojets during polar geomagnetic disturbances with IMS magnetometer data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, T.; Kim, J.S. (State Univ. of New York, Albany (USA). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center); Sugiura, M. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center)


    By using 1 min average data from the US-Canada IMS network stations (Alaska, east-west and Fort Churchill chains) and also standard magnetograms from stations in the polar-cap region and in the auroral zone, we have examined the development of polar-cap currents and the relationship of their development to the evolution of auroral electrojets during individual polar geomagnetic disturbances. Characteristics that have been determined are reported and discussed.

  17. Precision Polarization of Neutrons (United States)

    Martin, Elise; Barron-Palos, Libertad; Couture, Aaron; Crawford, Christopher; Chupp, Tim; Danagoulian, Areg; Estes, Mary; Hona, Binita; Jones, Gordon; Klein, Andi; Penttila, Seppo; Sharma, Monisha; Wilburn, Scott


    Determining polarization of a cold neutron beam to high precision is required for the next generation neutron decay correlation experiments at the SNS, such as the proposed abBA and PANDA experiments. Precision polarimetry measurements were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the goal of determining the beam polarization to the level of 10-3 or better. The cold neutrons from FP12 were polarized using optically polarized ^3He gas as a spin filter, which has a highly spin-dependent absorption cross section. A second ^ 3He spin filter was used to analyze the neutron polarization after passing through a resonant RF spin rotator. A discussion of the experiment and results will be given.

  18. Optically polarized 3He (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.


    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements. PMID:29503479

  19. Optically polarized 3He (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.


    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements.

  20. Parallel Polarization State Generation. (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico


    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  1. Frontal Sinus Breach During Routine Frontal Craniotomy Significantly Increases Risk of Surgical Site Infection: 10-Year Retrospective Analysis. (United States)

    Linzey, Joseph R; Wilson, Thomas J; Sullivan, Stephen E; Thompson, B Gregory; Pandey, Aditya S


    Frontotemporal craniotomies are commonly performed for a variety of neurosurgical pathologies. Infections related to craniotomies cause significant morbidity. We hypothesized that the risk of cranial surgical site infections (SSIs) may be increased in patients whose frontal sinuses are breached during craniotomy. To compare the rate of cranial SSIs in patients undergoing frontotemporal craniotomies with and without frontal sinus breach (FSB). We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing frontotemporal craniotomies for the management of cerebral aneurysms from 2005 to 2014. This study included 862 patients undergoing 910 craniotomies. Primary outcome of interest was occurrence of a cranial SSI. Standard statistical methods were utilized to explore associations between a variety of variables including FSB, cranial SSI, and infections requiring reoperation. Of the 910 craniotomies, 141 (15.5%) involved FSB. Of those involving FSB, 22 (15.6%) developed a cranial SSI, compared to only 56 of the 769 without FSB (7.3%; P = .001). Cranial SSI requiring reoperation was much more likely in patients with FSB compared to those without a breach (7.8% vs 1.6%; P craniotomies are at significantly greater risk of serious cranial SSIs if the frontal sinus has been breached. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  2. Is the frontal radiograph alone sufficient to evaluate for pneumonia in children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Strife, Janet L.; Johnson, Neil D.; Atherton, Harry D.; Kotagal, Uma R.; Pommersheim, William


    In our cost- and radiation-conscious environment, the feasibility of performing only a frontal radiograph for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children needs to be reassessed. To determine the diagnostic efficacy of the frontal radiograph alone in comparison to the frontal and lateral combined radiographs for the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia in children. Three radiologists retrospectively and independently reviewed the frontal radiographs alone and separately reviewed the frontal and lateral radiographs of 1,268 children referred from the emergency room for chest radiographs. A majority interpretation of at least two radiologists for the frontal views alone was compared with majority interpretation of the frontal and lateral combined views for the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia. ''Pneumonia'' was defined as a focus of streaky or confluent lung opacity. For the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia, the sensitivity and specificity of the frontal view alone were 85% and 98%, respectively. For the confluent lobar type of pneumonia, the sensitivity and specificity increased to 100%. When the frontal view alone yields a diagnosis of confluent lobar pneumonia, this is highly reliable. However, nonlobar types of infiltrates will be underdiagnosed in 15% of patients using the frontal view alone. The clinical impact of these radiographically underdiagnosed pneumonias needs to be assessed prior to implementing the practice of using only frontal radiographs for diagnosing pneumonia. (orig.)

  3. Polarization at the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffeit, K.C.


    The Stanford Linear collider was designed to accommodate polarized electron beams. Longitudinally polarized electrons colliding with unpolarized positrons at a center of mass energy near the Z/sup 0/ mass can be used as novel and sensitive probes of the electroweak process. A gallium arsenide based photon emission source will provide a beam of longitudinally polarized electrons of about 45 percent polarization. A system of bend magnets and a superconducting solenoid will be used to rotate the spins so that the polarization is preserved while the 1.21 GeV electrons are stored in the damping ring. Another set of bend magnets and two superconducting solenoids orient the spin vectors so that longitudinal polarization of the electrons is achieved at the collision point with the unpolarized positrons. A system to monitor the polarization based on Moller and Compton scattering will be used. Nearly all major components have been fabricated and tested. Subsystems of the source and polarimeters have been installed, and studies are in progress. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.


    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  5. Polarized scintillator targets (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.


    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as "live" polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  6. Polarized scintillator targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, B. van den E-mail:; Bunyatova, E.I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S


    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as 'live' polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  7. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)


    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  8. Intracranial EEG in predicting surgical outcome in frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Holtkamp, Martin; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R


    Surgery in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) has a worse prognosis regarding seizure freedom than anterior lobectomy in temporal lobe epilepsy. The current study aimed to assess whether intracranial interictal and ictal EEG findings in addition to clinical and scalp EEG data help to predict outcome in a series of patients who needed invasive recording for FLE surgery. Patients with FLE who had resective surgery after chronic intracranial EEG recording were included. Outcome predictors were compared in patients with seizure freedom (group 1) and those with recurrent seizures (group 2) at 19-24 months after surgery. Twenty-five patients (16 female) were included in this study. Mean age of patients at epilepsy surgery was 32.3 ± 15.6 years (range 12-70); mean duration of epilepsy was 16.9 ± 13.4 years (range 1-48). In each outcome group, magnetic resonance imaging revealed frontal lobe lesions in three patients. Fifteen patients (60%) were seizure-free (Engel class 1), 10 patients (40%) continued to have seizures (two were class II, three were class III, and five were class IV). Lack of seizure freedom was seen more often in patients with epilepsy surgery on the left frontal lobe (group 1, 13%; group 2, 70%; p = 0.009) and on the dominant (27%; 70%; p = 0.049) hemisphere as well as in patients without aura (29%; 80%; p = 0.036), whereas sex, age at surgery, duration of epilepsy, and presence of an MRI lesion in the frontal lobe or extrafrontal structures were not different between groups. Electroencephalographic characteristics associated with lack of seizure freedom included presence of interictal epileptiform discharges in scalp recordings (31%; 90%; p = 0.01). Detailed analysis of intracranial EEG revealed widespread (>2 cm) (13%; 70%; p = 0.01) in contrast to focal seizure onset as well as shorter latency to onset of seizure spread (5.8 ± 6.1 s; 1.5 ± 2.3 s; p = 0.016) and to ictal involvement of brain structures beyond the frontal lobe (23.5 ± 22.4 s; 5.8 ± 5.4 s

  9. Polarization measurement in the COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, K; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Görtz, S; Hasegawa, T; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Le Goff, J M; Magnon, A; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Matsuda, T


    Continuous wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to determine the target polarization in the COMPASS experiment. The system is made of the so-called Liverpool Q-meters, Yale-cards, and VME modules for data taking and system controlling. In 2001 the NMR coils were embedded in the target material, while in 2002 and 2003 the coils were mounted on the outer surface of the target cells to increase the packing factor of the material. Though the error of the measurement became larger with the outer coils than with the inner coils, we have performed stable measurements throughout the COMPASS run time for 3 years. The maximum polarization was +57% and -53% as the average in the target cells.

  10. Cocaine mummies and the pre-frontal reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Mark Anthony


    Full text: The scientific community frames its world with facts - facts which have been subjected to tests and apparently proven themselves and are therefore proffered by scientists to mankind as things upon which it can rely to steer it safely through life. However, facts are a moveable feast. Time and fresh minds often prove scientific 'facts' wrong. The cocaine mummies seem to indicate that 2000 years ago the Ancient Egyptians had access to both tobacco and cocaine - something previously believed impossible. One part of the German and British scientific community has proven in laboratory tests that the mummies are telling the truth. The rest of the scientific community disputes that truth'. But if the laboratory tests are right, then humanity has to rewrite its entire history. Nuclear communicators have very little credibility with the general public because they represent scientists, who not only are often proven wrong by time but also cannot agree on the truth. At the same time, there are fundamental facts about the human condition that nuclear communicators ignore - to the detriment of their message. Fact: thinking is a learned skill, not an instinct. Fact: language is a learned skill, not an instinct. For humans to follow the positive nuclear argument they must both think and also understand language. But thinking is not the brain's first choice of operation. Fact: the pre-frontal lobe of the brain is the seat of mankind's primitive emotions, including the instinct of fear and the instinct for life. The pre-frontal lobe dominates the way man thinks and speaks. Therefore, nuclear communicators have to learn the skill of mapping their messages to the pre-frontal human reality. This presentation provides practical points for that learning and message mapping exercise. (author)

  11. Functional role of frontal alpha oscillations in creativity. (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R; Foulser, A Alban; Mellin, Juliann M; Fröhlich, Flavio


    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent electroencephalography (EEG) data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a functional role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10 Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40 Hz-tACS was used instead of 10 Hz-tACS to rule out a general "electrical stimulation" effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal 40 Hz stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a frontal small overlap crashworthiness evaluation test. (United States)

    Sherwood, Christopher P; Mueller, Becky C; Nolan, Joseph M; Zuby, David S; Lund, Adrian K


    Small overlap frontal crashes are those in which crash forces are applied outboard of the vehicle's longitudinal frame rails. In-depth analyses of crashes indicate that such crashes account for a significant proportion of frontal crashes with seriously injured occupants. The objective of this research was to evaluate possible barrier crash tests that could be used to evaluate the crashworthiness of vehicles across a spectrum of small overlap crash types. Sixteen full-scale vehicle tests were conducted using 3 midsize passenger vehicles in up to 6 different test configurations, including vehicle-to-vehicle and barrier tests. All vehicles were tested at 64 km/h with an instrumented Hybrid III midsize male driver dummy. All test configurations resulted in primary loading of the wheel, suspension system, and hinge pillar. Vehicles underwent substantial lateral movement during the crash, which varied by crash configuration. The occupant compartments had significant intrusion, particularly to the most outboard structures. Inboard movement of the steering wheel in combination with outboard movement of the dummies (due to the lateral vehicle motion) caused limited interaction with the frontal air bag in most cases. When assessing overall crashworthiness (based on injury measures, structural deformation, and occupant kinematics), one vehicle had superior performance in each crash configuration. This was confirmation that the countermeasures benefiting performance in a single small overlap test also will provide a benefit in other crash configurations. Based on these test results, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety has developed a small overlap crashworthiness evaluation with the following characteristics: a rigid flat barrier with a 150-mm corner radius, 25 percent overlap, 64 km/h test speed, and a Hybrid III midsize male driver dummy.

  13. Human Frontal-Subcortical Circuit and Asymmetric Belief Updating. (United States)

    Moutsiana, Christina; Charpentier, Caroline J; Garrett, Neil; Cohen, Michael X; Sharot, Tali


    How humans integrate information to form beliefs about reality is a question that has engaged scientists for centuries, yet the biological system supporting this process is not well understood. One of the most salient attributes of information is valence. Whether a piece of news is good or bad is critical in determining whether it will alter our beliefs. Here, we reveal a frontal-subcortical circuit in the left hemisphere that is simultaneously associated with enhanced integration of favorable information into beliefs and impaired integration of unfavorable information. Specifically, for favorable information, stronger white matter connectivity within this system, particularly between the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left subcortical regions (including the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, putamen, and pallidum), as well as insular cortex, is associated with greater change in belief. However, for unfavorable information, stronger connectivity within this system, particularly between the left IFG and left pallidum, putamen, and insular cortex, is associated with reduced change in beliefs. These novel results are consistent with models suggesting that partially separable processes govern learning from favorable and unfavorable information. Beliefs of what may happen in the future are important, because they guide decisions and actions. Here, we illuminate how structural brain connectivity is related to the generation of subjective beliefs. We focus on how the valence of information is related to people's tendency to alter their beliefs. By quantifying the extent to which participants update their beliefs in response to desirable and undesirable information and relating those measures to the strength of white matter connectivity using diffusion tensor imaging, we characterize a left frontal-subcortical system that is associated simultaneously with greater belief updating in response to favorable information and reduced belief updating in response to

  14. Frontal sinus mucocele: a rare complication of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia. (United States)

    Atasoy, C; Ustüner, E; Erden, I; Akyar, S


    We present plain radiographic, computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a 25-year-old female patient with craniofacial fibrous dysplasia (FD). Although FD has a tendency to involve craniofacial bones in a unilateral fashion, the involvement was bilateral and extensive in this case. An additional feature was the presence of a frontal sinus mucocele, presumably due to the involvement of the sinus recess by the dysplastic process. This complication of the craniofacial FD has been reported very infrequently in the literature.

  15. Fibrous dysplasia of inferior turbinate, middle turbinate, and frontal sinus. (United States)

    Ozcan, K M; Akdogan, O; Gedikli, Y; Ozcan, I; Dere, H; Unal, T


    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a non-neoplastic fibro-osseous lesion. Paranasal sinus involvement is infrequent. Involvement of the frontal sinus, sphenoid sinus, and middle turbinate is rare, and only sporadic cases have been reported in the literature. Nasal turbinates and especially the inferior turbinate are the least involved bones of the craniofacial region. To the best of our knowledge, only one case with McCune-Albright syndrome had FD of the inferior turbinate. Here, we report a rare case with FD of inferior and middle turbinates and review literature concerning FD of the craniofacial region.

  16. Evidence of mirror neurons in human inferior frontal gyrus. (United States)

    Kilner, James M; Neal, Alice; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Friston, Karl J; Frith, Chris D


    There is much current debate about the existence of mirror neurons in humans. To identify mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of humans, we used a repetition suppression paradigm while measuring neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either executed or observed a series of actions. Here we show that in the IFG, responses were suppressed both when an executed action was followed by the same rather than a different observed action and when an observed action was followed by the same rather than a different executed action. This pattern of responses is consistent with that predicted by mirror neurons and is evidence of mirror neurons in the human IFG.

  17. Frontal lobe hypoperfusion in mild cognitive impairment patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, S.Q.; Chung, C.P.; Liao, Y.C.; Wang, P.N.; Lee, Y.C.; Liu, H.C.; Liu, R.S.


    Objective: Mild cognitive impairement (MCI) refers to the clinical state of individuals who are memory impaired subjectively but are functioning well and do not meet the criteria of dementia. MCI subjects have a high risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is important to detect the earliest evidence of AD for clinicians to recognize the high risk subjects and to implicate the therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the early change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in MCI with high risk of AD by SPECT. Methods: Subjects complained of memory impairment with normal cognitive function and intact daily activities were enrolled. Each patient underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT at the time of initial evaluation. Patients were followed for one to five years. The diagnosis of AD was based on the criteria of the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. There were 8 patients (4 males, 4 females; age range, 64-80 yrs; mean, 73.5 yrs) progressing to AD within one year. Ten gender and age matched normal control subjects (NC) were also included. The SPECT images were analyzed by using SPM 99. The image data were transformed into a standard stereotactic space, using a 12-parameter linear and 2x2x2 nonlinear spatial normalization with the template image. Group comparisons of the SPECT images between the 8 rapid AD converters and 10 NCs were performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using t test. The t statistics was transformed to a normal statistic yielding a Z score for every voxel. Results: In 8 rapid AD converters, rCBF in the right medial frontal gyms (Brodmann area 10; BA 10), anterior cingulated gyms (BA 32) and middle frontal gyms (BA 46) was significantly lower than in NCs (p<0.001). The neuropsychological performances of these 8 cases revealed decrement in short-term memory, mental manipulation and list-generation frequency. Conclusions: rCBF is decreased in right medial frontal, anterior cingulated and middle frontal gyms in MCI patients who

  18. Providing plastic zone extrusion (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen


    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.



    Stanislav, BELIKOV; Andrei, BOLTUNOV; Yuri, GORBUNOV


    This report presents a review of available data concerning the influence of ice cover on distribution, density and migration of three species of marine mammals inhabiting the Russian Arctic. Association of marine mammals with ice cover is as follows: (1) the polar bear is distributed in ice zone in the whole year, (2) the walrus is associated with the ice zone only in summer, and (3) the gray whale inhabits the southern area of the ice zone.

  20. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)


    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  1. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest


    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...

  2. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.


    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  3. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya


    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  4. Ultracold Polar Molecules (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0005 Ultracold Polar Molecules Jeremy Hutson UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM Final Report 04/01/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-Jan-2010 to 14-Jul-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Report on Grant FA8655-10-1-3033 on Ultracold Polar Molecules 5a...formation of ultracold 87RbCs molecules in their rovibrational ground state by magnetoassociation followed by STIRAP, resulting in 14 papers acknowledging


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. О. Gulyar


    Full Text Available There are presented experimental evidences of BIOPTRON device polarized light influence on the acupuncture points and pain locus. It is proved that PILER-light can induce analgesia which depends on the choice of the application zone, exposure and nature of pain (tonic, acute or visceral. Analgesic response has systemic character and is accompanied by participation of opioidergic nociceptive system



    S. О. Gulyar; Z. А. Tamarova


    There are presented experimental evidences of BIOPTRON device polarized light influence on the acupuncture points and pain locus. It is proved that PILER-light can induce analgesia which depends on the choice of the application zone, exposure and nature of pain (tonic, acute or visceral). Analgesic response has systemic character and is accompanied by participation of opioidergic nociceptive system

  7. Ground-Penetrating Radar Investigations along Hajipur Fault: Himalayan Frontal Thrust—Attempt to Identify Near Subsurface Displacement, NW Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed N. Malik


    Full Text Available The study area falls in the mesoseismal zone of 1905 Kangra earthquake (Mw 7.8. To identify appropriate trenching site for paleoseismic investigation and to understand the faulting geometry, ground-penetrating radar (GPR survey was conducted across a Hajipur Fault (HF2 scarp, a branching out fault of Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT in a foot hill zone of NW Himalaya. Several 2D and 3D profiles were collected using 200 MHz antenna with SIR 3000 unit. A 2D GPR profile collected across the HF2 scarp revealed prominent hyperbolas and discontinuous-warped reflections, suggesting a metal pipe and a zone of deformation along a low-angle thrust fault, respectively. The 3D profile revealed remarkable variation in dip of the fault plane and pattern of deformation along the strike of the fault.

  8. Two different trichoscopic patterns of mid-frontal scalp in patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia and clinical features of androgenetic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rakowska


    Full Text Available Introduction . Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a primary lymphocytic cicatricial alopecia with progressive frontotemporal hairline recession. In some cases, hair loss in the mid-frontal scalp, similar to female pattern hair loss, may be observed. Objective. Assessment of the trichoscopic pattern of mid-frontal scalp hair loss in patients diagnosed with frontal fibrosing alopecia. Material and methods. The retrospective analysis included 31 women diagnosed with frontal fibrosing alopecia and hair loss in the mid-frontal scalp and 36 women diagnosed with female pattern hair loss. Results . In patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia two different trichoscopic patterns in the mid-frontal scalp were identified. In 68% of patients (21/31 we observed a diffuse fibrotic pattern. It was characterized by irregular arrangement of follicular units with small areas with loss of follicular units, an increased percentage of follicular units with one hair and a decreased percentage of follicular units with three hairs, normal hair shaft thickness and presence of mild perifollicular scaling. The androgenetic alopecia pattern was present in 32% of patients (10/31. It was characterized by hair shaft thickness diversity (20% or more, a percentage of vellus hairs higher than 10%, presence of yellow dots, an increased percentage of follicular units with one hair and a decreased percentage of follicular units with three hairs. Conclusions. In patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia and coexisting mid-frontal scalp hair loss, we identified two different patterns of this area in trichoscopy: the diffuse fibrotic pattern (more common and the androgenetic alopecia pattern. This observation may have therapeutic and prognostic implications.

  9. Hsp Polarization Verification (United States)

    Bless, Robert


    This proposal defines the procedure for determining the instrumental polarization of the polarimetric IDT (IDT#1, POL) on the HSP. 1 of 2 unpolarized standard stars wil be observed using various filter-polarizer combinations. These observations will permit the instrumental polarization to be calibrated. The instrumental polarization must be determined to a high precision in order to vectoriallly remove it from HSP polarization observations to determine the actual astronomical polarization. Final run of proposal will look at one of 2 possible stars previously observed to get another look at the throughput. Revision History: Mark H. Slovak 8/30/88 Translated to V2 proposal instructions (RPSS V6.2) S. Laurent 1/20/89 Updated: Sally Laurent 2/24/89, 3/20/89, 4/13/89, 5/12/89 Modified: P. Stanley 1/15/90 - change to use CTA selected targets only; Fixes for aberration problem - SALM 7/30/90; Based on SV/HSP 1386. New submission changed targets and revised scheduling strategy. Revised: 26 Aug 92 J. Dolan, L. Walter, P. Reppert want to re-run the proposal (3985) one last time to bring down errors.

  10. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in dementia patients with frontal lobe symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, Mala; Geitung, Jonn-Terje (Dept. of Geriatrics, Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital, Bergen (Norway)), e-mail:; Lundervold, Arvid (Dept. of Biomedicine, Univ. of Bergen (Norway)); Nygaard, Harald (Olaviken Hospital (Norway))


    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recent MRI technique demonstrating white matter tracts in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease and this method has been used to demonstrate the loss of axonal fibers and myelin and decrease of fiber density in this condition. Purpose: To study a possible correlation between frontal lobe symptoms in patients with dementia and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter/fascicles in the frontal lobes. Material and Methods: The study included 23 patients with dementia and frontal lobe symptoms and 20 controls (10 Alzheimer patients without frontal lobe symptoms and 10 normal controls). Clinical tests and MRI with DTI were performed. FA in subcortical white matter of both the frontal lobes was analyzed and correlated with clinical frontal score tests. Results: We found a significant correlation between frontal score results and reduction in FA in the frontal lobes. The FA in the study group was significantly lower than the FA in the control group. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is a probable correlation between the extent of frontal lobe symptoms and FA in fascicles/white matter tissue in the frontal lobes

  11. Significance of frontal cortical atrophy in Parkinson's disease: computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Sang; Suh, Jung Ho; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Dong Ik


    Fifty-five patients with Parkinson's disease were evaluated clinically and with brain computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the incidence of frontal cortical and subcortical atrophy. Twenty cases of age-related healthy control group were also scanned. The CT criteria of frontal cortical atrophy that was used in this study were the maximum width of frontal hemispheric cortical sulci and width of anterior interhemispheric fissure between frontal lobes comparing with maximum width of hemispheric cortical sulci except frontal lobes. And the criteria of frontal subcortical atrophy were bifrontal index bicaudate index, and Evans index. The results are as follows: 1. Cortical atrophic changes in Parkinson's disease were more prominent in frontal lobe rather than other causes of cortical atrophy. 2. Frontal cortical and subcortical atrophic changes were also more prominent in Parkinson's disease rather than age-related control group. 3. Subcortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe were always associated with cortical atrophic changes. 4. Changes of basal ganglia were hardly seen in Parkinson's disease. 5. Cortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe must be the one of significant findings in Parkinson's disease

  12. Frontal lobe function and behavioral changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study from Southwest China. (United States)

    Wei, QianQian; Chen, XuePing; Zheng, ZhenZhen; Huang, Rui; Guo, XiaoYan; Cao, Bei; Zhao, Bi; Shang, Hui-Fang


    Despite growing interest, the frequency and characteristics of frontal lobe functional and behavioral deficits in Chinese people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as well as their impact on the survival of ALS patients, remain unknown. The Chinese version of the frontal assessment battery (FAB) and frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) were used to evaluate 126 sporadic ALS patients and 50 healthy controls. The prevalence of frontal lobe dysfunction was 32.5%. The most notable impairment domain of the FAB was lexical fluency (30.7%). The binary logistic regression model revealed that an onset age older than 45 years (OR 5.976, P = 0.002) and a lower educational level (OR 0.858, P = 0.002) were potential determinants of an abnormal FAB. Based on the FBI score, 46.0% of patients showed varied degrees of frontal behavioral changes. The most common impaired neurobehavioral domains were irritability (25.4%), logopenia (20.6%) and apathy (19.0%). The binary logistic regression model revealed that the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised scale score (OR 0.127, P = 0.001) was a potential determinant of an abnormal FBI. Frontal functional impairment and the severity of frontal behavioral changes were not associated with the survival status or the progression of ALS by the cox proportional hazard model and multivariate regression analyses, respectively. Frontal lobe dysfunction and frontal behavioral changes are common in Chinese ALS patients. Frontal lobe dysfunction may be related to the onset age and educational level. The severity of frontal behavioral changes may be associated with the ALSFRS-R. However, the frontal functional impairment and the frontal behavioral changes do not worsen the progression or survival of ALS.

  13. Preoperative neuropsychological presentation of patients with refractory frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Patrikelis, Panayiotis; Gatzonis, Stylianos; Siatouni, Anna; Angelopoulos, Elias; Konstantakopoulos, George; Takousi, Maria; Sakas, Damianos E; Zalonis, Ioannis


    This study investigated whether certain cognitive deficits are associated with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) aiming to contribute with localization data to the preoperative assessment of epilepsy surgery candidates. We evaluated 34 patients with refractory FLE, 37 patients with refractory medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), and 22 healthy individuals in attention, psychomotor speed, motor function, verbal memory span, verbal fluency, response inhibition/interference, concept formation and set shifting, anticipation and planning, global memory. Neuropsychological performances of FLE and MTLE were similar, with the only exception the WCST-number of categories index, measuring mental flexibility, in which MTLE patients performed significantly worse than FLE patients. Left-FLE patients presented more perseverative responding compared to both other patient groups and healthy controls (HCs), while left-MTLE patients showed worse sorting abilities than the other epilepsy groups. Our findings suggest a weak cognitive differentiation between FLE and MTLE, probably attributed to the intricate nature of fronto-temporal connectivity frequently resulting in overlapping deficits as well as the confounding effects of seizure-related variables. In clinical practice, a highly individualized (idiographic) neuropsychological approach along with the inclusion of concurrent EEG recordings (e.g., interictal coupling) may be of help for neuropsychologists in identifying FLE patients from those with medial temporal pathology presenting frontal dysfunction as a secondary cognitive symptom.

  14. Frontal intradiploic epidomoid cyst with orbital and out cerebral extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Latorre, F.; Revert Ventura, A.; Diaz Ramon, C.; Arana, E.; Esteban Masanet, J.M.; Tortosa Giner, A.


    We studied six patients with exophthalmos and inferior displacement of the eyeball produced by orbital extension of a frontal intradiploic epidermoid cyst. All the patients were studied by conventional radiography five with CT and three with MR. Plain x-ray disclosed a single, well-defined lytic lesion with sclerosis margin, located in the outer supraorbital region of the frontal bone in all cases. CT revealed the intradiploic site of the lesion, its expansive nature, the state of the bone tables and demonstrated the existence of an intra orbital mass. MR showed a lesion with a greater signal intensity than LCR, similar to the white matter in T1-weighted sequences in two cases and hyperintense in a third. The lesions were hyperintense in T2-weighted sequences. The preoperative presumed diagnosis was established by means of plain radiography on the basis of site and the sclerosis ring surrounding the lesion. CT disclosed the bone structures and confirmed the existence of an intra orbital mass containing soft portions. The basic contribution of MR was in the assessment of the intracranial extension and in ruling out cerebral involvement.(Author)

  15. Ventrolateral and dorsomedial frontal cortex lesions impair mnemonic context retrieval. (United States)

    Chapados, Catherine; Petrides, Michael


    The prefrontal cortex appears to contribute to the mnemonic retrieval of the context within which stimuli are experienced, but only under certain conditions that remain to be clarified. Patients with lesions to the frontal cortex, the temporal lobe and neurologically intact individuals were tested for context memory retrieval when verbal stimuli (words) had been experienced across multiple (unstable context condition) or unique (stable context condition) contexts; basic recognition memory of these words-in-contexts was also tested. Patients with lesions to the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) were impaired on context retrieval only when the words had been seen in multiple contexts, demonstrating that this prefrontal region is critical for active retrieval processing necessary to disambiguate memory items embedded across multiple contexts. Patients with lesions to the left dorsomedial prefrontal region were impaired on both context retrieval conditions, regardless of the stability of the stimulus-to-context associations. Conversely, prefrontal lesions sparing the ventrolateral and dorsomedial regions did not impair context retrieval. Only patients with temporal lobe excisions were impaired on basic recognition memory. The results demonstrate a basic contribution of the left dorsomedial frontal region to mnemonic context retrieval, with the VLPFC engaged, selectively, when contextual relations are unstable and require disambiguation. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. The underestimation of egocentric distance: evidence from frontal matching tasks (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Phillips, John


    There is controversy over the existence, nature, and cause of error in egocentric distance judgments. One proposal is that the systematic biases often found in explicit judgments of egocentric distance along the ground may be related to recently observed biases in the perceived declination of gaze (Durgin & Li, Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, in press), To measure perceived egocentric distance nonverbally, observers in a field were asked to position themselves so that their distance from one of two experimenters was equal to the frontal distance between the experimenters. Observers placed themselves too far away, consistent with egocentric distance underestimation. A similar experiment was conducted with vertical frontal extents. Both experiments were replicated in panoramic virtual reality. Perceived egocentric distance was quantitatively consistent with angular bias in perceived gaze declination (1.5 gain). Finally, an exocentric distance-matching task was contrasted with a variant of the egocentric matching task. The egocentric matching data approximate a constant compression of perceived egocentric distance with a power function exponent of nearly 1; exocentric matches had an exponent of about 0.67. The divergent pattern between egocentric and exocentric matches suggests that they depend on different visual cues. PMID:21735313

  17. Frontal Cortical Atrophy as a Predictor of Poststroke Apathy. (United States)

    Mihalov, Ján; Mikula, Peter; Budiš, Jaroslav; Valkovič, Peter


    The aim of the study was to identify associations between the symptoms of poststroke apathy and sociodemographic, stroke-related (severity of stroke, degree of disability, and performance in activities of daily living), and radiological correlates. We determined the degree of cortical and subcortical brain atrophy, the severity of white matter and basal ganglia lesions on baseline computed tomography (CT) scans, and the localization of acute ischemia on control CT or magnetic resonance imaging scans in subacute stages of stroke. During follow-up examinations, in addition to the assessment of apathy symptoms using the Apathy Scale, we also evaluated symptoms of depression and anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The study included 47 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke. Correlates significantly associated with apathy, determined at baseline and during follow-up, were entered into the "predictive" and "associative" multiple regression models, respectively. Frontal cortical atrophy and symptoms of depression were most strongly associated with poststroke apathy symptoms. In order to model an interrelation between both cortical atrophy and white matter lesions and aging, we supplemented 2 additional "predictive" models using interaction variables, whereby we confirmed the role of frontal cortical atrophy as a predictor of poststroke apathy also as a function of the increasing age of patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Development and validation of the Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia Severity Score. (United States)

    Saceda-Corralo, David; Moreno-Arrones, Óscar Muñoz; Fonda-Pascual, Pablo; Pindado-Ortega, Cristina; Buendía-Castaño, Diego; Alegre-Sánchez, Adrián; Segurado-Miravalles, Gonzalo; Rodrigues-Barata, Ana Rita; Jaén-Olasolo, Pedro; Vaño-Galván, Sergio


    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a scarring alopecia characterized by recession of the frontotemporal hairline and loss of the eyebrows. To design and validate a scoring system to assess the severity of FFA. The Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia Severity Score (FFASS) was developed; criterion validity was assessed by the Investigator's Global Assessment, and construct validity was evaluated by the convergence of other measures of severity (the Patient's Global Assessment], the rest of the clinical features, the Lichen Planopilaris Activity Index, and quality of life measures (Dermatology Life Quality Index and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were determined. In total, 103 female patients were included. The FFASS showed significant correlation to the Patient's Global Assessment, occipital involvement, and the Lichen Planopilaris Activity Index. Intraobserver reliability was completed for 31 subjects and showed good correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-0.95; P < .001). Interobserver reliability showed excellent correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-0.99; P < .001). The study was performed at a single institution, and only female patients were assessed. The FFASS is a statistically validated scale and a reliable measure of FFA severity, and it can be used in clinical practice and future research studies as an assessment tool. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Contemporary management of frontal sinus mucoceles: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Courson, Andy M; Stankiewicz, James A; Lal, Devyani


    To analyze trends in the surgical management of frontal and fronto-ethmoid mucoceles through meta-analysis. Meta-analysis and case series. A systematic literature review on surgical management of frontal and fronto-ethmoid mucoceles was conducted. Studies were divided into historical (1975-2001) and contemporary (2002-2012) groups. A meta-analysis of these studies was performed. The historical and contemporary cohorts were compared (surgical approach, recurrence, and complications). To study evolution in surgical management, a senior surgeon's experience over 28 years was analyzed separately. Thirty-one studies were included for meta-analysis. The historical cohort included 425 mucoceles from 11 studies. The contemporary cohort included 542 mucoceles from 20 studies. More endoscopic techniques were used in the contemporary versus historical cohort (53.9% vs. 24.7%; P = contemporary). In the historical cohort, higher recurrence was noted in the external group (P = 0.03). Results from endoscopic and open approaches are comparable. Although endoscopic techniques are being increasingly adopted, comparison with our series shows that more cases could potentially be treated endoscopically. Frequent use of open approaches may reflect efficacy, or perhaps lack of expertise and equipment required for endoscopic management. Most contemporary authors favor endoscopic management, limiting open approaches for specific indications (unfavorable anatomy, lateral disease, and scarring). N/A. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Seizure semiology of lesional frontal lobe epilepsies in children. (United States)

    Battaglia, D; Lettori, D; Contaldo, I; Veredice, C; Sacco, A; Vasco, J; Martinelli, D; Chieffo, D; Tartaglione, T; Colosimo, C; Di Rocco, C; Guzzetta, F


    The aim of the study was to analyse the semiology of seizures in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and to compare them with other paediatric cohorts described in the literature as well as with adult counterparts. We analysed 174 registered seizures of 18 cases under 12 years with lesional epilepsy whose frontal origin was defined by the concordance of neuroimaging and ictal electrographic findings, and confirmed by surgery in the six cases operated on. Seizures were generally short, with a high daily frequency and usually related to sleep. The most characteristic semiological pattern consisted of complex motor seizures, particularly hypermotor. Often seizures corresponded to a mixture of different semiological patterns (tonic, gelastic, automotor, hypermotor, versive) presenting in the same seizure, often as a unique type in the same patient. With regard to several aspects the semiology of FLE in our cohort looks like that reported in adult series, in particular as to the frequency of complex motor seizures. However, our cohort was also characterised by a more protean array of seizure semiology, stressing the occurrence of seizures typically present in adults (versive and complex motor) and of some seizure patterns more characteristic in children such as epileptic spasms; moreover, the rare occurrence of secondarily generalised tonic clonic seizures (SGTCS) was confirmed.

  1. Circular Polarization in Turbulent Blazar Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Roy MacDonald


    Full Text Available Circular polarization (CP provides an invaluable probe into the underlying plasma content of relativistic jets. CP can be generated within the jet through a physical process known as linear birefringence. This is a physical mechanism through which initially linearly polarized emission produced in one region of the jet is attenuated by Faraday rotation as it passes through other regions of the jet with distinct magnetic field orientations. Marscher developed the turbulent extreme multi-zone (TEMZ model of blazar emission which mimics these types of magnetic geometries with collections of thousands of plasma cells passing through a standing conical shock. I have recently developed a radiative transfer algorithm to generate synthetic images of the time-dependent circularly polarized intensity emanating from the TEMZ model at different radio frequencies. In this study, we produce synthetic multi-epoch observations that highlight the temporal variability in the circular polarization produced by the TEMZ model. We also explore the effect that different plasma compositions within the jet have on the resultant levels of CP.

  2. Surface wind, pressure and temperature fields near tornadic and non-tornadic narrow cold-frontal rainbands (United States)

    Clark, Matthew; Parker, Douglas


    Narrow cold frontal rainbands (NCFRs) occur frequently in the UK and other parts of northwest Europe. At the surface, the passage of an NCFR is often marked by a sharp wind veer, abrupt pressure increase and a rapid temperature decrease. Tornadoes and other instances of localised wind damage sometimes occur in association with meso-gamma-scale vortices (sometimes called misocyclones) that form along the zone of abrupt horizontal wind veer (and associated vertical vorticity) at the leading edge of the NCFR. Using one-minute-resolution data from a mesoscale network of automatic weather stations, surface pressure, wind and temperature fields in the vicinity of 12 NCFRs (five of which were tornadic) have been investigated. High-resolution surface analyses were obtained by mapping temporal variations in the observed parameters to equivalent spatial variations, using a system velocity determined by analysis of the radar-observed movement of NCFR precipitation segments. Substantial differences were found in the structure of surface wind and pressure fields close to tornadic and non-tornadic NCFRs. Tornadic NCFRs exhibited a large wind veer (near 90°) and strong pre- and post-frontal winds. These attributes were associated with large vertical vorticity and horizontal convergence across the front. Tornadoes typically occurred where vertical vorticity and horizontal convergence were increasing. Here, we present surface analyses from selected cases, and draw comparisons between the tornadic and non-tornadic NCFRs. Some Doppler radar observations will be presented, illustrating the development of misocyclones along parts of the NCFR that exhibit strong, and increasing, vertical vorticity stretching. The influence of the stability of the pre-frontal air on the likelihood of tornadoes will also be discussed.

  3. Polarized Light Microscopy (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.


    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  4. The evolution of tensor polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Lee, S.Y.; Ratner, L.


    By using the equation of motion for the vector polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization is derived. The evolution equation for the tensor polarization is studied in the presence of an isolate spin resonance and in the presence of a spin rotor, or snake

  5. Control on frontal thrust progression by the mechanically weak Gondwana horizon in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir; Das, Animesh


    This study integrates field evidence with laboratory experiments to show the mechanical effects of a lithologically contrasting stratigraphic sequence on the development of frontal thrusts: Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Daling Thrust (DT) in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya (DSH). We carried out field investigations mainly along two river sections in the DSH: Tista-Kalijhora and Mahanadi, covering an orogen-parallel stretch of 20 km. Our field observations suggest that the coal-shale dominated Gondwana sequence (sandwiched between the Daling Group in the north and Siwaliks in the south) has acted as a mechanically weak horizon to localize the MBT and DT. We simulated a similar mechanical setting in scaled model experiments to validate our field interpretation. In experiments, such a weak horizon at a shallow depth perturbs the sequential thrust progression, and causes a thrust to localize in the vicinity of the weak zone, splaying from the basal detachment. We correlate this weak-zone-controlled thrust with the DT, which accommodates a large shortening prior to activation of the weak zone as a new detachment with ongoing horizontal shortening. The entire shortening in the model is then transferred to this shallow detachment to produce a new sequence of thrust splays. Extrapolating this model result to the natural prototype, we show that the mechanically weak Gondwana Sequence has caused localization of the DT and MBT in the mountain front of DSH.

  6. Polarized Electrons at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, C.K.


    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously.initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented.

  7. Polarized electrons at Jefferson laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously. Initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented

  8. Polarized protons at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.


    The Physics case is presented for the use of polarized protons at RHIC for one or two months each year. This would provide a facility with polarizations of approx-gt 50% high luminosity ∼2.0 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , the possibility of both longitudinal and transverse polarization at the interaction regions, and frequent polarization reversal for control of systematic errors. The annual integrated luminosity for such running (∼10 6 sec per year) would be ∫ Ldt = 2 x 10 38 cm -2 -- roughly 20 times the total luminosity integrated in ∼ 10 years of operation of the CERN Collider (∼10 inverse picobarns, 10 37 cm -2 ). This facility would be unique in the ability to perform parity-violating measurements and polarization test of QCD. Also, the existence of p-p collisions in a new energy range would permit the study of ''classical'' reactions like the total cross section and elastic scattering, etc., and serve as a complement to measurements from p-bar p colliders. 11 refs

  9. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.


    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  10. Sforzellina Glaciers: Glacial Geomorfology, Mass Balance, Frontal Variations and Dendroglaciology (United States)

    Diolaiuti, G.; D'Agata, C.; Smiraglia, C.; Santilli, M. Pelfini M.

    The Sforzellina Glacier is a small cirque glacier located in Gavia Valley, in the Lom- bardy side of the Ortles-Cevedale Group (Italy). Although its modest dimensions, it is an important source of glaciological and geomorphological data; it is in fact moni- torated over a long time, more than seventy years, by the Italian Glaciological Com- mitteeSs (CGI) relatively to the frontal variations and so now is available a complete data set that was used in order to calculate the correlation with other alpine italian glaciers. The analysis allowed to estimate that this small cirque glacier is in phase with a large number of alpine glacial bodies. The glacier had a continuous and un- interrupted retreating phase from 1925 to the beginning of the 70s of XXth century when a frontal progress phase started. This new trend culminated in 1985 and finished in 1987. From that year the glacier resumed a continuous and uninterrupted frontal retreat. From 1925 to 2000 the glacier retreated was of 379 m. From 1987 up to now Sforzellina is used as a sample glacier for mass balance measurements and all the data (15 years of mass balance data) were correlated with the other Italian and European mass balance data; this analysis allowed to notice that this glacier was strongly corre- lated with many of the monitorated alpine glaciers located in the same climatic region. This result suggests to continue the monitoring of Sforzellina as important climatic and environmental index and suggests to use the data in order to calcolate matemathi- cal models to create alpine glacier scenaries. From 1987 to 2000 the Sforzellina mass balances were constantly negative. In the hydrological year 2000-2001 there was a change in mass balance trend with a moderately positive mass balance. In 15 years the glacier lost a thickness of about 13 m w.e. In the summers 1999 and 2000 the glacier was studied by means of sysmic and radar geophysical surveys to determinate the thickness, that was resulted of about 40

  11. In-line Fiber Polarizer


    Perumalsamy, Priya


    Polarizers and polarization devices are important components in fiber optic communication and sensor systems. There is a growing need for efficient low loss components that are compatible with optical fibers. An all fiber in-line polarizer is a more desirable alternative that could be placed at appropriate intervals along communication links. An in-line fiber polarizer was fabricated and tested. The in-line fiber polarizer operates by coupling optical energy propagatin...

  12. Recurrent meningitis associated with frontal sinus tuber encephalocele in a patient with tuberous sclerosis. (United States)

    Elbabaa, Samer K; Riggs, Angela D; Saad, Ali G


    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic neurocutaneous disorder that commonly affects the CNS. The most commonly associated brain tumors include cortical tubers, subependymal nodules, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs). The authors report an unusual case of recurrent meningitis due to a tuber-containing encephalocele via the posterior wall of the frontal sinus. An 11-year-old girl presented with a history of TSC and previous SEGA resection via interhemispheric approach. She presented twice within 4 months with classic bacterial meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid cultures revealed Streptococcus pneumoniae. Computed tomography and MR imaging of the brain showed a right frontal sinus encephalocele via a posterior frontal sinus wall defect. Both episodes of meningitis were treated successfully with standard regimens of intravenous antibiotics. The neurosurgical service was consulted to discuss surgical options. Via a bicoronal incision, a right basal frontal craniotomy was performed. A large frontal encephalocele was encountered in the frontal sinus. The encephalocele was herniating through a bony defect of the posterior sinus wall. The encephalocele was ligated and resected followed by removing frontal sinus mucosa and complete cranialization of frontal sinus. Repair of the sinus floor was conducted with fat and pericranial grafts followed by CSF diversion via lumbar drain. Histopathology of the resected encephalocele showed a TSC tuber covered with respiratory (frontal sinus) mucosa. Tuber cells were diffusely positive for GFAP. The patient underwent follow-up for 2 years without evidence of recurrent meningitis or CSF rhinorrhea. This report demonstrates that frontal tubers of TSC can protrude into the frontal sinus as acquired encephaloceles and present with recurrent meningitis. To the authors' knowledge, recurrent meningitis is not known to coincide with TSC. Careful clinical and radiographic follow-up for frontal tubers in patients with TSC is

  13. Determination of polar cusp position by low-energy particle measurements made aboard AUREOLE satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladyshev, V.A.; Jorjio, M.V.; Shuiskaya, F.K.; Crasnier, J.; Sauvaud, J.A.


    The Franco-Soviet experiment ARCAD, launched aboard the satellite AUREOLE December 27, 1971, has verified the existence of a particle penetration from the transition zone up to ionospheric altitudes across the polar cusp. The polar cusp is characterized by proton fluxes >10 7 particles/(cm 2 at 0.5KeV, with energy spectra similar to those in the transition zone. The position and form of the polar cusp are studied from measurements of protons in the range 0.4 to 30KeV during geomagnetically quiet periods (Kp [fr

  14. Mercury speciation in brain tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Canadian Arctic. (United States)

    Krey, Anke; Kwan, Michael; Chan, Hing Man


    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxicant that has been found at elevated concentrations in the Arctic ecosystem. Little is known about its internal dose in wildlife such as polar bears. We measured concentrations of mercury (Hg) in three different brain regions (cerebellum, frontal lobe and brain stem) of 24 polar bears collected from the Nunavik, Canada between 2000 and 2003. Speciation of Hg was measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (HPLC-ICP-MS). Concentrations of mean total Hg in brain tissue were up to 625 times lower (0.28 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) in frontal lobe, 0.23 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) dw in cerebellum and 0.12 ± 0.0 3mg kg(-1) dw in brain stem) than the mean total Hg concentration previously reported in polar bear liver collected from Eastern Baffin Island. Methylmercury (MeHg) accounted for 100% of the Hg found in all three brain regions analyzed. These results suggest that polar bear might reduce the toxic effects of Hg by limiting the uptake into the brain and/or decrease the rate of demethylation so that Hg can be excreted from the brain more easily. The toxicokinetics and the blood-brain-barrier mechanisms of polar bears are still unknown and further research is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Frontal EEG asymmetry in borderline personality disorder is associated with alexithymia. (United States)

    Flasbeck, Vera; Popkirov, Stoyan; Brüne, Martin


    Frontal EEG asymmetry is a widely studied correlate of emotion processing and psychopathology. Recent research suggests that frontal EEG asymmetry during resting state is related to approach/withdrawal motivation and is also found in affective disorders such as major depressive disorder. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show aberrant behavior in relation to both approach and withdrawal motivation, which may arguably be associated with their difficulties in emotion processing. The occurrence and significance of frontal EEG asymmetry in BPD, however, has received little attention. Thirty-seven BPD patients and 39 controls underwent resting EEG and completed several psychometric questionnaires. While there were no between-group differences in frontal EEG asymmetry, in BPD frontal EEG asymmetry scores correlated significantly with alexithymia. That is, higher alexithymia scores were associated with relatively lower right-frontal activity. A subsequent analysis corroborated the significant interaction between frontal EEG asymmetry and alexithymia, which was moderated by group. Our findings reveal that lower right frontal EEG asymmetry is associated with alexithymia in patients with BPD. This finding is in accordance with neurophysiological models of alexithymia that implicate a right hemisphere impairment in emotion processing, and could suggest frontal EEG asymmetry as a potential biomarker of relevant psychopathology in these patients.

  16. Obsessions appear after the removal a brain tumor in the right frontal lobe. (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xinhua; Liu, Jihua


    A series of case reports and neuroimaging research points to the underlying neuropathological substrate for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the underlying associations between OCD and areas of the frontal lobe. We report a patient wherein the onset of OCD occurred after resection of meningioma of the right frontal lobe and who was treated successfully with paroxetine hydrochloride. We suggest that the onset of secondary (organic) OCD is associated with the frontal lobe, and we propose that the origin of obsessions is located in the right frontal lobe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimal Placement of Cerebral Oximeter Monitors to Avoid the Frontal Sinus as Determined by Computed Tomography. (United States)

    Gregory, Alexander J; Hatem, Muhammed A; Yee, Kevin; Grocott, Hilary P


    To determine the optimal location to place cerebral oximeter optodes to avoid the frontal sinus, using the orbit of the skull as a landmark. Retrospective observational study. Academic hospital. Fifty adult patients with previously acquired computed tomography angiography scans of the head. The distance between the superior orbit of the skull and the most superior edge of the frontal sinus was measured using imaging software. The mean (SD) frontal sinus height was 16.4 (7.2) mm. There was a nonsignificant trend toward larger frontal sinus height in men compared with women (p = 0.12). Age, height, and body surface area did not correlate with frontal sinus height. Head circumference was positively correlated (r = 0.32; p = 0.03) to frontal sinus height, with a low level of predictability based on linear regression (R(2) = 0.10; p = 0.02). Placing cerebral oximeter optodes>3 cm from the superior rim of the orbit will avoid the frontal sinus in>98% of patients. Predicting the frontal sinus height based on common patient variables is difficult. Additional studies are required to evaluate the recommended height in pediatric populations and patients of various ethnic backgrounds. The clinical relevance of avoiding the frontal sinus also needs to be further elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signa...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice.......This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...

  19. Physics of polarized targets

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, Tapio


    For developing, building and operating solid polarized targets we need to understand several fields of physics that have seen sub stantial advances during the last 50 years. W e shall briefly review a selection of those that are important today. These are: 1) quantum statistical methods to describe saturation and relaxation in magnetic resonance; 2) equal spin temperature model for dy namic nuclear polarization; 3 ) weak saturation during NMR polarization measurement; 4 ) refrigeration using the quantum fluid properties of helium isotopes. These, combined with superconducting magnet technologies, permit today to reach nearly complete pola rization of almost any nuclear spins. Targets can be operated in frozen spin mode in rather low and inhomogeneous field of any orientation, and in DNP mode in beams of high intensity. Beyond such experiments of nuclear and particle physics, applications a re also emerging in macromolecular chemistry and in magnetic resonance imaging. This talk is a tribute to Michel Borghini...

  20. No More Polarization, Please!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mia Reinholt

    The organizational science literature on motivation has for long been polarized into two main positions; the organizational economic position focusing on extrinsic motivation and the organizational behavior position emphasizing intrinsic motivation. With the rise of the knowledge economy...... and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on motivation, acknowledging the co-existence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, the possible interaction...... between the two as well as different types of motivations filling in the gap between the two polar types, is urgently needed in the organizational science literature. By drawing on the research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation conducted in social psychology and combining this with contributions from...

  1. Polarized source upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, T.B.; Rummel, R.L.; Carter, E.P.; Westerfeldt, C.R.; Lovette, A.W.; Edwards, S.E.


    The decision was made this past year to move the Lamb-shift polarized ion source which was first installed in the laboratory in 1970. The motivation was the need to improve the flexibility of spin-axis orientation by installing the ion source with a new Wien-filter spin precessor which is capable of rotating physically about the beam axis. The move of the polarized source was accomplished in approximately two months, with the accelerator being turned off for experiments during approximately four weeks of this time. The occasion of the move provided the opportunity to rewire completely the entire polarized ion source frame and to rebuild approximately half of the electronic chassis on the source. The result is an ion source which is now logically wired and carefully documented. Beams obtained from the source are much more stable than those previously available

  2. A lunar polar expedition (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas


    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  3. DHEA and frontal fibrosing alopecia: molecular and physiopathological mechanisms. (United States)

    Gaspar, Neide Kalil


    The transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1) promotes fibrosis, differentiating epithelial cells and quiescent fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and increasing expression of extracellular matrix. Recent investigations have shown that PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor*) is a negative regulator of fibrotic events induced by TGFβ1. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an immunomodulatory hormone essential for PPAR functions, and is reduced in some processes characterized by fibrosis. Although scarring alopecia characteristically develops in the female biological period in which occurs decreased production of DHEA, there are no data in the literature relating its reduction to fibrogenic process of this condition. This article aims to review the fibrogenic activity of TGFβ1, its control by PPAR and its relation with DHEA in the frontal fibrosing alopecia.

  4. Lóbulo Frontal y Psicoanálisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Beteta


    Full Text Available Se trata de establecer mediante una atractiva hipótesis de trabajo, las relaciones entre los lóbulo frontales y las bases neurobiológicas de la teoría freudiana del psicoanálisis. Se presenran y discuten las aproximaciones psicofisiológicas y clínicas, en la interpretación de estas relaciones, llegando al análisis final de las "disoluciones" orgánicas y funcionales del cerebro, pasando revista a los síntomas de la demencia y cuadros clínicos diferenciales, por los cuales se puede llegar a la interpretación freudiana de la psicopatía, la farmacodependencia y el síndrome del terrorismo.

  5. Evaluation of galectin binding by frontal affinity chromatography (FAC). (United States)

    Iwaki, Jun; Hirabayashi, Jun


    Frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) is a simple and versatile procedure enabling quantitative determination of diverse biological interactions in terms of dissociation constants (K d), even though these interactions are relatively weak. The method is best applied to glycans and their binding proteins, with the analytical system operating on the basis of highly reproducible isocratic elution by liquid chromatography. Its application to galectins has been successfully developed to characterize their binding specificities in detail. As a result, their minimal requirements for recognition of disaccharides, i.e., β-galactosides, as well as characteristic features of individual galectins, have been elucidated. In this chapter, we describe standard procedures to determine the K d's for interactions between a series of standard glycans and various galectins.

  6. Evidence of Mirror Neurons in Human Inferior Frontal Gyrus (United States)

    Kilner, James M.; Neal, Alice; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Friston, Karl J.; Frith, Chris D.


    There is much current debate about the existence of mirror neurons in humans. To identify mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of humans we employed a repetition suppression paradigm while measuring neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either executed or observed a series of actions. Here we show that in the IFG, responses were suppressed both when an executed action was followed by the same rather than a different observed action and when an observed action was followed by the same rather than a different executed action. This pattern of responses is consistent with that predicted by mirror neurons and is evidence of mirror neurons in the human IFG. PMID:19675249

  7. Passenger head in impact with frontal airbag in OOP postures (United States)

    Ovidiu Soica, Adrian; Toganel, George-Radu


    Road accidents represent an aspect of road traffic that may lead negative consequences. In order to solve the problems associated with such events, interdisciplinary knowledge is called for, complex teams of engineers, doctors, lawyers, experts working together in order to reduce the severity of such events. Road safety is a continuous concern for both experts and various government organizations with the aim of protecting the lives of the participants in traffic. It has been estimated that the costs of traffic accidents account for 1-3% of a country GDP, depending on the level of country development [26]. In this paper we analyze a particular class of cases of injuries caused to passengers caused by the inflation of the frontal airbag when they are with the passenger out of position. Head kinematics, accelerations, as well as the severity of injuries expressed by HIC, as related to the AIS scale have been analysed.

  8. Cholinergic receptor binding in the frontal cortex of suicide victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, M.


    Because there is a high incidence of individuals diagnosed as having an affective disorder who subsequently commit suicide, the author thought it would be of interest to determine QNB binding in the brains of a large sample of suicide victims, and to compare the findings with a well-matched control group. Brain samples were obtained at autopsy from 22 suicide victims and 22 controls. Frontal cortex samples were diseected, frozen, and stored until assayed. Samples of tissue homogenate were incubated in duplicate with 10 concentrations of tritium-QNB. Specific binding was determined with and without atropine. The results confirmed previous studies in which no changes were noted in suicide versus control brains. While the findings neither disprove nor support the cholinergic hypothesis of depression, they do suggest that the neurochemical basis for the in vivo observations of increased responsivity of depressed individuals to muscarinic cholinergic agents might not involve changes in receptors estimated by QNB binding

  9. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy presenting as excessive daytime sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Y Cheng


    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS is common in the general population. Etiologies include insufficient sleep and primary sleep disorders. Due to its high prevalence, physicians often overlook EDS as a significant problem. However, EDS may also be the presenting symptom of seizures, in particular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE. Due to the clinical similarity between the nocturnal behaviors of NFLE and parasomnias, and poor patient-related history, NFLE remains a challenging diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with NFLE who presented with a primary complaint of EDS, and discuss the differential diagnosis and evaluation of patients with EDS associated with nocturnal behaviors. In the context of a patient presenting with EDS and stereotyped nocturnal events, clinical suspicion should be high for NFLE.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    There does not appear to be any obvious way to accelerate neutrons, polarized or otherwise, to high energies by themselves. To investigate the behavior of polarized neutrons the authors therefore have to obtain them by accelerating them as components of heavier nuclei, and then sorting out the contribution of the neutrons in the analysis of the reactions produced by the heavy ion beams. The best neutron carriers for this purpose are probably {sup 3}He nuclei and deuterons. A polarized deuteron is primarily a combination of a proton and a neutron with their spins pointing in the same direction; in the {sup 3}He nucleus the spins of the two protons are opposite and the net spin (and magnetic moment) is almost the same as that of a free neutron. Polarized ions other than protons may be accelerated, stored and collided in a ring such as RHIC provided the techniques proposed for polarized proton operation can be adapted (or replaced by other strategies) for these ions. To accelerate polarized particles in a ring, one must make provisions for overcoming the depolarizing resonances that occur at certain energies. These resonances arise when the spin tune (ratio of spin precession frequency to orbit frequency) resonates with a component present in the horizontal field. The horizontal field oscillates with the vertical motion of the particles (due to vertical focusing); its frequency spectrum is dominated by the vertical oscillation frequency and its modulation by the periodic structure of the accelerator ring. In addition, the magnet imperfections that distort the closed orbit vertically contain all integral Fourier harmonics of the orbit frequency.

  11. Reversed Procrastination by Focal Disruption of Medial Frontal Cortex. (United States)

    Jha, Ashwani; Diehl, Beate; Scott, Catherine; McEvoy, Andrew W; Nachev, Parashkev


    An enduring puzzle in the neuroscience of voluntary action is the origin of the remarkably wide dispersion of the reaction time distribution, an interval far greater than is explained by synaptic or signal transductive noise [1, 2]. That we are able to change our planned actions-a key criterion of volition [3]-so close to the time of their onset implies decision-making must reach deep into the execution of action itself [4-6]. It has been influentially suggested the reaction time distribution therefore reflects deliberate neural procrastination [7], giving alternative response tendencies sufficient time for fair competition in pursuing a decision threshold that determines which one is behaviorally manifest: a race model, where action selection and execution are closely interrelated [8-11]. Although the medial frontal cortex exhibits a sensitivity to reaction time on functional imaging that is consistent with such a mechanism [12-14], direct evidence from disruptive studies has hitherto been lacking. If movement-generating and movement-delaying neural substrates are closely co-localized here, a large-scale lesion will inevitably mask any acceleration, for the movement itself could be disrupted. Circumventing this problem, here we observed focal intracranial electrical disruption of the medial frontal wall in the context of the pre-surgical evaluation of two patients with epilepsy temporarily reversing such hypothesized procrastination. Effector-specific behavioral acceleration, time-locked to the period of electrical disruption, occurred exclusively at a specific locus at the ventral border of the pre-supplementary motor area. A cardinal prediction of race models of voluntary action is thereby substantiated in the human brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytoarchitecture, probability maps and functions of the human frontal pole. (United States)

    Bludau, S; Eickhoff, S B; Mohlberg, H; Caspers, S; Laird, A R; Fox, P T; Schleicher, A; Zilles, K; Amunts, K


    The frontal pole has more expanded than any other part in the human brain as compared to our ancestors. It plays an important role for specifically human behavior and cognitive abilities, e.g. action selection (Kovach et al., 2012). Evidence about divergent functions of its medial and lateral part has been provided, both in the healthy brain and in psychiatric disorders. The anatomical correlates of such functional segregation, however, are still unknown due to a lack of stereotaxic, microstructural maps obtained in a representative sample of brains. Here we show that the human frontopolar cortex consists of two cytoarchitectonically and functionally distinct areas: lateral frontopolar area 1 (Fp1) and medial frontopolar area 2 (Fp2). Based on observer-independent mapping in serial, cell-body stained sections of 10 brains, three-dimensional, probabilistic maps of areas Fp1 and Fp2 were created. They show, for each position of the reference space, the probability with which each area was found in a particular voxel. Applying these maps as seed regions for a meta-analysis revealed that Fp1 and Fp2 differentially contribute to functional networks: Fp1 was involved in cognition, working memory and perception, whereas Fp2 was part of brain networks underlying affective processing and social cognition. The present study thus disclosed cortical correlates of a functional segregation of the human frontopolar cortex. The probabilistic maps provide a sound anatomical basis for interpreting neuroimaging data in the living human brain, and open new perspectives for analyzing structure-function relationships in the prefrontal cortex. The new data will also serve as a starting point for further comparative studies between human and non-human primate brains. This allows finding similarities and differences in the organizational principles of the frontal lobe during evolution as neurobiological basis for our behavior and cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  13. A frontal but not parietal neural correlate of auditory consciousness. (United States)

    Brancucci, Alfredo; Lugli, Victor; Perrucci, Mauro Gianni; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Tommasi, Luca


    Hemodynamic correlates of consciousness were investigated in humans during the presentation of a dichotic sequence inducing illusory auditory percepts with features analogous to visual multistability. The sequence consisted of a variation of the original stimulation eliciting the Deutsch's octave illusion, created to maintain a stable illusory percept long enough to allow the detection of the underlying hemodynamic activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two specular 500 ms dichotic stimuli (400 and 800 Hz) presented in alternation by means of earphones cause an illusory segregation of pitch and ear of origin which can yield up to four different auditory percepts per dichotic stimulus. Such percepts are maintained stable when one of the two dichotic stimuli is presented repeatedly for 6 s, immediately after the alternation. We observed hemodynamic activity specifically accompanying conscious experience of pitch in a bilateral network including the superior frontal gyrus (SFG, BA9 and BA10), medial frontal gyrus (BA6 and BA9), insula (BA13), and posterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus. Conscious experience of side (ear of origin) was instead specifically accompanied by bilateral activity in the MFG (BA6), STG (BA41), parahippocampal gyrus (BA28), and insula (BA13). These results suggest that the neural substrate of auditory consciousness, differently from that of visual consciousness, may rest upon a fronto-temporal rather than upon a fronto-parietal network. Moreover, they indicate that the neural correlates of consciousness depend on the specific features of the stimulus and suggest the SFG-MFG and the insula as important cortical nodes for auditory conscious experience.

  14. Dark Polar Dunes (United States)


    20 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired during northern summer in December 2004, shows dark, windblown sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars. A vast sea of sand dunes nearly surrounds the north polar cap. These landforms are located near 80.3oN, 144.1oW. Light-toned features in the image are exposures of the substrate that underlies the dune field. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  15. Imaging with Polarized Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kardjilov


    Full Text Available Owing to their zero charge, neutrons are able to pass through thick layers of matter (typically several centimeters while being sensitive to magnetic fields due to their intrinsic magnetic moment. Therefore, in addition to the conventional attenuation contrast image, the magnetic field inside and around a sample can be visualized by detecting changes of polarization in a transmitted beam. The method is based on the spatially resolved measurement of the cumulative precession angles of a collimated, polarized, monochromatic neutron beam that traverses a magnetic field or sample.

  16. The polar mesosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Ray; Murphy, Damian


    The mesosphere region, which lies at the edge of space, contains the coldest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, with summer temperatures as low as minus 130 °C. In this extreme environment ice aerosol layers have appeared since the dawn of industrialization—whose existence may arguably be linked to human influence—on yet another layer of the Earth's fragile atmosphere. Ground-based and space-based experiments conducted in the Arctic and Antarctic during the International Polar Year (IPY) aim to address limitations in our knowledge and to advance our understanding of thermal and dynamical processes at play in the polar mesosphere

  17. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)


    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  18. AGS polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Sluyters, T.


    The AGS polarized H - source is now operational. During a month-long experimental physics run in July 1984, pulses equivalent to 15 μA x 300 μs (approx. 3 x 10 10 protons) were injected into the RFQ preaccelerator. Beam polarization, measured at 200 MeV, was approx. 75%. After the run, a program to increase the H - yield of the source was begun and significant progress has been made. The H - current is now frequently 20 to 30 μA. A description of the source and some details of our operating experience are given. We also briefly describe the improvement program

  19. The physics of polarization (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    This course is intended to give a description of the basic physical concepts which underlie the study and the interpretation of polarization phenomena. Apart from a brief historical introduction (Sect. 1), the course is organized in three parts. A first part (Sects. 2 - 6) covers the most relevant facts about the polarization phenomena that are typically encountered in laboratory applications and in everyday life. In Sect. 2, the modern description of polarization in terms of the Stokes parameters is recalled, whereas Sect. 3 is devoted to introduce the basic tools of laboratory polarimetry, such as the Jones calculus and the Mueller matrices. The polarization phenomena which are met in the reflection and refraction of a beam of radiation at the separation surface between two dielectrics, or between a dielectric and a metal, are recalled in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 gives an introduction to the phenomena of dichroism and of anomalous dispersion and Sect. 6 summarizes the polarization phenomena that are commonly encountered in everyday life. The second part of this course (Sects. 7-14) deals with the description, within the formalism of classical physics, of the spectro-polarimetric properties of the radiation emitted by accelerated charges. Such properties are derived by taking as starting point the Liénard and Wiechert equations that are recalled and discussed in Sect. 7 both in the general case and in the non-relativistic approximation. The results are developed to find the percentage polarization, the radiation diagram, the cross-section and the spectral characteristics of the radiation emitted in different phenomena particularly relevant from the astrophysical point of view. The emission of a linear antenna is derived in Sect. 8. The other Sections are devoted to Thomson scattering (Sect. 9), Rayleigh scattering (Sect. 10), Mie scattering (Sect. 11), bremsstrahlung radiation (Sect. 12), cyclotron radiation (Sect. 13), and synchrotron radiation (Sect. 14

  20. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y


    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  1. Effect of chemical stimulation of the medial frontal lobe on the micturition reflex in rats. (United States)

    Nishijima, Saori; Sugaya, Kimio; Kadekawa, Katsumi; Ashitomi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Hideyuki


    We assessed the influence of the medial frontal lobe on micturition after chemical stimulation. We also examined the relation between the medial frontal lobe and the rostral pontine reticular formation, which has a strong inhibitory effect on micturition. A total of 35 female rats underwent continuous cystometry. Bladder activity changes were examined after physiological saline, glutamate, the glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801, noradrenaline or the adrenergic α-1 receptor antagonist naftopidil was injected in the medial frontal lobe. When glutamate was injected in the medial frontal lobe, MK-801 was also injected in the rostral pontine reticular formation. Glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe prolonged the interval between bladder contractions while injection of the glutamate antagonist MK-801 shortened the interval. Glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe just after MK-801 injection in the ipsilateral rostral pontine reticular formation also prolonged the interval between bladder contractions. However, after prior injection of MK-801 in the bilateral rostral pontine reticular formation glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe did not influence cystometric parameters. Noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe shortened the interval between bladder contractions while injection of its antagonist naftopidil prolonged the interval. Medial frontal lobe neurons excited by glutamate inhibited the micturition reflex via activation of the rostral pontine reticular formation by glutamatergic projection while medial frontal lobe neurons excited by noradrenaline facilitated the micturition reflex. Thus, the medial frontal lobe may be an important integration center for the initiation of micturition and urine storage mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lobbying and political polarization


    Ursprung, Heinrich W.


    Standard spatial models of political competition give rise to equilibria in which the competing political parties or candidates converge to a common position. In this paper I show how political polarization can be generated in models that focus on the nexus between pre-election interest group lobbying and electoral competition.

  3. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of the modern understanding of orientational order in liquid crystals (LCs) is based on polarizing microscopy (PM). A PM image bears only two-dimensional (2D) information, integrating the 3D pattern of optical birefringence over the path of light. Recently, we proposed a technique to image 3D director patterns by ...

  4. Polarization of Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.


    The numerical results for the polarization of Bremsstrahlung are presented. The multiple scattering of electrons in the target is taken into account. The angular-and photon energy dependences are seen on the curves for an incident 25 MeV electron energy. (Author) [fr

  5. DESY: HERA polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The new HERA electron-proton collider at DESY in Hamburg achieved the first luminosity for electron-proton collisions on 19 October last year. Only one month later, on 20 November, HERA passed another important milestone with the observation of transverse electron polarization

  6. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.


    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  7. Graphics of polar figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.


    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  8. Exploring post-cold frontal moisture transport in an idealized extratropical cyclone study (United States)

    Sheffield, Amanda Marie

    strong control over the size, depth and frequency of the PCF clouds, and varies with distance from the cold front. Increased aerosol loading results in the invigoration of the PCF clouds. This is associated with an increase in the upward vertical moisture flux, increased cloud condensate formation, and reduced precipitation rates. Sea surface temperature is found to be a significantly more important factor in the development of PCF cumuli than aerosol loading, where increasing SSTs are associated with increased cloud fraction, cloud top heights, and precipitation rates. The impact of PCF clouds on vertically redistributing water vapor from the cold sector is found to depend in varying degrees on the large-scale advection of water vapor by the ETC system, the surface evaporation rates, the updraft velocities, the precipitation rates, and the cloud fraction within the PCF region. The pathways of the vertically redistributed water vapor within the ETC were then examined through the use of massless, passive tracers. The results of these experiments show that the water vapor lofted out of the PCF BL by the cumulus clouds is advected hundreds of kilometers eastward within 8-12 hours of release of tracers in the PCF BL. Furthermore, cross frontal transport from behind the cold front to the WCB source region appears to be small, in contradiction to previously hypothesized results. This is due to the fact that the cold frontal boundary provides a zone of strong vertical lifting that does not allow tracers to converge further east.

  9. Characteristics of volume polarization holography with linear polarization light (United States)

    Zang, Jinliang; Wu, An'an; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jue; Lin, Xiao; Tan, Xiaodi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo


    Volume polarization holographic recording in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ-PMMA) photopolymer with linear polarized light is obtained. The characteristics of the volume polarization hologram are experimentally investigated. It is found that beyond the paraxial approximation the polarization states of the holographic reconstruction light are generally different from the signal light. Based on vector wave theoretical analyses and material properties, the special exposure condition for correctly holographic reconstruction is obtained and experimentally demonstrated.

  10. Experiments with Fermilab polarized proton and polarized antiproton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.


    We summarize activities concerning the Fermilab polarized beams. They include a brief description of the polarized-beam facility, measurements of beam polarization by polarimeters, asymmetry measurements in the π degree production at high p perpendicular and in the Λ (Σ degree), π ± , π degree production at large x F , and Δσ L (pp, bar pp) measurements. 18 refs


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Just as He-3 --> can be approximately characterized as a polarized neutron target, polarized Li-6D has been advocated as a good isoscalar nuclear target for the extraction of the polarized gluon content of the nucleon. The original argument rests upon a presumed ''alpha + deuteron'' picture of Li-6,

  12. Parallel pathways from whisker and visual sensory cortices to distinct frontal regions of mouse neocortex. (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Varun; Kyriakatos, Alexandros; Mateo, Celine; Jaeger, Dieter; Petersen, Carl C H


    The spatial organization of mouse frontal cortex is poorly understood. Here, we used voltage-sensitive dye to image electrical activity in the dorsal cortex of awake head-restrained mice. Whisker-deflection evoked the earliest sensory response in a localized region of primary somatosensory cortex and visual stimulation evoked the earliest responses in a localized region of primary visual cortex. Over the next milliseconds, the initial sensory response spread within the respective primary sensory cortex and into the surrounding higher order sensory cortices. In addition, secondary hotspots in the frontal cortex were evoked by whisker and visual stimulation, with the frontal hotspot for whisker deflection being more anterior and lateral compared to the frontal hotspot evoked by visual stimulation. Investigating axonal projections, we found that the somatosensory whisker cortex and the visual cortex directly innervated frontal cortex, with visual cortex axons innervating a region medial and posterior to the innervation from somatosensory cortex, consistent with the location of sensory responses in frontal cortex. In turn, the axonal outputs of these two frontal cortical areas innervate distinct regions of striatum, superior colliculus, and brainstem. Sensory input, therefore, appears to map onto modality-specific regions of frontal cortex, perhaps participating in distinct sensorimotor transformations, and directing distinct motor outputs.

  13. The functional role of individual-alpha based frontal asymmetry in stress responding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Meyer, T.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; Smeets, T.J.M.


    Asymmetry in frontal electrical activity has been suggested to index tendencies in affective responding and thus may be associated with hormonal stress responses. To assess the functional role of frontal asymmetry (FA) in stress, we measured FA at rest and following exposure to acute stress induced

  14. Lower limb and associated injuries in frontal-impact road traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objectives: To study the relationship between severity of injury of the lower limb and severity of injury of the head, thoracic, and abdominal regions in frontal-impact road traffic collisions. Methods: Consecutive hospitalised trauma patients who were involved in a frontal road traffic collision were prospectively stud-.

  15. Clinico-Pathological Correlations of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome : Results of a Large Brain Bank Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krudop, Welmoed A; Bosman, Sjanne; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Verwey, Nicolaas A; Stek, Max L; Scheltens, Philip; Rozemuller, Annemieke J M; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L


    AIMS: A clinical frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) is generally attributed to functional or structural disturbances within frontal-subcortical circuits. We studied the distribution of pathological brain changes in FLS. Additionally, the prevalence of FLS among various disorders was studied. METHODS: We

  16. Mother and daughter with adolescent-onset severe frontal lobe dysfunction and epilepsy (United States)

    dos Passos, Giordani Rodrigues; Fernández, Alonso Cuadrado; Vasques, Adriana Machado; Martins, William Alves; Palmini, André


    ABSTRACT Familial cases of early-onset prominent frontal lobe dysfunction associated with epilepsy have not been reported to date. We report a mother and her only daughter with incapacitating behavioral manifestations of frontal lobe dysfunction and epilepsy of variable severity. The possibility of a hitherto undescribed genetic condition is discussed. PMID:29213461

  17. Osteite frontale post-sinusitique: Etude rétrospective à propos de 31 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective : Post-sinusitic frontal osteitis is defined as an extension of frontal sinus infection to the adjacent bony structures. It is an emergency that should rapidly be diagnosed and treated. The aim of this study is to analyze epidemiologic, clinical and paraclinical features, and to review different therapeutic modalities of this ...

  18. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity Triggers Anterior Insula Response to Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Keysers, Christian


    The observation of movies of facial expressions of others has been shown to recruit similar areas involved in experiencing one's own emotions: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (IFO). The Causal link bet between activity in these 2 regions,

  19. Does depth of the frontal sinus affect near-infrared spectroscopy measurement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, Frederik; Vedel, Anne G; Langkilde, Annika


    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive method that reflects real-time cerebral oxygenation (rSO2) by the use of two adhesive optodes placed on the forehead of the patient. Frontal sinuses vary anatomically and a large frontal sinus might compromise the NIRS signal since the NIRS...

  20. Visuo-spatial construction in patients with frontal and parietal lobe lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani Kashyap


    Full Text Available Visuospatial construction, traditionally viewed as a putative parietal function, also requires sustained attention, planning, organization strategies and error correction, and hence frontal lobe mediation. The relative contributions of the frontal and parietal lobes are poorly understood. To examine the contributions of parietal, frontal lobes, as well as right and left cerebral hemispheres to visuospatial construction. The Stick Construction Test for two-dimensional construction and the Block Construction Test for three-dimensional construction were administered pre-surgically to patients with lesions in the parietal lobe (n =9 and the frontal lobe (n=11, along with normal control subjects (n =20 matched to the patients on age (+/- 3 years, gender, education (+/- 3 years and handedness. The patients were significantly slower than the controls on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests. Patients with parietal lesions were slower than those with frontal lesions on the test of three-dimensional construction. Within each lobe patients with right and left sided lesions did not differ significantly. It appears that tests of three-dimensional construction might be most sensitive to visuospatial construction deficits. Visuospatial construction involves the mediation of both frontal and parietal lobes. The function does not appear to be lateralized. The networks arising from the parieto-occipital areas and projecting to the frontal cortices (e.g., occipito-frontal fasciculus may be the basis of the mediation of both lobes in visuospatial construction. The present findings need replication from studies with larger sample sizes.

  1. Self-Propagating Frontal Polymerization in Water at Ambient Pressure (United States)

    Olten, Nesrin; Kraigsley, Alison; Ronney, Paul D.


    Advances in polymer chemistry have led to the development of monomers and initiation agents that enable propagating free-radical polymerization fronts to exist. These fronts are driven by the exothermicity of the polymerization reaction and the transport of heat from the polymerized product to the reactant monomer/solvent/initiator solution. The thermal energy transported to the reactant solution causes the initiator to decompose, yielding free radicals, which start the free radical polymerization process as discussed in recent reviews. The use of polymerization processes based on propagating fronts has numerous applications. Perhaps the most important of these is that it enables rapid curing of polymers without external heating since the polymerization process itself provides the high temperatures necessary to initiate and sustain polymerization. This process also enables more uniform curing of arbitrarily thick samples since it does not rely on heat transfer from an external source, which will necessarily cause the temperature history of the sample to vary with distance from the surface according to a diffusion-like process. Frontal polymerization also enables filling and sealing of structures having cavities of arbitrary shape without having to externally heat the structure. Water at atmospheric pressure is most convenient solvent to employ and the most important for practical applications (because of the cost and environmental issues associated with DMSO and other solvents). Nevertheless, to our knowledge, steady, self-propagating polymerization fronts have not been reported in water at atmospheric pressure. Currently, polymerization fronts require a high boiling point solvent (either water at high pressures or an alternative solvent such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (boiling point 189 C at atmospheric pressure.) Early work on frontal polymerization, employed pressures up to 5000 atm in order to avoid boiling of the monomer/solvent/initiator solution. High

  2. Geomagnetic polarity transitions (United States)

    Merrill, Ronald T.; McFadden, Phillip L.


    The top of Earth's liquid outer core is nearly 2900 km beneath Earth's surface, so we will never be able to observe it directly. This hot, dense, molten iron-rich body is continuously in motion and is the source of Earth's magnetic field. One of the most dynamic manifestations at Earth's surface of this fluid body is, perhaps, a reversal of the geomagnetic field. Unfortunately, the most recent polarity transition occurred at about 780 ka, so we have never observed a transition directly. It seems that a polarity transition spans many human lifetimes, so no human will ever witness the phenomenon in its entirety. Thus we are left with the tantalizing prospect that paleomagnetic records of polarity transitions may betray some of the secrets of the deep Earth. Certainly, if there are systematics in the reversal process and they can be documented, then this will reveal substantial information about the nature of the lowermost mantle and of the outer core. Despite their slowness on a human timescale, polarity transitions occur almost instantaneously on a geological timescale. This rapidity, together with limitations in the paleomagnetic recording process, prohibits a comprehensive description of any reversal transition both now and into the foreseeable future, which limits the questions that may at this stage be sensibly asked. The natural model for the geomagnetic field is a set of spherical harmonic components, and we are not able to obtain a reliable model for even the first few harmonic terms during a transition. Nevertheless, it is possible, in principle, to make statements about the harmonic character of a geomagnetic polarity transition without having a rigorous spherical harmonic description of one. For example, harmonic descriptions of recent geomagnetic polarity transitions that are purely zonal can be ruled out (a zonal harmonic does not change along a line of latitude). Gleaning information about transitions has proven to be difficult, but it does seem

  3. Polarized electron beams at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffeit, K.C.


    SLAC has successfully accelerated high energy polarized electrons for the Stanford Linear Collider and fixed polarized nuclear target experiments. The polarized electron beams at SLAC use a gallium arsenide (GaAlAs for E-142) photon emission source to provide the beam of polarized electrons with polarization of approximately 28% (41% for E-142). While the beam emittance is reduced in the damping ring for SLC operation a system of bend magnets and superconducting solenoids preserve and orient the spin direction for maximum longitudinal polarization at the collision point. The electron polarization is monitored with a Compton scattering polarimeter, and was typically 22% at the e+e- collision point for the 1992 run. Improvements are discussed to increase the source polarization and to reduce the depolarization effects between the source and the collision point

  4. Analytical polarization calculations beyond SLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.P.


    A comparison is made between the theories of Bell and Leinaas and of Derbenev and Kondratenko for the spin polarization in electron storage rings. A calculation of polarization in HERA using the program SMILE of Mane is presented

  5. Frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety. (United States)

    Mennella, Rocco; Patron, Elisabetta; Palomba, Daniela


    Frontal alpha asymmetry has been proposed to underlie the balance between approach and withdrawal motivation associated to each individual's affective style. Neurofeedback of EEG frontal alpha asymmetry represents a promising tool to reduce negative affect, although its specific effects on left/right frontal activity and approach/withdrawal motivation are still unclear. The present study employed a neurofeedback training to increase frontal alpha asymmetry (right - left), in order to evaluate discrete changes in alpha power at left and right sites, as well as in positive and negative affect, anxiety and depression. Thirty-two right-handed females were randomly assigned to receive either the neurofeedback on frontal alpha asymmetry, or an active control training (N = 16 in each group). The asymmetry group showed an increase in alpha asymmetry driven by higher alpha at the right site (p neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparative study of linear measurements on facial skeleton with frontal and lateral cephalogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Gandikota


    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the accuracy of linear measurements on lateral and frontal cephalograms with gold standard skull measurements . Materials and Methods: Based on the specific criteria including reliable occlusion and condyles fitting in glenoid fossa, 15 dry human skulls were selected from a larger collection. Lateral and frontal cephalograms were taken of each skull by standardized methods. Steel ball bearings were used to identify the anatomic landmarks. Linear measurements in midsagittal plane were made on all three records. Intraclass correlation coefficients, Pearson′s correlation coefficient and regression constant were calculated to assess the records simultaneously. Results: The frontal cephalometric measurements showed high correlation to the direct skull measurements (Pearson′s coefficient 0.943frontal cephalometric images. The overall findings of the present study showed that the frontal cephalometric measurements are closely related to the direct skull measures.

  7. On Determinants of Political Polarization


    Grechyna, Daryna


    Political polarization has been shown to significantly influence a country's economic performance. However, little is known about the drivers of political polarization. In this article, we aim to identify the main determinants of political polarization using Bayesian Model Averaging to overcome the problem of model uncertainty. We find that the level of trust within a country and the degree of income inequality are the most robust determinants of political polarization.

  8. Abnormal functional network connectivity among resting-state networks in children with frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Widjaja, E; Zamyadi, M; Raybaud, C; Snead, O C; Smith, M L


    Epilepsy is considered a disorder of neural networks. The aims of this study were to assess functional connectivity within resting-state networks and functional network connectivity across resting-state networks by use of resting-state fMRI in children with frontal lobe epilepsy and to relate changes in resting-state networks with neuropsychological function. Fifteen patients with frontal lobe epilepsy and normal MR imaging and 14 healthy control subjects were recruited. Spatial independent component analysis was used to identify the resting-state networks, including frontal, attention, default mode network, sensorimotor, visual, and auditory networks. The Z-maps of resting-state networks were compared between patients and control subjects. The relation between abnormal connectivity and neuropsychological function was assessed. Correlations from all pair-wise combinations of independent components were performed for each group and compared between groups. The frontal network was the only network that showed reduced connectivity in patients relative to control subjects. The remaining 5 networks demonstrated both reduced and increased functional connectivity within resting-state networks in patients. There was a weak association between connectivity in frontal network and executive function (P = .029) and a significant association between sensorimotor network and fine motor function (P = .004). Control subjects had 79 pair-wise independent components that showed significant temporal coherence across all resting-state networks except for default mode network-auditory network. Patients had 66 pairs of independent components that showed significant temporal coherence across all resting-state networks. Group comparison showed reduced functional network connectivity between default mode network-attention, frontal-sensorimotor, and frontal-visual networks and increased functional network connectivity between frontal-attention, default mode network-sensorimotor, and frontal

  9. Polarized electrogowdy spacetimes censored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nungesser, Ernesto, E-mail: ernesto.nungesser@aei.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)


    A sketch of the proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this it is seen that the results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.

  10. Oscillatory frontal theta responses are increased upon bisensory stimulation. (United States)

    Sakowitz, O W; Schürmann, M; Başar, E


    To investigate the functional correlation of oscillatory EEG components with the interaction of sensory modalities following simultaneous audio-visual stimulation. In an experimental study (15 subjects) we compared auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to bimodal evoked potentials (BEPs; simultaneous auditory and visual stimulation). BEPs were assumed to be brain responses to complex stimuli as a marker for intermodal associative functioning. Frequency domain analysis of these EPs showed marked theta-range components in response to bimodal stimulation. These theta components could not be explained by linear addition of the unimodal responses in the time domain. Considering topography the increased theta-response showed a remarkable frontality in proximity to multimodal association cortices. Referring to methodology we try to demonstrate that, even if various behavioral correlates of brain oscillations exist, common patterns can be extracted by means of a systems-theoretical approach. Serving as an example of functionally relevant brain oscillations, theta responses could be interpreted as an indicator of associative information processing.

  11. Frontal Midline Theta Oscillations during Mental Arithmetic: Effects of Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti eGärtner


    Full Text Available Complex cognitive tasks such as mental arithmetic heavily rely on intact, well-coordinated prefrontal cortex (PFC function. Converging evidence suggests that frontal midline theta (FMT oscillations play an important role during the execution of such PFC-dependent tasks. Additionally, it is well-established that acute stress impairs PFC function, and recent evidence suggests that FMT is decreased under stress. In this EEG study, we investigated FMT oscillations during a mental arithmetic task that was carried out in a stressful and a neutral control condition. Our results show late-onset, sustained FMT increases during mental arithmetic. In the neutral condition FMT started to increase earlier than in the stress condition. Direct comparison of the conditions quantified this difference by showing stronger FMT increases in the neutral condition in an early time window. Between-subject correlation analysis showed that attenuated FMT under stress was related to slowed reaction times. Our results suggest that FMT is associated with stimulus independent mental processes during the natural and complex PFC-dependent task of mental arithmetic, and is a possible marker for intact PFC function that is disrupted under stress.

  12. Analysis of car’s frontal collision against pole (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Nastasoiu, M.


    Reducing the effects of traffic accidents over the occupants is a major objective of collision attempts. Impacts between the car and the pole are very dangerous for the physical integrity of the car’s occupants. To minimalize the effects of such events on the passengers of a vehicle, a whole series of efforts by both designers and experienced engineers led to increasingly the vehicles safety. The main aim of these paper is to quantify the influences over the car passengers of loads involved by car against pole collisions using the same car model at different speeds. Also, this kind on occupant influences were study using a small car model. Other goal of the paper was the study of the cars stiffness in frontal collision against the pole. The paper’s experimental results were obtained by support of DSD, Dr. Steffan Datentechnik GmbH - Linz, Austria. The described tests were performed in full test facility of DSD Linz, in “Easter 2016 PC-Crash Seminar”. Cars accelerations, velocities, rotations angles after pole impact were registered and discussed. The novelty of the paper consists in studies referred for the same car model involved in car against pole collisions at different impact speeds. Paper’s conclusions can be future used for car safety improvement.

  13. Frontal and occipital perfusion changes in dissociative identity disorder. (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Unal, Seher N; Ozturk, Erdinc


    The aim of the study was to investigate if there were any characteristics of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in dissociative identity disorder. Twenty-one drug-free patients with dissociative identity disorder and nine healthy volunteers participated in the study. In addition to a clinical evaluation, dissociative psychopathology was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale. A semi-structured interview for borderline personality disorder, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were also administered to all patients. Normal controls had to be without a history of childhood trauma and without any depressive or dissociative disorder. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Tc99m-hexamethylpropylenamine (HMPAO) as a tracer. Compared with findings in the control group, the rCBF ratio was decreased among patients with dissociative identity disorder in the orbitofrontal region bilaterally. It was increased in median and superior frontal regions and occipital regions bilaterally. There was no significant correlation between rCBF ratios of the regions of interest and any of the psychopathology scale scores. An explanation for the neurophysiology of dissociative psychopathology has to invoke a comprehensive model of interaction between anterior and posterior brain regions.

  14. Controlling frontal photopolymerization with optical attenuation and mass diffusion (United States)

    Hennessy, Matthew G.; Vitale, Alessandra; Matar, Omar K.; Cabral, João T.


    Frontal photopolymerization (FPP) is a versatile directional solidification process that can be used to rapidly fabricate polymer network materials by selectively exposing a photosensitive monomer bath to light. A characteristic feature of FPP is that the monomer-to-polymer conversion profiles take on the form of traveling waves that propagate into the unpolymerized bulk from the illuminated surface. Practical implementations of FPP require detailed knowledge about the conversion profile and speed of these traveling waves. The purpose of this theoretical study is to (i) determine the conditions under which FPP occurs and (ii) explore how optical attenuation and mass transport can be used to finely tune the conversion profile and propagation kinetics. Our findings quantify the strong optical attenuation and slow mass transport relative to the rate of polymerization required for FPP. The shape of the traveling wave is primarily controlled by the magnitude of the optical attenuation coefficients of the neat and polymerized material. Unexpectedly, we find that mass diffusion can increase the net extent of polymerization and accelerate the growth of the solid network. The theoretical predictions are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data acquired for representative systems.

  15. Frontal theta activity during working memory in test anxiety. (United States)

    Shi, Zhan; Gao, Xin; Zhou, Renlai


    Previous studies have shown that working memory (WM) processes are related to frontal-midline theta (FM-theta) activity (4-8 Hz) and test anxiety impairs WM performance. However, the effect of test anxiety on FM-theta activity during WM has not been investigated as yet. To examine this question, 37 undergraduates were asked to complete a modified reading span task involving neutral working memory capacity (WMC) and emotional WMC while their electroencephalography was measured. The results showed that relative to neutral WMC performance (the ability to remember the letter lists in the context of valence-neutral sentences), emotional WMC performance (the ability to remember the letter lists in the context of test-related sentences) was poorer for highly test anxious participants compared with lowly test anxious participants. Relative to FM-theta activity during remembering the letter lists in the valence-neutral context, FM-theta activity was weaker during remembering the letter lists in the test-related context for highly test anxious participants compared with lowly test anxious participants. These findings indicate that FM-theta is an index not only for successful WM manipulation but also for efficient prefrontal cortex functioning during WM.

  16. Altered Medial Frontal Feedback Learning Signals in Anorexia Nervosa. (United States)

    Bernardoni, Fabio; Geisler, Daniel; King, Joseph A; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Ritschel, Franziska; Murr, Julia; Reiter, Andrea M F; Rössner, Veit; Smolka, Michael N; Kiebel, Stefan; Ehrlich, Stefan


    In their relentless pursuit of thinness, individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) engage in maladaptive behaviors (restrictive food choices and overexercising) that may originate in altered decision making and learning. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we employed computational modeling to elucidate the neural correlates of feedback learning and value-based decision making in 36 female patients with AN and 36 age-matched healthy volunteers (12-24 years). Participants performed a decision task that required adaptation to changing reward contingencies. Data were analyzed within a hierarchical Gaussian filter model that captures interindividual variability in learning under uncertainty. Behaviorally, patients displayed an increased learning rate specifically after punishments. At the neural level, hemodynamic correlates for the learning rate, expected value, and prediction error did not differ between the groups. However, activity in the posterior medial frontal cortex was elevated in AN following punishment. Our findings suggest that the neural underpinning of feedback learning is selectively altered for punishment in AN. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hemichorea and dystonia due to frontal lobe meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qayyum Rana


    Full Text Available Tumors originating from the meninges, also known as meningiomas, have rarely been known to cause parkinsonian symptoms and other movement disorders. Although some cases of AV malformations causing movement disorders have been described in the literature, not much has been reported about meningiomas in this regard. The aim of this case report is to further highlight the importance of brain imaging in patients with movement disorders for even a benign tumor; and also emphasize the need for a careful movement disorder examination because more than one phenomenology of movement disorders may result from the mechanical pressure caused by a tumor. We present a case report of a patient with a heavily calcified right frontal lobe meningioma. Our patient had irregular, involuntary, brief, fleeting and unpredictable movements of her left upper and lower extremities, consistent with chorea. The patient also had abnormal dystonic posturing of her left arm while walking. This case report highlights the importance of brain imaging as well as careful neurological examinations of patients with benign meningiomas. Moreover, it illustrates the remarkable specificity yet clinical diversity of meningiomas in presentation through movement disorders.

  18. [Brodmann Areas 8 and 9 Including the Frontal Eye Field]. (United States)

    Watanabe, Masataka


    Based on cytoarchitectonic analyses, Brodmann assigned numbers 8 and 9 to certain areas of the dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in humans and monkeys. Petrides and Pandya re-analyzed the cytoarchitectures of the human and monkey PFCs, and proposed slightly different brain maps for both species. They assigned numbers 8, 9 and 9/46 to the areas that were originally named areas 8 and 9. Areas 8 and 9 have both lateral and medial regions respectively. The lateral area 8 is important for conditional discrimination learning. The frontal eye field which occupies the most caudal region of area 8, is responsible for visual attention and control of eye movements. The lateral area 9 and area 9/46 are functionally similar to area 46 and play important roles in executive control. The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) comprises the medial regions of areas 8 and 9 and is related to "Theory of Mind" and social cognition. The DMPFC is also known to show "default mode of brain activity" (i.e., more activity during rest than during cognitive task).

  19. Frontal Conversion and Uniformity in 3D Printing by Photopolymerisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Vitale


    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the non-uniform spatio-temporal conversion, intrinsic to photopolymerisation, in the context of light-driven 3D printing of polymers. The polymerisation kinetics of a series of model acrylate and thiol-ene systems, both neat and doped with a light-absorbing dye, is investigated experimentally and analysed according to a descriptive coarse-grained model for photopolymerisation. In particular, we focus on the relative kinetics of polymerisation with those of 3D printing, by comparing the evolution of the position of the conversion profile (zf to the sequential displacement of the object stage (∆z. After quantifying the characteristic sigmoidal monomer-to-polymer conversion of the various systems, with a combination of patterning experiments, FT-IR mapping, and modelling, we compute representative regimes for which zf is smaller, commensurate with, or larger than ∆z. While non-monotonic conversion can be detrimental to 3D printing, for instance in causing differential shrinkage of inhomogeneity in material properties, we identify opportunities for facile fabrication of modulated materials in the z-direction (i.e., along the illuminated axis. Our simple framework and model, based on directly measured parameters, can thus be employed in photopolymerisation-based 3D printing, both in process optimisation and in the precise design of complex, internally stratified materials by coupling the z-stage displacement and frontal polymerisation kinetics.

  20. Frontal Conversion and Uniformity in 3D Printing by Photopolymerisation. (United States)

    Vitale, Alessandra; Cabral, João T


    We investigate the impact of the non-uniform spatio-temporal conversion, intrinsic to photopolymerisation, in the context of light-driven 3D printing of polymers. The polymerisation kinetics of a series of model acrylate and thiol-ene systems, both neat and doped with a light-absorbing dye, is investigated experimentally and analysed according to a descriptive coarse-grained model for photopolymerisation. In particular, we focus on the relative kinetics of polymerisation with those of 3D printing, by comparing the evolution of the position of the conversion profile ( z f ) to the sequential displacement of the object stage ( ∆z ). After quantifying the characteristic sigmoidal monomer-to-polymer conversion of the various systems, with a combination of patterning experiments, FT-IR mapping, and modelling, we compute representative regimes for which z f is smaller, commensurate with, or larger than ∆z . While non-monotonic conversion can be detrimental to 3D printing, for instance in causing differential shrinkage of inhomogeneity in material properties, we identify opportunities for facile fabrication of modulated materials in the z -direction (i.e., along the illuminated axis). Our simple framework and model, based on directly measured parameters, can thus be employed in photopolymerisation-based 3D printing, both in process optimisation and in the precise design of complex, internally stratified materials by coupling the z -stage displacement and frontal polymerisation kinetics.

  1. Frontal midline theta oscillations during mental arithmetic: effects of stress. (United States)

    Gärtner, Matti; Grimm, Simone; Bajbouj, Malek


    Complex cognitive tasks such as mental arithmetic heavily rely on intact, well-coordinated prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. Converging evidence suggests that frontal midline theta (FMT) oscillations play an important role during the execution of such PFC-dependent tasks. Additionally, it is well-established that acute stress impairs PFC function, and recent evidence suggests that FMT is decreased under stress. In this EEG study, we investigated FMT oscillations during a mental arithmetic task that was carried out in a stressful and a neutral control condition. Our results show late-onset, sustained FMT increases during mental arithmetic. In the neutral condition FMT started to increase earlier than in the stress condition. Direct comparison of the conditions quantified this difference by showing stronger FMT increases in the neutral condition in an early time window. Between-subject correlation analysis showed that attenuated FMT under stress was related to slowed reaction times. Our results suggest that FMT is associated with stimulus independent mental processes during the natural and complex PFC-dependent task of mental arithmetic, and is a possible marker for intact PFC function that is disrupted under stress.

  2. Feasible stability region in the frontal plane during human gait. (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Espy, Debbie; Pai, Yi-Chung


    The inability to adequately control the motion of the center of mass (COM) in the frontal plane may result in a loss of balance causing a sideways fall during human gait. The primary purposes of this study were (1) to derive the feasible stability region (FSR) in the mediolateral direction, and (2) to compare the FSR with the COM motion state taken from 193 trials among 39 young subjects at liftoff during walking at different speeds. The lower boundary of the FSR was derived, at a given initial COM location, as the minimum rightward COM velocity, at liftoff of the left foot, required to bring the COM into the base of support (BOS), i.e., the right (stance) foot, as the COM velocity diminishes. The upper boundary was derived as the maximum rightward COM velocity, beyond which the left foot must land to the right of the right foot (BOS) in order to prevent a fall. We established a 2-link human model and employed dynamic optimization to estimate these threshold values for velocity. For a range of initial COM positions, simulated annealing algorithm was used to search for the threshold velocity values. Our study quantified the extent to which mediolateral balance can still be maintained without resorting to a crossover step (the left foot lands to the right of the BOS) for balance recovery. The derived FSR is in good agreement with our gait experimental results.

  3. Celulitis orbitaria, celulitis frontal y empiema como complicaciones de sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipa Elena García García

    Full Text Available La celulitis orbitaria usualmente ocurre como complicación de infecciones de los senos para nasales, y la etiología es principalmente bacteriana. Para realizar un diagnóstico e implantar terapéutica temprana tiene gran importancia reconocer las manifestaciones clínicas de la sinusitis y las edades más afectadas, pues dada su ubicación anatómica, pueden complicarse también con infecciones del sistema nervioso central, que en la edad pediátrica tienen una connotación especial. Se presentan aquí dos pacientes de 10 y 14 años de edad respectivamente, que desarrollaron celulitis orbitaria en un caso, y celulitis frontal y empiema en el otro; así mismo, se muestran los medios diagnósticos utilizados para identificar signos tempranos de posibles complicaciones, con el objetivo que el pediatra pueda identificarlos, así como la terapéutica implantada para dar solución o evitar estas complicaciones.

  4. Human medial frontal cortex activity predicts learning from errors. (United States)

    Hester, Robert; Barre, Natalie; Murphy, Kevin; Silk, Tim J; Mattingley, Jason B


    Learning from errors is a critical feature of human cognition. It underlies our ability to adapt to changing environmental demands and to tune behavior for optimal performance. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) has been implicated in the evaluation of errors to control behavior, although it has not previously been shown that activity in this region predicts learning from errors. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined activity in the pMFC during an associative learning task in which participants had to recall the spatial locations of 2-digit targets and were provided with immediate feedback regarding accuracy. Activity within the pMFC was significantly greater for errors that were subsequently corrected than for errors that were repeated. Moreover, pMFC activity during recall errors predicted future responses (correct vs. incorrect), despite a sizeable interval (on average 70 s) between an error and the next presentation of the same recall probe. Activity within the hippocampus also predicted future performance and correlated with error-feedback-related pMFC activity. A relationship between performance expectations and pMFC activity, in the absence of differing reinforcement value for errors, is consistent with the idea that error-related pMFC activity reflects the extent to which an outcome is "worse than expected."

  5. PEPPo: Using a Polarized Electron Beam to Produce Polarized Positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeyemi, Adeleke H. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); et al.


    Polarized positron beams have been identified as either an essential or a significant ingredient for the experimental program of both the present and next generation of lepton accelerators (JLab, Super KEK B, ILC, CLIC). An experiment demonstrating a new method for producing polarized positrons has been performed at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Lab. The PEPPo (Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons) concept relies on the production of polarized e⁻/e⁺ pairs from the bremsstrahlung radiation of a longitudinally polarized electron beam interacting within a high-Z conversion target. PEPPo demonstrated the effective transfer of spin-polarization of an 8.2 MeV/c polarized (P~85%) electron beam to positrons produced in varying thickness tungsten production targets, and collected and measured in the range of 3.1 to 6.2 MeV/c. In comparison to other methods this technique reveals a new pathway for producing either high-energy or thermal polarized positron beams using a relatively low polarized electron beam energy (~10MeV) .This presentation will describe the PEPPo concept, the motivations of the experiment and high positron polarization achieved.

  6. Polarization induced doped transistor (United States)

    Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang


    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  7. Polar bears, Ursus maritimus (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Stirling, Ian


    Polar bears are the largest of the eight species of bears found worldwide and are covered in a pigment-free fur giving them the appearance of being white. They are the most carnivorous of bear species consuming a high-fat diet, primarily of ice-associated seals and other marine mammals. They range throughout the circumpolar Arctic to the southernmost extent of seasonal pack ice.

  8. Polarized advanced fuel reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.


    The d- 3 He reaction has the same spin dependence as the d-t reaction. It produces no neutrons, so that if the d-d reactivity could be reduced, it would lead to a neutron-lean reactor. The current understanding of the possible suppression of the d-d reactivity by spin polarization is discussed. The question as to whether a suppression is possible is still unresolved. Other advanced fuel reactions are briefly discussed. 11 refs

  9. On polarization in biomembranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchi, Karis Amata

    close to physiological conditions, making these effects biologically relevant. In this work, we consider the case of asymmetric membranes which can display spontaneous polarization in the absence of a field. Close to the phase transition, we find that the membrane displays piezoelectric, flexoelectric...... on different geometries point in the direction of a flexoelectric mechanism behind current rectification in lipid bilayers. Finally, we suggest that our updated equivalent circuit should be included in the interpretation of elctrophysiological data....

  10. Multifrequency Behaviour of Polars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Reinsch


    Full Text Available Cataclysmic variables emit over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper I will review observations of polars in relevant passbands obtained during the last decade and will discuss their diagnostical potential to access the physics of the main components within the binary systems. This will include a discussion of intrinsic source variability and the quest for simultaneous multi-frequency observations.

  11. Polar Business Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Caisse


    Full Text Available Polar business design aims to enable entrepreneurs, managers, consultants, researchers, and business students to better tackle model-based analysis, creation, and transformation of businesses, ventures, and, more generically, collective endeavors of any size and purpose. It is based on a systems-thinking approach that builds on a few interrelated core concepts to create holistic visual frameworks. These core concepts act as poles linked by meaningful dyads, flows, and faces arranged in geometric shapes. The article presents two such polar frameworks as key findings in an ongoing analytic autoethnography: the three-pole Value−Activity−Stakeholder (VAS triquetra and the four-pole Offer−Creation−Character−Stakeholder (OCCS tetrahedron. The VAS triquetra is a more aggregated model of collective endeavors. The OCCS tetrahedron makes a trade-off between a steeper learning curve and deeper, richer representation potential. This article discusses how to use these two frameworks as well as their limits, and explores the potential that polar business design offers for future research.

  12. Laringectomia frontal anterior: técnica de Tucker. Estudo retrospectivo Anterior frontal laryngectomy: Tucker's technique. A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordania Gomes Campos


    Full Text Available O carcinoma epidermóide da laringe é a sexta neoplasia mais comum, sendo uma das neoplasias malignas mais freqüentes na cabeça e pescoço, ocupando o segundo lugar imediatamente após o câncer da cavidade oral. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Entre os anos de 1991 e 2003, 24 pacientes portadores de lesões glóticas envolvendo a comissura anterior foram submetidos a laringectomia frontal anterior com epiglotoplastia descrita por Tucker e colaboradores no ano de 1979. RESULTADO: Nossos resultados confirmam aqueles encontrados em outras publicações. Não ocorreram mortes no pós-operatório e o seguimento foi relativamente simples. Todos os pacientes foram decanulizados e recuperaram um efetivo trato digestivo e aéreo. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos achados mostram que a laringectomia pela técnica de Tucker é uma cirurgia efetiva para o tratamento dos carcinomas glóticos que acometem a comissura anterior e a porção membranosa das cordas vocais com a motilidade preservada, pois tais lesões não devem ser tratadas pela ressecção endoscópica trans-oral ou por uma laringectomia fronto lateral.Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx is the sixth most common neoplasia, being the second neoplasia of the head and neck, after oral cancer. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective clinical study chart review. MATERIAL AND METHOD: From 1991 to 2003, 24 patients whose glottic lesions involving anterior comissure were operated with a reconstructive anterior frontal laryngectomy with epiglotoplasty, such as described by Tucker et al in 1979. RESULTS: Our functional results confirm those reported in the previous publications. There were no post-operative mortalities and follow-up was usually uncomplicated. All patients underwent decanulation and were able to eat by tract normal. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that partial laryngectomy by Tucker's technique is an effective surgical approach for glottic carcinoma at the anterior comissure

  13. Frictional properties of the Nankai frontal thrust explain recurring shallow slow slip events (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Ikari, M.; Kopf, A.; Roesner, A.


    Recent observations provide evidence for shallow slip reaching to the trench on subduction megathrusts, both in earthquakes and slow slip events (SSE). This is at odds with existing friction studies, which report primarily velocity-strengthening behavior (friction increases with slip velocity) for subduction fault material and synthetic analogs, which leads only to stable sliding. We report on direct shearing experiments on fault rocks from IODP Site C0007, which sampled the frontal thrust of the Nankai accretionary prism. This fault has been implicated in both coseimic slip and recurring SSE. We focus on material from 437.2 meters below seafloor, immediately above a localized shear zone near the base of the fault. In our experiments, a 25 mm diameter cylindrical specimen is loaded in an assembly of two steel plates. After application of normal stress (3, 10, or 17 MPa) and subsequent equilibration, the lower plate is driven at a constant velocity while the upper plate remains stationary; this configuration forces shear to localize between the two plates. After reaching a steady state residual friction coefficient (µss), we conducted velocity-stepping tests to measure the friction rate parameter (a-b), defined as the change in friction for a change in velocity: (a-b) = Δuss/ln(V/Vo), over a range of velocities from 0.1-100 µm s-1. We find that µss ranges from 0.26 to 0.32 and exhibits a slight decrease with normal stress. We observe velocity-weakening behavior at low normal stresses (3-10 MPa) and for low sliding velocities (30 µm s-1. At higher normal stress (17 MPa), we observe dominantly velocity-strengthening, consistent with previously reported measurements for 25 MPa normal stress. Our observation of rate weakening at slip rates matching those of SSE in the outer Nankai forearc provide a potential explanation for periodic strain accumulation and subsequent release during SSE near the trench. The observation of rate weakening behavior only at low normal

  14. Aplasia and agenesis of the frontal sinus in Turkish individuals: a retrospective study using dental volumetric tomography. (United States)

    Çakur, Binali; Sumbullu, Muhammed A; Durna, Nurhan Bayındır


    Agenesis of the paranasal sinuses is an uncommon clinical condition that appears mainly in the frontal (12%) and maxillary (5-6%) sinuses; in some populations, it appears at a higher proportion. This study investigated the prevalence of agenesis of the frontal sinuses using dental volumetric tomography (DVT) in Turkish individuals. The frontal sinuses of 410 patients were examined by DVT scans in the coronal planes for evidence of the absence of the frontal sinuses. A bilateral and unilateral absence of the frontal sinuses was seen in 0.73% and 1.22% of cases, respectively. In one case, both agenesis and aplasia of the frontal sinus was seen (0.24%). The low percentage of frontal sinus agenesis must be considered during pre-surgical planning related to the sinuses. DVT may be used as a diagnostic tool for the examination of frontal sinus aplasia.

  15. Sexual dimorphism and regional variation in human frontal bone inclination measured via digital 3D models. (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Garvin, Heather M; Sholts, Sabrina B; Schlager, Stefan; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S


    The frontal bone is one of the most sexually dimorphic elements of the human skull, due to features such as the glabella, frontal eminences, and frontal inclination. While glabella is frequently evaluated in procedures to estimate sex in unknown human skeletal remains, frontal inclination has received less attention. In this study we present a straightforward, quick, and reproducible method for measuring frontal inclination angles from glabella and supraglabella. Using a sample of 413 human crania from four different populations (U.S. Whites, U.S. Blacks, Portuguese, and Chinese), we test the usefulness of the inclination angles for sex estimation and compare their performance to traditional methods of frontal inclination assessment. Accuracy rates in the range 75-81% were achieved for the U.S. White, U.S. Black, and Portuguese groups. For Chinese the overall accuracy was lower, i.e. 66%. Although some regional variation was observed, a cut-off value of 78.2° for glabellar inclination angles separates female and male crania from all studied populations with good accuracy. As inclination angles measured from glabella captures two sexually dimorphic features (i.e. glabellar prominence and frontal inclination) in a single measure, the observed clear male/female difference is not unexpected. Being continuous variables, inclination angles are suitable for use in statistical methods for sex estimations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Frontal lobe function in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease and caregiver burden. (United States)

    Hashimoto, Akiko; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Masato; Iida, Junzo; Jikumaru, Kiyoko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi


    Understanding of the relationship between caregiver burden and the degree of behavioural deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is relatively limited. Therefore, it is worthwhile to examine the correlations between the various relevant factors to improve the efficacy of care for patients with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific contributions of frontal lobe dysfunction in AD patients to caregiver burden, while controlling for other predictor variables. Participants included 30 pairs of caregivers and patients with AD. The Zarit Burden Interview and Frontal Assessment Battery were used to measure the caregiver burden and patients' frontal lobe function, respectively. To investigate the effects of frontal lobe dysfunction on caregiver burden, hierarchical regression equations with steps incorporating additional predictor variables were fitted. We also performed a correlation analysis between the individual subdomains of the Zarit Burden Interview and the predictor variables. Our study suggests that the degree of frontal lobe dysfunction in AD patients predicts their caregiver burden, when other factors of daily functional limitations and neuropsychiatric symptoms are controlled. Daily functional limitations and neuropsychiatric symptoms affected caregivers' psychosocial burden, whereas frontal lobe dysfunction affected caregivers' burden due to the increase in the dependency of the patients. Our findings indicate that to ameliorate the disabilities of patients and reduce caregiver burden, there is a need for interventions that focus on psychosocial burdens, as shown in previous studies, as well as on excessive dependency due to frontal lobe dysfunction. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  17. Frontal brain asymmetry as a marker of depression and effectiveness of TMS therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, D.; Lithgow, B.


    Full text: Resting frontal brain electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry has been hypothesi sed as a diagnostic marker for depression. A number of studies have shown that depressed individuals are characterised by diminished left sided activation of the prefrontal cortex, which is indicated by greater left than right alpha-band power. Relative left frontal region activity is believed to be associated with positive approach related behaviour and relative right frontal activity is seen to be linked to negative withdrawal related behaviour. In this study, frontal brain EEG was recorded from 17 depressed and 19 control subjects, from which frontal brain asymmetry ratios were calculated. The results confirmed the trend of relative left anterior hypoaclivation for individuals with depression compared to the healthy controls. This study also looked at beta and theta band ratios and found theta for depressed is predominantly negative, while the control group dis played mainly positive values. Beta comparison showed little significant difference between control and depressed groups. In addition, there have been few studies that examined frontal brain asymmetry in depression soon after treatment to gauge its effectiv ness. In a very preliminary study, the effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) therapy on the alpha band frontal brain asymmetry ratio for 5 depl'essed subjects before and after treatment found a slight increase in FBA ratio for 4 subjects. Further research and a larger subject group is required to validate these results.

  18. Relationships of Behavioral Measures of Frontal Lobe Dysfunction with Underlying Electrophysiology in Cocaine-Dependent Patients (United States)

    Gjini, Klevest; Qazi, Aisha; Greenwald, Mark K.; Sandhu, Ravinder; Gooding, Diane C.; Boutros, Nash N.


    Background and Objectives Despite evidence that frontal lobe functioning is impaired in cocaine-dependent individuals, relationships between behavioral measures of frontal dysfunction and electrophysiological measures of inhibition in cocaine use have not been explored. Methods Using the Frontal System Behavior Scale (FrSBe), frontal dysfunction was assessed in a group of abstinent cocaine-dependent subjects (N=49) and healthy controls (N=32). Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and evoked potential (EP)-based electrophysiological measures of inhibition, we assessed associations between these measures and FrSBe estimates of frontal dysfunction. Results Patients had significantly higher FrSBe scores for executive dysfunction, disinhibition and apathy than controls. Lower TMS-based resting motor thresholds (i.e., hyperexcitability) were significantly associated with higher Executive Dysfunction scores in the patients. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Relationships between FrSBe scores and TMS-based measures highlight neurophysiological aberrations underlying frontal lobe dysfunction in cocaine abusers. TMS and EP measures may be useful probes of the intermediary steps between frontal lobe dysfunction and addictive behavior. PMID:24724884

  19. A Novel Approach to Prenatal Measurement of the Fetal Frontal Lobe Using Three-Dimensional Sonography. (United States)

    Brown, Steffen A; Hall, Rebecca; Hund, Lauren; Gutierrez, Hilda L; Hurley, Timothy; Holbrook, Bradley D; Bakhireva, Ludmila N


    While prenatal 3D ultrasonography results in improved diagnostic accuracy, no data are available on biometric assessment of the fetal frontal lobe. This study was designed to assess feasibility of a standardized approach to biometric measurement of the fetal frontal lobe and to construct frontal lobe growth trajectories throughout gestation. A sonographic 3D volume set was obtained and measured in 101 patients between 16.1 and 33.7 gestational weeks. Measurements were obtained by two independent raters. To model the relationship between gestational age and each frontal lobe measurement, flexible linear regression models were fit using penalized regression splines. The sample contained an ethnically diverse population (7.9% Native Americans, 45.5% Hispanic/Latina). There was high inter-rater reliability (correlation coefficients: 0.95, 1.0, and 0.87 for frontal lobe length, width, and height; p-values frontal lobe growth were 0.096 cm/week, 0.247 cm/week, and 0.111 cm/week for length, width, and height. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine fetal frontal lobe growth trajectories through 3D prenatal ultrasound examination. Such normative data will allow for future prenatal evaluation of a particular disease state by 3D ultrasound imaging.

  20. [Planning disorders in men with schizophrenia and in men with localized frontal lobe lesions]. (United States)

    Okruszek, Łukasz; Rutkowska, Aleksandra


    Planning disorders have been observed in people with frontal lobe lesions for many decades. There's also growing body of evidence of frontal dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the planning abilities in men with schizophrenia, men with localized frontal lobe lesions and healthy men. A sample of 90 men participated in the study. They were divided into three groups: men with schizophrenia (n = 30), men with localized frontal lobe lesions (n = 30) and healthy men (n = 30) as a control group. Planning abilities were assessed with a clinical trial based on Tower of London task. Significant differences in ToL measures were found between controls and men with schizophrenia (Trials solved: p frontal lobe lesions (Trials solved: p frontal lobe lesion groups. Similar deficits in planning and solving problems, which require planning, may be observed in men with schizophrenia and men with frontal lobe lesions. In both groups time spent on thinking is less effective than in healthy men. Not only quantitative, but also qualitative assessment should be carried when examining patients' performance on Tower of London task.

  1. Hypothesis on two different functionalities co-existing in frontal lobe of human brains. (United States)

    Wang, Jue


    Human frontal lobe is a key area from where our cognition, memory and emotion display or function. In medical case study, there are patients with social dysfunctions, lack of passion or emotion as result of their frontal lobe damage caused by pathological changes, traumatic damage, and brain tumor remove operations. The syndrome of frontal lobe damage remains at large unanswered medically. From early stage of pregnancy, there exists lobe layers, nerve combine, and neurons synaptic, indicating a completion of growth of functionality inside frontal lobe. However, this completion of growth does not match the growth of human intelligence. Human infants only start and complete their cognition and memory functionality one full year after their birth which is marked by huge amount of neurons synaptic inside their frontal lobe, which is not part of a continual growth of originally developed functions. By reasoning on pathological changes of frontal lobe, a hypothesis was established that two individually functional mechanisms co-existed inside one frontal lobe. This neuron system is particularly for human beings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social cognition in schizophrenia: similarities and differences of emotional perception from patients with focal frontal lesions. (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko; Ueda, Keita; Namiki, Chihiro; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Takuji; Ohigashi, Yoshitaka; Murai, Toshiya


    The structural and functional abnormalities of the frontal lobes, the region implicated in social information processing, have been suspected to underlie social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, multiple structures, including the limbic/paralimbic areas that are also important for social cognition, have been reported to be abnormal in schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which the frontal lobe dysfunction accounts for social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia by comparing with patients who have focal frontal lobe injuries. Social cognitive abilities, focusing on affective aspects, were examined by an emotion intensity recognition task, which is sensitive to the amygdala function, and the emotion attribution tasks, which rely mainly on the frontal lobe function. Individuals with schizophrenia were impaired on the emotion intensity recognition task as well as on the emotion attribution tasks as compared with healthy subjects. By contrast, the frontal lobe-damaged group was defective in the emotion attribution tasks but not in the emotion intensity recognition task. Our results indicated that social cognitive impairments observed in schizophrenia can be accounted for partly by their frontal lobe pathology. Other aspects of social cognitive impairments could also be associated with the extra-frontal pathology, such as the amygdala.

  3. The relation of hedonic hunger and restrained eating to lateralized frontal activation. (United States)

    Winter, S R; Feig, E H; Kounios, J; Erickson, B; Berkowitz, S; Lowe, M R


    Asymmetrical alpha activation in the prefrontal cortex (frontal asymmetry) in electroencephalography (EEG) has been related to eating behavior. Prior studies linked dietary restraint with right frontal asymmetry [1] and disinhibition with left frontal asymmetry [2]. The current study simultaneously assessed restrained eating and hedonic hunger (drive for food reward in the absence of hunger) in relation to frontal asymmetry. Resting-state EEG and measures of restrained eating (Revised Restraint Scale; RRS) and hedonic hunger (Power of Food Scale; PFS) were assessed in 61 non-obese adults. Individually, hedonic hunger predicted left asymmetry. However, PFS and RRS were correlated (r=0.48, phunger exhibited left asymmetry irrespective of RRS scores; among those low in PFS, only those high in RRS showed right asymmetry. Results were consistent with literature linking avoidant behaviors (restraint) with right-frontal asymmetry and approach behaviors (binge eating) with left-frontal asymmetry. It appears that a strong drive toward palatable foods predominates at a neural level even when restraint is high. Findings suggest that lateralized frontal activity is an indicator of motivation both to consume and to avoid consuming highly palatable foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones (United States)

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael


    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  5. Work zone safety analysis. (United States)


    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  6. Iowa Work Zone Fatalities (United States)


    From March through November, the Iowa DOT may have up to 500 road construction work zones, and each of the department's maintenance garages may establish one or more short-term work zones per day. Couple that with the work of cities and counties, and...

  7. Depression symptom dimensions and asymmetrical frontal cortical activity while anticipating reward. (United States)

    Nelson, Brady D; Kessel, Ellen M; Klein, Daniel N; Shankman, Stewart A


    Unipolar depression has been characterized as involving diminished approach motivation and reward sensitivity. A psychophysiological indicator of approach motivation involves an asymmetry in frontal EEG activity, such that greater left relative to right frontal cortical activity indicates increased approach motivation. Consistent with the perspective of reduced approach motivation tendencies, depression has been associated with decreased relative left frontal cortical activity. To date, supporting research has primarily relied on categorical diagnoses or composite symptom counts. However, given the heterogeneity in depression, it is unclear what specific symptom dimensions relate to decreased relative left frontal cortical activity. The present study examined the association between multiple depression symptom dimensions and asymmetrical frontal cortical activity while anticipating reward in separate undergraduate (n = 75) and clinical samples (current major depressive disorder [n = 68] and never depressed controls [n = 67]). All participants completed the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms, a self-report measure of factor-analytically derived symptom dimensions. Frontal cortical activity was assessed during a computerized slot machine task while participants anticipated potential monetary reward or no incentive. In undergraduates with low depression symptoms and never depressed controls, reward trials relative to no-incentive trials elicited greater relative left frontal cortical activity. Furthermore, in both samples across all participants, increased dysphoria and lassitude symptoms were associated with decreased relative left frontal cortical activity while anticipating reward. The present study suggests that depression symptoms consistent with motivational disengagement are associated with decreased relative left frontal cortical activity. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Secondary adult encephalocele with abscess formation of calcified frontal sinus mucocele. (United States)

    Oh, Byeong Ho; Lee, Ok-Jun; Park, Young Seok


    Although encephalocele is a rare congenital abnormality, secondary encephalocele is extremely rare and can cause fatal complications. Here, we report a case of secondary encephalocele caused by frontal sinus wall defect due to chronic sinusitis, which was completely removed by cranialization with autologous bone graft. A 50-year-old man with a 10-year history of chronic sinusitis visited our hospital due to suddenly altered mentality characterized by stupor. Computerized tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enlarged left frontal sinus with sinusitis. The frontal sinus cavity was calcified, and the left frontal lobe had herniated into the cavity accompanied by yellow pus. A large dural defect was also found around the frontal sinus area. After removal of the abscess and some of the frontal lobe, frontal skull base repair by cranialization was performed using autologous bone graft. Streptococcus pneumoniae was cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), necessitating treatment with antibiotics. After the operation, the mental status of the patient improved and no CSF leakage was observed. In addition to correct diagnosis and early treatment including antibiotics, the surgical repair of defects is needed in patients with secondary encephalocele to prevent further episodes of meningitis. Surgical correction of frontal sinus encephalocele can be achieved through bifrontal craniotomy or endoscopic transnasal repair. If a patient has CSF leakage, open craniotomy may facilitate repair of the dural defect and allow for cranialization of the sinus. Removal of dysplastic herniated brain tissue and cranialization of the frontal sinus may be a good option for treating secondary encephalocele and its associated complications, including meningitis, abscess formation, and infarction of the herniated brain parenchyma.

  9. Long Frontal Projections Help Battus philenor (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) Larvae Find Host Plants. (United States)

    Kandori, Ikuo; Tsuchihara, Kazuko; Suzuki, Taichi A; Yokoi, Tomoyuki; Papaj, Daniel R


    Animals sometimes develop conspicuous projections on or near their heads as, e.g., weaponry, burrowing or digging tools, and probes to search for resources. The frontal projections that insects generally use to locate and assess resources are segmented appendages, including antennae, maxillary palps, and labial palps. There is no evidence to date that arthropods, including insects, use projections other than true segmental appendages to locate food. In this regard, it is noteworthy that some butterfly larvae possess a pair of long antenna-like projections on or near their heads. To date, the function of these projections has not been established. Larvae of pipevine swallowtail butterflies Battus philenor (Papilionidae) have a pair of long frontal fleshy projections that, like insect antennae generally, can be actively moved. In this study, we evaluated the possible function of this pair of long moveable frontal projections. In laboratory assays, both frontal projections and lateral ocelli were shown to increase the frequency with which search larvae found plants. The frontal projections increased finding of host and non-host plants equally, suggesting that frontal projections do not detect host-specific chemical cues. Detailed SEM study showed that putative mechanosensillae are distributed all around the frontal as well as other projections. Taken together, our findings suggest that the frontal projections and associated mechanosensillae act as vertical object detectors to obtain tactile information that, together with visual information from lateral ocelli and presumably chemical information from antennae and mouthparts, help larvae to find host plants. Field observations indicate that host plants are small and scattered in southern Arizona locations. Larvae must therefore find multiple host plants to complete development and face significant challenges in doing so. The frontal projections may thus be an adaptation for finding a scarce resource before starving to

  10. Long Frontal Projections Help Battus philenor (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae Larvae Find Host Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuo Kandori

    Full Text Available Animals sometimes develop conspicuous projections on or near their heads as, e.g., weaponry, burrowing or digging tools, and probes to search for resources. The frontal projections that insects generally use to locate and assess resources are segmented appendages, including antennae, maxillary palps, and labial palps. There is no evidence to date that arthropods, including insects, use projections other than true segmental appendages to locate food. In this regard, it is noteworthy that some butterfly larvae possess a pair of long antenna-like projections on or near their heads. To date, the function of these projections has not been established. Larvae of pipevine swallowtail butterflies Battus philenor (Papilionidae have a pair of long frontal fleshy projections that, like insect antennae generally, can be actively moved. In this study, we evaluated the possible function of this pair of long moveable frontal projections. In laboratory assays, both frontal projections and lateral ocelli were shown to increase the frequency with which search larvae found plants. The frontal projections increased finding of host and non-host plants equally, suggesting that frontal projections do not detect host-specific chemical cues. Detailed SEM study showed that putative mechanosensillae are distributed all around the frontal as well as other projections. Taken together, our findings suggest that the frontal projections and associated mechanosensillae act as vertical object detectors to obtain tactile information that, together with visual information from lateral ocelli and presumably chemical information from antennae and mouthparts, help larvae to find host plants. Field observations indicate that host plants are small and scattered in southern Arizona locations. Larvae must therefore find multiple host plants to complete development and face significant challenges in doing so. The frontal projections may thus be an adaptation for finding a scarce resource

  11. The role of medial frontal gyrus in action anticipation in professional badminton players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Xu


    Full Text Available Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex. Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate

  12. Altered synchrony and loss of consciousness during frontal lobe seizures. (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; Lambert, Isabelle; Wendling, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Bartolomei, Fabrice


    Loss of consciousness (LOC) in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) has been rarely specifically studied until now. In this study we evaluated the LOC in a population of patients with FLE and studied the relationship between changes in synchrony and degree of LOC. 24 patients undergoing stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) during pre-surgical evaluation of FLE were studied. The LOC intensity was scored using the Consciousness Seizure Scale (CSS). For each studied seizure (n=52), interdependencies between signals recorded from 5 brain regions were estimated as a function of time by using non-linear regression analysis (h(2) coefficient). Seizures were divided into 3 groups according to the CSS scale: group A (no LOC) with a score ⩽2, group B (intermediate or partial LOC) with a score ranging from 3 to 5, and group C (maximal LOC) with a score ⩾6. The majority of seizures in FLE patients disclosed significant LOC, particularly for patients with prefrontal lobe seizures. Mean correlation values were significantly different between groups A and C (p<0.001), the maximal values of synchrony being observed in group C. Differences were significant for interaction affecting the external prefrontal cortex (p=0.004) (p=0.01) and the parietal cortex. In addition, a significant correlation was found between CSS scores and correlations values (h(2)) of the prefrontal and the parietal region but not with the premotor cortex. This study indicates that in FLE, prefrontal seizures frequently alter consciousness. As in other focal seizures, LOC appears to be related to changes in synchrony in prefrontal and parietal associative cortices. LOC in FLE is frequent and as in other focal epilepsies is related to an alteration of prefrontal-parietal network. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanisms and factors involved in hip injuries during frontal crashes. (United States)

    Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Gennarelli, T A; Maltese, M R; Eppinger, R H


    This study was conducted to collect data and gain insights relative to the mechanisms and factors involved in hip injuries during frontal crashes and to study the tolerance of hip injuries from this type of loading. Unembalmed human cadavers were seated on a standard automotive seat (reinforced) and subjected to knee impact test to each lower extremity. Varying combinations of flexion and adduction/abduction were used for initial alignment conditions and pre-positioning. Accelerometers were fixed to the iliac wings and twelfth thoracic vertebral spinous process. A 23.4-kg padded pendulum impacted the knee at velocities ranging from 4.3 to 7.6 m/s. The impacting direction was along the anteroposterior axis, i.e., the global X-axis, in the body-fixed coordinate system. A load cell on the front of the pendulum recorded the impact force. Peak impact forces ranged from 2,450 to 10,950 N. The rate of loading ranged from 123 to 7,664 N/msec. The impulse values ranged from 12.4 to 31.9 Nsec. Injuries were not apparent in three tests. Eight tests resulted in trauma. Fractures involving the pelvis including the acetabulum and proximal femur occurred in five out of the eight tests, and distal femoral bone fracture occurred in one test. These results underscore the importance of leg pre-positioning and the orientation of the impacting axis to produce specific types of trauma to the pelvic region of the lower extremity.

  14. Frontal dynamics at the edge of the Columbia River plume (United States)

    Akan, Çiğdem; McWilliams, James C.; Moghimi, Saeed; Özkan-Haller, H. Tuba


    In the tidal ebb-cycle at the Mouth of the Columbia River, strong density and velocity fronts sometimes form perpendicular to the coast at the edges of the freshwater plume. They are distinct from previously analyzed fronts at the offshore western edge of the plume that evolve as a gravity-wave bore. We present simulation results to demonstrate their occurrence and investigate the mechanisms behind their frontogenesis and evolution. Tidal velocities on average ranged between 1.5 m s-1 in flood and 2.5 m s-1 in ebb during the brief hindcast period. The tidal fronts exhibit strong horizontal velocity and buoyancy gradients on a scale ∼ 100 m in width with normalized relative vorticity (ζz/f) values reaching up to 50. We specifically focus on the front on the northern edge of the plume and examine the evolution in plume characteristics such as its water mass gradients, horizontal and vertical velocity structure, vertical velocity, turbulent vertical mixing, horizontal propagation, cross-front momentum balance, and Lagrangian frontogenetic tendencies in both buoyancy and velocity gradients. Advective frontogenesis leads to a very sharp front where lateral mixing near the grid-resolution limit arrests its further contraction. The negative vorticity within the front is initiated by the positive bottom drag curl on the north side of the Columbia estuary and against the north jetty. Because of the large negative vorticity and horizontal vorticity gradient, centrifugal and lateral shear instability begins to develop along the front, but frontal fragmentation and decay set in only after the turn of the tide because of the briefness of the ebb interval.

  15. Frontal Control Process in Intentional Forgetting: Electrophysiological Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heming Gao


    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to seek for the neural evidence of the inhibition control process in directed forgetting (DF. We adopted a modified item-method DF paradigm, in which four kinds of cues were involved. In some trials, the words were followed by only a forgetting (F cue. In the other trials, after a word was presented, a maintenance (M cue was presented, followed by an explicit remembering (M-R cue or an forgetting (M-F cue. Data from 19 healthy adult participants showed that, (1 compared with the remembering cue (i.e., M-R cue, forgetting cues (i.e., M-F cue and F cue evoked enhanced frontal N2 and reduced parietal P3 and late positive complex (LPC components, indicating that the forgetting cues might trigger a more intensive cognitive control process and that fewer amounts of cognitive resources were recruited for the further rehearsal process. (2 Both the M cue and the F cue evoked enhanced N2 and decreased P3 and LPC components than the M-R or M-F cue. These results might indicate that compared with the M-R and M-F cues, both the M and F cues evoked a more intensive cognitive control process and decreased attentional resource allocation process. (3 The F cue evoked a decreased P2 component and an enhanced N2 component relative to the other cues (i.e., M-R, M-F, M, indicating that the F cue received fewer amounts of attentional resources and evoked a more intensive cognitive control process. Taken together, forgetting cues were associated with enhanced N2 activity relative to the maintenance rehearsal process or the remembering process, suggesting an enhanced cognitive control process under DF. This cognitive control process might reflect the role of inhibition in DF as attempting to suppress the ongoing encoding.

  16. Frontal-Brainstem Pathways Mediating Placebo Effects on Social Rejection. (United States)

    Koban, Leonie; Kross, Ethan; Woo, Choong-Wan; Ruzic, Luka; Wager, Tor D


    Placebo treatments can strongly affect clinical outcomes, but research on how they shape other life experiences and emotional well-being is in its infancy. We used fMRI in humans to examine placebo effects on a particularly impactful life experience, social pain elicited by a recent romantic rejection. We compared these effects with placebo effects on physical (heat) pain, which are thought to depend on pathways connecting prefrontal cortex and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Placebo treatment, compared with control, reduced both social and physical pain, and increased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in both modalities. Placebo further altered the relationship between affect and both dlPFC and PAG activity during social pain, and effects on behavior were mediated by a pathway connecting dlPFC to the PAG, building on recent work implicating opioidergic PAG activity in the regulation of social pain. These findings suggest that placebo treatments reduce emotional distress by altering affective representations in frontal-brainstem systems. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Placebo effects are improvements due to expectations and the socio-medical context in which treatment takes place. Whereas they have been extensively studied in the context of somatic conditions such as pain, much less is known of how treatment expectations shape the emotional experience of other important stressors and life events. Here, we use brain imaging to show that placebo treatment reduces the painful feelings associated with a recent romantic rejection by recruiting a prefrontal-brainstem network and by shifting the relationship between brain activity and affect. Our findings suggest that this brain network may be important for nonspecific treatment effects across a wide range of therapeutic approaches and mental health conditions. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/373621-11$15.00/0.

  17. Sinusoplastía con balón en seno frontal: Experiencia en 8 pacientes


    Nazar S,Rodolfo; Pardo J,Javiera; Kühnel,Thomas; Simmen,Daniel  


    Introducción: La sinusoplastia con balón es una técnica cada vez más usada en patología sinusal, ya que previene el trauma, conserva la anatomía, evita la instrumentación del seno frontal, preserva la mucosa del receso frontal, con un alto grado de seguridad. Dentro de sus principales indicaciones se encuentra la patología de seno frontal, como es el caso de sinusitis aislada, osteítis focalizada, sinusitis posoperatoria y barotrauma. Las controversias se relacionan con sus indicaciones limit...

  18. Oxidative and glicolytic metabolism of the frontal cortex (latero-frontal) and of the posterior cortex (latero-occipital) in relation with the sexual activity of the rat. (United States)

    Menéndez-Patterson, A; Florez-Lozano, J A; Marin, B


    The authors of this paper have ascertained the glycolytic metabolism and the oxidative metabolism (intake of QO2), of the frontal and posterior cortex in female rats at different stages of the sexual cycle, as also in ovariectomized animals, by the intake of glucose and the production of lactates. The results indicate a statistically significant increase of the oxidative metabolism of the posterior cortex (latero-occipital) in the estrual and proestrual phases, in comparisons with the diestral phase. The frontal cortex (latero-frontal) did not show any significant difference; moreover, the glycolitic metabolism did not alter in any of the tissues under observation. These findings, seem to suggest possible participation of the posterior cortex (latero-occipital) on the regulation of sexual cycle of the rat. The activation of this cortex occurs through the preponderant imbricantion of the tri-carboxylic acid cycle.

  19. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo


    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  20. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Iwamae, Atsushi


    Plasma Polarization Spectroscopy (PPS) is now becoming a standard diagnostic technique for working with laboratory plasmas. This new area needs a comprehensive framework, both experimental and theoretical. This book reviews the historical development of PPS, develops a general theoretical formulation to deal with this phenomenon, along with an overview of relevant cross sections, and reports on laboratory experiments so far performed. It also includes various facets that are interesting from this standpoint, e.g. X-ray lasers and effects of microwave irradiation. It also offers a timely discussion of instrumentation that is quite important in a practical PPS experiment.

  1. System for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.


    The system for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target representing the high-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described Q-meter with series connection and a circuit for measuring system resonance characteristic is used for NMR-absorption signal recording. Measuring coil is produced of a strip conductor in order to obtain uniform system sensitivity to polarization state in all target volume and improve signal-to-noise ratio. Polarization measuring system operates ion-line with the M-6000 computer. The total measuring error for the value of free proton polarization in target taking into account the error caused by local depolarization of working substance under irradiation by high-intense photon beam is <= 6%. Long-term application of the described system for measuring the proton polarization in the LUEh-20000 accelerator target used in the pion photoproduction experiments has demonstrated its high reliability

  2. The global aftershock zone (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Margaret Segou,; Warner Marzocchi,


    The aftershock zone of each large (M ≥ 7) earthquake extends throughout the shallows of planet Earth. Most aftershocks cluster near the mainshock rupture, but earthquakes send out shivers in the form of seismic waves, and these temporary distortions are large enough to trigger other earthquakes at global range. The aftershocks that happen at great distance from their mainshock are often superposed onto already seismically active regions, making them difficult to detect and understand. From a hazard perspective we are concerned that this dynamic process might encourage other high magnitude earthquakes, and wonder if a global alarm state is warranted after every large mainshock. From an earthquake process perspective we are curious about the physics of earthquake triggering across the magnitude spectrum. In this review we build upon past studies that examined the combined global response to mainshocks. Such compilations demonstrate significant rate increases during, and immediately after (~ 45 min) M > 7.0 mainshocks in all tectonic settings and ranges. However, it is difficult to find strong evidence for M > 5 rate increases during the passage of surface waves in combined global catalogs. On the other hand, recently published studies of individual large mainshocks associate M > 5 triggering at global range that is delayed by hours to days after surface wave arrivals. The longer the delay between mainshock and global aftershock, the more difficult it is to establish causation. To address these questions, we review the response to 260 M ≥ 7.0 shallow (Z ≤ 50 km) mainshocks in 21 global regions with local seismograph networks. In this way we can examine the detailed temporal and spatial response, or lack thereof, during passing seismic waves, and over the 24 h period after their passing. We see an array of responses that can involve immediate and widespread seismicity outbreaks, delayed and localized earthquake clusters, to no response at all. About 50% of the

  3. Polar drive on OMEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha P.B.


    Full Text Available High-convergence polar-drive experiments are being conducted on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commum. 133, 495 (1997] using triple-picket laser pulses. The goal of OMEGA experiments is to validate modeling of oblique laser deposition, heat conduction in the presence of nonradial thermal gradients in the corona, and implosion energetics in the presence of laser–plasma interactions such as crossed-beam energy transfer. Simulated shock velocities near the equator, where the beams are obliquely incident, are within 5% of experimentally inferred values in warm plastic shells, well within the required accuracy for ignition. High, near-one-dimensional areal density is obtained in warm-plastic-shell implosions. Simulated backlit images of the compressing core are in good agreement with measured images. Outstanding questions that will be addressed in the future relate to the role of cross-beam transfer in polar drive irradiation and increasing the energy coupled into the target by decreasing beam obliquity.

  4. Optimal Crash Pulse for Minimization of Peak Occupant Deceleration in Frontal Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Zhiqing; Pellettiere, Joseph A


    In automobile frontal impact, for given restraint characteristics and prescribed impact speed and crash deformation, what is the optimal vehicle crash pulse that produces the lowest peak occupant deceleration...

  5. The Influence of Frontal Lobe Tumors and Surgical Treatment on Advanced Cognitive Functions. (United States)

    Fang, Shengyu; Wang, Yinyan; Jiang, Tao


    Brain cognitive functions affect patient quality of life. The frontal lobe plays a crucial role in advanced cognitive functions, including executive function, meta-cognition, decision-making, memory, emotion, and language. Therefore, frontal tumors can lead to serious cognitive impairments. Currently, neurosurgical treatment is the primary method to treat brain tumors; however, the effects of the surgical treatments are difficult to predict or control. The treatment may both resolve the effects of the tumor to improve cognitive function or cause permanent disabilities resulting from damage to healthy functional brain tissue. Previous studies have focused on the influence of frontal lesions and surgical treatments on patient cognitive function. Here, we review cognitive impairment caused by frontal lobe brain tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between alexithymia and frontal lobe function in patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Usta


    Conclusion: It is observed that the alexithymia has effects on the frontal functions of patients with schizophrenia. This mediated effect is related with the clinic of schizophrenia. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 80-85

  7. An Unusual Presentation of Frontal Bony Defect with Pneumocephalus and its Management in an Elderly Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Tong Chen


    Full Text Available Pneumocephalus can be caused by neurosurgical procedures, endoscopic sinus surgery, craniofacial trauma, tumors of the skull base, frontal sinus cranialization, and can rarely occur spontaneously. The treatment options are conservative treatment, craniotomy, osteoplastic flap surgery of the frontal sinus, and endoscopic endonasal surgery. We herein present the case of a 61-year-old man with a frontal sinus bony defect with pneumocephalus caused by craniotomy who presented atypically with left facial cellulitis, followed by meningitis and seizures. This bony defect was successfully repaired with endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure (EMLP. At 18 months' follow-up after the surgery, neither obvious postoperative complications nor signs of pneumocephalus were noted. EMLP offered a less invasive, safer, and effective way to repair the frontal bony defect in our elderly patient.

  8. Polarized proton collider at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanaka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Lehrach, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S.Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W.W. E-mail: mackay@bnl.gov; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.N


    In addition to heavy ion collisions (RHIC Design Manual, Brookhaven National Laboratory), RHIC will also collide intense beams of polarized protons (I. Alekseev, et al., Design Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1998, reaching transverse energies where the protons scatter as beams of polarized quarks and gluons. The study of high energy polarized protons beams has been a long term part of the program at BNL with the development of polarized beams in the Booster and AGS rings for fixed target experiments. We have extended this capability to the RHIC machine. In this paper we describe the design and methods for achieving collisions of both longitudinal and transverse polarized protons in RHIC at energies up to {radical}s=500 GeV.

  9. Spin exchange in polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewoski, B. von; Meyer, H.O.; Balewski, J.; Doskow, J.; Ibald, R.; Pollock, R.E.; Rinckel, T.; Wellinghausen, A.; Whitaker, T.J.; Daehnick, W.W.; Haeberli, W.; Schwartz, B.; Wise, T.; Lorentz, B.; Rathmann, F.; Pancella, P.V.; Saha, Swapan K.; Thoerngren-Engblom, P.


    We have measured the vector and tensor polarization of an atomic deuterium target as a function of the target density. The polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell. For this experiment, the atomic beam source was operated without rf transitions, in order to avoid complications from the unknown efficiency of these transitions. In this mode, the atomic beam is vector and tensor polarized and both polarizations can be measured simultaneously. We used a 1.2-cm-diam and 27-cm-long storage cell, which yielded an average target density between 3 and 9x10 11 at/cm 3 . We find that the tensor polarization decreases with increasing target density while the vector polarization remains constant. The data are in quantitative agreement with the calculated effect of spin exchange between deuterium atoms at low field

  10. Climate zones on Pluto and Charon (United States)

    Binzel, Richard P.; Earle, Alissa M.; Buie, Marc W.; Young, Leslie A.; Stern, S. Alan; Olkin, Cathy B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Grundy, Will; Weaver, Harold A.; Lisse, Carey M.; Lauer, Tod R.; New Horizons Geology; Geophysics Imaging Team


    adjacent to the dark Cthulhu Regio (Earle et al. (2017) Icarus, special issue, submitted). (All names are informal.) Charon's synchronous alignment with Pluto dictates that both bodies in the binary pair have the same climate zone structure, but any effects on Charon's morphology may be limited if volatile transport there is minimal or absent. Cold-trapped methane-rich volatiles on top of its water ice surface may be responsible for forming Charon's dark red north polar cap (Grundy et al., 2016b), and we note the most concentrated area of this feature resides almost entirely within the permanent ;polar zone; (above 77° latitude) where the Sun never reaches the overhead point and arctic seasons have been most consistently experienced over at least tens of millions of years. Pluto is not alone among bodies in the Kuiper belt (and uranian satellites) in having high obliquities, overlapping tropical and arctic zones, and latitude bands that remain in a continuous diurnal cycle over long terms.

  11. Golden Proportion in Frontal Social Smile from Orthodontic Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z Tabatabaei


    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical attraction has a significant effect on all aspects of personal life, and in this category facial appearance is the most important part of the body in prediction of attractiveness. In the face, mouth and specially shape and size of anterior teeth is important to gain dental and facial esthetic. The aim of this study is evaluation of golden proportion from orthodontic view in maxillary anterior teeth in both sexes. Methods: Considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, 100 students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences were selected, and photographs of their frontal social smile were taken by a standard method from 30cm distance. Then visible part of central, lateral and canine teeth was measured by Photoshop software (Adobe Photoshop ver8 with 0.1mm precision. Data was evaluated by descriptive statistical analysis and sample T-test using SPSS. Results: According to descriptive statistical analysis and sample T- test, mean ratio of central to lateral teeth in the left side in men and women was 1.209±0.199 and 1.157±0.156 and in the right side in men and women was 1.179± 0.27 and 1.158± 0.145, respectively. The ratio of lateral to canine teeth in the left side in men and women was 1.522±0.146 and 1.494±0.127 and in the right side in men and women was 1.55±0.164 and 1.51±0.114, respectively. Golden proportion was seen between central and lateral teeth in 16% in the right side and 3.4% in the left side only in men. Conclusion: Golden proportion was seen between central and lateral in the left side and right side in men, but due to large canine in men, this proportion was not seen between lateral and canine teeth and so due to small lateral in women, it was not seen between anterior teeth.

  12. Linear polarization of BY Draconis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.H.; Pfeiffer, R.J.


    Linear polarization measurements are reported in four bandpasses for the flare star BY Dra. The red polarization is intrinsically variable at a confidence level greater than 99 percent. On a time scale of many months, the variability is not phase-locked to either a rotational or a Keplerian ephemeris. The observations of the three other bandpasses are useful principally to indicate a polarization spectrum rising toward shorter wavelengths

  13. Polarity in Mammalian Epithelial Morphogenesis


    Roignot, Julie; Peng, Xiao; Mostov, Keith


    Cell polarity is fundamental for the architecture and function of epithelial tissues. Epithelial polarization requires the intervention of several fundamental cell processes, whose integration in space and time is only starting to be elucidated. To understand what governs the building of epithelial tissues during development, it is essential to consider the polarization process in the context of the whole tissue. To this end, the development of three-dimensional organotypic cell culture model...

  14. Frontal EEG asymmetry in borderline personality disorder is associated with alexithymia


    Flasbeck, Vera; Popkirov, Stoyan; Brüne, Martin


    Background Frontal EEG asymmetry is a widely studied correlate of emotion processing and psychopathology. Recent research suggests that frontal EEG asymmetry during resting state is related to approach/withdrawal motivation and is also found in affective disorders such as major depressive disorder. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show aberrant behavior in relation to both approach and withdrawal motivation, which may arguably be associated with their difficulties in emotio...

  15. Sex differences in frontal lobe connectivity in adults with autism spectrum conditions. (United States)

    Zeestraten, E A; Gudbrandsen, M C; Daly, E; de Schotten, M T; Catani, M; Dell'Acqua, F; Lai, M-C; Ruigrok, A N V; Lombardo, M V; Chakrabarti, B; Baron-Cohen, S; Ecker, C; Murphy, D G M; Craig, M C


    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are more prevalent in males than females. The biological basis of this difference remains unclear. It has been postulated that one of the primary causes of ASC is a partial disconnection of the frontal lobe from higher-order association areas during development (that is, a frontal 'disconnection syndrome'). Therefore, in the current study we investigated whether frontal connectivity differs between males and females with ASC. We recruited 98 adults with a confirmed high-functioning ASC diagnosis (61 males: aged 18-41 years; 37 females: aged 18-37 years) and 115 neurotypical controls (61 males: aged 18-45 years; 54 females: aged 18-52 years). Current ASC symptoms were evaluated using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Diffusion tensor imaging was performed and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were created. Mean FA values were determined for five frontal fiber bundles and two non-frontal fiber tracts. Between-group differences in mean tract FA, as well as sex-by-diagnosis interactions were assessed. Additional analyses including ADOS scores informed us on the influence of current ASC symptom severity on frontal connectivity. We found that males with ASC had higher scores of current symptom severity than females, and had significantly lower mean FA values for all but one tract compared to controls. No differences were found between females with or without ASC. Significant sex-by-diagnosis effects were limited to the frontal tracts. Taking current ASC symptom severity scores into account did not alter the findings, although the observed power for these analyses varied. We suggest these findings of frontal connectivity abnormalities in males with ASC, but not in females with ASC, have the potential to inform us on some of the sex differences reported in the behavioral phenotype of ASC.

  16. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.


    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus

  17. Spontaneous upper eyelid ecchymosis: A rare presenting sign for frontal sinus mucocele. (United States)

    Mehta, Amy A; Wagner, Lilly H; Blace, Nancy


    Paranasal sinus mucoceles are benign lesions that commonly present with orbital signs due to their anatomic proximity. We are reporting a case of bilateral frontal sinus mucocele presenting with spontaneous eyelid ecchymosis. To our knowledge this is the first case report of eyelid ecchymosis as the initial sign of this condition. In addition, our patient lacked commonly described symptoms such as diplopia or pain. This report highlights the importance of including frontal sinus mucocele in the differential diagnosis of spontaneous periorbital ecchymosis.

  18. Age-related changes of frontal-midline theta is predictive of efficient memory maintenance. (United States)

    Kardos, Z; Tóth, B; Boha, R; File, B; Molnár, M


    Frontal areas are thought to be the coordinators of working memory processes by controlling other brain areas reflected by oscillatory activities like frontal-midline theta (4-7 Hz). With aging substantial changes can be observed in the frontal brain areas, presumably leading to age-associated changes in cortical correlates of cognitive functioning. The present study aimed to test whether altered frontal-midline theta dynamics during working memory maintenance may underlie the capacity deficits observed in older adults. 33-channel EEG was recorded in young (18-26 years, N=20) and old (60-71 years, N=16) adults during the retention period of a visual delayed match-to-sample task, in which they had to maintain arrays of 3 or 5 colored squares. An additional visual odd-ball task was used to be able to measure the electrophysiological indices of sustained attentional processes. Old participants showed reduced frontal theta activity during both tasks compared to the young group. In the young memory maintenance-related frontal-midline theta activity was shown to be sensitive both to the increased memory demands and to efficient subsequent memory performance, whereas the old adults showed no such task-related difference in the frontal theta activity. The decrease of frontal-midline theta activity in the old group indicates that cerebral aging may alter the cortical circuitries of theta dynamics, thereby leading to age-associated decline of working memory maintenance function. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. VT Data - Zoning 20081203, Norwich (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — BASE DISTRICTS. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator. All...

  20. VT Data - Zoning 20170710, Woodstock (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — BASE DISTRICTS. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator. All...

  1. VT Data - Zoning 20170227, Fairlee (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — BASE DISTRICTS. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator. All...

  2. VT Data - Zoning 20120709, Huntington (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning district data for the Town of Huntington, Vermont. For details regarding each zoning district refer to the current zoning regulations on town of Huntington's...

  3. VT Data - Zoning 20170727, Westford (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning District data for Westford, Vermont. Data corresponds to the zoning regulations adopted by the Town of Westford. For details and descriptions of all zoning...

  4. A polarized alkali ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, R.; Tungate, G.; Bauer, B.; Egelhof, P.; Moebius, K.H.; Steffens, E.


    The beam foil technique has been applied to detect nuclear vector polarization of a 10 keV 23 Na + beam. The result was about 70% of the atomic beam polarization thus limiting the depolarization by the surface ionizer to at most 30%. In a Coulomb excitation experiment with a tensor polarized 42 MeV 23 Na 7+ beam an effect of 0.011 +- 0.003 was measured yielding a value of t 20 approx. 0.04 for the beam polarization. The depolarization during the acceleration process can be estimated to be about 0.8. (orig.) [de

  5. The SLAC polarized electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.; Alley, R.; Frisch, J.


    The SLAC polarized electron source employs a photocathode DC high voltage gun with a loadlock and a YAG pumped Ti:sapphire laser system for colliding beam experiments or a flash lamp pumped Ti:sapphire laser for fixed target experiments. It uses a thin, strained GaAs(100) photocathode, and is capable of producing a pulsed beam with a polarization of ≥80% and a peak current exceeding 10 A. Its operating efficiency has reached 99%. The physics and technology of producing high polarization electron beams from a GaAs photocathode will be reviewed. The prospects of realizing a polarized electron source for future linear colliders will also be discussed

  6. The prevalence of frontal sinus aplasia in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pezeshki Rad


    Full Text Available Introduction: There are various reports of the prevalence of frontal sinus aplasia in different geographical areas and ethnic origins. The size and shape of frontal sinus is different among various populations. This study used CT scan images to investigate the frequency of absence of frontal sinuses in adults of northeastern Iran. Materials and Methods: The present study was performed retrospectively on the axial and coronal CT scans of the paranasal sinuses from a series of 588 patients who had referred to CT scan ward of Mashhad Imam Reza hospital without any other sinus pathology. Results: The mean age of patients was 44.39± 19.44 years. Unilateral and bilateral aplasia of frontal sinuses was seen in 36 and 51 patients, respectively. The dominant sinus was in the left side in 68.24% of cases. Conclusion: The lower incidence of frontal sinus aplasia in this particular ethnic and geographical area relative to other populations emphasizes the effect of environmental and genetic factors on the development of frontal sinuses.  

  7. A comparative assessment of the size of the frontal air sinus in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). (United States)

    Badlangana, N Ludo; Adams, Justin W; Manger, Paul R


    The current study examines the frontal air sinus of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) cranium with the aim of evaluating previously offered hypotheses as to why they have such an atypically voluminous frontal sinus relative to other artiodactyls. To date, no quantification of the frontal sinus in the adult or developing giraffe has been undertaken or compared to other artiodactyl species. Crania from eight species of adult artiodactyls, and giraffes varying in age from newborn to adult, were studied using CT scans to provide a volumetric assessment of the frontal sinus. Sinus volume was strongly correlated to cranial mass in the male giraffe ontogenetic series. The adult giraffe of both sexes were found to possess a far larger than predicted sinus volume relative to the relationship between frontal sinus volume and cranial mass observed in the other adult artiodactyls. Our results suggest that the volume of the frontal sinus in the giraffe is likely to be unique among artiodactyls, and the potential function and evolution we consider in light of several previously articulated hypotheses. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. On the functional relevance of frontal cortex for passive and voluntarily controlled bistable vision. (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; de Jong, Maartje C; Goebel, Rainer; van Ee, Raymond; Sack, Alexander T


    In bistable vision, one constant ambiguous stimulus leads to 2 alternating conscious percepts. This perceptual switching occurs spontaneously but can also be influenced through voluntary control. Neuroimaging studies have reported that frontal regions are activated during spontaneous perceptual switches, leading some researchers to suggest that frontal regions causally induce perceptual switches. But the opposite also seems possible: frontal activations may themselves be caused by spontaneous switches. Classically implicated in attentional processes, these same regions are also candidates for the origins of voluntary control over bistable vision. Here too, it remains unknown whether frontal cortex is actually functionally relevant. It is even possible that spontaneous perceptual switches and voluntarily induced switches are mediated by the same top-down mechanisms. To directly address these issues, we here induced "virtual lesions," with transcranial magnetic stimulation, in frontal, parietal, and 2 lower level visual cortices using an established ambiguous structure-from-motion stimulus. We found that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was causally relevant for voluntary control over perceptual switches. In contrast, we failed to find any evidence for an active role of frontal cortex in passive bistable vision. Thus, it seems the same pathway used for willed top-down modulation of bistable vision is not used during passive bistable viewing.

  9. Parieto-frontal gradients and domains underlying eye and hand operations in the action space. (United States)

    Battaglia-Mayer, Alexandra; Babicola, Lucy; Satta, Eleonora


    In monkeys, motor intention in its different forms emerges from a parietal-frontal gradient of visual, eye and hand signals, containing discrete dominant domains. These are formed by areas sharing cortical connections and functional properties. Within this gradient, the combination of different inputs determines the tuning properties of neurons, while local and long cortico-cortical connections shape the structure and temporal delays of the network. The pathways linking similar functional domains in parietal and frontal cortex sculpt information processing systems related to different functions, all requiring eye-hand coordination. fMRI experiments show that similar gradients lay at the core of cognitive-motor control in humans as well. This eye-hand matrix provides a framework to address, within a unitary frame, not only basic forms of motor behavior, such as reaching and grasping, but also actions of increasing complexity, such as interception of moving targets, tool use, construction of complex objects, maze analysis and solution, among others. The organization of the cerebral cortex into functional gradients and domains, beyond frontal and parietal cortices, is common to other brain regions, such as prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and does not support views of the parieto-frontal operations based on specific and strictly segregated eye and hand modules. These can only be found at the eye and hand motor output domains in the frontal cortex, that is in the frontal eye fields and in the primary motor cortex, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Vulnerability of the frontal and parietal regions in hypertensive patients during working memory task. (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Ailin; Li, Peng; Zhang, Junying; Tao, Wuhai; Zhang, Zhanjun


    Hypertension is related with cognitive decline in the elderly. The frontal-parietal executive system plays an important role in cognitive aging and is also vulnerable to damage in elderly patients with hypertension. Examination of the brain's functional characteristics in frontal-parietal regions of hypertension is likely to be important for understanding the neural mechanisms of hypertension's effect on cognitive aging. We address this issue by comparing hypertension and control-performers in a functional MRI study. Twenty-eight hypertensive patients and 32 elderly controls were tested with n-back task with two load levels. The hypertensive patients exhibited worse executive and memory abilities than control subjects. The patterns of brain activation changed under different working memory loads in the hypertensive patients, who exhibited reduced activation only in the precentral gyrus under low loads and reduced activation in the middle frontal gyrus, left medial superior frontal gyrus and right precuneus under high loads. Thus, more regions of diminished activation were observed in the frontal and parietal regions with increasing task difficulty. More importantly, we found that lower activation in changed frontal and parietal regions was associated with worse cognitive function in high loads. The results demonstrate the relationship between cognitive function and frontoparietal functional activation in hypertension and their relevance to cognitive aging risk. Our findings provide a better understanding of the mechanism of cognitive decline in hypertension and highlight the importance of brain protection in hypertension.

  11. Frontal alpha asymmetry predicts inhibitory processing in youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (United States)

    Ellis, Alissa J; Kinzel, Chantelle; Salgari, Giulia C; Loo, Sandra K


    Atypical asymmetry in brain activity has been implicated in the behavioral and attentional dysregulation observed in ADHD. Specifically, asymmetry in neural activity in the right versus left frontal regions has been linked to ADHD, as well as to symptoms often associated with ADHD such as heightened approach behaviors, impulsivity and difficulties with inhibition. Clarifying the role of frontal asymmetry in ADHD-like traits, such as disinhibition, may provide information on the neurophysiological processes underlying these behaviors. ADHD youth (ADHD: n = 25) and healthy, typically developing controls (TD: n = 25) underwent an electroencephalography (EEG) recording while completing a go/no-go task-a commonly used test measuring behavioral inhibition. In addition, advanced signal processing for source localization estimated the location of signal generators underlying frontal alpha asymmetry (FA) during correct and incorrect trials. This is the first study in ADHD to demonstrate that the dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) may be responsible for generating frontal alpha. During failed inhibition trials, ADHD youth displayed greater FA than TD youth. In addition, within the ADHD group, frontal asymmetry during later processing stages (i.e., 400-800ms after stimulus) predicted a higher number of commission errors throughout the task. These results suggest that frontal alpha asymmetry may be a specific biomarker of cognitive disinhibition among youth with ADHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Frontal alpha asymmetry in OCD patients and unaffected first-degree relatives. (United States)

    Grützmann, Rosa; Riesel, Anja; Klawohn, Julia; Heinzel, Stephan; Kaufmann, Christian; Bey, Katharina; Lennertz, Leonard; Wagner, Michael; Kathmann, Norbert


    Frontal electroencephalographic alpha asymmetry as an indicator of trait approach and trait inhibition systems has previously been studied in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with mixed results. We explored frontal alpha asymmetry as a possible risk factor in OCD by investigating a large sample of OCD patients (n = 113), healthy control participants (n = 113), and unaffected 1st-degree relatives of OCD patients (n = 37). Additionally, the relationship between OCD symptom dimensions and frontal alpha asymmetry was explored. OCD patients and healthy control participants did not differ in alpha asymmetry scores. Hence, the current results do not support the notion that OCD as a diagnostic entity is associated with a shift in frontal cortical activity. Furthermore, alpha asymmetry scores were not statistically related to specific OCD symptom dimensions. Reasons for inconsistent results in OCD are discussed and should be explored in future studies. Compared to OCD patients and healthy control participants, unaffected 1st-degree relatives of OCD patients showed increased left frontal activity. Such asymmetry has previously been found to be associated with positive affect and adaptive emotion regulation under stress. Because stressful life events play an important role in the onset and exacerbation of OCD, increased left frontal activity might serve as a resilience factor in unaffected 1st-degree relatives. Future studies should follow up on these results with longitudinal risk studies and pre- and posttherapy assessments to further explore causality of this putative factor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Speeds in school zones. (United States)


    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  14. Promise Zones for Applicants (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  15. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  16. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh


    Full Text Available This research describes a quantitative methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones based on a probabilistic mineral prospectivity map. In order to arrive at out objective, we provide a plausible answer to the following question: "Which...

  17. Quantitative electroencephalographic and neuropsychological investigation of an alternative measure of frontal lobe executive functions: the Figure Trail Making Test. (United States)

    Foster, Paul S; Drago, Valeria; Ferguson, Brad J; Harrison, Patti Kelly; Harrison, David W


    The most frequently used measures of executive functioning are either sensitive to left frontal lobe functioning or bilateral frontal functioning. Relatively little is known about right frontal lobe contributions to executive functioning given the paucity of measures sensitive to right frontal functioning. The present investigation reports the development and initial validation of a new measure designed to be sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning, the Figure Trail Making Test (FTMT). The FTMT, the classic Trial Making Test, and the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) were administered to 42 right-handed men. The results indicated a significant relationship between the FTMT and both the TMT and the RFFT. Performance on the FTMT was also related to high beta EEG over the right frontal lobe. Thus, the FTMT appears to be an equivalent measure of executive functioning that may be sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning. Applications for use in frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and other patient populations are discussed.

  18. Investigation of focusing and correcting aberrations with binary amplitude and polarization modulation. (United States)

    Fiala, Peter; Li, Yunqi; Dorrer, Christophe


    We investigate the focusing and correcting wavefront aberration of an optical wave using binary amplitude and polarization modulation. Focusing is performed by selectively modulating the field in different zones of the pupil to obtain on-axis constructive interference at a given distance. The conventional Soret zone plate (binary amplitude profile) is expanded to a polarization Soret zone plate with twice the focusing efficiency. Binary pixelated devices that approximate the sinusoidal transmission profile of a Gabor zone plate by spatial dithering are also investigated with amplitude and polarization modulation. Wavefront aberrations are corrected by modulation of the field in the pupil plane to prevent destructive interference in the focal plane of an ideal focusing element. Polarization modulation improves the efficiency obtained by amplitude-only modulation, with a gain that depends on the aberration. Experimental results obtained with Cr-on-glass devices for amplitude modulation and liquid crystal devices operating in the Mauguin condition for polarization modulation are in very good agreement with simulations.

  19. Southern Ocean frontal structure and sea-ice formation rates revealed by elephant seals (United States)

    Charrassin, J.-B.; Hindell, M.; Rintoul, S. R.; Roquet, F.; Sokolov, S.; Biuw, M.; Costa, D.; Boehme, L.; Lovell, P.; Coleman, R.; Timmermann, R.; Meijers, A.; Meredith, M.; Park, Y.-H.; Bailleul, F.; Goebel, M.; Tremblay, Y.; Bost, C.-A.; McMahon, C. R.; Field, I. C.; Fedak, M. A.; Guinet, C.


    Polar regions are particularly sensitive to climate change, with the potential for significant feedbacks between ocean circulation, sea ice, and the ocean carbon cycle. However, the difficulty in obtaining in situ data means that our ability to detect and interpret change is very limited, especially in the Southern Ocean, where the ocean beneath the sea ice remains almost entirely unobserved and the rate of sea-ice formation is poorly known. Here, we show that southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) equipped with oceanographic sensors can measure ocean structure and water mass changes in regions and seasons rarely observed with traditional oceanographic platforms. In particular, seals provided a 30-fold increase in hydrographic profiles from the sea-ice zone, allowing the major fronts to be mapped south of 60°S and sea-ice formation rates to be inferred from changes in upper ocean salinity. Sea-ice production rates peaked in early winter (April–May) during the rapid northward expansion of the pack ice and declined by a factor of 2 to 3 between May and August, in agreement with a three-dimensional coupled ocean–sea-ice model. By measuring the high-latitude ocean during winter, elephant seals fill a “blind spot” in our sampling coverage, enabling the establishment of a truly global ocean-observing system. PMID:18695241

  20. Polar representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo Antonio; Mattos, Joao Roberto Loureiro de


    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic parameters: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. Any one of these quantities can be expressed as a function of any two others. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves, also referred to as four-quadrant curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, the four-quadrant configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the polar form appears as the simplest way to represent the homologous curves. In the polar method, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a

  1. Frontal and transverse plane hip kinematics and gluteus maximus recruitment correlate with frontal plane knee kinematics during single-leg squat tests in women. (United States)

    Hollman, John H; Galardi, Christy M; Lin, I-Hsuan; Voth, Brandon C; Whitmarsh, Crystal L


    Hip muscle dysfunction may be associated with knee valgus that contributes to problems like patellofemoral pain syndrome. The purpose of this study was to (1) compare knee and hip kinematics and hip muscle strength and recruitment between "good" and "poor" performers on a single-leg squat test developed to assess hip muscle dysfunction and (2) examine relationships between hip muscle strength, recruitment and frontal plane knee kinematics to see which variables correlated with knee valgus during the test. Forty-one active women classified via visual rating as "good" or "poor" performers on the test participated. Participants completed 5-repetition single-leg squat tests. Isometric hip extension and abduction strength, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius recruitment, and 3-dimensional hip and knee kinematics during the test were compared between groups and examined for their association with frontal plane knee motion. "Poor" performers completed the test with more hip adduction (mean difference=7.6°) and flexion (mean difference=6.3°) than "good" performers. No differences in knee kinematics, hip strength or hip muscle recruitment occurred. However, the secondary findings indicated that increased medial hip rotation (partial r=0.94) and adduction (partial r=0.42) and decreased gluteus maximus recruitment (partial r=0.35) correlated with increased knee valgus. Whereas hip muscle function and knee kinematics did not differ between groups as we'd hypothesized, frontal plane knee motion correlated with transverse and frontal plane hip motions and with gluteus maximus recruitment. Gluteus maximus recruitment may modulate frontal plane knee kinematics during single-leg squats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Necessary Contributions of Human Frontal Lobe Subregions to Reward Learning in a Dynamic, Multidimensional Environment. (United States)

    Vaidya, Avinash R; Fellows, Lesley K


    Real-world decisions are typically made between options that vary along multiple dimensions, requiring prioritization of the important dimensions to support optimal choice. Learning in this setting depends on attributing decision outcomes to the dimensions with predictive relevance rather than to dimensions that are irrelevant and nonpredictive. This attribution problem is computationally challenging, and likely requires an interplay between selective attention and reward learning. Both these processes have been separately linked to the prefrontal cortex, but little is known about how they combine to support learning the reward value of multidimensional stimuli. Here, we examined the necessary contributions of frontal lobe subregions in attributing feedback to relevant and irrelevant dimensions on a trial-by-trial basis in humans. Patients with focal frontal lobe damage completed a demanding reward learning task where options varied on three dimensions, only one of which predicted reward. Participants with left lateral frontal lobe damage attributed rewards to irrelevant dimensions, rather than the relevant dimension. Damage to the ventromedial frontal lobe also impaired learning about the relevant dimension, but did not increase reward attribution to irrelevant dimensions. The results argue for distinct roles for these two regions in learning the value of multidimensional decision options under dynamic conditions, with the lateral frontal lobe required for selecting the relevant dimension to associate with reward, and the ventromedial frontal lobe required to learn the reward association itself. The real world is complex and multidimensional; how do we attribute rewards to predictive features when surrounded by competing cues? Here, we tested the critical involvement of human frontal lobe subregions in a probabilistic, multidimensional learning environment, asking whether focal lesions affected trial-by-trial attribution of feedback to relevant and irrelevant

  3. The Influence of Frontal and Lateral Ramps in Fold Thrust Belts on Structural Architecture and Erosion (United States)

    Robinson, D. M.; McQuarrie, N.


    In fold thrust belts, horizontal and vertical motions (or flow) define the path that a particular rock or mineral takes to the surface of the Earth, which is dictated by the location of frontal and lateral ramps. Horizontal flow occurs between ramp locations while the vertical component of motion (or flow) dominates when rocks are traveling over the ramps. Frontal ramps are common features near the front (foreland) of a fold thrust belt. Foreland frontal ramps are the easiest to obtain data for, and from these data predict ramp geometry, because they are shallow and the ramp geometry is commonly expressed as changes in the dip of strata in the mapped geology. Less constrainable are the frontal ramps at depth in the hinterland of a fold thrust belt. However, these deep frontal ramps control the architecture of a fold thrust belt, influence the mapped surface geology, control active uplift and thus, are locations of focused erosion. We show kinematic models from Nepal that illustrate how the architecture (geometry of structures, dips of strata) changes in the fold thrust belt when the location of a frontal ramp is moved and how both thermochronologic data and accurate mapping limit the possibilities for the location of these hinterland frontal ramps. Lateral ramps at depth provide limits on the width of horizontal flow paths and encourage vertical flow paths that have orientations strongly oblique to the strike of the orogen. A challenge in fold thrust belts is to determine the most logical location for lateral ramps. We use examples from Nepal that highlight characteristics that can be used to define the location of lateral ramps. Both lateral and frontal ramps produce significant structural elevation and changes in topographic elevation and thus, are locations of focused erosion through time. Additionally, because material is moving both laterally and vertically in a brittle fold thrust belt, frontal and lateral ramps can control the origin of earthquakes as well

  4. Polar Biomedical Research - An Assessment. (United States)


    to grow more crops in subpolar Alaska. The severity of the polar conditions in Antarctica allow no practical method for providing volumes of plant food...for an expanded population. Any experiments in polar regions in food production involving geothermal heat, solar energy, hydroponics , or aquaculture

  5. Create a Polarized Light Show. (United States)

    Conrad, William H.


    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  6. Carbon nanotube fiber terahertz polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, Ahmed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Young, Colin C. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Heimbeck, Martin S. [Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Everitt, Henry O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Pasquali, Matteo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kono, Junichiro, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)


    Conventional, commercially available terahertz (THz) polarizers are made of uniformly and precisely spaced metallic wires. They are fragile and expensive, with performance characteristics highly reliant on wire diameters and spacings. Here, we report a simple and highly error-tolerant method for fabricating a freestanding THz polarizer with nearly ideal performance, reliant on the intrinsically one-dimensional character of conduction electrons in well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The polarizer was constructed on a mechanical frame over which we manually wound acid-doped CNT fibers with ultrahigh electrical conductivity. We demonstrated that the polarizer has an extinction ratio of ∼−30 dB with a low insertion loss (<0.5 dB) throughout a frequency range of 0.2–1.1 THz. In addition, we used a THz ellipsometer to measure the Müller matrix of the CNT-fiber polarizer and found comparable attenuation to a commercial metallic wire-grid polarizer. Furthermore, based on the classical theory of light transmission through an array of metallic wires, we demonstrated the most striking difference between the CNT-fiber and metallic wire-grid polarizers: the latter fails to work in the zero-spacing limit, where it acts as a simple mirror, while the former continues to work as an excellent polarizer even in that limit due to the one-dimensional conductivity of individual CNTs.

  7. Polarization-preserving holey fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Libori, Stig E. Barkou


    In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization...

  8. Polarized Scintillating Targets at Psi (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.


    Scintillating polarized targets are now routinely available: blocks of 18×18×5 mm scintillating organic polymer, doped with TEMPO, polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical 3He-4He dilution refrigerator. A 19 mm diameter plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat.

  9. UV Coatings, Polarization, and Coronagraphy (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Quijada, Manuel; West, Garrett; Balasubramanian, Bala; Krist, John; Martin, Stefan; Sabatke, Derek


    Presenation for the Large UltraViolet Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) and Habitable Exoplanet Imager (HabEx) Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDT) on technical considerations regarding ultraviolet coatings, polarization, and coronagraphy. The presentations review the state-of-the-art in ultraviolet coatings, how those coatings generate polarization aberrations, and recent study results from both the LUVOIR and HabEx teams.

  10. Polarization Imaging and Insect Vision (United States)

    Green, Adam S.; Ohmann, Paul R.; Leininger, Nick E.; Kavanaugh, James A.


    For several years we have included discussions about insect vision in the optics units of our introductory physics courses. This topic is a natural extension of demonstrations involving Brewster's reflection and Rayleigh scattering of polarized light because many insects heavily rely on optical polarization for navigation and communication.…

  11. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins (United States)

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  12. Magnetoencephalography-guided surgery in frontal lobe epilepsy using neuronavigation and intraoperative MR imaging. (United States)

    Sommer, Björn; Roessler, Karl; Rampp, Stefan; Hamer, Hajo M; Blumcke, Ingmar; Stefan, Hermann; Buchfelder, Michael


    Especially in hidden lesions causing drug-resistant frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), the localization of the epileptic zone EZ can be a challenge. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) can raise the chances for localization of the (EZ) in combination with electroencephalography (EEG). We investigated the impact of MEG-guided epilepsy surgery with the aid of neuronavigation and intraoperative MR imaging (iopMRI) on seizure outcome of FLE patients. Twenty-eight patients (15 females, 13 males; mean age 31.0±11.1 years) underwent surgery in our department. All patients underwent presurgical MEG monitoring (two-sensor Magnes II or whole head WH3600 MEG system; 4-D Neuroimaging, San Diego, CA, USA). Of those, six patients (group 1) with MRI-negative FLE were operated on before 2002 with intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) and invasive EEG mapping only. Eleven patients with MRI-negative FLE (group 2) and eleven with lesional FLE (group 3) underwent surgery using 1.5T-iopMRI and neuronavigation, including intraoperative visualization of the MEG localizations in 22 and functional MR imaging (for motor and speech areas) as well as DTI fiber tracking (for language and pyramidal tracts) in 13 patients. In the first group, complete resection of the defined EZ including the MEG localization according to the latest postoperative MRI was achieved in four out of six patients. Groups two and three had complete removal of the MEG localizations in 20/22 (91%, 10 of 11 each). Intraoperative MRI revealed incomplete resection of the MEG localizations of four patients (12%; two in both groups), leading to successful re-resection. Transient and permanent neurological deficits alike occurred in 7.1%, surgery-associated complications in 11% of all patients. In the first group, excellent seizure outcome (Engel Class IA) was achieved in three (50%), in the second in 7 patients (61%) and third group in 8 patients (64%, two iopMRI-based re-resections). Mean follow-up was 70.3 months (from 12 to 284

  13. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity. (United States)

    Lee, Jessica L; Streuli, Charles H


    Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell-matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical-basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Hyperon polarization: An experimental overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lach, J.


    The fact that inclusively produced hyperons are produced with significant polarization was first discovered at Fermilab about seventeen years ago. This and subsequent experiments showed that Λ degree were produced polarized while bar Λ degree had no polarization in the same kinematical region. This set the stage for many experiments which showed that most hyperons are produced polarized. Recent Fermilab experiments have showed that this phenomena is even more complex than previously thought and theoretical understanding is still lacking. Nevertheless polarized hyperon beams have been an extremely useful experimental tool in measuring hyperon magnetic moments and hyperon β-decay. Recently, hyperon radiative decays have been studied and magnetic moment precession of channeled particles in bent crystals has been observed

  15. A review of polarized ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmor, P.W.


    The two main types of polarized ion sources in use on accelerators today are the Atomic Beam Polarized Ion Source (ABIS) source and the Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS). Both types can provide beams of nuclearly polarized light ions which are either positively or negatively charged. Heavy ion polarized ion sources for accelerators are being developed. (author). 35 refs., 1 tab

  16. Non-radially polarized THz pulse emitted from femtosecond laser filament in air. (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Chen, Y; Marceau, C; Liu, W; Sun, Z-D; Xu, S; Théberge, F; Châteauneuf, M; Dubois, J; Chin, S L


    Femtosecond laser filament could produce THz wave in forward direction. In our experiment, THz pulse emitted from a femtosecond laser filament has been investigated. It was found that the polarization of the studied THz pulse mainly appears as elliptical. This observation supplements the previous conclusion obtained by C. D'Amico et al. that THz wave emitted by a filament is radially polarized. The mechanism of generating elliptically polarized THz wave has been interpreted by either four-wave optical rectification or second order optical rectification inside the filament zone where centro-symmetry of the air is broken by the femtosecond laser pulse.

  17. Six-Position, Frontal View Photography in Blepharoplasty: A Simple Method. (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Guo, Xiaoshuang; Han, Xuefeng; Tian, Yi; Jin, Xiaolei


    Photography plays a pivotal role in patient education, photo-documentation, preoperative planning and postsurgical evaluation in plastic surgeries. It has long been serving as a bridge that facilitated communication not only between patients and doctors, but also among plastic surgeons from different countries. Although several basic principles and photographic methods have been proposed, there is no internationally accepted photography that could provide both static and dynamic information in blepharoplasty. In this article, we introduced a novel six-position, frontal view photography for thorough assessment in blepharoplasty. From October 2013 to January 2017, 1068 patients who underwent blepharoplasty were enrolled in our clinical research. All patients received six-position, frontal view photography. Pictures were taken of the patients looking up, looking down, squeezing, smiling, looking ahead and with closed eyes. Conventionally, frontal view photography only contained the last two positions. Then, both novel six-position photographs and conventional two-position photographs were used to appraise postsurgical outcomes. Compared to conventional two-position, frontal view photography, six-position, frontal view photography can provide more detailed, thorough information about the eyes. It is of clinical significance in indicating underlying adhesion of skin/muscle/fat according to individual's features and assessing preoperative and postoperative dynamic changes and aesthetic outcomes. Six-position, frontal view photography is technically uncomplicated while exhibiting static, dynamic and detailed information of the eyes. This innovative method is favorable in eye assessment, especially for revision blepharoplasty. We suggest using six-position, frontal view photography to obtain comprehensive photographs. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer

  18. Frontal brain asymmetry, childhood maltreatment, and low-grade inflammation at midlife. (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Davidson, Richard J; Graham, Eileen K; Mroczek, Daniel K; Lachman, Margie E; Seeman, Teresa E; van Reekum, Carien M; Miller, Gregory E


    Frontal EEG asymmetry is thought to reflect variations in affective style, such that greater relative right frontal activity at rest predicts enhanced emotional responding to threatening or negative stimuli, and risk of depression and anxiety disorders. A diathesis-stress model has been proposed to explain how this neuro-affective style might predispose to psychopathology, with greater right frontal activity being a vulnerability factor especially under stressful conditions. Less is known about the extent to which greater relative right frontal activity at rest might be associated with or be a diathesis for deleterious physical health outcomes. The present study examined the association between resting frontal EEG asymmetry and systemic, low-grade inflammation and tested the diathesis-stress model by examining whether childhood maltreatment exposure interacts with resting frontal asymmetry in explaining inflammation. Resting EEG, serum inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen) and self-reported psychological measures were available for 314 middle-aged adults (age M=55.3years, SD=11.2, 55.7% female). Analyses supported the diathesis-stress model and revealed that resting frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly associated with inflammation, but only in individuals who had experienced moderate to severe levels of childhood maltreatment. These findings suggest that, in the context of severe adversity, a trait-like tendency towards greater relative right prefrontal activity may predispose to low-grade inflammation, a risk factor for conditions with inflammatory underpinnings such as coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of femoral external derotational osteotomy on frontal plane alignment. (United States)

    Nelitz, M; Wehner, T; Steiner, M; Dürselen, L; Lippacher, S


    Femoral osteotomies are the preferred treatment in significant torsional deformity of the femur. The influence of torsional osteotomies on frontal plane alignment is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of external derotational osteotomies on proximal, mid-shaft and distal levels onto frontal plane alignment. The effect of rotation around the anatomical axis of the femur on frontal plane alignment was determined with a 3D computer model, created from CT data of a right human cadaver femur. Virtual torsional osteotomies of 10°, 20° and 30° were performed at proximal, mid-shaft and distal levels under five antecurvatum angles of the femur. The change of the frontal plane alignment was expressed by the mechanical lateral femoral angle. Proximal derotational osteotomies resulted in an increased mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA) of 0.8°-2.6° for 10°, of 1.6°-5.1° for 20° and of 2.3-7.9° for 30° derotational osteotomy, indicating an increased varus angulation. Supracondylar derotational osteotomy resulted in a decreased mLDFA of -0.1° to -1.7° for 10°, of -0.2 to -3.7° for 20° and of -0.7 to -6.9° for 30° derotational osteotomy, indicating an increased valgus angulation. The effect increased with the amount of torsional correction and virtually increased antecurvatum angles. Mid-shaft torsional osteotomies had the smallest effect on frontal plane alignment. This three-dimensional computer model study demonstrates the relationship between femoral torsional osteotomies and frontal plane alignment. Proximal external derotational osteotomies tend to result in an increased varus angulation, whilst distal external derotational osteotomies tend to result in an increased valgus angulation. As a clinical consequence, torsional osteotomies have an increased risk of unintentional implications on frontal plane alignment.

  20. Frontal activation and connectivity using near-infrared spectroscopy: verbal fluency language study. (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Hall, Michael; DeCerce, Joe; Rey, Gustavo; Godavarty, Anuradha


    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an optical technique with high temporal resolution and reasonably good spatial resolution, which allows non invasive measurement of the blood oxygenation of tissue. The current work is focused in assessing and correlating brain activation, connectivity and cortical lateralization of the frontal cortex in response to language-based stimuli, using NIRS. Experimental studies were performed on 15 normal right-handed adults, wherein the participants were presented with a verbal fluency task. The hemodynamic responses in the pre- and anterior frontal cortex were assessed in response to a Word generation task in comparison to the baseline random Jaw movement and Rest conditions. The functional connectivity analysis was performed using zero-order correlations and the cortical lateralization was evaluated as well. An increase in oxy- and a decrease in deoxy-hemoglobin were observed during verbal fluency task in the frontal cortex. Unlike in the pre-frontal cortex, the hemodynamic response in the anterior frontal during verbal fluency task was not significantly different from that during random Jaw movement. Bilateral activation and symmetrical connectivity were observed in the pre-frontal cortex, independent of the stimuli presented. A left cortical dominance and asymmetry connectivity was observed in the anterior frontal during the verbal fluency task. The work is focused to target the pediatric epileptic populations in the future, where understanding the brain functionality (activation, connectivity, and dominance) in response to language is essential as a part of the pre-surgical evaluation in a clinical environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The relative contributions of frontal and parietal cortex for generalized quantifier comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Olm


    Full Text Available Quantifiers, like some or few, are frequent in daily language. Linguists posit at least three distinct classes of quantifiers: cardinal quantifiers that rely on numerosity, majority quantifiers that additionally depend on executive resources, and logical quantifiers that rely on perceptual attention. We used BOLD fMRI to investigate the roles of frontal and parietal regions in quantifier comprehension. Participants performed a sentence-picture verification task to determine whether a sentence containing a quantifier accurately describes a picture. A whole-brain analysis identified a network involved in quantifier comprehension: This implicated bilateral inferior parietal, superior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, and right inferior frontal cortex. We then performed region-of-interest analyses to assess the relative contribution of each region for each quantifier class. Inferior parietal cortex was equally activated across all quantifier classes, consistent with prior studies implicating the region for quantifier comprehension due in part to its role in the representation of number knowledge. Right superior parietal cortex was up-regulated in comparison to frontal regions for cardinal and logical quantifiers, but parietal and frontal regions were equally activated for majority quantifiers and each frontal region is most highly activated for majority quantifiers. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that majority quantifiers rely on numerosity mechanisms in parietal cortex and executive mechanisms in frontal cortex. Also, right inferior frontal cortex was up-regulated for logical compared to cardinal quantifiers, which may be related to selection demands associated with logical quantifier comprehension. We conclude that distinct components of a large-scale fronto-parietal network contribute to specific aspects of quantifier comprehension, and that this biologically-defined network is consistent with cognitive theories of

  2. A bivariate approach to the widening of the frontal lobes in the genus Homo. (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Holloway, Ralph L


    Within the genus Homo, the most encephalized taxa (Neandertals and modern humans) show relatively wider frontal lobes than either Homo erectus or australopithecines. The present analysis considers whether these changes are associated with a single size-based or allometric pattern (positive allometry of the width of the anterior endocranial fossa) or with a more specific and non-allometric pattern. The relationship between hemispheric length, maximum endocranial width, and frontal width at Broca's area was investigated in extant and extinct humans. Our results do not support positive allometry for the frontal lobe's width in relation to the main endocranial diameters within modern humans (Homo sapiens). Also, the correlation between frontal width and hemispheric length is lower than the correlation between frontal width and parieto-temporal width. When compared with the australopithecines, the genus Homo could have experienced a non-allometric widening of the brain at the temporo-parietal areas, which is most evident in Neandertals. Modern humans and Neandertals also display a non-allometric widening of the anterior endocranial fossa at the Broca's cap when compared with early hominids, again more prominent in the latter group. Taking into account the contrast between the intra-specific patterns and the between-species differences, the relative widening of the anterior fossa can be interpreted as a definite evolutionary character instead of a passive consequence of brain size increase. This expansion is most likely associated with correspondent increments of the underlying neural mass, or at least with a geometrical reallocation of the frontal cortical volumes. Although different structural changes of the cranial architecture can be related to such variations, the widening of the frontal areas is nonetheless particularly interesting when some neural functions (like language or working memory, decision processing, etc.) and related fronto-parietal cortico

  3. A comparative study of frontal bone morphology among Pleistocene hominin fossil groups. (United States)

    Athreya, Sheela


    Features of the frontal bone that are conventionally used to distinguish among fossil hominin groups were quantitatively examined. Fifty-five fossil crania dating from the early to the late Pleistocene were analyzed. Using a modified pantograph, outlines of the frontal bone were collected along the midsagittal and two parasagittal planes. The profile from nasion to bregma, as well as two profiles above the medial and lateral sections of the orbit, respectively, extending from the orbital margin to the coronal suture were traced. The outlines were measured using Elliptical Fourier Function Analysis (EFFA), which enabled a quantification of aspects of the frontal bone that have historically been described primarily in nonmetric or linear terms. Four measurements were obtained: 1) overall morphology as expressed in the Fourier harmonic amplitudes; 2) maximum projection of the supraorbital torus at three points along the browridge (glabella and the medial and lateral aspects of the torus above the orbit); 3) maximum distance of the frontal squama from the frontal chord, capturing forehead curvature; and 4) nasion-bregma chord length. The results indicate that the midsagittal profile is significantly different among all Pleistocene groups in analyses that include both size and shape, as well as size-adjusted data. Homo erectus is significantly different from the late Pleistocene groups (Neandertals and early modern H. sapiens) in glabellar projection. Anatomically modern humans are significantly different from all other groups in both raw and size-standardized analyses of all three outlines that captured overall morphology, as well as forehead curvature and lateral supraorbital torus prominence, and middle Pleistocene Homo are significantly different in both medial and lateral overall parasagittal form. However, for the majority of analyses there were no significant differences among the Pleistocene archaic groups in supraorbital torus projection, frontal squama

  4. Promoting Diversity Through Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (Polar ICE) (United States)

    McDonnell, J. D.; Hotaling, L. A.; Garza, C.; Van Dyk, P. B.; Hunter-thomson, K. I.; Middendorf, J.; Daniel, A.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Schofield, O.


    Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE) is an education and outreach program designed to provide public access to the Antarctic and Arctic regions through polar data and interactions with the scientists. The program provides multi-faceted science communication training for early career scientists that consist of a face-to face workshop and opportunities to apply these skills. The key components of the scientist training workshop include cultural competency training, deconstructing/decoding science for non-expert audiences, the art of telling science stories, and networking with members of the education and outreach community and reflecting on communication skills. Scientists partner with educators to provide professional development for K-12 educators and support for student research symposia. Polar ICE has initiated a Polar Literacy initiative that provides both a grounding in big ideas in polar science and science communication training designed to underscore the importance of the Polar Regions to the public while promoting interdisciplinary collaborations between scientists and educators. Our ultimate objective is to promote STEM identity through professional development of scientists and educators while developing career awareness of STEM pathways in Polar science.

  5. Spectral induced polarization survey applied to gold mine exploration (United States)

    Park, Samgyu; Son, Jeong-Sul; Shin, Seung-Wook; Cho, Seong-Jun; Kim, Changryol


    The induced polarization (IP) method has been used for the exploration of metallic ore deposits with sulfide minerals such as sphalerite, pyrite, galena, and so on. This method makes use of the capacitive action of the subsurface to locate zones where conductive minerals are disseminated within the host rock. But the IP method has problems with EM coupling and high-power currents that make it difficult to obtain high-quality data in field sites. To address these problems, we have developed an inversion algorithm and field survey techniques using the spectral induced polarization (SIP) method. In this study, we examined the applicability of SIP survey to determine the boundaries of subsurface mineralization and hydrothermal alteration associated with epithermal Au-Ag deposits. A SIP survey was carried out over a wide tuff area, including an area where the silicified zone had been identified from the results of geological and borehole investigations. The survey lines were installed across the silicified zone, and dipole-dipole configurations were used, with electrode spacing of 20m. The transmitter and receiver cables were isolated, and current and potential electrodes were used in stainless steel and non-polarized electrodes, respectively. The data on each survey line were obtained from three frequencies, 0.125 Hz, 1 Hz, and 8Hz. From the survey results, we could image the 2D electrical resistivity and phase difference distributions for each survey line. The boundaries of the silicified zone by hydrothermal alteration were defined by a high resistivity of 500 ohm-m, and the Au-Ag bearing quartz veins by mineralization of the epithermal deposits were defined by a high phase difference of 60 mrad.

  6. The zone of tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titaeva, N.A.; Taskaev, A.I.


    Peculiarities of radionuclide migration in the zone of tundra are considered. High 232 Th content, high 232 Th/ 238 U values at low 238 U and 226 Ra concentrations in rocks are shown to be characteristic for the chosen zone. Data on methods of 238 U and 232 Th determination in natural waters, as well as content of radionuclides in water and bottom sediments are presented. Formation of soils under the conditions of mountain tundra is shown to result in noticeable redistribution of radioactive elements as well as all their isotopes. Data on U, Th, Ra isotope content in different plants and certain organs of plants are presented. Principal statistical parameters both of content of certain U, Th, Ra isotopes and their isotope relations on the whole by soil and vegetation of the investigated region are presented. When characterizing storage of isotopes of different elements in vegetation of the zone of tundra it is necessary to note that the dependence 226 Ra( 228 Ra)> 228 Th> 227 Th> 230 Th> 232 Th> 238 U> 234 U is typical for it. Intensity of radionuclide inclusion in the biogenic migration cycle in the zone of tundra is higher than in the zone of taiga

  7. A novel classification of frontal bone fractures: The prognostic significance of vertical fracture trajectory and skull base extension. (United States)

    Garg, Ravi K; Afifi, Ahmed M; Gassner, Jennifer; Hartman, Michael J; Leverson, Glen; King, Timothy W; Bentz, Michael L; Gentry, Lindell R


    The broad spectrum of frontal bone fractures, including those with orbital and skull base extension, is poorly understood. We propose a novel classification scheme for frontal bone fractures. Maxillofacial CT scans of trauma patients were reviewed over a five year period, and frontal bone fractures were classified: Type 1: Frontal sinus fracture without vertical extension. Type 2: Vertical fracture through the orbit without frontal sinus involvement. Type 3: Vertical fracture through the frontal sinus without orbit involvement. Type 4: Vertical fracture through the frontal sinus and ipsilateral orbit. Type 5: Vertical fracture through the frontal sinus and contralateral or bilateral orbits. We also identified the depth of skull base extension, and performed a chart review to identify associated complications. 149 frontal bone fractures, including 51 non-vertical frontal sinus (Type 1, 34.2%) and 98 vertical (Types 2-5, 65.8%) fractures were identified. Vertical fractures penetrated the middle or posterior cranial fossa significantly more often than non-vertical fractures (62.2 v. 15.7%, p = 0.0001) and had a significantly higher mortality rate (18.4 v. 0%, p fractures with frontal sinus and orbital extension, and fractures that penetrated the middle or posterior cranial fossa had the strongest association with intracranial injuries, optic neuropathy, disability, and death (p fractures carry a worse prognosis than frontal bone fractures without a vertical pattern. In addition, vertical fractures with extension into the frontal sinus and orbit, or with extension into the middle or posterior cranial fossa have the highest complication rate and mortality. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Freeway work zone lane capacity. (United States)


    The focus of this report is a capacity analysis of two long-term urban freeway Work Zones. Work Zone #1 : tapered four mainline lanes to two, using two separate tapers; Work Zone #2 tapered two mainline lanes to one. : Work Zone throughput was analyz...

  9. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles. (United States)

    Hailer, Frank


    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Osteossarcoma extra-esquelético primário da região frontal Extraskeletal primary osteosarcoma of the frontal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Lima


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Osteossarcoma extra-esquelético (OSEE primário de partes moles da cabeça é raro e não há, ao que nos parece, relato dele originando na região frontal. MÉTODOS: Homem de 78 anos, italiano, com história de tumoração em partes moles de região frontal há um mês. Tomografia computadorizada mostrou massa de densidade irregular ocupando tecido celular subcutâneo e fáscia. Nenhum tumor ósseo foi encontrado. A tumoração foi completamente ressecada, media 0,8x0,6x0,5cm, e a superfície de corte era sólida. Diagnosticou-se osteossarcoma osteoblástico extra-esquelético. A neoplasia recorreu quatro meses após o diagnóstico e foi novamente ressecado. O paciente foi submetido também a radioterapia de baixa penetração, e nove meses depois da primeira biópsia tinha sintomas em decorrência da infiltração neoplásica na base do crânio. O óbito ocorreu dez meses após a primeira biópsia. CONCLUSÃO: Os autores descrevem o primeiro caso de OSEE da região frontal sem uma condição preexistente ou história de irradiação.BACKGROUND: Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS in the head as a primary site has seldom been re-ported and none in the frontal region. METHODS: A 78-year-old Italian man presented with one month history of a frontal soft tissue mass. A CT scan showed a mass of uneven density occupying the subcutaneous soft tissue and involving fascial planes. No primary bone tumor was found. The entire mass was excised. The mass was solid measuring 0.8 x 0.6 x 0.5cm. Extraskeletal osteoblastic osteosarcoma was diagnosed by ligh microscopy. The tumor recurred four months after the diagnosis. The tumor was again ressected. The patient was also submitted to low penetration radiation therapy. Nine months after the first biopsy the patient had symptoms due to infiltration to the base of the cranium. He died 10 months after the first biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: The first case with ESOS of the frontal region without a pre


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Tondiy


    Full Text Available The data on polarized light (PS - a new promising treatment, rehabilitation and prevention, which took its deserved place among the known therapeutic physical factors and may even compete with laser radiation of low and LED therapy. It is reflected the significant contribution of domestic scientists in the study of aircraft action on the body, its introduction in the treatment, rehabilitation and prevention of grippe, ARI. These action's mechanisms of the aircraft on the electro-physiological processes in the body that have the leading role in the regulation of its life. The new moment in the study of aircraft on the body is the evidence of its positive impact on the mechanisms of self body - its different units: the disease's banning - a revitalization of the stress-protective, stress-limiting system antioxidial, detoxification and other protection systems, the formation by the body antiviral and antimicrobial specific substances (interferon and lysozyme, activation of the immune system, phagocytosis, protective functions of skin. The protective and mobilizing role of the second link is studied: which is triggered in case of occurrence of disease or preexisting diseases: PL mobilized processes of restitution, reparations, compensation, immunity and microcirculation. The authors studied the possibility of aircraft's using to enhance performance, reduce side effects of physical factors, which are often used in the treatment (electric methods, treatment by sound, fresh and mineral water, etc..

  12. Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss (Polar SWIFT version 2) (United States)

    Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Rex, Markus


    The Polar SWIFT model is a fast scheme for calculating the chemistry of stratospheric ozone depletion in polar winter. It is intended for use in global climate models (GCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs) to enable the simulation of mutual interactions between the ozone layer and climate. To date, climate models often use prescribed ozone fields, since a full stratospheric chemistry scheme is computationally very expensive. Polar SWIFT is based on a set of coupled differential equations, which simulate the polar vortex-averaged mixing ratios of the key species involved in polar ozone depletion on a given vertical level. These species are O3, chemically active chlorine (ClOx), HCl, ClONO2 and HNO3. The only external input parameters that drive the model are the fraction of the polar vortex in sunlight and the fraction of the polar vortex below the temperatures necessary for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Here, we present an update of the Polar SWIFT model introducing several improvements over the original model formulation. In particular, the model is now trained on vortex-averaged reaction rates of the ATLAS Chemistry and Transport Model, which enables a detailed look at individual processes and an independent validation of the different parameterizations contained in the differential equations. The training of the original Polar SWIFT model was based on fitting complete model runs to satellite observations and did not allow for this. A revised formulation of the system of differential equations is developed, which closely fits vortex-averaged reaction rates from ATLAS that represent the main chemical processes influencing ozone. In addition, a parameterization for the HNO3 change by denitrification is included. The rates of change of the concentrations of the chemical species of the Polar SWIFT model are purely chemical rates of change in the new version, whereas in the original Polar SWIFT model, they included a transport effect caused by the

  13. Association between frontal sinus morphology and cervical vertebral maturation for the assessment of skeletal maturity. (United States)

    Mahmood, Hafiz Taha; Shaikh, Attiya; Fida, Mubassar


    Various methods have been proposed to evaluate a patient's developmental status. However, most of them lacked precision and failed to give a reliable estimate of skeletal maturity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between frontal sinus morphology and cervical vertebral maturation for the assessment of skeletal maturity and to determine its validity in assessing the different stages of the adolescent growth spurt. A cross-sectional study was performed on the pretreatment lateral cephalograms of 252 subjects aged 8 to 21 years. The sample was divided into 6 groups based on the cervical vertebral maturation stages. The frontal sinus index was calculated by dividing the frontal sinus height and width, and the cervical stages were evaluated on the same radiograph. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare frontal sinus index values at different cervical stages, and the post hoc Dunnett T3 test was applied to compare frontal sinus index values between adjacent cervical stages for each sex. The Kendall tau-b values were computed to assess the correlation between the cervical stages and the sinus index. A P value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. The height and width of the frontal sinus were significantly larger in the male subjects than in the females. A significant association was found between the frontal sinus height and width and cervical stages (P ≤0.001) in both sexes. However, the changes in the frontal sinus index across the different cervical stages were found to be significant (P ≤0.001) in male subjects only. Similarly, a weak negative correlation was found between the sinus index and the cervical stages in male subjects (tau-b = -0.271; P cervical stages. The frontal sinus index cannot be used to identify the prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal stages of the adolescent growth spurt. Therefore, it cannot be used as a reliable maturity indicator. Copyright © 2016 American Association of

  14. Ageostrophic Frontal Processes Controlling Phytoplankton Production in the Catalano-Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean) (United States)

    Oguz, Temel; Macias, Diego; Tintore, Joaquin


    Buoyancy-induced unstable boundary currents and the accompanying retrograde density fronts are often the sites of pronounced mesoscale activity, ageostrophic frontal processes, and associated high biological production in marginal seas. Biophysical model simulations of the Catalano-Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean) illustrated that the unstable and nonlinear southward frontal boundary current along the Spanish coast resulted in a strain-driven frontogenesis mechanism. High upwelling velocities of up to 80 m d-1 injected nutrients into the photic layer and promoted enhanced production on the less dense, onshore side of the front characterized by negative relative vorticity. Additional down-front wind stress and heat flux (cooling) intensified boundary current instabilities and thus ageostrophic cross-frontal circulation and augmented production. Specifically, entrainment of nutrients by relatively strong buoyancy-induced vertical mixing gave rise to a more widespread phytoplankton biomass distribution within the onshore side of the front. Mesoscale cyclonic eddies contributed to production through an eddy pumping mechanism, but it was less effective and more limited regionally than the frontal processes. The model was configured for the Catalano-Balearic Sea, but the mechanisms and model findings apply to other marginal seas with similar unstable frontal boundary current systems. PMID:26065688

  15. Role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering: a brain stimulation and tractographic study. (United States)

    Kemerdere, Rahsan; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Deverdun, Jérémy; Cochereau, Jérôme; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues


    The neural correlates of stuttering are to date incompletely understood. Although the possible involvement of the basal ganglia, the cerebellum and certain parts of the cerebral cortex in this speech disorder has previously been reported, there are still not many studies investigating the role of white matter fibers in stuttering. Axonal stimulation during awake surgery provides a unique opportunity to study the functional role of structural connectivity. Here, our goal was to investigate the white matter tracts implicated in stuttering, by combining direct electrostimulation mapping and postoperative tractography imaging, with a special focus on the left frontal aslant tract. Eight patients with no preoperative stuttering underwent awake surgery for a left frontal low-grade glioma. Intraoperative cortical and axonal electrical mapping was used to interfere in speech processing and subsequently provoke stuttering. We further assessed the relationship between the subcortical sites leading to stuttering and the spatial course of the frontal aslant tract. All patients experienced intraoperative stuttering during axonal electrostimulation. On postsurgical tractographies, the subcortical distribution of stimulated sites matched the topographical position of the left frontal aslant tract. This white matter pathway was preserved during surgery, and no patients had postoperative stuttering. For the first time to our knowledge, by using direct axonal stimulation combined with postoperative tractography, we provide original data supporting a pivotal role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering. We propose that this speech disorder could be the result of a disconnection within a large-scale cortico-subcortical circuit subserving speech motor control.

  16. Motor Dysfunction Correlates with Frontal White Matter Ischemic Changes in Patients with Leukoaraiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Viana-Baptista


    Full Text Available Objectives. To test the relation between white matter lesions (WML location and physical performance, in aged patients. Methods. Subjects: 29 patients (17 males, aged >65 (mean age 72.6±5.2, with leukoaraiosis. WML was quantified with a visual scale; Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC was measured bilaterally in frontal periventricular lesioned white matter and frontal and parieto-occipital normal appearing white matter (NAWM. Motor performance was studied using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, single leg stand time, finger tapping and grooved pegboard tests (GPT. Results. There were significant correlations between the frontal region visual scale scores and SPPB chair stands (r=-0.379; P=.039 and Grooved Pegboard (r=0.393; P=.032; frontal NAWM ADC values and SPPB standing balance (r=-0.450; P=.014 and SPPB 4 meter walk (r=-0.379; P=.043. Conclusion. Frontal WML are negatively related to motor performance in patients with leukoaraiosis. DWI results suggest that this may be true even for NAWM.

  17. Clinical observations on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with frontal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Qing; Li, Fu-Hai; Zhu, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Ruo-Peng


    The objective was to investigate the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with frontal lobe epilepsy and related factors. The medical records of 190 children diagnosed with frontal lobe epilepsy at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively collected, and a follow-up analysis of the prevalence of ADHD in these children was conducted. Of the 161 children with an effective follow-up, 59.0% (95/161) with frontal lobe epilepsy suffered from ADHD as well. Analysis of epilepsy and ADHD-related factors indicated that the incidence of ADHD was 89.4% (76/85) in children with abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) discharges on the most recent EEG, which was significantly higher than the ADHD incidence of 25% (19/76) in children with normal readings on the most recent EEG (P frontal lobe epilepsy have a high incidence of ADHD. Sustained abnormal discharge on the electroencephalogram is associated with increased comorbidity of ADHD with frontal lobe epilepsy.

  18. Frontal Lobe Contusion in Mice Chronically Impairs Prefrontal-Dependent Behavior. (United States)

    Chou, Austin; Morganti, Josh M; Rosi, Susanna


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of chronic disability in the world. Moderate to severe TBI often results in damage to the frontal lobe region and leads to cognitive, emotional, and social behavioral sequelae that negatively affect quality of life. More specifically, TBI patients often develop persistent deficits in social behavior, anxiety, and executive functions such as attention, mental flexibility, and task switching. These deficits are intrinsically associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) functionality. Currently, there is a lack of analogous, behaviorally characterized TBI models for investigating frontal lobe injuries despite the prevalence of focal contusions to the frontal lobe in TBI patients. We used the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model in mice to generate a frontal lobe contusion and studied behavioral changes associated with PFC function. We found that unilateral frontal lobe contusion in mice produced long-term impairments to social recognition and reversal learning while having only a minor effect on anxiety and completely sparing rule shifting and hippocampal-dependent behavior.

  19. Uniqueness of radiographic patterns of the frontal sinus for personal identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Neha; Salvi, Rohini [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, MGM, Dental College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai (India); Karjodkar, Freny R; Sontakke, Subodh; Sansare, Kaustubh [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India)


    This study was performed to evaluate the uniqueness and reliability of the frontal sinuses by comparing various patterns of frontal sinus as observed on Waters' radiographs for individual identification. Three Waters' radiographs of 100 individuals, taken on day one, after 6-8 months, and one radiograph with a slight variation in angulation, to mimic conditions out in the field or during autopsy. Three observers were randomly given radiographs from all there packets for comparisons and identification, by the method of superimposition and individual uniqueness. The comparative identification by superimposition of the frontal sinus was 100% positive. The size, shape, unilateral or bilateral presence, absence, and septa were observed to be unique in each case; neither had the measurements changed over a period of time. The need to establish a reliable, low-cost, and easily reproducible method for human identification prompted the elaboration of technical, precise, and accessible parameters, such as the evaluation of the area, asymmetry, and shape of the frontal sinus. Comparison among each of the frontal sinuses of the 100 people in the sample revealed that no two sinuses are the same, that is, the sinus is unique to each individual.

  20. Rostro-Caudal Organization of Connectivity between Cingulate Motor Areas and Lateral Frontal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kep Kee Loh


    Full Text Available According to contemporary views, the lateral frontal cortex is organized along a rostro-caudal functional axis with increasingly complex cognitive/behavioral control implemented rostrally, and increasingly detailed motor control implemented caudally. Whether the medial frontal cortex follows the same organization remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, the functional connectivity of the 3 cingulate motor areas (CMAs in the human brain with the lateral frontal cortex was investigated. First, the CMAs and their representations of hand, tongue, and eye movements were mapped via task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Second, using resting-state fMRI, their functional connectivity with lateral prefrontal and lateral motor cortical regions of interest (ROIs were examined. Importantly, the above analyses were conducted at the single-subject level to account for variability in individual cingulate morphology. The results demonstrated a rostro-caudal functional organization of the CMAs in the human brain that parallels that in the lateral frontal cortex: the rostral CMA has stronger functional connectivity with prefrontal regions and weaker connectivity with motor regions; conversely, the more caudal CMAs have weaker prefrontal and stronger motor connectivity. Connectivity patterns of the hand, tongue and eye representations within the CMAs are consistent with that of their parent CMAs. The parallel rostral-to-caudal functional organization observed in the medial and lateral frontal cortex could likely contribute to different hierarchies of cognitive-motor control.

  1. Social exclusion modulates event-related frontal theta and tracks ostracism distress in children. (United States)

    van Noordt, Stefon J R; White, Lars O; Wu, Jia; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J


    Social exclusion is a potent elicitor of distress. Previous studies have shown that medial frontal theta oscillations are modulated by the experience of social exclusion. Using the Cyberball paradigm, we examined event-related dynamics of theta power in the EEG at medial frontal sites while children aged 8-12 years were exposed to conditions of fair play and social exclusion. Using an event-related design, we found that medial frontal theta oscillations (4-8Hz) increase during both early (i.e., 200-400ms) and late (i.e., 400-800ms) processing of rejection events during social exclusion relative to perceptually identical "not my turn" events during inclusion. Importantly, we show that only for the later time window (400-800ms) slow-wave theta power tracks self-reported ostracism distress. Specifically, greater theta power at medial frontal sites to "rejection" events predicted higher levels of ostracism distress. Alpha and beta oscillations for rejection events were unrelated to ostracism distress at either 200-400ms or 400-800ms time windows. Our findings extend previous studies by showing that medial frontal theta oscillations for rejection events are a neural signature of social exclusion, linked to experienced distress in middle childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes: a simulation analysis using human body models. (United States)

    Shi, Xiangnan; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hu, Jingwen


    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes using whole-body human finite element (FE) models representing occupants with different obesity levels. In this study, the geometry of THUMS 4 midsize male model was varied using mesh morphing techniques with target geometries defined by statistical models of external body contour and exterior ribcage geometry. Models with different body mass indices (BMIs) were calibrated against cadaver test data under high-speed abdomen loading and frontal crash conditions. A parametric analysis was performed to investigate the effects of BMI on occupant injuries in frontal crashes based on the Taguchi method while controlling for several vehicle design parameters. Simulations of obese occupants predicted significantly higher risks of injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in frontal crashes compared with non-obese occupants, which is consistent with previous field data analyses. These higher injury risks are mainly due to the increased body mass and relatively poor belt fit caused by soft tissues for obese occupants. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a parametric human FE model to investigate the obesity effects on occupant responses in frontal crashes.

  3. Physiopathogenetic Interrelationship between Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy and NREM Arousal Parasomnias (United States)

    Halász, Péter; Kelemen, Anna; Szűcs, Anna


    Aims. To build up a coherent shared pathophysiology of NFLE and AP and discuss the underlying functional network. Methods. Reviewing relevant published data we point out common features in semiology of events, relations to macro- and microstructural dynamism of NREM sleep, to cholinergic arousal mechanism and genetic aspects. Results. We propose that pathological arousals accompanied by confused behavior with autonomic signs and/or hypermotor automatisms are expressions of the frontal cholinergic arousal function of different degree, during the condition of depressed cognition by frontodorsal functional loss in NREM sleep. This may happen either if the frontal cortical Ach receptors are mutated in ADNFLE (and probably also in genetically not proved nonlesional cases as well), or without epileptic disorder, in AP, assuming gain in receptor functions in both conditions. This hypothesis incorporates the previous “liberation theory” of Tassinari and the “state dissociation hypothesis” of Bassetti and Terzaghi). We propose that NFLE and IGE represent epileptic disorders of the two antagonistic twin systems in the frontal lobe. NFLE is the epileptic facilitation of the ergotropic frontal arousal system whereas absence epilepsy is the epileptic facilitation of burst-firing working mode of the spindle and delta producing frontal thalamocortical throphotropic sleep system. Significance. The proposed physiopathogenesis conceptualize epilepsies in physiologically meaningful networks. PMID:22953061

  4. Insight in psychotic disorder: relation with psychopathology and frontal lobe function. (United States)

    Kumar, Atmesh; Sharma, Pranjal; Das, Shyamanta; Nath, Kamal; Talukdar, Uddip; Bhagabati, Dipesh


    Through conceptualising poor insight in psychotic disorders as a form of anosognosia, frontal lobe dysfunction is often ascribed a vital role in its pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to compare the relation of insight in patients with psychotic illness to that of psychopathology and frontal lobe function. Forty patients with psychotic disorder were selected from those attending the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The evaluation of insight was carried out using the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI), that of frontal lobe function by the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and psychopathology by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The correlation coefficients were determined. A negative correlation between SAI and BPRS scores means that the BPRS score is opposite to SAI scores. When the SAI total score was compared with the FAB total score, the correlation coefficient demonstrated a positive correlation. Better insight predicted lesser psychopathology and also that poor insight would exist with greater psychopathology. Better insight predicted a higher functional status of frontal lobes and prefrontal cortex in particular. Insight deficits in schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses are multidimensional. Integration of different aetiological factors like biological, psychopathological, environmental ones and others are necessary for a better understanding of insight in psychosis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. A beamformer analysis of MEG data reveals frontal generators of the musically elicited mismatch negativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lappe

    Full Text Available To localize the neural generators of the musically elicited mismatch negativity with high temporal resolution we conducted a beamformer analysis (Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry, SAM on magnetoencephalography (MEG data from a previous musical mismatch study. The stimuli consisted of a six-tone melodic sequence comprising broken chords in C- and G-major. The musical sequence was presented within an oddball paradigm in which the last tone was lowered occasionally (20% by a minor third. The beamforming analysis revealed significant right hemispheric neural activation in the superior temporal (STC, inferior frontal (IFC, superior frontal (SFC and orbitofrontal (OFC cortices within a time window of 100-200 ms after the occurrence of a deviant tone. IFC and SFC activation was also observed in the left hemisphere. The pronounced early right inferior frontal activation of the auditory mismatch negativity has not been shown in MEG studies so far. The activation in STC and IFC is consistent with earlier electroencephalography (EEG, optical imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies that reveal the auditory and inferior frontal cortices as main generators of the auditory MMN. The observed right hemispheric IFC is also in line with some previous music studies showing similar activation patterns after harmonic syntactic violations. The results demonstrate that a deviant tone within a musical sequence recruits immediately a distributed neural network in frontal and prefrontal areas suggesting that top-down processes are involved when expectation violation occurs within well-known stimuli.

  6. Nuclear physics with polarized particles

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen Schieck, Hans


    The measurement of spin-polarization observables in reactions of nuclei and particles is of great utility and advantage when the effects of single-spin sub-states are to be investigated. Indeed, the unpolarized differential cross-section encompasses the averaging over the spin states of the particles, and thus loses details of the interaction process. This introductory text combines, in a single volume, course-based lecture notes on spin physics and on polarized-ion sources with the aim of providing a concise yet self-contained starting point for newcomers to the field, as well as for lecturers in search of suitable material for their courses and seminars. A significant part of the book is devoted to introducing the formal theory-a description of polarization and of nuclear reactions with polarized particles. The remainder of the text describes the physical basis of methods and devices necessary to perform experiments with polarized particles and to measure polarization and polarization effects in nuclear rea...

  7. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig


    is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections......The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...

  8. Nuclear free zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoffel, T.


    Health professionals have played a leading role in alerting and educating the public regarding the danger of nuclear war which has been described as the last epidemic our civilization will know. Having convinced most people that the use of nuclear weapons would mean intolerable consequences, groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility have focused on the second critical question how likely is it that these weapons will be used? The oultlook is grim. This article describes the nuclear free zone movement, explores relevant legal questions, and shows how the political potential of nuclear free zones threatens to open a deep rift in the American constitutional system

  9. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik


    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... for the ventilation equipment. To   overcome a shortcoming in Simulink to solve algebraic equations and matrix inversions, we have developed the library inspired by the so called dynamic node technique. We present simulation results using the presented library, and concludes with visions for further...

  10. Few-body experiments with polarized beams and polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.E.


    A survey is presented concerning recent polarization experiments in the elastic p-d, p- 3 He, and p- 4 He systems. Mention is made of selected neutron experiments. The nominal energy range is 10 to 1000 MeV. Recent results and interpretations of the p-d system near 10 MeV are discussed. New experiments on the energy dependence of back angle p-d tensor polarization are discussed with respect to resolution of discrepancies and difficulty of theoretical interpretation. Progress is noted concerning multiple scattering interpretation of forward p-d deuteron polarization. Some new results are presented concerning the p- 3 He system and higher energy p- 4 He polarization experiments. 52 references

  11. The Performance of Ictal Brain SPECT Localizing for Epileptogenic Zone in Neocortical Epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Sik; Lee, Dong Soo; Hyun, In Young; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Sang Kun; Chang, Kee Hyun


    The epileptogenic zones should be localized precisely before surgical resection of these zones in intractable epilepsy. The localization is more difficult in patients with neocortical epilepsy than in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. This study aimed at evaluation of the usefulness of ictal brain perfusion SPECT for the localization of epileptogenic zones in neocortical epilepsy. We compared the performance of ictal SPECT with MRI referring to ictal scalp electroencephalography (sEEG). Ictal 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT were done in twenty-one patients. Ictal EEG were also obtained during video monitoring. MRI were reviewed. According to the ictal sEEG and semiology, 8 patients were frontal lobe epilepsy, 7 patients were lateral temporal lobe epilepsy, 2 patients were parietal lobe epilepsy, and 4 patients were occipital lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT showed hyperperfusion in 14 patients(67%) in the zones which were suspected to be epileptogenic according to ictal EEG and semiology. MRI found morphologic abnormalities in 9 patients(43%). Among the 12 patients, in whom no epileptogenic zones were revealed by MR1, ictal SPECT found zones of hyperperfusion concordant with ictal sEEG in 9 patients(75%). However, no zones of hyperperfusion were found in 4 among 9 patients who were found to have cerebromalacia, abnormal calcification and migration anomaly in MRI. We thought that ictal SPECT was useful for localization of epileptogenic zones in neocortical epilepsy and especially in patients with negative findings in MRI.

  12. The Performance of Ictal Brain SPECT Localizing for Epileptogenic Zone in Neocortical Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Sik; Lee, Dong Soo; Hyun, In Young; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Sang Kun; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The epileptogenic zones should be localized precisely before surgical resection of these zones in intractable epilepsy. The localization is more difficult in patients with neocortical epilepsy than in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. This study aimed at evaluation of the usefulness of ictal brain perfusion SPECT for the localization of epileptogenic zones in neocortical epilepsy. We compared the performance of ictal SPECT with MRI referring to ictal scalp electroencephalography (sEEG). Ictal {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT were done in twenty-one patients. Ictal EEG were also obtained during video monitoring. MRI were reviewed. According to the ictal sEEG and semiology, 8 patients were frontal lobe epilepsy, 7 patients were lateral temporal lobe epilepsy, 2 patients were parietal lobe epilepsy, and 4 patients were occipital lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT showed hyperperfusion in 14 patients(67%) in the zones which were suspected to be epileptogenic according to ictal EEG and semiology. MRI found morphologic abnormalities in 9 patients(43%). Among the 12 patients, in whom no epileptogenic zones were revealed by MR1, ictal SPECT found zones of hyperperfusion concordant with ictal sEEG in 9 patients(75%). However, no zones of hyperperfusion were found in 4 among 9 patients who were found to have cerebromalacia, abnormal calcification and migration anomaly in MRI. We thought that ictal SPECT was useful for localization of epileptogenic zones in neocortical epilepsy and especially in patients with negative findings in MRI.

  13. Elite Polarization and Public Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua; Mullinix, Kevin


    Elite polarization has reshaped American politics and is an increasingly salient aspect of news coverage within the United States. As a consequence, a burgeoning body of research attempts to unravel the effects of elite polarization on the mass public. However, we know very little about how...... attitudes. In our first study, we show that criticism of polarization leads partisans to more positively evaluate the argument offered by their non-preferred party, increases support for bi-partisanship, but ultimately does not change the extent to which partisans follow their party’s policy endorsements...

  14. Acceleration of polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.


    The acceleration of polarized beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Using a partial Siberian snake and a rf dipole that ensure stable adiabatic spin motion during acceleration has made it possible to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV at the Brookhaven AGS. Full Siberian snakes are being developed for RHIC to make the acceleration of polarized protons to 250 GeV possible. A similar scheme is being studied for the 800 GeV HERA proton accelerator

  15. Polarimetry with azimuthally polarized light (United States)

    de Sande, Juan Carlos González; Piquero, Gemma; Santarsiero, Massimo


    Nonuniformly polarized light can be used for Mueller polarimetry of homogeneous linear samples. In this work, a set up based on using azimuthally polarized input light and a modified commercial light polarimeter is proposed and developed. With this set up, a Mueller submatrix of a sample can be obtained by measuring the Stokes parameters at only three different positions across the output beam section. Symmetry constraints for linear deterministic samples allow the complete Mueller matrix to be deduced for this kind of specimens. The experimental results obtained for phase plates and for a linear polarizer confirm the validity of the proposed method.

  16. Polarized deuteron elastic scattering from a polarized proton target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, R.; Kuiper, H.; Schoeberl, M.; Berber, S.; Hilmert, H.; Koeppel, R.; Pferdmenges, R.; Zankel, H.


    Measurements are reported of the spin correlation parameter Cy,y for the elastic scattering of 10.0 MeV vector polarized deuterons from a polarized proton target at five CM angles (76 0 ,85 0 ,98 0 ,115 0 ,132 0 ). The experimental results are compared with different predictions. A Faddeev type calculation on the basis of local potentials also including approximate Coulomb distortion is favoured by our experimental results. (orig.)

  17. PolarHub: A Global Hub for Polar Data Discovery (United States)

    Li, W.


    This paper reports the outcome of a NSF project in developing a large-scale web crawler PolarHub to discover automatically the distributed polar dataset in the format of OGC web services (OWS) in the cyberspace. PolarHub is a machine robot; its goal is to visit as many webpages as possible to find those containing information about polar OWS, extract this information and store it into the backend data repository. This is a very challenging task given huge data volume of webpages on the Web. Three unique features was introduced in PolarHub to make it distinctive from earlier crawler solutions: (1) a multi-task, multi-user, multi-thread support to the crawling tasks; (2) an extensive use of thread pool and Data Access Object (DAO) design patterns to separate persistent data storage and business logic to achieve high extendibility of the crawler tool; (3) a pattern-matching based customizable crawling algorithm to support discovery of multi-type geospatial web services; and (4) a universal and portable client-server communication mechanism combining a server-push and client pull strategies for enhanced asynchronous processing. A series of experiments were conducted to identify the impact of crawling parameters to the overall system performance. The geographical distribution pattern of all PolarHub identified services is also demonstrated. We expect this work to make a major contribution to the field of geospatial information retrieval and geospatial interoperability, to bridge the gap between data provider and data consumer, and to accelerate polar science by enhancing the accessibility and reusability of adequate polar data.

  18. [Frontal sinus obliteration using tibial bone graft and platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis]. (United States)

    Acosta-Feria, M; Infante-Cossío, P; Hernández-Guisado, J M; Torres-Carranza, E; García-Perla, A; Belmonte-Caro, R; Gutiérrez-Pérez, J L


    The more successfully surgical treatment for the treatment of chronic frontal sinusitis complicated with chronic osteomielitis, is the cleaning and curettage of the sinus with obliteration of the sinus cavity and nasofrontal duct. Several autologous and alloplastics materials are used for this obliteration. We report the case of a patient previously operated on because of frontal sinus plasmocytoma who developed frontal sinusitis with chronic osteomielitis and cutaneous suppuration. He received surgical treatment with frontal sinus curettage and obliteration with tibial bone graft and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Symptoms disappeared and there were no complications or recurrence. Obliteration of the frontal sinus with tibial bone graft and PRP after sinus cleaning and curettage can be a good alternative in the treatment of chronic frontal sinus osteomielitis.

  19. Connectivity between Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Supplementary Motor Area Predicts After-Effects of Right Frontal Cathodal tDCS on Picture Naming Speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosso, Charlotte; Valabregue, R.; Arbizy, C.


    correlated with larger volumes of the tract connecting the right Broca’s area and the supplementary motor area (SMA) and greater functional coupling from the right SMA to the right Broca’s area. Conclusions: The results support the notion that the after-effects of tDCS on brain function are at least in part......Background: Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the right frontal cortex improves language abilities in post-stroke aphasic patients. Yet little is known about the effects of right frontal cathodal tDCS on normal language function. Objective/hypothesis: To explore...... the cathodal tDCS effects of the right-hemispheric homologue of Broca’s area on picture naming in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that cathodal tDCS improves Picture naming and that this effect is determined by the anatomical and functional connectivity of the targeted region. Methods: Cathodal and sham tDCS...

  20. Frontal sinus mucocele in association with fibrous dysplasia: review and report of two cases. (United States)

    Derham, Chris; Bucur, Sorin; Russell, John; Liddington, Mark; Chumas, Paul


    We present two paediatric cases of fibrous dysplasia (FD) who presented to the craniofacial neurosurgical clinic with ophthalmological symptoms associated with sinus mucoceles. The first patient presented with a history of orbital cellulitis and an increasing bony swelling around the orbit associated with proptosis. Radiological imaging revealed monostotic FD associated with an obstructive mucocele in the frontal sinus with extension into the orbit. The second patient presented with recurrent conjunctivitis, painful proptosis, rhinitis and a bony peri-orbital swelling. Both patients had histological diagnoses of frontal mucoceles invading the orbit in association with FD. They both underwent frontal craniotomies and excision of the mucocele/fibrous dysplastic complex. In summary, mucocele development is an unusual complication of FD, likely to occur secondary to occlusion of the sinus drainage system. Orbital involvement may lead to visual disturbance caused by pressure effects. A multi-disciplinary approach including maxillofacial surgeons, plastic surgeons and neurosurgeons is advocated.